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Sample records for delayed palliative teleradiotherapy

  1. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients and Families Take the Quiz What Is Palliative Care? Definition Palliative care (pronounced pal-lee-uh- ... more control over your care. A Partnership of Palliative Care Team, Patient and Family Palliative care teams ...

  2. Teleradiotherapy Network: Applications and Feasibility for Providing Cost-Effective Comprehensive Radiotherapy Care in Low- and Middle-Income Group Countries for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, Michael; Samiei, Massoud; Shah, Ragesh; Lutters, Gerd; Bodis, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Globally, new cancer cases will rise by 57% within the next two decades, with the majority in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Consequently, a steep increase of about 40% in cancer deaths is expected there, mainly because of lack of treatment facilities, especially radiotherapy. Radiotherapy is required for more than 50% of patients, but the capital cost for equipment often deters establishment of such facilities in LMICs. Presently, of the 139 LMICs, 55 do not even have a radiotherapy facility, whereas the remaining 84 have a deficit of 61.4% of their required radiotherapy units. Networking between centers could enhance the effectiveness and reach of existing radiotherapy in LMICs. A teleradiotherapy network could enable centers to share and optimally utilize their resources, both infrastructure and staffing. This could be in the form of a three-tier radiotherapy service consisting of primary, secondary, and tertiary radiotherapy centers interlinked through a network. The concept has been adopted in some LMICs and could also be used as a “service provider model,” thereby reducing the investments to set up such a network. Teleradiotherapy networks could be a part of the multipronged approach to address the enormous gap in radiotherapy services in a cost-effective manner and to support better accessibility to radiotherapy facilities, especially for LMICs. PMID:25763906

  3. Early Versus Delayed Initiation of Concurrent Palliative Oncology Care: Patient Outcomes in the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bakitas, Marie A.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Li, Zhigang; Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Li, Zhongze; Dionne-Odom, J. Nicholas; Frost, Jennifer; Dragnev, Konstantin H.; Hegel, Mark T.; Azuero, Andres; Ahles, Tim A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Randomized controlled trials have supported integrated oncology and palliative care (PC); however, optimal timing has not been evaluated. We investigated the effect of early versus delayed PC on quality of life (QOL), symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use. Patients and Methods Between October 2010 and March 2013, 207 patients with advanced cancer at a National Cancer Institute cancer center, a Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and community outreach clinics were randomly assigned to receive an in-person PC consultation, structured PC telehealth nurse coaching sessions (once per week for six sessions), and monthly follow-up either early after enrollment or 3 months later. Outcomes were QOL, symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use (hospital/intensive care unit days, emergency room visits, chemotherapy in last 14 days, and death location). Results Overall patient-reported outcomes were not statistically significant after enrollment (QOL, P = .34; symptom impact, P = .09; mood, P = .33) or before death (QOL, P = .73; symptom impact, P = .30; mood, P = .82). Kaplan-Meier 1-year survival rates were 63% in the early group and 48% in the delayed group (difference, 15%; P = .038). Relative rates of early to delayed decedents' resource use were similar for hospital days (0.73; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.27; P = .26), intensive care unit days (0.68; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.02; P = .49), emergency room visits (0.73; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.19; P = .21), chemotherapy in last 14 days (1.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 6.7; P = .27), and home death (27 [54%] v 28 [47%]; P = .60). Conclusion Early-entry participants' patient-reported outcomes and resource use were not statistically different; however, their survival 1-year after enrollment was improved compared with those who began 3 months later. Understanding the complex mechanisms whereby PC may improve survival remains an important research priority. PMID:25800768

  4. Early Versus Delayed Initiation of Concurrent Palliative Oncology Care: Patient Outcomes in the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Bakitas, Marie A; Tosteson, Tor D; Li, Zhigang; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Frost, Jennifer; Dragnev, Konstantin H; Hegel, Mark T; Azuero, Andres; Ahles, Tim A

    2015-05-01

    Randomized controlled trials have supported integrated oncology and palliative care (PC); however, optimal timing has not been evaluated. We investigated the effect of early versus delayed PC on quality of life (QOL), symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use. Between October 2010 and March 2013, 207 patients with advanced cancer at a National Cancer Institute cancer center, a Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and community outreach clinics were randomly assigned to receive an in-person PC consultation, structured PC telehealth nurse coaching sessions (once per week for six sessions), and monthly follow-up either early after enrollment or 3 months later. Outcomes were QOL, symptom impact, mood, 1-year survival, and resource use (hospital/intensive care unit days, emergency room visits, chemotherapy in last 14 days, and death location). Overall patient-reported outcomes were not statistically significant after enrollment (QOL, P = .34; symptom impact, P = .09; mood, P = .33) or before death (QOL, P = .73; symptom impact, P = .30; mood, P = .82). Kaplan-Meier 1-year survival rates were 63% in the early group and 48% in the delayed group (difference, 15%; P = .038). Relative rates of early to delayed decedents' resource use were similar for hospital days (0.73; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.27; P = .26), intensive care unit days (0.68; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.02; P = .49), emergency room visits (0.73; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.19; P = .21), chemotherapy in last 14 days (1.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 6.7; P = .27), and home death (27 [54%] v 28 [47%]; P = .60). Early-entry participants' patient-reported outcomes and resource use were not statistically different; however, their survival 1-year after enrollment was improved compared with those who began 3 months later. Understanding the complex mechanisms whereby PC may improve survival remains an important research priority. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Palliative Care KidsHealth > For Parents > Palliative Care A A A ... decisions about their child's care. Who Needs Palliative Care? Any child who has a serious, complex, or ...

  6. Outcomes of secondary self-expandable metal stents versus surgery after delayed initial palliative stent failure in malignant colorectal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin Young; Park, Soo Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2013-01-01

    When re-intervention is required due to an occluded first colorectal self-expanding metal stent for malignant colorectal obstruction, serious controversies exist regarding whether to use endoscopic re-stenting or surgery. To compare the clinical outcomes in patients who underwent stent re-insertion versus palliative surgery as a second intervention. A total of 115 patients who received either self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) insertion or palliative surgery for treatment of a second occurrence of malignant colorectal obstruction after the first SEMS placement were retrospectively studied between July 2005 and December 2009. The median overall survival (8.2 vs. 15.5 months) and progression-free survival (4.0 vs. 2.7 months) were not significantly different between the stent and surgery groups (p = 0.895 and 0.650, respectively). The median lumen patency in the stent group was 3.4 months and that in the surgery group was 7.9 months (p = 0.003). The immediate complication rate after second stent insertion was 13.9% and late complication rate was observed in 12 of 79 (15.2%) patients. There was no mortality related to the SEMS procedure. The complication and mortality rates associated with palliative surgery were 3.5% (2/57) and 12.3% (7/57), respectively. Although there is no significant difference in the overall survival between stenting and surgery, a secondary stent insertion had a lower mortality rate despite a shorter duration of temporary colorectal decompression compared to that of palliative surgery.

  7. Benefits of Early Versus Delayed Palliative Care to Informal Family Caregivers of Patients With Advanced Cancer: Outcomes From the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dionne-Odom, J. Nicholas; Azuero, Andres; Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Tosteson, Tor; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Frost, Jennifer; Dragnev, Konstantin H.; Akyar, Imatullah; Hegel, Mark T.; Bakitas, Marie A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of early versus delayed initiation of a palliative care intervention for family caregivers (CGs) of patients with advanced cancer. Patients and Methods Between October 2010 and March 2013, CGs of patients with advanced cancer were randomly assigned to receive three structured weekly telephone coaching sessions, monthly follow-up, and a bereavement call either early after enrollment or 3 months later. CGs of patients with advanced cancer were recruited from a National Cancer Institute cancer center, a Veterans Administration Medical Center, and two community outreach clinics. Outcomes were quality of life (QOL), depression, and burden (objective, stress, and demand). Results A total of 122 CGs (early, n = 61; delayed, n = 61) of 207 patients participated; average age was 60 years, and most were female (78.7%) and white (92.6%). Between-group differences in depression scores from enrollment to 3 months (before delayed group started intervention) favored the early group (mean difference, −3.4; SE, 1.5; d = −.32; P = .02). There were no differences in QOL (mean difference, −2; SE, 2.3; d = −.13; P = .39) or burden (objective: mean difference, 0.3; SE, .7; d = .09; P = .64; stress: mean difference, −.5; SE, .5; d = −.2; P = .29; demand: mean difference, 0; SE, .7; d = −.01; P = .97). In decedents' CGs, a terminal decline analysis indicated between-group differences favoring the early group for depression (mean difference, −3.8; SE, 1.5; d = −.39; P = .02) and stress burden (mean difference, −1.1; SE, .4; d = −.44; P = .01) but not for QOL (mean difference, −4.9; SE, 2.6; d = −.3; P = .07), objective burden (mean difference, −.6; SE, .6; d = −.18; P = .27), or demand burden (mean difference, −.7; SE, .6; d = −.23; P = .22). Conclusion Early-group CGs had lower depression scores at 3 months and lower depression and stress burden in the terminal decline analysis. Palliative care for CGs should be initiated

  8. Benefits of Early Versus Delayed Palliative Care to Informal Family Caregivers of Patients With Advanced Cancer: Outcomes From the ENABLE III Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Azuero, Andres; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Tosteson, Tor; Li, Zhigang; Li, Zhongze; Frost, Jennifer; Dragnev, Konstantin H; Akyar, Imatullah; Hegel, Mark T; Bakitas, Marie A

    2015-05-01

    To determine the effect of early versus delayed initiation of a palliative care intervention for family caregivers (CGs) of patients with advanced cancer. Between October 2010 and March 2013, CGs of patients with advanced cancer were randomly assigned to receive three structured weekly telephone coaching sessions, monthly follow-up, and a bereavement call either early after enrollment or 3 months later. CGs of patients with advanced cancer were recruited from a National Cancer Institute cancer center, a Veterans Administration Medical Center, and two community outreach clinics. Outcomes were quality of life (QOL), depression, and burden (objective, stress, and demand). A total of 122 CGs (early, n = 61; delayed, n = 61) of 207 patients participated; average age was 60 years, and most were female (78.7%) and white (92.6%). Between-group differences in depression scores from enrollment to 3 months (before delayed group started intervention) favored the early group (mean difference, -3.4; SE, 1.5; d = -.32; P = .02). There were no differences in QOL (mean difference, -2; SE, 2.3; d = -.13; P = .39) or burden (objective: mean difference, 0.3; SE, .7; d = .09; P = .64; stress: mean difference, -.5; SE, .5; d = -.2; P = .29; demand: mean difference, 0; SE, .7; d = -.01; P = .97). In decedents' CGs, a terminal decline analysis indicated between-group differences favoring the early group for depression (mean difference, -3.8; SE, 1.5; d = -.39; P = .02) and stress burden (mean difference, -1.1; SE, .4; d = -.44; P = .01) but not for QOL (mean difference, -4.9; SE, 2.6; d = -.3; P = .07), objective burden (mean difference, -.6; SE, .6; d = -.18; P = .27), or demand burden (mean difference, -.7; SE, .6; d = -.23; P = .22). Early-group CGs had lower depression scores at 3 months and lower depression and stress burden in the terminal decline analysis. Palliative care for CGs should be initiated as early as possible to maximize benefits. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical

  9. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Is Your Child ... a team of medical personnel — including doctors, pain management specialists, nurses, social workers, and therapists — palliative care ...

  10. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative care is treatment of the discomfort, symptoms, and stress of serious illness. It provides relief from distressing symptoms ... of the medical treatments you're receiving. Hospice care, care at the end of life, always includes ...

  11. What is palliative care?

    MedlinePlus

    Comfort care; End of life - palliative care; Hospice - palliative care ... The goal of palliative care is to help people with serious illnesses feel better. It prevents or treats symptoms and side effects of disease and ...

  12. Pediatric Palliative Care Initiative in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Çeliker, Mahmut Yaşar; Pagnarith, Yos; Akao, Kazumi; Sophearin, Dim; Sorn, Sokchea

    2017-01-01

    Cancer care with curative intent remains difficult to manage in many resource-limited settings such as Cambodia. Cambodia has a small workforce with limited financial and health-care resources resulting in delayed diagnoses and availability of limited therapeutic tools. Thus, palliative care becomes the primary form of care in most cases. Although palliative care is becoming an integral part of medical care in developed countries, this concept remains poorly understood and utilized in developing countries. Angkor Hospital for Children serves a relatively large pediatric population in northern Cambodia. According to the modern definition of palliative care, approximately two-thirds of the patients admitted to the hospital were deemed candidates to receive palliative care. In an effort to develop a pediatric palliative care team utilizing existing resources and intensive training, our focus group recruited already existing teams with different health-care expertise and other motivated members of the hospital. During this process, we have also formed a palliative care training team of local experts to maintain ongoing palliative care education. Feedback from patients and health-care providers confirmed the effectiveness of these efforts. In conclusion, palliative and sustainable care was offered effectively in a resource-limited setting with adequately trained and motivated local providers. In this article, the steps and systems used to overcome challenges in Cambodia are summarized in the hope that our experience urges governmental and non-governmental agencies to support similar initiatives. PMID:28804708

  13. Palliative or Comfort Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotional distress. A special type of care called palliative care is available to help you get relief from these and other symptoms. You can receive palliative care at any stage of your serious illness, including ...

  14. Understanding palliative nursing care.

    PubMed

    Geoghan, Darlene A

    2008-01-01

    Palliative care is care that is given to patients and their significant others who are experiencing life-threatening or life-altering illnesses by providing emotional, spiritual, and physical support. Patients can continue to receive aggressive medical treatment while receiving palliative care and recovery is possible. Pain control is a top priority in palliative care. Non-pharmacological interventions have also been shown to be effective in palliative care as well. Palliative care is truly a holistic, collaborative practice engaging many disciplines in the care of the patient and their love ones.

  15. [Management of pain in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Tarja; Hamunen, Katri; Hirvonen, Outi

    2013-01-01

    Palliative pain management is usually successful, if the medication is strengthened in a stepwise manner in accordance with pain intensity, and initiation of a strong opioid is not delayed. Finding of a sufficiently effective dose of the opioid drug with simultaneous management of adverse effects requires continuous pain assessment and patient monitoring. In many cases it is possible to enhance analgesia by supplementing the medication with an antidepressant or an antiepileptic along with the opioid and paracetamol or the analgesic. Palliative radiotherapy will relieve tissue injury pain caused by bone metastases and soft tissue tumors as well as pain due to the possible nerve entrapments caused by them.

  16. Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Submit an Abstract Writing Educational Objectives Palliative Care APRN Fellowships Chapter Education Grants Individual Education Scholarships Official Journals Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing Journal of Palliative Medicine Certification Certification and ...

  17. What is Pediatric Palliative Care?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Families Take the Quiz What Is Pediatric Palliative Care? Pediatric Palliative care (pronounced pal-lee-uh-tiv) is specialized ... for both the child and the family. Pediatric palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, ...

  18. Pediatric Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donna L.; Hentz, Tracy A.; Friedman, Debra L.

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric palliative care provides benefit to children living with life-threatening or terminal conditions. Palliative care should be available to all seriously ill children. Palliative care includes the treatment of symptoms such as pain, nausea, dyspnea, constipation, anorexia, and sialorrhea. This care can occur in a variety of settings, from home to hospice to hospital, and must include bereavement care and follow up after the death of a child. There are many challenges in pediatric palliative care, but continued research into this important area of pediatrics will lead to improvements in the care of children with life-threatening illnesses. PMID:23118638

  19. Palliative care and neurology

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. PMID:24991027

  20. Palliative care delivery models.

    PubMed

    Wiencek, Clareen; Coyne, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    To provide an overview of the four major palliative care delivery models: ambulatory clinics, home-based programs, inpatient palliative care units, and inpatient consultation services. The advantages and disadvantages of each model and the generalist and specialist roles in palliative care will be discussed. Literature review. The discipline of palliative care continues to experience growth in the number of programs and in types of delivery models. Ambulatory- and home-based models are the newest on the scene. Nurses caring for oncology patients with life-limiting disease should be informed about these models for optimal impact on patient care outcomes. Oncology nurses should demonstrate generalist skills in the care of the seriously ill and access specialist palliative care providers as warranted by the patient's condition.

  1. [Palliative care in neurology].

    PubMed

    Provinciali, Leandro; Tarquini, Daniela; De Falco, Fabrizio A; Carlini, Giulia; Zappia, Mario; Toni, Danilo

    2015-07-01

    Palliative care in neurology is characterized by the need of taking into account some distinguishing features which supplement and often differ from the general palliative approach to cancer or to severe organ failures. Such position is emphasized by a new concept of palliative assistance which is not limited to the "end of life" stage, as it was the traditional one, but is applied along the entire course of progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions. There are various reasons accounting for a differentiation of palliative care in neurology and for the development of specific expertise; the long duration of the advanced stages of many neurological diseases and the distinguishing features of some clinical problems (cognitive disorders, psychic disorders, etc.), in addition to the deterioration of some general aspects (nutrition, etc.), make the general criteria adopted for cancer, severe respiratory, hepatic or renal failures and heart failure inadequate. The neurological diseases which could benefit from the development of a specific palliative approach are dementia, cerebrovascular diseases, movement disorders, neuromuscular diseases, severe traumatic brain injury, brain cancers and multiple sclerosis, as well as less frequent conditions. The growing literature on palliative care in neurology provides evidence of the neurological community's increasing interest in taking care of the advanced and terminal stages of nervous system diseases, thus encouraging research, training and updating in such direction. This document aims to underline the specific neurological requirements concerning the palliative assistance.

  2. Pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Moody, Karen; Siegel, Linda; Scharbach, Kathryn; Cunningham, Leslie; Cantor, Rabbi Mollie

    2011-06-01

    Progress in pediatric palliative care has gained momentum, but there remain significant barriers to the appropriate provision of palliative care to ill and dying children, including the lack of properly trained health care professionals, resources to finance such care, and scientific research, as well as a continued cultural denial of death in children. This article reviews the epidemiology of pediatric palliative care, special communication concerns, decision making, ethical and legal considerations, symptom assessment and management, psychosocial issues, provision of care across settings, end-of-life care, and bereavement. Educational and supportive resources for health care practitioners and families, respectively, are included.

  3. Spirituality and Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Broeckaert, Bert

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows how palliative care developed as a reaction to the compartimentalized technical approach of modern medicine. But what does it mean if we say palliative care wants to treat patients as whole persons? A few pitfalls need to avoided. All disciplines involved in palliative care should act within the limits of their own specific professional role. Physicians and nurses should certainly not force patients into spiritual or religious discussions or practices. They should understand that religion and spirituality also influence the ethical (and thus medical) choices people make, respect their own conscience and worldview too and cultivate conscious compassion. PMID:21811369

  4. Future of Palliative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Sushma; Gupta, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    A ‘need-supply’ and ‘requirement-distribution mismatch’ along with a continuingneed explosion are the biggest hurdles faced by palliative medicine today. It is the need of the hour to provide an unbiased, equitable and evidence-based palliative care to those in need irrespective of the diagnosis, prognosis, social and economic status or geographical location. Palliative care as a fundamental human right, ensuring provision throughout the illness spectrum, global as well as region-specific capacity building, uniform availability of essential drugs at an affordable price, a multidisciplinary team approachand caregiver-support are some of the achievable goals for the future. This supplanted with a strong political commitment, professional dedication and ‘public-private partnerships’ are necessaryto tackle the existing hurdles and the exponentially increasing future need. For effectively going ahead it is of utmost importance to integrate palliative medicine into medical education, healthcare system and societal framework. PMID:25709197

  5. Palliation in oesophageal neoplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Bancewicz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Oesophageal cancer is an increasingly common disease in the UK. Sadly, the overall results of treatment remain poor with overall 5 year survival of approximately 10%. More than 50% of patients receive purely palliative care from the outset. Of those having potentially curative treatment, 40% will not survive the first year and 70% will not survive 5 years. Good quality palliation is, therefore, required for the majority of patients. PMID:10655890

  6. Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions Frequently Asked Questions: What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care is ... for patients and families. Who provides pediatric palliative care? Every palliative care team is different. The team ...

  7. Conceptual Models for Integrating Palliative Care at Cancer Centers

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Palliative care programs are rapidly evolving in acute care facilities. Increased and earlier access has been advocated for patients with life-threatening illnesses. Existing programs would need major growth to accommodate the increased utilization. The objective of this review is to provide an update on the current structures, processes, and outcomes of the Supportive and Palliative Care Program at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (UTMDACC), and to use the update as a platform to discuss the challenges and opportunities in integrating palliative and supportive services in a tertiary care cancer center. Our interprofessional program consists of a mobile consultation team, an acute palliative care unit, and an outpatient supportive care clinic. We will discuss various metrics including symptom outcomes, quality of end-of-life care, program growth, and financial issues. Despite the growing evidence to support early palliative care involvement, referral to palliative care remains heterogeneous and delayed. To address this issue, we will discuss various conceptual models and practical recommendations to optimize palliative care access. PMID:22925157

  8. Palliative care - fear and anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000470.htm Palliative care - fear and anxiety To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses ...

  9. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000471.htm Palliative care - shortness of breath To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses ...

  10. Center to Advance Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Value-Based Payment and Contracting Apply Now Palliative Care in the Home: A Guide to Program ... Now available in the CAPC Shop! Learn more Palliative Care Leadership Centers™ (PCLC) - Now expanded to community ...

  11. Pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Klick, Jeffrey C; Hauer, Julie

    2010-07-01

    Palliative care has always been a part of the care of children. It includes any intervention that focuses on relieving suffering, slowing the progression of disease, and improving quality of life at any stage of disease. In addition, for even the child with the most unpredictable disease, there are predictable times in this child's life when the child, family, and care team will be suffering in ways that can be mitigated by specific interventions. Rather than defining pediatric palliative care in terms of a patient base, severity of disease, or even a general philosophy of care, palliative care can best be understood as a specific set of tasks directed at mitigating suffering. By understanding these tasks; learning to identify predictable times and settings of suffering; and learning to collaborate with multidisciplinary specialists, use communication skills, and identify clinical resources, the pediatrician can more effectively support children with life-threatening illnesses and their families. In this article, we define palliative care as a focus of care integrated in all phases of life and as a set of interventions aimed at easing suffering associated with life-threatening conditions. We detail an approach to these interventions and discuss how they can be implemented by the pediatrician with the support of specialists in hospice and palliative medicine. We discuss common and predictable times of suffering when these interventions become effective ways to treat suffering and improve quality of life. Finally, we discuss those situations that pediatricians most commonly and intensely interface with palliative care-the care of the child with complex, chronic conditions and severe neurologic impairment (SNI).

  12. Palliative care in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2017-01-01

    Pakistan is a developing country of South East Asia, with all the incumbent difficulties currently being faced by the region. Insufficient public healthcare facilities, poorly regulated private health sector, low budgetary allocation for health, improper priority setting while allocating limited resources, have resulted essentially in an absence of palliative care from the healthcare scene. Almost 90% of healthcare expenditure is out of the patient's pocket with more than 45% of population living below the poverty line. All these factors have a collective potential to translate into an end-of-life care disaster as a large percentage of population is suffering from chronic debilitating/terminal diseases. So far, such a disaster has not materialised, the reason being a family based culture emphasising the care of the sick and old at home, supported by religious teachings. This culture is not limited to Pakistan but subsists in the entire sub-continent, where looking after the sick/elderly at home is considered to be the duty of the younger generation. With effects of globalisation, more and more older people are living alone and an increasing need for palliative care is being realised. However, there does not seem to be any plan on the part of the public or private sectors to initiate palliative care services. This paper seeks to trace the social and cultural perspectives in Pakistan with regards to accessing palliative care in the context of healthcare facilities available.

  13. Palliative care for Sikhs.

    PubMed

    Gatrad, Rashid; Panesar, Sukhmeet Singh; Brown, Erica; Notta, Hardev; Sheikh, Aziz

    2003-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the palliative care needs of Sikh patients. It describes the basis of Sikh beliefs and practices and discusses practical aspects of caring for terminally ill Sikh patients and their families. Issues before and after death are considered and the importance of an individual approach is highlighted.

  14. Danish Palliative Care Database

    PubMed Central

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111

  15. Palliation: Hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Goenka, Mahesh Kr; Goenka, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinomas are common tumors of the bile duct that are often unresectable at presentation. Palliation, therefore, remains the goal in the majority of these patients. Palliative treatment is particularly indicated in the presence of cholangitis and pruritus but is often also offered for high-grade jaundice and abdominal pain. Endoscopic drainage by placing stents at endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) is usually the preferred modality of palliation. However, for advanced disease, percutaneous stenting has been shown to be superior to endoscopic stenting. Endosonography-guided biliary drainage is emerging as an alternative technique, particularly when ERCP is not possible or fails. Metal stents are usually preferred over plastic stents, both for ERCP and for percutaneous biliary drainage. There is no consensus as to whether it is necessary to place multiple stents within advanced hilar blocks or whether unilateral stenting would suffice. However, recent data have suggested that, contrary to previous belief, it is useful to drain more than 50% of the liver volume for favorable long-term results. In the presence of cholangitis, it is beneficial to drain all of the obstructed biliary segments. Surgical bypass plays a limited role in palliation and is offered primarily as a segment III bypass if, during a laparotomy for resection, the tumor is found to be unresectable. Photodynamic therapy and, more recently, radiofrequency ablation have been used as adjuvant therapies to improve the results of biliary stenting. The exact technique to be used for palliation is guided by the extent of the biliary involvement (Bismuth class) and the availability of local expertise. PMID:25232449

  16. Osteoarthritis: From Palliation to Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Constance R.; Millis, Michael B.; Olson, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a leading cause of disability. The traditional focus on late-stage osteoarthritis has not yielded effective disease-modifying treatments. Consequently, current clinical care focuses on palliation until joint replacement is indicated. A symposium format was used to examine emerging strategies that support the transformation of the clinical approach to osteoarthritis from palliation to prevention. Central to this discussion are concepts for diagnosis and treatment of pre-osteoarthritis, meaning joint conditions that increase the risk of accelerated development of osteoarthritis. The presentation of translational and clinical research on three common orthopaedic conditions—anterior cruciate ligament tear, intra-articular fracture, and hip dysplasia—were used to illustrate these ideas. New information regarding the use of novel quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the form of ultrashort echo time enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) mapping to evaluate the potential for articular cartilage to heal subsurface damage in a mechanically sound environment was presented. These data indicate that improved diagnostics can both identify cartilage at risk and evaluate the effectiveness of early treatment strategies. With use of a new mouse model for intra-articular fracture, it was shown that inflammation correlated to fracture severity and that super-healer mice avoided early posttraumatic osteoarthritis in part through an enhanced ability to dampen inflammation. These findings suggest that there is a role for acute and sustained anti-inflammatory treatment in the prevention of osteoarthritis. For long-term treatment, contemporary gene-therapy approaches may offer an effective means for sustained intra-articular delivery of anti-inflammatory and other bioactive agents to restore joint homeostasis. To illustrate the potential of early treatment to prevent or delay the onset of disabling osteoarthritis, the positive clinical effects on articular cartilage and

  17. Palliative sedation in nursing anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Palliative sedation is a technique of providing a sedative for end-of-life care to patients with intractable pain. The literature discusses the techniques and use of palliative sedation. Numerous articles have been written regarding the issues surrounding its use, but no literature has discussed the prescription or administration of palliative sedation by a nurse anesthetist. By understanding the concept and ethics involved in its use and providing nursing care that is theory based, the author argues that the involvement of nursing anesthesia is appropriate and within the scope of practice. Few other healthcare disciplines can provide the patient care and empirical knowledge that is imperative in the care of the dying patient. This article discusses the concept and ethics of palliative sedation and presents a case of providing palliative sedation to a terminally ill patient by an experienced nurse anesthetist. Palliative sedation should be understood, embraced, and utilized as an area of expertise suited for nursing anesthesia.

  18. Palliation of malignant ascites.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Stefanie M

    2006-03-01

    The management of recurrent, symptomatic malignant ascites can be problematic for physicians and patients. The most common, low-risk method is large-volume paracentesis. Patient disease progression often leads to rapid reaccumulation of ascites, which requires frequent return visits to the hospital for symptom management. Other techniques have been developed to achieve palliation of symptoms, including tunneled external drainage catheters, peritoneal ports, and peritoneovenous

  19. Pain and palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Sorger, Brooke; Rosenfeld, Kenneth E; Lorenz, Karl A; Bailey, Amos F; Bui, Trinh; Weinberger, Lawrence; Montagnini, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    Severe pain is highly prevalent, with rates of 40% to 70% in patients with advanced cancer, liver disease, heart failure, human immunodeficiency virus, and renal failure. Wide variations in pain assessment and reporting methods and the measurement of multiple symptoms should be addressed in future studies. Regarding psychological approaches, determining whether hypnotherapy or other individual psychotherapeutic interventions reduce pain and/or psychological distress in a palliative care population is difficult. Interest is increasing in the concept of demoralization syndromes and the role of posttraumatic stress disorder in modulating responses to pain at the end of life. We review evidence from multiple studies that the use of rehabilitative therapy improves functional status and pain control among patients with advanced cancer, and we raise the possibility that rehabilitation therapy will be helpful in patients with other advanced diseases. We summarize ongoing clinical trials of electronic order sets, clinical care pathways, and care management pathways to improve pain management in palliative care. Wagner's Chronic Illness Model provides a way of analyzing how healthcare systems can be changed to provide adequate and continuing pain management in palliative care. Much work remains to ensure that pain is recognized, treated, and monitored effectively.

  20. Palliative intubation for malignant strictures of the oesophagus

    PubMed Central

    Leverment, J. N.; Milne, D. Mearns

    1974-01-01

    Leverment, J. N. and Mearns Milne, D. (1974).Thorax, 29, 228-231. Palliative intubation for malignant strictures of the oesophagus. Over a 16-year period the Mousseau-Barbin tube was used for palliation in 50 patients suffering from malignant stricture of the oesophagus. In only two cases was the Souttar tube used. Thirty-seven cases were intubated as a primary method of treatment—21 cases without preliminary exploration, 13 cases following exploration, and three cases as a `delayed' procedure. Twelve cases were secondarily intubated as a result of recurrence of malignancy following an earlier oesophagogastrectomy. In three cases perforation of the oesophagus was recognized at the time of intubation, following which palliative oesophagogastrectomies were attempted. Intubation remains one method of relieving the patient's most distressing symptom, but in the majority of cases prolongation of life was seldom for more than three months. The hazards of this form of treatment are discussed. PMID:4133968

  1. Training Physicians in Palliative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, J. Cameron; Krammer, Lisa M.; von Gunten, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the elements of a program in hospice and palliative medicine that may serve as a model of an effective system of physician education. Topics for the palliative-care curriculum include hospice medicine, breaking bad news, pain management, the process of dying, and managing personal stress. (JOW)

  2. Training Physicians in Palliative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, J. Cameron; Krammer, Lisa M.; von Gunten, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the elements of a program in hospice and palliative medicine that may serve as a model of an effective system of physician education. Topics for the palliative-care curriculum include hospice medicine, breaking bad news, pain management, the process of dying, and managing personal stress. (JOW)

  3. Innovative palliative care in Edmonton.

    PubMed Central

    Fainsinger, R. L.; Bruera, E.; MacMillan, K.

    1997-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Access to palliative care in Edmonton has been hampered by uneven development, poor distribution of services, and more recently, economic restraints. Family physicians' involvement in palliative care has been hindered by the variety of access points, poor coordination, and inadequate reimbursement for time-consuming and difficult patient care situations. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To provide high-quality palliative care throughout Edmonton in all settings, with patients able to move easily throughout the components of the program; to lower costs by having fewer palliative care patients die in acute care facilities; and to ensure that family physicians receive support to care for most patients at home or in palliative care units. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: The program includes a regional office, home care, and consultant teams. A specialized 14-bed palliative care unit provides acute care. Family physicians are the primary caregivers in the 56 palliative continuing care unit beds. CONCLUSIONS: This program appears to meet most of the need for palliative care in Edmonton. Family physicians, with support from consulting teams, have a central role. Evaluation is ongoing; an important issue is how best to support patients dying at home. Images p1984-a p1986-a PMID:9386885

  4. Palliative Reconstructive Surgery: Contextualizing Palliation in Resource-Poor Settings

    PubMed Central

    Nthumba, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Palliative care in Kenya and the larger Sub-Saharan Africa is considered a preserve of hospices, where these exist. Surgical training does not arm the surgeon with the skills needed to deal with the care of palliative patients. Resource constraints demand that the surgeon be multidiscipline trained so as to be able to adequately address the needs of a growing population of patients that could benefit from surgical palliation. Patients and Methods. The author describes his experience in the management of a series of 31 palliative care patients, aged 8 to 82 years. There were a total of nine known or presumed mortalities in the first year following surgery; 17 patients experienced an improved quality of life for at least 6 months after surgery. Fourteen of these were disease-free at 6 months. Conclusion. Palliative reconstructive surgery is indicated in a select number of patients. Although cure is not the primary intent of palliative surgery, the potential benefits of an improved quality of life and the possibility of cure should encourage a more proactive role for the surgeon. The need for palliative care can be expected to increase significantly in Africa, with the estimated fourfold increase of cancer patients over the next 50 years. PMID:25530878

  5. Gastrostomies in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ferraz; Mozes, Mónica; Saraiva, Isabel; Ramos, Cristina

    2006-11-01

    In palliative care, gastrostomies are used to provide nutritional support or to decompress the bowel. To evaluate what happened to the patients monitored at our palliative care unit (PCU) who underwent gastrostomy between October 1994 and January 2005, a retrospective audit was made. The charts of 154 patients were reviewed. The most frequent reason why a patient underwent a gastrostomy was dysphagia due to head and neck and/or esophageal cancer. Only one patient underwent a drainage gastrostomy because of intestinal obstruction. Interventional radiology performed 96% of the gastrostomies. Early complications occurred in 53 patients (34%) who underwent the gastrostomy for feeding and the most common was local pain, usually mild. However, there was one death due to peritonitis, probably related with the procedure. Late complications also occurred in 53 patients and major complications occurred in 22 patients, the most common was extrusion. The median survival after the performance of the gastrostomy was 61 days (range 1 to 551 days). Nineteen patients (12%) survived 1 week or less, 28 (18%) between 8 and 30 days, 51 (33%) from 31 to 90 days, 53 (35%) 91 days or more, and one unknown. The patient who underwent a gastrostomy for bowel obstruction survived for only 7 days. One hundred and twenty-five patients (81%) died at the PCU, 26 (17%) at home, and four (3%) at other places.

  6. Palliative chemotherapy: oxymoron or misunderstanding?

    PubMed

    Roeland, E J; LeBlanc, T W

    2016-03-21

    Oncologists routinely prescribe chemotherapy for patients with advanced cancer. This practice is sometimes misunderstood by palliative care clinicians, yet data clearly show that chemotherapy can be a powerful palliative intervention when applied appropriately. Clarity regarding the term "palliative chemotherapy" is needed: it is chemotherapy given in the non-curative setting to optimize symptom control, improve quality of life, and sometimes to improve survival. Unfortunately, oncologists lack adequate tools to predict which patients will benefit. In a study recently published in BMC Palliative Care, Creutzfeldt et al. presented an innovative approach to advancing the science in this area: using patient reported outcomes to predict responses to palliative chemotherapy. With further research, investigators may be able to develop predictive models for use at the bedside to inform clinical decision-making about the risks and benefits of treatment. In the meantime, oncologists and palliative care clinicians must work together to reduce the use of "end-of-life chemotherapy"-chemotherapy given close to death, which does not improve longevity or symptom control-while optimizing the use of chemotherapy that has true palliative benefits for patients.

  7. Team Networking in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Odette

    2011-01-01

    “If you want to travel quickly, go alone. But if you want to travel far, you must go together”. African proverb. The delivery of palliative care is often complex and always involves a group of people, the team, gathered around the patient and those who are close to them. Effective communication and functional responsive systems of care are essential if palliative care is to be delivered in a timely and competent way. Creating and fostering an effective team is one of the greatest challenges for providers of palliative care. Teams are organic and can be life giving or life sapping for their members. PMID:21811361

  8. Palliative care in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Suhatno

    2000-05-01

    1. Cervical cancer is the most frequent cancer in females and also the most frequent among female genital cancers. 2. Ever though the modality of diagnostic procedures for early detection has improved, in fact most of the patients present in the late stages, so the disease is already incurable, and palliative care is really needed. 3. Palliative care is needed not only for the terminally ill patients, but can be started at the time the cancer is diagnosed. 4. Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach requiring teamwork. 5. Palliative care in Indonesia, especially in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, is a new modality in the fight against cancer, so we suffer many disadvantages, e.g., disability, limitation, lack of experience. However, such problems will stimulate the team to learn more.

  9. [Multiprofessional cooperation in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Falckenberg, Maja

    2007-04-01

    "Nothing is more powerful than an idea whose time has come." (Victor Hugo) Originally referring to the beginning of the enlightenment (reconnaissance) of the French revolution the transcription of this words regarding to German palliative Care structures would mean a tremendous effort. The meaning of the new idea is a holistic kind of care for patients with a chronic disease at the end of their lives, so that they can die as most self determined as possible at a location of their choice. The special aim of palliative care, the need of interdisciplinary cooperation leading to multidisciplinary solutions is pointed out. The meaning of palliative care team as a team with special communication skills in between the team and with further cooperating partners is described. Communication in palliative care means more than telling facts.

  10. Palliative care content on cancer center websites.

    PubMed

    Vater, Laura B; Rebesco, Gina; Schenker, Yael; Torke, Alexia M; Gramelspacher, Gregory

    2017-10-09

    Professional guidelines recommend that palliative care begin early in advanced cancer management, yet integration of palliative and cancer care remains suboptimal. Cancer centers may miss opportunities to provide palliative care information online. In this study, we described the palliative care content on cancer center websites. We conducted a systematic content analysis of 62 National Cancer Institute- (NCI) designated cancer center websites. We assessed the content of center homepages and analyzed search results using the terms palliative care, supportive care, and hospice. For palliative and supportive care webpages, we assessed services offered and language used to describe care. Two researchers analyzed all websites using a standardized coding manual. Kappa values ranged from 0.78 to 1. NCI-designated cancer center homepages presented information about cancer-directed therapy (61%) more frequently than palliative care (5%). Ten percent of cancer centers had no webpage with palliative care information for patients. Among centers with information for patients, the majority (96%) defined palliative or supportive care, but 30% did not discuss delivery of palliative care alongside curative treatment, and 14% did not mention provision of care early in the disease process. Cancer center homepages rarely mention palliative care services. While the majority of centers have webpages with palliative care content, they sometimes omit information about early use of care. Improving accessibility of palliative care information and increasing emphasis on early provision of services may improve integration of palliative and cancer care.

  11. Palliative sedation: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Miccinesi, Guido; Caraceni, Augusto; Maltoni, Marco

    2017-07-12

    Palliative sedation (PS), the medical act of decreasing a patient's awareness to relieve otherwise intractable suffering, is considered by some commentators to be controversial because of its consequences on residual survival and/or quality of life, and to be inappropriate for treating pure existential suffering. We will argue that PS must be always proportional, i.e. controlling refractory symptoms while keeping the loss of personal values (communication, affective relationships, care relationship) as low as possible, and that imminence of death is necessary too, from an ethical point of view, if a deep and continuous sedation (DCS) is proposed. Moreover, in case of pure existential suffering DCS should only be considered after repeated trials of respite sedation. The use of progressive consent and advance care planning to share the decision with the patient and to involve the family in the decision process as much as the patient desires is another ethical aspect to be pursued. Producing, implementing and sustaining guidelines at the higher scientific and professional level promise to help in improving both clinical and ethical aspects of the practice of PS.

  12. Find a Hospice or Palliative Care Provider

    MedlinePlus

    ... Provider Name: Organization Type: Please select Hospice Multi-Location Hospice Provider Palliative Care Provider or Sitemap Contact Us Privacy Informacion en Español Copyright National Hospice and Palliative ...

  13. Moral problems in palliative care journals.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, M A; ten Have, H A

    2001-09-01

    With the growth of palliative care services, interest in moral issues also seems to be growing. However, we need to know which moral issues are specific to palliative care. The first step in answering this is to consider the moral concerns raised and discussed by the palliative care community itself. This article presents a bibliographical analysis of moral problems, first by selecting the problems identified as moral problems in the leading palliative care journals, and then by classifying these into different types.

  14. National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization

    MedlinePlus

    ... MDP Courses/Modules Calendar of Events Palliative Care Pediatric Hospice and Palliative Care Palliative Care Membership - Join Facebook Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Pinterest RSS ehospice moments my.nhpco 2 new Episodes-Election Recap and Intensives Review Plan ahead, order your 2017 Webinar package ...

  15. Fatigue in patients receiving palliative care.

    PubMed

    Ream, Emma

    This article discusses fatigue in patients receiving palliative care. The article initially considers the prevalence of fatigue in different groups of palliative care patients, then addresses how it manifests before reviewing how it can be assessed and managed. The focus of the article is on palliative care but it draws on, and has relevance for, chronic disease more widely.

  16. Palliative Care Doula: an innovative model.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Judy C

    2014-01-01

    Walking the journey of serious illness is very difficult and stressful for patients and families. A universal principle of palliative care is caring for the patient/ family unit. This article introduces a model for the Palliative Care Doula for experienced and advanced practice palliative care nurses to support patients and families during the traumatic and vulnerable period of end-of-life care.

  17. [Xerostomia in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Feio, Madalena; Sapeta, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of mouth dryness, caused or not by function lowering of salivary glands, with decrease of saliva quality or quantity. It's a frequent symptom in palliative care patients and its prevalence is referred to be 60% to 88% in advanced and progressive oncological disease patients. Xerostomia has physical, social and psychological consequences. Saliva plays an important role in maintaining the best physiological conditions of mouth. Besides humidifying the oral cavity tissues, its lubricating properties help swallowing, talking and prevents other damages caused by mechanical and noxious microbiological agents. Xerostomia is caused by three basic mechanisms: factors that compromise the salivary centre, factors related to the autonomic stimulation or factors related to salivary glands themselves. The diagnosis is mainly clinical. Mouth condition must be thoroughly evaluated. If justified, a quantitative evaluation of saliva secretion, in rest and under stimulation, might be done. The treatment must be oriented by aetiology and directed towards the disease effects in patient comfort and quality of life. During treatment, the use of xerogenic drugs should be controlled, hydration should be promoted and other symptom control measures improved. The symptomatic treatment has three pathways: the increasing of saliva production by mechanical, gustatory or pharmacological stimulation; the using of saliva substitutes and the improving of active mouth care. Mechanical stimulation is obtained by chewing gum and gustatory stimulation may be reached by sucking Vitamin C tablets. Pilocarpine is the available drug to improve salivation. A soft diet must be advised, hard and dry food, tobacco and alcoholic beverages should be avoided. It's important that health workers teach patients with xerostomia the best way to get relief and the measures to prevent its complications that could, even more, compromise their quality of life.

  18. Music therapy in palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, L M; Huston, M J; Nelson, K A; Walsh, D; Steele, A L

    2001-05-01

    A partnership between The Cleveland Clinic Foundation and The Cleveland Music School Settlement has resulted in music therapy becoming a standard part of the care in our palliative medicine inpatient unit. This paper describes a music therapy program and its impact on patients, their families, and staff. A service delivery model is suggested for implementation and integration of music therapy within palliative medicine. Specific music therapy interventions, evaluation and documentation techniques are also mentioned. A description of patient and family responses to music therapy, staff satisfaction, and effectiveness of interventions is presented.

  19. Branding Palliative Care Units by Avoiding the Terms "Palliative" and "Hospice".

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying-Xiu; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lin, Ming-Hwai

    2017-01-01

    The term "palliative care" has a negative connotation and may act as a barrier to early patient referrals. Rebranding has thus been proposed as a strategy to reduce the negative perceptions associated with palliative care. For example, using the term "supportive care" instead of "palliative care" in naming palliative care units has been proposed in several studies. In Taiwan, terms other than "palliative" and "hospice" are already widely used in the names of palliative care units. With this in mind, this study investigated the characteristics of palliative care unit names in order to better understand the role of naming in palliative care. Relevant data were collected from the Taiwan Academy of Hospice Palliative Medicine, the National Health Insurance Administration of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and the open database maintained by the government of Taiwan. We found a clear phenomenon of avoiding use of the terms "palliative" and "hospice" in the naming of palliative care units, a phenomenon that reflects the stigma attached to the terms "palliative" and "hospice" in Taiwan. At the time of the study (September, 2016), there were 55 palliative care units in Taiwan. Only 20.0% (n = 11) of the palliative care unit names included the term "palliative," while 25.2% (n = 14) included the term "hospice." Religiously affiliated hospitals were less likely to use the terms "palliative" and "hospice" (χ(2) = 11.461, P = .001). There was also a lower prevalence of use of the terms "palliative" and "hospice" for naming palliative care units in private hospitals than in public hospitals (χ(2) = 4.61, P = .032). This finding highlights the strong stigma attached to the terms "palliative" and "hospice" in Taiwan. It is hypothesized that sociocultural and religious factors may partially account for this phenomenon.

  20. Consultation with specialist palliative care services in palliative sedation: considerations of Dutch physicians.

    PubMed

    Koper, Ian; van der Heide, Agnes; Janssens, Rien; Swart, Siebe; Perez, Roberto; Rietjens, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Palliative sedation is considered a normal medical practice by the Royal Dutch Medical Association. Therefore, consultation of an expert is not considered mandatory. The European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) framework for palliative sedation, however, is more stringent: it considers the use of palliative sedation without consulting an expert as injudicious and insists on input from a multi-professional palliative care team. This study investigates the considerations of Dutch physicians concerning consultation about palliative sedation with specialist palliative care services. Fifty-four physicians were interviewed on their most recent case of palliative sedation. Reasons to consult were a lack of expertise and the view that consultation was generally supportive. Reasons not to consult were sufficient expertise, the view that palliative sedation is a normal medical procedure, time pressure, fear of disagreement with the service and regarding consultation as having little added value. Arguments in favour of mandatory consultation were that many physicians lack expertise and that palliative sedation is an exceptional intervention. Arguments against mandatory consultation were practical obstacles that may preclude fulfilling such an obligation (i.e. lack of time), palliative sedation being a standard medical procedure, corroding a physician's responsibility and deterring physicians from applying palliative sedation. Consultation about palliative sedation with specialist palliative care services is regarded as supportive and helpful when physicians lack expertise. However, Dutch physicians have both practical and theoretical objections against mandatory consultation. Based on the findings in this study, there seems to be little support among Dutch physicians for the EAPC recommendations on obligatory consultation.

  1. The Renal Palliative Care Initiative.

    PubMed

    Poppel, David M; Cohen, Lewis M; Germain, Michael J

    2003-04-01

    Despite ongoing technological advances, patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a mortality rate of approximately 23% per year, and comorbid cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular disorders often make life on dialysis an ordeal. This patient population needs an improved approach to symptom assessment and control, as well as advance care planning and high-quality palliative care. Families need support during the lifetime and after the death of their loved ones. To address these needs, the Renal Palliative Care Initiative (RPCI) was instituted at Baystate Medical Center, a large tertiary care hospital, and at eight dialysis clinics in the Connecticut River Valley. With the cooperation of a large nephrology practice, the Western New England Renal and Transplant Associates, a core group of physicians, nurses, and social workers were trained in palliative medicine, and charged with the goals of developing and implementing innovative interventions. The RPCI's programs include symptom management protocols, advance care planning, and bereavement services for families and staff. The Initiative is increasing completion of formal advance directives by the patient population, while staff and families are particularly pleased with annual renal memorial services. The RPCI experience has much to offer the practice of nephrology, and it is relevant to ongoing efforts to extend palliative medicine beyond the traditional focus on cancer and AIDS.

  2. On the palliative care unit.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    As a physician working in palliative care, the author is often privileged to share special moments with patients and their families at the end of life. This haiku poem recalls one such moment in that precious space between life and death, as an elderly woman, surrounded by her adult daughters, takes her last breath. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Hearing Loss in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nelia; Wallhagen, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Age-related hearing loss is remarkably common, affecting more than 60% of adults over the age of 75. Moreover, hearing loss has detrimental effects on quality of life and communication, outcomes that are central to palliative care. Despite its high prevalence, there is remarkably little written on the impact of hearing loss in the palliative care literature. Objective: The objective was to emphasize its importance and the need for further study. We use a case as a springboard for discussing what is known and unknown about the epidemiology, presentation, screening methodologies, and treatment strategies for age-related hearing loss in palliative care. Discussion: The case describes a 65-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) that has progressed despite treatment. No concerns are raised about communication challenges during conversations between the palliative care team and the patient in his quiet room. However, in the midst of a family meeting, shortly after discussing prognosis, the patient reports that he cannot hear what anyone is saying. Conclusion: We describe simple methods of screening patients for hearing loss, and suggest that practical approaches should be used universally in patient encounters. These include facing the patient, pitching one's voice low, using a pocket talker, and creating a hearing-friendly environment when planning a family or group meeting. PMID:25867966

  4. Specialist palliative care nursing and the philosophy of palliative care: a critical discussion.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jackie; Gott, Merryn; Gardiner, Clare; Ingleton, Christine

    2017-07-02

    Nursing is the largest regulated health professional workforce providing palliative care across a range of clinical settings. Historically, palliative care nursing has been informed by a strong philosophy of care which is soundly articulated in palliative care policy, research and practice. Indeed, palliative care is now considered to be an integral component of nursing practice regardless of the specialty or clinical setting. However, there has been a change in the way palliative care is provided. Upstreaming and mainstreaming of palliative care and the dominance of a biomedical model with increasing medicalisation and specialisation are key factors in the evolution of contemporary palliative care and are likely to impact on nursing practice. Using a critical reflection of the authors own experiences and supported by literature and theory from seminal texts and contemporary academic, policy and clinical literature, this discussion paper will explore the influence of philosophy on nursing knowledge and theory in the context of an evolving model of palliative care.

  5. [Palliative care as a response to dysthanasia].

    PubMed

    Frković, Aleksandra; Bosković, Zvonimir

    2007-04-01

    Palliative care is frequently discussed as an alternative or a counter-balance to euthanasia. In this paper, palliative care is considered as a response to dysthanasia or therapeutic persistence. First, the main features of dysthanasia are mentioned: the accent is put on different questions: until when to implement therapeutic persistence? When does the treatment become useless? What is a permanent vegetative condition? Then, palliative care, the scope of which is to achieve the best life quality for the patient and his family is discussed. The hospice and its care are emphasized, analyzing the international guidelines on the topics at the end of life. International palliative care recommendations are analyzed; special attention is paid on the codex of medical ethics and deontology and its regulations concerning palliative care. Conclusion summarizes some thoughts about dysthanasia and palliative care.

  6. e-Health in pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice

    2010-02-01

    e-Health has the potential to improve pediatric palliative care. e-Health initiatives use the Internet or health information technology to improve quality of care and have the potential to decrease costs by reducing medical errors, reducing duplication of services, improving access to diagnostic and laboratory results, and improving communication between providers and patients, and so on. The majority of e-health initiatives are for adults and only a limited amount of evidence exists in the literature on e-health interventions in palliative care that are focused on pediatrics. To explore what role e-health could play in pediatric palliative care programs, this article aims to describe the Internet use in general in the United States and in palliative care, describe the use of health information technology in general in the United States and in palliative care, and suggest areas in pediatric palliative care that might benefit from e-health interventions.

  7. Barriers to Access to Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Pippa

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant advances in understanding the benefits of early integration of palliative care with disease management, many people living with a chronic life-threatening illness either do not receive any palliative care service or receive services only in the last phase of their illness. In this article, I explore some of the reasons for failure to provide palliative care services and recommend some strategies to overcome these barriers, emphasizing the importance of describing palliative care accurately. I provide language which I hope will help health care professionals of all disciplines explain what palliative care has to offer and ensure wider access to palliative care, early in the course of their illness. PMID:28469439

  8. Smartphone applications in palliative homecare.

    PubMed

    Dhiliwal, Sunil R; Salins, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone applications in healthcare delivery are a novel concept and is rapidly gaining ground in all fields of medicine. The modes of e-communications such as e-mail, short message service (SMS), multimedia messaging service (MMS) and WhatsApp in palliative care provides a means for quick tele-consultation, information sharing, cuts the waiting time and facilitates initiation of the treatment at the earliest. It also forms a means of communication with local general practitioner and local health care provider such that continuity of the care is maintained. It also minimizes needless transport of the patient to hospital, prevents needless hospitalization and investigations and minimizes cost and logistics involved in the care process. The two case studies provided highlights the use of smartphone application like WhatsApp in palliative care practice and demonstrates its utility.

  9. [Hospice program and palliative medicine].

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Y

    1997-05-01

    Hospice and palliative care have important roles for cancer patients in an incurable state to alleviate their total pain and to achieve the best quality of life. Interdisciplinary team-doctors, nurses, therapists, social workers and so on provide effective support in order to fulfill the varying needs of patients and families. Pain relief as a palliative medicine is most urgently required by seventy percent of patients on admission to our Hospice at the Salvation Army Kiyose Hospital. A case is presented with some comments on pain management. Music therapy is also introduced. This is one of the complementary methods for consolation of the mind and body of patients. Some of them seem to find it beneficial.

  10. Smartphone Applications in Palliative Homecare

    PubMed Central

    Dhiliwal, Sunil R; Salins, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone applications in healthcare delivery are a novel concept and is rapidly gaining ground in all fields of medicine. The modes of e-communications such as e-mail, short message service (SMS), multimedia messaging service (MMS) and WhatsApp in palliative care provides a means for quick tele-consultation, information sharing, cuts the waiting time and facilitates initiation of the treatment at the earliest. It also forms a means of communication with local general practitioner and local health care provider such that continuity of the care is maintained. It also minimizes needless transport of the patient to hospital, prevents needless hospitalization and investigations and minimizes cost and logistics involved in the care process. The two case studies provided highlights the use of smartphone application like WhatsApp in palliative care practice and demonstrates its utility. PMID:25709195

  11. Endoscopic Palliation of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coté, Gregory A.; Sherman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopy has an increasingly important role in the palliation of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic biliary drainage is still requested in the majority of patients who present with obstructive jaundice, and the increased use of self-expandable metallic stents has reduced the incidence of premature stent occlusion. First-line use of metallic stents is expected to be utilized more frequently as neoadjuvant protocols are improved. The efficacy of endoscopy for palliating gastroduodenal obstruction has advanced with the development of through-the-scope, self-expandable gastroduodenal stents. There have been advances in pain management, with endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis reducing opiate requirements and pain for patients with unresectable malignancy. Future applications of endoscopy in pancreatic cancer may include fine needle injection of chemotherapeutic and other agents into the lesion itself. This review will summarize the evidence of endoscopy in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:23187846

  12. [Palliative medicine and the "good death"].

    PubMed

    Sláma, Ondřej

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care can improve the quality of life in terminally ill patients and allow them to achieve a "good death". Active assessment and proactive interventions on all levels of patient´s suffering is of major importance. The articel proposes a theoretical model of the "good death" and brings practical recommendations for the implementation of palliative care into routine clinical practice.Key words: good death - palliative medicine - quality of life - terminal phase.

  13. Music therapy in palliative setting

    PubMed Central

    Korczak, Dieter; Wastian, Monika; Schneider, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The expectations on the care of humans with an incurable disease are to console, to relieve pain and to take away somebody’s fears. Therefore, palliative care tries to support terminally ill persons during the last stage of life and to ameliorate the living conditions. The question is how far music therapy can increase the quality of life. Until now, there is only small evidence for that, because there are too few applicable studies. PMID:23904890

  14. Music therapy in palliative setting.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Dieter; Wastian, Monika; Schneider, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The expectations on the care of humans with an incurable disease are to console, to relieve pain and to take away somebody's fears. Therefore, palliative care tries to support terminally ill persons during the last stage of life and to ameliorate the living conditions. The question is how far music therapy can increase the quality of life. Until now, there is only small evidence for that, because there are too few applicable studies.

  15. Music therapy in palliative care.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, S.; Mount, B.

    1978-01-01

    Initial observations regarding the use of music therapy at one hospital in the palliative care of patients with advanced malignant disease are presented. In the hands of a trained music therapist, music has proven to be a potent tool for improving the quality of life. The diversity of its potential is particularly suited to the deversity of the challenges - physical, psychosocial and spiritual - that these patients present. Images FIG. 1 PMID:84704

  16. Palliative Care in Musculoskeletal Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gulia, Ashish; Byregowda, Suman; Panda, Pankaj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Patients in advanced stages of illness trajectories with local and widespread musculoskeletal incurable malignancies, either treatment naive or having recurrence are referred to the palliative care clinic to relieve various disease-related symptoms and to improve the quality of life. Palliative care is a specialized medicine that offers treatment to the disease-specific symptoms, places emphasis on the psychosocial and spiritual aspects of life and help the patients and their family to cope with advance stage cancer in a stronger and reasonable way. The overall outcome of musculoskeletal malignancies has improved with the advent of multidisciplinary management. Even then these tumors do relapse and leads to organ failures and disease-specific deaths in children and young adults in productive age group thus requiring an integrated approach to improve the supportive/palliative care needs in end-stage disease. In this article, we would like to discuss the spectrum of presentation of advanced musculoskeletal malignancies, skeletal metastasis, and their management. PMID:27559251

  17. Palliative Dental Care- A Boon for Debilitating

    PubMed Central

    Chintamaneni, Raja Lakshmi; Mpv, Prabhat; Gummadapu, Sarat; Salvadhi, Shyam Sundar

    2014-01-01

    World Health Organization defines “palliative care” as the active total care of patients whose disease is not responding to curative treatment. Palliative care actually deals with patients at the terminal end stage of the disease. We always face a question why a dentist should be in a palliative team? What is the exact role of dentist? Dental treatment may not always be strenuous and curative, but also can focus on improving quality of life of the patient. Hence forth the present paper enlightens the importance of dentist role in palliative team. PMID:25121074

  18. Healing ministry and palliative care in Christianity.

    PubMed

    Jayard, S Stephen; Irudayadason, Nishant A; Davis, J Charles

    2017-05-03

    Death is inevitable, but that does not mean it can be planned or imposed. It is an ethical imperative that we attend to the unbearable pain and suffering of patients with incurable and terminal illnesses. This is where palliative care plays a vital role. Palliative care has been growing faster in the world of medicine since its emergence as a specialty in the last decade. Palliative care helps to reduce physical pain while affirming the aspect of human suffering and dying as a normal process. The goal of palliative care is to improve the quality of life both of the patient and the family.

  19. Is exercise ignored in palliative cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Eyigor, Sibel; Akdeniz, Sedef

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and rehabilitation approaches in palliative care programs for cancer patients affect patients’ symptoms, physical functioning, muscle strength, emotional wellbeing, psychological symptoms, functional capacities, quality of life, mortality and morbidity positively. Based on scientific data, palliative cancer patients should be recommended to participate in exercise programs. There is no standard approach to recipe an exercise regimen for a palliative cancer survivor. Studies for demonstrating the positive effects of exercising in palliative care patients are increasing in number day by day. At this point, increasing awareness about exercising in the entire team monitoring the patient and our efforts in this matter seems to be very important. PMID:25114869

  20. Working with a palliative care team.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Lauren A; Von Roenn, Jamie H

    2010-01-01

    The interdisciplinary team is fundamental to the successful delivery of quality palliative care. Ideally, the oncologist is an integral part of either the palliative care or hospice team and serves to maintain continuity of care through the end of life. In the United States, barriers can complicate the oncologist's easy integration into the hospice team as patients often remain at home. Also, there may be philosophical or clinical practice differences between oncology and palliative care at first glance. This article focuses on ways to overcome these potential obstacles and use differences in training to strengthen the team's impact. A significant part of oncology practice includes managing difficult symptoms, mitigating suffering, and discussing priorities of care--all elements of palliative medicine that oncologists perform daily. Participating on a palliative care team may be natural for oncologists, and some might elect to provide integrated palliative cancer care for patients throughout the course of their disease and at the end of life. Thus, there is a need to enrich the general oncologist's knowledge of specialized palliative medicine, as recommended by the major cancer organizations, including the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology.It is important to know when to incorporate a palliative or hospice care team into the routine management of a cancer patient and what benefits these referrals can provide. Oncologists have an obligation to provide high-quality palliative care to all patients in an integrated fashion, including patients with advanced cancer enrolled in clinical trials for early therapeutics.

  1. Overcoming Barriers to Palliative Care Consultation.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Kathleen Ouimet; Kazanowski, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Palliative care consultations for patients with life-threatening illnesses provide benefits for the patients and their families as well as for the health care team. Patients have better quality of life and live longer but cost the health care system less. Still, many patients are not offered the opportunity to receive a palliative care consultation. Barriers to palliative care consultation for patients in critical care units include misunderstandings about palliative care and not having agreed upon criteria for referral. Critical care nurses can assist in overcoming these barriers.

  2. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  3. Independent validation of the modified prognosis palliative care study predictor models in three palliative care settings.

    PubMed

    Baba, Mika; Maeda, Isseki; Morita, Tatsuya; Hisanaga, Takayuki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Iwashita, Tomoyuki; Kaneishi, Keisuke; Kawagoe, Shohei; Kuriyama, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Takashi; Mori, Ichiro; Nakajima, Nobuhisa; Nishi, Tomohiro; Sakurai, Hiroki; Shimoyama, Satofumi; Shinjo, Takuya; Shirayama, Hiroto; Yamada, Takeshi; Ono, Shigeki; Ozawa, Taketoshi; Yamamoto, Ryo; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Accurate prognostic information in palliative care settings is needed for patients to make decisions and set goals and priorities. The Prognosis Palliative Care Study (PiPS) predictor models were presented in 2011, but have not yet been fully validated by other research teams. The primary aim of this study is to examine the accuracy and to validate the modified PiPS (using physician-proxy ratings of mental status instead of patient interviews) in three palliative care settings, namely palliative care units, hospital-based palliative care teams, and home-based palliative care services. This multicenter prospective cohort study was conducted in 58 palliative care services including 16 palliative care units, 19 hospital-based palliative care teams, and 23 home-based palliative care services in Japan from September 2012 through April 2014. A total of 2426 subjects were recruited. For reasons including lack of followup and missing variables (primarily blood examination data), we obtained analyzable data from 2212 and 1257 patients for the modified PiPS-A and PiPS-B, respectively. In all palliative care settings, both the modified PiPS-A and PiPS-B identified three risk groups with different survival rates (P<0.001). The absolute agreement ranged from 56% to 60% in the PiPS-A model and 60% to 62% in the PiPS-B model. The modified PiPS was successfully validated and can be useful in palliative care units, hospital-based palliative care teams, and home-based palliative care services. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Palliative sedation versus euthanasia: an ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk; Welie, Jos V M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to review the ethical debate concerning palliative sedation. Although recent guidelines articulate the differences between palliative sedation and euthanasia, the ethical controversies remain. The dominant view is that euthanasia and palliative sedation are morally distinct practices. However, ambiguous moral experiences and considerable practice variation call this view into question. When heterogeneous sedative practices are all labeled as palliative sedation, there is the risk that palliative sedation is expanded to include practices that are actually intended to bring about the patients' death. This troublesome expansion is fostered by an expansive use of the concept of intention such that this decisive ethical concept is no longer restricted to signify the aim in guiding the action. In this article, it is argued that intention should be used in a restricted way. The significance of intention is related to other ethical parameters to demarcate the practice of palliative sedation: terminality, refractory symptoms, proportionality, and separation from other end-of-life decisions. These additional parameters, although not without ethical and practical problems, together formulate a framework to ethically distinguish a more narrowly defined practice of palliative sedation from practices that are tantamount to euthanasia. Finally, the article raises the question as to what impact palliative sedation might have on the practice of palliative care itself. The increasing interest in palliative sedation may reemphasize characteristics of health care that initially encouraged the emergence of palliative care in the first place: the focus on therapy rather than care, the physical dimension rather than the whole person, the individual rather than the community, and the primacy of intervention rather than receptiveness and presence.

  5. Palliative care in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lilly, Evan J; Senderovich, Helen

    2016-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the only major worldwide cause of mortality that is currently increasing in prevalence. Furthermore, COPD is incurable, and the only therapy that has been shown to increase survival is oxygen therapy in selected patients. Compared to patients with cancer, patients with COPD experience similar levels of pain, breathlessness, fatigue, depression, and anxiety and have a worse quality of life but have comparatively little access to palliative care. When these patients do receive palliative care, they tend to be referred later than patients with cancer. Many disease, patient-, and provider-related factors contribute to this phenomenon, including COPD's unpredictable course, misperceptions of palliative care among patients and physicians, and lack of advance care planning discussions outside of crisis situations. A new paradigm for palliative care would introduce palliative treatments alongside, rather than at the exclusion of disease-modifying interventions. This integrated approach would circumvent the issue of difficult prognostication in COPD, as any patient would receive individualized palliative interventions from the time of diagnosis. These points will be covered in this review, which discusses the challenges in providing palliative care to COPD patients, the strategies to mitigate the challenges, management of common symptoms, and the evidence for integrated palliative care models as well as some suggestions for future development.

  6. [Palliative therapy concepts in intensive care medicine].

    PubMed

    Schuster, M; Ferner, M; Bodenstein, M; Laufenberg-Feldmann, R

    2017-04-01

    Involvement of palliative care is so far not common practice for critically ill patients on surgical intensive care units (ICUs) in Germany. The objectives of palliative care concepts are improvement of patient quality of life by relief of disease-related symptoms using an interdisciplinary approach and support of patients and their relatives considering their current physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. The need for palliative care can be identified via defined screening criteria. Integration of palliative care can either be realized using a consultative model which focusses on involvement of palliative care consultants or an integrative model which embeds palliative care principles into the routine daily practice by the ICU team. Early integration of palliative care in terms of advance care planning (ACP) can lead to an increase in goals of care discussions and quality of life as well as a decrease of mortality and length of stay on the ICU. Moreover, stress reactions of relatives and ICU staff can be reduced and higher satisfaction with therapy can be achieved. The core of goal of care discussions is professional and well-structured communication between patients, relatives and staff. Consideration of palliative care principles by model-based integration into ICU practice can improve complex intensive care courses of disease in a productive but dignified way without neglecting curative attempts.

  7. Palliation of Dysphagia in Carcinoma Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnaiah, Vishnu Prasad Nelamangala; Malage, Somanath; Sreenath, G.S.; Kotlapati, Sudhakar; Cyriac, Sunu

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma has a special place in gastrointestinal carcinomas because it contains two main types, namely, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma esophagus patients require some form of palliation because of locally advanced stage or distant metastasis, where it cannot be subjected to curable treatment with surgery and chemoradiation. Many modalities of palliation of dysphagia are available, but the procedure with least morbidity, mortality, and long-term palliation of dysphagia needs to be chosen for the patient. This study aims to discuss the recent trends in palliation of dysphagia with promising results and the most suitable therapy for palliation of dysphagia in a given patient. A total of 64 articles that were published between years 2005 and 2015 on various modes of palliation of dysphagia in carcinoma esophagus were studied, which were mainly randomized and prospective studies. Through this study, we conclude that stents are the first choice of therapy for palliation, which is safe and cost-effective, and they can be combined with either radiotherapy or chemotherapy for long-term palliation of dysphagia with good quality of life. Radiotherapy can be used as a second-line treatment modality. PMID:27279758

  8. Medical use of marijuana in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Johannigman, Suzanne; Eschiti, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Marijuana has been documented to provide relief to patients in palliative care. However, healthcare providers should use caution when discussing medical marijuana use with patients. This article features a case study that reveals the complexity of medical marijuana use. For oncology nurses to offer high-quality care, examining the pros and cons of medical marijuana use in the palliative care setting is important.

  9. Diagnostic radiology in paediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preena; Koh, Michelle; Carr, Lucinda; McHugh, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an expanding specialty within paediatrics, which has attracted little attention in the paediatric radiological literature. Paediatric patients under a palliative care team will have numerous radiological tests which we traditionally categorise under organ systems rather than under the umbrella of palliative medicine. The prevalence of children with life-limiting illness is significant. It has been estimated to be one per thousand, and this may be an underestimate. In this review, we will focus on our experience at one institution, where radiology has proven to be an invaluable partner to palliative care. We will discuss examples of conditions commonly referred to our palliative care team and delineate the crucial role of diagnostic radiology in determining treatment options.

  10. [Multiprofessional team working in palliative medicine].

    PubMed

    Osaka, Iwao

    2013-04-01

    Now, more than ever, palliative medicine has been gaining recognition for its essential role in cancer treatment. Since its beginning, it has emphasized the importance of collaboration among multidisciplinary professionals, valuing a comprehensive and holistic philosophy, addressing a wide range of hopes and suffering that patients and families experience. There are three models (approaches) for the medical teams: multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary. Palliative care teams often choose the interdisciplinary team model, and the teams in the palliative care units may often choose the transdisciplinary team model. Recently, accumulating research has shown the clinical benefits of the interdisciplinary/transdisciplinary approach in palliative care settings. Clarifying appropriate functions and ideal features of physicians in the health care team, and enforcing the suitable team approach will contribute to improve the quality of whole medical practice beyond the framework of "palliative medicine".

  11. Professional boundary issues in pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Jane B

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that when a child has a life-limiting illness, the interpersonal boundaries between the patient, the patient's parents, and the health care team members differ from traditional provider, patient, and parent boundaries because of the unique dynamics of palliative care in pediatrics. Providers from the Journey's Palliative Care Team at Albany Medical Center completed a brief survey about working in pediatric palliative care and what ethical challenges they have faced in trying to maintain professional boundaries as new palliative care providers. A retrospective review of survey responses and a review of relevant literature offer insight into the various concerns reported by the Journey's team. Conclusions about delivering comprehensive ethically sound palliative care services may serve as a pathway for future studies.

  12. Music Therapy in Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Warth, Marco; Keßler, Jens; Hillecke, Thomas K; Bardenheuer, Hubert J

    2015-11-13

    Music therapy has been used successfully for over 30 years as part of palliative care programs for severely ill patients. There is nonetheless a lack of high-quality studies that would enable an evidence-based evaluation of its psychological and physiological effects. In a randomized controlled trial, 84 hospitalized patients in palliative care were assigned to one of two treatment arms--music therapy and control. The music therapy intervention consisted of two sessions of live music-based relaxation exercises; the patients in the control group listened to a verbal relaxation exercise. The primary endpoints were self-ratings of relaxation, well-being, and acute pain, assessed using visual analog scales. Heart rate variability and health-related quality of life were considered as secondary outcomes. The primary data analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Analyses of covariance revealed that music therapy was more effective than the control treatment at promoting relaxation (F = 13.7; p <0.001) and well-being (F = 6.41; p = 0.01). This effect was supported by a significantly greater increase in high-frequency oscillations of the heart rate (F = 8.13; p = 0.01). Music therapy did not differ from control treatment with respect to pain reduction (F = 0.4; p = 0.53), but it led to a significantly greater reduction in the fatigue score on the quality-of-life scale (F = 4.74; p = 0.03). Music therapy is an effective treatment with a low dropout rate for the promotion of relaxation and well-being in terminally ill persons undergoing palliative care.

  13. [Palliative treatment of facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Gola, R; Carreau, J P; Faissal, A; Samson, P

    1995-01-01

    Facial nerve palsy disrupts both the static and dynamic equilibrium of the half-face involved. The imbalance worsens with age and senility further aggravates the situation. Palliative surgery can be used in complete intractable facial palsy or rarement for partial palsies or as a temporary treatment. The operation is proposed mostly for elderly patients and does not create other malformations or dysfunctions. Simple and effective reduction, cervicofacial lifting and plicature of the skin muscles is used with ocular protection (passive eyelid circle, lateral de-epidermalized skin flap, blepharorraphia) with or without use of locoregional tissues (orbito-naso-genial and labiogenial flaps) are usually sufficient.

  14. Surgical palliative care in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Joan L

    2011-04-01

    Palliative care in itself has many challenges; these challenges are compounded exponentially when placed in the setting of a mass casualty event, such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Haiti itself was an austere environment with very little infrastructure before the disaster. US surgeons, intensivists, and nurses worked hand in hand with other international providers and Haitian volunteers to provide the best care for the many. Improvisation and teamwork as well as respect for the Haitian caregivers were crucial to their successes. Sisyphean trials lie ahead. Haiti and its people must not be forgotten.

  15. Endoscopic palliation of tracheobronchial malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Hetzel, M R; Smith, S G

    1991-01-01

    The prognosis for tracheobronchial tumours remains poor. Most patients can be offered only palliation. When the main symptom is breathlessness or refractory haemoptysis from a large airway tumour endoscopic treatment may be very effective. Over the last decade most attention has focused on the neodymium YAG laser. This often produces dramatic effects but has some important limitations. In the last few years better techniques for stenting and intrabronchial radiotherapy (brachytherapy) have also been developed. This article discusses the range of techniques now available and aims to help clinicians decide which patients may benefit from referral to centres providing these techniques. Images PMID:1712516

  16. Delivery of safe and effective care out of hours: the impact of the shared clinical record on a patient's out-of-hours contact with specialist palliative care.

    PubMed

    Harris, D G; Owen, R E; Finlay, I G

    2011-02-01

    Access to adequate clinical information is essential for out-of-hours palliative care teams and general practitioners, specific examples to illustrate and justify this need are surprisingly rare in the medical literature. Without access to the full clinical background the patient in this lesson may have been inappropriately admitted to a palliative care unit and delayed investigations would have misguided the admitting doctor's assessment, planned investigations and management.

  17. Status of palliative care in Latin America: looking through the Latin America Atlas of Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Pastrana, Tania; Eisenchlas, Jorge; Centeno, Carlos; De Lima, Liliana

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have been published reporting the status of palliative care in different countries of Latin America, but no studies have been published on the status of the discipline across the whole region. This article provides a summary of the current situation as reported in the Atlas of Palliative Care recently completed by the Latin American Association for Palliative Care. The aim of this project was to collect information on the degree of palliative care development, help create a network, and influence the progress of palliative care across Latin America. The Atlas provides an overview of the status of palliative care in Latin America according to the World Health Organization public health strategy for palliative care: policies, drug availability, education, and implementation of services. The results indicate that there is significant variation among countries in the region and that strategies to support and develop palliative care require tailored approaches to meet the needs of each. The information in this review gives a broad notion of the current status of palliative care in Latin America. The Atlas is expected to help the progress of palliative care and serve as a driver of the field in Latin America and other regions.

  18. Viva Delay.

    PubMed

    Yahaghi, Hossein; Sorooshian, Shahryar; Yahaghi, Javad

    2016-06-28

    The time delay between submission of a thesis and Viva Voce is intolerable for students. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the effect of choosing the right examiner, in order to reduce the Viva Voce delay.

  19. Pressure sore risk assessment in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, J

    2000-01-01

    Pressure sore prevention in palliative care is recognized as being an essential element of holistic care, with the primary goal of promoting quality of life for patient and family. Little is known about the incidence of pressure sore development and the use of pressure sore risk assessment tools in palliative care settings. The development of a risk assessment tool specifically for palliative care patients in a 41-bedded specialist palliative care unit is described. The risk assessment tool was developed as part of a tissue viability practice development initiative. The approach adopted in the validation of the Hunters Hill Marie Curie Centre pressure sore risk assessment tool was the comparative analysis of professional judgment of experienced palliative care nurses with the numerical scores achieved during the assessment of risk on 291 patients (529 risk assessment events). This comparative analysis identified the threshold for different degrees of risk for the patient group involved: low risk, medium risk, high risk and very high risk. Further work is being undertaken to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the new tool. A number of issues are explored in this paper in relation to pressure sore prevention in palliative care: the role of risk assessment tools, the sometimes conflicting aims of trying to ensure comfort and prevent pressure sore damage, and the uncertainties faced by palliative care nurses when they are trying to maintain quality of life for the dying.

  20. Palliative care for children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Elisha; Wolfe, Joanne

    2013-02-01

    Over the past two decades, paediatric palliative care has emerged as both a primary approach and as its own medical subspecialty, the overall aim of which is to ease suffering for children with life-threatening illness and their families through a concurrent model of care. However, most discussions have been focused on the transition to palliative care when no realistic hope for cure exists. We believe that, because the course of cancer is so unpredictable, this idea is misleading. Indeed, palliative care is increasingly being recognized as being about not just how to cope with the process of dying, but also about how to engage in living when faced with a life-threatening illness. This article will examine our current understanding of several areas of palliative care, with the ultimate message that palliative care is simply a novel term for the total care of a child and family, an approach that should be applied consistently and concurrently regardless of disease status. By improving familiarity with palliative care and building relationships with palliative care specialists, the paediatric oncology clinician will ensure that the best care possible for children and families is provided, regardless of outcome.

  1. Palliative Care in Rural Minnesota: Findings from Stratis Health's Minnesota Rural Palliative Care Initiative.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Deb; Shearer, Janelle; Weng, Karla

    2016-01-01

    Palliative care, which involves managing symptoms, controlling pain and addressing stress caused by a chronic or terminal illness, has been shown to keep patients out of the hospital and allow them to stay home and live more comfortably with their illness. Typically, it is provided by an interdisciplinary team led by a physician trained in palliative medicine. Rural areas have not always had access to such specialists. Yet, today, rural health care organizations are finding ways to create palliative care programs that meet the needs of their chronically ill and aging populations. This article describes a six-year initiative led by Stratis Health to advance palliative care in rural Minnesota. It highlights the work of FirstLight Health System in Mora and describes Stratis Health's Rural Palliative Care Measurement Pilot Project, an effort to develop and test measures for evaluating rural palliative care programs.

  2. Psychosocial training in a palliative care fellowship.

    PubMed

    Billings, J Andrew; Dahlin, Constance; Dungan, Sheryn; Greenberg, Donna; Krakauer, Eric L; Lawless, Nan; Montgomery, Paul; Reid, Coleen

    2003-06-01

    We present a description of a one-year palliative care fellowship training program for physicians at the Massachusetts General Hospital. We provide background information on the Palliative Care Service, and offer an overview of the educational content and methods for fellowship training, focusing especially on psychosocial aspects of care. The medical background and post-training positions of fellows are described. This document is meant to assist other palliative care fellowship programs in developing their curricula and possibly to serve as an initial template for creating educational standards and for identifying outcome measures for educational evaluation of such programs.

  3. Palliative care in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Restau, Jame; Green, Pamela

    2014-12-01

    Most patients who receive terminal care in the intensive care setting die after withdrawing or limiting of life-sustaining measures provided in the intensive care setting. The integration of palliative care into the intensive care unit (ICU) provides care, comfort, and planning for patients, families, and the medical staff to help decrease the emotional, spiritual, and psychological stress of a patient's death. Quality measures for palliative care in the ICU are discussed along with case studies to demonstrate how this integration is beneficial for a patient and family. Integrating palliative care into the ICU is also examined in regards to the complex adaptive system.

  4. The pediatric surgeon and palliative care.

    PubMed

    Feudtner, Chris; Blinman, Thane A

    2013-08-01

    Palliative care is now a core component of pediatric care for children and families who are confronting serious illness with a low likelihood of survival. Pediatric surgeons, in partnership with pediatric palliative care teams, can play a pivotal role in assuring that these patients receive the highest possible quality of care. This article outlines a variety of definitions and conceptual frameworks, describes decision-making strategies and communication techniques, addresses issues of interdisciplinary collaboration and personal self-awareness, and illustrates these points through a series of case vignettes, all of which can help the pediatric surgeon perform the core tasks of pediatric palliative care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Normativity unbound: liminality in palliative care ethics.

    PubMed

    Braude, Hillel

    2012-04-01

    This article applies the anthropological concept of liminality to reconceptualize palliative care ethics. Liminality possesses both spatial and temporal dimensions. Both these aspects are analyzed to provide insight into the intersubjective relationship between patient and caregiver in the context of palliative care. Aristotelian practical wisdom, or phronesis, is considered to be the appropriate model for palliative care ethics, provided it is able to account for liminality. Moreover, this article argues for the importance of liminality for providing an ethical structure that grounds the doctrine of double effect and overcomes the impasse of phronesis in the treatment of the terminally ill.

  6. International palliative care: Middle East experience as a model for global palliative care.

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Ramzi R; Charalambous, Haris A; Baider, Lea; Silbermann, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Care for elderly people with life-limiting illness cannot be delivered primarily by geriatricians or palliative care practitioners. The role of these clinicians is to help carers become adept in palliative care medicine. In a culture in which family ties run deep, the offer of palliative care from an outsider may be met with suspicion. The family bond in the Middle East is strong, but the emotional response to terminal illness may push families to request futile treatments, and physicians to comply. When palliative care is well developed and well understood, it provides a viable alternative to such extreme terminal measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Introduction to palliative care for the oncologist-history and basic principles of palliative care].

    PubMed

    Shima, Yasuo

    2010-10-01

    The basic principle of palliative care has evolved over time and is the historical origin of the modern hospice. WHO proposed the first definition of palliative care in 1989, and the definition was revised in 2002. These definitions have something in common. Both relieve the pain and suffering to improve QOL. Palliative care is also good for any kind of life-threatening disease, regardless of whether it requires short or long term recuperation. That also need to be able to accept equally all the people of the community. The provision of general palliative care is the responsibility of all medical, nursing, and health professionals for the welfare of all patients with life-threatening disease. Specialist palliative care is based on the basic principles of palliative care, intensive clinical training, and systematic acquisition of knowledge and skills training to support palliative care education, clinical research and training provided by the profession. It has been established by nursing and medical experts in palliative care that palliative care can provide expertise in interdisciplinary teams in different settings. It is necessary that the medical system.

  8. Palliative wound care management strategies for palliative patients and their circles of care.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kevin Y; Krasner, Diane L; Kennedy, Bruce; Wardle, David; Moir, Olivia

    2015-03-01

    To provide information about palliative wound care management strategies for palliative patients and their circles of care. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to: 1. Recognize study findings, assessment tools, and non-pharmacologic strategies used for patients with palliative wounds. 2. Summarize pharmacologic and dressing treatment strategies used for wound care management of palliative patients. The principles of palliative wound care should be integrated along the continuum of wound care to address the whole person care needs of palliative patients and their circles of care, which includes members of the patient unit including family, significant others, caregivers, and other healthcare professionals that may be external to the current interprofessional team. Palliative patients often present with chronic debilitating diseases, advanced diseases associated with major organ failure (renal, hepatic, pulmonary, or cardiac), profound dementia, complex psychosocial issues, diminished self-care abilities, and challenging wound-related symptoms. This article introduces key concepts and strategies for palliative wound care that are essential for interprofessional team members to incorporate in clinical practice when caring for palliative patients with wounds and their circles of care.

  9. Ethical issues in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Kinlaw, Kathy

    2005-02-01

    To review important issues that address respect for patient autonomy, beneficnce, non-maleficence, and justice, which are included in communication surrounding the determination of decision-making capacity, informed consent, breaking bad news, and creating shared goals of care. Review articles, and government and organizational reports. Palliative care and its proximity to end-of-life care issues frequently raises ethical issues for patients, their families, and the clinicians caring for them. Supporting the identification and honoring the patient's preferences for treatment are central components of ethical behavior. Advance care planning provides an important opportunity for respecting patient autonomy and may be helpful when discussing care options surrounding resuscitation, withholding or withdrawal of treatment, or the determination of medical futility.

  10. Growing Pains: Palliative Care Making Gains

    Cancer.gov

    An article about the growth of palliative care, a medical subspecialty that has been shown to improve patient outcomes such as symptom management, quality of life, and patient and family satisfaction with care.

  11. Training Advanced Practice Palliative Care Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Deborah Witt

    1999-01-01

    Describes the role and responsibilities of advanced-practice nurses in palliative care and nursing's initiative in promoting high-quality care through the educational preparation of these nurses. (JOW)

  12. Palliative Care: What You Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... cardiac disease, respiratory disease, kidney failure, Alzheimer’s, HIV/AIDS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis and more. Palliative care can be provided at any stage of ...

  13. [Palliative care and geriatrics - similarities and opposites].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Palliative care and geriatrics share many ideas and concepts: both intend to imporve quality of life, both focus on more than the physical domain, and both work in a multiprofessional team. More and more the elderly person attracts notice by palliative care. In multimorbid geriatric patients intentions to cure and to care go alongside sometimes over years in a fragile equilibrium and with uncertain prognosis. Therefore principals of palliative care and geriatrics meet at its best in these patients: improving function plays a major role in any symptom management; how to deal with cognitively impaired patients can be learned from geriatrics; various approaches from curative, palliative and rehabilitative often go hand in hand; decision making is a permanent and sophisticated task in all patients due to prognosis and multimorbidity.

  14. Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000531.htm Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion To use the sharing features on ... When Your Body Has Problems Handling Fluids and Food It is normal for a person who has ...

  15. What is palliative medicine? motivations and skills.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Declan; Aktas, Aynur; Hullihen, Barbara; Induru, Raghava R

    2011-02-01

    Palliative care began in the UK hospice movement in the late 1960s and has rapidly developed in many countries since. In some, it has become a fully recognized specialty with comprehensive training programs and recognized expertise in areas such as pain and symptom control. It is important to examine the formative influences and characteristic clinical expertise in palliative medicine. This article considers some of the conceptual, practical, and administrative challenges that have been faced in an effort to establish palliative medicine as a discrete field of specialized practice from a US perspective. We also comment on current issues in regard to education and research, and development of comprehensive palliative care programs in the United States.

  16. Advancing palliative care as a human right.

    PubMed

    Gwyther, Liz; Brennan, Frank; Harding, Richard

    2009-11-01

    The international palliative care community has articulated a simple but challenging proposition that palliative care is an international human right. International human rights covenants and the discipline of palliative care have, as common themes, the inherent dignity of the individual and the principles of universality and nondiscrimination. However, when we consider the evidence for the effectiveness of palliative care, the lack of palliative care provision for those who may benefit from it is of grave concern. Three disciplines (palliative care, public health, and human rights) are now interacting with a growing resonance. The maturing of palliative care as a clinical specialty and academic discipline has coincided with the development of a public health approach to global and community-wide health problems. The care of the dying is a public health issue. Given that death is both inevitable and universal, the care of people with life-limiting illness stands equal to all other public health issues. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) includes the right to health care and General Comment 14 (paragraph 34) CESCR stipulates that "States are under the obligation to respect the right to health by, inter alia, refraining from denying or limiting equal access for all persons, ... to preventive, curative and palliative health services." However, these rights are seen to be aspirational-rights to be achieved progressively over time by each signatory nation to the maximum capacity of their available resources. Although a government may use insufficient resources as a justification for inadequacies of its response to palliative care and pain management, General Comment 14 set out "core obligations" and "obligations of comparable priority" in the provision of health care and placed the burden on governments to justify "that every effort has nevertheless been made to use all available resources at its disposal in order to satisfy, as

  17. Pediatric palliative care and pediatric medical ethics: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Feudtner, Chris; Nathanson, Pamela G

    2014-02-01

    The fields of pediatric palliative care (PPC) and pediatric medical ethics (PME) overlap substantially, owing to a variety of historical, cultural, and social factors. This entwined relationship provides opportunities for leveraging the strong communication skills of both sets of providers, as well as the potential for resource sharing and research collaboration. At the same time, the personal and professional relationships between PPC and PME present challenges, including potential conflict with colleagues, perceived or actual bias toward a palliative care perspective in resolving ethical problems, potential delay or underuse of PME services, and a potential undervaluing of the medical expertise required for PPC consultation. We recommend that these challenges be managed by: (1) clearly defining and communicating clinical roles of PPC and PME staff, (2) developing questions that may prompt PPC and PME teams to request consultation from the other service, (3) developing explicit recusal criteria for PPC providers who also provide PME consultation, (4) ensuring that PPC and PME services remain organizationally distinct, and (5) developing well-defined and broad scopes of practice. Overall, the rich relationship between PPC and PME offers substantial opportunities to better serve patients and families facing difficult decisions.

  18. Implementing a Palliative Care Nurse Leadership Fellowship Program in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Downing, Julia; Leng, Mhoira; Grant, Liz

    2016-05-01

    Global oncology and palliative care needs are increasing faster than the available capacity to meet these needs. This is particularly marked in sub-Saharan Africa, where healthcare capacity and systems are limited and resources are stretched. Uganda, a country of 35.6 million people in eastern Africa, faces the challenges of a high burden of communicable disease and a rising number of cases of non-communicable disease, including cancer. The vast majority of patients in Uganda are diagnosed with cancer too late for curative treatment to be an option because of factors like poor access to healthcare facilities, a lack of health education, poverty, and delays resulting from seeking local herbal or other traditional remedies. This article describes an innovative model of nurse leadership training in Uganda to improve the delivery of palliative care. The authors believe this model can be applicable to other low- and middle-income countries, where health resources are constrained and care needs are great.
.

  19. Cultural and religious aspects of palliative care.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Steven M

    2011-07-01

    For most clinicians and patients, the discussion of palliative care is a difficult topic. It is complicated by both the clinician's and patient's belief systems, which are frequently heavily influenced by cultural and religious upbringing. This article discusses the impact of some of those differences on attitudes toward end of life decisions. Several different religions and cultures have been evaluated for their impact on perceptions of palliative care and the authors will share some examples.

  20. Paediatric Palliative Medicine, 2nd ed.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Roger

    2017-06-01

    Editor's Note The journal is delighted to continue a collaboration with the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) in publication of book reviews relevant to symptom control in advanced disease. These reviews are adapted from the work of Roger Woodruff, MD, FRACP, FAChPM, an internationally recognized oncologist and palliative care specialist physician from Australia. Dr. Woodruff's reviews appear concurrently or did so previously in the IAHPC Newsletter, which is accessible through the IAHPC Web site: http://hospicecare.com .

  1. [Neonatal palliative care at home: Contribution of the regional pediatric palliative care team].

    PubMed

    Cojean, N; Strub, C; Kuhn, P; Calvel, L

    2017-02-01

    The "patients' rights and end-of-life care" act, known as the Leonetti law, has allowed implementation of palliative care in neonatology as an alternative to unreasonable therapeutic interventions. A palliative care project can be offered to newborns suffering from intractable diseases. It must be focused on the newborn's quality of life and comfort and on family support. Palliative care for newborns can be provided in the delivery room, in the neonatal unit, and also at home. Going home is possible but requires medical support. Here we describe the potential benefits of the intervention of a regional team of pediatric palliative care for newborns, both in the hospital and at home. Two clinical situations of palliative care at home started in the neonatal period and the neonatal unit are presented. They are completed by a retrospective national survey focusing on the type of support to newborns in palliative care in 2014, which was conducted in 22 French regional pediatric palliative care teams. It shows that 26 newborns benefited from this support at home in 2014. Sixteen infants were born after a pregnancy with a palliative care birth plan and ten entered palliative care after a decision to limit life-sustaining treatments. Twelve of them returned home before the 20th day of life. Sixteen infants died, six of them at home. The regional pediatric palliative care team first receives in-hospital interventions: providing support for ethical reflection in the development of the infant's life project, meeting with the child and its family, helping organize the care pathway to return home. When the child is at home, the regional pediatric palliative care team can support the caregiver involved, provide home visits to continue the clinical monitoring of the infant, and accompany the family. The follow-up of the bereavement and the analysis of the practices with caregivers are also part of its tasks.

  2. Dental Expression and Role in Palliative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Rajiv; Marawar, PP; Shete, Sujata; Saini, Santosh; Mani, Ameet

    2009-01-01

    World Health Organization defines palliative care as the active total care of patients whose disease is not responding to curative treatment. Palliative care for the terminally ill is based on a multidimensional approach to provide whole-person comfort care while maintaining optimal function; dental care plays an important role in this multidisciplinary approach. The aim of the present study is to review significance of dentist's role to determine whether mouth care was effectively assessed and implemented in the palliative care setting. The oral problems experienced by the hospice head and neck patient clearly affect the quality of his or her remaining life. Dentist plays an essential role in palliative care by the maintenance of oral hygiene; dental examination may identify and cure opportunistic infections and dental disease like caries, periodontal disease, oral mucosal problems or prosthetic requirement. Oral care may reduce not only the microbial load of the mouth but the risk for pain and oral infection as well. This multidisciplinary approach to palliative care, including a dentist, may reduce the oral debilities that influence the patient's ability to speak, eat or swallow. This review highlighted that without effective assessment of the mouth, the appropriate implementation of care will not be delivered. Palliative dental care has been fundamental in management of patients with active, progressive, far-advanced disease in which the oral cavity has been compromised either by the disease directly or by its treatment; the focus of care is quality of life. PMID:20606852

  3. Palliative Care Practice in Neurocritical Care.

    PubMed

    Knies, Andrea K; Hwang, David Y

    2016-12-01

    Many neurocritically ill patients and their families have high amounts of palliative care needs. Multiple professional societies relevant to neurocritical care have released consensus statements on meeting palliative care needs in neuroscience intensive care units. In this review, the authors discuss the ongoing debate regarding what model of palliative care delivery is optimal, focus on the process of shared decision making during goals-of-care discussions, and briefly comment on transitions from intensive care to comfort care. Regardless of an institution's model of palliative care practice, every neurocritical care clinician should possess core competencies necessary to provide basic, integrative palliative care for neurocritically ill patients. Given the high proportion of neurocritically ill patients who lack decision-making capacity, communication skills that enable clinicians to facilitate shared decision making with patients' surrogates are of particular relevance, especially when the limitation of life support is in the discussion. High-quality decision aids to assist neurocritical care teams and surrogate decision makers during common goals-of-care discussions may have the potential for further promotion of best palliative care practices. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. 78 FR 53152 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Palliative Care: Conversations Matter Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Palliative Care... requested in writing. Proposed Collection: Palliative Care: Conversations Matter Evaluation, -0925-New... Information Collection: NINR developed Palliative Care: Conversations Matter, a pediatric palliative...

  5. [Delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Edouard, T; Tauber, M

    2010-02-01

    Delayed puberty is defined in girls by the absence of breast development beyond 13 years old and in boys by the absence of testicular enlargement (< 4 ml) beyond 14 years old. Simple investigations lead to the diagnosis of central or peripheral hypogonadism and constitutional delay of puberty. In girls, delayed puberty is rare and often organic, and then Turner syndrome should be systematically suspected. In boys, delayed puberty is often constitutional and functional. Treatment is etiologic when possible, hormonal replacement therapy (oestrogen in girls and testosterone in boys) and psychological management.

  6. Palliative Care in Advanced Lung Disease: The Challenge of Integrating Palliation Into Everyday Care.

    PubMed

    Rocker, Graeme M; Simpson, A Catherine; Horton, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The tendency toward "either/or" thinking (either cure or comfort) in traditional biomedical care paradigms does little to optimize care in advancing chronic illness. Calls for improved palliation in chronic lung disease mandate a review of related care gaps and current clinical practices. Although specialist palliative services have their advocates, adding yet another element to an already fragmented, often complex, care paradigm can be a challenge. Instead, we propose a more holistic, patient-centered approach based on elements fundamental to palliative and best care practices generally and integrated as needed across the entire illness trajectory. To support this approach, we review the concept of primary palliative care competencies, identify vulnerability specific to those living with advanced COPD (an exemplar of chronic lung disease), and describe the need for care plans shaped by patient-centered communication, timely palliative responsiveness, and effective advance care planning. A costly systemic issue in the management of chronic lung disease is patients' increasing dependency on episodic ED care to deal with preventable episodic crises and refractory dyspnea. We address this issue as part of a proposed model of care that provides proactive, collaborative case management and the appropriate and carefully monitored use of opioids. We encourage and support a renewed primary care resolve to integrate palliative approaches to care in advanced lung disease that, in concert with judicious referral to appropriate specialist palliative care services, is fundamental to what should be a more sustainable systematic improvement in palliative care delivery.

  7. Enhancing Palliative Care Education in Medical School Curricula: Implementation of the Palliative Education Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Emily B.; Meekin, Sharon Abele; Fins, Joseph J.; Fleischman, Alan R.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a project to catalyze New York State medical schools to develop and implement strategic plans for curricular change to enhance palliative care education. Found that the project's process of self-assessment and curriculum mapping with the Palliative Education Assessment Tool, along with strategic planning for change, appears to have…

  8. Barriers to referral to inpatient palliative care units in Japan: a qualitative survey with content analysis.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Mitsunori; Hirai, Kei; Morita, Tatsuya; Sanjo, Makiko; Uchitomi, Yosuke

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the barriers to referral to inpatient palliative care units (PCUs) through a qualitative study across various sources of information, including terminal cancer patients, their families, physicians, and nurses. There were 63 participants, including 13 advanced cancer patients, 10 family members, 20 physicians, and 20 nurses in palliative care and acute care cancer settings from five regional cancer institutes in Japan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted regarding barriers to referral to PCU, and data were analyzed by content analysis method. A total of 21 barriers were identified by content analysis. The leading barriers were (1) a negative image of PCUs by patients and families (n = 39), (2) delay of termination of anti-cancer treatment by physicians in the general wards (n = 24), (3) unwillingness to end anti-cancer treatment and denial of the fatal nature of the disease by patients and families (n = 22), (4) patient's wish to receive care from familiar physicians and nurses (n = 20), and (5) insufficient knowledge of PCUs by medical staff in general wards (n = 17). To correct these unfavorable images and misconceptions of PCUs, it is important to eliminate the negative image of PCUs from the general population, patients, families, and medical staffs. In addition, early introduction of palliative care options to patients and communication skills training regarding breaking bad news are relevant issues for a smooth transition from anti-cancer treatment to palliative care.

  9. Palliative Care in Iran: Moving Toward the Development of Palliative Care for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rassouli, Maryam; Sajjadi, Moosa

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is the third leading cause of death in Iran and its incidence has been increasing in recent years. Patients' quality of life is altered rather enormously due to cancer, which doubles the importance of and the need for providing palliative care in Iran. Although many steps have been taken toward the development and providing of palliative care in Iran, there is still a large gap between the status quo and the desirable state. This study presents the current state of palliative care for cancer patients and discusses the barriers, challenges and outlook of palliative care in Iran. If infrastructural projects that have recently been launched prove successful, proper advancement toward the providing of palliative care services in Iran will then not far on the horizon. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Palliative care and involvement of anaesthesiology: current discussions.

    PubMed

    Kettler, Dietrich; Nauck, Friedemann

    2010-04-01

    To summarize various developments related to palliative care, especially related to ethical issues. To emphasize the involvement of anaesthesiology in palliative care. Euthanasia has been legalized in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg (BENELUX countries). A group from Belgium has now proposed using euthanasia in patients in whom palliative care has been deemed 'futile'. This practice of so-called 'integral palliative care' is strongly rejected in a study from Germany. Palliative sedation is an ethically different approach with no intention to kill the patient. The European Association of Palliative Care has proposed a framework for individual guidelines for palliative sedation. The important role of anaesthesiology in palliative care teams is emphasized. Palliative care is a powerful approach to patient care during terminal illness, emphasizing quality of life even if it may shorten the length of life. Traditionally, palliative care has been contrasted with active euthanasia, but a group from Belgium has challenged this concept recently, advocating the use of euthanasia in circumstances in which palliative care has become 'futile'. This new approach led to strong reactions by a group from Germany, stressing that killing on demand in palliative care should under no circumstances be justified. In contrast, palliative sedation is a common method in special cases to reduce intractable symptoms. A new framework for palliative sedation produced by the European Association of Palliative Care may encourage institutions to set up their own palliative sedation guidelines. Worldwide, anaesthesiologists have a significant role in palliative care due to their unique complex expertise mainly in pain therapy and including transient sedation of patients.

  11. A Survey of Hospice and Palliative Care Physicians Regarding Palliative Sedation Practices.

    PubMed

    Lux, Michael R; Protus, Bridget McCrate; Kimbrel, Jason; Grauer, Phyllis

    2017-04-01

    Patients nearing the end of life may experience symptoms that are refractory to standard therapeutic options. Physicians may consider palliative sedation to relieve intolerable suffering. There is limited clinical literature regarding preferred medications for palliative sedation. To determine the preferred medications physicians use when implementing palliative sedation. An Internet-based, cross-sectional survey of hospice and palliative care physicians in the United States. A link to the survey was e-mailed to 3130 physician members of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, of which 381 physicians completed the survey. Physicians were not required to answer all questions. Nearly all (n = 335, 99%) respondents indicated that palliative sedation may be used (acceptable by 73% [n = 248] for refractory symptoms and acceptable by 26% [n = 87] only for imminently dying patients). Seventy-nine percent (n = 252) believed that opioids should not be used to induce palliative sedation but should be continued to provide pain control. Midazolam was the most commonly selected first-line choice for palliative sedation (n = 155, 42%). The most commonly reported second-line agents for the induction of palliative sedation were lorazepam, midazolam (for those who did not select midazolam as first-line agent), and phenobarbital with a reported preference of 20% (n = 49), 19% (n = 46), and 17% (n = 40), respectively. Of the physicians surveyed, 99% (n = 335) felt that palliative sedation is a reasonable treatment modality. Midazolam was considered a drug of choice for inducing and maintaining sedation, and opioids were continued for pain control.

  12. [Neonatal palliative care and culture].

    PubMed

    Bétrémieux, P; Mannoni, C

    2013-09-01

    The period of palliative care is a difficult time for parents and caregivers because they are all weakened by the proximity of death. First of all, because of religious and cultural differences, parents and families cannot easily express their beliefs or the rituals they are required to develop; second, this impossibility results in conflicts between the caregiver team and the family with consequences for both. Caregivers are concerned to allow the expression of religious beliefs and cultural demands because it is assumed that they may promote the work of mourning by relating the dead child to its family and roots. However, caregivers' fear not knowing the cultural context to which the family belongs and having inappropriate words or gestures, as sometimes families dare not, cannot, or do not wish to describe their cultural background. We attempt to differentiate what relates to culture and to religion and attempt to identify areas of potential disagreement between doctors, staff, and family. Everyone has to work with the parents to open a space of freedom that is not limited by cultural and religious assumptions. The appropriation of medical anthropology concepts allows caregivers to understand simply the obligations imposed on parents by their culture and/or their religion and open access to their wishes. Sometimes help from interpreters, mediators, ethnopsychologists, and religious representatives is needed to understand this reality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Palliative care situation in Palestinian Authority.

    PubMed

    Shawawra, Mousa; Khleif, Amal Dweib

    2011-04-01

    Palliative care is a very new concept in Palestine. In fact, it is still not applicable or provided within the Palestinian health care system. However, Al-Sadeel Society had organized a one day workshop in Bethlehem on November 2008 for the health professionals from the governmental and non-governmental sectors to initiate and introduce the idea of palliative care for the first time in Palestine. The general population of Palestine is approximately 2.4 millions (2007), with a life expectancy of 74.3 years of age, the death rate is 3.7 per 1000 population, having 8,910 deaths a year. Deaths due to cancer were 2,305 in five years (1999-2003), where 5,542 new cases were newly diagnosed in the same period. Health services available for cancer patients are hospital units either in patient or day care units. According to the ministry of health (MOH) statistics there are 75 beds in oncology departments in MOH hospitals; represent 2.7% of the total number of beds available, and 60 beds in daily care departments with an occupancy rate at 231.8%. There is no hospice or bereavement follow up care available for patients or their families. Despite the fact that the Palestinian culture is one of the cultures that respect and care for the elderly, but at the end of life, when the load of symptoms is high, most of the patient are care for at hospitals, and usually dye there, because the families are not able to care for their patients, and as there is no system for home care available for the Palestinian patients, and if it is available it is available in limited places and on private bases that are expensive and not affordable to the majority of patients, gross domestic product (GPD) per capita= 1,100 as 2007 estimates). We conducted a needs assessment survey within the only four facilities that provide care for the oncology patients in the West Bank and were filled by the direct health care providers. The results were expressing the fact that there is no palliative care service

  14. Integrating Palliative Care in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Judith E.; Cortez, Therese B.; Curtis, J. Randall; Lustbader, Dana R.; Mosenthal, Anne C.; Mulkerin, Colleen; Ray, Daniel E.; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D.; Brasel, Karen J.; Campbell, Margaret L.; Weissman, David E.; Puntillo, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Palliative care is increasingly recognized as an integral component of comprehensive intensive care for all critically ill patients, regardless of prognosis, and for their families. Here we discuss the key role that nurses can and must continue to play in making this evidence-based paradigm a clinical reality across a broad range of ICUs. We review the contributions of nurses to implementation of ICU safety initiatives as a model that can be applied to ICU palliative care integration. We focus on the importance of nursing involvement in design and application of work processes that facilitate this integration in a systematic way, including processes that ensure the participation of nurses in discussions and decision making with families about care goals. We suggest ways that nurses can help to operationalize an integrated approach to palliative care in the ICU and to define their own essential role in a successful, sustainable ICU palliative care improvement effort. Finally, we identify resources including The IPAL-ICU Project™, a new initiative by the Center to Advance Palliative Care that can assist nurses and other healthcare professionals to move such efforts forward in diverse critical care settings. PMID:21874122

  15. Role of codeine in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Prommer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Codeine is designated as one of the essential medicines of palliative care for symptoms such as pain and diarrhea. Essential drugs for palliative care are drugs that are effective for the treatment of common symptoms in palliative medicine, easily available, and are affordable. Codeine is recommended for the management of mild to moderate pain and is available as a combination product or as a stand-alone opioid. It is a prodrug and exhibits an affinity to micro-opioid receptors 200 times lower than morphine. Codeine is metabolized in the liver to inactive metabolites, which account for 90 percent of the transformed product, and morphine, which accounts for 10 percent of the transformed product and provides the main analgesic effect. The production of morphine is dependent on cytochrome oxidase 2D6 enzyme activity, which may not be fully active in some populations. The purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of codeine for common symptoms encountered in palliative medicine, which has led to its designation as an essential medicine for palliative care.

  16. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    PubMed

    May, Peter; Hynes, Geralyn; McCallion, Philip; Payne, Sheila; Larkin, Philip; McCarron, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the 'policy analysis triangle' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-Acute Care Facility as a Discharge Destination for Patients in Need of Palliative Care in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luiz Guilherme L; Japiassu, André M; Gomes, Lucia C; Pereira, Rogéria

    2017-01-01

    Patients with complex palliative care needs can experience delayed discharge, which causes an inappropriate occupancy of hospital beds. Post-acute care facilities (PACFs) have emerged as an alternative discharge destination for some of these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of admissions and characteristics of palliative care patients discharged from hospitals to a PACF. We conducted a retrospective analysis of PACF admissions between 2014 and 2016 that were linked to hospital discharge reports and electronic health records, to gather information about hospital-to-PACF transitions. In total, 205 consecutive patients were discharged from 6 different hospitals to our PACF. Palliative care patients were involved in 32% (n = 67) of these discharges. The most common conditions were terminal cancer (n = 42, 63%), advanced dementia (n = 17, 25%), and stroke (n = 5, 8%). During acute hospital stays, patients with cancer had significant shorter lengths of stay (13 vs 99 days, P = .004), a lower use of intensive care services (2% vs 64%, P < .001) and mechanical ventilation (2% vs 40%, P < .001), when compared to noncancer patients. Approximately one-third of discharges from hospitals to a PACF involved a heterogeneous group of patients in need of palliative care. Further studies are necessary to understand the trajectory of posthospitalized patients with life-limiting illnesses and what factors influence their decision to choose a PACF as a discharge destination and place of death. We advocate that palliative care should be integrated into the portfolio of post-acute services.

  18. Palliative Care Questions and Answers (Hospice Care Comparison)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Answers Palliative Care Questions and Answers Question Palliative Care Hospice Care Who can receive this care? Anyone with a ... a package deal? No, there is no ‘palliative care’ benefit package Yes, hospice is a comprehensive benefit covered by Medicare and ...

  19. Palliative Care in Surgery: Defining the Research Priorities.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Elizabeth J; Cooper, Zara; Schwarze, Margaret L; Mosenthal, Anne C

    2017-05-03

    To describe the existing science of palliative care in surgery within three priority areas and expose specific gaps within the field. Given the acute and often life-limiting nature of surgical illness, as well as the potential for treatment to induce further suffering, surgical patients have considerable palliative care needs. Yet these patients are less likely to receive palliative care than their medical counterparts and palliative care consultations often occur when death is imminent, reflecting poor quality end-of-life care. The National Institutes of Health and the National Palliative Care Research Center convened researchers from several medical subspecialties to develop a national agenda for palliative care research. The surgeon work group reviewed the existing surgical literature to identify critical knowledge gaps. To date, evidence to support the role of palliative care in surgical practice is sparse and palliative care research in surgery is encumbered by methodological challenges and entrenched cultural norms that impede appropriate provision of palliative care. Priorities for future research on palliative care in surgery include: 1) measuring outcomes that matter to patients, 2) communication and decision making, and 3) delivery of palliative care to surgical patients. Surgical patients would likely benefit from early palliative care delivered alongside surgical treatment to promote goal-concordant decision making and to improve patients' physical, emotional, social and spiritual well-being and quality of life. We propose a research agenda to address major gaps in the literature and provide a road map for future investigation.

  20. The role of palliative care in trauma.

    PubMed

    Owens, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Trauma remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Despite the aggressive and heroic nature of trauma care, including trauma surgery, 10% to 20% of patients admitted to trauma intensive care units die. As the population continues to age, it is predicted that by 2050, approximately 40% of those experiencing traumatic injury will be older than 65 years. For multiple reasons, people in this age group who experience trauma are at greater risk for death. Palliative care is the specialty of health care that provides care for patients with serious, life-threatening, or life-limiting illness or injury, regardless of the stage of disease or treatment. The goal of palliative care is to reduce or alleviate suffering through expert pain and symptom management, as well as assistance with decision making. The integration of palliative and trauma care can assist and support patients and families through stressful, often life-changing times, regardless of the final outcome.

  1. PALLIATIVE CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Alan; Ezzat, Adnan

    1997-01-01

    The increasing life expectancy in Saudi Arabia will be accompanied by an alteration of the patterns of disease similar to that in Western countries. One of these will be cancer, the second leading cause of death in the west at present, where 1:3 people develop cancer during their lifetime and 1:4 die of it. Cancer deaths are rarely easy. The distress particularly the pain it can cause is legendary. Palliative care is the care and study of patients with active progressive far advanced disease, where cure is impossible, the prognosis predictably short, and the focus of care is the patient's quality of life. A Palliative Care Program has been developed at KFSH&RC, since 1991. This has broadened the spectrum of health services available to cancer patients. Palliative care needs to be more widely available in the kingdom to relieve an important cause of human suffering. PMID:23008572

  2. Laser palliation of the HIV+ patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convissar, Robert A.

    2003-12-01

    Many oral manifestations of HIV infection can be used as markers for degree of immunosupression. These manifestations may be treated with antibiotics, analgesics, and antineoplastics, which may interact and interfere with antiviral agents used to treat the disease, and possibly exacerbate it. Dentists will see more HIV-infected patients as medical research transforms this disease into a chronic illness. Lasers have been shown to be effective instruments in palliation of oral manifestations of HIV infection. The use of lasers to palliate the painful symptoms of three oral manifestations of HIV infection is described. The advantages and benefits to both patient and dentist will be discussed. The paper does not address the use of lasers as a modality to treat or cure HIV infection -- only to palliate some of its symptoms.

  3. Young adult palliative care: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jennifer K; Fasciano, Karen

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is a time of immense growth and possibilities. As a result, it is also a time when serious illness can have profound effects. This review examines the current data pertinent to young adult palliative care and discusses the challenges and opportunities where palliative medicine can enhance the care provided to this growing and vulnerable population. From the data, 2 primary themes emerged (1) ongoing young adult development not only generates unique biologic disease burdens and clinical treatment options but also requires frequent assessment and promotion and (2) binary health care systems often leave young adults without access to developmentally appropriate health care. Given its interdisciplinary approach, palliative care is uniquely poised to address the challenges known to caring for the seriously ill young adult.

  4. Integrating palliative and neurological critical care.

    PubMed

    Owens, Darrell; Flom, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The goal of palliative care is to provide the alleviation or reduction of suffering and the support for the best possible quality of life for patients regardless of the stage of the disease. Palliative care can be provided in any patient care setting, including intensive care units. Death in intensive care units is a common occurrence, with literature suggesting that approximately 20% of deaths in the United States occur after a stay in the intensive care unit. Other studies suggest that approximately half of all chronically ill patients who die in a hospital receive care in the intensive care unit within 3 days of their deaths. Critical care nurses who work in neurological intensive care units are at the forefront of integrating palliative and critical care.

  5. Neurologists as primary palliative care providers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Maisha T.; Holloway, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose of review: To present current knowledge and recommendations regarding communication tasks and practice approaches for neurologists as they practice primary palliative care, including discussing serious news, managing symptoms, aligning treatment with patient preferences, introducing hospice/terminal care, and using the multiprofessional approach. Recent findings: Neurologists receive little formal palliative care training yet often need to discuss prognosis in serious illness, manage intractable symptoms in chronic progressive disease, and alleviate suffering for patients and their families. Because patients with neurologic disorders often have major cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or both, with an uncertain prognosis, their palliative care needs are particularly challenging and they remain largely uncharacterized and often unmanaged. Summary: We provide an overview of neuropalliative care as a fundamental skill set for all neurologists. PMID:26918202

  6. The triad that matters: palliative medicine, code status, and health care costs.

    PubMed

    Celso, Brian G; Meenrajan, Senthil

    2010-09-01

    Delayed discussion of a patient's code status can lead to shortsighted care plans that increase hospital length of stay (LOS) and costs. Retrospective study compared intensive care unit (ICU) patients who accepted verses rejected palliation and examined the relationships between 5 predictor variables with the outcome variables ICU LOS and total hospital LOS, and total direct and variable hospital cost. A significant number of patients who accepted palliative care agreed to a hospice referral or expired in the hospital. The relationships between days until a family conference, do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order, and the number of invasive procedures were significant. The amount of time that expires until the issue of code status was settled to clearly related to utilization of hospital resources.

  7. [Palliative sedation for psycho-existential suffering].

    PubMed

    Weichselbaumer, Eva; Weixler, Dietmar

    2014-05-01

    Sedation in palliative care is generally considered as an important therapy in terminally ill patients with refractory symptoms. However the sedation of patients with intractable psycho-existential suffering is still under discussion. This paper discusses the case of a 56-year-old patient in the final phase of carcinoma of the ovaries, who required palliative sedation for refractory, mainly psycho-existential suffering. It describes the course on our ward and the difficult process of decision-making. We discuss our approach based on literature.

  8. Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459

  9. Development of a pediatric palliative care team.

    PubMed

    Ward-Smith, Peggy; Linn, Jill Burris; Korphage, Rebecca M; Christenson, Kathy; Hutto, C J; Hubble, Christopher L

    2007-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has provided clinical recommendations for palliative care needs of children. This article outlines the steps involved in implementing a pediatric palliative care program in a Midwest pediatric magnet health care facility. The development of a Pediatric Advanced Comfort Care Team was supported by hospital administration and funded through grants. Challenges included the development of collaborative relationships with health care professionals from specialty areas. Pediatric Advanced Comfort Care Team services, available from the time of diagnosis, are provided by a multidisciplinary team of health care professionals and individualized on the basis of needs expressed by each child and his or her family.

  10. Palliative Home Care: A Designer's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Tigmanshu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose for this observational research was to understand how Can Support provides palliative care at home and analyze its strengths and weaknesses in various socioeconomic scenarios for future development. In the period of 2 weeks, patients and their caregivers were silently observed in their natural surroundings during home care visits in order to listen their problems, identify the pattern of questions for the home care team, their natural way of storytelling, organizational techniques for medicines and medical reports, care givers lives, patient journey, etc. Such observations have enabled the understanding of the phenomena of home palliative care and have led to the identification of certain influential variables of the practice.

  11. [Palliative Care at Home by Anesthesiologists].

    PubMed

    Koitabashi, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Governmental policies recommend the palliative care at home for cancer patients. However, there are some barriers to discharge cancer patients from the hospital who want to receive end-of-life care at their homes. Anesthesiologists whose main job is to perform general anesthesia in the operating theater usually have little contact with general practitioners giving community palliative care. So it is important to communicate each other to make opportunities to discuss an organized system and care plan for these patients, and to improve information transfer.

  12. Interprofessional Education Using a Palliative Care Simulation.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Jennifer; Vernoony, Stephanie; Selekman, Janice; Cowperthwait, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study measured self-efficacy, attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration, and interprofessional competencies as outcomes of a palliative care simulation. Based on experience level, teams of participants, 1 consisting of nursing/medical students and the other of nursing/medical health care professionals, completed a palliative care simulation as part of their education. Self-efficacy and attitudes toward physician-nurse collaboration were measured before and after simulation. Interprofessional competency was measured during the simulation. The results revealed a significant improvement in the previously mentioned measures, and interprofessional competency scores varied by profession and evaluator.

  13. Palliative care and compound in household pets.

    PubMed

    Gaskins, Jessica L

    2012-01-01

    Palliative care is not a term solely used for humans when discussing health care; the term is also used when discussing veterinary patients. Pets are considered part of the family by pet owners, and they have a special relationship that only another pet owner can fully understand. This article discusses some of the healthcare problems that affect pets (and their owners), statistics on the most commonly used medications for veterinary patients, quality of life, and discussions on the veterinary pharmacist-owner-palliative pet relationship and how compounding pharmacists can prepare patient-specific medications.

  14. Embedding a Palliative Approach in Nursing Care Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Porterfield, Pat; Roberts, Della; Lee, Joyce; Liang, Leah; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Pesut, Barb; Schalkwyk, Tilly; Stajduhar, Kelli; Tayler, Carolyn; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Thorne, Sally

    2017-01-01

    A palliative approach involves adapting and integrating principles and values from palliative care into the care of persons who have life-limiting conditions throughout their illness trajectories. The aim of this research was to determine what approaches to nursing care delivery support the integration of a palliative approach in hospital, residential, and home care settings. The findings substantiate the importance of embedding the values and tenets of a palliative approach into nursing care delivery, the roles that nurses have in working with interdisciplinary teams to integrate a palliative approach, and the need for practice supports to facilitate that embedding and integration. PMID:27930401

  15. Top 10 things palliative care clinicians wished everyone knew about palliative care.

    PubMed

    Strand, Jacob J; Kamdar, Mihir M; Carey, Elise C

    2013-08-01

    With a focus on improving quality of life for patients, palliative care is a rapidly growing medical subspecialty focusing on the care of patients with serious illness. Basic symptom management, discussions of prognostic understanding, and eliciting treatment goals are essential pieces in the practice of nearly all physicians. Nonetheless, many complex patients with a serious, life-threatening illness benefit from consultation with palliative care specialists, who are trained and experienced in complex symptom management and challenging communication interactions, including medical decision making and aligning goals of care. This article discusses the changing role of modern palliative care, addresses common misconceptions, and presents an argument for early integration of palliative care in the treatment of patients dealing with serious illness. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The 'problematisation' of palliative care in hospital: an exploratory review of international palliative care policy in five countries.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jackie; Gott, Merryn; Gardiner, Clare; Ingleton, Christine

    2016-07-25

    Government policy is a fundamental component of initiating change to improve the provision of palliative care at a national level. The World Health Organisation's recognition of palliative care as a basic human right has seen many countries worldwide develop national policy in palliative and end of life care. There is increasing debate about what form comprehensive palliative care services should take, particularly in relation to the balance between acute and community based services. It is therefore timely to review how national policy positions the current and future role of the acute hospital in palliative care provision. The aim of this exploratory review is to identify the role envisaged for the acute hospital in palliative and end of life care provision in five countries with an 'advanced' level of integration. Countries were identified using the Global Atlas of Palliative Care. Policies were accessed through internet searching of government websites between October and December 2014. Using a process of thematic analysis key themes related to palliative care in hospital were identified. Policies from Switzerland, England, Singapore, Australia and Ireland were analysed for recurring themes. Three themes were identified: preferences for place of care and place of death outside the hospital setting, unnecessary or avoidable hospital admissions, and quality of care in hospital. No policy focused upon exploring how palliative care could be improved in the hospital setting or indeed what role the hospital may have in the provision of palliative care. Palliative care policy in five countries with 'advanced' levels of palliative care integration focuses on solving the 'problems' associated with hospital as a place of palliative care and death. No positive role for hospitals in palliative care provision is envisaged. Given the rapidly increasing population of people requiring palliative care, and emerging evidence that patients themselves report benefits of hospital

  17. Palliative Care Exposure in Internal Medicine Residency Education.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Asher; Nam, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    As the baby boomer generation ages, the need for palliative care services will be paramount and yet training for palliative care physicians is currently inadequate to meet the current palliative care needs. Nonspecialty-trained physicians will need to supplement the gap between supply and demand. Yet, no uniform guidelines exist for the training of internal medicine residents in palliative care. To our knowledge, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate how internal medicine residencies currently integrate palliative care into their training. In this study, we surveyed 338 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited internal medicine program directors. We queried how palliative care was integrated into their training programs. The vast majority of respondents felt that palliative care training was "very important" (87.5%) and 75.9% of respondents offered some kind of palliative care rotation, often with a multidisciplinary approach. Moving forward, we are hopeful that the data provided from our survey will act as a launching point for more formal investigations into palliative care education for internal medicine residents. Concurrently, policy makers should aid in palliative care instruction by formalizing required palliative care training for internal medicine residents.

  18. Qualitative Research in Palliative Care: Applications to Clinical Trials Work.

    PubMed

    Lim, Christopher T; Tadmor, Avia; Fujisawa, Daisuke; MacDonald, James J; Gallagher, Emily R; Eusebio, Justin; Jackson, Vicki A; Temel, Jennifer S; Greer, Joseph A; Hagan, Teresa; Park, Elyse R

    2017-08-01

    While vast opportunities for using qualitative methods exist within palliative care research, few studies provide practical advice for researchers and clinicians as a roadmap to identify and utilize such opportunities. To provide palliative care clinicians and researchers descriptions of qualitative methodology applied to innovative research questions relative to palliative care research and define basic concepts in qualitative research. Body: We describe three qualitative projects as exemplars to describe major concepts in qualitative analysis of early palliative care: (1) a descriptive analysis of clinician documentation in the electronic health record, (2) a thematic content analysis of palliative care clinician focus groups, and (3) a framework analysis of audio-recorded encounters between patients and clinicians as part of a clinical trial. This study provides a foundation for undertaking qualitative research within palliative care and serves as a framework for use by other palliative care researchers interested in qualitative methodologies.

  19. Providing palliative care in the ambulatory care setting.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jane; Lyman, Jason A; Blackhall, Leslie J

    2010-04-01

    Palliative care that provides specialized attention to pain and symptom management is important for patients with cancer. Palliative care aims to reduce pain and other symptoms through an interdisciplinary approach involving physicians, nurses, social workers, and other members of the healthcare team. Families are included in care planning. Patients and families benefit from the availability of palliative care services early in the disease process, particularly when symptoms impact quality of life. One way to implement early palliative interventions is the establishment of an ambulatory care clinic dedicated to palliative care. This article describes the experience of an outpatient palliative care clinic at a large teaching hospital by using case studies to highlight the benefits of ambulatory palliative care and concluding with recommendations for research.

  20. Paediatric palliative care: coming of age in oncology?

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Renée; Comac, Maggie; Craig, Finella

    2008-05-01

    Palliative care in children has been emerging as a clinical subspecialty of paediatrics for many years. It requires the knowledge and experience of a paediatrician, combined with the skills of a palliative care specialist. Both are essential, as a paediatrician may not have advanced knowledge of palliative care and a palliative care specialist is unlikely to be familiar with the complexity of working with families where the child is the patient. This paper reviews recent literature and discusses advances in the development of palliative care services for children and young people with incurable cancer. It highlights key areas where paediatric palliative care differs from that of adults and outlines the barriers to providing palliation and conducting evidence-based research in children and young people dying from cancer.

  1. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Traggiai, Cristina; Stanhope, Richard

    2002-03-01

    Puberty is the acquisition of secondary sexual characteristics associated with a growth spurt and resulting in the attainment of reproductive function. Delayed puberty is diagnosed when there is no breast development by 13.4 years of age in a girl and no testicular enlargement by 14.0 years in a boy. The aetiologies are: (i) pubertal delay, either with constitutional delay of growth and puberty or secondary to chronic illness, and (ii) pubertal failure, with hypogonadotrophic (defect in the hypothalamo-pituitary region) or hypergonadotrophic (secondary to gonadal failure) hypogonadism, or both (secondary to radio/chemotherapy). The investigation includes: history, auxological data and pubertal development examination. Boys usually require treatment and, if they do not respond, investigation. In girls it is appropriate to measure the thyroid function and karyotype first and, if necessary, to offer treatment. If they present with dysmorphic features, or positive familial history, an assessment is required before treatment.

  2. Palliative pulsion intubation in oesophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Angorn, I. B.; Hegarty, M. M.

    1979-01-01

    Peroral pulsion intubation for the palliation of dysphagia due to oesophageal carcinoma was performed on 652 patients. The mortality was 16%, failure rate 3%, and hospital stay 3 days. Advanced disease and the presence of oesophagorespiratory fistula is not a contraindication to intubation. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:90475

  3. Neonatologist training in communication and palliative care.

    PubMed

    Henner, Natalia; Boss, Renee D

    2017-02-04

    Neonatologists receive highly varied and largely inadequate training to acquire and maintain communication and palliative care skills. Neonatology fellows often need to give distressing news to families and frequently face unique communication challenges. While several approaches to teaching these skills exist, practice opportunities through simulation and role play will likely provide the most effective learning.

  4. Distress, Stress and Solidarity in Palliative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deMontigny, Johanne

    1993-01-01

    Notes that role of psychologist on palliative care unit is to be there for terminally ill, their friends, and their families, both during the dying and the bereavement and for the caregiver team. Focuses on work of decoding ordinary words which for many patients hide painful past. Stresses necessity to remain open to unexpected. (Author/NB)

  5. Palliative Care Enrichment in Geropsychology Fellowships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Gerald; Nelson, Barbara J.

    1996-01-01

    Interviews with 6 of 10 Veterans' Affairs programs offering postdoctoral fellowships in geropsychology indicated that only 30% included palliative care or hospice training, despite the fact that the veteran population is likely to have an increasing need for terminal illness care. (SK)

  6. [The role of laughter in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Bégnon, Julie; Vigneron, Sylvie

    2015-03-01

    A team has studied the impact of laughter in palliative care. For the majority of caregivers, laughter is perceived as a complementary tool for supporting patients, but many are reluctant to use it. Patients, for their part, are receptive to it. Used in the correct doses, laughter can enrich care.

  7. Evaluation of Chemical Dust Palliatives for Helipads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    6 Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) measurements........................................6 Rotary Wing Aircraft...8 Table 5. Pretreatment Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Data ................................9 iv Table 6. Dust Palliative Application...0.5 to adjust for using the large vane as recommended by the manufacturer. Dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) measurements DCP tests were conducted

  8. Palliative Care Enrichment in Geropsychology Fellowships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Gerald; Nelson, Barbara J.

    1996-01-01

    Interviews with 6 of 10 Veterans' Affairs programs offering postdoctoral fellowships in geropsychology indicated that only 30% included palliative care or hospice training, despite the fact that the veteran population is likely to have an increasing need for terminal illness care. (SK)

  9. [Palliative care regulation and assisted death].

    PubMed

    Cossío-Díaz, José Ramón; Franco González-Salas, José Fernando; Kershenobich-Stalnikowitz, David; Goslinga-Remírez, Lorena; Montes de Oca-Arboleya, Rodrigo; Torres-Morán, Laura Estela; Calderón-Vidal, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the Mexican regulation on palliative care and its relationship with the public debate on assisted death or suicide. This paper focuses on the rights that people with incurable diseases have, given the current contents of the General Health Statute and other applicable rules. Its main purpose is to activate the public debate on these matters.

  10. Pediatric Palliative Care at a Glance

    MedlinePlus

    ... can care start? • Receive services, like art or music therapy • Find ways to relax and play Palliative ... Nurses • Child life specialists • Respite providers • Art and music therapists • Chaplains • Case managers • Counselors • Home health aides • ...

  11. Palliative care specialists' beliefs about spiritual care.

    PubMed

    Best, Megan; Butow, Phyllis; Olver, Ian

    2016-08-01

    A previous survey of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) members found low frequency of spiritual care provision. We hypothesized that physicians with special training in palliative medicine would demonstrate an increased sense of responsibility for and higher self-reported adequacy to provide spiritual care to patients than health professionals with general training. We surveyed members of the Australian and New Zealand Palliative Medicine Society (ANZSPM) to ascertain their spiritual care practices. We sent 445 e-mails on four occasions, inviting members to complete the online survey. Tabulated results were analyzed to describe the results. One hundred and fifty-eight members (35.5 %) responded. Physicians working primarily in palliative care comprised the majority (95 %) of the sample. Significantly more of the ANZSPM than MASCC respondents had previously received training in spiritual care and had pursued training in the previous 2 years. There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to interest in and self-reported ability to provide spiritual care. Those who believed it was their responsibility to provide spiritual care were more likely to have had training, feel they could adequately provide spiritual care, and were more likely to refer patients if they could not provide spiritual care themselves. Training in spiritual care was more common in healthcare workers who had received training in palliative care. ANZSPM members gave higher scores for both the importance of spiritual care and self-reported ability to provide it compared to MASCC members.

  12. [Paediatric palliative care, definition and regulations].

    PubMed

    Gioia, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of paediatric palliative care aims to fulfil objectives regarding the support provided for the child and his/her family in all aspects of care. It is guided by regulations and recommendations relating to pain relief, quality of life and support for families.

  13. Trauma-Informed Hospice and Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Ganzel, Barbara L

    2016-12-07

    This review highlights the need to integrate trauma-informed practices into hospice and palliative care. The pervasiveness of psychological trauma exposure has been established in the general population and among the elderly adults. Moreover, there is emerging evidence for multiple additional opportunities for exposure to psychological trauma at or near the end of life. For example, many people experience intensive medical interventions prior to their admission to hospice and/or palliative care, and there is increasing recognition that these interventions may be traumatic. These and related opportunities for trauma exposure may combine synergistically at the end of life, particularly in the presence of pain, anxiety, delirium, dementia, or ordinary old age. This, in turn, can negatively affect patient mental health, well-being, behavior, and reported experience of pain. This review closes with suggestions for future research and a call for universal assessment of psychological trauma history and symptoms in hospice and palliative care patients, along with the development of palliative trauma intervention strategies appropriate to these populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Developing a costing framework for palliative care services.

    PubMed

    Mosoiu, Daniela; Dumitrescu, Malina; Connor, Stephen R

    2014-10-01

    Palliative care services have been reported to be a less expensive alternative to traditional treatment; however, little is known about how to measure the cost of delivering quality palliative care. The purpose of this project was to develop a standardized method for measuring the cost of palliative care delivery that could potentially be replicated in multiple settings. The project was implemented in three stages. First, an interdisciplinary group of palliative care experts identified standards of quality palliative care delivery in the inpatient and home care services. Surveys were conducted of government agencies and palliative care providers to identify payment practices and budgets for palliative care services. In the second phase, unit costs were defined and a costing framework was designed to measure inpatient and home-based palliative care unit costs. The final phase was advocacy for inclusion of calculated costs into the national funding system. In this project, a reliable framework for determining the cost of inpatient and home-based palliative care services was developed. Inpatient palliative care cost in Romania was calculated at $96.58 per day. Home-based palliative care was calculated at $30.37 per visit, $723.60 per month, and $1367.71 per episode of care, which averaged 45 visits. A standardized methodology and framework for costing palliative care are presented. The framework allows a country or provider of care to substitute their own local costs to generate cost information relevant to the health-care system. In Romania, this allowed the palliative care provider community to advocate for a consistent payment system. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concordance in the Assessment of Effectiveness of Palliative Care between Patients and Palliative Care Nurses in Malaysia: A Study with the Palliative Care Outcome Scale

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Kwee Choy; Gupta, Esha Das; Poovaneswaran, Sangeetha; Then, Siaw Ling; Teo, Michelle Jia Jui; Gan, Teik Yiap; Thing, Joanne Hwei Yean

    2017-01-01

    Context: The Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS) is an easy-to-use assessment tool to evaluate the effectiveness of palliative care. There is no published literature on the use of POS as an assessment tool in Malaysia. Aim: To define the concordance in the assessment of quality of life between patients with advanced cancers and their palliative care nurses using a Malay version of the POS. Settings and Design: This study was conducted in the palliative care unit of the Hospital Tuanku Ja'afar Seremban, Malaysia, from February 2014 to June 2014. Subjects and Methods: We adapted and validated the English version of the 3-day recall POS into Malay and used it to define the concordance in the assessment of quality of life between patients and palliative care nurses. Forty patients with advanced stage cancers and forty palliative care nurses completed the Malay POS questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: The kappa statistical test was used to assess the agreement between patients and their palliative care nurses. Results: Slight to fair concordance was found in all items, except for one item (family anxiety) where there was no agreement. Conclusions: The Malay version of the POS was well accepted and reliable as an assessment tool for evaluation of the effectiveness of palliative care in Malaysia. Slight to fair concordance was shown between the patients and their palliative care nurses, suggesting the needs for more training of the nurses. PMID:28216862

  16. Use of Improving Palliative Care in the ICU (Intensive Care Unit) Guidelines for a Palliative Care Initiative in an ICU

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Eluned; Nakatsuka, Craig; Umbarger, Lillian; Ruta, Ruth; McCarty, Tracy; Machado, Cynthia; Ceria-Ulep, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    Objective: For improved utilization of the existing palliative care team in the intensive care unit (ICU), a process was needed to identify patients who might need a palliative care consultation in a timelier manner. Methods: A systematic method to create a new program that would be compatible with our specific ICU environment and patient population was developed. A literature review revealed a fairly extensive array of reports and numerous clinical practice guidelines, which were assessed for information and strategies that would be appropriate for our unit. Results: The recommendations provided by the Center to Advance Palliative Care from its Improving Palliative Care in the ICU project were used to successfully implement a new palliative care initiative in our ICU. Conclusion: The guidelines provided by the Improving Palliative Care in the ICU project were an important tool to direct the development of a new palliative care ICU initiative. PMID:28241905

  17. Use of Improving Palliative Care in the ICU (Intensive Care Unit) Guidelines for a Palliative Care Initiative in an ICU.

    PubMed

    Mun, Eluned; Nakatsuka, Craig; Umbarger, Lillian; Ruta, Ruth; Mccarty, Tracy; Machado, Cynthia; Ceria-Ulep, Clementina

    2017-01-01

    For improved utilization of the existing palliative care team in the intensive care unit (ICU), a process was needed to identify patients who might need a palliative care consultation in a timelier manner. A systematic method to create a new program that would be compatible with our specific ICU environment and patient population was developed. A literature review revealed a fairly extensive array of reports and numerous clinical practice guidelines, which were assessed for information and strategies that would be appropriate for our unit. The recommendations provided by the Center to Advance Palliative Care from its Improving Palliative Care in the ICU project were used to successfully implement a new palliative care initiative in our ICU. The guidelines provided by the Improving Palliative Care in the ICU project were an important tool to direct the development of a new palliative care ICU initiative.

  18. Access to medications in the community by patients in a palliative setting. A systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Lucey, M; McQuillan, R; MacCallion, A; Corrigan, M; Flynn, J; Connaire, K

    2008-03-01

    This study performed a systems analysis of the process by which patients under the care of a specialist palliative home care obtained medications, and highlighted factors that delay this process. Systems analysis is the science dealing with analysis of complex, large-scale systems and the interactions within those systems. This study used a mixed-methods approach of questionnaires of general practitioners, pharmacists and patients, and a prospective observational study of delays experienced by patients referred to the home care team over a three-month period. This study found the main factors causing delay to be: medications not being in stock in pharmacies, medications not being available on state reimbursed schemes and inability of patients and carers to courier medications.

  19. Palliative Care Consultations in Hospitalized Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, Susan; Robb, Jessica; Kelly, Adam; Nielsen, Eric; Quill, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the pattern and characteristics of palliative care (PC) consultations in patients with stroke and compare them with the characteristics of nonstroke consultations. Methods The palliative care program at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) was established in October 2001. SMH is a 765-bed academic medical center with approximately 38,000 discharges. For each consult from 2005 to 2007, we collected demographic, clinical, and service-related information. We explored similarities and differences in patients with different types of stroke, including patients with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hematoma. In addition, we compared these data to the nonstroke patients who had a palliative care consultation during the same time period. Results Over the 3-year period from 2005 to 2007, there were a total of 101 consultations in patients with stroke (6.3% of all PC consultations). Of the 101 consultations, 31 were in patients with ischemic stroke, 26 in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, 30 in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 14 in patients with subdural hematoma. Patients with stroke who had a PC consult were more functionally impaired, less likely to have capacity, more likely to die in the hospital, and to have fewer traditional symptom burdens than other common diagnoses seen on the PC consultation service. The most common trajectory to death was withdrawal of mechanical ventilation, but varied by type of stroke. Common treatments negotiated in these consultations included mechanical ventilation, artificial nutrition, tracheostomy, and less likely antibiobics, intravenous fluids, and various neurosurgical procedures. Conclusions Patients with stroke are a common diagnosis seen on an inpatient palliative care consult service. Each stroke type represents patients with potentially distinct palliative care needs. PMID:20384501

  20. Palliation of Ulcerative Breast Lesions with Radiation.

    PubMed

    Vempati, Prashant; Knoll, Miriam A; Dharmarajan, Kavita; Green, Sheryl; Tiersten, Amy; Bakst, Richard L

    2016-09-01

    Patients with advanced breast cancer may experience ulcerative breast lesions. Breast cancer with ulcerative lesions has been shown to severely affect a patient's quality of life (QoL). The role of palliative radiation therapy (RT) in the management of ulcerative breast lesions needs to be further explored. We retrospectively reviewed the RT records for all patients who underwent palliative RT for breast cancer at our urban academic medical center. A total of 13 patients were identified, and we herein report their demographics, treatment characteristics, and clinical outcomes. The mean age of the patients receiving palliative RT for ulcerative breast cancer was 64 years. All patients had stage IV disease when they were evaluated for RT. The mean radiation dose received for palliative RT was 27.54 Gy in 11 fractions, with a median dose of 30 Gy in 15 fractions. Six (46%) patients had received prior RT to the same breast, with a median dose of 59.5 Gy in 31 fractions. Among these six patients, the average interval between initial RT and ulceration was 69.5 months. The median overall survival for the whole patient cohort since ulceration was 5 months and the mean survival did not differ between patients with previous history of RT and RT-naïve patients (4.50 vs. 4.57; p=0.95). Six out of the nine (69%) patients who received 30 Gy or more reported clinical improvement, whereas none of the four patients who received less than 30 Gy reported any benefit. There were no radiation-associated toxicities reported by patients. These data suggest that palliative RT (≥30 Gy) is an efficacious treatment for ulcerative breast cancer with minimal toxicity. Prior RT should not be a contraindication, as patients with previous history of RT have similar low toxicity rates compared to RT-naïve patients. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. The diverse landscape of palliative care clinics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander K; Thai, Julie N; Bakitas, Marie A; Meier, Diane E; Spragens, Lynn H; Temel, Jennifer S; Weissman, David E; Rabow, Michael W

    2013-06-01

    Many health care organizations are interested in instituting a palliative care clinic. However, there are insufficient published data regarding existing practices to inform the development of new programs. Our objective was to obtain in-depth information about palliative care clinics. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 20 outpatient palliative care practices in diverse care settings. The survey included both closed- and open-ended questions regarding practice size, utilization of services, staffing, referrals, services offered, funding, impetus for starting, and challenges. Twenty of 21 (95%) practices responded. Practices self-identified as: hospital-based (n=7), within an oncology division/cancer center (n=5), part of an integrated health system (n=6), and hospice-based (n=2). The majority of referred patients had a cancer diagnosis. Additional common diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, neurologic disorders, and congestive heart failure. All practices ranked "pain management" and "determining goals of care" as the most common reasons for referrals. Twelve practices staffed fewer than 5 half-days of clinic per week, with 7 operating only one half-day per week. Practices were staffed by a mixture of physicians, advanced practice nurses or nurse practitioners, nurses, or social workers. Eighteen practices expected their practice to grow within the next year. Eleven practices noted a staffing shortage and 8 had a wait time of a week or more for a new patient appointment. Only 12 practices provide 24/7 coverage. Billing and institutional support were the most common funding sources. Most practices described starting because inpatient palliative providers perceived poor quality outpatient care in the outpatient setting. The most common challenges included: funding for staffing (11) and being overwhelmed with referrals (8). Once established, outpatient palliative care practices anticipate rapid growth. In this context, outpatient practices

  2. The Diverse Landscape of Palliative Care Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Julie N.; Bakitas, Marie A.; Meier, Diane E.; Spragens, Lynn H.; Temel, Jennifer S.; Weissman, David E.; Rabow, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Many health care organizations are interested in instituting a palliative care clinic. However, there are insufficient published data regarding existing practices to inform the development of new programs. Objective Our objective was to obtain in-depth information about palliative care clinics. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 20 outpatient palliative care practices in diverse care settings. The survey included both closed- and open-ended questions regarding practice size, utilization of services, staffing, referrals, services offered, funding, impetus for starting, and challenges. Results Twenty of 21 (95%) practices responded. Practices self-identified as: hospital-based (n=7), within an oncology division/cancer center (n=5), part of an integrated health system (n=6), and hospice-based (n=2). The majority of referred patients had a cancer diagnosis. Additional common diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, neurologic disorders, and congestive heart failure. All practices ranked “pain management” and “determining goals of care” as the most common reasons for referrals. Twelve practices staffed fewer than 5 half-days of clinic per week, with 7 operating only one half-day per week. Practices were staffed by a mixture of physicians, advanced practice nurses or nurse practitioners, nurses, or social workers. Eighteen practices expected their practice to grow within the next year. Eleven practices noted a staffing shortage and 8 had a wait time of a week or more for a new patient appointment. Only 12 practices provide 24/7 coverage. Billing and institutional support were the most common funding sources. Most practices described starting because inpatient palliative providers perceived poor quality outpatient care in the outpatient setting. The most common challenges included: funding for staffing (11) and being overwhelmed with referrals (8). Conclusions Once established, outpatient palliative care practices

  3. What happens during early outpatient palliative care consultations for persons with newly diagnosed advanced cancer? A qualitative analysis of provider documentation.

    PubMed

    Bagcivan, Gulcan; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Frost, Jennifer; Plunkett, Margaret; Stephens, Lisa A; Bishop, Peggy; Taylor, Richard A; Li, Zhongze; Tucker, Rodney; Bakitas, Marie

    2017-09-01

    Early outpatient palliative care consultations are recommended by clinical oncology guidelines globally. Despite these recommendations, it is unclear which components should be included in these encounters. Describe the evaluation and treatment recommendations made in early outpatient palliative care consultations. Outpatient palliative care consultation chart notes were qualitatively coded and frequencies tabulated. Outpatient palliative care consultations were automatically triggered as part of an early versus delayed randomized controlled trial (November 2010 to April 2013) for patients newly diagnosed with advanced cancer living in the rural Northeastern US. In all, 142 patients (early = 70; delayed = 72) had outpatient palliative care consultations. The top areas addressed in these consultations were general evaluations-marital/partner status (81.7%), spirituality/emotional well-being (80.3%), and caregiver/family support (79.6%); symptoms-mood (81.7%), pain (73.9%), and cognitive/mental status (68.3%); general treatment recommendations-counseling (39.4%), maintaining current medications (34.5%), and initiating new medication (23.9%); and symptom-specific treatment recommendations-pain (22.5%), constipation (12.7%), depression (12.0%), advanced directive completion (43.0%), identifying a surrogate (21.8%), and discussing illness trajectory (21.1%). Compared to the early group, providers were more likely to evaluate general pain ( p = 0.035) and hospice awareness ( p = 0.005) and discuss/recommend hospice ( p = 0.002) in delayed group participants. Outpatient palliative care consultations for newly diagnosed advanced cancer patients can address patients' needs and provide recommendations on issues that might not otherwise be addressed early in the disease course. Future prospective studies should ascertain the value of early outpatient palliative care consultations that are automatically triggered based on diagnosis or documented symptom

  4. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Fenichel, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Since puberty is a long ongoing developmental process with significant individual and population differences in timing, the definition of delayed puberty for a given individual needs to rest on simple, though arbitrary criteria based on epidemiological data. Although several genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal maturation cascade have been characterized recently from familial or sporadic cases of primitive isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, many genes regulating puberty onset remain undetermined. In case of delayed puberty and/or primary amenorrhea, a complete clinical examination including a detailed past history will evaluate the development of secondary sex characteristics, verify the association with a growth delay and look for specific indicative features pertaining to the etiological diagnosis. This clinical check-up completed if necessary with biological, ultrasonographic, radiological and genetic investigations will try to determine which girls will have a permanent sexual infantilism of gonadal, hypophyseal or hypothalamic origin, which girls will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty and which girls have primary amenorrhea with developed secondary sex characteristics. Therapeutic attitude will have to integrate etiological factors, statural prognosis, bone mass preservation and psychological factors.

  5. Jordan palliative care initiative: a WHO Demonstration Project.

    PubMed

    Stjernswärd, Jan; Ferris, Frank D; Khleif, Samir N; Jamous, Walid; Treish, Imad M; Milhem, Mohammed; Bushnaq, Mohammed; Al Khateib, Ahmad; Al Shtiat, Mohammad Nayef; Wheeler, Mary S; Alwan, Ala

    2007-05-01

    A model for pain relief and palliative care for the Middle East has been established in Jordan. King Hussein Cancer Centre (KHCC) in Amman is now a truly comprehensive cancer center as it includes palliative care for inpatients, outpatients, and patients at home. This is especially important in a country and a region where over 75% of the cancer patients are incurable when diagnosed. To support effective palliative care delivery, there have been many significant changes in Jordan between 2001 and 2006. Regulations governing opioid prescribing have been changed to facilitate effective pain management. The national opioid quota has been increased. Cost-effective, generic, immediate-release morphine tablets are being produced in Jordan. Intensive, interactive bedside training courses for doctors, nurses, and clinical pharmacologists have started to overcome opiophobia and motivate health care professionals to take up palliative care as a profession. "Champions" for palliative care have emerged who are leading the development of palliative care in Jordan's health care systems and starting to support neighboring countries to develop pain relief and palliative care. While before 2003, fewer than 250 patients per year received palliative care, by 2006 more than 800 patients per year were receiving pain relief and palliative care through the KHCC and Al Basheer Hospital. The achieved changes and the unusually rapid and effective institutionalization of palliative care serve as a model for other countries in the Middle East region as to what should be done and how.

  6. Situational analysis of palliative care education in thai medical schools.

    PubMed

    Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak

    2013-01-01

    The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum.

  7. Factors influencing palliative care. Qualitative study of family physicians' practices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. B.; Sangster, M.; Swift, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care. DESIGN: Qualitative method of in-depth interviews. SETTING: Southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Family physicians who practise palliative care on a full-time basis, who practise on a part-time basis, or who have retired from active involvement in palliative care. METHOD: Eleven in-depth interviews were conducted to explore factors that influence family physicians' decisions to practise palliative care and factors that sustain their interest in palliative care. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The analysis strategy used a phenomenological approach and occurred concurrently rather than sequentially. All interview transcriptions were read independently by the researchers, who then compared and combined their analyses. Final analysis involved examining all interviews collectively, thus permitting relationships between and among central themes to emerge. MAIN OUTCOME FINDINGS: The overriding theme was a common philosophy of palliative care focusing on acceptance of death, whole person care, compassion, communication, and teamwork. Participants' philosophies were shaped by their education and by professional and personal experiences. In addition, participants articulated personal and systemic factors currently affecting their practice of palliative care. CONCLUSIONS: Participants observed that primary care physicians should be responsible for their patients' palliative care within the context of interdisciplinary teams. For medical students to be knowledgeable and sensitive to the needs of dying patients, palliative care should be given higher priority in the curriculum. Finally, participants argued compellingly for transferring the philosophy of palliative care to the overall practice of medicine. PMID:9612588

  8. Delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Edward O; Lee, Peter A

    2002-02-01

    Normal puberty is a time of life and a process of development that results in full adult maturity of growth, sexual development, and psychosocial achievement. Delayed puberty describes the clinical condition in which the pubertal events start late (usually > +2.5 SD later than the mean) or are attenuated in progression. The differential diagnosis includes syndromes of low gonadotropin production, usually constitutional delay of growth and maturation associated with chronic disease, but also an array of gene-mediated disorders, and syndromes of primary gonadal dysfunction with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, including Turner and Klinefelter syndromes, and a group of acquired and genetic abnormalities. Diagnostic assessment and varied therapeutic modalities are discussed. The issues of androgen or estrogen therapy are important to assess, and growth hormone treatment remains a difficult dilemma.

  9. Center to Advance Palliative Care palliative care clinical care and customer satisfaction metrics consensus recommendations.

    PubMed

    Weissman, David E; Morrison, R Sean; Meier, Diane E

    2010-02-01

    Data collection and analysis are vital for strategic planning, quality improvement, and demonstration of palliative care program impact to hospital administrators, private funders and policymakers. Since 2000, the Center to Advance Palliative Care (CAPC) has provided technical assistance to hospitals, health systems and hospices working to start, sustain, and grow nonhospice palliative care programs. CAPC convened a consensus panel in 2008 to develop recommendations for specific clinical and customer metrics that programs should track. The panel agreed on four key domains of clinical metrics and two domains of customer metrics. Clinical metrics include: daily assessment of physical/psychological/spiritual symptoms by a symptom assessment tool; establishment of patient-centered goals of care; support to patient/family caregivers; and management of transitions across care sites. For customer metrics, consensus was reached on two domains that should be tracked to assess satisfaction: patient/family satisfaction, and referring clinician satisfaction. In an effort to ensure access to reliably high-quality palliative care data throughout the nation, hospital palliative care programs are encouraged to collect and report outcomes for each of the metric domains described here.

  10. [Current situation of palliative care in Hungary. Integrated palliative care model as a breakout possibility].

    PubMed

    Benyó, Gábor; Lukács, Miklós; Busa, Csilla; Mangel, László; Csikós, Ágnes

    2017-09-20

    Modern palliative-hospice care has gained space in Europe for more than 50 years. Since the initial empirical work of Cicely Saunders, palliative medicine has gained its place in evidence-based medicine in more and more countries. However, development, as in many other medical fields, is not uniform, there are big differences between countries in the world. There are also significant differences in development of care and the level of services within the European Union amongst Western and Eastern European countries. These differences affect the professional approach, legislative mechanisms and social acceptance. Hungarian palliative-hospice care has developed significantly over the past 15 years. For further development thoughtful strategic steps and service development is needed. The integration of palliative care into standard oncology is an international requirement, which also appears in the form of professional guidelines. Hungary has also played a role in the development of the European model of integrated palliative care of which Hungarian implementation, the "Pécs model", is discussed in detail in our paper.

  11. Palliative care: a public health priority in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Webster, Ruth; Lacey, Judith; Quine, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Palliative care is an emerging specialist discipline worldwide with the majority of services located in developed countries. Developing countries, however, have higher incidences of cancer and AIDS and most of these patients would benefit from palliative care. While there is prominent coverage of this issue in the palliative care literature, there is limited coverage in the specialist public health literature, which suggests that the challenges of palliative care may not yet have been generally recognized as a public health priority, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this article is to introduce the topic of "Palliative care in developing countries" into the specialist public health literature to raise awareness and stimulate debate on this issue among public health professionals and health policy makers, thereby potentially facilitating establishment of palliative care services in developing countries.

  12. Palliative Care in India: Current Progress and Future Needs

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Divya; Patel, Firuza D; Sharma, Suresh C

    2012-01-01

    Despite its limited coverage, palliative care has been present in India for about 20 years. Obstacles in the growth of palliative care in India are too many and not only include factors like population density, poverty, geographical diversity, restrictive policies regarding opioid prescription, workforce development at base level, but also limited national palliative care policy and lack of institutional interest in palliative care. Nonetheless we have reasons to be proud in that we have overcome several hurdles and last two decades have seen palpable changes in the mindset of health care providers and policy makers with respect to need of palliative care in India. Systematic and continuous education for medical staff is mandatory, and a major break-through for achieving this purpose would be to increase the number of courses and faculties in palliative medicine at most universities. PMID:23439559

  13. Mapping the literature: palliative care within adult and child neurology.

    PubMed

    Dallara, Alexis; Meret, Anca; Saroyan, John

    2014-12-01

    Objectives of this review were to examine definitions and background of palliative care, as well as address whether there is an increased need for palliative care education among neurologists. The review also explores what literature exists regarding palliative care within general neurology and child neurology. A literature review was conducted examining use of palliative care within child neurology. More than 100 articles and textbooks were retrieved and reviewed. Expert guidelines stress the importance of expertise in palliative care among neurologists. Subspecialties written about in child neurology include that of peripheral nervous system disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and metabolic disorders. Adult and child neurology patients have a great need for improved palliative care services, as they frequently develop cumulative physical and cognitive disabilities over time and cope with decreasing quality of life before reaching the terminal stage of their illness.

  14. Innovative models of home-based palliative care.

    PubMed

    Labson, Margherita C; Sacco, Michele M; Weissman, David E; Gornet, Betsy; Stuart, Brad

    2013-01-01

    The focus of palliative care is to alleviate pain and suffering for patients, potentially while they concurrently pursue life-prolonging or curative therapy. The potential breadth of palliative care is recognized by the Medicare program, but the Medicare hospice benefit is narrowly defined and limited to care that is focused on comfort and not on cure. Any organization or setting that has been accredited or certified to provide health care may provide palliative care. Home health agencies are highly attuned to patients' need for palliative care, and often provide palliative care for patients who are ineligible for hospice or have chosen not to enroll in it. Two home health-based programs have reported improved patient satisfaction, better utilization of services, and significant cost savings with palliative care. Moving the focus of care from the hospital to the home and community can be achieved with integrated care and can be facilitated by changes in government policy.

  15. Palliative Care Eases Symptoms, Enhances Lives | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Palliative Care Palliative Care Eases Symptoms, Enhances Lives Past Issues / Spring ... pharmacists, nutritionists, and others. When do I need palliative care? Many adults and children living with serious ...

  16. How to Get It -- Step 2: Meet the Palliative Care Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Take the Quiz Step 3: Meet the Palliative Care Team The palliative care team will spend a lot of time ... are some suggestions: What can I expect from palliative care? Where will my care be provided (e. ...

  17. Music therapy in palliative care: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Julian

    2002-03-01

    As the music therapy profession has developed internationally over the last 25 years, so has its role in palliative care. Music is a highly versatile and dynamic therapeutic modality, lending itself to a variety of music therapy techniques used to benefit both those living with life-threatening illnesses and their family members and caregivers. This article will give a broad overview of the historical roots of music therapy and introduce the techniques that are employed in current practice. By combining a review of mainstream music therapy practice involving musical improvisation, song-writing and receptive/recreational techniques with case material from my own experience, this article aims to highlight the potential music therapy holds as an effective holistic practice for palliative care, whatever the care setting.

  18. Neuromuscular blockers--a means of palliation?

    PubMed

    Hawryluck, L

    2002-06-01

    As we die, our respiratory pattern is altered and we seem to gasp and struggle for each breath. Such gasping is commonly seen as a clear sign of dyspnoea and suffering by families and loved ones, however, it is unclear whether it is perceived at all by the dying person. Narcotics and sedatives do not seem to affect these gasping respirations. In this issue of the Journal of Medical Ethics, we are asked to consider whether the last gasp of a dying patient could be or, perhaps, even should be avoided by administering neuromuscular blockers to palliate dying patients. For many reasons, such as our current failure to alleviate pain and distress, stories of inadequate analgesia and sedation in critically ill paralysed patients and the inability to know the intent-whether to palliate or to euthanise-it would seem that administering neuromuscular blockers should not be ethically permissible.

  19. Palliative Radiofrequency Ablation for Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jindal, Gaurav; Friedman, Marc; Locklin, Julia Wood, Bradford J.

    2006-06-15

    Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive local therapy for cancer. Its efficacy is now becoming well documented in many different organs, including liver, kidney, and lung. The goal of RFA is typically complete eradication of a tumor in lieu of an invasive surgical procedure. However, RFA can also play an important role in the palliative care of cancer patients. Tumors which are surgically unresectable and incompatible for complete ablation present the opportunity for RFA to be used in a new paradigm. Cancer pain runs the gamut from minor discomfort relieved with mild pain medication to unrelenting suffering for the patient, poorly controlled by conventional means. RFA is a tool which can potentially palliate intractable cancer pain. We present here a case in which RFA provided pain relief in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer with pain uncontrolled by conventional methods.

  20. AIDS and palliative care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Craig

    2007-01-01

    As a result of limited access to antiretroviral treatment, many South Africans die yearly of AIDS. It is important that the end-of-life needs of these people be met. This article examines the major challenges involved in providing quality end-of-life care to people with AIDS in South Africa. Published reports are reviewed, as is the author's experience living and working in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The issues discussed include the nature of the South African health care system, with emphasis on the scarcity of palliative care resources for AIDS patients, ineffective control of pain, models of care such as the integrated community-based home care model that relies heavily on community caregivers to meet the needs of people dying of AIDS, the living conditions of AIDS patients and their families, and AIDS-related stigma. Broad recommendations are presented for improving palliative care services for people with AIDS in the South African context.

  1. Nutritional considerations for the palliative care patient.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Clare; Eldridge, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    Many palliative care patients experience nutritional problems as their conditions progress. This includes those with progressive neurological conditions, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as advanced cancer. Nutritional issues not only impact patients physically but also psychologically and can also have an effect on those caring for them. It is important that patients are screened appropriately and that one identifies what symptoms are potentially affecting their intake. Decisions should always be patient-centred. Nutritional interventions range from food modification and nutritional supplements, to more intense methods such as enteral or parenteral nutrition, and these may have ethical and legal considerations. This article explores the nutritional issues faced by palliative patients, the ethical issues supporting decision-making and the methods of nutritional support available.

  2. Faith healing and the palliative care team.

    PubMed

    Hess, Denise

    2013-01-01

    As the spiritual care needs of patients and their loved ones have become an essential component of palliative care, clinicians are being challenged to develop new ways of addressing the spiritual issues that often arise in the palliative care setting. Recent research has given attention to the communication strategies that are effective with patients or their loved ones who report that they are seeking a miraculous physical healing. However, these strategies often assume a unilateral rather than collaborative view of divine intervention. Communication strategies that are effective with unilateral understandings of divine intervention may be contraindicated with those who hold to a collaborative view of divine intervention. Greater attention to language of human-divine interaction along with approaching faith healing as a third modality of treatment are explored as additional interventions.

  3. Conceptual foundations of a palliative approach: a knowledge synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sawatzky, Richard; Porterfield, Pat; Lee, Joyce; Dixon, Duncan; Lounsbury, Kathleen; Pesut, Barbara; Roberts, Della; Tayler, Carolyn; Voth, James; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2016-01-15

    Much of what we understand about the design of healthcare systems to support care of the dying comes from our experiences with providing palliative care for dying cancer patients. It is increasingly recognized that in addition to cancer, high quality end of life care should be an integral part of care that is provided for those with other advancing chronic life-limiting conditions. A "palliative approach" has been articulated as one way of conceptualizing this care. However, there is a lack of conceptual clarity regarding the essential characteristics of a palliative approach to care. The goal of this research was to delineate the key characteristics of a palliative approach found in the empiric literature in order to establish conceptual clarity. We conducted a knowledge synthesis of empirical peer-reviewed literature. Search terms pertaining to "palliative care" and "chronic life-limiting conditions" were identified. A comprehensive database search of 11 research databases for the intersection of these terms yielded 190,204 documents. A subsequent computer-assisted approach using statistical predictive classification methods was used to identify relevant documents, resulting in a final yield of 91 studies. Narrative synthesis methods and thematic analysis were used to then identify and conceptualize key characteristics of a palliative approach. The following three overarching themes were conceptualized to delineate a palliative approach: (1) upstream orientation towards the needs of people who have life-limiting conditions and their families, (2) adaptation of palliative care knowledge and expertise, (3) operationalization of a palliative approach through integration into systems and models of care that do not specialize in palliative care. Our findings provide much needed conceptual clarity regarding a palliative approach. Such clarity is of fundamental importance for the development of healthcare systems that facilitate the integration of a palliative approach

  4. Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    0802 TITLE: Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I. Neugut, MD, PhD...Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...increasingly available. There has been very little research on the use of palliative treatments. Our team has developed the tools/methods for

  5. [Palliative care of patients with terminal obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    von Plessen, Christian; Nielsen, Thyge L; Steffensen, Ida E; Larsen, Shuruk Al-Halwai; Taudorf, Ebbe

    2011-10-17

    Terminal chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and advanced cancer have similar prognosis and symptom burden. However, palliative care of patients with terminal COPD has been neglected in Denmark. We describe the symptoms of terminal COPD and suggest criteria for defining the palliative phase of the disease. Furthermore we discuss the prognostic and ethical challenges for patients, their families and their caregivers. Finally, we summarize the current evidence for palliative treatment of dyspnoea and ways to evaluate response to treatment.

  6. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    PubMed

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  7. [Euthanasia, self-determination, and palliative care].

    PubMed

    Schmiedebach, H-P; Woellert, K

    2006-11-01

    Many of the judicial and ethical questions raised by euthanasia are still the subject of controversial discussions. In this context the article broaches the issues of the doctor- patient relationship, patient's right to autonomy, and advance directive. It deals with the present judicial possibilities of euthanasia in Germany with reference to the situation in the Netherlands. Finally, there is an outlook on the role of palliative care and of hospices.

  8. Patient reasoning in palliative surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lindsey K; Goodwin, Julia A; Spencer, Horace J; Guevara, Caesar; Ferrell, Betty; McSweeney, Jean; Badgwell, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the patient reasoning behind treatment choice after palliative surgical consultation. Patients undergoing palliative surgical consultation were prospectively enrolled in this observational cohort study (11/2009-5/2011) and administered an open-ended questionnaire asking for their reasoning in choosing their treatment strategy. Of 98 patients enrolled, 54 were treated non-operatively and 44 with surgery. Patient responses indicating their reason for treatment selection were categorized into (1) quality of life or symptom relief, (2) unclear or response not related to treatment strategy, (3) increase length of life, (4) treat the cancer, (5) concerns over surgical complications, (6) doctor's recommendation, (7) religious reasons for treatment choice, and (8) for family. The most frequently cited reason for treatment selection was symptom relief or quality of life improvement in 46 patients. Thirty-eight patients cited their doctor's recommendation while 20 patients selected their treatment to increase length of life or treat their cancer. Only 2 patients cited concerns over surgical complications as their reason for choosing their treatment strategy. The most common reasons for treatment selection in palliative surgical consultation include symptom relief or improvement in quality of life and the doctor's recommendation with few patients listing concerns over surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Implementation of palliative care in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, J Didi-Kouko; Datie, A-M; Binlin-Dadie, R; Kouame, I; N'guessan, Zc; Barouan, M-C; Koffi, E; Coulibaly, I; Mensah, J; Yenou, H Memain; Dedomey, E; Echimane, Ka; Plo, Kj; Kouassi, B

    2009-05-01

    Ivory Coast adhered to the strategy of the primary cares of health whose leading principles served basis to the definition of the National politics of sanitary development, exposed in the National plan of sanitary development 1996-2005. The improvement of the quality of the cares is the main objective of this plan. The attack of this objective cannot make itself without the hold in account of the palliative cares that are a component of the cares for the patients affected by chronic and incurable affections, since the diagnosis until the death and even after the death. Conscious of the necessity to develop the palliative cares to improve the quality of life of the patients and their families, the ministry in charge of health, in collaboration with the partners to the development, initiated a project of development of the palliative care in Ivory Coast. It is about an innovating gait in Ivory Coast concerning politics of health. This work has for goal to present the big lines and the setting in which this politics has been put in place.

  10. Palliative care interventions in advanced dementia.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Edel; Froggatt, Katherine; Connolly, Sheelah; O'Shea, Eamon; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Casey, Dympna; Devane, Declan

    2016-12-02

    Dementia is a chronic, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease. Advanced dementia is characterised by profound cognitive impairment, inability to communicate verbally and complete functional dependence. Usual care of people with advanced dementia is not underpinned universally by a palliative approach. Palliative care has focused traditionally on care of people with cancer but for more than a decade, there have been increased calls worldwide to extend palliative care services to include all people with life-limiting illnesses in need of specialist care, including people with dementia. To assess the effect of palliative care interventions in advanced dementia and to report on the range of outcome measures used. We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 4 February 2016. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of several major healthcare databases, trial registries and grey literature sources. We ran additional searches across MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), LILACS (BIREME), Web of Science Core Collection (ISI Web of Science), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization ICTRP trial portal to ensure that the searches were as comprehensive and as up-to-date as possible. We searched for randomised (RCT) and non-randomised controlled trials (nRCT), controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies evaluating the impact of palliative care interventions for adults with dementia of any type, staged as advanced dementia by a recognised and validated tool. Participants could be people with advanced dementia, their family members, clinicians or paid care staff. We included clinical interventions and non-clinical interventions. Comparators were usual care or another palliative care intervention. We did not exclude studies on the basis of outcomes measured and recorded all outcomes measured in

  11. Self-management in palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Isobel; Whyte, Fiona; Richardson, Rosemary

    2012-12-01

    Self-management in the palliative care domain means equipping patients and carers to manage medical aspects of illness, managing life roles and allowing adaptation to the changing dynamics brought on by illness and its progression. As well as dealing with the psychological consequences of living with a life-threatening illness in which the aim is to optimise living. This review will consider the rationale for developing and adopting self-management as a model of care. Health policy currently advocates de-investment in traditional approaches to patient management paralleled with a re-engineering of services towards approaches required to underpin self-management care. However, the literature suggests that patients lack a fundamental knowledge and more importantly an understanding of the progression of their illness or what palliative of hospice care is. As a first step, this issue must be addressed in any self-management intervention. In terms of outcomes evidence continues to emerge that when compared with care self-management imparts sustainable understanding in targeted areas and has the potential to create a preventive spend environment. The role of self-management in palliative care requires further elucidation yet based on the evidence which is predominately gleaned from long-term conditions it would seem sensible if not ethical to educate patients/carers to actively be involved in decision making.

  12. Palliative care in patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farbicka, Paulina

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer accounts for 12% of all cancers and has the highest annual rate of mortality in men and women. The overall aim is cure or prolongation of life without evidence of disease. Almost 60% of patients at the moment of diagnosis are not eligible for radical treatment. Therefore soothing and supportive treatment is the only treatment of choice. Patients with lung cancer who have symptoms of dyspnea, chronic cough, severe pain, exhaustion and cachexia syndrome, fear and depression and significantly reduced physical and intellectual activities are qualified for inpatient or home palliative care. Knowledge about various methods used in palliative treatment allows one to alleviate symptoms that occur in an advanced stage of disease with an expected short survival period. Methods of oncological treatment that are often used in patients with advanced lung cancer include radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Drawing attention to the earlier implementation of palliative care is an objective of research carried out during recent years. Advances in surgical and conservative treatment of these patients have contributed to better outcomes and longer survival time. PMID:24596508

  13. Palliative care and pediatric surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Inserra, Alessandro; Narciso, Alessandra; Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Messina, Raffaella; Crocoli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    Survival rate for childhood cancer has increased in recent years, reaching as high as 70% in developed countries compared with 54% for all cancers diagnosed in the 1980s. In the remaining 30%, progression or metastatic disease leads to death and in this framework palliative care has an outstanding role though not well settled in all its facets. In this landscape, surgery has a supportive actor role integrated with other welfare aspects from which are not severable. The definition of surgical palliation has moved from the ancient definition of noncurative surgery to a group of practices performed not to cure but to alleviate an organ dysfunction offering the best quality of life possible in all the aspects of life (pain, dysfunctions, caregivers, psychosocial, etc.). To emphasize this aspect a more modern definition has been introduced: palliative therapy in whose context is comprised not only the care assistance but also the plans of care since the onset of illness, teaching the matter to surgeons in training and share paths. Literature is very poor regarding surgical aspects specifically dedicated and all researches (PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane) with various meshing terms result in a more oncologic and psychosocial effort.

  14. Contradictions and dialectics in the palliative dialogue: enhancing the palliative dialogue by dialectical principles.

    PubMed

    Samson, Tali; Shvartzman, Pesach

    2014-11-01

    The application of required communication skills in the palliative dialogue necessitates a significant transition from the paternalistic medical approach to the holistic psychosocial approach that focuses on the patient and views the individual as a whole entity. Understanding the evolution of a therapeutic relationship in terms of entrance into the relationship, development, maintenance, and leave taking as well as the adoption of dialectical ideas gives palliative caregivers flexibility in the dialogue with patients and families. Accepting the principles of dialectics, in which the existence of contradictions is seen as an inherent part of a reality that is undergoing constant change, gives the caregiver the flexibility to interpret dichotomic thoughts and emotions as a dialectic failure and, in accordance, to move toward a synthesis of the ideas of living and dying. This approach provides caregivers the means to promote the palliative dialogue, implement varied communication skills to clarify the patient's goals, and implement a therapeutic plan to realize them.

  15. A global update on the development of palliative care services.

    PubMed

    Morris, Claire

    2011-10-01

    On World Hospice and Palliative Care Day-8 October 2011-the Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance (WPCA) launched a global update highlighting the progress that has been made in hospice and palliative care over the past 5 years (Lynch et al, 2011; WPCA 2011). Encouragingly, the study shows that there has been a marked increase in the number of countries providing one or more hospice and palliative care services-from 49% of countries in 2006 to 58% in 2011. Here we explore some of the key factors behind this progress, focusing particularly on advocacy and policy.

  16. Flemish palliative care nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia: a quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Gielen, Joris; van den Branden, Stef; van Iersel, Trudie; Broeckaert, Bert

    2009-10-01

    To adequately measure the attitudes of Flemish palliative care nurses toward euthanasia, and assess the relationship between these attitudes and demographic factors and the (perceived) influence of experience in palliative care on death anxiety. An anonymous questionnaire was sent to all nurses (n=589) employed in palliative care in Flanders, Belgium: 70.5% of the nurses (n=415) responded. A majority of the nurses supported the Belgian law regulating euthanasia but also believed that most euthanasia requests disappear as soon as a patient experiences the benefits of good palliative care. Three clusters were discovered: staunch advocates of euthanasia (150 nurses, 41.1%); moderate advocates of euthanasia (135 nurses, 37%); and (moderate) opponents of euthanasia (80 nurses, 21.9%). An absolute opposition between advocates and opponents of euthanasia was not observed. A statistically significant relationship was found between the euthanasia clusters and years of experience in palliative care, and (perceived) influence of experience in palliative care on anxiety when a patient dies. Flemish palliative care nurses' attitudes toward euthanasia are nuanced and contextual. By indicating that most euthanasia requests disappear as soon as a patient experiences the benefits of good palliative care, the nurses applied a 'palliative filter' a standard procedure in the case of a euthanasia request.

  17. Development and implementation of a pediatric palliative care program.

    PubMed

    Pelant, Diane; McCaffrey, Terri; Beckel, Jean

    2012-08-01

    Palliative care, long-used in the adult setting, is new to the pediatric setting. Research indicates that palliative care reduces length of stay and use of aggressive end-of-life interventions, improves quality of life, and provides hope. It balances provision of coordinated care with building of family memories and preparation for the child's death with celebration of the child's life. We advocate implementation of pediatric palliative care in any hospital that cares for children. This article provides a model outlining critical steps and considerations for establishing a successful pediatric palliative care program.

  18. [Multidisciplinary consultation meetings: decision-making in palliative chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Le Divenah, Aude; David, Stéphane; Bertrand, Dominique; Chatel, Tanguy; Viallards, Marcel-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Multidisciplinary consultation meetings provide an opportunity for specialists from different disciplines to engage in formal discussions over diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in oncology. In complex clinical situations, specialists discuss medical decisions collectively, particularly in cases involving palliative chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors considered in multidisciplinary consultation meetings in deciding whether palliative chemotherapy is needed. A study was conducted over a three-month period in an adult hematology department in order to identify the criteria used in weekly multidisciplinary consultation meetings to determine whether palliative chemotherapy is required. The study only included patients who were confirmed to be in the palliative phase by all the doctors present at the multidisciplinary consultation meetings. The criteria cover 5 areas related to patient's characteristics, patients'environment, the disease, scientific data and the objectives of palliative chemotherapy. The criteria considered in 100% of cases were related to the disease, the expected benefits of chemotherapy with palliative intent and patients' characteristics. The least important criteria were related to the patients' environment. Scientific data were not discussed during the multidisciplinary consultation meetings. The results show that the criteria used to determine whether chemotherapy with palliative intent is required are essentially of a medical nature. However, in palliative situations, factors related to patients' environment must be taken into account. In order to meet this requirement, it may be necessary to increase the participation of paramedical professionals and palliative care teams in multidisciplinary consultation meetings and to promote dialogue and collaboration with doctors and coordinating nurses.

  19. Palliative and end of life care in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wentlandt, Kirsten; Weiss, Andrea; O'Connor, Erin; Kaya, Ebru

    2017-10-04

    Palliative care is an interprofessional approach that focuses on quality of life of patients facing life-threatening illness. Palliative care is consistently associated with improvements in advance care planning, patient and caregiver satisfaction, quality of life, symptom burden, and lower health care utilization. Most transplant patients suffer from advanced chronic disease, significant symptom burden, and mortality awaiting transplant. Transplantation introduces new risks including perioperative death, organ rejection, infection, renal insufficiency, and malignancy. Numerous publications over the last decade identify that palliative care is well-suited to support these patients and their caregivers, yet access to palliative care and research within this population is lacking. This review describes palliative care and summarizes existing research supporting palliative intervention in advanced organ failure, and transplant populations. A proposed model to provide palliative care in parallel with disease directed therapy in a transplant program has potential to improve symptom burden, quality of life, and health care utilization. Further studies are needed to elucidate specific benefits of palliative care for this population. In addition, there is tremendous need for education, specifically for clinicians, patients, and families, to improve understanding of palliative care and its benefits for patients with advanced disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Palliative care and neurology: time for a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-08-05

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research.

  1. Assessment of a Statewide Palliative Care Team Training Course: COMFORT Communication for Palliative Care Teams.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Ferrell, Betty; Goldsmith, Joy; Ragan, Sandra L; Paice, Judith

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased attention to communication skill training in palliative care, few interprofessional training programs are available and little is known about the impact of such training. This study evaluated a communication curriculum offered to interprofessional palliative care teams and examined the longitudinal impact of training. Interprofessional, hospital-based palliative care team members were competitively selected to participate in a two-day training using the COMFORT(TM SM) (Communication, Orientation and options, Mindful communication, Family, Openings, Relating, Team) Communication for Palliative Care Teams curriculum. Course evaluation and goal assessment were tracked at six and nine months postcourse. Interprofessional palliative care team members (n = 58) representing 29 teams attended the course and completed course goals. Participants included 28 nurses, 16 social workers, 8 physicians, 5 chaplains, and one psychologist. Precourse surveys assessed participants' perceptions of institution-wide communication performance across the continuum of care and resources supporting optimum communication. Postcourse evaluations and goal progress monitoring were used to assess training effectiveness. Participants reported moderate communication effectiveness in their institutions, with the weakest areas being during bereavement and survivorship care. Mean response to course evaluation across all participants was greater than 4 (scale of 1 = low to 5 = high). Participants taught an additional 962 providers and initiated institution-wide training for clinical staff, new hires, and volunteers. Team member training improved communication processes and increased attention to communication with family caregivers. Barriers to goal implementation included a lack of institutional support as evidenced in clinical caseloads and an absence of leadership and funding. The COMFORT(TM SM) communication curriculum is effective palliative care communication

  2. [Use of music in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Skrbina, Dijana; Simunović, Dubravka; Santek, Vjerocka; Njegovan-Zvonarević, Tatjana

    2011-12-01

    Man is mortal, which means that as the earthly body perishes being, final. Disease and death will always be an inevitable and integral part of human experience. The way in which we try to identify and respond to the unique and individual needs of the dying is an indication of our maturity as a society. The number of people requiring palliative care is growing. Palliative care does not intend to either accelerate or postpone death she emphasizes the life and looks at dying as a normal process. It is an active form of care for patients with advanced, progressive illness, with the aim of suppressing pain and other symptoms in addition to providing psychological, social and spiritual support which ensures the best possible quality of life for patients and their families. Therefore requires a coordinated and interdisciplinary contribution team. The variety of professions in a team, and determine the needs of patients should be ready to provide physical, psychological, social and spiritual support using methods that result from an interdisciplinary, collaborative team approach. Development of a holistic approach and awareness in the medical and allied professions has led to a renewal of interest in the inclusion of music and other expressive media in contemporary concepts of palliative care, which are consistent with problem areas, clinical manifestations and the needs of patients. Music offers a direct and uncomplicated medium of intimacy, living in a man who listens to her, has a place where words lose their power. Music is like our existence, constantly polarizing and emotionally stimulating, as it touches the medium of the earliest layers of our becoming. The use of music in palliative care has proved very effective for a variety of effects that music creates in patients. These effects are achieved through the use of various musical techniques, such as musical improvisation, songwriting, receiving creative techniques, guided by imagination and music. These techniques

  3. The Changing Role of Palliative Care in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Aslakson, Rebecca A.; Curtis, J. Randall; Nelson, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Palliative care is an interprofessional specialty as well as an approach to care by all clinicians caring for patients with serious and complex illness. Unlike hospice, palliative care is based not on prognosis but on need and is an essential component of comprehensive care for critically ill patients from the time of ICU admission. In this clinically focused article, we review evidence of opportunities to improve palliative care for critically ill adults, summarize strategies for ICU palliative care improvement, and identify resources to support implementation. Data Sources We searched the MEDLINE database from inception through January 2014. We also searched the Reference Library of The Improving Palliative Care in the ICU Project website sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the Center to Advance Palliative Care, which is updated monthly. We hand-searched reference lists and author files. Study Selection Selected studies included all English-language articles concerning adult patients using the search terms "intensive care" or "critical care" with "palliative care," "supportive care," "end-of-life care," or "ethics." Data Extraction After examination of peer-reviewed original scientific articles, consensus statements, guidelines, and reviews resulting from our literature search, we made final selections based on author consensus. Data Synthesis Existing evidence is organized to address: 1) opportunities to alleviate physical and emotional symptoms, improve communication, and provide support for patients and families; 2) models and specific interventions for improving ICU palliative care; 3) available resources for ICU palliative care improvement; and 4) ongoing challenges and targets for future research. Key domains of ICU palliative care have been defined and operationalized as measures of quality. There is increasing recognition that effective integration of palliative care during acute and chronic critical illness may help patients and

  4. Teleconsultation for integrated palliative care at home: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    van Gurp, Jelle; van Selm, Martine; van Leeuwen, Evert; Vissers, Kris; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2016-03-01

    Interprofessional consultation contributes to symptom control for home-based palliative care patients and improves advance care planning. Distance and travel time, however, complicate the integration of primary care and specialist palliative care. Expert online audiovisual teleconsultations could be a method for integrating palliative care services. This study aims to describe (1) whether and how teleconsultation supports the integration of primary care, specialist palliative care, and patient perspectives and services and (2) how patients and (in)formal caregivers experience collaboration in a teleconsultation approach. This work consists of a qualitative study that utilizes long-term direct observations and in-depth interviews. A total of 18 home-based palliative care patients (16 with cancer, 2 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; age range 24-85 years old), 12 hospital-based specialist palliative care team clinicians, and 17 primary care physicians. Analysis showed that the introduction of specialist palliative care team-patient teleconsultation led to collaboration between primary care physicians and specialist palliative care team clinicians in all 18 cases. In 17/18 cases, interprofessional contact was restricted to backstage work after teleconsultation. In one deviant case, both the patient and the professionals were simultaneously connected through teleconsultation. Two themes characterized integrated palliative care at home as a consequence of teleconsultation: (1) professionals defining responsibility and (2) building interprofessional rapport. Specialist palliative care team teleconsultation with home-based patients leads to collaboration between primary care physicians and hospital-based palliative care specialists. Due to cultural reasons, most collaboration was of a multidisciplinary character, strongly relying on organized backstage work. Interdisciplinary teleconsultations with real-time contact between patient and both professionals were

  5. Facilitators and barriers for GP–patient communication in palliative care: a qualitative study among GPs, patients, and end-of-life consultants

    PubMed Central

    Slort, Willemjan; Blankenstein, Annette H; Deliens, Luc; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective communication is considered to be essential for the delivery of high-quality care. Communication in palliative care may be particularly difficult, and there is still no accepted set of communication skills for GPs in providing palliative care. Aim To obtain detailed information on facilitators and barriers for GP–patient communication in palliative care, with the aim to develop training programmes that enable GPs to improve their palliative care communication skills. Design of study Qualitative study with focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. Setting GPs with patients receiving palliative care at home, and end-of-life consultants in the Netherlands. Method GP (n = 20) focus groups discussing facilitators and barriers, palliative care patient (n = 6) interviews regarding facilitators, and end-of-life consultant (n = 22) questionnaires concerning barriers. Results Facilitators reported by both GPs and patients were accessibility, taking time, commitment, and listening carefully. GPs emphasise respect, while patients want GPs to behave in a friendly way, and to take the initiative to discuss end-of-life issues. Barriers reported by both GPs and end-of-life consultants were: difficulty in dealing with former doctors' delay and strong demands from patients' relatives. GPs report difficulty in dealing with strong emotions and troublesome doctor–patient relationships, while consultants report insufficient clarification of patients' problems, promises that could not be kept, helplessness, too close involvement, and insufficient anticipation of various scenarios. Conclusion The study findings suggest that the quality of GP–patient communication in palliative care in the Netherlands can be improved. It is recommended that specific communication training programmes for GPs should be developed and evaluated. PMID:21439174

  6. Poverty Reduction in India through Palliative Care: A Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Cathy; Thyle, Ann; Duomai, Savita; Manak, Manju

    2017-01-01

    EMMS International and Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) implemented a pilot project, poverty reduction in India through palliative care (PRIPCare). A total of 129 interviews with patients and family enrolled in palliative care at three EHA hospitals (in Fatehpur, Lalitpur and Utraula) and staff discussions established that 66% of palliative care patients had lost livelihoods due to illness, 26% of patients' families had members who had lost livelihoods due to the illness, 98% of enrolled households had debts, 59% had loans for which they had sold assets, 69% of households took out debt after their family member fell ill, many patients do not know about government benefits and lack necessary documents, many village headmen require bribes to give people access to benefits, and many bereaved women and children lose everything. Palliative care enabled 85% of patients and families to spend less on medicines, 31% of patients received free medicines, all patients reduced use of out-patient departments (OPDs), 20% reduced use of inpatient departments (IPDs), and therefore spent less on travel, 8% of patients had started earning again due to improved health, members of 10% of families started earning again, and one hospital educated 171 village headmen and increased by 5% the number of patients and their families receiving government benefits. If only 0.7% of needy adults are receiving palliative care, these benefits could be delivered to 143 times more families, targeted effectively at poverty reduction. Palliative care has great scope to reduce that most desperate poverty in India caused by chronic illness. This article concerns a study by the UK NGO EMMS International and Indian NGO EHA, to assess whether palliative care reduces household poverty. EHA staff had noticed that many patients spend a lot on ineffective treatment before joining palliative care, many families do not know their entitlement to government healthcare subsidies or government pensions, and many

  7. Delaying obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-04-01

    This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council.

  8. Transforming children's palliative care-from ideas to action: highlights from the first ICPCN conference on children's palliative care.

    PubMed

    Downing, J; Marston, J; Muckaden, Ma; Boucher, S; Cardoz, M; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Talawadekar, P; Tilve, P

    2014-01-01

    The International Children's Palliative Care Network (ICPCN) held its first international conference on children's palliative care, in conjunction with Tata Memorial Centre, in Mumbai, India, from 10-12 February 2014. The theme of the conference, Transforming children's palliative care-from ideas to action, reflected the vision of the ICPCN to live in a world where every child who needs it, can access palliative care, regardless of where they live. Key to this is action, to develop service provision and advocate for children's palliative care. Three pre-conference workshops were held on 9 February, aimed at doctors, nurses, social workers, and volunteers, and focused around the principles of children's palliative care, and in particular pain and symptom management. The conference brought together 235 participants representing 38 countries. Key themes identified throughout the conference included: the need for advocacy and leadership; for education and research, with great strides having been taken in the development of an evidence base for children's palliative care, along with the provision of education; the importance of communication and attention to spirituality in children, and issues around clinical care, in particular for neonates. Delegates were continually challenged to transform children's palliative care in their parts of the world and the conference culminated in the signing of the ICPCN Mumbai Declaration. The Declaration calls upon governments around the world to improve access to quality children's palliative care services and made a call on the Belgian government not to pass a bill allowing children to be euthanised in that country. The conference highlighted many of the ongoing developments in children's palliative care around the world, and as she closed the conference, Joan Marston (ICPCN CEO) challenged participants to take positive action and be the champions that the children need, thus transforming children's palliative care.

  9. Reporting of Pediatric Palliative Care: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Analysis of Research Publications in Palliative Care Journals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil P

    2011-01-01

    Context: Pediatric palliative care clinical practice depends upon an evidence-based decision-making process which in turn is based upon current research evidence. Aims: This study aimed to perform a quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals for reporting characteristics of articles on pediatric palliative care. Settings and Design: This was a systematic review of palliative care journals. Materials and Methods: Twelve palliative care journals were searched for articles with “paediatric” or “children” in titles of the articles published from 2006 to 2010. The reporting rates of all journals were compared. The selected articles were categorized into practice, education, research, and administration, and subsequently grouped into original and review articles. The original articles were subgrouped into qualitative and quantitative studies, and the review articles were grouped into narrative and systematic reviews. Each subgroup of original articles’ category was further classified according to study designs. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analysis using frequencies and percentiles was done using SPSS for Windows, version 11.5. Results: The overall reporting rate among all journals was 2.66% (97/3634), and Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing (JHPN) had the highest reporting rate of 12.5% (1/8), followed by Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care (JSWELPC) with a rate of 7.5% (5/66), and Journal of Palliative Care (JPC) with a rate of 5.33% (11/206). Conclusions: The overall reporting rate for pediatric palliative care articles in palliative care journals was very low and there were no randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews found. The study findings indicate a lack of adequate evidence base for pediatric palliative care. PMID:22347775

  10. Reporting of pediatric palliative care: a systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil P

    2011-09-01

    Pediatric palliative care clinical practice depends upon an evidence-based decision-making process which in turn is based upon current research evidence. This study aimed to perform a quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals for reporting characteristics of articles on pediatric palliative care. This was a systematic review of palliative care journals. Twelve palliative care journals were searched for articles with "paediatric" or "children" in titles of the articles published from 2006 to 2010. The reporting rates of all journals were compared. The selected articles were categorized into practice, education, research, and administration, and subsequently grouped into original and review articles. The original articles were subgrouped into qualitative and quantitative studies, and the review articles were grouped into narrative and systematic reviews. Each subgroup of original articles' category was further classified according to study designs. Descriptive analysis using frequencies and percentiles was done using SPSS for Windows, version 11.5. The overall reporting rate among all journals was 2.66% (97/3634), and Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing (JHPN) had the highest reporting rate of 12.5% (1/8), followed by Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life and Palliative Care (JSWELPC) with a rate of 7.5% (5/66), and Journal of Palliative Care (JPC) with a rate of 5.33% (11/206). The overall reporting rate for pediatric palliative care articles in palliative care journals was very low and there were no randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews found. The study findings indicate a lack of adequate evidence base for pediatric palliative care.

  11. Program assessment framework for a rural palliative supportive service.

    PubMed

    Pesut, Barbara; Hooper, Brenda; Sawatzky, Richard; Robinson, Carole A; Bottorff, Joan L; Dalhuisen, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Although there are a number of quality frameworks available for evaluating palliative services, it is necessary to adapt these frameworks to models of care designed for the rural context. The purpose of this paper was to describe the development of a program assessment framework for evaluating a rural palliative supportive service as part of a community-based research project designed to enhance the quality of care for patients and families living with life-limiting chronic illness. A review of key documents from electronic databases and grey literature resulted in the identification of general principles for high-quality palliative care in rural contexts. These principles were then adapted to provide an assessment framework for the evaluation of the rural palliative supportive service. This framework was evaluated and refined using a community-based advisory committee guiding the development of the service. The resulting program assessment framework includes 48 criteria organized under seven themes: embedded within community; palliative care is timely, comprehensive, and continuous; access to palliative care education and experts; effective teamwork and communication; family partnerships; policies and services that support rural capacity and values; and systematic approach for measuring and improving outcomes of care. It is important to identify essential elements for assessing the quality of services designed to improve rural palliative care, taking into account the strengths of rural communities and addressing common challenges. The program assessment framework has potential to increase the likelihood of desired outcomes in palliative care provisions in rural settings and requires further validation.

  12. Palliative Care: Improving Nursing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors
.

    PubMed

    Harden, Karen; Price, Deborah; Duffy, Elizabeth; Galunas, Laura; Rodgers, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Oncology nurses affect patient care at every point along the cancer journey. This creates the perfect opportunity to educate patients and caregivers about palliative care early and often throughout treatment. However, healthcare providers frequently do not have the knowledge and confidence to engage in meaningful conversations about palliative care.
. The specific aims were to improve oncology nurses' palliative care knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors by providing a palliative care nursing education program. An additional aim was to increase the number of conversations with patients and families about palliative care.
. This project had a pre-/post-test design to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors at baseline and one month after implementation of an established education curriculum. The teaching strategy included one four-hour class for oncology RNs with topics about the definition of palliative care, pain and symptom management, and how to have palliative care conversations.
. Results showed a statistically significant difference after the educational intervention for knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The number of conversations with patients and caregivers about palliative and end-of-life care increased significantly.

  13. Palliative Care in Surgery: Defining the Research Priorities.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Elizabeth J; Cooper, Zara; Schwarze, Margaret L; Mosenthal, Anne C

    2017-03-24

    Given the acute and often life-limiting nature of surgical illness, as well as the potential for treatment to induce further suffering, surgical patients have considerable palliative care needs. Yet, these patients are less likely to receive palliative care than their medical counterparts and palliative care consultations often occur when death is imminent, reflecting poor quality end-of-life care. Surgical patients would likely benefit from early palliative care delivered alongside surgical treatment to promote goal-concordant decision making and to improve patients' physical, emotional, social, and spiritual well-being and quality of life. To date, evidence to support the role of palliative care in surgical practice is sparse and palliative care research in surgery is encumbered by methodological challenges and entrenched cultural norms that impede appropriate provision of palliative care. The objective of this article was to describe the existing science of palliative care in surgery within three priority areas and expose specific gaps within the field. We propose a research agenda to address these gaps and provide a road map for future investigation.

  14. Are Undergraduate Nurses Taught Palliative Care during Their Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Field, David

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 46 of 108 nurse educators in the United Kingdom indicated that diploma students received a mean of 7.8 hours and degree students 12.2 hours of palliative care training. Although 82% believed it should be a core component, 67% had difficulty finding qualified teachers. Palliative care knowledge was not formally assessed in most…

  15. Incorporating the Arts and Humanities in Palliative Medicine Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Lucille R.

    2006-01-01

    The arts and humanities allow the teaching of palliative medicine to come alive by exploring what is often regarded as the most frightening outcome of the illness experience--death and dying. Palliative medicine focuses on the relief of suffering, but how can suffering be understood if the story of the patient is not told through prose, poetry,…

  16. Comprehensive care: palliative care and legal services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Tamar; Marston, Joan

    2007-12-01

    A fundamental and neglected part of the global response to HIV and AIDS, palliative care is also a critical entry-point for legal services. As Tamar Ezer and Joan Marston write, providing legal services to patients in palliative care can both protect human rights and improve health outcomes.

  17. [The main missions of the National Palliative Care Resource Centre].

    PubMed

    Doré-Pautonnier, Delphine; Baussant-Crenn, Camille; Frattini, Marie-Odile; Mino, Jean-Christophe; Rennesson, Marina

    2011-09-01

    The French National Palliative Care Resource Centre (CNDR) provides people impacted by the end of life, death and bereavement with a range of constantly evolving services. Spreading the palliative approach in order to enable everyone to benefit from it and appropriate it constitutes the main mission of the CNDR.

  18. [Extending the palliative approach across the French health system].

    PubMed

    Mino, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The care provision for people at the end of life requires a palliative care approach to be extended across the whole healthcare system. Access to palliative care for everyone requires training for professionals, support for specialised structures and teams as well as clear political will.

  19. The multidisciplinary team in palliative care: a case reflection.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Liza

    2014-05-01

    This essay is a reflection on the multidisciplinary team in palliative care, from the perspective of a final year MBBS student from the UK spending one month with an Indian pain and palliative care team at Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital (IRCH), AIIMS, New Delhi.

  20. Pastoral care, spirituality, and religion in palliative care journals.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Maaike A; ten Have, Henk A M J

    2004-01-01

    With the growth and development of palliative care, interest in pastoral care, spirituality, and religion also seems to be growing. The aim of this article is to review the topic of pastoral care, spirituality, and religion appearing in the journals of palliative care, between January 1984 and January 2002.

  1. Palliative medicine and smartphones: an opportunity for innovation?

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Amara Callistus; Mason, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    The use of smartphones and their software applications (apps) provides health professionals with opportunities to integrate technology into clinical practice. Increasing numbers of work-related apps are available to health professionals, especially in certain specialties such as orthopaedics. However, so far the availability of apps specific to palliative medicine is limited. To review all smartphone apps targeted at health professionals within palliative medicine and available for the five most popular operating systems (iPhone, Blackberry, Android, Palm and Windows) . Each smartphone app store was systematically searched with a combination of the following keywords: palliative, pain, cancer, symptoms, medicine. Identified apps were purchased and tested to determine if their title and/or description was relevant to palliative care. Six apps specific to palliative medicine were identified across all five operating systems. These consisted of blog orientated apps (Pallimed and Geripal), an app containing guidelines from eight cancer networks (PalliApp), an educational app (Palliative Care) and opioid dose converter apps (eOpioid and PalliCalc). There is a lack of palliative medicine specific resources for smartphones and no studies have been published which examine the potential benefits of mobile technology for learning, clinical practice and professional development. This provides an opportunity for further research and development. Academic institutions could work with technological developers to improve access to, and dissemination of, key information for practice. Considered development of mobile technology has the potential to improve patient care, data sharing and education within the palliative medicine specialty.

  2. The palliative care interdisciplinary team: where is the community pharmacist?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Moira; Pugh, Judith; Jiwa, Moyez; Hughes, Jeff; Fisher, Colleen

    2011-01-01

    Palliative care emphasizes an interdisciplinary approach to care to improve quality of life and relieve symptoms. Palliative care is provided in many ways; in hospices, hospital units, and the community. However, the greatest proportion of palliative care is in the community. In hospice and palliative care units in hospitals, clinical pharmacists are part of the interdisciplinary team and work closely with other health care professionals. Their expertise in the therapeutic use of medications is highly regarded, particularly as many palliative care patients have complex medication regimens, involving off-label or off-license prescribing that increases their risk for drug-related problems. However, this active involvement in the palliative care team is not reflected in the community setting, despite the community pharmacist being one of the most accessible professionals in the community, and visiting a community pharmacist is convenient for most people, even those who have limited access to private or public transport. This may be due to a general lack of understanding of skills and knowledge that particular health professionals bring to the interdisciplinary team, a lack of rigorous research supporting the necessity for the community pharmacist's involvement in the team, or it could be due to professional tensions. If these barriers can be overcome, community pharmacists are well positioned to become active members of the community palliative care interdisciplinary team and respond to the palliative care needs of patients with whom they often have a primary relationship.

  3. Pediatric nurses' attitudes toward hospice and pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice A; Madden, Vanessa; Wang, Hua; Kassing, Kristin; Curtis, Charlotte; Sloyer, Phyllis; Shenkman, Elizabeth A

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have investigated nurses' attitudes toward hospice and palliative care for adults, yet little information exists about pediatrics. Assessing pediatric nurses' attitudes is especially important in Florida, where a publicly funded pediatric palliative care program operates in eight cities across the State. The aims of this study were 1) to assess the attitudes toward hospice and palliative care, and 2) to examine the associations between sociodemographic and nursing care factors and nurses' attitudes toward hospice and palliative care. A cross-sectional research design using online and mail-in survey data was used to address the study aims. Surveys were conducted with 279 pediatric nurses across Florida. Bivariate results showed there were significant differences between the attitudes of pediatric nurses employed in a city with a pediatric palliative care program versus those not employed in a program site (p = 0.05). Multivariate analyses also showed that being employed in a program site increased attitudinal scores toward hospice and pediatric palliative care by 0.6 points. Beyond being employed in an area city where a pediatric palliative care program operates, results also suggest that having prior training in palliative care could alter nurses' attitudes, which might subsequently lead to increased referrals and improved outcomes for children and families.

  4. Lung cancer physicians' referral practices for palliative care consultation.

    PubMed

    Smith, C B; Nelson, J E; Berman, A R; Powell, C A; Fleischman, J; Salazar-Schicchi, J; Wisnivesky, J P

    2012-02-01

    Integration of palliative care with standard oncologic care improves quality of life and survival of lung cancer patients. We surveyed physicians to identify factors influencing their decisions for referral to palliative care. We provided a self-administered questionnaire to physicians caring for lung cancer patients at five medical centers. The questionnaire asked about practices and views with respect to palliative care referral. We used multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of low referral rates (<25%). Of 155 physicians who returned survey responses, 75 (48%) reported referring <25% of patients for palliative care consultation. Multivariate analysis, controlling for provider characteristics, found that low referral rates were associated with physicians' concerns that palliative care referral would alarm patients and families [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.98], while the belief that palliative care specialists have more time to discuss complex issues (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.56-6.02) was associated with higher rates of referral. Although palliative care consultation is increasingly available and recommended throughout the trajectory of lung cancer, our data indicate it is underutilized. Understanding factors influencing decisions to refer can be used to improve integration of palliative care as part of lung cancer management.

  5. Intention, procedure, outcome and personhood in palliative sedation and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Materstvedt, Lars Johan

    2012-03-01

    Palliative sedation at the end of life has become an important last-resort treatment strategy for managing refractory symptoms as well as a topic of controversy within palliative care. Furthermore, palliative sedation is prominent in the public debate about the possible legalisation of voluntary assisted dying (physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia). This article attempts to demonstrate that palliative sedation is fundamentally different from euthanasia when it comes to intention, procedure, outcome and the status of the person. Nonetheless, palliative sedation in its most radical form of terminal deep sedation parallels euthanasia in one respect: both end the experience of suffering. However, only the latter intentionally ends life and also has this as its goal. There is the danger that deep sedation could bring death forward in time due to particular side effects of the treatment. Still that would, if it happens, not be intended, and accordingly is defensible in view of the doctrine of double effect.

  6. Vulnerability, disability, and palliative end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Stienstra, Deborah; Chochinov, Harvey Max

    2006-01-01

    Palliative care has paid exceedingly little attention to the needs of disabled people nearing the end of life. It is often assumed that these individuals, like all patients with little time left to live, arrive at palliative care with various needs and vulnerabilities that by and large, can be understood and accommodated within routine standards of practice. However, people with longstanding disabilities have lived with and continue to experience various forms of prejudice, bias, disenfranchisement, and devaluation. Each of these impose heightened vulnerability, requiring an honest, thoughtful, yet difficult revisiting of the standard model of palliative care. A proposed Vulnerability Model of Palliative Care attempts to incorporate the realities of life with disability and how a contextualized understanding of vulnerability can inform how we approach quality, compassionate palliative care for marginalized persons approaching death.

  7. Pediatric palliative care: starting a hospital-based program.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kaye

    2011-01-01

    The value of palliative care in pediatrics has received significant attention over the past 10 years. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Institute of Medicine published recommendations involving children who have a life-limiting diagnosis in a palliative care program early in their disease process. Palliative care is intended to assure an emphasis on quality of life in addition to the current medical treatment, which may be focused on cure, symptom management, and/or end-of-life care. This article describes one hospital's experience in planning, implementing, and managing a pediatric palliative care program. Implementing a hospital-based palliative care program in a children's hospital can be accomplished through careful planning and analysis of need. Writing an official business plan formalized the request for organizational support for this program, including the mission and vision, plans for how services would be provided, expected financial implications, and initial plans for evaluation of success.

  8. Pediatric End-of-Life Issues and Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Michelson, Kelly Nicole; Steinhorn, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Optimizing the quality of medical care at the end of life has achieved national status as an important health care goal. Palliative care, a comprehensive approach to treating the physical, psychosocial and spiritual needs of patients and their families facing life-limiting illnesses, requires the coordinated efforts of a multidisciplinary group of caregivers. Understanding the basic principles of palliative care can aid emergency department staff in identifying patients who could benefit from palliative care services and in managing the challenging situations that arise when such patients present to the hospital for care. In this article we present the overall philosophy of pediatric palliative care, describe key elements of quality palliative care, and identify additional referral sources readers can access for more information. PMID:18438449

  9. Palliative medicine in the surgical intensive care unit and trauma.

    PubMed

    Toevs, Christine C

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of palliative medicine is to prevent and relieve suffering and to help patients and their families set informed goals of care and treatment. Palliative medicine can be provided along with life-prolonging treatment or as the main focus of treatment. Increasingly, palliative medicine has a role in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and trauma. Data show involving palliative medicine in the SICU results in decreased length of stay, improved communication with families and patients, and earlier setting of goals of care, without increasing mortality. The use of triggers for palliative medicine consultation improves patient-centered care in the SICU. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The paradox of palliative care nursing across cultural boundaries.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Jacqueline

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study, using a modified grounded theory approach, was to investigate how palliative care nurses care for people from cultural backgrounds other than their own. Ten palliative care nurses were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Analysis commenced as soon as data began to emerge. The findings show that palliative nursing across cultural boundaries is paradoxical. In endeavouring to treat everyone equally, nurses treated everyone as individuals. They made intense efforts to transcend both cultural and language barriers. The nurses gave of themselves when caring for the patients, but their endeavours were impeded by limited resources and a lack of education. The theory of cross-cultural endeavour in palliative nursing was developed to explain how palliative care nurses care for patients from cultures other than their own.

  11. Developing organisational ethics in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Sandman, Lars; Molander, Ulla; Benkel, Inger

    2017-03-01

    Palliative carers constantly face ethical problems. There is lack of organised support for the carers to handle these ethical problems in a consistent way. Within organisational ethics, we find models for moral deliberation and for developing organisational culture; however, they are not combined in a structured way to support carers' everyday work. The aim of this study was to describe ethical problems faced by palliative carers and develop an adapted organisational set of values to support the handling of these problems. Ethical problems were mapped out using focus groups and content analysis. The organisational culture were developed using normative analysis and focus group methodology within a participatory action research approach. Main participants and research context: A total of 15 registered nurses and 10 assistant nurses at a palliative unit (with 19 patient beds) at a major University Hospital in Sweden. Ethical considerations: The study followed standard ethics guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. We found six categories of ethical problems (with the main focus on problems relating to the patient's loved ones) and five categories of organisational obstacles. Based on these findings, we developed a set of values in three levels: a general level, an explanatory level and a level of action strategies. The ethical problems found corresponded to problems in other studies with a notable exception, the large focus on patient loved ones. The three-level set of values is a way to handle risks of formulating abstract values not providing guidance in concrete care voiced in other studies. Developing a three-level set of values adapted to the specific ethical problems in a concrete care setting is a first step towards a better handling of ethical problems.

  12. [Radionuclides for metastatic bone pain palliation].

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr

    2002-10-01

    The paper overviews the role of systemic radionuclide therapy in patients with disseminated bone metastases. Most patients with bone metastases experience painful symptoms. Systemic radioisotope therapy is an alternative to traditional hemibody radiation in cases of multiple, diffuse metastases. Usually given as a single i.v. slow infusion it provides a pain relief beginning in one to three weeks, with a mean duration up to several months, depending on the kind of radioisotope applied. The paper overviews the role of unsealed source therapy with these bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in palliating pain, improving quality of life, indications, contraindications and complications of this therapy are discussed, as well as cost-benefit aspects.

  13. [Active euthanasia or better palliative therapy?].

    PubMed

    Csef, H

    1998-02-28

    The Dutch Supreme Court ruled that in exceptional instances, physician-assisted suicide might be justifiable for patients with unbearable mental suffering but no physical illness. A recent report shows that explicit requests for physician-assisted suicide are not uncommon in psychiatric practice in the Netherlands. Some of those requests were granted and their medical background was described. Psychiatric consultation for medical patients who request physician-assisted suicide is relatively rare. Therefore is seems to be necessary to establish better palliative care for the terminally ill. When psychiatrists help their patients to commit suicide there is a danger of abuse and "slippery slope".

  14. The role of embolization in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Broadley, K E; Kurowska, A; Dick, R; Platts, A; Tookman, A

    1995-10-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization (TCAE) is a well recognized radiological technique that has been used for over 25 years. It is a method of diminishing blood flow through selected vessels by inserting haemostatic material under angiographic control. The procedure is performed under local anaesthetic through a femoral or, occasionally, an axillary approach. We present our experience of the use of TCAE in the management of pain and haemorrhage in three hospice inpatients in whom other options had been exhausted. The use of TCAE as a technique for the palliation of these symptoms in the hospice setting is discussed.

  15. Barriers and Facilitators to Scaling Up Outpatient Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Bekelman, David B; Rabin, Borsika A; Nowels, Carolyn T; Sahay, Anju; Heidenreich, Paul A; Fischer, Stacy M; Main, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends people with serious advanced illness have access to skilled palliative care. However, the predominant delivery model of nonhospice palliative care is inpatient, consultative care focused on the end of life, with a small specialist palliative care workforce. The study objective was to understand organizational factors that could influence the adoption and scale-up of outpatient palliative care in chronic advanced illness, using the example of heart failure. This was a cross-sectional qualitative study. Participants were 17 health care providers and local, regional, and national health system leaders from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) who were considering whether and how to adopt and sustain outpatient palliative care. Individual interviews using semistructured questions assessed domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Science. Most providers and leaders perceived outpatient palliative care as high priority in the VHA given its patient-centeredness and potential to decrease health care use and costs associated with conditions like heart failure. They also supported a collaborative care team model of outpatient palliative care delivery where a palliative care specialist collaborates with medical nurses and social workers. They reported lack of performance measures/incentives for patient-centered care processes and outcomes as a potential barrier to implementation. Features of outpatient palliative care viewed as important for successful adoption and scale-up included coordination and communication with other providers, ease of integration into existing programs, and evidence of improving quality of care while not substantially increasing overall health care costs. Incentives such as performance measures and collaboration with local VHA providers and leaders could improve adoption and scale-up of outpatient palliative care.

  16. MASCC/ESMO/EAPC survey of palliative programs.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mellar P; Strasser, Florian; Cherny, Nathan; Levan, Norman

    2015-07-01

    Palliative care program structure is important to integrating palliative services into cancer care. A first step in understanding the structure of palliative care programs is to survey existing programs. This data was generated from members of MASCC, the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO), and the European Association of Palliative Care (EAPC) who completed the surveys on the website. A survey questionnaire was developed using the survey tool developed by Dr. Hui and colleagues by permission which was modified for the purposes of this study. Findings were described in number and percentages. Inferential statistics involved the Fisher's exact test for factors with two levels, chi-Square test for unordered categorical factors with greater than two levels, Cochran-Armitage trend test for ordered categorical factors, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test for measured factors. Sixty-two program leaders completed the survey. Most programs had been in existence greater than 5 years and were led by oncology trained physicians who had an additional specialty. Most programs had consultative services and outpatient clinics with fewer having inpatient beds and institutionally associated hospices. Most programs provided patient continuity. Patients were generally seen late in the course of illness with the average survival of 23 days when seen as inpatients and 40 days when seen as outpatients. Less than half had palliative care fellowship training programs. Most had research structures in place. These findings differ from results reported in a previous survey which may reflect a European palliative care program structure. However, there were similarities which include a high inpatient palliative care unit mortality and short survival of patients seen as outpatients, indicating that referrals to palliative care occur late in the course of cancer. This study not only differs in some respects to a previous survey of palliative care programs but also confirms the late referral

  17. Hamlet's delay.

    PubMed

    Dendy, E B

    2001-01-01

    This paper raises a question about Freud's understanding of Hamlet and offers a fresh psychoanalytic perspective on the play, emphasizing the psychological use made of Hamlet by the audience. It suggests Hamlet and Claudius both serve as sacrificial objects, scapegoats, for the audience, embodying, through a mechanism of both identification and disidentification, the fulfillment, punishment, and renunciation of the audience's forbidden (i.e. Oedipal) wishes. The play is thus seen to represent unconsciously a rite of sacrifice in which both Claudius and Hamlet, both the father and the son, are led, albeit circuitously, to the slaughter. The need for delay on the part of Hamlet is thus seen to arise not merely from Hamlet's psychology, whatever the audience may project onto it, but ultimately from the function (both sadistic and defensive) that the sacrificial spectacle, the play as a whole, serves for the audience. The paper also speculates somewhat on the role of tragic heroes and heroines in general, and points to the unconscious collusion that permits author and audience to make use of them. Finally, in an addendum, the paper discusses the work of René Girard, a nonpsychoanalytic thinker whose ideas nonetheless are somewhat similar to those presented here.

  18. Children's palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children's palliative care, 18-21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children's Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children's palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th-21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was 'Children's Palliative Care…. Now!' emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children's palliative care, and hidden aspects of children's palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children's palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children's palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children's palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The 'Big Debate' explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children's palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW.

  19. Children’s palliative care now! Highlights from the second ICPCN conference on children’s palliative care, 18–21 May 2016, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Downing, J; Kiman, R; Boucher, S; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Marston, C; Lascar, E; Marston, J

    2016-01-01

    The International Children’s Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children’s palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th–21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was ‘Children’s Palliative Care…. Now!’ emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children’s palliative care, and hidden aspects of children’s palliative care. The conference brought together 410 participants from 40 countries. Plenary, concurrent, and poster presentations covered issues around the status of children’s palliative care, genetics, perinatal and neonatal palliative care, the impact of children’s palliative care and the experiences of parents and volunteers, palliative care as a human right, education in children’s palliative care, managing complex pain in children, spiritual care and when to initiate palliative care. The ‘Big Debate’ explored issues around decision-making and end of life care in children, and gave participants the opportunity to explore a sensitive and thought provoking topic. At the end of the conference, delegates were urged to sign the Commitment of Buenos Aires which called for governments to implement the WHA resolution and ensure access to palliative care for neonates, children and their families, and also commits us as palliative care providers to share all that we can and collaborate with each other to achieve the global vision of palliative care for all children who need it. The conference highlighted the ongoing issues in children’s palliative care and participants were continually challenged to ensure that children can access palliative care NOW. PMID:27610193

  20. Japanese Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Palliative Care Units and Palliative Care: J-HOPE Study Results.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Miyazaki, Tamana; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The study purpose was to understand the perspectives of bereaved family members regarding palliative care unit (PCU) and palliative care and to compare perceptions of PCU before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, and the perceptions of 454 and 424 bereaved family members were obtained regarding PCU and palliative care, respectively. Family members were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions after bereavement (ranging from 73% to 80%) compared to before admission (ranging from 62% to 71%). Bereaved family members who were satisfied with medical care in the PCU had a positive perception of the PCU and palliative care after bereavement. Respondents younger than 65 years of age were significantly more likely to have negative perceptions of PCU and palliative care.

  1. Improving the integration of palliative care in a comprehensive oncology center: increasing primary care referrals to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Hydeman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Confronted with the complexities inherent in delivering palliative care, effective collaboration with referring staff becomes vital. Based on the evaluation of the physical and psychosocial concerns of patients, the goal of palliative care is to craft interventions that maintain quality of life in the face of increasing symptoms and deteriorating functional status. The project's goal was to increase the appropriateness of referrals to palliative care by the primary services in the hospital. The aim was to achieve this by developing a process to assess patient functioning in critical psychosocial and functional areas, and providing this data to referring medical staff to educate them on the contribution of palliative care to symptom control and patient quality of life. The findings show that referrals to palliative care have increased over 100% from a broader range of services since initiating this project. Assessment data has been collected on 165 patients and outcomes are discussed.

  2. Palliative care for Parkinson's disease: a summary of the evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Richfield, Edward W; Jones, Edward J S; Alty, Jane E

    2013-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common, life-limiting, neurodegenerative condition. Despite calls for improved access to palliative care for people with Parkinson's disease, services have been slow in developing. Obstacles include poor understanding and recognition of palliative care needs, the role for specialist palliative care services and an agreed structure for sustainable palliative care provision. To summarise the evidence base for palliative care in Parkinson's disease, linking current understanding with implications for clinical practice and identifying areas for future research. Convention recognises a final 'palliative phase' in Parkinson's disease, while qualitative studies suggest the presence of palliative care need in Parkinson's disease from diagnosis. Clinical tools to quantify palliative symptom burden exist and have helped to identify targets for intervention. Dementia is highly prevalent and influences many aspects of palliative care in Parkinson's disease, with particular implications for end-of-life care and advance care planning. The 'palliative phase' represents a poor entry point for consideration of palliative care need in Parkinson's disease. An alternative, integrated model of care, promoting collaboration between specialist palliative and neurological services, is discussed, along with some specific palliative interventions. WHAT IS UNKNOWN: Limited evidence exists regarding timing of palliative interventions, triggers for specialist referral and management of terminal care. Research examining access to palliative care and management of terminal symptoms will assist development of sustainable, integrated palliative care services for Parkinson's disease.

  3. UAVs and Control Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Transport Delay itI tl2 s2+(tl +t2tI2)s+ 1 Delay Figure 17 A Matlab Simulink model used to compare a simple delayed system , in this case an integrator...23 3 Control of tim e-delay system s...discuss the various sources of delays, leading to an assessment of typical delays to be expected in a few example systems . Sources of delay that will

  4. Palliative care in cancer: managing patients' expectations.

    PubMed

    Ghandourh, Wsam A

    2016-12-01

    Advanced cancer patients commonly have misunderstandings about the intentions of treatment and their overall prognosis. Several studies have shown that large numbers of patients receiving palliative radiation or chemotherapy hold unrealistic hopes of their cancer being cured by such therapies, which can affect their ability to make well-informed decisions about treatment options. This review aimed to explore this discrepancy between patients' and physicians' expectations by investigating three primary issues: (1) the factors associated with patients developing unrealistic expectations; (2) the implications of having unrealistic hopes and the effects of raising patients' awareness about prognosis; and (3) patients' and caregivers' perspective on disclosure and their preferences for communication styles. Relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases including Pubmed, EMBASE and ScienceDirect using multiple combinations of keywords, which yielded a total of 65 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The discrepancy between patients' and doctors' expectations was associated with many factors including doctors' reluctance to disclose terminal prognoses and patients' ability to understand or accept such information. The majority of patients and caregivers expressed a desire for detailed prognostic information; however, varied responses have been reported on the preferred style of conveying such information. Communication styles have profound effects on patients' experience and treatment choices. Patients' views on disclosure are influenced by many cultural, psychological and illness-related factors, therefore individuals' needs must be considered when conveying prognostic information. More research is needed to identify communication barriers and the interventions that could be used to increase patients' satisfaction with palliative care.

  5. Palliative Care in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Mierendorf, Susanne M; Gidvani, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the place where people most frequently seek urgent care. For patients living with chronic disease or malignancy who may be in a crisis, this visit may be pivotal in determining the patients’ trajectory. There is a large movement in education of emergency medicine physicians, hospitalists, and intensivists from acute aggressive interventions to patient-goal assessment, recognizing last stages of life and prioritizing symptom management. Although the ED is not considered an ideal place to begin palliative care, hospital-based physicians may assist in eliciting the patient’s goals of care and discussing prognosis and disease trajectory. This may help shift to noncurative treatment. This article will summarize the following: identification of patients who may need palliation, discussing prognosis, eliciting goals of care and directives, symptom management in the ED, and making plans for further care. These efforts have been shown to improve outcomes and to decrease length of stay and cost. The focus of this article is relieving “patient” symptoms and family distress, honoring the patient’s goals of care, and assisting in transition to a noncurative approach and placement where this may be accomplished. PMID:24694318

  6. Ensuring Quality in Online Palliative Care Resources

    PubMed Central

    Tieman, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Evidence and information is an integral part of the processes enabling clinical and service delivery within health. It is used by health professionals in clinical practice and in developing their professional knowledge, by policy makers in decision making, and is sought by health consumers to help them manage their health needs and assess their options. Increasingly, this evidence and information is being disseminated and sought through online channels. The internet is fundamentally changing how health information is being distributed and accessed. Clinicians, patients, community members, and decision makers have an unprecedented capacity to find online information about palliative care and end-of-life care. However, it is clear that not all individuals have the skills to be able to find and assess the quality of the resources they need. There are also many issues in creating online resources that are current, relevant and authoritative for use by health professionals and by health consumers. This paper explores the processes and structures used in creating a major national palliative care knowledge resource, the CareSearch website, to meet the needs of health professionals and of patients and their families and carers. PMID:27983592

  7. Kampo medicine for palliative care in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Kampo medicines are currently manufactured under strict quality controls. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan has approved 148 Kampo formulas. There is increasing evidence for the efficacy of Kampo medicines, and some are used clinically for palliative care in Japan. The specific aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical use of Kampo medicines in palliative care in the treatment of cancer. The conclusions are as follows: Juzentaihoto inhibits the progression of liver tumors in a dose-dependent manner and contributes to long-term survival. Hochuekkito has clinical effects on cachexia for genitourinary cancer and improves the QOL and immunological status of weak patients, such as postoperative patients. Daikenchuto increases intestinal motility and decreases the postoperative symptoms of patients with total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch interposition, suppresses postoperative inflammation following surgery for colorectal cancer, and controls radiation-induced enteritis. Rikkunshito contributes to the amelioration of anorectic conditions in cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome. Goshajinkigan and Shakuyakukanzoto reduce the neurotoxicity of patients with colorectal cancer who undergo oxaliplatin and FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil/folinic acid plus oxaliplatin) therapy. Hangeshashinto has the effect of preventing and alleviating diarrhea induced by CPT-11(irinotecan) and combination therapy with S-1/CPT-11. O’rengedokuto significantly improves mucositis caused by anticancer agents. PMID:24447861

  8. Endoscopic laser palliation for advanced malignant dysphagia.

    PubMed Central

    Bown, S G; Hawes, R; Matthewson, K; Swain, C P; Barr, H; Boulos, P B; Clark, C G

    1987-01-01

    Palliative treatment of malignant dysphagia aims to optimise swallowing for the maximum time possible with the minimum of general distress to these seriously ill patients. Thirty four patients considered unsuitable for surgery because of advanced malignancy, other major pathology or in whom previous surgery had been unsuccessful were treated endoscopically with the Nd YAG laser. Significant improvement was achieved in 29 (85%). On a scale of 0-4 (0 = normal swallowing; 4 = dysphagia for all fluids), mean improvement was 1.7, with 25 patients (74%) able to swallow most, or all solids after treatment. With increasing experience, the average number of treatment sessions required for each patient became less; initial time in hospital became comparable to that needed for intubation. Failures were caused by inappropriate patient selection (3), or laser related perforation (2). The mean survival in the whole group was 19 weeks (range 2-44). Eighteen patients needed further treatment for recurrent dysphagia, a mean of six weeks (range 2-15) after initial therapy. Ten of these responded, but eight eventually required insertion of a prosthetic tube. The duration of good palliation was very variable after initial laser therapy. Images Fig. 3 PMID:2443431

  9. The Palliative Care Chaplain as Story Catcher.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Rhonda S

    2017-08-09

    The role of the professional chaplain on the palliative care team in the health care setting formalizes the concern for the emotional, spiritual and social well-being of the care recipients and their caregivers. The chaplain also has a peculiar role on the team, in that her most fundamental task is her intentional listening-and-hearing of the other person's story. One palliative chaplain introduces herself as a Story Catcher to care recipients, in an effort both to overcome the resistance some may have to her presence on the team and communicate her essential role and intent in providing spiritual care. This self-appointed sobriquet resonates with the author's embrace of the theory and practice of the late theologian, educator and civil rights activist Nelle Morton, who coined the phrase "hearing into speech" to describe the process by which another person, through being truly heard and entering into a relationship with the hearer, claims her/his own truth, hope and identity in the face of adversity. The chaplain as Story Catcher functions as the agent of healing and hope for those who choose to tell their stories and are heard, as they resist their illness and death rather than submit to its indignity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Planning elderly and palliative care in Montenegro

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mark; Brajovic, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Montenegro, a newly independent Balkan state with a population of 650,000, has a health care reform programme supported by the World Bank. This paper describes planning for integrated elderly and palliative care. Description The current service is provided only through a single long-stay hospital, which has institutionalised patients and limited facilities. Broad estimates were made of current financial expenditures on elderly care. A consultation was undertaken with stakeholders to propose an integrated system linking primary and secondary health care with social care; supporting people to live, and die well, at home; developing local nursing homes for people with higher dependency; creating specialised elderly-care services within hospitals; and providing good end-of-life care for all who need it. Effectiveness may be measured by monitoring patient and carers’ perceptions of the care experience. Discussion Changes in provision of elderly care may be achieved through redirection of existing resources, but the health and social care services also need to enhance elderly care budgets. The challenges for implementation include management skills, engaging professionals and political commitment. Conclusion Middle-income countries such as Montenegro can develop elderly and palliative care services through redirection of existing finance if accompanied by new service objectives, staff skills and integrated management. PMID:19513178

  11. Palliative care of First Nations people

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Len; Linkewich, Barb; Cromarty, Helen; St Pierre-Hansen, Natalie; Antone, Irwin; Gilles, Chris

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To understand cross-cultural hospital-based end-of-life care from the perspective of bereaved First Nations family members. DESIGN Phenomenologic approach using qualitative in-depth interviews. SETTING A rural town in northern Ontario with a catchment of 23 000 Ojibway and Cree aboriginal patients. PARTICIPANTS Ten recently bereaved aboriginal family members. METHODS Semi-structured interviews were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Data were analyzed using crystallization and immersion techniques. Triangulation and member-checking methods were used to ensure trustworthiness. MAIN FINDINGS First Nations family members described palliative care as a community and extended family experience. They expressed the need for rooms and services that reflect this, including space to accommodate a larger number of visitors than is usual in Western society. Informants described the importance of communication strategies that involve respectful directness. They acknowledged that all hospital employees had roles in the care of their loved ones. Participants generally described their relatives’ relationships with nurses and the care the nurses provided as positive experiences. CONCLUSION Cross-cultural care at the time of death is always challenging. Service delivery and communication strategies must meet cultural and family needs. Respect, communication, appropriate environments, and caregiving were important to participants for culturally appropriate palliative care. PMID:19366951

  12. Music therapy for palliative care: A realist review.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Tracey; Porter, Sam

    2017-08-01

    Music therapy has experienced a rising demand as an adjunct therapy for symptom management among palliative care patients. We conducted a realist review of the literature to develop a greater understanding of how music therapy might benefit palliative care patients and the contextual mechanisms that promote or inhibit its successful implementation. We searched electronic databases (CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsychINFO) for literature containing information on music therapy for palliative care. In keeping with the realist approach, we examined all relevant literature to develop theories that could explain how music therapy works. A total of 51 articles were included in the review. Music therapy was found to have a therapeutic effect on the physical, psychological, emotional, and spiritual suffering of palliative care patients. We also identified program mechanisms that help explain music therapy's therapeutic effects, along with facilitating contexts for implementation. Music therapy may be an effective nonpharmacological approach to managing distressing symptoms in palliative care patients. The findings also suggest that group music therapy may be a cost-efficient and effective way to support staff caring for palliative care patients. We encourage others to continue developing the evidence base in order to expand our understanding of how music therapy works, with the aim of informing and improving the provision of music therapy for palliative care patients.

  13. Current Status of Palliative Care, Education, and Research

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Marcia; Elk, Ronit; Ferrell, Betty; Morrison, R. Sean; von Gunten, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Palliative and end-of-life care is changing in the United States. This dynamic field is improving the care for patients with serious and life-threatening cancer through creation of national guidelines for quality care, multidisciplinary educational offerings, research endeavors, and resources made available to clinicians. Barriers to implementing quality palliative care across cancer populations include a rapidly expanding population of older adults who will need cancer care and a decrease in the workforce available to give care. Ways to integrate current palliative care knowledge into care of patients include multidisciplinary national education and research endeavors, and clinician resources. Acceptance of palliative care as a recognized medical specialty provides a valuable resource for improvement of care. While the evidence base for palliative care is only beginning, national research support has assisted in providing support to build the knowledge foundation for appropriate palliative care. Opportunities are available for clinicians to understand and apply appropriate palliative and end-of-life care to patients with serious and life-threatening cancers. PMID:19729681

  14. Establishment and preliminary outcomes of a palliative care research network.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Peter; Street, Annette; Graham, Suzanne; Aranda, Sanchia; O'Connor, Margaret; Thomas, Kristina; Jackson, Kate; Spruyt, Odette; Ugalde, Anna; Philip, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The difficulties in conducting palliative care research have been widely acknowledged. In order to generate the evidence needed to underpin palliative care provision, collaborative research is considered essential. Prior to formalizing the development of a research network for the state of Victoria, Australia, a preliminary study was undertaken to ascertain interest and recommendations for the design of such a collaboration. Three data-collection strategies were used: a cross-sectional questionnaire, interviews, and workshops. The questionnaire was completed by multidisciplinary palliative care specialists from across the state (n = 61); interviews were conducted with senior clinicians and academics (n = 21) followed by two stakeholder workshops (n = 29). The questionnaire was constructed specifically for this study, measuring involvement of and perceptions of palliative care research. Both the interview and the questionnaire data demonstrated strong support for a palliative care research network and aided in establishing a research agenda. The stakeholder workshops assisted with strategies for the formation of the Palliative Care Research Network Victoria (PCRNV) and guided the development of the mission and strategic plan. The research and efforts to date to establish the PCRNV are encouraging and provide optimism for the evolution of palliative care research in Australia. The international implications are highlighted.

  15. Exploring education and training needs among the palliative care workforce.

    PubMed

    Ingleton, Christine; Gardiner, Clare; Seymour, Jane E; Richards, Naomi; Gott, Merryn

    2013-06-01

    Education and training are seen as 'absolutely essential parts of providing palliative care'. As part of a larger study to explore the extent of palliative care need in two acute hospital settings, we report the perceptions of healthcare professionals regarding their training and educational needs. In Phase 1, we undertook eight focus groups and four individual interviews with 58 health professionals from general practice, specialist palliative care and acute hospitals, exploring perceived education and training priorities. Phase 2 of the study involved a survey of palliative care need at two hospitals in England. Hospital based doctors and nurses completed questionnaires to identify patients with palliative care needs and to respond to questions about their training and education needs. Various barriers exist to the provision and management of palliative care, not least a need for more education and training. Focus group participants felt they were not adequately trained to address prognosis and goals of care with patients and their families. In Phase 2 of the study, 171 nursing staff and 81 medical staff completed the questionnaire and two-thirds of our sample felt they required additional training in palliative care. Although important, the use of standardised care pathways alongside the provision of education and training for healthcare professionals alone will not improve quality of care. More work is needed to examine and clarify the interplay of: behaviour change, setting, the 'cure' orientation approach, type of health professional and nature of any educational intervention in order to effect sustained behavioural change.

  16. Extending palliative care is there a role for preventive medicine?

    PubMed

    Zwerdling, Theodore; Hamann, Kevin; Meyers, Frederick

    2005-06-01

    Historically, the concept of palliative care has been limited to hospice and end-of-life services. Recently, palliative care has been expanded to emphasize its integration throughout an illness. We suggest that palliative care provides an opportunity to prevent illness. Palliative care providers can effectively reduce the risk of illness in families by employing methods and strategies of preventive medicine. We illustrate three such cases. Patients and survivors may benefit from appropriate recognition and referral to prevent potential medical, social, and psychological problems. For preventive medicine to become fully exploited by palliative care providers, curricula will need to be developed. Risk assessment indicators of heritable and acquired conditions will define core functions of this educational process. Relevant topics should encompass basic preventive medicine methods, methods to disseminate assigned risk to the palliative care team, and referral mechanisms to specialists with expertise in the identified area(s) of concern. Opportunities to integrate preventive care into end-of-life services will create a new dimension for comprehensive palliative care.

  17. [Are artificial disorders common in palliative care? A Case report].

    PubMed

    Porstner, Dagmar; Masel, Eva K; Heck, Ursula

    2015-12-01

    The main task of palliative care specialists is to focus on symptom control such as pain, nausea or fatigue. Thorough anamnesis, physical examination, laboratory examination, and differential diagnosis can ensure appropriate treatment. In an increasing number of cases psychiatric conditions like depression or anxiety increase also occur so palliative care physicians need to be more prepared to handle them. The question of this case report is, how a palliative care specialist can distinguish between a malignant disease or neurological disease progression and a presentation primarily psychiatric in etiology, as is the case in factitious disorders. We are also interested in the incidence rate of such factitious disorders. Our case study demonstrates that it is rare but not impossible that a doctor will encounter factitious symptoms in the palliative setting. This suggest being aware of evidence of psychiatric origins even in discharge letters and referrals that indicate palliative care needs, to ensure that palliative care really is the best treatment option for the patient. We do believe such cases to be rare in a palliative setting, however.

  18. Integrating palliative care into the trajectory of cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Over the past five decades, palliative care has evolved from serving patients at the end of life into a highly specialized discipline focused on delivering supportive care to patients with life-limiting illnesses throughout the disease trajectory. A growing body of evidence is now available to inform the key domains in the practice of palliative care, including symptom management, psychosocial care, communication, decision-making, and end-of-life care. Findings from multiple studies indicate that integrating palliative care early in the disease trajectory can result in improvements in quality of life, symptom control, patient and caregiver satisfaction, illness understanding, quality of end-of-life care, survival, and costs of care. In this narrative Review, we discuss various strategies to integrate oncology and palliative care by optimizing clinical infrastructures, processes, education, and research. The goal of integration is to maximize patient access to palliative care and, ultimately, to improve patient outcomes. We provide a conceptual model for the integration of supportive and/or palliative care with primary and oncological care. We also discuss how health-care systems and institutions need to tailor integration based on their resources, size, and the level of primary palliative care available.

  19. Quantity, Design, and Scope of the Palliative Oncology Literature

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Henrique A.; Damani, Shamsha; Fulton, Stephanie; Liu, Jun; Evans, Avery; De La Cruz, Maxine; Bruera, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The current state of the palliative oncology literature is unclear. We examined and compared the quantity, research design, and research topics of palliative oncology publications in the first 6 months of 2004 with the first 6 months of 2009. We systematically searched MEDLINE, PsychInfo, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and CINAHL for original studies, review articles, and systematic reviews related to “palliative care” and “cancer” during the first 6 months of 2004 and 2009. Two physicians reviewed the literature independently and coded the study characteristics with high inter-rater reliability. We found a consistent decrease in the proportion of oncology studies related to palliative care between 2004 and 2009, despite an absolute increase in the total number of palliative oncology studies. Combining the two time periods, the most common original study designs were case report/series, cross-sectional studies, and qualitative studies. Randomized controlled trials comprised 6% of all original studies. The most common topics were physical symptoms, health services research, and psychosocial issues. Communication, decision making, spirituality, education, and research methodologies all represented <5% of the literature. Comparing 2004 with 2009, we found an increase in the proportion of original studies among all palliative oncology publications but no significant difference in study design or research topic. We identified significant deficiencies in the quantity, design, and scope of the palliative oncology literature. Further effort and resources are necessary to improve the evidence base for this important field. PMID:21471275

  20. Humanistic Nursing Theory: application to hospice and palliative care.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Lan; Volker, Deborah L

    2012-02-01

    This article presents a discussion of the relevance of Humanistic Nursing Theory to hospice and palliative care nursing. The World Health Organization has characterized the need for expert, palliative and end-of-life care as a top priority for global health care. The specialty of hospice and palliative care nursing embraces a humanistic caring and holistic approach to patient care. As this resonates with Paterson and Zderad's Humanistic Nursing Theory, an understanding of hospice nurses' experiences can be investigated by application of relevant constructs in the theory. This article is based on Paterson and Zderad's publications and other theoretical and research articles and books focused on Humanistic Nursing Theory (1976-2009), and data from a phenomenological study of the lived experience of Taiwanese hospice nurses conducted in 2007. Theoretical concepts relevant to hospice and palliative nursing included moreness-choice, call-and-response, intersubjective transaction, uniqueness-otherness, being and doing and community. The philosophical perspectives of Humanistic Nursing Theory are relevant to the practice of hospice and palliative care nursing. By 'being with and doing with', hospice and palliative nurses can work with patients to achieve their final goals in the last phase of life. Use of core concepts from Humanistic Nursing Theory can provide a unifying language for planning care and describing interventions. Future research efforts in hospice and palliative nursing should define and evaluate these concepts for efficacy in practice settings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Integrating palliative care into the trajectory of cancer care

    PubMed Central

    Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past five decades, palliative care has evolved from serving patients at the end of life into a highly specialized discipline focused on delivering supportive care to patients with life-limiting illnesses throughout the disease trajectory. A growing body of evidence is now available to inform the key domains in the practice of palliative care, including symptom management, psychosocial care, communication, decision-making, and end-of-life care. Findings from multiple studies indicate that integrating palliative care early in the disease trajectory can result in improvements in quality of life, symptom control, patient and caregiver satisfaction, quality of end-of-life care, survival, and costs of care. In this narrative Review, we discuss various strategies to integrate oncology and palliative care by optimizing clinical infrastructures, processes, education, and research. The goal of integration is to maximize patient access to palliative care and, ultimately, to improve patient outcomes. We provide a conceptual model for the integration of supportive and/or palliative care with primary and oncological care. We end by discussing how health-care systems and institutions need to tailor integration based on their resources, size, and the level of primary palliative care available. PMID:26598947

  2. [The current situation of palliative medicine in Germany--clinical implications, education and research].

    PubMed

    Nauck, Friedemann; Alt-Epping, Bernd; Benze, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    Palliative medicine (or palliative care, referring to its multi-professional character) denotes a comprehensive care concept for patients suffering from incurable and progressive disease, and their relatives. Specialized support structures are necessary, including (inpatient) palliative care units, (inpatient) consultation services, and (outpatient) specialized palliative home care services. Further, research and education is mandatory in order to gain and to spread this particular expertise and attitude. This contribution focuses on the current situation and on the development of palliative care structures in Germany.

  3. Palliative and end-of-life care in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Minton, Mary E; Kerkvliet, Jennifer L; Mitchell, Amanda; Fahrenwald, Nancy L

    2014-05-01

    Geographical disparities play a significant role in palliative and end-of-life care access. This study assessed availability of palliative and end of life (hospice) care in South Dakota. Grounded in a conceptual model of advance care planning, this assessment explored whether South Dakota health care facilities had contact persons for palliative care, hospice services, and advance directives; health care providers with specialized training in palliative and hospice care; and a process for advance directives and advance care planning. Trained research assistants conducted a brief telephone survey. Of 668 health care eligible facilities, 455 completed the survey for a response rate of 68 percent (455 out of 668). Over one-half of facilities had no specific contact person for palliative care, hospice services and advance directives. Nursing homes reported the highest percentage of contacts for palliative care, hospice services and advance directives. Despite a lack of a specific contact person, nearly 75 percent of facilities reported having a process in place for addressing advance directives with patients; slightly over one-half (53 percent) reported having a process in place for advance care planning. Of participating facilities, 80 percent had no staff members with palliative care training, and 73 percent identified lack of staff members with end-of-life care training. Palliative care training was most commonly reported among hospice/home health facilities (45 percent). The results of this study demonstrate a clear need for a health care and allied health care workforce with specialized training in palliative and end-of-life care.

  4. A thematic review of the spirituality literature within palliative care.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Shane; Pereira, Jose; Raffin, Shelley

    2006-04-01

    Research related to spirituality and health has developed from relative obscurity to a thriving field of study over the last 20 years both within palliative care and within health care in general. This paper provides a descriptive review of the literature related to spirituality and health, with a special focus on spirituality within palliative and end-of-life care. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched under the keywords "spirituality" and "palliative." The review revealed five overarching themes in the general spirituality and health literature: (1) conceptual difficulties related to the term spirituality and proposed solutions; (2) the relationship between spirituality and religion; (3) the effects of spirituality on health; (4) the subjects enrolled in spirituality-related research; and (5) the provision of spiritual care. While the spirituality literature within palliative care shared these overarching characteristics of the broader spirituality and health literature, six specific thematic areas transpired: (1) general discussions of spirituality in palliative care; (2) the spiritual needs of palliative care patients; (3) the nature of hope in palliative care; (4) tools and therapies related to spirituality; (5) effects of religion in palliative care; and (6) spirituality and palliative care professionals. The literature as it relates to these themes is summarized in this review. Spirituality is emerging largely as a concept void of religion, an instrument to be utilized in improving or maintaining health and quality of life, and focussed predominantly on the "self" largely in the form of the patient. While representing an important beginning, the authors suggest that a more integral approach needs to be developed that elicits the experiential nature of spirituality that is shared by patients, family members, and health care professionals alike.

  5. Opportunities to maximize value with integrated palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Jonathan; Laviana, Aaron A

    2016-01-01

    Palliative care involves aggressively addressing and treating psychosocial, spiritual, religious, and family concerns, as well as considering the overall psychosocial structures supporting a patient. The concept of integrated palliative care removes the either/or decision a patient needs to make: they need not decide if they want either aggressive chemotherapy from their oncologist or symptom-guided palliative care but rather they can be comanaged by several clinicians, including a palliative care clinician, to maximize the benefit to them. One common misconception about palliative care, and supportive care in general, is that it amounts to “doing nothing” or “giving up” on aggressive treatments for patients. Rather, palliative care involves very aggressive care, targeted at patient symptoms, quality-of-life, psychosocial needs, family needs, and others. Integrating palliative care into the care plan for individuals with advanced diseases does not necessarily imply that a patient must forego other treatment options, including those aimed at a cure, prolonging of life, or palliation. Implementing interventions to understand patient preferences and to ensure those preferences are addressed, including preferences related to palliative and supportive care, is vital in improving the patient-centeredness and value of surgical care. Given our aging population and the disproportionate cost of end-of-life care, this holds great hope in bending the cost curve of health care spending, ensuring patient-centeredness, and improving quality and value of care. Level 1 evidence supports this model, and it has been achieved in several settings; the next necessary step is to disseminate such models more broadly. PMID:27226721

  6. Hospice and palliative medicine: new subspecialty, new opportunities.

    PubMed

    Quest, Tammie E; Marco, Catherine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2009-07-01

    Palliative care is the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual care provided to patients from diagnosis to death or resolution of a life-threatening illness. Hospice care is a comprehensive program of care that is appropriate when patients with chronic, progressive, and eventually fatal illness are determined to have a prognosis of 6 months or fewer. Hospice and palliative medicine has now been recognized by the American Board of Medical Subspecialties as a field with a unique body of knowledge and practice. With 9 other specialty boards, the American Board of Emergency Medicine has cosponsored hospice and palliative medicine as an official subspecialty. As a result, board-certified emergency physicians may now pursue certification in hospice and palliative medicine through either fellowship training or, for a limited time, completing practice track requirements, followed by a written examination in the subspecialty. As the practice of palliative medicine grows in hospitals, emergency physicians can develop a core of generalist palliative medicine skills for use with adults and children. These would include assessing and communicating prognoses, managing the relief of pain and other distressing symptoms, helping articulate goals of patient care, understanding ethical and legal requirements; and ensuring the provision of culturally appropriate spiritual care in the last hours of living. Front-line emergency physicians possessing these basic palliative medicine skills will be able to work collaboratively with subspecialty physicians who are dually certified in emergency medicine and hospice and palliative medicine. Together, generalist and specialist emergency physicians can advance research, education, and policy in this new field to reach the common goals of high-quality, efficient, evidence-based palliative care in the emergency department.

  7. Palliative treatment alternatives and euthanasia consultations: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Buiting, Hilde M; Willems, Dick L; Pasman, H Roeline W; Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2011-07-01

    There is much debate about euthanasia within the context of palliative care. The six criteria of careful practice for lawful euthanasia in The Netherlands aim to safeguard the euthanasia practice against abuse and a disregard of palliative treatment alternatives. Those criteria need to be evaluated by the treating physician as well as an independent euthanasia consultant. To investigate 1) whether and how palliative treatment alternatives come up during or preceding euthanasia consultations and 2) how the availability of possible palliative treatment alternatives are assessed by the independent consultant. We interviewed 14 euthanasia consultants and 12 physicians who had requested a euthanasia consultation. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews and held consensus meetings about the interpretation. Treating physicians generally discuss the whole range of treatment options with the patient before the euthanasia consultation. Consultants actively start thinking about and proposing palliative treatment alternatives after consultations, when they have concluded that the criteria for careful practice have not been met. During the consultation, they take into account various aspects while assessing the criterion concerning the availability of reasonable alternatives, and they clearly distinguish between euthanasia and continuous deep sedation. Most consultants said that it was necessary to verify which forms of palliative care had previously been discussed. Advice concerning palliative care seemed to be related to the timing of the consultation ("early" or "late"). Euthanasia consultants were sometimes unsure whether or not to advise about palliative care, considering it not their task or inappropriate in view of the previous discussions. Two different roles of a euthanasia consultant were identified: a limited one, restricted to the evaluation of the criteria for careful practice, and a broad one, extended to actively providing advice about palliative care. Further

  8. Dispelling myths about palliative care and older adults.

    PubMed

    Duggleby, Wendy; Raudonis, Barbara M

    2006-02-01

    To explore the myths about palliative care and older adults with cancer. Research literature and review articles. Several myths about older adults exist: older adults are the same as younger adults, older adults are all the same, and optimizing function and quality of life are not important outcomes. Little research has focused on older adults receiving palliative care and their families. The Oncology Nursing Society and Geriatric Oncology Consortium published the Joint Position Statement on Cancer Care in Older Adults acknowledging the unique needs of older adults with cancer. Application of this statement may be helpful in guiding inquiry and practice in the care for older adults receiving palliative care.

  9. Communication issues for the interdisciplinary community palliative care team.

    PubMed

    Street, A; Blackford, J

    2001-09-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a critical study that examined the communication patterns between nurses and general practitioners (GPs) providing palliative care in Australia. Interviews and focus groups involved 40 palliative care nurses who worked in the three settings of care: community, hospice and hospital. Issues that impeded effective communication strategies between palliative care nurses and GPs were networking, case management, multiple service providers, lack of standardized documentation and formal tracking of clients, along with difficulties in transmission of relevant practice knowledge. Supporting strategies for effective formal modes of communicating and reporting are described.

  10. Palliative dialysis in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Disha D

    2011-12-01

    Dialysis patients are often denied hospice benefits unless they forego dialysis treatments. However, many of those patients might benefit from as-needed dialysis treatments to palliate symptoms of uremia, fluid overload, etc. The current Medicare payment system precludes this "palliative dialysis" except in those few cases where the terminal diagnosis is unrelated to renal failure. As approximately three quarters of all US patients on dialysis have Medicare as their primary insurance, a of review of Medicare policy is suggested, with a goal of creating a new "palliative dialysis" category that would allow patients to receive treatments on a less regular schedule without affecting the quality statistics of the dialysis center.( 1 ).

  11. Palliative Care as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Heinze, Katherine E; Kelly, Katherine P; Wiener, Lori; Casey, Robert L; Bell, Cynthia J; Wolfe, Joanne; Garee, Amy M; Watson, Anne; Hinds, Pamela S

    2015-12-01

    The study team conducted a systematic review of pediatric and adolescent palliative cancer care literature from 1995 to 2015 using four databases to inform development of a palliative care psychosocial standard. A total of 209 papers were reviewed with inclusion of 73 papers for final synthesis. Revealed topics of urgent consideration include the following: symptom assessment and intervention, direct patient report, effective communication, and shared decision-making. Standardization of palliative care assessments and interventions in pediatric oncology has the potential to foster improved quality of care across the cancer trajectory for children and adolescents with cancer and their family members.

  12. [Results of palliative treatment of advanced regional oropharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Laskus, Z; Szutkowski, Z

    1998-01-01

    We present results of palliative radiotherapy in 76 oropharyngeal advanced cancer patients. We recommend, according to appreciated results of palliative treatment, the two high fractionation dose courses (so called split course) if the first application of high fractionation dose had resulted in partial remission. Conventional fractionation dose in the second part of split course of radiotherapy did not result in better effect in regression, better subjective feeling after radiotherapy and longer survival time in our material. Patients with poor presentation status (Zubrod 3) should be excluded from palliative radiotherapy.

  13. Pediatric Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Madden, Kevin; Wolfe, Joanne; Collura, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    The chronicity of illness that afflicts children in Pediatric Palliative Care and the medical technology that has improved their lifespan and quality of life make prognostication extremely difficult. The uncertainty of prognostication and the available medical technologies make both the neonatal intensive care unit and the pediatric intensive care unit locations where many children will receive Pediatric Palliative Care. Health care providers in the neonatal intensive care unit and pediatric intensive care unit should integrate fundamental Pediatric Palliative Care principles into their everyday practice.

  14. Palliative Care as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Meaghann S.; Heinze, Katherine E.; Kelly, Katherine P.; Wiener, Lori; Casey, Robert L.; Bell, Cynthia J.; Wolfe, Joanne; Garee, Amy M.; Watson, Anne; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    The study team conducted a systematic review of pediatric and adolescent palliative cancer care literature from 1995 to 2015 using four databases to inform development of a palliative care psychosocial standard. A total of 209 papers were reviewed with inclusion of 73 papers for final synthesis. Revealed topics of urgent consideration include the following: symptom assessment and intervention, direct patient report, effective communication, and shared decision-making. Standardization of palliative care assessments and interventions in pediatric oncology has the potential to foster improved quality of care across the cancer trajectory for children and adolescents with cancer and their family members. PMID:26700928

  15. Palliative care in the community: the challenge for district nurses.

    PubMed

    Bliss, J

    2000-08-01

    Palliative care is expanding out of the hospice, and out of the narrow confines of its association with cancer. It should be a part of all care. District nurses are ideally placed to implement and coordinate palliative care in the community, making use of the talents of many other agencies and professionals. However, because of a lack of communication between these agencies, there is confusion about their roles, and many patients may not be receiving optimal care. This article argues that by promoting interagency and interprofessional communication and cooperation, district nurses can strengthen their role at the heart of palliative care provision in the community.

  16. Primary palliative care for heart failure: what is it? How do we implement it?

    PubMed

    Gelfman, Laura P; Kavalieratos, Dio; Teuteberg, Winifred G; Lala, Anuradha; Goldstein, Nathan E

    2017-03-09

    Heart failure (HF) is a chronic and progressive illness, which affects a growing number of adults, and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality, as well as significant physical and psychological symptom burden on both patients with HF and their families. Palliative care is the multidisciplinary specialty focused on optimizing quality of life and reducing suffering for patients and families facing serious illness, regardless of prognosis. Palliative care can be delivered as (1) specialist palliative care in which a palliative care specialist with subspecialty palliative care training consults or co-manages patients to address palliative needs alongside clinicians who manage the underlying illness or (2) as primary palliative care in which the primary clinician (such as the internist, cardiologist, cardiology nurse, or HF specialist) caring for the patient with HF provides the essential palliative domains. In this paper, we describe the key domains of primary palliative care for patients with HF and offer some specific ways in which primary palliative care and specialist palliative care can be offered in this population. Although there is little research on HF primary palliative care, primary palliative care in HF offers a key opportunity to ensure that this population receives high-quality palliative care in spite of the growing numbers of patients with HF as well as the limited number of specialist palliative care providers.

  17. Palliating inside the lines: The effects of borders and boundaries on palliative care in rural Canada.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Melissa; Crooks, Valorie A; Castleden, Heather; Schuurman, Nadine; Skinner, Mark; Williams, Allison

    2016-11-01

    We draw lines to divide our world into specific places, territories, and categories. Although borders and boundaries are dynamic and socially constructed, their existence creates many broad impacts on our lives by geographically distinguishing between groups (e.g., us/them; here/there; inside/outside) at various scales from the national down to the personal spaces of the individual. Particularly, borders and boundaries can be used to define a variety of differing spaces such as the familial, social, economic, political, as well as issues of access - including access to health services. Despite the implicit connection between borders, boundaries, and health, little research has investigated this connection from a health geography perspective. As such, this secondary thematic analysis contributes to addressing this notable gap by examining how borders and boundaries are experienced and perceived to impact access to palliative care in rural Canada from the perspectives of the formal and informal providers of such care. Drawing upon data from qualitative interviews (n = 40) with formal and informal palliative caregivers residing in four different rural Canadian communities, five forms of borders and boundaries were found to directly impact care delivery/receipt: political; jurisdictional; geographical; professional; and cultural. Implicitly and explicitly, participants discussed these borders and boundaries while sharing their experiences of providing palliative care in rural Canada. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for palliative care in rural Canada, while also emphasizing the need for more health geography, and related social science, researchers to recognize the significance of borders and boundaries in relation to health and healthcare delivery. Lastly, we emphasize the transferability of these findings to other health sectors, geographical settings, and disciplines.

  18. Delayed childbearing.

    PubMed

    Francis, H H

    1985-06-01

    In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the

  19. Self-reported practice, confidence, and knowledge about palliative care of nurses in a Japanese Regional Cancer Center: longitudinal study after 1-year activity of palliative care team.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tatsuya; Fujimoto, Koji; Imura, Chizuru; Nanba, Miki; Fukumoto, Naoko; Itoh, Tomoko

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge and skill deficits about palliative care in medical professionals are among the most common barriers to quality palliative care. This study in a Japanese regional cancer center was conducted to clarify nurses' self-reported practices, confidence, and knowledge, and the changes in these parameters after the 1-year educational and clinical activity of a palliative care team. Questionnaires were distributed to 134 nurses before and after a palliative care team conducted 6-topic educational programs and clinical consultation activity throughout the year. The nurses were asked to report their practices, confidence, and knowledge about palliative care in 5 fields (pain, dyspnea, delirium, communication, and dying-phase). In some areas of palliative care, hospital nurses did not adhere to recommended practices, had knowledge deficits, and were not generally confident with palliative care practices. However, daily palliative care team activities, including educational programs and clinical consultation service, could improve their practice and knowledge levels.

  20. Palliative Treatment of Rectal Carcinoma Recurrence Using Radiofrequency Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Mylona, Sophia Karagiannis, Georgios Patsoura, Sofia; Galani, Panagiota; Pomoni, Maria; Thanos, Loukas

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the palliative treatment of recurrent unresectable rectal tumors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer were treated with computed tomography (CT)-guided RF ablation. Therapy was performed with the patient under conscious sedation with a seven- or a nine-array expandable RF electrode for 8-10 min at 80-110 Degree-Sign C and a power of 90-110 W. All patients went home under instructions the next day of the procedure. Brief Pain Inventory score was calculated before and after (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months) treatment. Results: Complete tumor necrosis rate was 77.8% (21 of a total 27 procedures) despite lesion location. BPI score was dramatically decreased after the procedure. The mean preprocedure BPI score was 6.59, which decreased to 3.15, 1.15, and 0.11 at postprocedure day 1, week 1, and month 1, respectively, after the procedure. This decrease was significant (p < 0.01 for the first day and p < 0.001 for the rest of the follow-up intervals (paired Student t test; n - 1 = 26) for all periods during follow-up. Six patients had partial tumor necrosis, and we were attempted to them with a second procedure. Although the necrosis area showed a radiographic increase, no complete necrosis was achieved (secondary success rate 65.6%). No immediate or delayed complications were observed. Conclusion: CT-guided RF ablation is a minimally invasive, safe, and highly effective technique for treatment of malignant rectal recurrence. The method is well tolerated by patients, and pain relief is quickly achieved.

  1. Exploring the interface between 'physician-assisted death' and palliative care: cross-sectional data from Australasian palliative care specialists.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, L

    2016-04-01

    Legalisation of physician-assisted dying (PAD) remains a highly contested issue. In the Australasian context, the opinion and perspective of palliative care specialists have not been captured empirically, and are required to inform better the debate around this issue, moving forward. To identify current attitudes and experiences of palliative care specialists in Australasia regarding requests for physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia, and to capture the opinion of palliative care specialists on the legalisation of these practices in the Australasian context. An anonymous, cross-sectional, online survey of Australasian specialists in palliative care, addressing the following six areas: (i) demographics; (ii) frequency of requests, and response given; (iii) understanding of the term 'voluntary euthanasia'; (iv) opinion regarding legalisation of physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia in Australasia, and willingness to participate if legal; (v) identification of the most important values guiding this opinion; and (vi) anticipated impact that legalisation of assisted death would have on palliative care practice. Important findings include: (i) palliative care specialists are largely opposed to the legalisation of PAD; (ii) the proportional titration of opioids is not understood by any palliative care specialist studied to be 'voluntary euthanasia'; and (iii) there is a wide variation in frequency of requests, and one-third of palliative care specialists express discomfort in dealing with requests for assisted suicide or euthanasia. Key areas for future research at the interface between PAD and best practice end-of-life care are identified, including exploration into why palliative care specialists are largely opposed to PAD, and consideration of the impact 'the opioid misconception' may have on the literature informing this debate. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Ectopia cordis: a novel palliative care technique.

    PubMed

    Berry, Mary Judith; Saito-Benz, Maria; Klein, Tisha; Bowkett, Brendon; Richardson, Vaughan F

    2017-03-01

    Complete ectopia cordis in the newborn represents a significant management challenge. There are minimal data available to inform optimal clinical care for those infants with coexisting complex congenital heart disease who are therefore not candidates for surgical intervention. The exteriorisation of the heart and absence of the pericardial sac requires meticulous wound care to prevent desiccation of the myocardium and to minimise infection risk. Additionally, the technique selected must address the risk of occlusion of the cardiac vascular pedicle and abrasion between the mobile myocardium and dressing surface. We report a novel approach to wound management and integrated palliative care that enabled community-based care. Our patient, a full-term male infant with complete ectopia cordis was born in good condition by assisted vaginal delivery. He was discharged from hospital on day 8 and was cared for in the community until his demise from cardiac failure on day 15.

  3. Gabapentin for pruritus in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Anand, Sheeba

    2013-03-01

    Itch/pruritus can be very distressing in palliative care population and often is difficult to treat. Conventional antihistamines lack efficacy. Cutaneous and central pathogenesis of itch is extremely complex and unclear, making its treatment challenging. Neuronal mechanisms have been identified in the pathophysiology of itch hence providing a myriad of therapeutic options. It has been established that pruritus and pain neuronal pathway interact with each other, hence neuropathic analgesics like gabapentin has shown to be efficacious antipruritic therapeutic option. Gabapentin impedes transmitting nociceptive sensations to brain, thus also suppressing pruritus. Gabapentin is safe and found to be effective in uremic pruritus, cancer/hematologic causes, opiod-induced itch, brachioradial pruritis, burns pruritus, and pruritus of unknown origin. Further research is required in this area to establish whether gabapentin is consistently effective.

  4. Research Priorities in Geriatric Palliative Care: Multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Zulman, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract With global aging and scientific advances extending survival, the number of adults experiencing multiple chronic conditions has grown substantially and is projected to increase by another third between 2000 and 2030. Among the many challenges posed by multimorbidity, some of the most pressing include how to characterize and measure comorbid conditions, understand symptoms and illness burden, and provide person-centered care in the context of competing health care priorities and increasing complexity. In this white paper emanating from a National Institute on Aging supported conference to discuss research gaps at the geriatrics–palliative care interface, the authors review common definitions of multimorbidity; describe the association between multimorbidity and quality of life, functional status, quality of care, and health care utilization; note content and methodological gaps in multimorbidity evidence; and make recommendations regarding research priorities in this area of expanding public health impact. PMID:23777331

  5. Bereaved parents' perspectives on pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Robert, Rhonda; Zhukovsky, Donna S; Mauricio, Riza; Gilmore, Katherine; Morrison, Shirley; Palos, Guadalupe R

    2012-01-01

    This study's goal was to describe and begin to understand the experience of bereaved parents whose deceased child had received pediatric oncology services at a tertiary comprehensive cancer center. Focus groups were conducted with parents whose children were age 10 years and older at the time of death. Potential participants were contacted by mail and telephone. Sessions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The ATLAS.ti qualitative software program was used to identify and analyze dominant themes. Fourteen parents identified four major themes: standards of care, emotional care, communication, and social support. Bereaved parents discussed the challenges associated with institutional procedures and interpersonal aspects of care in anticipation of and following their child's death. The results of these personal narratives may be used to guide care plans and deliver pediatric palliative and end-of-life interventions.

  6. Ethical openings in palliative home care practice.

    PubMed

    Santos Salas, Anna; Cameron, Brenda L

    2010-09-01

    Understanding how a nurse acts in a particular situation reveals how nurses enact their ethics in day-to-day nursing. Our ethical frameworks assist us when we experience serious ethical dilemmas. Yet how a nurse responds in situations of daily practice is contingent upon all the presenting cues that build the current moment. In this article, we look at how a home care nurse responds to the ethical opening that arises when the nurse enters a person's home. We discuss how the home presents the nurse with knowledge that informs the provision of ethical nursing care. The analysis is based on findings from an interpretive research study in palliative home care in Canada. Through interpretive analysis of a nursing situation we delineate how the nurse engages with the whole and acts inside the moment. The analysis shows how home care nurses are ethically determined to engage with whatever is going on in a patient's home.

  7. Poverty Reduction in India through Palliative Care: A Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Cathy; Thyle, Ann; Duomai, Savita; Manak, Manju

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: EMMS International and Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) implemented a pilot project, poverty reduction in India through palliative care (PRIPCare). A total of 129 interviews with patients and family enrolled in palliative care at three EHA hospitals (in Fatehpur, Lalitpur and Utraula) and staff discussions established that 66% of palliative care patients had lost livelihoods due to illness, 26% of patients' families had members who had lost livelihoods due to the illness, 98% of enrolled households had debts, 59% had loans for which they had sold assets, 69% of households took out debt after their family member fell ill, many patients do not know about government benefits and lack necessary documents, many village headmen require bribes to give people access to benefits, and many bereaved women and children lose everything. Palliative care enabled 85% of patients and families to spend less on medicines, 31% of patients received free medicines, all patients reduced use of out-patient departments (OPDs), 20% reduced use of inpatient departments (IPDs), and therefore spent less on travel, 8% of patients had started earning again due to improved health, members of 10% of families started earning again, and one hospital educated 171 village headmen and increased by 5% the number of patients and their families receiving government benefits. If only 0.7% of needy adults are receiving palliative care, these benefits could be delivered to 143 times more families, targeted effectively at poverty reduction. Palliative care has great scope to reduce that most desperate poverty in India caused by chronic illness. Context: This article concerns a study by the UK NGO EMMS International and Indian NGO EHA, to assess whether palliative care reduces household poverty. Aims: EHA staff had noticed that many patients spend a lot on ineffective treatment before joining palliative care, many families do not know their entitlement to government healthcare subsidies or

  8. Smarter palliative care for cancer: Use of smartphone applications

    PubMed Central

    Jamwal, Nisha Rani; Kumar, Senthil P

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are technologically advanced mobile phone devices which use software similar to computer-based devices as a user-friendly interface. This review article is aimed to inform the palliative care professionals, cancer patients and their caregivers about the role of smartphone applications (apps) in the delivery of palliative care services, through a brief review of existing literature on the development, feasibility, analysis, and effectiveness of such apps. There is a dearth need for sincere palliative care clinicians to work together with software professionals to develop the suitable smartphone apps in accordance with the family/caregivers’ necessities and patients’ biopsychosocial characteristics that influence the technology driven evidence informed palliative cancer care. PMID:26962291

  9. [Ethical challenge in palliative support of intensive care patients].

    PubMed

    Salomon, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Intensive care medicine and palliative care medicine were considered for a long time to be contrasting concepts in therapy. While intensive care medicine is directed towards prolonging life and tries to stabilize disordered body functions, palliative care medicine is focused upon the relief of disturbances to help patients in the face of death. Today both views have become congruent. Palliative aspects are equally important in curative therapy. In the course of illness or in respect of the patient's will, the aim of therapy may change from curative to palliative. Two examples are presented to illustrate the ethical challenges in this process. They follow from the medical indication, attention to the patient's will, different opinions in the team, truth at the bedside and from what must be done in the process of withdrawing therapy.

  10. [eLearning service for home palliative care].

    PubMed

    Sakuyama, Toshikazu; Komatsu, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Daisuke; Fukushima, Osamu

    2008-12-01

    In order to support the home palliative care learning, we made the eLearning service for home palliative care (beta version) and tried to teach the palliative care to the medical staffs in the community. The various learners (such as nurses, pharmacists and the like) accessed to the online learning and used this eLearning service. After the learners finished eLearning for home palliative care, some questionnaires were distributed to the learners and analyzed by us. The analysis of questionnaires revealed that almost all were satisfied with our eLearning services. Especially the learners were not only interested in using the skills of opioids and the management of pain control, but they had a good cognition for the usage of opioids.

  11. Palliation of malignant ascites by the Denver peritoneovenous shunt.

    PubMed Central

    Downing, R.; Black, J.; Windsor, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Five out of 8 Denver peritoneovenous shunts placed in 7 patients provided excellent palliation of malignant ascites. Subclinical consumptive coagulopathy was detected after placement of 6 shunts, but no patient developed overt bleeding. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6207757

  12. Extending palliative care to patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sarah K

    2010-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease have an illness which shortens their life and involves a heavy symptom burden for patient and carer. This article discusses some common palliative care issues pertinent to patients with Parkinson's disease.

  13. The benefits of rehabilitation for palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Barawid, Edward; Covarrubias, Natalia; Tribuzio, Bianca; Liao, Solomon

    2015-02-01

    Palliative care requires an interdisciplinary team approach to provide the best care for patients with life-threatening illnesses. Like palliative medicine, rehabilitation also uses an interdisciplinary approach to treating patients with chronic illnesses. This review article focuses on rehabilitation interventions that can be beneficial in patients with late stage illnesses. Rehabilitation may be useful in improving the quality of life by palliating function, mobility, activities of daily living, pain relief, endurance, and the psyche of a patient while helping to maintain as much independence as possible, leading to a decrease in burden on caregivers and family. Rehabilitative services are underutilized in the palliative care setting, and more research is needed to address how patients may benefit as they approach the end of their lives.

  14. The 9th Palliative Care Congress: one attendee's highlights.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Craig

    2012-04-01

    The 9th annual Palliative Care Congress, organised by the Palliative Care Research Society and the Association of Palliative Medicine, took place in Gateshead, England, on 14-16 March at the impressive The Sage Gateshead on the bank of the river Tyne. Proceedings got under way in dramatic fashion with a production of the Nell Dunne play Home Death, which International Journal of Palliative Nursing part-sponsored. The play was well received by the early comers to the Congress, as evidenced by the comment that it was interesting to experience the very familiar event of a patient's death from the unfamiliar perspective of the person's relatives. This refreshingly alternative start to the Congress continued into the official opening next morning, with a vibrant and humorous performance from the Newcastle Sword Dancers that no doubt helped to cast off the last traces of sleep for many a delegate.

  15. The role of dentist in palliative care team.

    PubMed

    Mol, Rani P

    2010-05-01

    The palliative doctor gives the 'touch of God' as he/she takes care of the terminally ill patient. The oncologist encounters great difficulties in managing oral cavity problems of these patients. A trained dental doctor can help other doctors in dealing with these situations. But the general dental surgeon does not have enough idea about his part in these treatments. The community is also unaware of the role that a nearby dentist can play. Adequate training programs have to be conducted and awareness has to be created. A trained dentist will be a good team mate for the oncologist or radiotherapist or other doctors of the palliative care team. In this paper, a brief attempt is made to list a few areas in which a palliative care dentist can help other members of the palliative care team and also the patient in leading a better life.

  16. Why Palliative Care for Children is Preferable to Euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Carter, Brian S

    2016-02-01

    Recent laws in Europe now allow for pediatric euthanasia. The author reviews some rationale for caution, and addresses why ensuring the availability of pediatric palliative care is an important step before allowing pediatric euthanasia.

  17. Dutch perspectives on palliative care in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Almagor, Raphael

    2002-01-01

    This study reports data gathered via extensive interviews with some of the leading authorities on the euthanasia policy that were conducted in the Netherlands. They were asked: It has been argued that the policy and practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is the result of undeveloped palliative care. What do you think? I also mentioned the fact that there are only a few hospices in the Netherlands. The responses were different and contradictory. Many interviewees agreed with the statement. Almost all of those agreeing with it said that only during the late 1990s were people beginning to admit that there was a need to improve palliative care. Some interviewees insisted that doctors first need to explore other options for helping the patient prior to choosing the course of euthanasia. Other interviewees thought that palliative care is well developed in the Netherlands and that euthanasia has actually paved the way for calling more attention to palliative care.

  18. Palliative HIV care: opportunities for biomedical and behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Farber, Eugene W; Marconi, Vincent C

    2014-12-01

    Advances in treatment are contributing to substantial increases in life expectancy for individuals living with HIV, prompting a need to develop care models for the effective management of HIV as a chronic illness. With many individuals continuing to experience symptoms and complications that add to the disease burden across the spectrum of HIV disease, the discussion herein explores the complementary role that early palliative care can play in HIV primary care as a strategy for enhancing long-term quality of life. After first defining the concept of early palliative care, its scope in the context of current clinical realities in HIV treatment and implications for HIV care models is described. After reviewing the emerging extant research literature on HIV palliative care outcomes, a program description is offered as an illustration of how palliative care integration with HIV primary care can be achieved.

  19. [Trust and palliative care, the risk of vulnerability].

    PubMed

    Miniac, Véronique

    2013-10-01

    Patients receiving palliative care experience extreme vulnerability reminding them of the fragility of their human condition. How are they to trust nurses bearing bad news in these crucial moments? Trust is built on team coherence and rigorous support.

  20. Palliative care -- an essential component of cancer control

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, N

    1998-01-01

    Unlike in other nations, in Canada palliative care has its origins in university hospitals. It has subsequently developed in a few Canadian schools as an academic discipline closely linked with oncology programs. Although this model is successful, other faculties of medicine and cancer centres have been slow to emulate it. Today, the situation is rapidly changing, and both palliative care and oncology professionals are re-examining the manifest need for collaborative efforts in patient care, research and education. Palliative care must be regarded as an essential component of cancer care, its principles must be applied throughout the course of the illness and, as in other phases of cancer control, palliative care should be regarded as an exercise in prevention--prevention of suffering. This article discusses practical applications that flow from acceptance of these concepts. PMID:9676548

  1. The role of surgery in the palliation of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sallnow, L; Feuer, D

    2010-11-01

    Surgery has always had an important role to play in the palliation of advanced malignancy and the advent of new techniques and procedures means that this role will continue to evolve. The field is not built on a strong evidence base, however, and the lack of consensus regarding definitions of palliative surgery and few validated outcome measures mean good prospective trials are difficult to carry out. In this review we propose a definition of palliative surgery from the literature and review the current role of surgical palliation in advanced malignancy. We discuss the central role of good decision-making and the influence of multidisciplinary working on this process. The barriers to carrying out research, both in surgery and in advanced cancer patient populations, are examined and the economic impacts considered.

  2. Palliative care nurses' spiritual caring interventions: a conceptual understanding.

    PubMed

    Ronaldson, Susan; Hayes, Lillian; Aggar, Christina; Green, Jennifer; Carey, Michele

    2017-04-02

    To investigate spiritual caring by palliative care nurses and to describe their interventions. Spirituality and spiritual caring are recognised as integral components of holistic nursing. Qualitative data captured on a questionnaire were analysed thematically ( Braun and Clarke, 2006 ). The study involved forty-two palliative care registered nurses working across seven palliative care services in Sydney, Australia. The research question was: 'What spiritual caring interventions do palliative care nurses use in their practice?' Nurses completed an open-ended questionnaire to identify and interpret their spiritual caring. Three sub-theme categories and four major concepts of spiritual caring. Categories identified are: humanistic, pragmatic and religious interventions; while concepts of spiritual caring are: 'being with', 'listening to', 'facilitation of' and 'engaging in'. A conceptual understanding of spiritual caring was identified.

  3. Companionship and education: a nursing student experience in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Kwekkeboom, Kristine L; Vahl, Cheryl; Eland, Joann

    2005-04-01

    Currently, major deficiencies exist in undergraduate nursing education for end-of-life care. Nursing students report feeling anxious and unprepared to be with patients who are dying. A Palliative Care Companion program that allows undergraduate nursing students to volunteer to spend time with patients at the end of life provides a unique educational opportunity to enhance students' knowledge and attitudes toward palliative care. In addition, the program offers a service to patients and families by providing a nonmedical, caring human presence to patients who may be alone, lonely, or bored. In accordance with tenets of Experiential Learning Theory, a Palliative Care Companion program was developed and revised using feedback from initial participants and facilitators. Data collected during the first two semesters indicated increased knowledge of palliative care, improved attitudes about care at the end of life, and fewer concerns about providing nursing care to dying patients, when participating students were compared to their undergraduate peers.

  4. Palliative care development in the Asia-Pacific region: an international survey from the Asia Pacific Hospice Palliative Care Network (APHN).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kuriya, Meiko; Morita, Tatsuya; Agar, Meera; Choi, Youn Seon; Goh, Cynthia; Lingegowda, K B; Lim, Richard; Liu, Rico K Y; MacLeod, Roderick; Ocampo, Rhodora; Cheng, Shao-Yi; Phungrassami, Temsak; Nguyen, Yen-Phi; Tsuneto, Satoru

    2017-03-01

    Although palliative care is an important public healthcare issue worldwide, the current situation in the Asia-Pacific region has not been systematically evaluated. This survey aimed to clarify the current status of palliative care in the Asia-Pacific region. Questionnaires were sent to a representative physician of each member country/region of the Asia Pacific Hospice Palliative Care Network (APHN). The questionnaire examined palliative care service provision, information regarding physician certification in palliative care, the availability of essential drugs for palliative care listed by the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) and the regulation of opioid-prescribing practice. Of the 14 member countries/regions of the APHN, 12 (86%) responded. Some form of specialist palliative care services had developed in all the responding countries/regions. Eight member countries/regions had physician certifications for palliative care. Most essential drugs for palliative care listed by the IAHPC were available, whereas hydromorphone, oxycodone and transmucosal fentanyl were unavailable in most countries/regions. Six member countries/regions required permission to prescribe and receive opioids. The development of palliative care is in different stages across the surveyed countries/regions in the Asia-Pacific region. Data from this survey can be used as baseline data for monitoring the development of palliative care in this region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Implementation of a palliative care team in a pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Rosemary A; Ward-Smith, Peggy; Christenson, Kathy; Hutto, C J; Korphage, Rebecca M; Hubble, Christopher L

    2009-01-01

    Recommendations for best practice from the American Academy of Pediatrics include the availability of palliative care for children with life-threatening or life-limiting health care conditions. The uniqueness of the both the pediatric population and a pediatric health care setting requires changing the culture that previously has provided only curative or hospice care to these individuals. Methods to provide palliative care alongside of treatment and coordination of these efforts must be multidisciplinary and include family members.

  6. Pediatric palliative care: using miniature chairs to facilitate communication.

    PubMed

    Chin, Loh Ee; Loong, Lam Chee; Ngen, Chin Cheuk; Beng, Tan Seng; Shireen, Chin; Kuan, Wong Sook; Shaw, Rosalie

    2014-12-01

    Good communication is essential but sometimes challenging in pediatric palliative care. We describe 3 cases whereby miniature chairs made of various materials and colors were used successfully to encourage communication among pediatric patients, family, and health care professionals. This chair-inspired model may serve as a simple tool to facilitate complex discussions and to enable self-expression by children in the pediatric palliative care setting. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. The Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine, 5th Edition.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Roger

    2016-12-01

    EDITOR'S NOTE The journal is delighted to begin a collaboration with the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) in publication of book reviews relevant to symptom control in advanced disease. These reviews are adapted from the work of Roger Woodruff, MD, FRACP, FAChPM, an internationally recognized oncologist and palliative care specialist physician from Australia. Dr. Woodruff's reviews appear concurrently or did so previously in the IAHPC Newsletter, which is accessible through the IAHPC Web site: http://hospicecare.com .

  8. Integrating Function-Directed Treatments into Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Cheville, Andrea L; Morrow, Melissa; Smith, Sean Robinson; Basford, Jeffrey R

    2017-09-01

    The growing acceptance of palliative care has created opportunities to increase the use of rehabilitation services among populations with advanced disease, particularly those with cancer. Broader delivery has been impeded by the lack of a shared definition for palliative rehabilitation and a mismatch between patient needs and established rehabilitation service delivery models. We propose the definition that, in the advanced cancer population, palliative rehabilitation is function-directed care delivered in partnership with other clinical disciplines and aligned with the values of patients who have serious and often incurable illnesses in contexts marked by intense and dynamic symptoms, psychological stress, and medical morbidity to realize potentially time-limited goals. Although palliative rehabilitation is most often delivered by inpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation consultation/liaison services and by physical therapists in skilled nursing facilities, outcomes in these settings have received little scrutiny. In contrast, outpatient cancer rehabilitation programs have gained robust evidentiary support attesting to their benefits across diverse settings. Advancing palliative rehabilitation will require attention to historical barriers to the uptake of cancer rehabilitation services, which include the following: patient and referring physicians' expectation that effective cancer treatment will reverse disablement; breakdown of linear models of disablement due to presence of concurrent symptoms and psychological distress; tension between reflexive palliation and impairment-directed treatment; palliative clinicians' limited familiarity with manual interventions and rehabilitation services; and challenges in identifying receptive patients with the capacity to benefit from rehabilitation services. The effort to address these admittedly complex issues is warranted, as consideration of function in efforts to control symptoms and mood is vital to optimize

  9. Music therapy in the context of palliative care in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Rebecca

    2010-10-01

    There has been much written to support music therapy as an adjunct in managing pain and anxiety in palliative care patients in Western societies, but little written on its use in developing countries. In light of increasing numbers of terminally ill patients in Tanzania owing to HIV/AIDS and cancer, limited access to opioids, and a growing interest in palliative care support, this study looks at the application of music in this context. The study reviews the history and principles of therapeutic music and outlines its role in palliative care. A qualitative study was conducted by questionnaire of 17 professionals involved in home-based palliative care in Tanzania. Findings include beliefs about the power of music, how music is being used to bring comfort to the dying patient, and the most important aspects of helpful music to many Tanzanian palliative care patients. Music can powerfully affect body, mind and spirit. It is vocal music, which is an accepted therapeutic music tool used to bring comfort to the palliative care patient and their family members. Finally, music is an active and participatory activity in Tanzanian culture, even for the dying.

  10. The Griffith area palliative care service: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Hatton, Ian; McDonald, Keith; Nancarrow, Lynette; Fletcher, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In September 2000 the Commonwealth released, as part of its National Palliative Care Strategy under the Australian Health Care Agreements, a National Framework for Palliative Care Service Development. The new National Framework stressed an important set of values to guide models of palliative care delivery. It notes that the challenge is to secure the place of palliative care as an integral part of health care across Australia, routinely available within local communities to those people who need it. Care and support for people who are dying and their families need to be built not only into health care services, but also into the fabric of communities and their support networks. While few would disagree with this, little is known about how best to achieve it in rural Australia. The Griffith Area Palliative Care Service (GAPS) is a two-year pilot project delivering a palliative care service through a truly integrated approach to care for patients, their carers and families within the Griffith Local Government Area and Carrathool Shire areas. This paper describes how GAPS is successfully meeting the challenges of service provision to rural and remote areas.

  11. Palliative care in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): problems and practicalities.

    PubMed

    Glare, P A

    1994-03-01

    The World Health Organisation estimates that over 1.5 million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have occurred to date in South and South East Asia. As most of these patients will develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the coming decade, health services in the region face a major challenge in meeting their needs. While treatments are available which prolong the lives of patients with AIDS, most will eventually die of their disease, and attention needs to be given to controlling pain and other symptoms and improving quality of life. Providing palliative care for patients with AIDS raises complex issues not normally encountered in traditional palliative care practice. Based on the author's experience with the Central Sydney Area Palliative Care Service in Sydney, Australia, this paper discusses the problems and practicalities involved in palliative care for adult patients with advanced AIDS, such as clinical decision making, pain and other symptom control, psychosocial issues and terminal care. Representative case histories are described to illustrate how the palliative care physician can start to approach some of the dilemmas created by this demanding yet growing area of palliative care.

  12. Funding models in palliative care: Lessons from international experience.

    PubMed

    Groeneveld, E Iris; Cassel, J Brian; Bausewein, Claudia; Csikós, Ágnes; Krajnik, Malgorzata; Ryan, Karen; Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg; Eychmueller, Steffen; Gudat Keller, Heike; Allan, Simon; Hasselaar, Jeroen; García-Baquero Merino, Teresa; Swetenham, Kate; Piper, Kym; Fürst, Carl Johan; Murtagh, Fliss Em

    2017-04-01

    Funding models influence provision and development of palliative care services. As palliative care integrates into mainstream health care provision, opportunities to develop funding mechanisms arise. However, little has been reported on what funding models exist or how we can learn from them. To assess national models and methods for financing and reimbursing palliative care. Initial literature scoping yielded limited evidence on the subject as national policy documents are difficult to identify, access and interpret. We undertook expert consultations to appraise national models of palliative care financing in England, Germany, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States and Wales. These represent different levels of service development and a variety of funding mechanisms. Funding mechanisms reflect country-specific context and local variations in care provision. Patterns emerging include the following: Provider payment is rarely linked to population need and often perpetuates existing inequitable patterns in service provision. Funding is frequently characterised as a mixed system of charitable, public and private payers. The basis on which providers are paid for services rarely reflects individual care input or patient needs. Funding mechanisms need to be well understood and used with caution to ensure best practice and minimise perverse incentives. Before we can conduct cross-national comparisons of costs and impact of palliative care, we need to understand the funding and policy context for palliative care in each country of interest.

  13. Palliative care in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Lisa; Kang, Tammy I

    2015-01-01

    Children with advanced cancer, including those with hematologic malignancies, can benefit from interdisciplinary palliative care services. Palliative care includes management of distressing symptoms, attention to psychosocial and spiritual needs, and assistance with navigating complex medical decisions with the ultimate goal of maximizing the quality-of-life of the child and family. Palliative care is distinct from hospice care and can assist with the care of patients throughout the cancer continuum, irrespective of prognosis. While key healthcare organizations, including the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Society of Clinical Oncology among many others endorse palliative care for children with advanced illness, barriers to integration of palliative care into cancer care still exist. Providing assistance with advance care planning, guiding patients and families through prognostic uncertainty, and managing transitions of care are also included in goals of palliative care involvement. For patients with advanced malignancy, legislation, included in the Patient Protection and Affordable Health Care Act allows patients and families more options as they make the difficult transition from disease directed therapy to care focused on comfort and quality-of-life.

  14. District nurses' conceptions of medical technology in palliative homecare.

    PubMed

    Munck, Berit; Fridlund, Bengt; Mårtensson, Jan

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe district nurses' conceptions of medical technology in palliative homecare. Medical technology has, in recent years, been widely used in palliative homecare. Personnel with varying degrees of training and knowledge must be able to handle the new technology. A descriptive design with a phenomenographic approach was chosen to describe qualitatively different conceptions of the phenomenon medical technology. Interviews with 16 district nurses working with palliative homecare were analysed and five descriptive categories emerged. Medical technology in palliative homecare led to vulnerability because of increasing demands and changing tasks. When medical technology was used in the home it demanded collaboration between all involved actors. It also demanded self-reliance and an awareness of managing medical technology in a patient-safe way. Medical technology provided freedom for the palliative patients. To maintain patient safety, more education and collaboration with palliative care teams is needed. Next-of-kin are considered as an important resource but their participation must be based on their own conditions. District nurses need regular training on medical devices, must be more specialized in this kind of care and must not fragment their working time within other specialities. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Implementation of improvement strategies in palliative care: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    van Riet Paap, Jasper; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Sommerbakk, Ragni; Moyle, Wendy; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Leppert, Wojciech; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2015-07-26

    The European population is ageing, and as a consequence, an increasing number of patients are in need of palliative care, including those with dementia. Although a growing number of new insights and best practices in palliative care have been published, they are often not implemented in daily practice. The aim of this integrative review is to provide an overview of implementation strategies that have been used to improve the organisation of palliative care. Using an integrative literature review, we evaluated publications with strategies to improve the organisation of palliative care. Qualitative analysis of the included studies involved categorisation of the implementation strategies into subgroups, according to the type of implementation strategy. From the 2379 publications identified, 68 studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental design were included. These studies described improvements using educational strategies (n = 14), process mapping (n = 1), feedback (n = 1), multidisciplinary meetings (n = 1) and multi-faceted implementation strategies (n = 51). Fifty-three studies reported positive outcomes, 11 studies reported mixed effects and four studies showed a limited effect (two educational and two multi-faceted strategies). This review is one of the first to provide an overview of the available literature in relation to strategies used to improve the organisation of palliative care. Since most studies reported positive results, further research is needed to identify and improve the effects of strategies aiming to improve the organisation of palliative care.

  16. Funding models in palliative care: Lessons from international experience

    PubMed Central

    Groeneveld, E Iris; Cassel, J Brian; Bausewein, Claudia; Csikós, Ágnes; Krajnik, Malgorzata; Ryan, Karen; Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg; Eychmueller, Steffen; Gudat Keller, Heike; Allan, Simon; Hasselaar, Jeroen; García-Baquero Merino, Teresa; Swetenham, Kate; Piper, Kym; Fürst, Carl Johan; Murtagh, Fliss EM

    2017-01-01

    Background: Funding models influence provision and development of palliative care services. As palliative care integrates into mainstream health care provision, opportunities to develop funding mechanisms arise. However, little has been reported on what funding models exist or how we can learn from them. Aim: To assess national models and methods for financing and reimbursing palliative care. Design: Initial literature scoping yielded limited evidence on the subject as national policy documents are difficult to identify, access and interpret. We undertook expert consultations to appraise national models of palliative care financing in England, Germany, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States and Wales. These represent different levels of service development and a variety of funding mechanisms. Results: Funding mechanisms reflect country-specific context and local variations in care provision. Patterns emerging include the following: Provider payment is rarely linked to population need and often perpetuates existing inequitable patterns in service provision. Funding is frequently characterised as a mixed system of charitable, public and private payers. The basis on which providers are paid for services rarely reflects individual care input or patient needs. Conclusion: Funding mechanisms need to be well understood and used with caution to ensure best practice and minimise perverse incentives. Before we can conduct cross-national comparisons of costs and impact of palliative care, we need to understand the funding and policy context for palliative care in each country of interest. PMID:28156188

  17. Initiating decision-making conversations in palliative care: an ethnographic discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Groleau, Danielle; Légaré, France; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Marchand, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about end-of-life care remain challenging for health care providers. The tendency to delay conversations about care options represents a barrier that impedes the ability of terminally-ill patients to participate in decision-making. Family physicians with a palliative care practice are often responsible for discussing end-of-life care preferences with patients, yet there is a paucity of research directly observing these interactions. In this study, we sought to explore how patients and family physicians initiated decision-making conversations in the context of a community hospital-based palliative care service. This qualitative study combined discourse analysis with ethnographic methods. The field research lasted one year, and data were generated through participant observation and audio-recordings of consultations. A total of 101 consultations were observed longitudinally between 18 patients, 6 family physicians and 2 pivot nurses. Data analysis consisted in exploring the different types of discourses initiating decision-making conversations and how these discourses were affected by the organizational context in which they took place. The organization of care had an impact on decision-making conversations. The timing and origin of referrals to palliative care shaped whether patients were still able to participate in decision-making, and the decisions that remained to be made. The type of decisions to be made also shaped how conversations were initiated. Family physicians introduced decision-making conversations about issues needing immediate attention, such as symptom management, by directly addressing or eliciting patients' complaints. When decisions involved discussing impending death, decision-making conversations were initiated either indirectly, by prompting the patients to express their understanding of the disease and its progression, or directly, by providing a justification for broaching a difficult topic. Decision-making conversations and

  18. Palliative Care: Increasing the quality of life for patients and families… | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Palliative Care Palliative Care: Increasing the quality of life for patients and families… Past ... raise awareness about that. How are you spreading the word about palliative care for the young? We ...

  19. Technological Innovation Comes to Palliative Care: With a shortage of palliative specialists, telemedicine and remote monitoring offer relief.

    PubMed

    Bates, Mary

    2016-01-01

    At first, palliative care and technology might seem like strange bedfellows. At its core, palliative care is a very human side of medicine, relying heavily on talking with and listening to people to understand their experiences and goals. Technology, on the other hand, can often feel impersonal, cold, and one-size-fitsall. Despite this apparent disconnect, researchers and clinicians are finding new ways to harness technology to facilitate communication between patients and caregivers.

  20. Palliative care clinicians' knowledge of the law regarding the use of the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS).

    PubMed

    Barry, Caroline; Spathis, Anna; Treaddell, Sarah; Carding, Sally; Barclay, Stephen

    2017-04-24

    To examine palliative care clinicians' level of knowledge of the law regarding the use of the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS). Regional postal survey of palliative care clinicians working in hospices in the East of England, undertaken in April 2015. Clinicians' level of knowledge was assessed by their response to 7 factual questions. Data regarding self-reported levels of confidence in applying the Safeguards was collected, alongside information regarding the number of times they had used DoLS in practice. A free-text section invited additional comments from participants. There were 47 responses from 14 different organisations; a response rate of 68%. Respondents included consultants, specialty and associate specialists, registrars, nurses and social workers. Higher self-reported confidence and training in the use of DoLS was associated with higher factual knowledge. Consultants had the highest level of knowledge, training and experience. Doctors of other grades, nurses and social workers recorded less knowledge and experience and scored lower in the knowledge sections. The free-text comments revealed difficulty applying the Safeguards in practice, particularly among the consultant responses, based around several themes: insufficient guidance on how to use the Safeguards, process after death, uncertainty as to relevance to palliative care and delays in assessments. Clinicians working in palliative care have good levels of knowledge of the DoLS. Despite this concerns were raised, particularly by consultants; uncertainty as to when they should be used and the relevance of the Safeguards in clinical practice. Further guidance should be given to clinicians working in this specialty to ensure that clinical practice is both lawful and in the patients' best interests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Striving for wholeness and transdisciplinary teamwork at a pacific basin's pain and palliative care department.

    PubMed

    Terashita-Tan, Stacy

    2013-01-01

    Collaborations in palliative care have helped to create a framework and identify preferred practices so the field of palliative care can grow. Teamwork designed in a transdisciplinary style is desired and provides whole-person, sensitive, and comprehensive care. In applying the basic key concepts and evidenced-based knowledge of palliative care, this article details one palliative care department's effort to create change, enhance the delivery of care, and build their palliative care practice. Creating collaborations and building partnerships were fundamental outcomes to improve the palliative care practice, increase transdisciplinary teamwork activities, and enhance the delivery of care in this organization.

  2. Public hospital palliative social work: addressing patient cultural diversity and psychosocial needs.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Monique; Cárdenas, Yvette; Epperhart, Regina; Hernandez, Jose; Ruiz, Susana; Russell, Linda; Soriano, Karolina; Thornberry, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Through creative practice innovations and a wide range of professional competencies, social work has contributed substantively to the development of the palliative care field (Harper, 2011 ). As the field continues to grow and evolve, new opportunities are emerging to profile palliative social work in diverse health care settings. A statewide initiative to spread palliative care in California's public hospitals provided just such an opportunity. Palliative social workers from six public hospitals participating in the initiative formed a group to discuss palliative social work in this unique hospital setting. This article highlights the group's insights and experiences as they address the significant cultural diversity and psychosocial needs of public hospital patients receiving palliative care.

  3. Janus kinase inhibition and its effect upon the therapeutic landscape for myelofibrosis: from palliation to cure?

    PubMed

    Harrison, Claire; Verstovsek, Srdan; McMullin, Mary F; Mesa, Ruben

    2012-05-01

    Following the discovery of the Janus kinase (JAK) 2 V617F mutation in 2005 the explosion of research and drug development activity has not only advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) but also triggered debate about classification, allowed revised diagnostic and response criteria, provided a target for treatment and a mode of monitoring its success. These changes and the resultant clinical research are discussed in this article where we argue that discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation has signalled the much delayed change in therapeutic paradigm for myelofibrosis and possibly other MPNs from palliation and allowing us to move closer to, but not yet attain, a cure.

  4. A strategy to advance the evidence base in palliative medicine: formation of a palliative care research cooperative group.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, Amy P; Aziz, Noreen M; Basch, Ethan; Bull, Janet; Cleeland, Charles S; Currow, David C; Fairclough, Diane; Hanson, Laura; Hauser, Joshua; Ko, Danielle; Lloyd, Linda; Morrison, R Sean; Otis-Green, Shirley; Pantilat, Steve; Portenoy, Russell K; Ritchie, Christine; Rocker, Graeme; Wheeler, Jane L; Zafar, S Yousuf; Kutner, Jean S

    2010-12-01

    Palliative medicine has made rapid progress in establishing its scientific and clinical legitimacy, yet the evidence base to support clinical practice remains deficient in both the quantity and quality of published studies. Historically, the conduct of research in palliative care populations has been impeded by multiple barriers including health care system fragmentation, small number and size of potential sites for recruitment, vulnerability of the population, perceptions of inappropriateness, ethical concerns, and gate-keeping. A group of experienced investigators with backgrounds in palliative care research convened to consider developing a research cooperative group as a mechanism for generating high-quality evidence on prioritized, clinically relevant topics in palliative care. The resulting Palliative Care Research Cooperative (PCRC) agreed on a set of core principles: active, interdisciplinary membership; commitment to shared research purposes; heterogeneity of participating sites; development of research capacity in participating sites; standardization of methodologies, such as consenting and data collection/management; agile response to research requests from government, industry, and investigators; focus on translation; education and training of future palliative care researchers; actionable results that can inform clinical practice and policy. Consensus was achieved on a first collaborative study, a randomized clinical trial of statin discontinuation versus continuation in patients with a prognosis of less than 6 months who are taking statins for primary or secondary prevention. This article describes the formation of the PCRC, highlighting processes and decisions taken to optimize the cooperative group's success.

  5. The Palliative Care Information Act and Access to Palliative Care in Terminally ill Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Victoria, Kitty; Patel, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that over 50% of end-of-life discussions take place for the first time in the hospital and that terminally ill patients often have unrealistic views regarding the possible scope of treatment. The Palliative Care information Act (PCIA) was passed in an attempt to address the lack of access for terminally ill patients to palliative care services. A multi-database systematic review was performed on published studies from 2010 to present, and there were none found measuring the effectiveness of the PCIA. Objectives: We aimed to study the effect of the PCIA on access to palliative care services. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all terminally ill patients who died at Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center from January 2010 to August 2013 in relation to passing of the PCIA. Results: Prelaw (prior to the law passing), 12.3% of the terminal patients received palliative care consults, 25% during the transition period (time between passing of law and when it came into effect) and 37.7% postlaw (after coming into effect) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Legislation can have a significant effect on terminally ill patient's access to palliative care services and can change the culture of a hospital to be more pro-palliative for the appropriate populations. PMID:27803564

  6. A Strategy To Advance the Evidence Base in Palliative Medicine: Formation of a Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Noreen M.; Basch, Ethan; Bull, Janet; Cleeland, Charles S.; Currow, David C.; Fairclough, Diane; Hanson, Laura; Hauser, Joshua; Ko, Danielle; Lloyd, Linda; Morrison, R. Sean; Otis-Green, Shirley; Pantilat, Steve; Portenoy, Russell K.; Ritchie, Christine; Rocker, Graeme; Wheeler, Jane L.; Zafar, S. Yousuf; Kutner, Jean S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Palliative medicine has made rapid progress in establishing its scientific and clinical legitimacy, yet the evidence base to support clinical practice remains deficient in both the quantity and quality of published studies. Historically, the conduct of research in palliative care populations has been impeded by multiple barriers including health care system fragmentation, small number and size of potential sites for recruitment, vulnerability of the population, perceptions of inappropriateness, ethical concerns, and gate-keeping. Methods A group of experienced investigators with backgrounds in palliative care research convened to consider developing a research cooperative group as a mechanism for generating high-quality evidence on prioritized, clinically relevant topics in palliative care. Results : The resulting Palliative Care Research Cooperative (PCRC) agreed on a set of core principles: active, interdisciplinary membership; commitment to shared research purposes; heterogeneity of participating sites; development of research capacity in participating sites; standardization of methodologies, such as consenting and data collection/management; agile response to research requests from government, industry, and investigators; focus on translation; education and training of future palliative care researchers; actionable results that can inform clinical practice and policy. Consensus was achieved on a first collaborative study, a randomized clinical trial of statin discontinuation versus continuation in patients with a prognosis of less than 6 months who are taking statins for primary or secondary prevention. This article describes the formation of the PCRC, highlighting processes and decisions taken to optimize the cooperative group's success. PMID:21105763

  7. The Development of Palliative Care in Argentina: A Mapping Study Using Latin American Association for Palliative Care Indicators.

    PubMed

    Mertnoff, Rosa; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia; Jacobs, Mariana; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier

    2017-08-01

    The Latin American Association for Palliative Care (ALCP) developed 10 indicators to monitor the development of palliative care. The indicators have been applied across Latin American countries but have not been used internally. The aims of this study were to document the development of palliative care in Argentina at the national and provincial levels by using a selection of the indicators developed by the ALCP and identify the difficulties and needs of healthcare professionals working in palliative care. This is the first study to apply the indicators intranationally. This was a cross-sectional pilot study based on two questionnaires with representatives from each province, one workshop, and telephone conversations to corroborate the collected data. These data were used to calculate a preselection of eight ALCP indicators covering four main areas of development: education, policy, service delivery, and medication. A total of 30 participants took part in the study. The application of the ALCP indicators at the province level led to the identification of inequalities in the development and distribution of services across the country. The provinces in the north-west were identified as the region with the greatest need for development. The main difficulties for healthcare professionals were lack of national service registries, certified palliative care specialties, and opportunities for continuous training. The ALCP indicators are useful tools for mapping palliative care development within countries. Further work needs to be carried out to increase their specificity and integrate them in policy design and service delivery.

  8. Strategies for Development of Palliative Care From the Perspectives of General Population and Health Care Professionals: A Japanese Outreach Palliative Care Trial of Integrated Regional Model Study.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Saran; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Akizuki, Nobuya; Akiyama, Miki; Shirahige, Yutaka; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Eguchi, Kenji

    2015-09-01

    This study primarily aimed to identify future actions required to promote palliative care in Japan. The future actions regarded as effective by the general population were "improve physicians' skill in palliative care" (61%), "create a counseling center for cancer" (61%), and "improve nurses' skill in palliative care" (60%). In contrast, future actions regarded as effective by the health care professionals were "set up a Web site that provides information about cancer" (72%), "promote consultation with specialists in palliative care" (71%), and "open an outpatient department specializing in palliative care" (70%). The results suggest (1) development and maintenance of settings; (2) enhancement of palliative care education and training programs for health care providers; and (3) improvement in distributing information about cancer and regional palliative care resources to the general population.

  9. Endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, A; Bârla, R; Hoara, P; Constantinoiu, S

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer represents one of the most aggressive digestive tumors, with a survival rate at 5 years of only 10%. Globally, during the last three decades, there has been an increasing incidence of the esophageal cancer, approx. 400,000 new esophageal cancers being currently diagnosed annually. This represents the eighth leading cause of cancer incidence and the sixth leading cause of cancer death overall. Taking into account the population’s global aging and thus, the increase in the number of patients who will not bear surgery, PCT and radiation, or the fact that they do not want it especially because of deficiencies and associated pathology, the endoscopic ablative techniques with palliation purposes represent the alternative. If we refer to the Western Europe countries and North America, we notice an increase of esophageal adenocarcinoma rate versus squamous cancer. As for the Asian region, referring in particular to China and Japan, 9 out of 10 esophageal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. For at least half of the patients with EC (esophageal cancer) there is no hope of healing because of the advanced regional malignant invasion (T3-4, N+, M+) with no chemo and radiotherapy response, poor preoperative patients’ conditions or systemic metastasis. The low life expectancy does not justify the risky medical procedures, the goal of the therapy consisting in the improvement of the quality of life by eliminating dysphagia (reestablishing oral feeding) which represents the most common complication of EC, the respiratory tract complication caused by eso-tracheal fistulas or by eliminating chest pain. To treat dysphagia, which is the main target of palliation, combined methods like endoscopic, chemo and radio-therapy, can be used, each one with indications, benefits and risks. Abbreviations: SEPS = self expanding plastic stent, SREMS = self expanding metal stent, EBRT = Endoscopic brachy radiotherapy, EUS = Ultra sound endoscopy, CT = Computer tomograph, UGE

  10. A Community Needs Assessment for the Development of an Interprofessional Palliative Care Training Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Coats, Heather; Paganelli, Tia; Starks, Helene; Lindhorst, Taryn; Starks Acosta, Anne; Mauksch, Larry; Doorenbos, Ardith

    2017-03-01

    There is a known shortage of trained palliative care professionals, and an even greater shortage of professionals who have been trained through interprofessional curricula. As part of an institutional Palliative Care Training Center grant, a core team of interprofessional palliative care academic faculty and staff completed a state-wide palliative care educational assessment to determine the needs for an interprofessional palliative care training program. The purpose of this article is to describe the process and results of our community needs assessment of interprofessional palliative care educational needs in Washington state. We approached the needs assessment through a cross-sectional descriptive design by using mixed-method inquiry. Each phase incorporated a variety of settings and subjects. The assessment incorporated multiple phases with diverse methodological approaches: a preparatory phase-identifying key informants; Phase I-key informant interviews; Phase II-survey; and Phase III-steering committee endorsement. The multiple phases of the needs assessment helped create a conceptual framework for the Palliative Care Training Center and developed an interprofessional palliative care curriculum. The input from key informants at multiple phases also allowed us to define priority needs and to refine an interprofessional palliative care curriculum. This curriculum will provide an interprofessional palliative care educational program that crosses disciplinary boundaries to integrate knowledge that is beneficial for all palliative care clinicians. The input from a range of palliative care clinicians and professionals at every phase of the needs assessment was critical for creating an interprofessional palliative care curriculum.

  11. Survivorship of severe medically unexplained symptoms in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Justin; Taylor, Keryn; Boughey, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Patients who articulate their psychological distress primarily through physical symptoms (referred to as medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)) pose a challenge to the skills of most clinicians, including palliative care physicians. The philosophical underpinnings of palliative care with a stated focus on symptom management and care of the person in their psychosociospiritual context lend itself to the care of these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics to improve identification of this patient group within palliative care. Here, we report a case series of 6 patients with severe MUS who were referred to palliative care. We use illustrative case vignettes, examine clinical and demographic characteristics and review the perspectives of the multidisciplinary team to identify the common threads. This case series highlights the complexities and challenges that are inherent in providing assessment and care for patients with MUS that present to palliative care. Characteristics that were identified included the clustering of 'trigger' symptoms, backgrounds of multiple chronic illnesses and relationship dysfunction. Patient outcomes in this group were universally poor, including the death of 2 patients. Knowledge of this patient group is vital given the likely increase in prevalence of MUS as palliative care broadens its focus earlier in the trajectory of illness. The strengths of palliative care, including psychosociospiritual assessment, multidisciplinary input and communication skills holds the potential to accurately identify patients with MUS and allow the opportunity for specialist psychiatric input with the hope of improving outcomes for patients and their families. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Patient participation in palliative care decisions: An ethnographic discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Groleau, Danielle; Légaré, France; MacDonald, Mary Ellen; Marchand, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The participation of patients in making decisions about their care is especially important towards the end of life because palliative care decisions involve extensive uncertainty and are heavily influenced by personal values. Yet, there is a scarcity of studies directly observing clinical interactions between palliative patients and their health care providers. In this study, we aimed to understand how patient participation in palliative care decisions is constructed through discourse in a community hospital-based palliative care team. This qualitative study combined ethnographic observations of a palliative care team with discourse analysis. Eighteen palliative care patients with cancer diagnoses, six family physicians, and two nurses were involved in the study. Multiple interactions were observed between each patient and health care providers over the course of 1 year, for a total of 101 consultations, 24 of which were audio-recorded. The analysis consisted in looking for the interpretive repertoires (i.e., familiar lines of argument used to justify actions) that were used to justify patient participation in decision-making during clinical interactions, as well as exploring their implications for decision roles and end-of-life care. Patients and their health care providers seldom addressed their decision-making roles explicitly. Rather, they constructed patient participation in palliative care decisions in a covert manner. Four interpretive repertoires were used to justify patient participation: (1) exposing uncertainty, (2) co-constructing patient preferences, (3) affirming patient autonomy, and finally (4) upholding the authority of health care providers. The results demonstrate how patients and health care providers used these arguments to negotiate their respective roles in decision-making. In conclusion, patients and health care providers used a variety of interpretive repertoires to covertly negotiate their roles in decision-making, and to legitimize

  13. Patient participation in palliative care decisions: An ethnographic discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Groleau, Danielle; Légaré, France; MacDonald, Mary Ellen; Marchand, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The participation of patients in making decisions about their care is especially important towards the end of life because palliative care decisions involve extensive uncertainty and are heavily influenced by personal values. Yet, there is a scarcity of studies directly observing clinical interactions between palliative patients and their health care providers. In this study, we aimed to understand how patient participation in palliative care decisions is constructed through discourse in a community hospital-based palliative care team. This qualitative study combined ethnographic observations of a palliative care team with discourse analysis. Eighteen palliative care patients with cancer diagnoses, six family physicians, and two nurses were involved in the study. Multiple interactions were observed between each patient and health care providers over the course of 1 year, for a total of 101 consultations, 24 of which were audio-recorded. The analysis consisted in looking for the interpretive repertoires (i.e., familiar lines of argument used to justify actions) that were used to justify patient participation in decision-making during clinical interactions, as well as exploring their implications for decision roles and end-of-life care. Patients and their health care providers seldom addressed their decision-making roles explicitly. Rather, they constructed patient participation in palliative care decisions in a covert manner. Four interpretive repertoires were used to justify patient participation: (1) exposing uncertainty, (2) co-constructing patient preferences, (3) affirming patient autonomy, and finally (4) upholding the authority of health care providers. The results demonstrate how patients and health care providers used these arguments to negotiate their respective roles in decision-making. In conclusion, patients and health care providers used a variety of interpretive repertoires to covertly negotiate their roles in decision-making, and to legitimize

  14. Integration of hypnosis into pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Kohen, Daniel P

    2017-06-27

    At least 8 million children would need specialized pediatric palliative care (PPC) services annually worldwide, and of the more than 42,000 children and teenagers dying annually in the United States, at least 15,000 children would require PPC. Unfortunately, even in resource-rich countries the majority of children dying from serious advanced illnesses are suffering from unrelieved, distressing symptoms such as pain, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, and anxiety. State of the art treatment and prevention of those symptoms requires employing multi-modal therapies, commonly including pharmacology, rehabilitation, procedural intervention, psychology, and integrative modalities. This article describes the current practice of integrating hypnosis into advanced pain and symptom management of children with serious illness. Three case reports of children living with a life-limiting condition exemplify the effective use of this clinical modality to decrease distressing symptoms and suffering. Hypnosis for pediatric patients experiencing a life-limiting disease not only provides an integral part of advanced symptom management, but also supports children dealing with loss and anticipatory loss, sustains and enhances hope and helps children and adolescents live fully, making every moment count, until death.

  15. [Euthanasia and palliative care in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Boisseau, Nicolas

    2004-03-27

    THE BIRTH OF THE DUTCH LAW: Euthanasia has been recently legalized in the Netherlands (since April 1, 2002). In this Article, we present the various cultural and historical factors that contributed to the law, the guidelines for the procedure and the resulting controversy. THE INTERVENING FACTORS: Internationally, the attitude concerning end of life care are heterogenic and also directly depend on religious and cultural factors. In the Netherlands, the health system promotes the maintenance at home of the terminally ill. However, the financial aspects (private health insurance) interact with the management of these patients. The rules for euthanasia are very strict and a declaration must be registered. Dedicated commissions are organised to control that the rules are applied. The current debate concerns the pertinence of the regulations, the attitude towards handicapped people and children, and the need to develop palliative care. The latter have only recently been developed in the country. The priority is focusing on old peoples' homes. The Netherlands is slow in this regard, but a new draft law is soon to be presented to the Authorities, and will most probably enable the gaps to be bridged.

  16. [Intestinal obstruction in cancer patients. Palliative treatment].

    PubMed

    Costa, I; Conçalves, F

    1997-05-01

    The treatment of intestinal obstruction (IO) in patients with advanced or terminal cancer represents an open and widely discussed topic in clinical oncology practice. As surgical palliation is a complex issue, the decision to advance with surgery should be made in consultation with the patients and family members. The prognostic factors, mainly the survival time and the surgical risks can be considered guideline indicators. If there is any possibility that surgery will be of benefit, the patient should be treated with intravenous fluids and nasogastric suction while appropriate radiological investigations are performed. When surgical intervention is contraindicated, symptomatic medical treatment should be started through continuous subcutaneous administration of analgesic and antiemetic drugs. Minor episodes of vomiting may occur, which do not trouble patients since the most distressing symptom, nausea, can be controlled. Dehydration may be avoided with a liquid diet in small quantities. In this way, it is possible to manage patients with IO for several weeks without the need of nasogastric suction or intravenous fluids. Percutaneous gastrostomy, nasogastric tube, or hypodermoclysis may be necessary for a small number of patients, principally with high obstruction, who have refractory symptoms.

  17. Opioid risk assessment in palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Dale, Rebecca; Edwards, Jeremy; Ballantyne, Jane

    2016-03-01

    Pain management with opioids is an integral part of palliative medicine. As the doses and durations of opioid therapy increase, the inherent risks of opioid therapy rise. Although opioids are effective analgesics, they bring with them complex medical and psychological side effects. Aberrant behavior is dangerous and can be difficult to identify as it results in a splitting in the goals of treatment between the patient and providers. One effective strategy in preventing that situation is through the early identification of at-risk patients. There are several tools that can help identify patients at higher risk of addiction and aberrant behaviors during opioid therapy. Structured use of these tools in conjunction with the clinic exam, regular follow-up visits, and lab testing can further reduce patient risk and improve success in opioid therapy. This article will review the background behind a structured strategy for opioid risk assessment using the Opioid Risk Tool, SOAPP-R, and DIRE tools. In addition, example aberrant behaviors and follow-up strategies will be reviewed. It will be demonstrated that careful screening and follow-up allow risk factors to be recognized and addressed early.

  18. Pediatric palliative care in the community.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Erica C; Rubenstein, Jared; Levine, Deena; Baker, Justin N; Dabbs, Devon; Friebert, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Early integration of pediatric palliative care (PPC) for children with life-threatening conditions and their families enhances the provision of holistic care, addressing psychological, social, spiritual, and physical concerns, without precluding treatment with the goal of cure. PPC involvement ideally extends throughout the illness trajectory to improve continuity of care for patients and families. Although current PPC models focus primarily on the hospital setting, community-based PPC (CBPPC) programs are increasingly integral to the coordination, continuity, and provision of quality care. In this review, the authors examine the purpose, design, and infrastructure of CBPPC in the United States, highlighting eligibility criteria, optimal referral models to enhance early involvement, and fundamental tenets of CBPPC. This article also appraises the role of CBPPC in promoting family-centered care. This model strives to enhance shared decision making, facilitate seamless handoffs of care, maintain desired locations of care, and ease the end of life for children who die at home. The effect of legislation on the advent and evolution of CBPPC also is discussed, as is an assessment of the current status of state-specific CBPPC programs and barriers to implementation of CBPPC. Finally, strategies and resources for designing, implementing, and maintaining quality standards in CBPPC programs are reviewed.

  19. State of the art of palliative therapy.

    PubMed

    Seregni, E; Padovano, B; Coliva, A; Zecca, E; Bombardieri, E

    2011-08-01

    Bone pain in advanced stages of cancer significantly decreases the patient's quality of life having a great impact on physical, physiological and social functioning. About 65% of patients with prostate or breast cancer will experience symptomatic skeletal metastases. Bone pain sustained by osseous metastases represents the most frequent kind of pain and its clinical presentation and characteristics differ from other type of neoplastic pain (i.e., neuropathic or visceral ones). Pathophysiology of bone pain is not yet completely understood but a general mechanism including infiltration of bone tissue associated with osteolysis and release of biological active molecules able to stimulate peripheral nervous terminals, seems to be principally involved. In oncological practice, painful skeletal metastases are managed by different multidisciplinary modalities which include the use of systemic analgesics (i.e., bisphosphonates), antineoplastic agents (i.e., hormones and chemotherapeutics), external beam radiotherapy, interventional radiology and radiopharmaceuticals. In this review we will discuss the state of the art of palliative therapy of bone pain with particular emphasis to the current approved radiopharmaceuticals, focusing on indications, patient selection, efficacy and toxicity. Some remarks on new or under developing strategies in systemic metabolic radiopharmaceutical therapy will be reported.

  20. Malignant biliary obstruction: From palliation to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Brian R; Birg, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, or other tumors is a common problem which may cause debilitating symptoms and increase the risk of subsequent surgery. The optimal treatment - including the decision whether to treat prior to resection - depends on the type of malignancy, as well as the stage of disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is generally discouraged due to the risk of infectious complications, though some situations may benefit. Patients who require neoadjuvant therapy will require decompression for the prolonged period until attempted surgical cure. For pancreatic cancer patients, self-expanding metallic stents are superior to plastic stents for achieving lasting decompression without stent occlusion. For cholangiocarcinoma patients, treatment with percutaneous methods or nasobiliary drainage may be superior to endoscopic stent placement, with less risk of infectious complications or failure. For patients of either malignancy who have advanced disease with palliative goals only, the choice of stent for endoscopic decompression depends on estimated survival, with plastic stents favored for survival of < 4 mo. New endoscopic techniques may actually extend stent patency and patient survival for these patients by achieving local control of the obstructing tumor. Both photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation may play a role in extending survival of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27326319

  1. Gynaecological Malignancies from Palliative Care Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    Of the approximately 80,000 new cases of all cancers detected every year in India, 10–15% are gynecological malignancies. As per population-based registries under the National Cancer Registry Program, the leading sites of cancer among women are the cervix uteri, breast, and oral cavity. About 50–60% of all cancers among women in India are mainly of the following four organs: cervix uteri, breast, corpus uteri, and ovaries. Over 70% of these women report for diagnostic and treatment services at an advanced stage of disease, resulting in poor survival and high mortality rates. Among all gynecological cancers, ovarian cancer is the deadliest one and, in 2/3rd of the cases, is detected in an advanced stage. But, in India and in other developing countries, due to inadequate screening facilities for the preventable cancer cervix, this kills more women than any other cancer in females. Gynecology Oncologist as a sub-specialist has an immensely important role in curtailing the menace of gynecological malignancies by providing comprehensive preventive, curative, palliative and follow-up services, with the aim of assuring a good quality of life to women as a cornerstone of cancer management. PMID:21811372

  2. Palliative care and the Indian neurologist

    PubMed Central

    Gursahani, Roop

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life care is an integral part of neurology practice, and neuropalliative medicine is an emerging neurology subspeciality. This begins with serious illness communication as a protocol-based process that depends on an evaluation of patient autonomy and accurate prognostication. Communication needs vary between chronic, life-limiting neurologic illnesses and acute brain injury. In an ideal situation, the patient's wishes are spelled out in advance care plans and living wills, and surrogates have only limited choices for implementation. Palliative care prepares for decline and death as an expected outcome and focuses on improving the quality of life for both the patients and their caregivers. In the Intensive Care Unit, this may require clarity on withholding and withdrawal of treatment. In all locations of care, the emphasis is on symptom control. Neurologists are the quintessential physicians, and our “dharma” is best served by empathetically bringing our technical knowledge and communication skills into easing this final transition for our patients and their families to the best of our ability. PMID:27891024

  3. Palliative Care: The Relief You Need When You're Experiencing Symptoms of Serious Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... quality of life. Palliative care is different from hospice care. Palliative care is available to you at any ... include: • Will I have to give up my primary health care provider? • What do I say if ...

  4. The prevention of euthanasia through palliative care: new developments in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gordijn, B; Janssens, R

    2000-08-01

    Dutch palliative care stands on the eve of important changes. Further development of palliative care has become part of official national health care policy. One of the aims is prevention of euthanasia. Through an expansion and improvement of palliative care facilities it is trying to rule out the possibility that future requests of euthanasia might be brought about through insufficient and inadequate palliative care. This paper focuses on these new developments in The Netherlands. It first discusses the recent developments with regard to euthanasia. Thereafter, it describes the dynamic setting of palliative care. Finally, the issue of prevention of euthanasia through palliative care is analyzed. With regard to this topic, two questions need to be carefully distinguished. On the one hand, there is the factual question of whether a further development of palliative care can prevent euthanasia, on the other hand we have the normative question of whether palliative care should be further developed to prevent euthanasia. Both questions are analyzed.

  5. Experiences of Family Members of Dying Patients Receiving Palliative Sedation.

    PubMed

    Tursunov, Olga; Cherny, Nathan I; Ganz, Freda DeKeyser

    2016-11-01

    To describe the experience of family members of patients receiving palliative sedation at the initiation of treatment and after the patient has died and to compare these experiences over time.
. Descriptive comparative study.
. Oncology ward at Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel.
. A convenience sample of 34 family members of dying patients receiving palliative sedation. 
. A modified version of a questionnaire describing experiences of family members with palliative sedation was administered during palliative sedation and one to four months after the patient died. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the results of the questionnaire, and appropriate statistical analyses were conducted for comparisons over time.
. Experiences of family members and time.
. Most relatives were satisfied with the sedation and staff support. Palliative sedation was experienced as an ethical way to relieve suffering. However, one-third felt that it shortened the patient's life. An explanation of the treatment was given less than half of the time and was usually given on the same day treatment was started. This explanation was given by physicians and nurses. Many felt that they were not ready for changes in the patient's condition and wanted increased opportunities to discuss the treatment with oncology care providers. No statistically significant differences in experiences were found over time. 
. Relatives' experiences of palliative sedation were generally positive and stable over time. Important experiences included timing of the initiation of sedation, timing and quality of explanations, and communication.
. Nurses should attempt to initiate discussions of the possible role of sedation in the event of refractory symptoms and follow through with continued discussions. The management of refractory symptoms at the end of life, the role of sedation, and communication skills associated with decision making related to palliative sedation should be a

  6. Exploring community nurses' perceptions of life review in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Ian; Parker, Jonathan

    2006-02-01

    This exploratory study aimed to identify community nurses' understanding of life review as a therapeutic intervention for younger people requiring palliative care. The objectives set out to: (i) Describe the participants' understanding of reminiscence and life review (ii) Detail their current ideas regarding a structured approach to using life review in the community setting. (iii) Outline their understanding of the possible advantages and limitations of life review in relation to palliative care. (iv) Identify future training requirements. The literature review illustrated how the eighth developmental stage of Erikson's theory, ego-integrity vs. despair, is a 'crisis' often faced by older people entering the final stage of life. Life review is considered a useful therapeutic intervention in the resolution of this crisis. Younger terminally ill people in the palliative stage of an illness may face the same final crises due to their reduced lifespan. Therefore, this study explored the benefits and limitations of life review as an intervention in palliative care. The study used a purposive sample of community nurses responsible for delivering generic and specialist palliative care. A qualitative method of data collection in the form of three focus group interviews was used. Subsequent data were manually analysed, categorized and coded with associations between the themes identified. The findings suggested that community nurses have limited knowledge pertaining to the use of life review and tend to confuse the intervention with reminiscence. Furthermore, they believed that life review could potentially cause harm to practitioners engaged in listening to another person's life story. However, the participants concur that with appropriate training they would find life review a useful intervention to use in palliative care. The results led to the identification of a number of key recommendations: Community nurses require specific education in the technicalities of life

  7. Predictors of health service use over the palliative care trajectory.

    PubMed

    Masucci, Lisa; Guerriere, Denise N; Zagorski, Brandon; Coyte, Peter C

    2013-05-01

    Health system restructuring coupled with the preference of patients to be cared for at home has altered the setting for the provision of palliative care. Accordingly, there has been emphasis on the provision of home-based palliative care by multidisciplinary teams of health care providers. Evidence suggests that these teams are better able to identify and deal with the needs of patients and their family members. Currently there is a lack of literature examining the predictors of palliative care service use for various professional service categories. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of the propensity and intensity of five main health service categories in the last three months of life for home-based palliative care patients. This was a prospective cohort study. The predictors of service use were assessed using a two-part model, which treats the decision to use a service (propensity) and the amount of service use (intensity) as two distinct processes. Propensity was modeled using a logistic regression and intensity was modeled using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicate that each service category emerged with a different set of predictor variables. Common predictors of health service use across service categories were patient age and functional status. The results suggest that a consistent set of predictors across service categories does not exist, and thus the determinants of access to each service category are unique. These findings will help case managers, health administrators, and policy decision makers better allocate human resources to palliative patients.

  8. Palliative Workforce Development and a Regional Training Program.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Sean; Levine, Stacie; Baron, Aliza; Johnson, Tricia J; Ansari, Aziz; Leyva, Ileana; Marschke, Michael; Szmuilowicz, Eytan; Deamant, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Our primary aims were to assess growth in the local hospital based workforce, changes in the composition of the workforce and use of an interdisciplinary team, and sources of support for palliative medicine teams in hospitals participating in a regional palliative training program in Chicago. PC program directors and administrators at 16 sites were sent an electronic survey on institutional and PC program characteristics such as: hospital type, number of beds, PC staffing composition, PC programs offered, start-up years, PC service utilization and sources of financial support for fiscal years 2012 and 2014. The median number of consultations reported for existing programs in 2012 was 345 (IQR 109 - 2168) compared with 840 (IQR 320 - 4268) in 2014. At the same time there were small increases in the overall team size from a median of 3.2 full time equivalent positions (FTE) in 2012 to 3.3 FTE in 2013, with a median increase of 0.4 (IQR 0-1.0). Discharge to hospice was more common than deaths in the acute care setting in hospitals with palliative medicine teams that included both social workers and advanced practice nurses ( p < .0001). Given the shortage of palliative medicine specialist providers more emphasis should be placed on training other clinicians to provide primary level palliative care while addressing the need to hire sufficient workforce to care for seriously ill patients.

  9. Barriers to palliative care for advanced dementia: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Erel, Meira; Marcus, Esther-Lee; Dekeyser-Ganz, Freda

    2017-10-01

    People with dementia often fail to receive palliative care, despite increased recognition of their need and eligibility for such care. The aims of this study were to assess the barriers associated with a lack of implementation of palliative care for people with dementia and to explore whether there is a gap in knowledge necessitating further study. We reviewed the English literature published from 2000 to 2016, related to barriers to palliative care for people with dementia. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria for the review. Most originated in Europe or North America and were qualitative in nature. Four key themes were identified: administrative/policy issues, education, communication, and staff personal characteristics. Barriers to the delivery of palliative care for people with dementia have been studied for more than a decade, yet at present, there is a lack of consensus in practice. More research is needed related to barriers associated with personal characteristics. Such investigations have the potential to improve and better understand the complex nature of palliative care in this population.

  10. Clinical spectrum of children receiving palliative care in Malaysian Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chong, L A; Khalid, F; Khoo, T B; Teh, S H; Kuan, G L; Aina Mariana, A M; Alias, E; Chieng, C H; Razali, H; Ong, G B; Zainah, S H; Shukor, I N C; Wong, J J

    2017-02-01

    Awareness for paediatric palliative care has resulted in the impetus for paediatrician-led palliative care services across Malaysia. However, there is paucity of local data on patients receiving hospital-based paediatric palliative care. We aim to review the clinical spectrum of patients referred to these services. An observational study of children aged between 0-18 years receiving palliative care at 13 hospitals between 1st January and 31st December 2014 was carried out. There were 315 patients analysed, 90 (28.6%) and 46 (14.6%) were neonates and adolescents respectively. The main ICD-10 diagnostic categories for all patients were identified to be 'Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities' 117 (37.1%), 'Diseases of nervous system' 76 (24.1%) and 'Neoplasms' 60 (19.0%). At referral 156 (50%) patients had holistic needs assessments. Patients with 'Diseases of nervous system' were assessed to have significantly more physical needs than the other two diagnostic categories. Majority of patients who knew of their diagnosis and prognosis were those with malignancy. Over a fifth of referrals were at their terminal admission. Of 144 who died, 111 (77.1%) had advanced care plans. There was bereavement follow-up in 98 (68.1%) patients. Patients referred for palliative care have varied diagnoses and needs. To ensure all paediatricians are competent to deliver quality care to all children, further education and training initiatives is imperative.

  11. [Assessment of our home care and home palliative care].

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Yasuhiko; Suzushino, Seiko; Tamotsu, Kiyokazu

    2014-12-01

    We conducted home care and home palliative care from the department of home care. We provided home care services to 190 patients(105 men, 85 women)in October 2013. Their average age was 78.7(range: 32-102)years old, and home care had been underway from 1 day to 8 years, 10 months. Among all participants, 168(88.4%)suffered from malignant diseases, 168 patients had died, and over half of deceased patients(88 out of 168)had died at home. We used opioids for control of cancer pain, carried out home parenteral nutrition(HPN), home enteral nutrition(HEN), percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy( PEG), and removed pleural effusion and ascites during home care. In order to facilitate the practice of palliative care by the palliative care team, which consists of various medical staff in the hospital, we are giving high priority to education and enlightenment in the hospital. To provide enlightenment, education, and cooperation between regional home care and home palliative care, we are also conducting educational lectures in the regional party of the Iwaki city medical associate, and providing combined educational-medical training for home care and home palliative care by various medical staff.

  12. Islamic theology and the principles of palliative care.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahri, Mohammad Zafir

    2016-12-01

    It is well established that provision of palliative care is a human right for the patients and their families going through the suffering associated with a life-threatening illness. The holistic nature of palliative care, dictated by the multifaceted suffering experienced by patients, calls for giving due consideration to the cultural and spiritual background of the target population. Similarly, the paramount impact of Islamic wholeness on Muslims' perceptions, beliefs, and way of living makes it necessary for non-Muslim palliative care professionals who are caring for Muslim patients to increase their awareness about the parts of Islamic theology pertinent to the principles of palliative care. This would include a basic knowledge of the Islamic faith and how Muslims view and cope with the calamity of a life-threatening condition along with the suffering associated with it. Equally important are issues related to the management of symptoms using agents that are normally strictly prohibited by Islamic teachings, including opioids, brain stimulants, and cannabinoids. The current review briefly discusses the Islamic perspectives pertinent to a Muslim patient's journey throughout the palliative care experience, onward to a safe passing, and beyond.

  13. Palliative care, double effect and the law in Australia.

    PubMed

    White, B P; Willmott, L; Ashby, M

    2011-06-01

    Care and decision-making at the end of life that promotes comfort and dignity is widely endorsed by public policy and the law. In ethical analysis of palliative care interventions that are argued potentially to hasten death, these may be deemed to be ethically permissible by the application of the doctrine of double effect, if the doctor's intention is to relieve pain and not cause death. In part because of the significance of ethics in the development of law in the medical sphere, this doctrine is also likely to be recognized as part of Australia's common law, although hitherto there have been no cases concerning palliative care brought before a court in Australia to test this. Three Australian States have, nonetheless, created legislative defences that are different from the common law with the intent of clarifying the law, promoting palliative care, and distinguishing it from euthanasia. However, these defences have the potential to provide less protection for doctors administering palliative care. In addition to requiring a doctor to have an appropriate intent, the defences insist on adherence to particular medical practice standards and perhaps require patient consent. Doctors providing end-of-life care in these States need to be aware of these legislative changes. Acting in accordance with the common law doctrine of double effect may not provide legal protection. Similar changes are likely to occur in other States and Territories as there is a trend towards enacting legislative defences that deal with the provision of palliative care.

  14. Launching a palliative care homepage: the Edmonton experience.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J; Macmillan, A; Bruera, E

    1997-11-01

    The Internet, with its graphical subdivision, the World Wide Web (WWW). has become a powerful tool for the dissemination of information and for communication. This paper discusses the authors' experiences with creating, launching and maintaining an official publication on the Internet by the Edmonton Regional Palliative Care Program and the Division of Palliative Medicine, University of Alberta, Canada. It describes the content and format of the homepage and the process of publication. Over a six-month period there were 892 visits to the site and 84 separate items of correspondence to the site's editors. Of these correspondence items, 36 were requesting further information regarding clinical and other programme information. Sixty-nine of the 84 communications came from North America and Europe. The pattern of readership is briefly discussed as are some of the potential advantages and challenges when utilizing this electronic medium. To promote the dissemination of reliable information on the Internet, the authors encourage other palliative care groups and organizations to publish on the WWW. The URL is http:/(/)www.palliative.org (previously http:/(/)www.caritas.ab.ca/approximately palliate).

  15. Physicians' opinions on palliative care and euthanasia in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Maas, Paul J

    2006-10-01

    In recent decades significant developments in end-of-life care have taken place in The Netherlands. There has been more attention for palliative care and alongside the practice of euthanasia has been regulated. The aim of this paper is to describe the opinions of physicians with regard to the relationship between palliative care and euthanasia, and determinants of these opinions. Cross-sectional. Representative samples of physicians (n = 410), relatives of patients who died after euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (EAS; n = 87), and members of the Euthanasia Review Committees (ERCs; n = 35). Structured interviews with physicians and relatives of patients, and a written questionnaire for the members of the ERCs. Approximately half of the physicians disagreed and one third agreed with statements describing the quality of palliative care in The Netherlands as suboptimal and describing the expertise of physicians with regard to palliative care as insufficient. Almost two thirds of the physicians disagreed with the suggestion that adequate treatment of pain and terminal care make euthanasia redundant. Having a religious belief, being a nursing home physician or a clinical specialist, never having performed euthanasia, and not wanting to perform euthanasia were related to the belief that adequate treatment of pain and terminal care could make euthanasia redundant. The study results indicate that most physicians in The Netherlands are not convinced that palliative care can always alleviate all suffering at the end of life and believe that euthanasia could be appropriate in some cases.

  16. Building an Outpatient Kidney Palliative Care Clinical Program.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Jennifer S; Wright, Rebecca; Blaum, Caroline S; Wall, Stephen P

    2017-08-09

    A diagnosis of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), or end stage renal disease (ESRD) represents a significant life change for patients and families. Individuals often experience high symptom burden, decreased quality of life, increased health care utilization, and end-of-life care discordant with their preferences. Early integration of palliative care with standard nephrology practice in the outpatient setting has the potential to improve quality of life through provision of expert symptom management, emotional support, and facilitation of advance care planning that honors the individual's values and goals. This special report describes application of participatory action research (PAR) methods to develop an outpatient integrated nephrology and palliative care program. Stakeholder concerns were thematically analyzed to inform translation of a known successful model of outpatient kidney palliative care to a practice in a large, urban medical center in the United States. Stakeholder needs and challenges to meeting these needs were identified. We uncovered a shared understanding of the clinical need for palliative care services in nephrology practice, but apprehension towards practice change. Action steps to modify the base model were created in response to stakeholder feedback. The development of a model of care that provides a new approach to clinical practice requires attention to relevant stakeholder concerns. PAR is a useful methodological approach that engages stakeholders and builds partnerships. This creation of shared ownership can facilitate innovation and practice change. We synthesized stakeholder concerns to build a conceptual model for an integrated nephrology and palliative care clinical program. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. An Update: NIH Research Funding For Palliative Medicine 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Brown, Elizabeth; Morrison, R Sean; Gelfman, Laura P

    2017-08-09

    The evidence base to support palliative care clinical practice is inadequate and opportunities to improve the palliative care evidence base remain despite the field's rapid growth. To examine current NIH funding of palliative medicine research, changes since our 2013 report, and trends since our 2008 report. We sought to identify NIH funding of palliative medicine from 2011 to 2015 in two stages: (I) we searched the NIH grants database "RePorter" for grants with key words "palliative care," "end-of-life care," "hospice," and "end of life" and (II) we identified palliative care researchers likely to have secured NIH funding using three strategies. We abstracted (1) the first and last authors' names from original investigations published in major palliative medicine journals from 2013 to 2015; (2) these names from a PubMed-generated list of original articles published in major medicine, nursing, and subspecialty journals using the above key words; and (3) palliative medicine journal editorial board members and key members of palliative medicine initiatives. We crossmatched the pooled names against NIH grants funded from 2011 to 2015. The author and NIH RePorter search identified 854 and 419 grants, respectively. The 461 grants categorized as relevant to palliative medicine represented 334 unique PIs. Compared to 2006-2010, the number of NIH-funded junior career development awards nearly doubled (6.1%-10%), articles published in nonpalliative care specialty journals tripled (13%-37%), published palliative care researchers increased by 2.5-fold (839-2120), and NIH-funded original palliative medicine research articles doubled (21%-39%). Despite the challenging NIH funding climate, NIH funding to palliative care remained stable. The increase in early stage career development funding, palliative care investigators, and palliative medicine research published in nonpalliative medicine journals reflects important advances to address the workforce and evidence gaps. Further

  18. Organization and evaluation of generalist palliative care in a Danish hospital.

    PubMed

    Bergenholtz, Heidi; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Jarlbaek, Lene

    2015-05-06

    Hospitals have a responsibility to ensure that palliative care is provided to all patients with life-threatening illnesses. Generalist palliative care should therefore be acknowledged and organized as a part of the clinical tasks. However, little is known about the organization and evaluation of generalist palliative care in hospitals. Therefore the aim of the study was to investigate the organization and evaluation of generalist palliative care in a large regional hospital by comparing results from existing evaluations. Results from three different data sets, all aiming to evaluate generalist palliative care, were compared retrospectively. The data-sets derived from; 1. a national accreditation of the hospital, 2. a national survey and 3. an internal self-evaluation performed in the hospital. The data were triangulated to investigate the organization and evaluation of palliative care in order to identify concordances and/or discrepancies. The triangulation indicated poor validity of the results from existing methods used to evaluate palliative care in hospitals. When the datasets were compared, several discrepancies occurred with regard to the organization and the performance of generalist palliative care. Five types of discrepancies were found in 35 out of 56 sections in the fulfilment of the national accreditation standard for palliative care. Responses from the hospital management and the department managements indicated that generalist palliative care was organized locally--if at all--within the various departments and with no overall structure or policy. This study demonstrates weaknesses in the existing evaluation methods for generalist palliative care and highlights the lack of an overall policy, organization and goals for the provision of palliative care in the hospital. More research is needed to focus on the organization of palliative care and to establish indicators for high quality palliative care provided by the hospital. The lack of valid indicators

  19. The Role and Timing of Palliative Care in Supporting Persons with Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; Connaire, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To better describe the role and timing of palliative care in supporting persons with intellectual disabilities and advanced dementia (AD). Background: Specialist palliative care providers have focused mostly on people with cancers. Working with persons with intellectual disabilities and AD offers opportunities to expand such palliative care…

  20. Development of a Palliative Education Assessment Tool for Medical Student Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meekin, Sharon Abele; Klein, Jason E.; Fleischman, Alan R.; Fins, Joseph J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Palliative Education Assessment Tool (PEAT), an innovative assessment to facilitate curricular mapping of palliative care education. The PEAT comprises seven palliative care domains, each of which details specific objectives of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. PEAT enables educators to describe a specific multidimensional aspect of…

  1. The Role and Timing of Palliative Care in Supporting Persons with Intellectual Disability and Advanced Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarron, Mary; McCallion, Philip; Fahey-McCarthy, Elizabeth; Connaire, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To better describe the role and timing of palliative care in supporting persons with intellectual disabilities and advanced dementia (AD). Background: Specialist palliative care providers have focused mostly on people with cancers. Working with persons with intellectual disabilities and AD offers opportunities to expand such palliative care…

  2. [The role of consultation in palliative sedation in the central region of the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    de Graeff, A; Jobse, A P; Verhagen, E H; Moonen, A A J

    2008-10-25

    To gain insight into the role of consultation in palliative sedation. Retrospective analysis. All consultation records of the Palliation Team Midden Nederland (PTMN) from 1 November 2005 to 31 October 2006 were analysed. If palliative sedation was mentioned in the record, the following variables were listed: character of the consultation, data of the questioner, patient data, consultation question, indication for palliative sedation, and character of the advice given. Palliative sedation was a topic in 206 of the 659 consultation records investigated (31%). Intractable delirium, pain, exhaustion, dyspnoea and nausea or vomiting were the most important grounds for palliative sedation. In 47 of the 113 consultations (41%) about starting palliative sedation a negative advice was given, and this was nearly always because there were no intractable somatic symptoms. Existential problems played an important role in 14 of these 113 consultations (12%). In 25 consultations (22%) euthanasia versus palliative sedation was considered explicitly. For these cases there was hardly ever an indication for sedation. Palliative sedation was an important reason for consulting the PTMN. The high percentage of negative advice indicates that consultation about palliative sedation has an added value. It gives the questioner the opportunity to check whether all options for treatment have been tried. The question as to whether existential problems are an indication for palliative sedation should be discussed between medical professionals as well as publicly. Palliative sedation rarely is an alternative for euthanasia.

  3. An instrument to measure nurses' knowledge in palliative care: Validation of the Spanish version of Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in final stages of their life. Nurses need to acquire specific knowledge and abilities to provide quality palliative care. Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses is a questionnaire that evaluates their basic knowledge about palliative care. The Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN) is useful to evaluate basic knowledge about palliative care, but its adaptation into the Spanish language and the analysis of its effectiveness and utility for Spanish culture is lacking. Purpose To report the adaptation into the Spanish language and the psychometric analysis of the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses. Method The Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses-Spanish Version (PCQN-SV) was obtained from a process including translation, back-translation, comparison with versions in other languages, revision by experts, and pilot study. Content validity and reliability of questionnaire were analyzed. Difficulty and discrimination indexes of each item were also calculated according to Item Response Theory (IRT). Findings Adequate internal consistency was found (S-CVI = 0.83); Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.67 and KR-20 test result of 0,72 reflected the reliability of PCQN-SV. The questionnaire had a global difficulty index of 0,55, with six items which could be considered as difficult or very difficult, and five items with could be considered easy or very easy. The discrimination indexes of the 20 items, show us that eight items are good or very good while six items are bad to discriminate between good and bad respondents. Discussion Although in shows internal consistency, reliability and difficulty indexes similar to those obtained by versions of PCQN in other languages, a reformulation of the items with lowest content validity or discrimination indexes and those showing difficulties with their comprehension is an aspect to take into account in order to improve the

  4. An instrument to measure nurses' knowledge in palliative care: Validation of the Spanish version of Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses.

    PubMed

    Chover-Sierra, Elena; Martínez-Sabater, Antonio; Lapeña-Moñux, Yolanda Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in final stages of their life. Nurses need to acquire specific knowledge and abilities to provide quality palliative care. Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses is a questionnaire that evaluates their basic knowledge about palliative care. The Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN) is useful to evaluate basic knowledge about palliative care, but its adaptation into the Spanish language and the analysis of its effectiveness and utility for Spanish culture is lacking. To report the adaptation into the Spanish language and the psychometric analysis of the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses. The Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses-Spanish Version (PCQN-SV) was obtained from a process including translation, back-translation, comparison with versions in other languages, revision by experts, and pilot study. Content validity and reliability of questionnaire were analyzed. Difficulty and discrimination indexes of each item were also calculated according to Item Response Theory (IRT). Adequate internal consistency was found (S-CVI = 0.83); Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.67 and KR-20 test result of 0,72 reflected the reliability of PCQN-SV. The questionnaire had a global difficulty index of 0,55, with six items which could be considered as difficult or very difficult, and five items with could be considered easy or very easy. The discrimination indexes of the 20 items, show us that eight items are good or very good while six items are bad to discriminate between good and bad respondents. Although in shows internal consistency, reliability and difficulty indexes similar to those obtained by versions of PCQN in other languages, a reformulation of the items with lowest content validity or discrimination indexes and those showing difficulties with their comprehension is an aspect to take into account in order to improve the PCQN-SV. The PCQN-SV is a useful Spanish language

  5. Integrating palliative care in the surgical and trauma intensive care unit: a report from the Improving Palliative Care in the Intensive Care Unit (IPAL-ICU) Project Advisory Board and the Center to Advance Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Mosenthal, Anne C; Weissman, David E; Curtis, J Randall; Hays, Ross M; Lustbader, Dana R; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Ray, Daniel E; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D; Brasel, Karen J; Campbell, Margaret; Nelson, Judith E

    2012-04-01

    Although successful models for palliative care delivery and quality improvement in the intensive care unit have been described, their applicability in surgical intensive care unit settings has not been fully addressed. We undertook to define specific challenges, strategies, and solutions for integration of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit. We searched the MEDLINE database from inception to May 2011 for all English language articles using the term "surgical palliative care" or the terms "surgical critical care," "surgical ICU," "surgeon," "trauma" or "transplant," and "palliative care" or "end-of- life care" and hand-searched our personal files for additional articles. Based on review of these articles and the experiences of our interdisciplinary expert Advisory Board, we prepared this report. We critically reviewed the existing literature on delivery of palliative care in the surgical intensive care unit setting focusing on challenges, strategies, models, and interventions to promote effective integration of palliative care for patients receiving surgical critical care and their families. Characteristics of patients with surgical disease and practices, attitudes, and interactions of different disciplines on the surgical critical care team present distinctive issues for intensive care unit palliative care integration and improvement. Physicians, nurses, and other team members in surgery, critical care and palliative care (if available) should be engaged collaboratively to identify challenges and develop strategies. "Consultative," "integrative," and combined models can be used to improve intensive care unit palliative care, although optimal use of trigger criteria for palliative care consultation has not yet been demonstrated. Important components of an improvement effort include attention to efficient work systems and practical tools and to attitudinal factors and "culture" in the unit and institution. Approaches that emphasize delivery of

  6. Regional medical professionals' confidence in providing palliative care, associated difficulties and availability of specialized palliative care services in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Kayo; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Ichikawa, Takeyuki; Yoshida, Saran; Akizuki, Nobuya; Akiyama, Miki; Shirahige, Yutaka; Eguchi, Kenji

    2014-03-01

    Although confidence in providing palliative care services is an essential component of providing such care, factors relating to this have not been investigated in Japan. This study aimed to explore confidence in the ability to provide palliative care and associated difficulties and to explore correlations between these variables. Design A cross-sectional mail survey of medical doctors and registered nurses in Japan was performed as part of a regional intervention trial: the Outreach Palliative Care Trial of Integrated Regional Model study. Subjects Questionnaires were sent to 7905 medical professionals, and 409 hospital doctors, 235 general practitioners, 2160 hospital nurses and 115 home visiting nurses completed them. Confidence in providing palliative care was low and difficulties frequent for all types of medical professionals assessed. In particular, only 8-24% of them, depending on category, agreed to 'having adequate knowledge and skills regarding cancer pain management'. In particular, 55-80% of medical professionals acknowledged difficulty with 'alleviation of cancer pain'. Multiple regression analysis revealed that confidence was positively correlated with the amount of relevant experience and, for medical doctors, with 'prescriptions of opioids (per year)'. Moreover, difficulties were negatively correlated with the amount of relevant clinical experience. Effective strategies for developing regional palliative care programs include basic education of medical professionals on management of cancer-related pain (especially regarding opioids) and other symptoms.

  7. Palliative care for Muslims and issues before death.

    PubMed

    Gatrad, A R; Sheikh, A

    2002-11-01

    National and European directives have now enshrined within European law the requirement that healthcare professionals provide their patients with culturally appropriate and sensitive care. Although well intentioned, many health professionals find it difficult to translate these directives into practice. Barriers to providing culturally competent care include racism, institutional discrimination and gaps in our understanding of the interface between culture and health--this latter factor reflecting the lack of training in transcultural health care. In this paper, we concentrate on issues relating to the provision of palliative care near death to Muslims of South Asian origin in the UK, although much of what is said will equally be applicable to Muslims from other parts of the world. This is the first of two articles giving insights into the palliative care of Muslims. The second article 'Palliative care of Muslims and issues after death' will appear in a later issue.

  8. Development and efficacy of music therapy techniques within palliative care.

    PubMed

    Clements-Cortés, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Music therapy is increasingly becoming an intervention used in palliative care settings around the globe. While the specialty of palliative care music therapy is relatively young having emerged in the late 1980s, there is a strong and growing body of evidence demonstrating its efficacy in assisting a variety of issues common at end-of-life. There are multiple music therapy techniques that are implemented with clients in palliative care and they can be categorized in four broad areas: receptive, creative, recreative and combined. These techniques will be presented with respect to their development by clinicians as supported by the descriptive and research literature. Information is also provided on the use of music therapy in facilitating the grieving and bereavement process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The importance of measuring customer satisfaction in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Turriziani, Adriana; Attanasio, Gennaro; Scarcella, Francesco; Sangalli, Luisa; Scopa, Anna; Genualdo, Alessandra; Quici, Stefano; Nazzicone, Giulia; Ricciotti, Maria Adelaide; La Commare, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In the last decades, palliative care has been more and more focused on the evaluation of patients' and families' satisfaction with care. However, the evaluation of customer satisfaction in palliative care presents a number of issues such as the presence of both patients and their families, the frail condition of the patients and the complexity of their needs, and the lack of standard quality indicators and appropriate measurement tools. In this manuscript, we critically review existing evidence and literature on the evaluation of satisfaction in the palliative care context. Moreover, we provide - as a practical example - the preliminary results of our experience in this setting with the development of a dedicated tool for the measurement of satisfaction.

  10. Negotiating futility, managing emotions: nursing the transition to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Broom, Alex; Kirby, Emma; Good, Phillip; Wootton, Julia; Yates, Patsy; Hardy, Janet

    2015-03-01

    Nurses play a pivotal role in caring for patients during the transition from life-prolonging care to palliative care. This is an area of nursing prone to emotional difficulty, interpersonal complexity, and interprofessional conflict. It is situated within complex social dynamics, including those related to establishing and accepting futility and reconciling the desire to maintain hope. Here, drawing on interviews with 20 Australian nurses, we unpack their accounts of nursing the transition to palliative care, focusing on the purpose of nursing at the point of transition; accounts of communication and strategies for representing palliative care; emotional engagement and burden; and key interprofessional challenges. We argue that in caring for patients approaching the end of life, nurses occupy precarious interpersonal and interprofessional spaces that involve a negotiated order around sentimental work, providing them with both capital (privileged access) and burden (emotional suffering) within their day-to-day work.

  11. Reflections on Palliative Care from the Jewish and Islamic Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Michael; Baddarni, Kassim; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual care is a vital part of holistic patient care. Awareness of common patient beliefs will facilitate discussions about spirituality. Such conversations are inherently good for the patient, deepen the caring staff-patient-family relationship, and enhance understanding of how beliefs influence care decisions. All healthcare providers are likely to encounter Muslim patients, yet many lack basic knowledge of the Muslim faith and of the applications of Islamic teachings to palliative care. Similarly, some of the concepts underlying positive Jewish approaches to palliative care are not well known. We outline Jewish and Islamic attitudes toward suffering, treatment, and the end of life. We discuss our religions' approaches to treatments deemed unnecessary by medical staff, and consider some of the cultural reasons that patients and family members might object to palliative care, concluding with specific suggestions for the medical team. PMID:22203878

  12. Palliative care research: trading ethics for an evidence base.

    PubMed

    Jubb, A M

    2002-12-01

    Good medical practice requires evidence of effectiveness to address deficits in care, strive for further improvements, and justly apportion finite resources. Nevertheless, the potential of palliative care is still held back by a paucity of good evidence. These circumstances are largely attributable to perceived ethical challenges that allegedly distinguish dying patients as a special client class. In addition, practical limitations compromise the quality of evidence that can be obtained from empirical research on terminally ill subjects. This critique aims to appraise the need for focused research, in order to develop clinical and policy decisions that will guide health care professionals in their care of dying patients. Weighted against this need are tenets that value the practical and ethical challenges of palliative care research as unique and insurmountable. The review concludes that, provided investigators compassionately apply ethical principles to their work, there is no justification for not endeavouring to improve the quality of palliative care through research.

  13. Managing overactive bladder symptoms in a palliative care setting.

    PubMed

    Walton, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    The combined symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, and incontinence (overactive bladder) are common symptoms within an elderly population but are also seen in palliative care patients and are most often due to detrusor muscle overactivity. These symptoms can lead to a marked reduction in quality of life and pharmacological management is traditionally with anticholinergic drugs. These medications carry a high risk of side effects and are often poorly tolerated by palliative care patients. Other management approaches, however, such as the use of urisheaths may markedly improve quality of life without adding to symptom burden in patients nearing the end of life. This article highlights two cases in palliative care where overactive bladder symptoms prove difficult to manage with anticholinergic drugs. The discussion will give an overview of treatment strategies to help aid the clinician in managing these difficult symptoms in patients with a terminal illness.

  14. Terminal restlessness: perspectives of an interdisciplinary palliative care team.

    PubMed

    Brajtman, Susan

    2005-04-01

    To explore an interdisciplinary team's perceptions of families' needs and experiences surrounding terminal restlessness. A qualitative exploratory design using two focus groups. Participants were members of an interdisciplinary palliative care team working in a palliative care unit in a university teaching hospital in Israel. The palliative care team confronted several challenging and stressful issues surrounding the management of terminal restlessness that influenced their treatment decisions and relationships with families. Four themes reflected the participants' perceptions and experiences: suffering, maintaining control, feelings of ambivalence and valuing communication to reduce conflict. Findings suggest the need for comprehensive treatment plans to meet the special supportive and information needs of these families, specific supportive strategies for the professional caregivers and further studies to develop ethical criteria and evidence-based guidelines for the use of sedation in the management of terminal restlessness.

  15. A Home-Based Palliative Care Consult Service for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Golden, Adam G; Antoni, Charles; Gammonley, Denise

    2016-11-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a home-based palliative care consult service for Veterans with advanced illness. A retrospective chart review was performed on 73 Veterans who received a home-based palliative care consult. Nearly one-third were 80 years of age or older, and nearly one-third had a palliative diagnosis of cancer. The most common interventions of the consult team included discussion of advance directives, completion of a "do not resuscitate" form, reduction/stoppage of at least 1 medication, explanation of diagnosis, referral to home-based primary care program, referral to hospice, and assessment/support for caregiver stress. The home-based consult service was therefore able to address clinical and psychosocial issues that can demonstrate a direct benefit to Veterans, families, and referring clinicians.

  16. Applying Motivational Interviewing Techniques to Palliative Care Communication

    PubMed Central

    Childers, Julie W.; Arnold, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Palliative care relies heavily on communication. Although some guidelines do address difficult communication, less is known about how to handle conversations with patients who express ambivalence or resistance to such care. Clinicians also struggle with how to support patient autonomy when they disagree with patient choices. Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques may help address these responses. Specifically, MI techniques such as reflective statements and summarizing can help reduce a patient's resistance, resolve patient ambivalence, and support patient autonomy. Not all the MI techniques are applicable, however, in part because palliative care clinicians do not guide patients to make particular choices but, instead, help patients make choices that are consistent with patient values. Some elements from MI can be used to improve the quality and efficacy of palliative care conversations. PMID:21291329

  17. Creating social work competencies for practice in hospice palliative care.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Harvey; Johnston, Meaghen; Cadell, Susan; Wainwright, Wendy; Abernethy, Ngaire; Feron, Andrew; Kelley, Mary Lou; Nelson, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Social workers play an important role in the delivery of Hospice Palliative Care in many diverse settings. The profession brings a unique perspective to end-of-life care that reflects and supports the holistic philosophy of Hospice Palliative Care. Despite the prominent and longstanding position of social work in this area, the role and functions of social workers had not been clearly defined. A Canadian task group of social work practitioners and educators utilized a modified Delphi process to consult front line clinicians nationally, and thereby achieved consensus regarding the identification and description of eleven core competencies in Hospice Palliative Care. These competencies are relevant for social workers at different experience levels across care settings. They can be used to inform social work practice, as well as professional development and educational curricula in this area.

  18. What is a good death? Stories from palliative care.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Jennifer D; Clarke, Linda E

    2009-01-01

    The components of good and bad deaths have not been well elucidated in the literature. Furthermore, the value of using narratives in palliative care research has not been extensively explored. We invited people involved in palliative care (patients, caregivers, physicians, and nurses) to tell us their stories of good and bad deaths, and 15 responded. We asked them to tell us about the good and bad deaths that they had witnessed and to describe what a good death and a bad death would be like for them, personally. Several common themes emerged from their good death narratives: a death free from pain, the sense of a life well lived, and a sense of community. Common bad death themes included a painful death and a loss of control and independence. We found that the use of story in palliative care provided an opportunity to create meaning and to heal for both the teller and the listener.

  19. Palliative care for the terminal heart failure patient.

    PubMed

    Beard, Walter L; Long, R Craig; Geraci, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a chronic disease afflicting millions of patients worldwide. Advances in treatment have allowed sufferers to enjoy overall prolonged survival and enhanced quality of life. Yet, a consequence of these therapeutic successes is that more patients survive to end-stage disease, with severe symptoms, poor quality of life, and no options available to prolong their survival reasonably. End-stage heart failure patients require a comprehensive palliative approach to care during their final months, with treatment goals focusing on symptom relief. Often, specific heart failure therapies can further this cause and should be administered when appropriate to alleviate specific symptoms, while other general palliative measures should also be considered as with other terminal patients. End-of-life palliative strategies must conform to accepted principles of ethical care. Constant communication with patients and families is essential to achieve best treatment goals for this growing segment of the population.

  20. Auditing palliative care in one general practice over eight years.

    PubMed

    Holden, J D

    1996-09-01

    To document the delivery and outcome of palliative care in one practice. All appropriate deaths were documented over the period of the study. One general practice of four doctors caring for 8000 patients in the North-West of England. All patients dying of malignant disease which had included a palliative phase of at least one week. Place of death; continuity of care; general practitioners' assessment of symptom relief; follow-up of bereaved relatives. 118 deaths from terminal malignant disease were recorded over eight years in my practice. 75% were being cared for by us (GPs) at the time of death. More detailed information was recorded on 64 of these patients showing generally "satisfactory" care. A simple audit can help maintain high standards of palliative care. General practitioners are encouraged to maintain registers of the care received by terminally-ill patients as an aid to quality assurance in this area.

  1. Palliative care for extremely premature infants and their families.

    PubMed

    Boss, Renee D

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining goals of care and making decisions about life support. For both the extremely premature infant who dies soon after birth and the extremely premature infant who experiences multiple complications over weeks and months in the neonatal intensive care unit, palliative care can maintain a focus on infant comfort and family support. This article highlights the ways in which palliative care can be incorporated into intensive care for all critically ill infants.

  2. Efficiency of searching the grey literature in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Cook, A M; Finlay, I G; Edwards, A G; Hood, K; Higginson, I J; Goodwin, D M; Normand, C E; Douglas, H R

    2001-09-01

    A systematic review into palliative care team effectiveness was undertaken which has, inherent in its methodology, grey literature searching. Over 100 letters were written to a systematically chosen range of service providers, commissioners, and experts in combination with requests for information in six UK national cancer/palliative care organization newsletters. In addition, the System for Information on Grey Literature (SIGLE ) database was searched. As a result, 25 document hard copies were received. The documents were, in all but one case (this one study was also highlighted by the SIGLE search), not relevant as they were predominated by annual reports, service descriptions, and needs assessments. In terms of obtaining unpublished studies for possible inclusion in the review, this comprehensive search was unsuccessful and, therefore, it would appear that grey literature searching is not a useful tool in palliative care systematic reviews.

  3. Physician-assisted death with limited access to palliative care.

    PubMed

    Barutta, Joaquín; Vollmann, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Even among advocates of legalising physician-assisted death, many argue that this should be done only once palliative care has become widely available. Meanwhile, according to them, physician-assisted death should be banned. Four arguments are often presented to support this claim, which we call the argument of lack of autonomy, the argument of existing alternatives, the argument of unfair inequalities and the argument of the antagonism between physician-assisted death and palliative care. We argue that although these arguments provide strong reasons to take appropriate measures to guarantee access to good quality palliative care to everyone who needs it, they do not justify a ban on physician-assisted death until we have achieved this goal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Enhancing collaborative leadership in palliative social work in oncology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Barbara; Phillips, Farya; Head, Barbara Anderson; Hedlund, Susan; Kalisiak, Angela; Zebrack, Brad; Kilburn, Lisa; Otis-Green, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Report-Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs-provided recommendations for meeting the palliative care needs of our growing population of older Americans. The IOM report highlights the demand for social work leadership across all aspects of the health care delivery system. Social workers are core interdisciplinary members of the health care team and it is important for them to be well prepared for collaborative leadership roles across health care settings. The ExCEL in Social Work: Excellence in Cancer Education & Leadership education project was created as a direct response to the 2008 IOM Report. This article highlights a sampling of palliative care projects initiated by outstanding oncology social work participants in the ExCEL program. These projects demonstrate the leadership of social workers in palliative care oncology.

  5. Delayed puberty in girls

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones. These changes normally begin to appear in girls between ages 8 to 14 years old. With delayed puberty, these changes either don't occur, or if they do, they don't progress normally. Delayed puberty is more common in boys than in girls. Causes In most cases of delayed puberty, growth ...

  6. [Teleradiotherapy of laryngeal cancer using a gas hypoxic mixture (GHM-10)].

    PubMed

    Mardynskiĭ, Iu S; Andreev, V G; Sysoev, A S

    1985-08-01

    A total of 96 laryngeal cancer patients were studied. A comparative analysis of short-term therapeutic results was performed in 2 similar groups: patients receiving radiotherapy without GHM-10 (50) and those receiving radiotherapy with the use of GHM-10 containing 10% of oxygen and 90% of nitrogen (46). Irradiation methods and general tactics of the patients management in both groups were identical. No differences in the short-term results were noted. Radiation reactions of the healthy tissues were less pronounced and noted less frequently in the patients on radiotherapy with the use of GHM-10.

  7. Volunteer activity in specialist paediatric palliative care: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Burbeck, Rachel; Low, Joe; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Scott, Rosalind; Bravery, Ruth; Candy, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the involvement of volunteers with direct patient/family contact in UK palliative care services for children and young people. Method Cross-sectional survey using a web-based questionnaire. Setting UK specialist paediatric palliative care services. Participants Volunteer managers/coordinators from all UK hospice providers (n=37) and one National Health Service palliative care service involving volunteers (covering 53 services in total). Main outcomes Service characteristics, number of volunteers, extent of volunteer involvement in care services, use of volunteers’ professional skills and volunteer activities by setting. Results A total of 21 providers covering 31 hospices/palliative care services responded (30 evaluable responses). Referral age limit was 16–19 years in 23 services and 23–35 years in seven services; three services were Hospice at Home or home care only. Per service, there was a median of 25 volunteers with direct patient/family contact. Services providing only home care involved fewer volunteers than hospices with beds. Volunteers entirely ran some services, notably complementary therapy and pastoral/faith-based care. Complementary therapists, school teachers and spiritual care workers most commonly volunteered their professional skills. Volunteers undertook a wide range of activities including emotional support and recreational activities with children and siblings. Conclusions This is the most detailed national survey of volunteer activity in palliative care services for children and young people to date. It highlights the range and depth of volunteers’ contribution to specialist paediatric palliative care services and will help to provide a basis for future research, which could inform expansion of volunteers’ roles. PMID:24644170

  8. Palliative care for children with a yet undiagnosed syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoell, Jessica I; Warfsmann, Jens; Gagnon, Gabriele; Trocan, Laura; Balzer, Stefan; Oommen, Prasad T; Borkhardt, Arndt; Janßen, Gisela; Kuhlen, Michaela

    2017-08-14

    The number of children without a diagnosis in pediatric palliative home care and the process of decision-making in these children are widely unknown. The study was conducted as single-center retrospective cohort study. Between January 2013 and September 2016, 198 children and young adults were cared for; 27 (13.6%) of these were without a clear diagnosis at the start of pediatric palliative home care. A definite diagnosis was ultimately achieved in three children. Median age was 7 years (0-25), duration of care 569 days (2-2638), and number of home visits 7.5 (2-46). Most patients are still alive (19; 70.4%). Median number of drugs administered was eight (range 2-19); antiepileptics were given most frequently. Despite the lack of a clear diagnosis (and thus prognosis), 13 (48.1%) parents faced with their critically ill and clinically deteriorating children decided in favor of a DNAR order. Comparing this with 15 brain-injured children, signs, symptoms, and supportive needs were similar in both groups. Children without a clear diagnosis are relatively common in pediatric palliative care and have-like all other patients-the right to receive optimized and symptom-adapted palliative care. Parents are less likely to choose treatment limitation for children who lack a definitive diagnosis. What is Known: • A clear diagnosis is usually considered important for best-practice pediatric palliative care (PPC) including advanced care planning (ACP). • Timely initiation of pediatric palliative care (PPC) is highly recommended in children with life-limiting conditions. What is New: • SWAN (syndrome without a name) children show similar signs and symptoms (mostly neurological) and have similar supportive needs as brain-injured children. • Defining treatment limitations in advance care planning is more difficult for parents of SWAN compared to brain-injured children.

  9. Further Radiobiologic Modeling of Palliative Radiotherapy: Use of Virtual Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Bleddyn Dale, Roger G.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To study duration of response in palliative radiotherapy in a population of tumors. Methods and Materials: Models of dynamic changes in cell number with time were used to develop a function for the remission time (T{sub rem}) after palliative radiotherapy: T{sub rem}=(BED)/K -t{sub 1}(1+({alpha}.K)/z ), where BED is the biologically effective dose, t{sub 1} the duration of symptoms (i.e., the time between the onset of symptoms and the initiation of radiotherapy), K the daily BED repopulation equivalent, {alpha} the linear radiosensitivity parameter in the linear-quadratic model, and z the tumor regression rate. Results: Simulations of clinical trials show marked variations in remission statistics depending on the tumor characteristics and are highly compatible with the results of clinical trials. Dose escalation produces both a higher proportion and extended duration of remissions, especially in tumors with high {alpha}/{beta} ratios and K values, but the predicted dose responses of acute and late side effects show that caution is necessary. The prospect of using particle beam therapy to reduce normal tissue radiation exposures or using hypoxic sensitizers to improve the tumor cell kill might significantly improve the results of palliative radiotherapy in carefully selected patients and could also be used for safer palliative re-treatments in patients with the potential for prolonged survival. The effect of tumor heterogeneity in determining palliative responses probably exceeds that in radical radiotherapy; as few as 100 patients in each treatment arm produce statistically unreliable results. Conclusions: Virtual trials of palliative radiotherapy can be useful to test the effects of competing schedules and better determine future strategies, including improved design of clinical trials as well as combinations of radiotherapy with other anticancer modalities.

  10. The dynamics of physical activity in palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Pop, Teresa; Adamek, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Active and passive physical exercises in patients under palliative (long term) care in palliative wards and home hospices are a necessary means of prevention or reduction of pulmonary complications, disorders of respiratory function, vascular complications, disorders of lymphatic and venous function, and musculoskeletal dysfunction. The goal of this study was to assess the dynamics of physical activity in patients under long term care. The study group consisted of 60 patients staying in a palliative care ward or a home hospice. The dynamics of physical ability was assessed with the Karnofsky Performance Scale, and the quality of life was evaluated using the 6-point scale of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. The study was conducted over eight weeks, with patient information recorded once a week. Over consecutive weeks, physical activity increased by 10-20% in 20% of the participants, did not change in 36% of the participants, and 44% of the study group showed a decrease in activity. We found an increase in the quality of life in the consecutive weeks of the study and a correlation with the physical activity level. A higher score on the Karnofsky Scale corresponded with a higher quality of life measured in the six-point scale of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist. Significant correlations were found both for specific weeks and for the entire study period. 1. The rehabilitation of palliative care patients resulted in a significant improvement in the quality of life. 2. The results indicate that there is a need to provide palliative patients with optimum rehabilitation regardless of their pre-rehabilitation clinical status. 3. The Karnofsky Performance Scale and the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist are strongly correlated with each other, which makes them robust investigative instruments for evaluating palliative patients.

  11. Family meetings in palliative care: Multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Peter; Quinn, Karen; O'Hanlon, Brendan; Aranda, Sanchia

    2008-01-01

    Background Support for family carers is a core function of palliative care. Family meetings are commonly recommended as a useful way for health care professionals to convey information, discuss goals of care and plan care strategies with patients and family carers. Yet it seems there is insufficient research to demonstrate the utlility of family meetings or the best way to conduct them. This study sought to develop multidisciplinary clinical practice guidelines for conducting family meetings in the specialist palliative care setting based on available evidence and consensus based expert opinion. Methods The guidelines were developed via the following methods: (1) A literature review; (2) Conceptual framework; (3) Refinement of the guidelines based on feedback from an expert panel and focus groups with multidisciplinary specialists from three palliative care units and three major teaching hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Results The literature review revealed that no comprehensive exploration of the conduct and utility of family meetings in the specialist palliative care setting has occurred. Preliminary clinical guidelines were developed by the research team, based on relevant literature and a conceptual framework informed by: single session therapy, principles of therapeutic communication and models of coping and family consultation. A multidisciplinary expert panel refined the content of the guidelines and the applicability of the guidelines was then assessed via two focus groups of multidisciplinary palliative care specialists. The complete version of the guidelines is presented. Conclusion Family meetings provide an opportunity to enhance the quality of care provided to palliative care patients and their family carers. The clinical guidelines developed from this study offer a framework for preparing, conducting and evaluating family meetings. Future research and clinical implications are outlined. PMID:18710576

  12. [Evaluation of 12 pilot projects to improve outpatient palliative care].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Wolf, G; Elsner, F; Lindena, G; Hilgers, R-D; Heussen, N; Rolke, R; Ostgathe, C; Radbruch, L

    2013-12-01

    With a priority programme the German Cancer Aid supported the development of quality-assured outpatient palliative care to cover the whole country. The 12 regional pilot projects funded with the aim to improve outpatient palliative care in different models and different frameworks were concurrently monitored and evaluated. The supported projects, starting and ending individually, documented all patients who were cared for using HOPE (Hospice and palliative care evaluation) and MIDOS (Minimal documentation system for palliative patients). Total data were analyzed for 3239 patients decriptively. In addition to the quantitative data the experiences of the projects were recorded in a number of workshops (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2012). In particular, the experiences reported in the final meeting in July 2012 were considered for this article as well as the final reports for the German Cancer Aid. In the quantitative evaluation 85.6% of 3239 palliative care patients had a cancer diagnosis. In all model projects the goal of a network with close cooperation of primary providers, social support, and outpatient and inpatient specialist services has been achieved. For all projects, the initial financing of the German Cancer Aid was extremely important, because contracts with health insurance funds were negotiated slowly, and could then be built on the experiences with the projects. The participants of the project-completion meeting emphasized the need to carry out a market analysis before starting palliative care organizations considering the different regional structures and target groups of patients. Education, training and continuing education programs contribute significantly to the network. A reliably funded coordination center/case management across all institutions is extremely important. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Overcoming Recruitment Challenges in Palliative Care Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Thomas W.; Lodato, Jordan E.; Currow, David C.; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Palliative care is increasingly viewed as a necessary component of cancer care, especially for patients with advanced disease. Rigorous clinical trials are thus needed to build the palliative care evidence base, but clinical research—especially participant recruitment—is difficult. Major barriers include (1) patient factors, (2) “gatekeeping,” and (3) ethical concerns. Here we discuss an approach to overcoming these barriers, using the Palliative Care Trial (PCT) as a case study. Patients and Methods: The PCT was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) of different service delivery models to improve pain control in the palliative setting. It used a recruitment protocol that fused evidence-based strategies with principles of “social marketing,” an approach involving the systematic application of marketing techniques. Main components included (1) an inclusive triage algorithm, (2) information booklets targeting particular stakeholders, (3) a specialized recruitment nurse, and (4) standardization of wording across all study communications. Results: From an eligible pool of 607 patients, the PCT enrolled 461 patients over 26 months. Twenty percent of patients referred to the palliative care service were enrolled (76% of those eligible after screening). Several common barriers were minimized; among those who declined participation, family disinterest was uncommon (5%), as was the perception of burden imposed (4%). Conclusion: Challenges to clinical trial recruitment in palliative care are significant but not insurmountable. A carefully crafted recruitment and retention protocol can be effective. Our experience with designing and deploying a social-marketing–based protocol shows the benefits of such an approach. PMID:24130254

  14. Models of integration of oncology and palliative care.

    PubMed

    Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Palliative care aims to improve cancer patients' quality of life through expert symptom management, psychosocial and spiritual care, patient-clinician communication, facilitation of complex decision making, and end-of-life care planning. Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest and evidence to support integration of oncology and palliative care. However, it remains unclear how best to promote integration. The goal of this review is to examine contemporary conceptual models and clinical approaches to integrate oncology and palliative care. Narrative review. Conceptual models are useful to help stakeholders understand the rationale for integration, to compare the risks and benefits among different practices, and to define a vision towards integration. We will review four major conceptual models of integration, including (I) the time-based model which emphasizes on integration based on chronological criterion; (II) the provider-based (palli-centric) model which discusses primary, secondary and tertiary palliative care; (III) the issue-based (onco-centric) model which illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of the solo practice, congress and integrated care approaches; and (IV) the system-based (patient-centric) model which emphasizes automatic referral based on clinical events. Clinical models provide actual data on the feasibility, efficacy and effectiveness of integration in specific settings. The evidence and challenges related to selected clinical models in integrating oncology and palliative care, such as outpatient palliative care clinics and embedded clinics will be discussed. There are multiple conceptual models and clinical models to promote integration. Further research is needed to inform best practices for integration at different healthcare settings.

  15. Quality assessment of palliative home care in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scaccabarozzi, Gianlorenzo; Lovaglio, Pietro Giorgio; Limonta, Fabrizio; Floriani, Maddalena; Pellegrini, Giacomo

    2017-08-01

    The complexity of end-of-life care, represented by a large number of units caring for dying patients, of different types of organizations motivates the importance of measure the quality of provided care. Despite the law 38/2010 promulgated to remove the barriers and provide affordable access to palliative care, measurement, and monitoring of processes of home care providers in Italy has not been attempted. Using data drawn by an institutional voluntary observatory established in Italy in 2013, collecting home palliative care units caring for people between January and December 2013, we assess the degree to which Italian home palliative care teams endorse a set of standards required by the 38/2010 law and best practices as emerged from the literature. The evaluation strategy is based on Rasch analysis, allowing to objectively measuring both performances of facilities and quality indicators' difficulty on the same metric, using 14 quality indicators identified by the observatory's steering committee. Globally, 195 home care teams were registered in the observatory reporting globally 40 955 cured patients in 2013 representing 66% of the population of home palliative care units active in Italy in 2013. Rasch analysis identifies 5 indicators ("interview" with caregivers, continuous training provided to medical and nursing staff, provision of specialized multidisciplinary interventions, psychological support to the patient and family, and drug supply at home) easy to endorse by health care providers and 3 problematic indicators (presence of a formally established Local Network of Palliative care in the area of reference, provision of the care for most problematic patient requiring high intensity of the care, and the percentage of cancer patient dying at Home). The lack of Local Network of Palliative care, required by law 38/2010, is, at the present, the main barrier to its application. However, the adopted methodology suggests that a clear roadmap for health facilities

  16. Treating nausea and vomiting in palliative care: a review

    PubMed Central

    Glare, Paul; Miller, Jeanna; Nikolova, Tanya; Tickoo, Roma

    2011-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are portrayed in the specialist palliative care literature as common and distressing symptoms affecting the majority of patients with advanced cancer and other life-limiting illnesses. However, recent surveys indicate that these symptoms may be less common and bothersome than has previously been reported. The standard palliative care approach to the assessment and treatment of nausea and vomiting is based on determining the cause and then relating this back to the “emetic pathway” before prescribing drugs such as dopamine antagonists, antihistamines, and anticholinergic agents which block neurotransmitters at different sites along the pathway. However, the evidence base for the effectiveness of this approach is meager, and may be in part because relevance of the neuropharmacology of the emetic pathway to palliative care patients is limited. Many palliative care patients are over the age of 65 years, making these agents difficult to use. Greater awareness of drug interactions and QTc prolongation are emerging concerns for all age groups. The selective serotonin receptor antagonists are the safest antiemetics, but are not used first-line in many countries because there is very little scientific rationale or clinical evidence to support their use outside the licensed indications. Cannabinoids may have an increasing role. Advances in interventional gastroenterology are increasing the options for nonpharmacological management. Despite these emerging issues, the approach to nausea and vomiting developed within palliative medicine over the past 40 years remains relevant. It advocates careful clinical evaluation of the symptom and the person suffering it, and an understanding of the clinical pharmacology of medicines that are available for palliating them. PMID:21966219

  17. The role of palliative care in critical congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mazwi, Mjaye L; Henner, Natalia; Kirsch, Roxanne

    2017-02-08

    Patients with critical congenital heart disease are exposed to significant lifetime morbidity and mortality. Prenatal diagnosis can provide opportunities for anticipatory co-management of patients between palliative subspecialists and the cardiac care team. The benefits of palliative care include support for longitudinal decision-making and avoidance of interventions not consistent with family goals. Effectively counseling families requires an up-to-date understanding of outcomes and knowledge of provider biases. Patient-proxy reported quality of life (QOL) is highly variable in this population and healthcare providers need to be aware of limitations in their own subjective assessment of QOL.

  18. Home palliative care: results in 1991 versus 1988.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, S; Genovese, G; Kargar, J A; Maddaloni, S; Roccella, S; Salvaggio, L; Simonetti, M T

    1992-10-01

    Home care is greatly expanding because of the savings it offers by avoiding unnecessary hospitalization and also because patients benefit from being in their own home environments. Since 1988, Societa Assistenza Malato Oncologico Terminale (SAMOT) has organized a pain relief and home palliative care unit for terminal cancer patients. Objectives, difficulties, protocols, and achievements of 4 years of experience were examined, and the findings of the various years were compared. Our results suggest that considerable progress has been made in home palliative care. There are still social and cultural difficulties to overcome, however.

  19. Palliative care for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kemp, C; Stepp, L

    1995-01-01

    This article provides a clinically-oriented overview of palliative care for patients with AIDS. Indicators of decreased survival time are divided into categories of infections/illnesses, clinical signs and symptoms, immunological and serological markers, and psychosocial factors. Primary symptoms in AIDS are discussed according to etiology and treatment. However, treatments of opportunistic infections per se are not directly addressed in this article. Problems discussed include pain, confusion, depression and anxiety, fatigue, fever, dyspnea, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, wasting, and dehydration. The article also briefly addresses clinical and ethical questions and challenges presented by AIDS to hospice or palliative care providers, and the various stages of HIV infection.

  20. Palliative care in the management of advanced HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Fausto, James A; Selwyn, Peter A

    2011-06-01

    The basic elements of palliative care can be translated into practice for patients with HIV/AIDS. More than half of clinical events and deaths occurring among patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy are classified as non-AIDS illnesses. Thus, end-of-life care for patients with late-stage AIDS needs to include any palliative measures that are used for patients without AIDS. This article reviews the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, prognostic indicators, opportunistic infections, specific AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies, substance abuse/liver disease, and highly active antiretroviral therapy and comfort measures for late-stage AIDS patients.

  1. Communication skills in palliative surgery: skill and effort are key.

    PubMed

    Miner, Thomas J

    2011-04-01

    Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills.

  2. Communication as a core skill of palliative surgical care.

    PubMed

    Miner, Thomas J

    2012-03-01

    Excellence as a surgeon requires not only the technical and intellectual ability to effectively take care of surgical disease but also an ability to respond to the needs and questions of patients. This article provides an overview of the importance of communication skills in optimal surgical palliation and offers suggestions for a multidisciplinary team approach, using the palliative triangle as the ideal model of communication and interpersonal skills. This article also discusses guidelines for advanced surgical decision making and outlines methods to improve communication skills.

  3. The Sacred Heart Hospice: an Australian centre for palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Harris, R

    1995-09-01

    The Sacred Heart Hospice, Sydney, was founded in 1890 and is the largest inpatient palliative-care facility in Australia. Patients with advanced cancer form the predominant patient group, although patients with HIV/AIDS account for approximately 20% of admissions. A community-outreach service, established in 1983, cares for more patients at home than in the Hospice. Recently the Hospice has participated in a number of clinical trials and intends to become a regional centre for palliative-care research, education and training.

  4. Update in palliative management of hormone refractory cancer of prostate

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratipal; Srivastava, Aneesh

    2007-01-01

    Hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is an incurable disease and as in the pressure sensitive adhesive era the median survival of patients is increasing, these men increasingly develop symptomatic problems as a result of advanced local and or metastatic disease during their progression to death. Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to improve survival in this group of patients with use of chemotherapy which reinforces the need of better options in palliative care. We discus the various clinical problems (Part I) and treatment options of palliative care (Part II) and try to formulate an action plan in this review. PMID:19675762

  5. [Ideas about a "good death" in Palliative Care Nursing].

    PubMed

    Steffen-Bürgi, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    In the modern hospice movement and in Palliative Care, helping severely ill and dying patients to have a "good end of life" and a "good death" has high priority. The concept of a "good death" reflects the corresponding ideal of a "good dying". This concept analy-sis aimed at clarifying the current understanding of the characteristics of a "good death" as well as at presenting a coherent theoretical and ideational basis. The meaning of an ideal death as a point of reference and leitmotif in structuring palliative and hospice care, the theoretical background, and the components of a "good death" will be described in this article.

  6. Providing quality palliative care in end-stage Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Paul A; Ford, James L; Kim, Kye Y

    2013-08-01

    Providing quality palliative care is a daunting task profoundly impacted by diminished patient capacity at the end of life. Alzheimer disease (AD) is a disorder that erases our memories and is projected to increase dramatically for decades to come. By the time the patients with AD reach the end stage of the disease, the ability of patients to provide pertinent subjective complaints of pain and discomfort would have vanished. Historical perspectives of palliative care, exploration of the AD process, ethical issues, and crucial clinical considerations are provided to improve the understanding of disease progression and quality of care for patients with end-stage AD.

  7. Life is uncertain. death is certain. Buddhism and palliative care.

    PubMed

    Masel, Eva K; Schur, Sophie; Watzke, Herbert H

    2012-08-01

    It is part of a palliative care assessment to identify patients' spiritual needs. According to Buddhism, suffering is inherent to all human beings. Advice on how suffering can be reduced in the course of serious illness might be helpful to patients with incurable and progressive diseases. Palliative care could benefit from Buddhist insights in the form of compassionate care and relating death to life. Buddhist teachings may lead to a more profound understanding of incurable diseases and offer patients the means by which to focus their minds while dealing with physical symptoms and ailments. This might not only be beneficial to followers of Buddhism but to all patients.

  8. Complementary therapies in palliative care: a summary of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Laureen; Maher, David

    2005-10-01

    Complementary therapies are often cited as a possible alternative to the management of symptoms in palliative care, as another element in the armoury for coping with unmanageable problems. But how efficacious are these therapies, and what is the evidence to support their use in symptom management? Patients who are in the terminal stages of illness or require palliative care are in a very vulnerable position, so are they being exploited or are there real benefits from using complementary therapies? This article review some of the evidence currently available.

  9. Palliative care and use of animal-assisted therapy.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Suzanne R

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research and clinical reports support the benefits of utilizing animal-assisted therapy (AAT) as a complementary, transdisciplinary treatment intervention in medical settings. However, fewer articles are found demonstrating AAT's use in palliative care settings. This article is a study of the effects of AAT in palliative care situations, presenting one anecdotal clinical vignette. In this way, the efficacy of this technique in decreasing patient pain, thereby increasing patient quality of life, and lowering staff stress levels may be illustrated.

  10. Palliative and end of life care for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Harrison Dening, Karen

    2016-02-03

    Dementia is a life-limiting condition that is largely a disease of ageing. However, older people in general, and older people with dementia in particular, have not always had equal access to effective palliative and end of life care. As a result, people with dementia at the end of life often receive aggressive and burdensome interventions, or inadequate assessment and management of their symptoms. Patterns in how people with dementia experience and present symptoms as they near the end of life can indicate when the goals of care should change and a palliative approach should be adopted.

  11. Use of the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) for end-of-life prognostication in a palliative medicine consultation service.

    PubMed

    Lau, Francis; Maida, Vincent; Downing, Michael; Lesperance, Mary; Karlson, Nicholas; Kuziemsky, Craig

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the use of the Palliative Performance Scale (PPS) in end-of-life prognostication within a regional palliative care program in a Canadian province. The analysis was done on a prospective cohort of 513 patients assessed by a palliative care consult team as part of an initial community/hospital-based consult. The variables used were initial PPS score, age, gender, diagnosis, cancer type, and survival time. The findings revealed initial PPS to be a significant predictor of survival, along with age, diagnosis, cancer type and site, but not gender. The survival curves were distinct for PPS 10%, 20%, and 30% individually, and for 40%-60% and > or =70% as bands. This is consistent with earlier findings of the ambiguity and difficulty when assessing patients at higher PPS levels because of the subjective nature of the tool. We advocate the use of median survival and survival rates based on a local cohort where feasible, when reporting individual survival estimates.

  12. 'The horse has bolted I suspect': A qualitative study of clinicians' attitudes and perceptions regarding palliative rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Runacres, Fiona; Gregory, Heidi; Ugalde, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Palliative care patients have numerous rehabilitation needs that increase with disease progression. Palliative rehabilitation practices and perceptions of palliative medicine physicians towards the role of rehabilitation are largely unstudied. To explore palliative medicine physicians' attitudes and perceptions towards rehabilitation delivered within inpatient palliative care units. Qualitative study utilizing semi-structured interviews. Transcribed interviews were analysed using thematic analysis and major themes reported as results. Australian palliative medicine physicians working in inpatient palliative care units. In total, 20 physicians participated, representing specialist palliative care services across Australia. A total of 11 (55%) were males with an average of 12.5 years' experience working in palliative care. Most participants believed rehabilitation was an important aspect of palliative care; however, few felt adequate rehabilitation programmes were available. Participants varied in their concepts of what palliative rehabilitation entailed. The term rehabilitation was seen by some as helpful (fostering hope and aiding transitions) and by others to be misleading (creating unrealistic expectations). Four key themes emerged when describing physicians' attitudes, including (1) integrating rehabilitation within palliative care, (2) the intervention, (3) possibilities and (4) the message of rehabilitation. A lack of consensus exists among palliative medicine specialists regarding the definition and scope of palliative rehabilitation. Participants generally expressed a wish to offer enhanced rehabilitation interventions, however described resource and skill-set limitations as significant barriers. Further research is required to establish an evidence base for palliative rehabilitation, to support its acceptance and widespread integration within specialist inpatient palliative care.

  13. Community-based palliative care: the natural evolution for palliative care delivery in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Arif H; Currow, David C; Ritchie, Christine S; Bull, Janet; Abernethy, Amy P

    2013-08-01

    Palliative care in the U.S. has evolved from a system primarily reliant on community-based hospices to a combined model that includes inpatient services at most large hospitals. However, these two dominant approaches leave most patients needing palliative care-those at home (including nursing homes) but not yet ready for hospice-unable to access the positive impacts of the palliative care approach. We propose a community-based palliative care (CPC) model that spans the array of inpatient and outpatient settings in which palliative care is provided and links seamlessly to inpatient care; likewise, it would span the full trajectory of advanced illness rather than focusing on the period just before death. Examples of CPC programs are developing organically across the U.S. As our understanding of CPC expands, standardization is needed to ensure replicability, consistency, and the ability to relate intervention models to outcomes. A growing body of literature examining outpatient palliative care supports the role of CPC in improving outcomes, including reduction in symptom burden, improved quality of life, increased survival, better satisfaction with care, and reduced health care resource utilization. Furthermore the examination of how to operationalize CPC is needed before widespread implementation can be realized. This article describes the key characteristics of CPC, highlighting its role in longitudinal care across patient transitions. Distinguishing features include consistent care across the disease trajectory independent of diagnosis and prognosis; inclusion of inpatient, outpatient, long-term care, and at-home care delivery; collaboration with other medical disciplines, nursing, and allied health; and full integration into the health care system (rather than parallel delivery).

  14. Palliative Care Issues in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Evidenced-Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Karam, Chafic Y.; Paganoni, Sabrina; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Bedlack, Richard

    2015-01-01

    As palliative care physicians become increasingly involved in the care of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), they will be asked to provide guidance regarding the use of supplements, diet, exercise, and other common preventive medicine interventions. Moreover, palliative care physicians have a crucial role assisting patients with ALS in addressing health care decisions to maximize quality of life and cope with a rapidly disabling disease. It is therefore important for palliative care physicians to be familiar with commonly encountered palliative care issues in ALS. This article provides an evidenced-based review of palliative care options not usually addressed in national and international ALS guidelines. PMID:25202033

  15. Palliative Care Issues in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Evidenced-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Karam, Chafic Y; Paganoni, Sabrina; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T; Bedlack, Richard

    2016-02-01

    As palliative care physicians become increasingly involved in the care of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), they will be asked to provide guidance regarding the use of supplements, diet, exercise, and other common preventive medicine interventions. Moreover, palliative care physicians have a crucial role assisting patients with ALS in addressing health care decisions to maximize quality of life and cope with a rapidly disabling disease. It is therefore important for palliative care physicians to be familiar with commonly encountered palliative care issues in ALS. This article provides an evidenced-based review of palliative care options not usually addressed in national and international ALS guidelines.

  16. Palliative Care Psychiatry: Update on an Emerging Dimension of Psychiatric Practice

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Palliative care psychiatry is an emerging subspecialty field at the intersection of Palliative Medicine and Psychiatry. The discipline brings expertise in understanding the psychosocial dimensions of human experience to the care of dying patients and support of their families. The goals of this review are (1) to briefly define palliative care and summarize the evidence for its benefits, (2) to describe the roles for psychiatry within palliative care, (3) to review recent advances in the research and practice of palliative care psychiatry, and (4) to delineate some steps ahead as this sub-field continues to develop, in terms of research, education, and systems-based practice. PMID:23794027

  17. What Makes a Good Palliative Care Physician? A Qualitative Study about the Patient’s Expectations and Needs when Being Admitted to a Palliative Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Eva K; Kitta, Anna; Huber, Patrick; Rumpold, Tamara; Unseld, Matthias; Schur, Sophie; Porpaczy, Edit; Watzke, Herbert H

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to examine a) patients’ knowledge of palliative care, b) patients’ expectations and needs when being admitted to a palliative care unit, and c) patient’s concept of a good palliative care physician. Methods The study was based on a qualitative methodology, comprising 32 semistructured interviews with advanced cancer patients admitted to the palliative care unit of the Medical University of Vienna. Interviews were conducted with 20 patients during the first three days after admission to the unit and after one week, recorded digitally, and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using NVivo 10 software, based on thematic analysis enhanced with grounded theory techniques. Results The results revealed four themes: (1) information about palliative care, (2) supportive care needs, (3) being treated in a palliative care unit, and (4) qualities required of palliative care physicians. The data showed that patients lack information about palliative care, that help in social concerns plays a central role in palliative care, and attentiveness as well as symptom management are important to patients. Patients desire a personal patient-physician relationship. The qualities of a good palliative care physician were honesty, the ability to listen, taking time, being experienced in their field, speaking the patient’s language, being human, and being gentle. Patients experienced relief when being treated in a palliative care unit, perceived their care as an interdisciplinary activity, and felt that their burdensome symptoms were being attended to with emotional care. Negative perceptions included the overtly intense treatment. Conclusions The results of the present study offer an insight into what patients expect from palliative care teams. Being aware of patient’s needs will enable medical teams to improve professional and individualized care. PMID:27389693

  18. Palliative care in Germany from a public health perspective: qualitative expert interviews

    PubMed Central

    Behmann, Mareike; Lückmann, Sara Lena; Schneider, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Background Improving palliative care is a public health priority. However, little is known about the views of public health experts regarding the state of palliative care in Germany and the challenges facing it. The main aim of this pilot study was to gather information on the views of internationally experienced public health experts with regard to selected palliative care issues, with the focus on Germany, and to compare their views with those of specialist palliative care experts. Qualitative guided interviews were performed with ten experts (five from palliative care, five from public health). The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Findings Older people and non-cancer patients were identified as target groups with a particular priority for palliative care. By contrast to the public health experts, the palliative care experts emphasized the need for rehabilitative measures for palliative patients and the possibilities of providing these. Significant barriers to the further establishment of palliative care were seen, amongst other things, in the powerful lobby groups and the federalism of the German health system. Conclusion The findings suggest that from the experts' point of view (1) palliative care should focus on the needs of older people particularly in view of the demographic changes; (2) more attention should be paid to rehabilitative measures in palliative care; (3) rivalries among different stakeholders regarding their responsibilities and the allocation of financial resources have to be overcome in Germany. PMID:19566946

  19. Palliative care in Germany from a public health perspective: qualitative expert interviews.

    PubMed

    Behmann, Mareike; Lückmann, Sara Lena; Schneider, Nils

    2009-06-30

    Improving palliative care is a public health priority. However, little is known about the views of public health experts regarding the state of palliative care in Germany and the challenges facing it. The main aim of this pilot study was to gather information on the views of internationally experienced public health experts with regard to selected palliative care issues, with the focus on Germany, and to compare their views with those of specialist palliative care experts. Qualitative guided interviews were performed with ten experts (five from palliative care, five from public health). The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Older people and non-cancer patients were identified as target groups with a particular priority for palliative care. By contrast to the public health experts, the palliative care experts emphasized the need for rehabilitative measures for palliative patients and the possibilities of providing these. Significant barriers to the further establishment of palliative care were seen, amongst other things, in the powerful lobby groups and the federalism of the German health system. The findings suggest that from the experts' point of view (1) palliative care should focus on the needs of older people particularly in view of the demographic changes; (2) more attention should be paid to rehabilitative measures in palliative care; (3) rivalries among different stakeholders regarding their responsibilities and the allocation of financial resources have to be overcome in Germany.

  20. Expanding palliative care's reach in the community via the elder service agency network.

    PubMed

    Reid, M Carrington; Ghesquiere, Angela; Kenien, Cara; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Gardner, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Over the past two decades, palliative care has established itself as a promising approach to address the complex needs of individuals with advanced illness. Palliative care is well-established in US hospitals and has recently begun to expand outside of the hospital setting to meet the needs of non-hospitalized individuals. Experts have called for the development of innovative community-based models that facilitate delivery of palliative care to this target population. Elder service agencies are important partners that researchers should collaborate with to develop new and promising models. Millions of older adults receive aging network services in the U.S., highlighting the potential reach of these models. Recent health care reform efforts provide support for community-based initiatives, where coordination of care and services, delivered via health and social service agencies, is highly prioritized. This article describes the rationale for developing such approaches, including efforts to educate elder service agency clients about palliative care; training agency staff in palliative care principles; building capacity for elder services providers to screen individuals for palliative care needs; embedding palliative care "champions" in agencies to educate staff and clients and coordinate access to services among those with palliative care needs; and leveraging telehealth resources to conduct comprehensive assessments by hospital palliative care teams for elder service clients who have palliative care needs. We maintain that leveraging the resources of elder service agencies could measurably expand the reach of palliative care in the community.

  1. Palliative Cancer Care in Brazil: The Perspective of Nurses and Physicians.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelle M; Büscher, Andreas; Moreira, Marléa Chagas

    Palliative care is a recent development in health worldwide. In Brazil, a growing number of people with cancer require palliative care, emphasizing the need for investment in this aspect of health to increase the quality of life of patients during the dying process. As a developing country, Brazil lacks knowledge regarding the themes, material and financial resources, and policies of palliative care. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the Brazilian palliative care system from the perspectives of nurses and physicians. This was a descriptive and qualitative study, conducted at the palliative care unit of the Instituto Nacional de Câncer in Brazil. Twelve professionals, among them 8 nurses and 4 physicians, were interviewed in November 2013. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Ethical aspects were respected. The perspectives of the participants were characterized by 3 themes regarding the initial phase of development of palliative cancer care in Brazil: (1) controversies about when palliative cancer care should be initiated, (2) the World Health Organization recommendations and current practices, and (3) the need to invest in palliative cancer care education in Brazil. The development of palliative care is in the initial stages, and there is a possibility for growth due to recent advances. Knowledge about these challenges to palliative care could contribute to the development of strategies, such as the establishment of service organizations and networks, as well as educational and political investments for the advancement of palliative care.

  2. Design of a nationwide survey on palliative care for end-stage heart failure in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Yuma; Oishi, Shogo; Sugano, Yasuo; Sakashita, Akihiro; Kotooka, Norihiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Higo, Taiki; Yumino, Dai; Takada, Yasuko; Maeda, Seiko; Yamabe, Saori; Washida, Koichi; Takahashi, Tomonori; Ohtani, Tomohito; Sakata, Yasushi; Sato, Yukihito

    2017-08-22

    The term palliative care has historically been associated with support for individuals with advanced incurable cancer, so cardiologists and cardiac nurses may be unfamiliar with its principles and practice. However, palliative care is now a part of end-stage heart failure management. We conducted the first nationwide survey to investigate the status of palliative care for heart failure in Japan. A self-reported questionnaire was mailed to all Japanese Circulation Society - authorized cardiology training hospitals (n=1004) in August 2016. The response deadline was December 2016. The survey focused on the following topics: basic information about the facility and multidisciplinary team, patient symptoms for palliative care, positive outcomes after providing palliative care, drug therapy as palliative care for patients with heart failure, advance care planning with patients and their families, and impediments to providing palliative care to patients with heart failure. The results of the survey will be reported in detail elsewhere. Current guidelines on palliative care do not specifically address what team members should be involved, what drugs should be used, or when palliative care should be started. This survey collected information to improve the quality of palliative care and provide more specialized palliative care within the limits of resources. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Palliative patients under anaesthesiological care: a single-centre retrospective study on incidence, demographics and outcome.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Christoph L; Aberle, Susanne; Lindenberg, Nicole; Bundscherer, Annika; Klier, Tobias W; Graf, Bernhard M; Wiese, Christoph H

    2015-11-13

    While anesthesiologist's involvement in palliative care has been widely researched, extensive data on palliative patients under anesthesiological care in the operating room is missing. This study was performed to assess the incidence, demographics, and outcome of palliative patients under anesthesiological care. We conducted a single-center retrospective chart review of all palliative patients under anesthesiological care at a university hospital in 1 year. Patients were classified as palliative if they fulfilled all predefined criteria (a) incurable, life-threatening disease, (b) progression of the disease despite therapy, (c) advanced stage of the disease with limited life-expectancy, (d) receiving or being in need of a specific palliative therapy. Demographics, periprocedural parameters, symptoms at evaluation, and outcome were determined using different medical records. Of 17,580 patients examined, 276 could be classified as palliative patients (1.57%). Most contacts with palliative patients occurred in the operating room (68.5%). In comparison to the non-palliative patients, procedures in palliative patients were significantly more often urgent or emergency procedures (39.1% vs. 27.1%., P < 0.001), and hospital mortality was higher (18.8% vs. 5.0%, P < 0.001). Preprocedural symptoms varied, with pain, gastrointestinal, and nutritional problems being the most prevalent. Palliative patients are treated by anesthesiologists under varying circumstances. Anesthesiologists need to identify these patients and need to be aware of their characteristics to adequately attend to them during the periprocedural period.

  4. Knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care among multinational nurses in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abudari, Gassan; Zahreddine, Hassan; Hazeim, Hassan; Assi, Mohammad Al; Emara, Sania

    2014-09-01

    Background Palliative care is not yet integrated into the health-care system in Saudi Arabia. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh (KFSH&RC-Riyadh) is a tertiary care facility and regional cancer centre in Saudia Arabia with a highly multinational nursing workforce. Little is known about these nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Aim To determine the palliative care knowledge and attitudes of the nursing workforce of KFSH&RC-Riyadh and any influencing factors. Method A questionnaire including demographic data, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale (FATCOD) was completed by 395 staff nurses from 19 countries. Results The nurses scored a mean of 111.66 out of 150 on the FATCOD scale and of 9.06 out of 20 on the PCQN. These scores indicate moderate attitudes towards but a knowledge deficit regarding palliative care. The nurses' palliative care training and years of nursing experience significantly affected the scores. The level of palliative care integration in the nurses' home countries was the most significant factor in multiple regression tests. Conclusion Palliative care integration into the health-care system of the country in which nurses train significantly influences their knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Incorporating palliative care into nursing education might promote positive attitudes towards palliative care in nurses while enhancing their knowledge and skills.

  5. Building a transdisciplinary approach to palliative care in an acute care setting.

    PubMed

    Daly, Donnelle; Matzel, Stephen Chavez

    2013-01-01

    A transdisciplinary team is an essential component of palliative and end-of-life care. This article will demonstrate how to develop a transdisciplinary approach to palliative care, incorporating nursing, social work, spiritual care, and pharmacy in an acute care setting. Objectives included: identifying transdisciplinary roles contributing to care in the acute care setting; defining the palliative care model and mission; identifying patient/family and institutional needs; and developing palliative care tools. Methods included a needs assessment and the development of assessment tools, an education program, community resources, and a patient satisfaction survey. After 1 year of implementation, the transdisciplinary palliative care team consisted of seven palliative care physicians, two social workers, two chaplains, a pharmacist, and End-of-Life Nursing Consortium (ELNEC) trained nurses. Palomar Health now has a palliative care service with a consistent process for transdisciplinary communication and intervention for adult critical care patients with advanced, chronic illness.

  6. Insights from health care professionals regarding palliative care options on South Dakota reservations.

    PubMed

    Isaacson, Mary; Karel, Beth; Varilek, Brandon M; Steenstra, Whitney J; Tanis-Heyenga, Jordan P; Wagner, Amanda

    2015-11-01

    Palliative care options are limited for Native Americans (NA) in South Dakota (SD). This exploratory study offers the perspectives of Native and non-Native health care professionals regarding palliative care specific to NAs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted (N = 7) with participants representing NA (4) and non-Native (3) ethnicities. Non-Native participants were practicing health care professionals in palliative medicine, whereas the NA health care professionals had experience with palliative care. Concept analysis revealed two main themes and five subthemes: (a) barriers to palliative care, for example, insufficient funding, lack of infrastructure, and misconceptions; and (b) implementation strategies, for example, openness and listening and creating the right team. Genuine interest and concern exists for the provision of palliative care to NA communities using collaborative and innovative approaches. To address the health disparities of the NA population specific to palliative care, public health policy reform and education for health professionals are necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Vietnam: integrating palliative care into HIV/AIDS and cancer care.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, Eric L; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Minh; Green, Kimberly; Van Kham, Le; Khue, Luong Ngoc

    2007-05-01

    Vietnam is struggling to meet the growing need for both disease-modifying and palliative care for people with life-threatening chronic diseases such as HIV/AIDS and cancer. Recently, Vietnam initiated rapid development of a national palliative care program for HIV/AIDS and cancer patients that builds on existing palliative care programs and experience and integrates palliative care into standard HIV/AIDS and cancer care. National palliative care guidelines have been issued by the Ministry of Health based on a rapid situation analysis. Plans now call for review and revision of opioid laws and regulations to increase availability of opioids for medical use, training in palliative care for clinicians throughout the country, and development of palliative care programs both in the community and in inpatient referral centers.

  8. French physicians' attitudes toward legalisation of euthanasia and the ambiguous relationship between euthanasia and palliative care.

    PubMed

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Bendiane, Marc K; Galinier, Anne; Favre, Roger; Lapiana, Jean-Marc; Pégliasco, Hervé; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the French Parliament established a "right to palliative care", which reactivated public debate about euthanasia. In order to investigate jointly physicians' attitude toward palliative care and euthanasia, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of a national sample of French GPs, oncologists, and neurologists. Overall, 917 physicians participated in the survey. Significant proportions of respondents, especially among GPs and neurologists, considered that palliative sedation and withdrawing life-sustaining treatments (WLST) were euthanasia. Multivariate analysis showed that the physicians who had special medical training in palliative care, and those who distinguish palliative sedation and WLST from euthanasia were more likely to oppose legalisation of euthanasia. Thus, French physicians' attitude to the legalisation of euthanasia is strongly influenced by whether or not they distinguish palliative care from euthanasia. Improved palliative care requires better training of the entire medical profession, and clearer guidelines about which end-of-life care practices are legally and ethically acceptable.

  9. "But isn't it depressing?" The vitality of palliative care.

    PubMed

    Webster, Judi; Kristjanson, Linda J

    2002-01-01

    A common question about palliative care from those unfamiliar with the work is, "But isn't it depressing?" This view distances palliative care workers from the general public and reflects a deeply held belief that matters associated with death and dying are negative. Published definitions fall short of capturing a full understanding of the work, making it difficult to communicate the meaning of palliative care. This qualitative study examined the experiences of six long-term palliative care workers. Palliative care was described as "a way of living" and, throughout the descriptions, the concept of "vitality" emerged as the core meaning of palliative care. In the current economic environment, where there is competition for health care funding, more widespread agreement about the meaning of palliative care is important if informed decisions are to be made about allocation of resources.

  10. Palliative care for people with severe persistent mental illness: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Woods, Anne; Willison, Kathleen; Kington, Cindy; Gavin, Alan

    2008-11-01

    A systematic overview of the literature on palliative care for people with severe persistent mental illness (SPMI) was conducted to inform clinical practice, research, and education. Empirical studies and nonempirical papers were included. Few empirical studies exist. There is even less information about the palliative care needs of, or the nature of palliative care provided to, people with SPMI. Mental health, primary care, and palliative care providers need to partner with people who have SPMI in developing and providing palliative care. The field of palliative care for people with SPMI is wide open and in need of methodologically sound studies that will help define the issues that exist for this vulnerable population. Recognizing the similarities between mental health and palliative care should lead to collaborative ventures and discussions in an attempt to address common and parallel issues.

  11. Team-based education in a palliative approach for rural nurses and unlicensed care providers.

    PubMed

    Potter, Gail; Pesut, Barbara; Hooper, Brenda Pherne; Erbacker, Lynnelle

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the preparation and delivery of an educational intervention designed to improve rural nurses and unlicensed care providers' confidence in a palliative approach to care. A palliative approach takes the principles of supportive palliative care and adapts them for application earlier in nonspecialized palliative contexts for individuals living with life-limiting chronic illness. Curriculum in a palliative approach was constructed for nurses and unlicensed care providers (care aides and home health workers) and was delivered through a workshop and monthly follow-up sessions offered through distance technology. Participants valued the joint interactive education and came away with greater appreciation for one another's contributions to care. Insights were gained into common challenges when attempting to apply a palliative approach in rural areas. Important lessons were learned about educating nurses and unlicensed care providers together, about the use of technology for this group, and about teaching the concept of a palliative approach.

  12. The palliative management of fungating malignant wounds.

    PubMed

    Grocott, P

    2000-01-01

    This study focused on the palliative management of fungating malignant wounds and individual experiences of living with such a wound. Dressings were evaluated for the ability to contain these wounds and reduce their impact on daily life. The project extended to collaboration with industry for the development and evaluation of dressings designed to meet patient needs. A longitudinal multiple case study design was adopted. The methodology evolved through three principal phases: quasi-experimental design; emergent collaborative design; and emergent theory-driven evaluation. The radical departure from the initial approach was in response to the methodological problems encountered in a study of individuals with uncontrolled disease. A non-probability sampling plan was adopted, mainly because of the lack of homogeneity in the patient population; 45 participants were included. The length of time patients remained in the study depended on how long they lived. This ranged from a few days to more than two years. A sampling plan was, however, adopted for the data collection. The study had a dual focus: methodology, and the generation of explanations for dressing performance and the management of fungating wounds. The methodological aspect included development of the Teler system as a method of measuring dressing performance against goals of optimal practice in fungating wound management. The second component was a system of reasoning developed as an analytical strategy for abstracting general issues from individual case study data in order to construct explanations. Theory was used to generalize beyond the individual cases. Two forms of explanation for fungating wound management were constructed. These included explanations of individual experiences of living with such a wound and knowledge of the elements of fungating wound management. The impact on the individual was explained in terms of the stigma attached to public disability and a revulsion in society for uncontrolled

  13. International Patterns of Practice in Palliative Radiotherapy for Painful Bone Metastases: Evidence-Based Practice?

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Alysa; Barnes, Elizabeth; Ghosh, Sunita; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Roos, Daniel; Hartsell, William; Holt, Tanya; Wu, Jackson; Janjan, Nora; Chow, Edward

    2009-12-01

    previous randomized controlled trials. Our results have confirmed a delay in the incorporation of evidence into practice for palliative radiotherapy for painful bone metastases.

  14. Networking of Palliative Care at the Corporate Level

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Kishore; Simha, Nagesh

    2011-01-01

    This article is a story of networking of palliative care at the corporate level. This gives an insight that if you have will and dedication then you can imagine and make it true that networking can start even before the birth of an organization. PMID:21811363

  15. Intercultural palliative care: do we need cultural competence?

    PubMed

    Gunaratnam, Yasmin

    2007-10-01

    Recognition of the importance of 'cultural competence' is now central to health care policy and to nurse education and training across the international spectrum. Detailed engagement with models of cultural competence is comparatively recent in palliative care nursing. This article presents the findings from a development project on elders and carers from 'minority ethnic' groups, funded by the Department of Health, to increase awareness of palliative care and to improve understanding of the needs of these groups of service users. The article describes the experiences of nurses involved in the delivery of palliative care who were interviewed in focus groups as a part of the project. It draws attention to the complicated relationships between cultural knowledge and practice and to the non-rational and visceral dimensions of intercultural care. These aspects of nursing are marginalised in current approaches to cultural competence, which emphasise the rational acquisition and application of cultural knowledge and skills by practitioners. It is suggested that recognition of these marginalised experiences can contribute to the development of new approaches to intercultural nursing that are also more attuned to the ethos and values of palliative care.

  16. Moral differences in deep continuous palliative sedation and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Juth, Niklas; Lindblad, Anna; Lynöe, Niels; Sjöstrand, Manne; Helgesson, Gert

    2013-06-01

    In palliative care there is much debate about which end of life treatment strategies are legitimate and which are not. Some writers argue that there is an important moral dividing-line between palliative sedation and euthanasia, making the first acceptable and the latter not. We have questioned this. In a recent article, Lars Johan Materstvedt has argued that we are wrong on two accounts: first, that we fail to account properly for the moral difference between continuous deep palliative sedation at the end of life and euthanasia, and, second, that we fail to account properly for the difference between permanent loss of consciousness and death. Regarding the first objection, we argue that Materstvedt misses the point: we agree that there is a difference in terms of intentions between continuous deep palliative sedation and euthanasia, but we question whether this conceptual difference makes up for a moral difference. Materstvedt fails to show that it does. Regarding the second objection, we argue that if nothing else is at stake than the value of the patient's life, permanent unconsciousness and death are morally indifferent.

  17. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

    PubMed Central

    Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. Methods: A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. Results: The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Conclusion: Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources. PMID:27226663

  18. Design of a Postgraduate Course in Palliative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adriaansen, Marian J. M.; Frederiks, Carla M. A.

    2002-01-01

    A postgraduate course on palliative nursing includes four class sessions and four peer review meetings in which students discuss case studies and assignments. The course is intended to prepare nurses for the bureaucratic, biomedical, social-therapeutic, and informal roles of terminal care. (SK)

  19. Issues in Rural Palliative Care: Views from the Countryside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Carole A.; Pesut, Barbara; Bottorff, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Growing concern exists among health professionals over the dilemma of providing necessary health care for Canada's aging population. Hospice palliative services are an essential need in both urban and rural settings. Rural communities, in particular, are vulnerable to receiving inadequate services due to their geographic isolation.…

  20. The Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes towards the Palliative Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayed, Ahmad; Sayej, Sumaya; Harazneh, Lubna; Fashafsheh, Imad; Eqtait, Faeda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Palliative care (PC) is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification, impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems like physical, psychosocial and…

  1. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  2. [The role of the mobile palliative care team nurse].

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    The mobile palliative care and support team nurse works in different departments within the hospital. The clinical situation of a patient enables the team to identify in what ways she is declining and thereby participate in the care management in order to favour the patient's return home.

  3. [Palliative care - difficult decisions at the end of life].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Roland

    2009-08-01

    Palliative care comprises the complete treatment and care of patients suffering from incurable, life-threatening or chronically progressive disease. The aim is to provide the patients with the best possible quality of life and support them through the course of their illness until their death, to alleviate their suffering as much as possible and in consideration of the social, spiritual and religious aspects according to the patient's wishes. Palliative care is most important when the dying process and the patient's impending death do seem to be inevitable. Shared decision-making at an early stage of illness is mandatory. Respect for a person's dignity means focusing on their autonomy, their personal preferences and their right to live according to their own values and convictions. A person's autonomy is based on the level of information that he or she is given, the pertinent situation, and the patient's readiness and ability to take responsibility for their own life and end-of-life decisions. Decisions about life-prolonging measures, treatment of pain, dyspnea and palliative sedation require balancing the burden against the benefits. Decision-making must rest with the patient - as far as possible and as long as possible. The potential life-shortening effect of palliative therapy will need to be considered and discussed.

  4. New demands for primary health care in Brazil: palliative care.

    PubMed

    de Paula Paz, Cássia Regina; Reis Pessalacia, Juliana Dias; Campos Pavone Zoboli, Elma Lourdes; Ludugério de Souza, Hieda; Ferreira Granja, Gabriela; Cabral Schveitzer, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Assess the need for incorporation of palliative care in primary health care (PHC) through the characterization of users eligible for this type of care, enrolled in a program for devices dispensing. Descriptive study of case series conducted in 14 health units in São Paulo (Brazil) in 2012. It was included medical records of those enrolled in a program for users with urinary and fecal incontinence, and it was applied Karnofsky Performance Scale Index (KPS) to identify the indication of palliative care. 141 of the 160 selected medical records had KPS information. Most cases (98.3%, 138/141) had performance below 70% and, therefore, patients were eligible for palliative care. The most frequent pathologies was related to chronic degenerative diseases (46.3%), followed by disorders related to quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth (24.38%). It is necessary to include palliative care in PHC in order to provide comprehensive, shared and humanized care to patients who need this.

  5. A framework for integrated pediatric palliative care: being with dying.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton

    2005-10-01

    Recent studies highlight the need for an integrated model for palliative and end-of-life pediatric care. About 55,000 children die each year in the United States and, on any given day, about 8,600 children could benefit from care that acknowledges their limited life expectancy and severity of illness. Two case studies of children illustrate different approaches-one that aggressively applies all possible technologies to maximize chances of survival and another that focuses on the patient's overall quality of life and on healing rather than curing. The cases highlight characteristics of an integrated model of palliative care to address clinical, moral, and ethical uncertainties. This model integrates being with doing, provides for developing attunement and presence as capacities for being with children and their parents, and addresses challenges in the healthcare environment. Strategies for integrating palliative care into pediatric practice include listening, fostering respect for the child and parents across the organization, nurturing collaborative connections, managing uncertainty, tolerating ambiguity, making peace with conflict, and committing to self-care. Every pediatric nurse can play a role in making the vision of palliative care a reality integrated into the fabric of pediatric practice.

  6. Palliative Care for Extremely Premature Infants and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Renee D.

    2010-01-01

    Extremely premature infants face multiple acute and chronic life-threatening conditions. In addition, the treatments to ameliorate or cure these conditions often entail pain and discomfort. Integrating palliative care from the moment that extremely premature labor is diagnosed offers families and clinicians support through the process of defining…

  7. Geritalk: Communication Skills Training for Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amy S.; Back, Anthony L.; Arnold, Robert M.; Goldberg, Gabrielle R.; Lim, Betty B.; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B.; O’Neill, Lynn B.

    2011-01-01

    Expert communication is essential to high quality care for older patients with serious illness. While the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. We drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method, to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges faced by geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques prior to the course. Geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n=18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on 5-point scale). Compared to before the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, p<0.01). Two months after the course, fellows reported a high level of sustained skills practice (mean 4.3 on 5-point scale). In sum, the intensive communication skills program, tailored to the specific needs of geriatrics and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows’ self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills. PMID:22211768

  8. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  9. Methodological issues in researching palliative care nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary; Young, Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe the research conducted by nurses since the mid-1990s on nursing practice in the context of palliative/end-of-life care, identify promising methodological developments as well as methodological challenges, and propose strategies to support the development of this field of nursing research. A search of databases resulted in 121 research reports published between 1995 and 2003. Studies were included if the lead author was a nurse and the focus was nursing practice or nurses' attitudes about providing palliative or end-of-life care. Relatively few studies included patients, there were limitations in the data-collection methods used, and there was a lack of studies evaluating palliative care nursing. An emphasis on the interdisciplinary nature of palliative care may be hindering nurses from examining the effectiveness of nursing interventions. Increased attention should be given to examining the efficiency and effectiveness of nursing interventions to ensure the best outcomes for patients and their families.

  10. Palliative care crises in the community: a survey.

    PubMed

    Mantz, M; Crandall, J M

    2000-01-01

    With the rising age of the population, hospital cutbacks, and increased attention to home-based care for the dying, the community can expect to experience more intense care situations and a greater potential for palliative care crises developing in the home setting. Whether the crisis is precipitated by hemorrhage, severe uncontrolled pain, or agitation, the demands placed on the family unit and careprovider can be phenomenal. Only with a greater awareness of the difficulties encountered in the home setting can the community begin to respond to the needs of the family in crisis. An open-question survey regarding palliative care crises in the community was conducted among community visiting RNs, home care case managers, and palliative outreach clinicians in southwestern Ontario, The objectives were: 1) to determine the pattern of events that precipitated a crisis; 2) to understand how crises were managed; 3) to identify barriers to effective crisis management; 4) to investigate the impact on the family unit and careprovider. Participants were also asked to list the essential resources they needed to deal effectively with a crisis situation. This paper highlights the results of the survey and suggests implications for the future direction of palliative care in the home.

  11. When Hospice Fails: The Limits of Palliative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Barbara J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines feasibility of palliative approach for all patients, showing reasonable people may refuse even the most exemplary care for themselves or an incompetent relative. Medical realities and alleviation of pointless suffering necessitate that policymakers consider other options, including "active" euthanasia, consistent with patient…

  12. Attachment Theory and Spirituality: Two Threads Converging in Palliative Care?

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jakob; Frick, Eckhard; Petersen, Yvonne; Mauer, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss and explore the interrelation between two concepts, attachment theory and the concept of spirituality, which are important to palliative care and to founding a multivariate understanding of the patient's needs and challenges. Both concepts have been treated by research in diverse and multiform ways, but little effort has yet been made to integrate them into one theoretical framework in reference to the palliative context. In this paper, we begin an attempt to close this scientific gap theoretically. Following the lines of thought in this paper, we assume that spirituality can be conceptualized as an adequate response of a person's attachment pattern to the peculiarity of the palliative situation. Spirituality can be seen both as a recourse to securely based relationships and as an attempt to explore the ultimate unknown, the mystery of one's own death. Thus, spirituality in the palliative context corresponds to the task of attachment behavior: to transcend symbiosis while continuing bonds and thus to explore the unknown environment independently and without fear. Spiritual activity is interpreted as a human attachment behavior option that receives special quality and importance in the terminal stage of life. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed in the final section of the paper. PMID:24319482

  13. When Hospice Fails: The Limits of Palliative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Barbara J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines feasibility of palliative approach for all patients, showing reasonable people may refuse even the most exemplary care for themselves or an incompetent relative. Medical realities and alleviation of pointless suffering necessitate that policymakers consider other options, including "active" euthanasia, consistent with patient…

  14. Criteria for successful multiprofessional cooperation in palliative care teams.

    PubMed

    Jünger, S; Pestinger, M; Elsner, F; Krumm, N; Radbruch, L

    2007-06-01

    Team work is considered a central component of palliative care. Within this comparatively young field of medicine, the emergence of new institutions (eg, palliative care units) highlights the challenge of establishing a completely new team. This study focuses on the factors, which enhance both the success and outcome criteria of good team work from the perception of team members in a palliative care unit. The palliative care team at the University Hospital of Aachen (n = 19) was interviewed 1 year after the unit's startup by the means of semistructured interviews. Interview texts were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Factors crucial to cooperation in the team members' views were close communication, team philosophy, good interpersonal relationships, high team commitment, autonomy and the ability to deal with death and dying. Moreover, close communication was by far the most frequently mentioned criteria for cooperation. Team performance, good coordination of workflow and mutual trust underpin the evaluation of efficient team work. Inefficient team work is associated with the absence of clear goals, tasks and role delegation, as well as a lack of team commitment. In a new team, close communication is particularly important for staff as they reorientate themselves to the dynamics of a new peer group. The results confirm the overwhelming importance of clarity, commitment and close, positive exchange among team members for successful team work.

  15. Telemedicine and Palliative Care: an Increasing Role in Supportive Oncology.

    PubMed

    Worster, Brooke; Swartz, Kristine

    2017-06-01

    With the emergence of telemedicine as a routine form of care in various venues, the opportunities to use technology to care for the most vulnerable, most ill cancer patients are extremely appealing. Increasingly, evidence supports early integration of palliative care with standard oncologic care, supported by recent NCCN guidelines to increase and improve access to palliative care. This review looks at the use of telemedicine to expand access to palliative care as well as provide better care for patients and families where travel is difficult, if not impossible. When telemedicine has been used, often in Europe, for palliative care, the results show improvements in symptom management, comfort with care as well as patient and family satisfaction. One barrier to use of telemedicine is the concerns with technology and technology-related complications in population that is often elderly, frail and not always comfortable with non-face-to-face physician care. There remain significant opportunities to explore this intersection of supportive care and telemedicine.

  16. Palliative Care: Video Tells a Mother's Story of Caring Support

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Palliative Care Video Tells a Mother's Story of Caring Support Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents YouTube embedded video: http://www.youtube-nocookie.com/embed/-hOBYFS_Z68 ...

  17. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation.

    PubMed

    Alfaya Góngora, Maria Del Mar; Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-03-30

    To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  18. Reality of evidence-based practice in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Claire; Hadley, Gina; Wee, Bee

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paradigm shift in medicine away from tradition, anecdote and theoretical reasoning from the basic sciences towards evidence-based medicine (EBM). In palliative care however, statistically significant benefits may be marginal and may not be related to clinical meaningfulness. The typical treatment vs. placebo comparison necessitated by ‘gold standard’ randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not necessarily applicable. The complex multimorbidity of end of life care involves considerations of the patient’s physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. In addition, the field of palliative care covers a heterogeneous group of chronic and incurable diseases no longer limited to cancer. Adequate sample sizes can be difficult to achieve, reducing the power of studies and high attrition rates can result in inadequate follow up periods. This review uses examples of the management of cancer-related fatigue and death rattle (noisy breathing) to demonstrate the current state of EBM in palliative care. The future of EBM in palliative care needs to be as diverse as the patients who ultimately derive benefit. Non-RCT methodologies of equivalent quality, validity and size conducted by collaborative research networks using a ‘mixed methods approach’ are likely to pose the correct clinical questions and derive evidence-based yet clinically relevant outcomes. PMID:26487964

  19. Palliative medicines for children - a new frontier in paediatric research.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Liz; Wong, Ian C K; Craig, Finella; Christiansen, Nanna; Brombley, Karen; Tuleu, Catherine; Harrop, Emily

    2017-04-01

    This paper seeks to highlight from a UK perspective the current lack of a research evidence base in paediatric palliative care that has resulted in a paucity of available medicines with appropriate formulations (strength and dosage form) to provide symptom management for children with life-limiting illnesses and to raise awareness of this group of 'therapeutic orphans'. Currently, clinicians have limited, often unsuitable medication choices for their paediatric palliative care patients, with little hope of moving away from the status quo. Most medicines used in children receiving palliative care are old and off-patent drugs, developed for and tested in an adult population. Many are not available in suitable formulations (dosage form and strength) for administration to children, and there are often no age-related profiles of adverse drug reactions or for safe dosing. Existing regional paediatric palliative care networks and support organisations should lobby funding bodies and the academic community to support appropriate research for this group of therapeutic orphans. Support must also be provided to pharmaceutical companies in the development of suitable products with appropriate formulations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Reporting Characteristics of Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review and Quantitative Analysis of Research Publications in Palliative Care Journals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil P

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A common disorder requiring symptom palliation in palliative and end-of-life care is cancer. Cancer pain is recognized as a global health burden. This paper sought to systematically examine the extent to which there is an adequate scientific research base on cancer pain and its reporting characteristics in the palliative care journal literature. Materials and Methods: Search conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL sought to locate all studies published in 19 palliative/ hospice/ supportive/ end-of-life care journals from 2009 to 2010. The journals included were: American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, BMC Palliative Care, Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, End of Life Care Journal, European Journal of Palliative Care, Hospice Management Advisor, Indian Journal of Palliative Care, International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Internet Journal of Pain Symptom Control and Palliative Care, Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, Journal of Palliative Care, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Journal of Social Work in End-of-life and Palliative Care, Journal of Supportive Oncology, Palliative Medicine, Palliative and Supportive Care, and Supportive Care in Cancer. Journal contents were searched to identify studies that included cancer pain in abstract. Results: During the years 2009 and 2010, of the selected 1,569 articles published in the journals reviewed, only 5.86% (92 articles) were on cancer pain. Conclusion: While researchers in the field of palliative care have studied cancer pain, the total percentage for studies is still a low 5.86%. To move the field of palliative care forward so that appropriate guidelines for cancer pain management can be developed, it is critical that more research be reported upon which to base cancer pain therapy in an evidence-based palliative care model. PMID:21633623

  1. Cultural and religious considerations in pediatric palliative care

    PubMed Central

    WIENER, LORI; MCCONNELL, DENICE GRADY; LATELLA, LAUREN; LUDI, ERICA

    2012-01-01

    Objective A growing multicultural society presents healthcare providers with a difficult task of providing appropriate care for individuals who have different life experiences, beliefs, value systems, religions, languages, and notions of healthcare. This is especially vital when end-of-life care is needed during childhood. There is a dearth of literature addressing cultural considerations in the pediatric palliative care field. As members of a specific culture often do not ascribe to the same religious traditions, the purpose of this article was to explore and review how culture and religion informs and shapes pediatric palliative care. Method Comprehensive literature searches were completed through an online search of nine databases for articles published between 1980 and 2011: PsychINFO, MEDLINE®, Journal of Citation Reports-Science Edition, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL®, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), EBSCO, and Ovid. Key terms included: culture, transcultural, spiritual, international, ethnic, customs or religion AND end-of-life, palliative care, death, dying, cancer, or hospice, and children, pediatrics, or pediatric oncology. Reference lists in the retrieved articles were examined for additional studies that fit the inclusion criteria, and relevant articles were included for review. In addition, web-based searches of specific journals were conducted. These included, but were not limited to: Qualitative Health Research, Psycho-Oncology, Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Journal of Pediatric Health Care, Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, Omega, Social Work in Health Care, and Journal of Palliative Medicine. Results Thirty-seven articles met eligibility criteria. From these, seven distinct themes emerged that have implications for pediatric palliative care. These include the role of culture in decision-making, faith and the involvement of clergy, communication (spoken and unspoken language), communicating to children

  2. Cultural and religious considerations in pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Lori; McConnell, Denice Grady; Latella, Lauren; Ludi, Erica

    2013-02-01

    A growing multicultural society presents healthcare providers with a difficult task of providing appropriate care for individuals who have different life experiences, beliefs, value systems, religions, languages, and notions of healthcare. This is especially vital when end-of-life care is needed during childhood. There is a dearth of literature addressing cultural considerations in the pediatric palliative care field. As members of a specific culture often do not ascribe to the same religious traditions, the purpose of this article was to explore and review how culture and religion informs and shapes pediatric palliative care. Comprehensive literature searches were completed through an online search of nine databases for articles published between 1980 and 2011: PsychINFO, MEDLINE®, Journal of Citation Reports-Science Edition, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL®, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), EBSCO, and Ovid. Key terms included: culture, transcultural, spiritual, international, ethnic, customs or religion AND end-of-life, palliative care, death, dying, cancer, or hospice, and children, pediatrics, or pediatric oncology. Reference lists in the retrieved articles were examined for additional studies that fit the inclusion criteria, and relevant articles were included for review. In addition, web-based searches of specific journals were conducted. These included, but were not limited to: Qualitative Health Research, Psycho-Oncology, Journal of Psychosocial Oncology, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Journal of Pediatric Health Care, Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, Omega, Social Work in Health Care, and Journal of Palliative Medicine. Thirty-seven articles met eligibility criteria. From these, seven distinct themes emerged that have implications for pediatric palliative care. These include the role of culture in decision-making, faith and the involvement of clergy, communication (spoken and unspoken language), communicating to children about death (truth telling

  3. Association Between Palliative Care and Patient and Caregiver Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kavalieratos, Dio; Corbelli, Jennifer; Zhang, Di; Dionne-Odom, J. Nicholas; Ernecoff, Natalie C.; Hanmer, Janel; Hoydich, Zachariah P.; Ikejiani, Dara Z.; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele; Zimmermann, Camilla; Morton, Sally C.; Arnold, Robert M.; Heller, Lucas; Schenker, Yael

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The use of palliative care programs and the number of trials assessing their effectiveness have increased. OBJECTIVE To determine the association of palliative care with quality of life (QOL), symptom burden, survival, and other outcomes for people with life-limiting illness and for their caregivers. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL to July 2016. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials of palliative care interventions in adults with life-limiting illness. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two reviewers independently extracted data. Narrative synthesis was conducted for all trials. Quality of life, symptom burden, and survival were analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis, with estimates of QOL translated to units of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–palliative care scale (FACIT-Pal) instrument (range, 0–184 [worst-best]; minimal clinically important difference [MCID], 9 points); and symptom burden translated to the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) (range, 0–90 [best-worst]; MCID, 5.7 points). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quality of life, symptom burden, survival, mood, advance care planning, site of death, health care satisfaction, resource utilization, and health care expenditures. RESULTS Forty-three RCTs provided data on 12 731 patients (mean age, 67 years) and 2479 caregivers. Thirty-five trials used usual care as the control, and 14 took place in the ambulatory setting. In the meta-analysis, palliative care was associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in patient QOL at the 1- to 3-month follow-up (standardized mean difference, 0.46; 95%CI, 0.08 to 0.83; FACIT-Pal mean difference, 11.36] and symptom burden at the 1- to 3-month follow-up (standardized mean difference, −0.66; 95%CI, −1.25 to −0.07; ESAS mean difference, −10.30). When analyses were limited to trials at low risk of bias (n = 5), the association between palliative care and QOL was attenuated

  4. Needs assessment and palliative care: the views of providers.

    PubMed

    Clark, D; Malson, H; Small, N; Daniel, T; Mallett, K

    1997-12-01

    A key element within the programme of reform introduced into the UK National Health Service in the 1990s has been the concept of health needs assessment, which must be undertaken by health care purchasers as a guide to the planning process. As part of a wide-ranging study of the impact of the NHS reforms on hospices and specialist palliative care services, providers' perceptions of needs assessment for palliative care were examined, including the extent to which needs assessments had been carried out in local districts, together with the implications. The study comprised two key elements. In spring 1995 a postal survey was conducted among all UK hospices and specialist palliative care in-patient units (n = 203) eliciting factual information concerning needs assessment and contracting, together with perceptions and evaluations of the local impact of the NHS reforms. A total of 128 (63 per cent) questionnaires was completed and returned. In addition to the survey, 12 case studies were conducted with a stratified random sample of NHS, independent and large or small hospices and specialist palliative care units. Each of the 12 case study sites was visited by a member of the research team, who conducted interviews with senior staff and analysed financial, planning and management data. Thus the survey allowed a wide analysis of the impact of the NHS reforms, which was enhanced by the more in-depth qualitative data gathered from the case studies. In the survey 49 per cent of those responding reported that their main purchaser had conducted a needs assessment for palliative care in the last five years. Palliative care needs assessment was seen as valuable by providers: 73 per cent considered it very important and 28 per cent of hospices had gone so far as to request a needs assessment from their health authority. In an open-ended question seeking views on the impact of health needs assessment, 66 per cent of those responding (71/107) stated that the impact had been or

  5. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  6. Environmentally Benign Pyrotechnic Delays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    jay.poret@us.army.mil † School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Pyrotechnic delays are used in...benign formulations are described. The delay time of the new system is easily tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum ...tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum housings which is generally difficult for delay compositions due to extreme thermal

  7. Hospice and palliation in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Cheryl Cox; Chiochankitmun, Nina; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    2014-07-01

    This article presents empirical data on the limited availability of hospice and palliative care to the 6 million people of the English-speaking Caribbean. Ten of the 13 nations therein responded to a survey and reported employing a total of 6 hospice or palliative specialists, and having a total of 15 related facilities. The evolving socioeconomic and cultural context in these nations bears on the availability of such care, and on the willingness to report, assess, and prioritize pain, and to prescribe opiates for pain. Socioeconomics and culture also impinge on what medications and modalities of care are routinely available for pain or other conditions and can challenge professionalism, empathy, and responsiveness to patients' unrelieved pain. Although all respondents report having a protocol for pain management, hospice, or end-of-life care, their annual medical use of opiates is well below the global mean. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), which monitors such use, encourages Caribbean and other low- and middle-income countries to increase their use of opiates to treat pain, and to overcome both unfounded fears of addiction and overly restrictive interpretation of related laws and regulations. Contextual considerations like those described here are important to the success of policies and capacity-building programs aiming to increase access to hospice and palliation, and perhaps to improving other aspects of health and healthcare. Exploring and responding to the realities of socioeconomic and cultural conditions will enhance public and policy dialogue and improve the design of interventions to increase access to palliative and hospice care. Improving access to palliative and hospice care in the Caribbean demonstrates beneficence and helps to fulfill human rights conventions.

  8. Delayed puberty and amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Barbara; Bradshaw, Karen D

    2003-11-01

    The ability to diagnose and manage disorders that cause delayed puberty requires a thorough understanding of the physical and hormonal events of puberty. Wide variation exists within normal pubertal maturation, but most adolescent girls in the United States have begun to mature by the age of 13. Delayed puberty, a rare condition in girls, occurs in only approximately 2.5% of the population. Constitutional delay, genetic defects, or hypothalamic-pituitary disorders are common causes. Amenorrhea, often found as a symptom of delayed puberty, may be due to congenital genital tract anomalies, ovarian failure, or chronic anovulation with estrogen presence or with estrogen absence.

  9. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. PMID:26439762

  10. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up.

  12. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  13. Early palliative care for adults with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Haun, Markus W; Estel, Stephanie; Rücker, Gerta; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Villalobos, Matthias; Thomas, Michael; Hartmann, Mechthild

    2017-06-12

    Incurable cancer, which often constitutes an enormous challenge for patients, their families, and medical professionals, profoundly affects the patient's physical and psychosocial well-being. In standard cancer care, palliative measures generally are initiated when it is evident that disease-modifying treatments have been unsuccessful, no treatments can be offered, or death is anticipated. In contrast, early palliative care is initiated much earlier in the disease trajectory and closer to the diagnosis of incurable cancer. To compare effects of early palliative care interventions versus treatment as usual/standard cancer care on health-related quality of life, depression, symptom intensity, and survival among adults with a diagnosis of advanced cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, OpenGrey (a database for grey literature), and three clinical trial registers to October 2016. We checked reference lists, searched citations, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-randomised controlled trials (cRCTs) on professional palliative care services that provided or co-ordinated comprehensive care for adults at early advanced stages of cancer. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. We assessed risk of bias, extracted data, and collected information on adverse events. For quantitative synthesis, we combined respective results on our primary outcomes of health-related quality of life, survival (death hazard ratio), depression, and symptom intensity across studies in meta-analyses using an inverse variance random-effects model. We expressed pooled effects as standardised mean differences (SMDs, or Hedges' adjusted g). We assessed certainty of evidence at the outcome level using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and

  14. The palliative care knowledge test: reliability and validity of an instrument to measure palliative care knowledge among health professionals.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Y; Miyashita, M; Morita, T; Umeda, M; Oyagi, Y; Ogasawara, T

    2009-12-01

    Development of palliative care educational programmes continues in Japan. An instrument to evaluate a wider range of palliative care knowledge among general physicians and nurses is needed. However, such an instrument does not currently exist. The aim of this study was to develop an assessment to measure the efficacy of palliative care educational programmes. The questionnaire survey was validated with a group of 940 nurses at two facilities. The response rate was 85 % (n = 797). This study used psychometric methods such as item response theory and intraclass correlation coefficients. Ultimately, 20 items in 5 domains including 'philosophy', 'pain', 'dyspnoea', 'psychiatric problems' and 'gastrointestinal problems' were selected. For these items, the intraclass correlation was 0.88 overall and 0.61-0.82 in each domain; the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 in internal consistency was 0.81. Validity and reliability of the instrument were established. This tool is designed to evaluate a wider range of palliative care knowledge than currently available assessments and can be used for general physicians and nurses. The evaluation of educational programmes and the clarification of actual knowledge acquired are possible using this instrument.

  15. The 'critical mass' survey of palliative care programme at ESMO designated centres of integrated oncology and palliative care.

    PubMed

    Hui, D; Cherny, N; Latino, N; Strasser, F

    2017-09-01

    The ESMO Designated Centres (ESMO-DCs) of Integrated Oncology and Palliative Care (PC) Incentive Programme has grown steadily. We aimed to characterise the level of PC clinical services, education and research at ESMO-DCs. We sent all 184 ESMO-DCs an electronic survey consisting of 78 questions examining the DC characteristics, palliative care clinical programme (structure, processes, and outcomes), primary PC delivery by oncologists, education, research and attitudes and beliefs towards the ESMO-DC programme. The response rate was 83% (152/184). 115 (76%) ESMO-DCs were from Europe, 87 (57%) were tertiary care centres. 136 (90%) had inpatient consultation teams, 135 (89%) had outpatient PC clinics, 107 (71%) had dedicated acute care beds, and 75 (50%) offered community-based PC. An estimated 70% (interquartile range [IQR] 28-80%) of patients with advanced cancer had a PC consultation before death, occurring 90 days before death (median, IQR 40-150 days) for outpatients and 21 days (IQR 14-45 days) for inpatients. 59 (39%) offered PC fellowship programme; 47 (32%) had mandatory PC rotations for oncology fellows. Ninety-nine (65%) had double-boarded palliative oncologists. 118 (78%) of the ESMO-DCs reported that routine symptom screening was offered in the oncology clinic and 30% of patients had documented end-of-life discussions by their oncologists. Most centres (>80%) perceived the ESMO-DC programme to increase their status. The ESMO-DCs had a high level of PC infrastructure and provided access to a large proportion of patients with advanced cancer. The survey supports that the 13 criteria required for ESMO designation set a robust framework for integration, stimulated investment of resources into some palliative care programmes prior to accreditation, and raised the interest about palliative care among clinicians, trainees and patients.

  16. A Survey of Hospice and Palliative Care Clinicians' Experiences and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Palliative Sedation.

    PubMed

    Maiser, Samuel; Estrada-Stephen, Karen; Sahr, Natasha; Gully, Jonathan; Marks, Sean

    2017-09-01

    A variety of terms and attitudes surround palliative sedation (PS) with little research devoted to hospice and palliative care (HPC) clinicians' perceptions and experiences with PS. These factors may contribute to the wide variability in the reported prevalence of PS. This study was designed to better identify hospice and palliative care (HPC) clinician attitudes toward, and clinical experiences with palliative sedation (PS). A 32-question survey was distributed to members of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (n = 4678). The questions explored the language clinicians use for PS, and their experiences with PS. Nine hundred thirty-six (20% response rate) responded to the survey. About 83.21% preferred the terminology of PS compared with other terms. A majority felt that PS is a bioethically appropriate treatment for refractory physical and nonphysical symptoms in dying patients. Most felt PS was not an appropriate term in clinical scenarios when sedation occurred as an unintended side effect from standard treatments. Hospice clinicians use PS more consistently and with less distress than nonhospice clinician respondents. Benzodiazepines (63.1%) and barbiturates (18.9%) are most commonly prescribed for PS. PS is the preferred term among HPC clinicians for the proportionate use of pharmacotherapies to intentionally lower awareness for refractory symptoms in dying patients. PS is a bioethically appropriate treatment for refractory symptoms in dying patients. However, there is a lack of clear agreement about what is included in PS and how the practice of PS should be best delivered in different clinical scenarios. Future efforts to investigate PS should focus on describing the clinical scenarios in which PS is utilized and on the level of intended sedation necessary, in an effort to better unify the practice of PS.

  17. The clinical, operational, and financial worlds of neonatal palliative care: A focused ethnography.

    PubMed

    Williams-Reade, Jackie; Lamson, Angela L; Knight, Sharon M; White, Mark B; Ballard, Sharon M; Desai, Priti P

    2015-04-01

    Due to multiple issues, integrated interdisciplinary palliative care teams in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) may be difficult to access, sometimes fail to be implemented, or provide inconsistent or poorly coordinated care. When implementing an effective institution-specific neonatal palliative care program, it is critical to include stakeholders from the clinical, operational, and financial worlds of healthcare. In this study, researchers sought to gain a multidisciplinary perspective into issues that may impact the implementation of a formal neonatal palliative care program at a tertiary regional academic medical center. In this focused ethnography, the primary researcher conducted semistructured interviews that explored the perspectives of healthcare administrators, finance officers, and clinicians about neonatal palliative care. The perspectives of 39 study participants informed the identification of institutional, financial, and clinical issues that impact the implementation of neonatal palliative care services at the medical center and the planning process for a formal palliative care program on behalf of neonates and their families. Healthcare professionals described experiences that influenced their views on neonatal palliative care. Key themes included: (a) uniqueness of neonatal palliative care, (b) communication and conflict among providers, (c) policy and protocol discrepancies, and (d) lack of administrative support. The present study highlighted several areas that are challenging in the provision of neonatal palliative care. Our findings underscored the importance of recognizing and procuring resources needed simultaneously from the clinical, operational, and financial worlds in order to implement and sustain a successful neonatal palliative care program.

  18. Analysis of dose fractionation in the palliation of metastases from malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Konefal, J.B.; Emami, B.; Pilepich, M.V.

    1988-01-15

    Sixty-five visceral metastases from malignant melanoma were treated with radiation therapy. A variety of total doses and dose fractions were used. Significant palliation was achieved in 40 of 65 (62%) symptomatic lesions. There was no correlation between total dose or dose fraction size and significant palliation. Brain and bone metastases were separately analyzed. Nineteen of 28 (68%) bone metastases were palliated. Appendicular bony metastases were more likely to be palliated than axial bony metastases (88% versus 60%). The palliation of bone metastases did not depend on total dose given or fraction size. Nine of 23 (39%) symptomatic brain metastases were palliated. There was no difference in the rate of palliation between solitary and multiple brain metastases. Palliation of brain lesions was not dependent on fraction size, although there was a trend to better palliation with higher total doses. These findings suggest that unlike treating cutaneous or nodal melanoma lesions for local control, there is no advantage in large fraction size when treating with palliative intent visceral melanoma lesions.

  19. Palliative Care Professional Development for Critical Care Nurses: A Multicenter Program.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Wendy G; Puntillo, Kathleen; Cimino, Jenica; Noort, Janice; Pearson, Diana; Boyle, Deborah; Grywalski, Michelle; Meyer, Jeannette; O'Neil-Page, Edith; Cain, Julia; Herman, Heather; Barbour, Susan; Turner, Kathleen; Moore, Eric; Liao, Solomon; Ferrell, Bruce; Mitchell, William; Edmonds, Kyle; Fairman, Nathan; Joseph, Denah; MacMillan, John; Milic, Michelle M; Miller, Monica; Nakagawa, Laura; O'Riordan, David L; Pietras, Christopher; Thornberry, Kathryn; Pantilat, Steven Z

    2017-09-01

    Integrating palliative care into intensive care units (ICUs) requires involvement of bedside nurses, who report inadequate education in palliative care. To implement and evaluate a palliative care professional development program for ICU bedside nurses. From May 2013 to January 2015, palliative care advanced practice nurses and nurse educators in 5 academic medical centers completed a 3-day train-the-trainer program followed by 2 years of mentoring to implement the initiative. The program consisted of 8-hour communication workshops for bedside nurses and structured rounds in ICUs, where nurse leaders coached bedside nurses in identifying and addressing palliative care needs. Primary outcomes were nurses' ratings of their palliative care communication skills in surveys, and nurses' identification of palliative care needs during coaching rounds. Each center held at least 6 workshops, training 428 bedside nurses. Nurses rated their skill level higher after the workshop for 15 tasks (eg, responding to family distress, ensuring families understand information in family meetings, all P < .01 vs preworkshop). Coaching rounds in each ICU took a mean of 3 hours per month. For 82% of 1110 patients discussed in rounds, bedside nurses identified palliative care needs and created plans to address them. Communication skills training workshops increased nurses' ratings of their palliative care communication skills. Coaching rounds supported nurses in identifying and addressing palliative care needs. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  20. Costs of terminal patients who receive palliative care or usual care in different hospital wards.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Berghe, Paul Vanden; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2010-11-01

    In addition to the effectiveness of hospital care models for terminal patients, policy makers and health care payers are concerned about their costs. This study aims to measure the hospital costs of treating terminal patients in Belgium from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative and usual care in different types of hospital wards. A multicenter, retrospective cohort study compared costs of palliative care with usual care in acute hospital wards and with care in palliative care units. The study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of hospitals. Health care costs included fixed hospital costs and charges relating to medical fees, pharmacy and other charges. Data sources consisted of hospital accountancy data and invoice data. Six hospitals participated in the study, generating a total of 146 patients. The findings showed that palliative care in a palliative care unit was more expensive than palliative care in an acute ward due to higher staffing levels in palliative care units. Palliative care in an acute ward is cheaper than usual care in an acute ward. This study suggests that palliative care models in acute wards need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients. This finding emphasizes the importance of the timely recognition of the need for palliative care in terminal patients treated in acute wards.