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Sample records for delays subsequent squamous

  1. Early developmental delays: neuropsychological sequelae and subsequent diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee

    2012-01-01

    Developmental delay is a frequent diagnosis given to young children when developmental milestones are not met in an age-expected time frame. Research on early delays in speech and motor milestones is unclear regarding possible long-term cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of children who suffered early developmental delays in speech or motor function. Participants (N = 60) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition, Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test, Children's Memory Test (CMT), the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, and the Child Behavior Checklist/Youth Self-Report. The Delay group had a significantly lower Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), and when controlling for IQ (analysis of covariance), the Delay group had significantly lower scores on measures of immediate and delayed visual memory skills (CMT). Group scores were not significantly different for any other tests. Neither group had any test scores significantly below FSIQ, a finding suggesting developmental delays may subsequently lead to weaknesses but not impairments. Results appear to support the resiliency of the young brain. Chi-square analysis showed the Delay group was more likely to subsequently be diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) but not learning disorders. Data appear to suggest that early developmental delays may place children as risk for ADHD and perhaps visual memory weaknesses, though not clear impairments. PMID:23428279

  2. Serum ghrelin is inversely associated with risk of subsequent oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gwen; Kamangar, Farin; Albanes, Demetrius; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Taylor, Philip R.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Abnet, Christian C.; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Freedman, Neal D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Oesophageal cancers rank as the eighth most common cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer death, worldwide. Gastric atrophy, as determined by a low serum pepsinogen I/II ratio, may be associated with an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Ghrelin, a hormone which, like pepsinogen, is produced in the fundic glands of the stomach, may be a sensitive and specific marker of gastric atrophy, but its association with OSCC is not known. Methods To examine the relationship between baseline serum ghrelin concentration and subsequent risk of OSCC, we conducted a nested case-control study within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study. 82 cases of OSCC were matched (1:1) by age and date of blood draw to controls from the ATBC study. Serum ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results For those individuals in the lowest quartile of serum ghrelin, compared to those in the highest, the multivariate odds ratio of subsequent OSCC was 6.83 (95% CI: 1.46, 31.84). These associations were dose dependent (P for trend = 0.005 for both), and independent of the effects of low pepsinogen I/II ratio (a marker of gastric fundic atrophy) and Helicobacter pylori infection. The significance of these associations remained even for individuals developing OSCC up to 10 years after baseline ghrelin measurement, though they become attenuated after 10 years. Conclusion Lower baseline concentrations of serum ghrelin were associated with an increase in risk of OSCC. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in other populations and to explore the role of ghrelin in the aetiology of OSCC. PMID:22180062

  3. Anatomic Invasive Depth Predicts Delayed Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Sohei; Tomioka, Toshifumi; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ugumori, Toru; Hato, Naohito; Fujii, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Delayed cervical lymph node metastasis (CLNM) is the most negative prognostic factor of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This study analyzed the relationship between clinicopathologic factors, including anatomic invasive depth (AID), and CLNM. A total of 212 patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) tongue SCC who had undergone partial glossectomy through the mouth were eligible for this retrospective study. The deepest portions where tongue SCC cells invaded as determined by microscopic analyses were classified into 5 categories, including epithelial and submucosal tissue, lateral extrinsic tongue muscle (ETM), intrinsic tongue muscles (ITM), paralingual and sublingual spaces, and medial ETM according to AID. We examined the relationship between clinicopathologic factors including AID and delayed CLNM. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that AID was an independent predictive factor for delayed CLNM (P=0.0022; odds ratio=7.1). Deeper invasion than ITM, including ITM, paralingual and sublingual spaces, and medial ETM, had high sensitivity and negative predictive value for delayed CLNM (94.4% and 95.7%, respectively). Precise elucidation of AID may be useful for the preoperative decision for performing elective neck dissection. None of 11 patients in whom the deepest portion where tumor invaded to lateral ETM (according to AID) showed delayed CLNM, although tongue SCC T4a tumor is defined by the presence of invasion of cancer cells to ETM. Tumors with invasion to lateral ETM might have to be excluded from the pathologic T4a category. PMID:27186852

  4. Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed.

    PubMed

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., whale-???) that has no intrinsic answer. Experiment 1 replicated prior word pair studies, but in Experiment 2, when participants learned meaningful trivia questions, testing enhanced learning even when subsequent study was delayed. Even in Experiment 3, when subsequent study was delayed by up to 24 hr, tests enhanced learning on a final test another 24 hr later. These findings may give comfort to educators who worry that asking a question or giving a test, on which students inevitably make mistakes, impairs learning if feedback is not immediate. They also suggest that there is a consensus in the literature thus far: Questions with rich semantic content enhance subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed, but less meaningful questions without an intrinsic answer enhance learning only when feedback is immediate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Recurrent oesophageal intramucosal squamous carcinoma treated by endoscopic mucosal resection and subsequent radiofrequency ablation using HALO system

    PubMed Central

    Kajzrlikova, Ivana; Vitek, Petr; Falt, Premysl; Urban, Ondrej; Kominek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The method of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is currently used for the treatment of high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus. It has theoretical potential also for the use in squamous epithelial neoplasias. The authors present a case report of an early diagnosis of squamous cancer in a high-risk patient, its endoscopic treatment and follow-up, and successful RFA of recurrent neoplasia. RFA can expand our therapeutic possibilities for the management of recurrent neoplastic lesions after endoscopic treatment of squamous oesophageal cancer. PMID:22802374

  6. Response suppression delays the planning of subsequent stimulus-driven saccades.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Jeffrey; Mitchell, Trina; Heath, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The completion of an antisaccade selectively increases the reaction tiME (RT) of a subsequent prosaccade: a result that has been interpreted to reflect the residual inhibition of stimulus-driven saccade networks [1], [2]. In the present investigation we sought to determine whether the increase in prosaccade RT is contingent on the constituent antisaccade planning processes of response suppression and vector inversion or is limited to response suppression. To that end, in one block participants alternated between pro- and antisaccades after every second trial (task-switching block), and in another block participants completed a series of prosaccades that were randomly (and infrequently) interspersed with no-go catch-trials (go/no-go block). Notably, such a design provides a framework for disentangling whether response suppression and/or vector inversion delays the planning of subsequent prosaccades. As expected, results for the task-switching block showed that antisaccades selectively increased the RTs of subsequent prosaccades. In turn, results for the go/no-go block showed that prosaccade RTs were increased when preceded by a no-go catch-trial. Moreover, the magnitude of the RT 'cost' was equivalent across the task-switching and go/no-go blocks. That prosaccades preceded by an antisaccade or a no-go catch-trial produced equivalent RT costs indicates that the conjoint processes of response suppression and vector inversion do not drive the inhibition of saccade planning mechanisms. Rather, the present findings indicate that a general consequence of response suppression is a residual inhibition of stimulus-driven saccade networks.

  7. Glutathione delays varies as-tocopherol oxidation and subsequent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Robey, S.; Mavis, R.

    1986-05-01

    A method has been developed for in vitro trace radiolabeling of rat liver microsomes with /sup 3/H-..cap alpha..-tocopherol (..cap alpha..T*) which allows virtually complete oxidation of the ..cap alpha..T* under oxidizing conditions. The supernatant of a 16,000 xg centrifugation of homogenized rat liver, containing the cytosolic rat liver vitamin E (VE) transfer protein, was incubated with an ethanolic solution of ..cap alpha..T* for 10 minutes at 37/sup 0/C. Labeled microsomes were collected in the washed 100,000 xg pellet. Microsomes were then incubated with 30 ..mu..M Fe/sup 2 +/ in an NADPH-generating system, and both production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (a product of lipid peroxidation) and oxidation of ..cap alpha..T* were monitored over a time course in the presence and absence of glutathione (GSH). The results indicate virtually complete oxidation of ..cap alpha..T* precedes significant membrane lipid peroxidation, and that addition of 5 mM GSH delays both ..cap alpha..T* oxidation and subsequent MDA production. This suggests that the previously observed VE-dependent heat labile inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation by GSH involves maintaining membrane levels of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol.

  8. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  9. Five human tumour cell lines derived from a primary squamous carcinoma of the tongue, two subsequent local recurrences and two nodal metastases.

    PubMed Central

    Easty, D. M.; Easty, G. C.; Carter, R. L.; Monaghan, P.; Pittam, M. R.; James, T.

    1981-01-01

    Five tumour cell lines have been derived from a primary squamous carcinoma of the tongue, from 2 subsequent local recurrences, and from 2 lymph-node metastases--all from the same patient. While the cell lines shared many morphological and biochemical characteristics, those derived from recurrences and metastases appeared to be less differentiated, were less well organized in culture, and displayed fewer desmosomes and tonofilaments than cells in the primary tumour line. A recurrent line showing greatest morphological divergence from the primary tumour line also demonstrated the greatest differences at the ultrastructural level, in increased production of plasminogen activator and in the composition of cell-surface glycoproteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7284233

  10. Increased Delay Discounting Tracks with a High Ethanol-Seeking Phenotype and Subsequent Ethanol-Seeking but not Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Steven Wesley; Czachowski, Cristine Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased levels of delay discounting have been associated with alcoholism and problematic levels of drinking. Attempts to assess the directionality of this relationship by studying individuals with a family history of alcoholism as well as rodent lines selectively bred for high home cage alcohol preference have yielded discordant results. One possible reason for this discordance is that increased levels of delay discounting may only track with specific processes that lead to addiction vulnerability. The current study investigated this possibility by assessing three strains of rats previously identified to exhibit heritable differences in ethanol-seeking and consumption. Methods In an adjusting amount delay discounting task, alcohol-preferring P rats who display high levels of both ethanol-seeking and consumption were compared to High Alcohol Drinking (HAD2) rats who only exhibit moderate ethanol-seeking despite high levels of consumption, and Long Evans (LE) rats who display moderate seeking and consumption. Ethanol-seeking and consumption phenotypes were subsequently confirmed in an operant self-administration task with a procedural separation between ethanol-seeking and drinking. Results P rats discounted delayed rewards to a greater extent than both HAD2s and LE who did not show differences in discounting. Moreover, the ethanol-seeking and drinking phenotypes were replicated with P rats displaying greater ethanol-seeking compared to both the HAD2s and LE, and both the HAD2s and P rats consuming more ethanol than LEs. Conclusions Only the high seeking strain, the P rats, exhibited increased levels of delay discounting. This suggests that this measure of behavioral under-control is specifically associated with alcohol-related appetitive, but not consummatory, processes since the moderate seeking/high drinking line did not show increased levels of impulsivity. This finding supports the hypothesis that delay discounting is specifically associated with

  11. Apoptosis of Oligodendrocytes during Early Development Delays Myelination and Impairs Subsequent Responses to Demyelination

    PubMed Central

    Caprariello, Andrew V.; Batt, Courtney E.; Zippe, Ingrid; Romito-DiGiacomo, Rita R.; Karl, Molly

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian development, myelin-forming oligodendrocytes are generated and axons ensheathed according to a tightly regulated sequence of events. Excess premyelinating oligodendrocytes are eliminated by apoptosis and the timing of the onset of myelination in any specific CNS region is highly reproducible. Although the developing CNS recovers more effectively than the adult CNS from similar insults, it is unknown whether early loss of oligodendrocyte lineage cells leads to long-term functional deficits. To directly assess whether the loss of oligodendrocytes during early postnatal spinal cord development impacted oligodendrogenesis, myelination, and remyelination, transgenic mouse lines were generated in which a modified caspase-9 molecule allowed spatial and temporal control of the apoptotic pathway specifically in mature, myelin basic protein expressing oligodendrocytes (MBP-iCP9). Activating apoptosis in MBP+ cells of the developing spinal cord during the first postnatal week inhibited myelination. This inhibition was transient, and the levels of myelination largely returned to normal after 2 weeks. Despite robust developmental plasticity, MBP-iCP9-induced oligodendrocyte apoptosis compromised the rate and extent of adult remyelination. Remyelination failure correlated with a truncated proliferative response of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, suggesting that depleting the oligodendrocyte pool during critical developmental periods compromises the regenerative response to subsequent demyelinating lesions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This manuscript demonstrates that early insults leading to oligodendrocyte apoptosis result in the impairment of recovery from demyelinating diseases in the adult. These studies begin to provide an initial understanding of the potential failure of recovery in insults, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis. PMID:26468203

  12. Primary Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Male Urethra Presenting with Scrotal Abscess and Subsequent Development of Fournier’s Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah J.; Rashidipour, Omid; Moore, Ronald B.

    2016-01-01

    This male patient presented with a scrotal abscess and urinary obstruction. The patient’s history included a perineal abscess and the development of urethrocutaneous fistulae (watering-can perineum). He underwent multiple debridement procedures without resolution. During the fifth debridement for Fournier’s gangrene, a biopsy revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was bedridden because of the large mass, a wide en bloc resection with lymphadenectomy and reconstruction was performed revealing a large (22 cm) squamous cell carcinoma originating from the urethra. He also received palliative chemoradiotherapy and hip hemiarthroplasty. Unfortunately, he succumbed to the disease. Given the recognized relationship between inflammation and the development of cancer, it is important to entertain a differential diagnosis of cancer, especially with erosive infections. This case report highlights the all too common late presentation of urethral cancer. Interestingly, despite correction of the bedridden state with palliative surgery, the patient did not perceive an improvement in quality of life based on the FACT-G questionnaire. PMID:27721660

  13. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation during pregnancy, and in adult nulliparous mice, delays the subsequent development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gavin, Heather M.; Arlt, Volker M.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Fenton, Suzanne E.; Medina, Daniel; Vorderstrasse, Beth A.

    2010-01-01

    TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), the prototypic ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), promotes tumor formation in some model systems. However with regard to breast cancer, epidemiological and animal studies are inconclusive as to whether exposure increases tumor incidence or may instead be protective. We have previously reported that mice exposed to TCDD during pregnancy have impaired differentiation of mammary tissue, including decreased branching and poor development of lobuloalveolar structures. Because normal pregnancy-induced mammary differentiation may protect against subsequent neoplastic transformation, we hypothesized that TCDD-treated mice would be more susceptible to chemical carcinogenesis after parturition. To test this, mice were treated with TCDD or vehicle during pregnancy. Four weeks later, DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) was administered to induce mammary tumor formation. Contrary to our hypothesis, TCDD-exposed parous mice showed a four-week delay in tumor formation relative to controls, and had a lower tumor incidence throughout the 27-week time course. The same results were obtained in nulliparous mice given TCDD and DMBA on the same schedule. We next addressed whether the delayed tumor incidence was a reflection of decreased tumor initiation, by testing the formation of DMBA-DNA adducts and preneoplastic lesions, induction of cytochrome P450s, and cell proliferation. None of these markers of tumor initiation differed between vehicle- and TCDD-treated animals. The expression of CXCL12 and CXCR4 was also measured to address their possible role in tumorigenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that AhR activation by TCDD slows the promotion of preneoplastic lesions to overt mammary tumors. PMID:20521247

  14. A homozygous R262Q mutation in the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) presenting as constitutional delay of growth and puberty with subsequent borderline oligospermia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Conway, Gerard S.; Hill, Nathan R.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Hindmarsh, Peter C.; Achermann, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Context The GnRH receptor plays a central role in regulating gonadotropin synthesis and release, and several mutations in the GNRHR gene have been reported in patients with idiopathic or familial forms of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Objective To investigate whether partial loss of function mutations in the GnRH receptor might be responsible for delayed puberty phenotypes. Patients Sibling pairs with delayed puberty (n=8) or where one brother had delayed puberty and another had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (n=3). Methods Mutational analysis of the GNRHR gene. Results A homozygous R262Q mutation in the GnRH receptor was identified in two brothers from one family. In this kindred, the proband presented at 15 years of age with delayed puberty. Following a short course of testosterone, he seemed to be progressing through puberty appropriately and was discharged from follow up. His younger brother was also referred with delayed puberty but showed little progress following treatment. Frequent sampling revealed detectable but apulsatile LH and FSH release. His clinical progress was consistent with IHH and he requires ongoing testosterone replacement. Conclusions Homozygous partial loss of function mutations in the GnRH receptor, such as R262Q, can present with variable phenotypes including apparent delayed puberty. Ongoing clinical vigilance might be required when patients are discharged from follow-up, especially when there is a family history of delayed puberty or IHH, as oligospermia and reduced bone mineralization can occur with time. PMID:16968799

  15. Atypical squamous cells in the urine revealing endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with squamous cell differentiation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinong; Otis, Christopher N; Florence, Roxanne R

    2015-01-01

    Urine cytology is mainly used to detect urothelial carcinoma (UC), especially for high-grade lesions including urothelial carcinoma in situ. Benign squamous cells are often seen in the urine specimens of women, they are either exfoliated from the trigone area of the bladder, the urethra, or the cervicovaginal region. However, abnormal squamous cells in the urine raise concerns of abnormalities of the urinary tract and cervicovaginal area which range from squamous metaplasia of the urothelium, a cervicovaginal squamous intraepithelial lesion, condyloma acuminatum of the bladder, UC with squamous differentiation, and squamous cell carcinoma. We present here a unique case of atypical squamous cells (ASCs) in the urine subsequently leading to the diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with squamous differentiation. The presence of ASCs in voided urine is a rare finding that may indicate an underlying malignancy. Careful evaluation of squamous cells in the urine is an important part of our daily cytopathology practice.

  16. Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Squamous cell carcinoma typically develops in sun-damaged skin in fair-skinned patients. Overview Squamous ... skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially in light-skinned individuals with ...

  17. Assessment of outcomes with delayed 18F-FDG PET-CT response assessment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Slevin, F; Subesinghe, M; Ramasamy, S; Sen, M; Scarsbrook, A F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the accuracy of a 4-month post-(chemo)radiotherapy 18-fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods: 105 patients who underwent a baseline and response assessment 18F-FDG PET-CT scan between 2008 and April 2013 were identified. 18F-FDG PET-CT outcomes were analysed with reference to clinicopathological outcomes. Results: 79 of 105 (75%) 18F-FDG PET-CT scans demonstrated a complete metabolic response; 19 of 101 (19%) for assessable primary tumours were positive; and 19 of 93 (20%) for patients with nodal disease were equivocal (n = 10) or positive (n = 9). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for primary and nodal disease were 90%, 89%, 47%, 99% and 91%, 89%, 53% and 99%, respectively. Eight of nine patients with a positive nodal response scan had clinicopathological evidence of residual nodal disease (PPV, 89%). 2 of 10 patients with equivocal nodal responses had clinicopathological evidence of residual nodal disease (PPV, 20%). Conclusion: 18F-FDG PET-CT 4 months post treatment has a very high NPV. A positive 18F-FDG PET-CT has a high PPV for residual nodal disease. By contrast, patients who have an equivocal nodal response have a low PPV. Advances in knowledge: Response assessment 18F-FDG PET-CT is a valuable tool in guiding the selective use of neck dissection following (chemo)radiotherapy for HNSCC. An equivocal lymph node response has a limited predictive value for persistent disease, and optimal management remains a clinical challenge. PMID:26081447

  18. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma —

    Cancer.gov

    The hallmarks of squamous cell carcinoma are the differentiation features of the squamous epithelium: keratinization and intercellular bridges. Large central masses of keratin, individual cell keratinization, and/or keratin pearls may form. Necrosis of tumor cell nests and accumulation of acute inflammatory cells are frequent features of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Squamous morules are functionally inert elements of premalignant endometrial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Lomo, Lesley; Baak, Jan P A; Eng, Charis; Ince, Tan A; Crum, Christopher P; Mutter, George L

    2009-02-01

    Squamous morules are a common component of premalignant glandular lesions that are followed by glandular, rather than squamous, carcinomas. We tested the hypothesis that the appearance of glands associated with morules predicts cancer risk, and undertook molecular testing to determine the clonal and hormonal response properties of admixed squamous and glandular elements. A total of 66 patients with squamous morules in an index endometrial biopsy had follow-up clinical data (average follow-up: interval 31 months, 2.5 biopsies) showing development of carcinoma in 11% (7/66) of cases. The histological appearance of morule-associated glands in the index biopsy was significantly associated with this clinical outcome, with the majority (71%, 5/7) of cancer occurrences following an overtly premalignant lesion (endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia) with squamous morules. Eight endometrial intraepithelial neoplasias with squamous morules were examined by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors and mitotic activity (Ki-67 antigen percent stained). Glandular components had abundant estrogen and progesterone receptors, and high levels of mitotic activity in all cases. In sharp contrast, all squamous morules were devoid of sex hormone receptors and had undetectable or extremely low-proliferation rates. When mutated, the same specific PTEN mutation was detected in squamous and glandular elements, indicating that both are of common lineage. The clinical and laboratory data are consistent with a model of morule biology in which squamous morules are a hormonally incompetent subpopulation of endometrial glandular lesions. Isolated morules might result from artifactual displacement from their native glandular context, or selective hormonally induced regression of the glandular but not squamous components over time. Subsequent cancer risk, as promoted by estrogens, is greatest when the glandular component has the appearance of endometrial intraepithelial

  1. Squamous Morules Are Functionally Inert Elements of Premalignant Endometrial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Chieh; Lomo, Lesley; Baak, Jan P. A.; Eng, Charis; Ince, Tan A.; Crum, Christopher P.; Mutter, George L.

    2008-01-01

    Squamous morules are a common component of premalignant glandular lesions that are followed by glandular, rather than squamous, carcinomas. We tested the hypothesis that the appearance of glands associated with morules predicts cancer risk, and undertook molecular testing to determine the clonal and hormonal response properties of admixed squamous and glandular elements. 66 patients with squamous morules in an index endometrial biopsy had followup clinical data (average followup: interval 31 months, 2.5 biopsies) showing development of carcinoma in 11% (7/66) of cases. The histological appearance of morule-associated glands in the index biopsy was significantly associated with this clinical outcome, with the majority (71%, 5/7) of cancer occurrences following an overtly premalignant lesion (Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia) with squamous morules. Eight endometrial intraepithelial neoplasias with squamous morules were examined by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors and mitotic activity (Ki-67 antigen percent stained). Glandular components had abundant estrogen and progesterone receptors, and high levels of mitotic activity in all cases. In sharp contrast, all squamous morules were devoid of sex hormone receptors and had undetectable or extremely low proliferation rates. When mutated, the same specific PTEN mutation was detected in squamous and glandular elements, indicating that both are of common lineage. The clinical and laboratory data are consistent with a model of morule biology in which squamous morules are a hormonally incompetent subpopulation of endometrial glandular lesions. Isolated morules might result from artifactual displacement from their native glandular context, or selective hormonally induced regression of the glandular but not squamous components over time. Subsequent cancer risk, as promoted by estrogens, is greatest when the glandular component has the appearance of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia. Even

  2. Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the palm: an extremely infrequent tumour

    PubMed Central

    González-Sosa, David; Brea-García, Beatriz; Couto-González, Ivan; Taboada-Suárez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the palm is a very infrequent malignancy. Its unusual presentation can produce a delay in the final diagnosis with serious consequences as far as morbidity and mortality are concerned. This article summarises the case of a patient who was referred to our department presenting a squamous cell carcinoma on his left palm and a clinically positive axillar lymphadenopathy. He had previously been wrongly diagnosed on several occasions. PMID:25315805

  3. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  4. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lisiane; Rodrigues, Luciana; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Chirano; Santos, Mônica; Talhari, Sinésio; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation. PMID:23739701

  5. Time delay spectrum conditioner

    DOEpatents

    Greiner, Norman R.

    1980-01-01

    A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.

  6. Subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jesus; Scherle, Claudio; Machado, Calixto

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhage is rare, and most reported cases are from Asian countries. An 80-year-old white Cuban man, with a history of arterial hypertension, suffered sudden onset of right hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a left posteromedial thalamic haemorrhage. Two days later his condition suddenly deteriorated: blood pressure was 220/105 mm Hg, he was stuporous and tetraplegic, respiration was ataxic, and his gaze was fixed and deviated downward and inward. CT scan showed haemorrhages in both thalami, extending to the ventricles. 32 h later the patient died. There are few previous publications of simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhages and this is the first report involving a Hispanic patient. Prognosis in patients with bilateral thalamic haemorrhage is poor, and the mechanism underlying the development of subsequent and symmetrical bleeding is not clear. PMID:21709830

  7. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  8. [Delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, F; Zamboni, G; Tatò, L

    1996-01-01

    Delayed puberty can be defined as the absence of any signs of puberty in subjects that have attained an age at the upper limit (+2DS) for the onset of puberty, that means 13 years in girls and 14 years in boys. The causes of delayed puberty can be classified into three groups, functional temporary impairment in gonadotropin and sex steroid secretion (most frequently constitutional delay of puberty), hypothalamo-pituitary failure with deficiency in gonadotropin secretion, primary gonadal failure with increased gonadotropin levels. The Authors discuss about etiology, diagnostic testing and therapeutic approach in these conditions. The majority of children with delayed puberty are males that have only a constitutional delay of growth and puberty. It is difficult, in teenage years, to distinguish this common and benign condition from true gonadotropin deficiency, in spite of the variety of endocrine tests developed for this purpose. Individuals with constitutional delayed puberty with a bone age greater than 11.5 years, show after triptorelin stimulation an increase in LH capable of distinguishing them from patients with gonadotropin deficiency. In our opinion this could be an important screening test to exclude gonadotropin deficiency in boys with delayed puberty.

  9. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis. PMID:27076454

  10. Impact of Squamous Differentiation in Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Shet, Tanuja; Desai, Sangeeta; Patil, Asawari; Nair, Nita; Parmar, Vani; Gupta, Sudeep; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Badwe, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    This study attempted to review the impact of extent of squamous differentiation in 56 infiltrating duct carcinomas (IDC) with squamous differentiation (metaplastic squamous carcinomas [MSC]). Tumors showing 100% squamous elements were labeled as primary squamous carcinomas (PSC; n = 28) and compared with 28 MSC showing lesser squamous components. A clinicopathological comparison revealed that lymphovascular emboli were never seen in any PSC but were noted in 7/28 of other MSC, while perineural invasion was seen only in PSC and not in MSC. Nodal metastasis was significantly more in other MSC as opposed to PSC. Most MSC presented with 2- to 5-cm sized tumors while PSC were 5 to 10 cm in size. PSC showed cystic change while MSC did not. Disease free survival (DFS) for MSC versus PSC was 64% versus 39.8%, while overall survival (OAS) was 72.7% in MSC versus 66.7% in PSC. Tumor stage affected DFS in MSC while none of the factors affected DFS/OAS in PSC. The extent of squamous differentiation affected DFS with best behavior for metaplastic carcinomas showing <40% squamous elements and worse for those with >90% squamous component (P = .024). PSC of breast is an aggressive disease and show distinct clinicopathological features from other MSC, and though the current definition of MSC does not advocate quantifying the squamous element, clearly this affects prognosis.

  11. Molecular discrimination of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma from actinic keratosis and normal skin.

    PubMed

    Ra, Seong Hui; Li, Xinmin; Binder, Scott

    2011-07-01

    Actinic keratosis is widely believed to be a neoplastic lesion and a precursor to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. However, there has been some debate as to whether actinic keratosis is in fact actually squamous cell carcinoma and should be treated as such. As the clinical management and prognosis of patients is widely held to be different for each of these lesions, our goal was to identify unique gene signatures using DNA microarrays to discriminate among normal skin, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma, and examine the molecular pathways of carcinogenesis involved in the progression from normal skin to squamous cell carcinoma. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded blocks of skin: five normal skins (pooled), six actinic keratoses, and six squamous cell carcinomas were retrieved. The RNA was extracted and amplified. The labeled targets were hybridized to the Affymetrix human U133plus2.0 array and the acquisition and initial quantification of array images were performed using the GCOS (Affymetrix). The subsequent data analyses were performed using DNA-Chip Analyzer and Partek Genomic Suite 6.4. Significant differential gene expression (>2 fold change, P<0.05) was seen with 382 differentially expressed genes between squamous cell carcinoma and normal skin, 423 differentially expressed genes between actinic keratosis and normal skin, and 9 differentially expressed genes between actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. The differentially expressed genes offer the possibility of using DNA microarrays as a molecular diagnostic tool to distinguish between normal skin, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, the differentially expressed genes and their molecular pathways could be potentially used as prognostic markers or targets for future therapeutic innovations. PMID:21743436

  12. Roles of galectin-7 and S100A9 in cervical squamous carcinoma: Clinicopathological and in vitro evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Wu, Tian-Cong; Chen, Wei-Qiong; Zhou, Li-Jun; Wu, Yue; Zeng, Liang; Pei, Hai-Ping

    2013-03-01

    In our study, we for the first time assessed the association of galectin-7 and S100A9 with clinicopathological variables and survival outcomes in cervical squamous carcinoma patients and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms in cervical squamous carcinoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of 243 patient samples showed that the positive staining rate for galectin-7 and S100A9 gradually decreased from normal cervical tissue to intraepithelial neoplasia and to cervical squamous carcinoma. Both galectin-7 and S100A9 showed significant negative association with lymph node metastasis and staging of cervical squamous carcinoma. Cervical squamous carcinoma patients with negative staining of galectin-7 or S100A9 showed significantly lower 5-year overall survival rate than those with positive staining. Multivariate analysis with the Cox's proportional hazards model indicated that both galectin-7 and S100A9 had significant protective effect on cervical squamous carcinoma patients. Subsequent in vitro study in SiHa and C-33A human cervical squamous carcinoma cell lines revealed that knocking down galectin-7 or S100A9 enhanced tumor cell invasion and tumor cell viability against paclitaxel-induced apoptotic stress, likely through increasing the matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, respectively. Knocking down both galectin-7 and S100A9 produced a synergistic effect, with galectin-7 displaying more significant and consistent protective effects than S100A9 on cervical squamous carcinoma cells. In summary, our study for the first time provides clinicopathological and in vitro evidence showing that both galectin-7 and S100A9 play important protective roles in cervical squamous carcinoma, which provides fresh insights into the biology of cervical squamous carcinoma.

  13. Place cell activation predicts subsequent memory.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, R Jonathan; White, John A; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-10-01

    A major quandary in memory research is how hippocampal place cells, widely recognized as elements of a spatial map, contribute to episodic memory, our capacity to remember unique experiences that depends on hippocampal function. Here we recorded from hippocampal neurons as rats performed a T-maze alternation task in which they were required to remember a preceding experience over a delay in order to make a subsequent spatial choice. As it has been reported previously in other variations of this task, we observed differential firing that predicted correct subsequent choices, even as the animal traversed identical locations prior to the choice. Here we also observed that most place cells also fired differently on correct as compared to error trials. Among these cells, a large majority fired strongly before the delay or during the retrieval phase but were less active or failed to activate when the animal subsequently made an error. These findings join the place cell phenomenon with episodic memory performance dependent on the hippocampus, revealing that memory accuracy can be predicted by the activation of single place cells in the hippocampus.

  14. Bupropion Hydrochloride or Patient's Choice for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-27

    Current Smoker; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-02

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  16. Delayed coking process

    SciTech Connect

    Dabkowski, M.J.; Malladi, M.

    1987-04-28

    This patent describes a delayed cooking process in which a heavy oil coker feedstock is heated to an elevated coking temperature in a furnace and the heated feedstock is subsequently subjected to delayed coking in a coker drum under superatmospheric pressure and the vaporous coking products are removed from the drum and passed to a coker fractionator from which a bottoms fraction is removed. The improvement comprises coking a feed without the addition of the bottoms fraction from the fractionator and adding to the feed to the coker drum a lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent having an end boiling point of not more than 450/sup 0/C, the lower boiling hydrocarbon diluent being added to the heated feedstock after the feedstock has passed through the furnace.

  17. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis. PMID:22930665

  18. Enrichment of a squamous carcinoma vaccine.

    PubMed

    O-Sullivan, InSug; Chopra, Amla; Cohen, Edward P

    2007-03-01

    We describe a new vaccination strategy for squamous cell carcinoma. In a mouse model, the vaccine is prepared by transfer of unfractionated DNA-fragments (25 kb) from KLN205 cells, a squamous carcinoma cell line (DBA/2 mouse origin [H-2(d)]) into LM cells, a highly immunogenic mouse fibroblast cell line that expresses allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-determinants (H-2(k)). The number of vaccine cells can then be expanded for multiple immunizations, as desired. As only a small proportion of the transfected cell population was expected to have incorporated DNA segments that included genes specifying antigens associated with the squamous carcinoma cells, we devised a novel strategy to enrich the vaccine for cells that induced immunity to the squamous carcinoma cells. Twenty-five percent of tumor-bearing mice treated by immunization with the vaccine appeared to have rejected the squamous carcinoma cells; they survived indefinitely (more than 70 days). The therapeutic benefits of the enriched vaccine could be further enhanced by treating the tumor-bearing mice with paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, followed by immunization with the enriched vaccine. Under these circumstances, 75% of mice with squamous carcinoma appeared to have rejected the squamous carcinoma cells. Toxic effects including the development of autoimmune disease were not detected in tumor-bearing mice receiving the combined therapy.

  19. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  20. Delaying obsolescence.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-04-01

    This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council. PMID:24792878

  1. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  2. Hamlet's delay.

    PubMed

    Dendy, E B

    2001-01-01

    This paper raises a question about Freud's understanding of Hamlet and offers a fresh psychoanalytic perspective on the play, emphasizing the psychological use made of Hamlet by the audience. It suggests Hamlet and Claudius both serve as sacrificial objects, scapegoats, for the audience, embodying, through a mechanism of both identification and disidentification, the fulfillment, punishment, and renunciation of the audience's forbidden (i.e. Oedipal) wishes. The play is thus seen to represent unconsciously a rite of sacrifice in which both Claudius and Hamlet, both the father and the son, are led, albeit circuitously, to the slaughter. The need for delay on the part of Hamlet is thus seen to arise not merely from Hamlet's psychology, whatever the audience may project onto it, but ultimately from the function (both sadistic and defensive) that the sacrificial spectacle, the play as a whole, serves for the audience. The paper also speculates somewhat on the role of tragic heroes and heroines in general, and points to the unconscious collusion that permits author and audience to make use of them. Finally, in an addendum, the paper discusses the work of René Girard, a nonpsychoanalytic thinker whose ideas nonetheless are somewhat similar to those presented here. PMID:12102022

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma developed on chronic venous leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Sîrbi, Adelina Gabriela; Florea, Marius; Pătraşcu, Virgil; Rotaru, Maria; Mogoş, Dan Gabriel; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Mărgăritescu, Nicolae Dragoş

    2015-01-01

    Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU), especially long-lasting non-healing ulcers, are among the risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Malignant transformation of a VLU is a rare finding and the relative risk of carcinomatous transformation is quite low (about 5.8). SCC arising in the context of a VLU has a particularly aggressive behavior. A 76-year-old male patient with no relevant medical familial history, with chronic venous insufficiency CEAP C6 for 10 years [recurrent leg ulcers with favorable outcome (healing) after specific local and systemic treatment], showing for about three years one ulcerated lesion located on the anterior upper third of the right calf non-responsive to specific treatment, which subsequently increased their size and merged. Biopsy sample was taken. Histopathology showed epidermal acanthosis, papillomatosis, intense parakeratosis, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, dysplasia and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with areas of acantholysis. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67, EMA, cytokeratin 34βE12 and p63) was performed and all types of immunostaining were moderately to intense positive. Above-knee leg amputation and specific oncologic treatment were proposed as possible curative solutions but the patient refused. Ten months after diagnosis and discharge form the Department of Dermatology, the patient died. Patients with chronic venous leg ulcers and clinically suspicious lesions should be evaluated for malignant transformation of the venous lesion. When diagnosed, malignancy complicating a chronic venous leg ulcer requires a resolute treatment as it may be fatal.

  4. Subsequent Memory Effects in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Azurii K.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Valdez, Jeffrey N.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2014-01-01

    Differential neural activation at encoding can predict which stimuli will be subsequently remembered or forgotten, and memory deficits are pronounced in schizophrenia. We used event-related fMRI to investigate subsequent memory effects for visual fractals in patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and healthy controls (n=28). Participants incidentally encoded the fractals during an oddball task and 10 minutes later they made old/new recognition memory judgments on 30 target fractals and 30 foil fractals. We found evidence for subsequent memory (SM, subsequently remembered > subsequently forgotten) effects on regional brain activation in both groups but with distinct patterns. Region of interest analyses in controls demonstrated SM activation in both medial temporal lobe (MTL) and fusiform cortex (FF), whereas patients showed SM effects only in the FF. There were no significant between group differences in MTL activation; however, patients demonstrated greater FF activation than controls. Notably, greater FF activation during successful encoding was associated with more severe negative symptoms. Exploratory whole brain analyses in patients demonstrated SM activation in the occipital pole, lateral occipital cortex, left inferior temporal gyrus, and fusiform cortex; whereas in controls there was no significant activation that survived correction for multiple comparisons. Our findings suggest that patients, particularly those with prominent negative symptoms, may activate FF as a compensatory strategy to promote successful encoding, with relatively less reliance on MTL recruitment. PMID:25453165

  5. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-05

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Language Experience Changes Subsequent Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual…

  7. A Case of Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Do, Mi Ok; Kim, Seong Hyun; Hahm, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a well-defined variant of squamous cell cancer in which significant portions of the neoplastic proliferation show a pseudoglandular or tubular microscopic pattern. It usually presents as a nodule with various colors, and it is accompanied by scaling, crusting, and ulceration on the sun-exposed areas of older aged individuals. Histologically, the tumor consists of a nodular, epidermal-derived proliferation that forms island-like structures. At least focally or sometimes extensively, the tumor cells shows a loss of cohesion within the central gland-like or tubular spaces. This tumor resembles the structure of eccrine neoplasms, but it is negative for dPAS, CEA and mucicarmine and it is only positive for EMA and cytokeratins. Herein we report a case of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma that occurred on the face of an 82-year-old woman. PMID:27303210

  8. Early identification of motor delay

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (HINT), an infant neuromotor test using Canadian norms published in 2010 that could be used to screen for motor delay during the first year of life. Quality of evidence Extensive research has been published on the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability and the content, concurrent, predictive, and known-groups validity of the HINT, as well as on the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parental concerns, as assessed by the HINT. Most evidence is level II. Main message Diagnosing motor delays during the first year of life is important because these often indicate more generalized developmental delays or specific disabilities, such as cerebral palsy. Parental concerns about their children’s motor development are strongly predictive of subsequent diagnoses involving motor delay. Conclusion Only through early identification of developmental motor delays, initially with screening tools such as the HINT, is it possible to provide referrals for early intervention that could benefit both the infant and the family. PMID:27521388

  9. Correlation between koilocytes and human papillomavirus detection by PCR in oral and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma biopsies.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Glauco Issamu; Simonato, Luciana Estevam; Mattar, Neivio José; Camilo Jr, Deolino João; Biasoli, Eder Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the histopathological analysis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to predict the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oral squamous cell carcinoma biopsies. Eighty-three paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from patients with oropharynx and mouth floor squamous cell carcinoma were submitted to histopathological analysis under light microscopy, specifically for the determination of the presence of koilocytes. Subsequently, DNA was purified from the same paraffin-embedded specimens and submitted to PCR. Fisher's exact test showed no statistically significant correlation between the two methods. The results suggest that the presence of koilocytes is unreliable for the detection of HPV presence in oral and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin after chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bridges, N; Steinberg, J J

    1986-09-01

    We report two cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin subsequent to chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Both cases had an unusually aggressive course for a nonmelanoma skin malignancy with extensive metastases in both, resulting in death in one patient. A literature review supports the likelihood of an increased incidence of SCC in patients with CLL. Though the mechanism is unknown, immunosuppression may play a central role. We urge patients with CLL to avoid exposure to direct sun. Any questionable skin lesion should be biopsied early, and completely excised if it is a tumor. The patient should also be examined thoroughly for metastatic disease via subsequent follow-up visits.

  11. Capecitabine and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-14

    Head and Neck Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  12. Human papillomavirus in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Loke, S L; Ma, L; Wong, M; Srivastava, G; Lo, I; Bird, C C

    1990-01-01

    Thirty seven cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma were studied by applying DNA slot blot analysis and in situ hybridisation using type specific probes for HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. Cases of condyloma accuminata, cervical carcinoma, and laryngeal papilloma were used as controls. Blocks including areas of invasive carcinoma, intraepithelial neoplasia, and normal epithelium were studied in each case. No HPV genome was detectable in any of the oesophageal cases. It is concluded that these types of HPV do not have an association with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Images PMID:2175754

  13. RNA interference targeting CD147 inhibits the invasion of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells by downregulating MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobin; Wu, Weiguang; Shi, Haixia; Han, Jianqiu

    2013-07-01

    Cervical squamous carcinoma is a highly invasive tumour that has a great capacity to metastasise. Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN or CD147), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is a widely distributed cell surface glycoprotein. It is highly expressed on malignant tumour cell surfaces, including human cervical squamous carcinoma. It also plays a critical role in the invasive and metastatic activity of malignant cells by stimulating the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The anti-invasive effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against CD147 on human cervical squamous carcinoma cells and its possible pathways has been investigated. The downregulation of CD147 by transfection with siRNA resulted in MMP-9 expression and decreased activity in the cervical squamous carcinoma cell line SiHa. In vitro analysis showed that the invasive capacity of SiHa cells decreased. Thus CD147 inhibition and subsequent MMP-9 deletion may have anti-tumour effects by inhibiting the invasiveness of human cervical squamous carcinoma cells.

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis, A Rare Site for a Commonly Known Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nachiappan, Murugappan; Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan; Paravatraj, Varun Gautam; Sharma, Navil; Narasimhan, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Chronic nephrolithiasis predisposes to squamous metaplasia and subsequently SCC which is a rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. A 60-year-old woman with a long standing history of renal calculi presented with flank pain and fever. Investigations revealed a mass in the superior pole of a non functioning left kidney while the right kidney was sub optimally functioning, hydronephrotic and there was presence of bilateral staghorn calculi. Patient underwent decompression of right kidney by double j stenting and left radical nephrectomy that revealed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of renal pelvis. Most SCC of the renal pelvis present with advanced disease and dismal prognosis while our patient presented with localized disease without lymphatic and distant metastasis. Thus radical nephrectomy can be curative if the disease can be diagnosed at an earlier stage. This emphasizes the need of early treatment of nephrolithiasis to prevent the development of SCC and screening of patients with long standing staghorn calculi.

  15. Gingival Squamous Cell Carcinoma: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães; de Carvalho, Luis Felipe das Chagas e Silva; Salgado, José Antônio Pereira; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by variable clinical manifestations. When located in the gingiva, this neoplasm may mimic common inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study was to report a case of atypical squamous cell carcinoma, in which the patient had no risk factors for the development of this neoplasm. Methods A 61 year old Caucasian female was seen with a 3 month history of a rapidly growing, painful nodule in the gingiva adjacent to tooth #11. Clinical examination revealed a proliferative lesion in the vestibular marginal gingiva of teeth #11 and #12, presenting with purulent exudation. Thus, in view of the clinical symptoms and differential diagnosis of an infectious granulomatous process and malignant neoplasm, an incisional biopsy was obtained from the lesion. Results The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made and fourteen days after incisional biopsy, healing was found to be unsatisfactory. The patient was referred for treatment consisting of surgical excision of the tumour. A removable partial denture was fabricated for rehabilitation, one month after surgery of the maxilla; the patient was submitted to dissection of the regional lymph nodes and radiotherapy for an additional 3 months. Three years after the end of treatment, the patient continues to be followed-up and does not show any sign of recurrence. Conclusions Gingival squamous cell carcinoma is a condition which chance of cure is higher when carcinomatous lesions are diagnosed and treated early. In this instance dentists play an important role in early detection of gingival squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:24421976

  16. Does feigning amnesia impair subsequent recall?

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue; Punjabi, Paawan V; Greenberg, Lucy T; Seamon, John G

    2009-01-01

    Defendants who are accused of serious crimes sometimes feign amnesia to evade criminal responsibility. Previous research has suggested that feigning amnesia might impair subsequent recall. In two experiments, participants read and heard a story about a central character, described as "you," who was responsible for the death of either a puppy (Experiment 1) or a friend (Experiment 2). On free and cued recall tests immediately after the story, participants who had feigned amnesia recalled less than did participants who had recalled accurately. One week later, when all participants recalled accurately, participants who had previously feigned amnesia still performed worse than did participants who had recalled accurately both times. However, the participants who had formerly feigned amnesia did not perform worse than did a control group who had received only the delayed recall tests. Our results suggest that a "feigned amnesia effect" may reflect nothing more than differential practice at recall. Feigning amnesia for a crime need not impair memory for that crime when a person later seeks to remember accurately. PMID:19103978

  17. First Reported Case of Primary Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma with Pure Squamous Cell Histology: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Singh, Navdeep; Seligman, Barbara; Tuli, Sandeep S.; Heimann, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with pure squamous cell Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: In the United States, approximately 2500 cases of cholangiocarcinoma occur each year. The average incidence is 1 case/100 000 persons each year. Surgical resection is the mainstay for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. The result of surgery depends on location of the tumor, extent of tumor penetration of the bile duct, tumor-free resection margins, and lymph node and distant metastases. There has been an increase in the incidence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC) globally over a period of 30 years from 0.32/100 000 to 0.85/100 000 persons each year. Epidemiologically, the incidence of IHCC has been increasing in the U.S. from year 1973 to 2010. Case Report: We are reporting a first case of primary intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma of pure squamous cell histology. A 64-year-old man presented with right upper-quadrant pain, jaundice, and weight loss. Imaging studies revealed a large hepatobiliary mass, intrahepatic bile duct dilation, normal common duct, and absence of choledocholithiasis. Delayed-contrast magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen showed peripheral enhancement of the central lesion, which is typical of cholangiocarcinoma in contrast to hepatocellular carcinoma or metastasis. Cancer antigen 19-9 was markedly elevated. Liver function tests were deranged. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed high degree of left hepatic duct stricture. Brush cytopathology was positive for atypia. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy for en-bloc resection of the hepatobiliary mass with colon resection, liver resection, and cholecystectomy. Histology revealed keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Based on these findings, a definitive diagnosis of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile duct was made. Conclusions

  18. Adjuvant immunotherapy with BCG in squamous cell bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, H M; The, T H; Orie, N G

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-four patients with evidence of locally advanced primary squamous cell bronchial carcinoma (SCC), and three patients with adenocarcinoma (AC) had lung resection to remove all the visible tumour. After operation an randomly chosen group of 20 SCC patients received adjuvant BCG immunostimulation by scarifications (BCG-A). An additional group of 14 SCC patients, and three AC patients received initially intrapleural BCG treatment and subsequently scarifications (BCG-B). A control group of 20 SCC patients received no adjuvant treatment. Follow-up studies were done from three to 51 months. Immune reactivity was monitored in vivo with PPD skin tests in 33 treated and in 18 untreated patients. In both the BCG-treated SCC groups recurrence rates decreased statistically significant during follow-up (BCG-A; six to 51 months, p less than 0.001; BCG: 6-9 months, p less than 0.01 and nine to 24 months, p less than 0.001). However, no difference could be demonstrated between systemic and combined systemic and intrapleural treatment. The three BCG-treated AC patients all relapsed within nine months of follow-up. A pronounced increase in skin reactivity to PPD was seen six months after surgery in the BCG-treated patients (BCG-A, p less than 0.001; BCG-B, p less than 0.01), whereas the control patients remained anergic after surgery. This improved immune reactivity went in parallel with a more favourable outcome of the individual patients (BCG-A, p less than 0.02; BCG-B, p less than 0.05). It is concluded that adjuvant BCG immunotherapy used in strongly selected patients with minimal residual squamous cell bronchial carcinoma improves the prognosis. Intrapleural treatment did not improve the prognosis further. A favourable clinical outcome was mirrored by an increase in cellular immune reactivity. PMID:7466726

  19. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed M; El-Rasas, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor's organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  20. Immunohistochemical and oncogenetic analyses of the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in comparison with conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Imamhasan, Abdukadir; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Takuo; Takahashi, Michiko; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Yao, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma. We reviewed 878 cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and detected 22 cases (3%) of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. These tumors and stage-matched paired conventional squamous cell carcinomas were investigated for clinicopathologic features and immunoreactivity of cytokeratin subtypes, p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (bcl-2), β-catenin, and epidermal growth factor receptor. Molecular aberrations in p53, CTNNB1 (the gene encoding β-catenin), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were also determined. Patients with basaloid squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated a 5-year survival rate of 42%, significantly worse than those with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (P<.01). Histologically, solid nests with central necrosis and a cribriform pattern were identified in almost all (≥95%) cases, and ductal differentiation was less frequent (45%) but associated with significantly better survival (P<.05). Compared with conventional squamous cell carcinomas, the basaloid squamous cell carcinomas were less immunoreactive for cytokeratin 14, cytokeratin 903, and membranous β-catenin (P<.01-.001) but more reactive for bcl-2, nuclear β-catenin, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 (P<.05-.001). Direct sequencing showed mutations of p53 (36%), EGFR (14%), but not CTNNB1; fluorescent in situ hybridization detected amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (22%). In basaloid squamous cell carcinomas, low-level expression of cytokeratin 14/cytokeratin 903 and mutations of p53 and EGFR had a significant influence on worse survival (P<.05-.001). We conclude that the esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, a neoplasm with particularly aggressive biologic behavior, should be differentiated from conventional squamous cell carcinomas. In this context, immunohistochemical assessment of several markers might provide a useful adjunct diagnostic tool

  1. Speech and Language Delay

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Speech and Language Delay Overview How do I know if my child has speech delay? Every child develops at his or her ... of the same age, the problem may be speech delay. Your doctor may think your child has ...

  2. Delay Discounting and Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Gregory J.; Francisco, Monica T.; Brewer, Adam T.; Stein, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Delay discounting describes the decline in the value of a reinforcer as the delay to that reinforcer increases. A review of the available studies revealed that steep delay discounting is positively correlated with problem or pathological gambling. One hypothesis regarding this correlation derives from the discounting equation proposed by Mazur (1989). According to the equation, steeper discounting renders the difference between fixed-delayed rewards and gambling-like variable-delayed rewards larger; with the latter being more valuable. The present study was designed to test this prediction by first assessing rats’ impulsive choices across four delays to a larger-later reinforcer. A second condition quantified strength of preference for mixed- over fixed-delays, with the duration of the latter adjusted between sessions to achieve indifference. Strength of preference for the mixed-delay alternative is given by the fixed delay at indifference (lower fixed-delay values reflect stronger preferences). Percent impulsive choice was not correlated with the value of the fixed delay at indifference and, therefore, the prediction of the hyperbolic model of gambling was not supported. A follow-up assessment revealed a significant decrease in impulsive choice after the second condition. This shift in impulsive choice could underlie the failure to observe the predicted correlation between impulsive choice and degree of preference for mixed- over fixed delays. PMID:21352902

  3. Language experience changes subsequent learning

    PubMed Central

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning. PMID:23200510

  4. Language experience changes subsequent learning.

    PubMed

    Onnis, Luca; Thiessen, Erik

    2013-02-01

    What are the effects of experience on subsequent learning? We explored the effects of language-specific word order knowledge on the acquisition of sequential conditional information. Korean and English adults were engaged in a sequence learning task involving three different sets of stimuli: auditory linguistic (nonsense syllables), visual non-linguistic (nonsense shapes), and auditory non-linguistic (pure tones). The forward and backward probabilities between adjacent elements generated two equally probable and orthogonal perceptual parses of the elements, such that any significant preference at test must be due to either general cognitive biases, or prior language-induced biases. We found that language modulated parsing preferences with the linguistic stimuli only. Intriguingly, these preferences are congruent with the dominant word order patterns of each language, as corroborated by corpus analyses, and are driven by probabilistic preferences. Furthermore, although the Korean individuals had received extensive formal explicit training in English and lived in an English-speaking environment, they exhibited statistical learning biases congruent with their native language. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of statistical sequential learning are implicated in language across the lifespan, and experience with language may affect cognitive processes and later learning.

  5. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  6. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, Ravinder S; Kufuor-Mensah, Eric

    2007-02-01

    A 7-year-old, spayed female Persian cat was referred for evaluation of progressive paraplegia. The cat was thin, cachectic and paraplegic on presentation. The survey radiographs showed a left caudal pulmonary lesion and lytic skeletal lesions at the right iliac crest and left distal scapula. Due to a poor prognosis for complete recovery, the owner opted for euthanasia. Post-mortem examination revealed bilaterally small and irregular kidneys, lysis of the left iliac crest and left distal scapula and a dilated left ventricular lumen with a thin interventricular septum. Histologically, all the lesions were determined to be squamous cell carcinoma. It appears that the origin or the primary site of the malignancy in this case is pulmonary as cardiac and skeletal tissues are primarily mesenchymal in origin and are less likely to develop a primary epithelial malignancy. To the best of our knowledge, there is no description of cardiac or skeletal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in a cat. PMID:16859943

  7. Clinicopathologic Features of Advanced Squamous NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Socinski, Mark A; Obasaju, Coleman; Gandara, David; Hirsch, Fred R; Bonomi, Philip; Bunn, Paul; Kim, Edward S; Langer, Corey J; Natale, Ronald B; Novello, Silvia; Paz-Ares, Luis; Pérol, Maurice; Reck, Martin; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Reynolds, Craig H; Spigel, David R; Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Wakelee, Heather; Mayo, Carlos; Thatcher, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. NSCLC accounts for more than 85% of all lung cancers, and the prognosis for advanced-stage disease is typically poor. In recent years, the importance of histologic subtypes of NSCLC has been recognized, and the distinction between squamous and other NSCLC histologic subtypes is now critical to patient management. Squamous cell lung cancer (sqCLC) represents approximately 25% to 30% of NSCLC. The prognosis for patients with advanced NSCLC is poorer for those with sqCLC than for those with adenocarcinoma. This is partly due to a number of clinical characteristics that distinguish sqCLC from other NSCLC histologic subtypes, such as smoking history, comorbid diseases, age, and molecular profile. Together, these factors make sqCLC an especially challenging disease to manage. Herein, we review some of the key clinicopathologic features of sqCLC. Understanding these features to optimally address many of the unique therapeutic challenges of this disease is likely to be central to ultimately improving outcomes for patients with squamous NSCLC.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara.

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  10. Tattoo-pigmented cervical lymph node that masqueraded as the sentinel lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Amith; Wieshmann, Hulya; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Shaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of a pigmented cervical lymph node mimicking the sentinel node during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) on a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The patient had extensive tattoos on his neck. This pigmented lymph node was not identified to be the sentinel lymph node using static and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Subsequent histological analysis revealed tattoo pigment within this lymph node. It is important during cervical SLNB to be aware that cutaneous tattoos can pigment lymph nodes. PMID:26188933

  11. Trichinella spiralis: Mere Co-Existence or Carcinogenic Parasite For Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Bist, Sampan Singh; Ahmad, Sohaib; Harsh, Meena

    2015-01-01

    Trichinella spiralis is a parasite which is usually seen in pork-eaters. Most of the trichinosis infections cause little or no symptoms. We report a rare case of a middle aged North Indian male who presented with a painless ulcer in right buccal mucosa which was biopsied and reported as squamous cell carcinoma. Wide local excision was done subsequently which showed encysted larvae of Trichinella spiralis in the deeper skeletal muscle bundles. This article supports the carcinogenic potential of trichinosis and suggests timely work-up and treatment of the parasite. PMID:26557527

  12. CGI delay compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.

  13. VARIABLE TIME DELAY MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Clemensen, R.E.

    1959-11-01

    An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.

  14. Delay Banking for Managing Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Delay banking has been invented to enhance air-traffic management in a way that would increase the degree of fairness in assigning arrival, departure, and en-route delays and trajectory deviations to aircraft impacted by congestion in the national airspace system. In delay banking, an aircraft operator (airline, military, general aviation, etc.) would be assigned a numerical credit when any of their flights are delayed because of an air-traffic flow restriction. The operator could subsequently bid against other operators competing for access to congested airspace to utilize part or all of its accumulated credit. Operators utilize credits to obtain higher priority for the same flight, or other flights operating at the same time, or later, in the same airspace, or elsewhere. Operators could also trade delay credits, according to market rules that would be determined by stakeholders in the national airspace system. Delay banking would be administered by an independent third party who would use delay banking automation to continually monitor flights, allocate delay credits, maintain accounts of delay credits for participating airlines, mediate bidding and the consumption of credits of winning bidders, analyze potential transfers of credits within and between operators, implement accepted transfers, and ensure fair treatment of all participating operators. A flow restriction can manifest itself in the form of a delay in assigned takeoff time, a reduction in assigned airspeed, a change in the position for the aircraft in a queue of all aircraft in a common stream of traffic (e.g., similar route), a change in the planned altitude profile for an aircraft, or change in the planned route for the aircraft. Flow restrictions are typically imposed to mitigate traffic congestion at an airport or in a region of airspace, particularly congestion due to inclement weather, or the unavailability of a runway or region of airspace. A delay credit would be allocated to an operator of a

  15. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... often enough to cure basal and squamous cell skin cancers without further treatment. There are different types of skin biopsies. The ... and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Skin Cancer - ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Skin Cancer - Basal and Squamous ...

  16. "Intercellular bridges" in a case of well differentiated squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michaela; Mikita, Geoffrey; Hoda, Rana S

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular bridges may aide in definitive identification of malignant cell origin, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. They are difficult to identify in routine cytologic specimens and are especially rare in smear preparations. Herein, we present images of intercellular bridges from a case of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a cytologic specimen obtained from FNA of a paraesophageal lymph node.

  17. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts. PMID:23217175

  18. Squamous Cell Lung Cancer: From Tumor Genomics to Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Gandara, David R.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Sos, Martin L.; Lara, Primo N.; Hirsch, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) represents an area of unmet need in lung cancer research. For the last several years, therapeutic progress in SCC has lagged behind the now more common NSCLC histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. However, recent efforts to define the complex biology underlying SCC have begun to bear fruit in a multitude of ways, including characterization of previously unknown genomic and signaling pathways, delineation of new potentially actionable molecular targets, and subsequent development of a large number of agents directed against unique SCC-associated molecular abnormalities. For the first time, SCC-specific prognostic gene signatures and predictive biomarkers of new therapeutic agents are emerging. In addition, recent and ongoing clinical trials, including the Lung-MAP master protocol, have been designed to facilitate approval of targeted therapy-biomarker combinations. In this comprehensive review we describe the current status of SCC therapeutics, recent advances in the understanding of SCC biology and prognostic gene signatures, and the development of innovative new clinical trials, all of which offer new hope for patients with advanced SCC. PMID:25979930

  19. Squamous cell lung cancer: from tumor genomics to cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gandara, David R; Hammerman, Peter S; Sos, Martin L; Lara, Primo N; Hirsch, Fred R

    2015-05-15

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) represents an area of unmet need in lung cancer research. For the past several years, therapeutic progress in SCC has lagged behind the now more common non-small cell lung cancer histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma. However, recent efforts to define the complex biology underlying SCC have begun to bear fruit in a multitude of ways, including characterization of previously unknown genomic and signaling pathways, delineation of new, potentially actionable molecular targets, and subsequent development of a large number of agents directed against unique SCC-associated molecular abnormalities. For the first time, SCC-specific prognostic gene signatures and predictive biomarkers of new therapeutic agents are emerging. In addition, recent and ongoing clinical trials, including the Lung-MAP master protocol, have been designed to facilitate approval of targeted therapy-biomarker combinations. In this comprehensive review, we describe the current status of SCC therapeutics, recent advances in the understanding of SCC biology and prognostic gene signatures, and the development of innovative new clinical trials, all of which offer new hope for patients with advanced SCC.

  20. 76 FR 17407 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... and the Argentine Republic Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: This notice is being issued under...

  1. 76 FR 30326 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY... Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take... Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of...

  2. Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer and Risk for Subsequent Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiping; Ruczinski, Ingo; Jorgensen, Timothy J.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Yao, Yin; Alani, Rhoda; Liégeois, Nanette J.; Hoffman, Sandra C.; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Strickland, Paul T.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Individuals with a personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) may have an increased risk of subsequent noncutaneous malignancies. To test this hypothesis, we carried out a community-based, prospective cohort study. Methods In the CLUE (Give Us a Clue to Cancer and Heart Disease) II cohort, which was established in Washington County, MD, in 1989, the risk of new malignancies was compared among individuals with (n = 769) and without (n = 18 405) a personal history of NMSC (total n = 19 174) during a 16-year follow-up period. Pathologically confirmed NMSC (and other malignancies) were ascertained from the Washington County Cancer Registry. Cox regression analysis with time-dependent covariates was used to determine the hazard ratios (presented as multivariable-adjusted relative risks [RRs]) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of second primary malignancies associated with a previously confirmed NMSC diagnosis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The crude incidence rate (per 10 000 person-years) of subsequent cancers other than NMSC among participants with a positive personal history of NMSC was 293.5 and with a negative history was 77.8. Compared with persons with no personal history of NMSC, those with such a history had a statistically significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with a subsequent cancer other than NMSC (RR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.70 to 2.33) after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, and educational level. The association was observed for both basal cell carcinoma (multivariable-adjusted RR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.70 to 2.42) and squamous cell carcinoma (multivariable-adjusted RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.50 to 2.59) of the skin. NMSC was a statistically significantly stronger cancer risk factor in younger age groups than in older age groups (P for interaction = .022). Conclusions This community-based, prospective cohort study provides evidence for an association between an NMSC diagnosis and an increased

  3. Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-04

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

  4. Cutaneous tuberculosis and squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ljubenovic, Milanka S; Ljubenovic, Dragisa B; Binic, Ivana I; Jankovic, Aleksandar S; Jancic, Snezana A

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of all forms of cutaneous tuberculosis, including lupus vulgaris (the most common form) decreased progressively in developed countries during the twentieth century, this change being attributed to improved living standards and specific therapy. Despite the decrease in cutaneous tuberculosis, some cases are still found and correct diagnosis and management are fundamental, both for the patients and for public health. Long lasting, misdiagnosed or untreated cutaneous tuberculosis may lead to different forms of cancer. This case report involves a 74-year old male farmer with lupus vulgaris on his face. During anti-tuberculosis treatment he developed a tumor on his forehead, which was histologically confirmed as a squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. 37 CFR 7.21 - Subsequent designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Office will grant a date of receipt to a subsequent designation that is either filed through TEAS, or... through TEAS, the subsequent designation fees (see § 7.7); and (9) If the subsequent designation is filed through TEAS, an e-mail address for receipt of correspondence from the Office. (c) If the...

  6. 37 CFR 7.21 - Subsequent designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Office will grant a date of receipt to a subsequent designation that is either filed through TEAS, or... through TEAS, the subsequent designation fees (see § 7.7); and (9) If the subsequent designation is filed through TEAS, an e-mail address for receipt of correspondence from the Office. (c) If the...

  7. 37 CFR 7.21 - Subsequent designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Office will grant a date of receipt to a subsequent designation that is either filed through TEAS, or... through TEAS, the subsequent designation fees (see § 7.7); and (9) If the subsequent designation is filed through TEAS, an e-mail address for receipt of correspondence from the Office. (c) If the...

  8. 37 CFR 7.21 - Subsequent designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Office will grant a date of receipt to a subsequent designation that is either filed through TEAS, or... through TEAS, the subsequent designation fees (see § 7.7); and (9) If the subsequent designation is filed through TEAS, an e-mail address for receipt of correspondence from the Office. (c) If the...

  9. 37 CFR 7.21 - Subsequent designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Office will grant a date of receipt to a subsequent designation that is either filed through TEAS, or... through TEAS, the subsequent designation fees (see § 7.7); and (9) If the subsequent designation is filed through TEAS, an e-mail address for receipt of correspondence from the Office. (c) If the...

  10. 7 CFR 1778.35 - Subsequent grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent grants. 1778.35 Section 1778.35... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.35 Subsequent grants. Subsequent grants will be processed in accordance with the requirements set forth in this part. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1942.321 - Subsequent grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent grants. 1942.321 Section 1942.321...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Rural Business Enterprise Grants and Television Demonstration Grants § 1942.321 Subsequent grants. Subsequent grants will be processed in accordance with this subpart....

  12. 7 CFR 1778.35 - Subsequent grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent grants. 1778.35 Section 1778.35... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.35 Subsequent grants. Subsequent grants will be processed in accordance with the requirements set forth in this part. The...

  13. 7 CFR 1942.321 - Subsequent grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Subsequent grants. 1942.321 Section 1942.321...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ASSOCIATIONS Rural Business Enterprise Grants and Television Demonstration Grants § 1942.321 Subsequent grants. Subsequent grants will be processed in accordance with this subpart....

  14. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  15. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  16. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  17. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  18. 7 CFR 1786.160 - Subsequent closings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent closings. 1786.160 Section 1786.160... Discounted Prepayments on RUS Electric Loans § 1786.160 Subsequent closings. (a) Each subsequent prepayment after the initial closing shall be facilitated with the submission of an additional closing request...

  19. Digital time delay

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.

  20. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-28

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Genetic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zhao-Li; Li, Jia-Gen; Hu, Xue-Da; Shi, Xue-Jiao; Sun, Zeng-Miao; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Zi-Ran; Li, Zi-Tong; Liu, Zi-Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Da; Sun, Jian; Zhou, Cheng-Cheng; Yao, Ran; Wang, Su-Ya; Wang, Pan; Sun, Nan; Zhang, Bai-Hua; Dong, Jing-Si; Yu, Yue; Luo, Mei; Feng, Xiao-Li; Shi, Su-Sheng; Zhou, Fang; Tan, Feng-Wei; Qiu, Bin; Li, Ning; Shao, Kang; Zhang, Li-Jian; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Xue, Qi; Gao, Shu-Geng; He, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers. We performed exome sequencing on 113 tumor-normal pairs, yielding a mean of 82 non-silent mutations per tumor, and 8 cell lines. The mutational profile of ESCC closely resembles those of squamous cell carcinomas of other tissues but differs from that of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Genes involved in cell cycle and apoptosis regulation were mutated in 99% of cases by somatic alterations of TP53 (93%), CCND1 (33%), CDKN2A (20%), NFE2L2 (10%) and RB1 (9%). Histone modifier genes were frequently mutated, including KMT2D (also called MLL2; 19%), KMT2C (MLL3; 6%), KDM6A (7%), EP300 (10%) and CREBBP (6%). EP300 mutations were associated with poor survival. The Hippo and Notch pathways were dysregulated by mutations in FAT1, FAT2, FAT3 or FAT4 (27%) or AJUBA (JUB; 7%) and NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3 (22%) or FBXW7 (5%), respectively. These results define the mutational landscape of ESCC and highlight mutations in epigenetic modulators with prognostic and potentially therapeutic implications. PMID:25151357

  3. Phase Ib Study of BKM120 With Cisplatin and XRT in High Risk Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-17

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; HPV Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Early Invasive Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Carcinoma of Larynx; Cancer of Nasopharynx

  4. Delayed Presentation of Endovenous Heat-Induced Thrombosis Treated by Thrombolysis and Subsequent Open Thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jung Hak; Min, Sang Il; Kim, Song-Yi; Han, Ahram; Choi, Chanjoong; Ahn, Sanghyun; Ha, Jongwon; Min, Seung-Kee

    2016-01-01

    Although endovenous heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT) is frequently reported after endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), the incidence and timing of occurrence of EHIT are not fully understood. We present a case of EHIT successfully treated with a combination of surgical and endovascular treatments. A 57-year-old woman, two months post bilateral EVLA, presented with a swollen leg. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed by Doppler ultrasonography and computerized tomographic venography. We treated the patient with catheter-directed thrombolysis with urokinase after insertion of an inferior vena cava filter. After thrombolytic treatment, we performed surgical venous thrombectomy, due to the presence of a large thrombus in the femoral vein. During the operation, we found organized old thrombus at the great saphenous vein which connected to the deep femoral vein. From these findings, we confirmed the presence of EHIT despite a long time having passed after EVLA. The patient was placed on anticoagulation therapy with oral rivaroxaban for three months. PMID:27386456

  5. Functional delay of myelination of auditory delay lines in the nucleus laminaris of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shih-Min; Carr, Catherine E

    2007-12-01

    In the barn owl, maps of interaural time difference (ITD) are created in the nucleus laminaris (NL) by interdigitating axons that act as delay lines. Adult delay line axons are myelinated, and this myelination is timely, coinciding with the attainment of adult head size, and stable ITD cues. The proximal portions of the axons become myelinated in late embryonic life, but the delay line portions of the axon in NL remain unmyelinated until the first postnatal week. Myelination of the delay lines peaks at the third week posthatch, and myelinating oligodendrocyte density approaches adult levels by one month, when the head reaches its adult width. Migration of oligodendrocyte progenitors into NL and the subsequent onset of myelination may be restricted by a glial barrier in late embryonic stages and the first posthatch week, since the loss of tenascin-C immunoreactivity in NL is correlated with oligodendrocyte progenitor migration into NL.

  6. Detection of the EGFR mutation in exhaled breath condensate from a heavy smoker with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Takigawa, Nagio; Ochi, Nobuaki; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Noujima, Daisuke; Chen, Yan Yan; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2011-09-01

    A 61-year-old male smoker (40 pack-years) presented with right chest pain. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a cavitary mass in the right lower lobe. A transbronchial biopsy showed squamous cell carcinoma. We examined epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). The DNA extracted from his EBC showed a deletion mutation in exon 19. Subsequently, the del E746-A750 mutation in exon 19 in a transbronchial tissue specimen was confirmed. Although he underwent whole-brain irradiation against multiple brain metastases, he had paralysis of the left side of the body and his performance status was 3. The patient was treated with gefitinib. He had marked tumor regression and no symptoms. Although only a small percentage of heavy smokers with squamous cell carcinoma harbor EGFR mutations, they probably benefit from EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors. EGFR mutation status in the patients having such clinical features might be examined. PMID:21684624

  7. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat.

  8. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat. PMID:27010306

  9. Delayed emergence after anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G

    2015-06-01

    In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up. PMID:25912729

  10. Swept group delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Direct recording of group delay measurements on a system under temperature and stress tests employs modulated carrier frequency sweep over an S or X band. Reference path and test paths to separate detectors utilize a power divider e.g., a directional coupler or a hybrid T junction. An initially balanced phase comparator is swept in frequency by modulated carrier over the band of interest for different conditions of temperature and/or mechanical stress to obtain characteristic group delay curves.

  11. Delayed voice communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Stanley G.; Reagan, Marcum L.

    2013-10-01

    We present results from simulated deep-space exploration missions that investigated voice communication with significant time delays. The simulations identified many challenges: confusion of sequence, blocked calls, wasted crew time, impaired ability to provide relevant information to the other party, losing track of which messages have reached the other party, weakened rapport between crew and ground, slow response to rapidly changing situations, and reduced situational awareness. These challenges were met in part with additional training; greater attention and foresight; longer, less frequent transmissions; meticulous recordkeeping and timekeeping; and specific alerting and acknowledging calls. Several simulations used both delayed voice and text messaging. Text messaging provided a valuable record of transmissions and allowed messages to be targeted to subsets of the flight and ground crew, but it was a poor choice for high-workload operators such as vehicle drivers and spacewalkers. Even with the foregoing countermeasures, delayed voice communication is difficult. Additional aids such as automatic delay timers and voice-to-text transcription would help. Tests comparing delays of 50 and 300 s unexpectedly revealed that communicating with the shorter delay was just as challenging as with the longer one.

  12. Entolimod in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Receiving Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-10

    Mucositis; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  13. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  14. 12 CFR 707.5 - Subsequent disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent disclosures. 707.5 Section 707.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.5 Subsequent disclosures. (a) Change in terms—(1) Advance notice required. A credit...

  15. 12 CFR 230.5 - Subsequent disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent disclosures. 230.5 Section 230.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.5 Subsequent disclosures. (a) Change in terms—(1) Advance...

  16. 12 CFR 707.5 - Subsequent disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent disclosures. 707.5 Section 707.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS TRUTH IN SAVINGS § 707.5 Subsequent disclosures. (a) Change in terms—(1) Advance notice required. A credit...

  17. 7 CFR 1778.35 - Subsequent grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent grants. 1778.35 Section 1778.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.35 Subsequent...

  18. 7 CFR 1778.35 - Subsequent grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent grants. 1778.35 Section 1778.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.35 Subsequent...

  19. 7 CFR 1778.35 - Subsequent grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Subsequent grants. 1778.35 Section 1778.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.35 Subsequent grants....

  20. Clinical, epidemiological and histopathological prognostic factors in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragomir, L P; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Searpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-10-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  1. General Information about Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  2. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  3. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  4. Treatment Options for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  5. Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary ... Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal ...

  7. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. PMID:25140332

  8. A review of subsequence time series clustering.

    PubMed

    Zolhavarieh, Seyedjamal; Aghabozorgi, Saeed; Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  9. A review of subsequence time series clustering.

    PubMed

    Zolhavarieh, Seyedjamal; Aghabozorgi, Saeed; Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. PMID:25140332

  10. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  11. Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing and Subsequent Mand Acquisition of Children with Various Levels of Verbal Repertoires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Soyoung; Feliciano, Gina M.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of a stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure on the subsequent acquisition of mand operants were investigated. An attempt was made to shape novel sounds that emerged through the pairing procedure into a mand. Six children, aged two to five years, with moderate to severe language and communication delays, participated. Two conditions were used…

  12. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-27

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  13. A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. Intratumoral PV701 in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-23

    Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

  15. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  16. Delayed stochastic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Tadaaki; Ohira, Toru; Lucian, Christian; Milton, John

    2005-03-01

    Time-delayed feedback control becomes problematic in situations in which the time constant of the system is fast compared to the feedback reaction time. In particular, when perturbations are unpredictable, traditional feedback or feed-forward control schemes can be insufficient. Nonethless a human can balance a stick at their fingertip in the presence of fluctuations that occur on time scales shorter than their neural reaction times. Here we study a simple model of a repulsive delayed random walk and demonstrate that the interplay between noise and delay can transiently stabilize an unstable fixed-point. This observation leads to the concept of ``delayed stochastic control,'' i.e. stabilization of tasks, such as stick balancing at the fingertip, by optimally tuning the noise level with respect to the feedback delay time. References:(1)J.L.Cabrera and J.G.Milton, PRL 89 158702 (2002);(2) T. Ohira and J.G.Milton, PRE 52 3277 (1995);(3)T.Hosaka, T.Ohira, C.Lucian, J.L.Cabrera, and J.G.Milton, Prog. Theor. Phys. (to appear).

  17. Fast and Flexible Multivariate Time Series Subsequence Search

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaduri, Kanishka; Oza, Nikunj C.; Zhu, Qiang; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2010-01-01

    Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical monitoring, and financial systems. Domain experts are often interested in searching for interesting multivariate patterns from these MTS databases which often contain several gigabytes of data. Surprisingly, research on MTS search is very limited. Most of the existing work only supports queries with the same length of data, or queries on a fixed set of variables. In this paper, we propose an efficient and flexible subsequence search framework for massive MTS databases, that, for the first time, enables querying on any subset of variables with arbitrary time delays between them. We propose two algorithms to solve this problem (1) a List Based Search (LBS) algorithm which uses sorted lists for indexing, and (2) a R*-tree Based Search (RBS) which uses Minimum Bounding Rectangles (MBR) to organize the subsequences. Both algorithms guarantee that all matching patterns within the specified thresholds will be returned (no false dismissals). The very few false alarms can be removed by a post-processing step. Since our framework is also capable of Univariate Time-Series (UTS) subsequence search, we first demonstrate the efficiency of our algorithms on several UTS datasets previously used in the literature. We follow this up with experiments using two large MTS databases from the aviation domain, each containing several millions of observations. Both these tests show that our algorithms have very high prune rates (>99%) thus needing actual disk access for only less than 1% of the observations. To the best of our knowledge, MTS subsequence search has never been attempted on datasets of the size we have used in this paper.

  18. 76 FR 17407 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... and the Argentine Republic Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent... Energy. Anne M. Harrington, Deputy Administrator, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation. BILLING CODE 6450-01... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. Unusual case of cavitary lung metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Raissouni, Soundouss; Ghizlane, Rais; Mouzount, Houda; Saoussane, Kharmoum; Khadija, Setti; Zouaidia, Fouad; Latib, Rachida; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous excavation of primary lung cancer is common; however cavitation of metastatic lung lesions is rare and usually confused with benign lesions. In Moroccan context tuberculosis is the first suspected diagnosis of lung excavations. We report a rare case of cavitary lung metastasis of a uterine cervix cancer, treated initially as tuberculosis. A 40-year old non-smoking woman with a known history of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix since August 2005; presented on September 2008 with right chest pain without fever, hemoptysis or weight loss. CT scan showed a thin walled cavity. Empirical Antibiotic therapy was conducted 15 days with poor outcome. Then antibacillary treatment was started with no proof of mycobacterial infection. A month later, the patient presented with gynecological bleeding and a pneumothorax. Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy of the cavitary mass was performed. Pathology demonstrated a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Pelvic examination and MRI showed a subsequent local cervix recurrence. Patient underwent 3 courses of systemic chemotherapy. She died on June 2009 due to progressive disease. Even cavitary lung metastases are rare and benign differential diagnosis are more common, clinician should be careful in neoplastic context and investigation should be done to eliminate a recurrence. PMID:23560120

  20. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Kaliki, Swathi; Mishra, Dilip Kumar; Reddy, Vijay Anand; Naik, Milind N

    2015-12-01

    A 40-year-old male presented with an orbital extension of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The orbital mass was seen protruding outward from the left palpebral fissure overhanging the lower eyelid, completely obscuring the globe and lower lid. The patient gave a history of excision biopsy, which was histopathologically diagnosed as ocular surface squamous neoplasia. He also gave a history of tumor recurrence, which gradually progressed to assume the form of the presently visible orbital mass. Computed tomography of the orbits showed the mass extending into the left orbit causing superior displacement of the globe. After a negative locoregional and systemic metastatic screening, neoadjuvant intravenous systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil were initiated in an attempt to reduce the size of the tumor. Three cycles of tri-weekly chemotherapy resulted in a significant reduction of the orbital tumor size with the globe and the lower lid being visible, thus making a lid-sparing orbital exenteration possible. The patient subsequently underwent an orbital exenteration and at 6-month follow-up, the patient was free from local and regional disease. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case where systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been used to reduce the size of invasive SCC with orbital extension, thereby permitting a lid-sparing orbital exenteration. PMID:26862101

  1. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-30

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  2. Delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Che, Xiangming; Li, Xuqi; Qiu, Guanglin; He, Shicai; Fan, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias (TDHs) are sometimes difficult to identify at an early stage and can consequently result in diagnostic delays with life-threatening outcomes. It is the aim of this case study to highlight the difficulties encountered with the earlier detection of traumatic diaphragmatic hernias. Methods: Clinical data of patients who received treatment for delayed traumatic diaphragmatic hernias in registers of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from 1998 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Six patients were included in this study. Left hemidiaphragm was affected in all of them. Most of the patients had a history of traffic accident and 1 a stab-penetrating injury. The interval from injury to developing symptoms ranged from 2 to 11 years (median 5 years). The hernial contents included the stomach, omentum, small intestine, and colon. Diaphragmatic injury was missed in all of them during the initial managements. All patients received operations once the diagnosis of delayed TDH was confirmed, and no postoperative mortality was detected. Conclusions: Delayed TDHs are not common, but can lead to serious consequences once occurred. Early detection of diaphragmatic injuries is crucial. Surgeons should maintain a high suspicion for injuries of the diaphragm in cases with abdominal or lower chest traumas, especially in the initial surgical explorations. We emphasize the need for radiographical follow-up to detect diaphragmatic injuries at an earlier stage. PMID:27512848

  3. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401

  4. Group delay of evanescent signals in a waveguide with barrier.

    PubMed

    Ragni, Luigi

    2009-04-01

    The time history of subsequent tunneled wave packets can represent a more meaningful way to describe signal evolutions and to determine the group delay than the detection of a demodulated monopulse envelope. In the present experimental research, the delay of transmitted tunneled packets was found to be shorter than that measurable in vacuum, in good agreement with the phase time and Esposito's equation and independent of the barrier length. The wave packets did not show narrowing and "reshaping," so these phenomena did not appear to be the reason of the short delay experienced. The latter was not found to be proportional to the amplitude of the incident signal. PMID:19518373

  5. Group delay of evanescent signals in a waveguide with barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragni, Luigi

    2009-04-01

    The time history of subsequent tunneled wave packets can represent a more meaningful way to describe signal evolutions and to determine the group delay than the detection of a demodulated monopulse envelope. In the present experimental research, the delay of transmitted tunneled packets was found to be shorter than that measurable in vacuum, in good agreement with the phase time and Esposito’s equation and independent of the barrier length. The wave packets did not show narrowing and “reshaping,” so these phenomena did not appear to be the reason of the short delay experienced. The latter was not found to be proportional to the amplitude of the incident signal.

  6. List item memory in rats: effects of delay and delay task.

    PubMed

    Harper, D N; McLean, A P; Dalrymple-Alford, J C

    1993-10-01

    The Serial Position Effect (SPE) was studied in rats using 2 manipulations analogous to those that have been shown to decrease the recency effect but leave the primacy effect intact in human Ss. In Part 1, delays (5 s to 60 s) were imposed between exposure to a sequence of arms presented in a 12-arm radial maze and a subsequent test phase. In Part 2, the effect of free access to food in a short (10-s) delay was examined. The results from Parts 1 and 2 showed that the primacy and recency effects were differentially sensitive to the delay and events within it. In particular the recency effect was found to be more sensitive to disruption from these sources. The present demonstration of a reduction in recency with procedures analogous to those used with humans extends the evidence, suggesting that the SPE obtained in rats and humans is a similar phenomenon.

  7. Molecular Classification of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Konda, Paremala; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Makarla, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the commonest tumour in the oro-facial region with increasing incidence in the recent years. The disease is challenging as it still depicts a high morbidity and mortality rate. Clinico-pathological data, tumour site, pathologic site tumor, lymphnode, metastasis (TNM) staging, histological grade, invasion, perineural invasion and metastasis have been evaluated to a great depth in relation to OSCC. Co-morbidity factors like use of tobacco, alcohol consumption and various other factors including genetic predisposition have been looked at for finding a suitable treatment protocol. The crux of the matter in understanding the complexity of oral cancer lies in the biological heterogeneity of the tumour. Similar heterogeneity is seen in clinical presentation, histopathology and molecular changes at the cellular level. In spite of the disease being diagnosed, a prediction of the same related to behaviour has remained elusive. Hence, it is time to look beyond at the genetic and epigenetic events leading to molecular and cytogenetic changes that elucidate the pathogenesis and help in design and implementation of targeted drug therapy. A molecular classification of OSCC needs to be put in place much before a clinician can design the treatment protocol of the same and predict the prognosis. PMID:27790599

  8. Temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma - Penang experience.

    PubMed

    Ng, S Y; Pua, K C; Zahirrudin, Z

    2015-12-01

    Temporal bone squamous cell carcinoma (TBSCC) is rare and poses difficulties in diagnosing, staging and management. We describe a case series with six patients who were diagnosed TBSCC, from January 2009 to June 2014, with median age of 62 years old. All patients presented with blood-stain discharge and external auditory canal mass, showing that these findings should highly alert the diagnosis of TBSCC. Three patients staged T3 and another three with T4 disease. High-resolution CT (HRCT) temporal findings were noted to be different from intraoperative findings and therefore we conclude that MRI should be done to look for middle ear involvement or other soft tissue invasion for more accurate staging. Lateral temporal bone resection (LTBR) and parotidectomy was done for four patients with or without neck dissection. Patients with positive margin, perineural invasion or parotid and glenoid involvement carry poorer prognosis and postoperative radiotherapy may improve the survival rate. One patient had successful tumor resection via piecemeal removal approach in contrast with the recommended en bloc resection shows that with negative margin achieved, piecemeal removal approach can be a good option for patients with T2-3 disease. In general, T4 tumor has dismal outcome regardless of surgery or radiotherapy given.

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D E; Schoenwald, M B; Ayala, A G; Miller, L S

    1976-05-01

    Clinical and morphological features of 90 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reviewed. The lesions were solitary in 90 per cent of the patients, developed without a history of vesical malignant disease in 82 per cent and were invasive at the time of diagnosis in all cases. Ureteral obstruction was demonstrated in 42 per cent of the group. The over-all survival rate at 5 years was only 10.6 per cent. There were 17 patients who received no therapy, all of whom were dead before 2 years. Unassisted supervoltage radiation therapy for patients with stages B2 and C lesions yielded a 5-year survival rate only 17.7 per cent. However, preoperative radiotherapy followed by simple total cystectomy and urinary diversion in a small number of patients with stages B2 and C lesions resulted in a 5-year survival rate in excess of 34 per cent. We are encouraged by this finding and believe that combination therapy warrants further clinical trial.

  10. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for basal and squamous cell skin cancers What’s new in basal and squamous cell skin cancer research? ... cancer cells. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  11. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  12. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2012-09-27

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in squamous cell lung cancers have not been comprehensively characterized, and no molecularly targeted agents have been specifically developed for its treatment. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, here we profile 178 lung squamous cell carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of genomic and epigenomic alterations. We show that the tumour type is characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a mean of 360 exonic mutations, 165 genomic rearrangements, and 323 segments of copy number alteration per tumour. We find statistically recurrent mutations in 11 genes, including mutation of TP53 in nearly all specimens. Previously unreported loss-of-function mutations are seen in the HLA-A class I major histocompatibility gene. Significantly altered pathways included NFE2L2 and KEAP1 in 34%, squamous differentiation genes in 44%, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathway genes in 47%, and CDKN2A and RB1 in 72% of tumours. We identified a potential therapeutic target in most tumours, offering new avenues of investigation for the treatment of squamous cell lung cancers. PMID:22960745

  13. REM sleep predicts subsequent food intake.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J M

    1975-10-01

    REM sleep time in a 12 hr period was found to predict accurately food intake in the subsequent 12 hr period in undisturbed cats fed ad lib. In all but one of the cats, the correlation between REM sleep and subsequent food intake was negative. REM sleep was a better predictor of food intake than either waking, slow wave sleep or previous food intake. Cats were then fed only during the 12 hr day period. It was found that REM sleep at night, during which no food was available, no longer predicted food intake.

  14. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a patient with keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Homeida, L; Wiley, R T; Fatahzadeh, M

    2015-04-01

    Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare form of ectodermal dysplasia with significant visual and auditory impairment. Pathogenesis involves a mutation in the GJB2 gene, which encodes connexin-26, a protein in the epithelial gap junctions thought to be involved in the differentiation of ectodermally derived tissues. Affected patients are also at increased risk for the epithelial malignancies. To our knowledge, nearly 100 cases of KID syndrome, including 19 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) complications, have been reported worldwide. We report here a patient with KID syndrome who developed an ulcerative oral lesion causing him significant discomfort; he was subsequently diagnosed with oral SCC. We review the clinical presentation and symptomatology, including those affecting the oral cavity for this syndrome and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and life-long screening aimed at prevention of the evolving complications.

  15. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Cetuximab, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  16. Sunscreens for delay of ultraviolet induction of skin tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, H.C.; Poulsen, T.; Brodthagen, H.; Hou-Jensen, K.

    1982-08-01

    Sunscreens with different sun protection factors (SPFs) have been tested for their capability of delaying or preventing actinic damage and skin cancer development in groups of hairless, pigmented mice exposed to artificial ultraviolet (UV) light of increasing intensity. The dose delivered was less than or equal to 1 minimal erythema dose (MED) in the group of untreated mice, so that the mice to which sunscreens were applied never obtained a sunburn after UV exposure. The quality of UV light was similar to bright midday sun at a latitude of 56 degrees (city of Copenhagen). Tumorigenesis was demonstrated to be delayed corresponding to the SPF claimed by the manufacturer, but almost all of the UV-irradiated mice developed skin tumors. Histologic examination revealed actinic degeneration and tumors of squamous cell type with marked variation in differentiation. Metastases to lymph nodes and lungs were found in only 10%. Toxic reactions, such as eczematous-like skin reactions, dark coloring, and amyloidosis, were observed predominantly in the group treated with the sunscreen of highest SPF value. Long-term investigations seem to be necessary to unveil these problems--in particular, the specific SPF value, in sunscreens, that should be recommended to the public for prevention or delay of actinic damage and/or cancer development.

  17. [Diagnosis of delayed puberty].

    PubMed

    Busiah, K; Belien, V; Dallot, N; Fila, M; Guilbert, J; Harroche, A; Leger, J

    2007-09-01

    Puberty is the phenomenon that conducts once to reproductive maturation. Delayed puberty (DP) is defined by the absence of testicular development in boys beyond 14 years old (or a testicular volume lower than 4 ml) and by the absence of breast development in girls beyond 13 years old. DP occurs in approximatively 3% of cases. Most cases are functional DP, with a large amount of constitutional delay of puberty. Others etiologies are hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism like Kallmann syndrome, or hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Turner syndrome is a diagnostic one should not forget by its frequency. Treatment is hormonal replacement therapy and of the etiology. During the last decade, many genes have been identified and elucidated the etiological diagnosis of some hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism syndrome. Further studies are required in collaboration with molecular biologists to better understand the mechanism of hypothalamic pituitary gonadal axis abnormalities and of the neuroendocrine physiology of the onset of puberty.

  18. Delayed skin grafting.

    PubMed

    Ceilley, R I; Bumsted, R M; Panje, W R

    1983-04-01

    The use of skin grafts on granulating wounds is an established practice. Delaying the application of a full- or split-thickness skin graft may be an advantageous alternative method of surgical reconstruction in selected cases. Partial healing by secondary intention is useful for filling in deeper defects and usually produces a wound that is much smaller and of more normal contour than the original defect. Contraction of the graft bed is markedly influenced by location, tissue laxity, surface tension lines, motion, and wound geometry. Proper wound care, correct surgical preparation of the defect, and timing of the graft procedure are all important considerations in maximizing the overall result. Through-and-through defects and wounds produced over areas with little underlying support (eyelids and lip) often need flap reconstruction or immediate grafting to prevent undesirable functional and cosmetic results. By combining delayed healing and conventional reconstructive techniques, major tissue loss can often be restored while minimizing patient morbidity.

  19. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Brijbassie, Alan; Stelow, Edward; Shami, Vanessa M

    2014-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the pancreas is an extremely rare tumor with the normal pancreas being entirely devoid of squamous cells. It, however, has been noted that during inflammatory episodes, squamous metaplasia of ductal columnar cells has been observed; however, transformation to SCC is rare. We herein describe a case of pancreatic SCC and provide a review of existing literature.

  1. Maternal Responsiveness and Subsequent Child Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parpal, Mary; Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    1985-01-01

    Contrasts effects of three modes of mother/child interaction on children's subsequent compliance with maternal directives. Subjects were 39 children from lower-middle-class families, ranging in age from approximately three to four-and-a-half. Responsive play and noninteractive conditions produced higher levels of compliance than the untrained free…

  2. 78 FR 40131 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Nuclear Energy and the Agreement Between the Government of the United States of America and Australia Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner... International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. Telephone:...

  3. 76 FR 37343 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY... Cooperation Concerning Civil Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada and the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear...

  4. 75 FR 81593 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Article VIII.C of the Agreement for Cooperation Concerning Civil Uses of Atomic Energy, signed April 4, 1972, as amended,...

  5. 78 FR 52170 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Concerning Civil Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States of America and the... Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take... Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of...

  6. 76 FR 30325 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY... ] Cooperation Concerning Civil Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada and the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear...

  7. 75 FR 62121 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States and the European Atomic Energy... Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This subsequent arrangement concerns the retransfer of 573 g of U.S... Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nyk ping, Sweden, to the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai-Mura, Japan....

  8. 77 FR 35366 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... the United States of America and the Government of Japan Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy... Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take effect no sooner... International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of Energy. Telephone:...

  9. 76 FR 17406 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Nuclear Energy Between the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the United States of America and... Government of Norway Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. DATES: This subsequent arrangement will take... Nonproliferation and International Security, National Nuclear Security Administration, Department of...

  10. 75 FR 82005 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... of Energy. ACTION: Proposed subsequent arrangement. SUMMARY: This notice is being issued under...

  11. 7 CFR 1781.22 - Subsequent loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent loans. 1781.22 Section 1781.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES §...

  12. 7 CFR 1781.22 - Subsequent loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent loans. 1781.22 Section 1781.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES §...

  13. 7 CFR 1781.22 - Subsequent loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent loans. 1781.22 Section 1781.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES §...

  14. 7 CFR 1781.22 - Subsequent loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent loans. 1781.22 Section 1781.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES §...

  15. 7 CFR 1781.22 - Subsequent loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Subsequent loans. 1781.22 Section 1781.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES §...

  16. 29 CFR 402.4 - Subsequent reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.4 Subsequent reports. (a) Except as noted elsewhere in this... bylaws at the time it files its annual financial report as provided in part 403 of this chapter. However... prescribed by the reporting labor organization's parent national or international labor organization...

  17. 77 FR 53876 - Proposed Subsequent Arrangement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Nuclear Energy Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada and the Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy Between the United States of America and... subsequent arrangement concerning the retransfer of nuclear material of United......

  18. 28 CFR 2.14 - Subsequent proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsequent proceedings. 2.14 Section 2.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.14...

  19. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  20. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  1. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  2. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  3. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  4. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    PubMed

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  5. New malignancies after squamous cell carcinoma and melanomas: a population-based study from Norway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Skin cancer survivors experience an increased risk for subsequent malignancies but the associated risk factors are poorly understood. This study examined the risk of a new primary cancer following an initial skin cancer and assessed risk factors associated with second primary cancers. Methods All invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas (CMM, N = 28 069) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, N = 24 620) diagnosed in Norway during 1955–2008 were included. Rates of new primary cancers in skin cancer survivors were compared to rates of primary malignancies in the general population using standardized incidence ratios (SIR). Discrete-time logistic regression models were applied to individual-level data to estimate cancer risk among those with and without a prior skin cancer, accounting for residential region, education, income, parenthood, marital status and parental cancer status, using a 20% random sample of the entire Norwegian population as reference. Further analyses of the skin cancer cohort were undertaken to determine risk factors related to subsequent cancers. Results During follow-up, 9608 new primary cancers occurred after an initial skin cancer. SIR analyses showed 50% and 90% increased risks for any cancer after CMM and SCC, respectively (p < 0.01). The logistic regression model suggested even stronger increase after SCC (130%). The highest risk was seen for subsequent skin cancers, but several non-skin cancers were also diagnosed in excess: oral, lung, colon, breast, prostate, thyroid, leukemia, lymphoma and central nervous system. Factors that were associated with increased risk of subsequent cancers include male sex, older age, lower residential latitude, being married and low education and income. Parental cancer did not increase the risk of a subsequent cancer after SCC, but was a significant predictor among younger CMM survivors. Conclusions Our results provide information on shared environmental and genetic risk factors for first and

  6. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  7. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epigenomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans. PMID:22175027

  8. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are heritable, and data indicate that delay discounting also has a genetic component. To identify the genes underlying the delay discounting decision-making process and genetic correlates of heightened discounting, researchers have used mouse models. This unit describes a protocol for generating delay discounting behavior in mice and discusses analysis techniques for such behavior. PMID:24510779

  9. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth > For Parents > Delayed Speech or Language ... your child is right on schedule. Normal Speech & Language Development It's important to discuss early speech and ...

  10. Tooth formation - delayed or absent

    MedlinePlus

    Delayed or absent tooth formation; Teeth - delayed or absent formation ... The age at which a tooth comes in varies. Most infants get their first tooth between 6 and 9 months, but it may be earlier or later. ...

  11. Pathophysiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gichuhi, Stephen; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi; Sagoo, Mandeep S.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is strongly associated with solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). Africa has the highest incidence rates in the world. Most lesions occur at the limbus within the interpalpebral fissure particularly the nasal sector. The nasal limbus receives the highest intensity of sunlight. Limbal epithelial crypts are concentrated nasally and contain niches of limbal epithelial stem cells in the basal layer. It is possible that these are the progenitor cells in OSSN. OSSN arises in the basal epithelial cells spreading towards the surface which resembles the movement of corneo-limbal stem cell progeny before it later invades through the basement membrane below. UV radiation damages DNA producing pyrimidine dimers in the DNA chain. Specific CC → TT base pair dimer transformations of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene occur in OSSN allowing cells with damaged DNA past the G1-S cell cycle checkpoint. UV radiation also causes local and systemic photoimmunosuppression and reactivates latent viruses such as HPV. The E7 proteins of HPV promote proliferation of infected epithelial cells via the retinoblastoma gene while E6 proteins prevent the p53 tumour suppressor gene from effecting cell-cycle arrest of DNA-damaged and infected cells. Immunosuppression from UV radiation, HIV and vitamin A deficiency impairs tumour immune surveillance allowing survival of aberrant cells. Tumour growth and metastases are enhanced by; telomerase reactivation which increases the number of cell divisions a cell can undergo; vascular endothelial growth factor for angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that destroy the intercellular matrix between cells. Despite these potential triggers, the disease is usually unilateral. It is unclear how HPV reaches the conjunctiva. PMID:25447808

  12. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Gary D. Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-11-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

  13. Relationship of Angiogenesis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marla, V; Hegde, V; Shrestha, A

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an important aspect of a variety of physiological and pathological processes; and depends on the alteration of the balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. The role of angiogenesis in the progression and metastasis of neoplasm is a well established phenomenon. With regards to oral squamous cell carcinoma, it is a field of ongoing research and requires validation for it being used as a mode of anti-cancer therapy. This review focuses on the concept of angiogenesis, the factors associated with it, the relationship of angiogenesis with oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma; the methods of studying angiogenesis and anti angiogenic therapy. PMID:26643840

  14. Anal squamous cell carcinoma: An evolution in disease and management

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Marc C; Maykel, Justin; Johnson, Eric K; Steele, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Anal cancer represents less than 1% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. Yet, despite the relative paucity of cases, the incidence of anal cancer has seen a steady about 2% rise each year over the last decade. As such, all healthcare providers need to be cognizant of the evaluation and treatment of anal squamous cell carcinoma. While chemoradiation remains the mainstay of therapy for most patients with anal cancer, surgery may still be required in recurrent, recalcitrant and palliative disease. In this manuscript, we will explore the diagnosis and management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. PMID:25278699

  15. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Navarra; Valentina, Abruzzese; Federico, Sista; Renato, Pietroletti

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o'clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area. PMID:25922781

  16. Unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma after open hemorrhoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Luca, Navarra; Valentina, Abruzzese; Federico, Sista; Renato, Pietroletti

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o'clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area.

  17. High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia with squamous differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Melissari, M; Beltran, A Lopez; Mazzucchelli, R; Froio, E; Bostwick, D G; Montironi, R

    2006-01-01

    An unusual variant of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia with prominent and extensive squamous differentiation is described. The lesion was identified in the transition zone of a 79 year old man with a three year history of increasing urinary obstructive symptoms and a clinical diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia who underwent simple prostatectomy. Two years after surgery, prostatic biopsies showed atrophy and mild chronic inflammation, with no evidence of malignancy. This unusual intraepithelial lesion seems not to have been described before and may represent a new variant of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) with squamous differentiation. PMID:16567473

  18. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  19. Synchronous sebaceous lymphadenoma with squamous cell carcinoma - case report.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Mridula; Panicker, Sathibai

    2003-12-24

    BACKGROUND: Sebaceous lymphadenoma is a rare benign salivary gland tumour of uncertain histogenesis. So is synchronous occurrence of two benign or malignant neoplasms. CASE-REPORT: 68-year-old female presented with right side parotid swelling associated with pain and gradual increase is size. Fine needle aspiration cytology of parotid swelling was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma. Total conservative parotidectomy was performed and histopathology of the specimen revealed sebaceous lymphadenoma with squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Sebaceous lymphadenoma and squamous cell carcinoma are two rare benign and malignant neoplasms arising in parotid gland. Synchronous occurrence of these two entities has not been reported.

  20. Programmable Differential Delay Circuit With Fine Delay Adjustment

    DOEpatents

    DeRyckere, John F.; Jenkins, Philip Nord; Cornett, Frank Nolan

    2002-07-09

    Circuitry that provides additional delay to early arriving signals such that all data signals arrive at a receiving latch with same path delay. The delay of a forwarded clock reference is also controlled such that the capturing clock edge will be optimally positioned near quadrature (depending on latch setup/hold requirements). The circuitry continuously adapts to data and clock path delay changes and digital filtering of phase measurements reduce errors brought on by jittering data edges. The circuitry utilizes only the minimum amount of delay necessary to achieve objective thereby limiting any unintended jitter. Particularly, this programmable differential delay circuit with fine delay adjustment is designed to allow the skew between ASICS to be minimized. This includes skew between data bits, between data bits and clocks as well as minimizing the overall skew in a channel between ASICS.

  1. Factors related to advanced stage oral squamous cell carcinoma in southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kerdpon, D; Sriplung, H

    2001-04-01

    A critical factor that indicates a poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is advanced stage disease. This study, therefore, aimed to identify the factors related to advanced stage (TNM staging III, IV) OSCC in Thailand. There were 161 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and lip (ICD-9 140, 141, 143-5), included in the study. Sixty-two per cent of the patients presented with advanced stage disease. Information on demographic characteristics, risk habits, health-seeking behaviour prior to health care professional (HCP) consultation, tumour characteristics and patient and professional delay was obtained by questionnaire-based interview of the patients. These variables were included as initial variables in a logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of advanced versus early stage OSCC. Having traditional herbal medication before HCP consultation significantly increased the risk of advanced stage OSCC (OR 5.77; 95% C.I. 1.25-26.62). Floor of mouth location of tumour was associated with a lower risk of advanced stage disease (OR 0.27; 95% C.I. 0.09-0.82) as was having an ulcer (OR 0.43, 95% C.I. 0.02-0.89). The findings indicate that having traditional herbal medication before HCP consultation increased the risk of advanced stage disease. The lower risk of advanced stage OSCC associated with ulcerative tumours and those on the floor of the mouth may be due to their being more readily detected by the patients. PMID:11287274

  2. Mitotic delay following inhibition by 5'-fluorodeoxyuridine of S-phase in Physarum is not due to delay in termination of S-phase.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, S A; Shymko, R M

    1982-02-01

    It has been known for several years that inhibition by 5'-fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd) of DNA synthesis in plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum delays subsequent nuclear mitosis. To test whether this delay is due to delay in the termination of S-phase, we blocked DNA synthesis with FdUrd + uridine for 3 h at different stages of S-phase, and in plasmodia with different cycle times. The results show that in short-cycling plasmodia the delay in mitosis can be as long as 9 h, despite little delay in termination of S-phase, and is longest when plasmodia are blocked in early S-phase. In plasmodia with long cycle times, no mitotic delay following 3 h inhibition by FdUrd of S-phase is observed. Our results suggest that mitotic delay after pulses of FdUrd is not due to delay in termination of S-phase, which therefore does not appear to 'gate' entry into a G2 period of fixed length. The fact that delay is longest after FdUrd blocks in early S-phase suggests that normal progress through S-phase, not its termination, is critical for the timing of the subsequent mitosis. This may reflect an obligate coupling between replication and transcription of specific genes needed for progress toward mitosis. The lack of mitotic delay in long-cycling plasmodia shows that S-phase-coupled processes need not act as 'timers' if other processes become rate-limiting.

  3. Delay Choice vs. Delay Maintenance: Different Measures of Delayed Gratification in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella)

    PubMed Central

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.; Macchitella, Luigi; De Petrillo, Francesca; Focaroli, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Delaying gratification involves two components: (i) delay choice (selecting a delayed reward over an immediate one), and (ii) delay maintenance (sustaining the decision to delay gratification even if the immediate reward is available during the delay). In primates, two tasks most commonly have explored these components, the Intertemporal choice task and the Accumulation task. It is unclear whether these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. Here, we compared the performance of the same capuchin monkeys, belonging to two study populations, between these tasks. We found only limited evidence of a significant correlation in performance. Consequently, in contrast to what is often assumed, our data provide only partial support to the hypothesis that these tasks provide equivalent measures of delay of gratification. PMID:23544770

  4. Interstitial pregnancy management and subsequent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Ron; Debby, Abraham; Keidar, Ran; Kerner, Ram; Golan, Abraham

    2013-11-01

    We report on management and subsequent fertility outcome of interstitial pregnancy in a retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3) at a university affiliated teaching hospital. Of 706 women with extrauterine pregnancy, 14 consecutive women with interstitial pregnancy were treated by methotrexate, laparotomy or laparoscopy between 1997 and 2007. The first four women, with significant hemoperitoneum, were treated by laparotomy. Of the next 10 women, four were selected for medical treatment with methotrexate. Only one case was treated successfully. The other six women had laparoscopic treatment. Of nine laparoscopies, one was converted to laparotomy due to excessive blood loss during the procedure. Of nine women desiring a child, three were infertile, whereas six conceived with an intrauterine pregnancy. A change from diagnosis later in pregnancy and laparotomy to more conservative treatment, mainly by laparoscopy, suggests a possibly better subsequent pregnancy rate.

  5. Chunking movements into sequence: the visual pre-selection of subsequent goals.

    PubMed

    Baldauf, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    The chunking of individual movements into sequences has been studied extensively from a motor point of view. Here we approach the planning of sequential behavior from a perceptual perspective investigating the sensorimotor transformations that accompany visually guided sequential behavior. We show that visual attention pre-selects subsequent goals only if two movements are planned to be carried out in rapid succession and therefore are integrated into one common action. This causes visual attention to select both intended goal locations in advance. In contrast, in more slowly executed motor sequences, the single movements are programmed one-by-one and subsequent movement goals are only later visually prepared ('just in time'). The visual selection of a subsequent goal location crucially depends on the speed of the planned sequence: the longer the inter-reach delay, the less visual attention is deployed to the subsequent goal initially.

  6. Accumulation and subsequent utilization of waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloničný, Jan; Richter, Aleš; Pavloková, Petra

    2016-06-01

    This article aims to introduce a special way of heat accumulation and primary operating characteristics. It is the unique way in which the waste heat from flue gas of biogas cogeneration station is stored in the system of storage tanks, into the heat transfer oil. Heat is subsequently transformed into water, from which is generated the low-pressure steam. Steam, at the time of peak electricity needs, spins the special designed turbine generator and produces electrical energy.

  7. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-03

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage

  8. Squamousness: Next-generation sequencing reveals shared molecular features across squamous tumor types

    PubMed Central

    Schwaederle, Maria; Elkin, Sheryl K; Tomson, Brett N; Carter, Jennifer Levin; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the underlying biology of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we tested the hypothesis that SCC originating from different organs may possess common molecular alterations. SCC samples (N = 361) were examined using clinical-grade targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). The most frequent SCC tumor types were head and neck, lung, cutaneous, gastrointestinal and gynecologic cancers. The most common gene alterations were TP53 (64.5% of patients), PIK3CA (28.5%), CDKN2A (24.4%), SOX2 (17.7%), and CCND1 (15.8%). By comparing NGS results of our SCC cohort to a non-SCC cohort (N = 277), we found that CDKN2A, SOX2, NOTCH1, TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, and FBXW7 were significantly more frequently altered, unlike KRAS, which was less frequently altered in SCC specimens (all P < 0.05; multivariable analysis). Therefore, we identified “squamousness” gene signatures (TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, CDKN2A, SOX2, NOTCH 1, and FBXW7 aberrations, and absence of KRAS alterations) that were significantly more frequent in SCC versus non-SCC histologies. A multivariable co-alteration analysis established 2 SCC subgroups: (i) patients in whom TP53 and cyclin pathway (CDKN2A and CCND1) alterations strongly correlated but in whom PIK3CA aberrations were less frequent; and (ii) patients with PIK3CA alterations in whom TP53 mutations were less frequent (all P ≤ 0 .001, multivariable analysis). In conclusion, we identified a set of 8 genes altered with significantly different frequencies when SCC and non-SCC were compared, suggesting the existence of patterns for “squamousness.” Targeting the PI3K-AKT-mTOR and/or cyclin pathway components in SCC may be warranted. PMID:26030731

  9. Adaptive Phase Delay Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    There are several experimental setups involving rotating machinery that require some form of synchronization. The adaptive phase delay generator (APDG) the Bencic-1000 is a flexible instrument that allows the user to generate pulses synchronized to the rising edge of a tachometer signal from any piece of rotating machinery. These synchronized pulses can vary by the delay angle, pulse width, number of pulses per period, number of skipped pulses, and total number of pulses. Due to the design of the pulse generator, any and all of these parameters can be changed independently, yielding an unparalleled level of versatility. There are two user interfaces to the APDG. The first is a LabVIEW program that has the advantage of displaying all of the pulse parameters and input signal data within one neatly organized window on the PC monitor. Furthermore, the LabVIEW interface plots the rpm of the two input signal channels in real time. The second user interface is a handheld portable device that goes anywhere a computer is not accessible. It consists of a liquid-crystal display and keypad, which enable the user to control the unit by scrolling through a host of command menus and parameter listings. The APDG combines all of the desired synchronization control into one unit. The experimenter can adjust the delay, pulse width, pulse count, number of skipped pulses, and produce a specified number of pulses per revolution. Each of these parameters can be changed independently, providing an unparalleled level of versatility when synchronizing hardware to a host of rotating machinery. The APDG allows experimenters to set up quickly and generate a host of synchronizing configurations using a simple user interface, which hopefully leads to faster results.

  10. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    DOEpatents

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  11. Delay reduction: current status.

    PubMed

    Fantino, E; Preston, R A; Dunn, R

    1993-07-01

    Delay-reduction theory states that the effectiveness of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer may be predicted most accurately by the reduction in time to primary reinforcement correlated with its onset. We review support for the theory and then discuss two new types of experiments that assess it. One compares models of choice in situations wherein the less preferred outcome is made more accessible; the other investigates whether frequency of conditioned reinforcement affects choice beyond the effect exerted by frequency of primary reinforcement.

  12. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour. PMID:24455099

  13. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  14. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  15. Delayed rule following

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects. PMID:22478363

  16. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  17. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: new translational therapies.

    PubMed

    Prince, Anthony; Aguirre-Ghizo, Julio; Genden, Eric; Posner, Marshall; Sikora, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma includes cancers of the mouth, throat, larynx, and lymph nodes of the neck. Although early disease is amenable to single-modality treatment with surgery or radiation, patients with advanced disease have a dramatically worse prognosis, despite potentially morbid/toxic treatment regimens involving surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or all 3 modalities. The present review seeks to provide an overview of current understanding and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma for the nonspecialist clinician or basic/translational researcher, followed by an overview of major translational approaches to the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Translational research topics addressed include targeted molecular therapy, immunotherapy, minimally invasive robotic surgery, and ablation of dormant/residual tumor cells. Despite the many potentially promising avenues of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma research, only 2 new treatment approaches (antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy and robotic surgery) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in the past 30 years. Focused research programs involving integrated teams of clinicians, basic scientists, and translational clinician-researchers have the potential to accelerate discovery and change treatment paradigms for patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:21105129

  18. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina).

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Diane E; Fong, Derek L; Vogel, Keith W; Durning, W McIntyre; Torrence, Anne E; Rose, Timothy M; Staheli, Jeannette P; Baldessari, Audrey; Murnane, Robert D; Hukkannen, Renee R

    2014-06-01

    An adult, gravid, female pigtailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) presented for facial swelling centered on the left mandible that was approximately 5 cm wide. Differential diagnoses included infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic origins. Definitive antemortem diagnosis was not possible, and the macaque's condition worsened despite supportive care. Necropsy findings included a mandibular mass that was locally invasive and expansile, encompassing approximately 80% of the left mandibular bone. The mass replaced portions of the soft palate, hard palate, sinuses, ear canal, and the caudal-rostral calvarium and masseter muscle. Histologically, the mass was a neoplasm that was poorly circumscribed, unencapsulated, and infiltrative invading regional bone and soft tissue. The mass consisted of polygonal squamous epithelial cells with intercellular bridging that breached the epithelial basement membrane and formed invasive nests, cords, and trabeculae. The mitotic rate averaged 3 per 400× field of view, with occasional bizarre mitotic figures. Epithelial cells often exhibited dyskeratosis, and the nests often contained compact lamellated keratin (keratin pearls). The neoplasm was positive via immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratin, variably positive for S100, and negative for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and desmin. The gross, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with an aggressive oral squamous cell carcinoma. The neoplasm was negative via PCR for papilloma virus. In general, neoplasia in macaques is rare. Although squamous cell carcinomas are one of the most common oral neoplasia in many species, to our knowledge this case represents the first reported oral squamous cell carcinoma in a pigtailed macaque.

  19. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  20. Review of terminology of precursors of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Scurry, James; Wilkinson, Edward J

    2006-07-01

    The popular term for vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in situ/dysplasia is vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). VIN is a histological diagnosis based on loss of squamous epithelial maturation associated with enlarged, hyperchromatic, pleomorphic nuclei and increased, usually atypical mitoses. There are two types of VIN: the usual (not otherwise specified) type, also known as warty-basaloid, and the differentiated type. There are 3 grading systems for warty-basaloid VIN: the traditional 3-grade system of VIN 1-3, a low-grade/high grade Bethesda-like system and the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease's proposal for only 1 grade. The ISSVD system eliminates VIN 1 and combines VIN 2 and 3 on the grounds that VIN 1 has not been shown to be a reproducible diagnosis and VIN 2 and 3 are not reliably separated. The evidence supports the ISSVD proposal. Warty basaloid VIN may be sub-typed into warty and basaloid VIN. Sub-typing has clinical relevance but its reproducibility is not proven. Warty-basaloid VIN may regress. Differentiated VIN has been typically diagnosed co-incident with squamous cell carcinoma. With increased frequency of performance of biopsy of hyperplastic lesions, differentiated VIN should be diagnosed more commonly before squamous carcinoma occurs.

  1. Tracheal Resection With Carinal Reconstruction for Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Timothy S; Krantz, Seth B; Patterson, G Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for primary malignancies of the trachea. We present here the rare case of a lifelong nonsmoker with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, requiring tracheal resection and anterior carinal reconstruction. Patient preparation, surgical technique, and considerations to avoid airway anastomotic complications are discussed.

  2. Giant gingival pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Guolin; Long, Xing; Han, Qianchao; Tian, Lihua

    2012-07-01

    We here describe a case of giant primary gingival pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia in a 53-year-old Chinese male patient with lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pathogenesis of the lesion and the deferential diagnosis from invasive SCC are also discussed. To our knowledge, such a hugeous primary pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of the gingiva accompanied with lung SCC is unusual.

  3. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. ); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); Zitelli, J.A. )

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  4. Necrotizing fasciitis in oro-maxillo-facial area after radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate.

    PubMed

    Ormenişan, Alina; Morariu, Silviu Horia; Cotoi, Ovidiu Simion; Vartolomei, Mihai Dorin; Grigoraş, Radu Ionuţ; Mocan, Simona Liliana; Suciu, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    The fascia's and subcutaneous adipose tissue's impairment by mono or polymicrobial infection, which also can involve the skin and the muscles, is rarely seen in oro-maxillo-facial area. The present case report is presenting a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a patient who had a history of an invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate, with surgical treatment and with radiotherapy. He was admitted in our Clinic with malaise and subsequently developed a toxico-septic shock. Clinical symptoms, serological and bacteriological analysis and histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis (NF). The patient subsequently underwent a series of surgical reconstruction and aesthetic treatments because of the complications that had arised in the meantime. Postoperative evolution was favorable towards complete closure of the defect. The prognosis of this disease is generally reserved, the favorable evolution depending on the possibility of wound sterilization and the surgery is required despite its mutilating effect. PMID:26429184

  5. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  6. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  7. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity. PMID:27586618

  8. Botulinum toxin A as a treatment for delayed gastric emptying in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Max L.; Fransson, Boel A.; Barry, Sabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    A toy Australian shepherd dog was referred for bile peritonitis following excision of a biliary mucocele. Subsequent delayed gastric emptying was refractory to prokinetic therapy but responded to injection of botulinum toxin A into the muscularis layer of the pylorus; a novel therapy for delayed gastric emptying in dogs. PMID:24982520

  9. Do the adjusting-delay and increasing-delay tasks measure the same construct: delay discounting?

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Maxfield, Adam D; Stein, Jeffrey S; Renda, C Renee; Madden, Gregory J

    2014-08-01

    Delay discounting describes the subjective devaluation of a reward when it is delayed. In animals, the adjusting-delay (AD) and increasing-delay (ID) tasks often are used to assess individual differences in, and drug effects on, delay discounting. No study to date, however, has compared systematically the measures of discounting produced in these tasks. The current study examined the correlation between measures of delay discounting derived from AD and ID procedures. Twenty rats completed 30 sessions under each task (order counterbalanced across rats). Quantitative measures of delay discounting produced by the two tasks were positively correlated, suggesting that the AD and ID tasks measure the same underlying facet of impulsive choice (i.e. individual or conjoint sensitivities to reward delay and magnitude). The measures derived from either task, however, depended on the sequences in which the tasks were experienced. That is, pre-exposure to one task decreased discounting of delayed rewards in the second task. Consistent with other published findings, exposure to delayed consequences during the initial discounting assessment might explain this effect. Despite the observed correlation between ID and AD indifference delays, we suggest that the ID procedure might be a more appropriate procedure for pharmacological studies.

  10. Nerve agent intoxication: Recent neuropathophysiological findings and subsequent impact on medical management prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Collombet, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-15

    This manuscript provides a survey of research findings catered to the development of effective countermeasures against nerve agent poisoning over the past decade. New neuropathophysiological distinctive features as regards organophosphate (OP) intoxication are presented. Such leading neuropathophysiological features include recent data on nerve agent-induced neuropathology, related peripheral or central nervous system inflammation and subsequent angiogenesis process. Hence, leading countermeasures against OP exposure are down-listed in terms of pre-treatment, protection or decontamination and emergency treatments. The final chapter focuses on the description of the self-repair attempt encountered in lesioned rodent brains, up to 3 months after soman poisoning. Indeed, an increased proliferation of neuronal progenitors was recently observed in injured brains of mice subjected to soman exposure. Subsequently, the latter experienced a neuronal regeneration in damaged brain regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. The positive effect of a cytokine treatment on the neuronal regeneration and subsequent cognitive behavioral recovery are also discussed in this review. For the first time, brain cell therapy and neuronal regeneration are considered as a valuable contribution towards delayed treatment against OP intoxication. To date, efficient delayed treatment was lacking in the therapeutic resources administered to patients contaminated by nerve agents. - Highlights: > This review focuses on neuropathophysiology following nerve agent poisoning in mice. > Extensive data on long-term neuropathology and related inflammation are provided here. > Delayed self-repair attempts encountered in lesioned rodent brains are also described. > Cell therapy is considered as a valuable treatment against nerve agent intoxication.

  11. Delayed shear enhancement in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M.D.; Pielke, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion (MAD) is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a much more important role on the mesoscale: horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and often dominated by vertical wind shear on these scales through the interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing. Just over 30 years ago, Pasquill suggested that this interaction need not be simultaneous and that the combination of differential horizontal advection with delayed or subsequent vertical mixing could maintain effective horizontal diffusion in spite of temporal or spatial reductions in boundary-layer turbulence intensity. This two-step mechanism has not received much attention since then, but a recent analysis of observations from and numerical simulations of two mesoscale tracer experiments suggests that delayed shear enhancement can play an important role in MAD. This paper presents an overview of this analysis, with particular emphasis on the influence of resolvable vertical shear on MAD in these two case studies and the contributions made by delayed shear enhancement.

  12. Soviet delays raise prices

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1992-01-15

    The breakup of the Soviet Union is causing massive disruptions to methanol exports. The changeover to a Commonwealth of independent States has created logistical problems which have led some shipments of Russian methanol to be cancelled and delayed other deliveries by up to two weeks. In recent years the Soviet Union has exported 700,000 m.t./year-900,000 m.t./year of methanol, mainly to Western Europe. The product is made at 750,000-m.t./year plants at Tomsk and Gubakha in Russia and transported by rail for shipment from the ports of Ventspils, Latvia, on the Baltic Sea and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine, on the Black Sea. The exports were handled by state export agency Soyuzagrochim, mainly under contract to West European traders and consumers in areas like Scandinavia and France.

  13. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1984-08-07

    Polybismaleimides prepared by delayed curing of bis-imides having the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the --(CH.sub.2).sub.n -- group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine.

  14. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  15. Fourier transform infrared imaging analysis in discrimination studies of squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pallua, J D; Pezzei, C; Zelger, B; Schaefer, G; Bittner, L K; Huck-Pezzei, V A; Schoenbichler, S A; Hahn, H; Kloss-Brandstaetter, A; Kloss, F; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2012-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of the oral cavity and oropharynx represents more than 95% of all malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Histomorphological evaluation of this cancer type is invasive and remains a time consuming and subjective technique. Therefore, novel approaches for histological recognition are necessary to identify malignancy at an early stage. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging has become an essential tool for the detection and characterization of the molecular components of biological processes, such as those responsible for the dynamic properties of tumor progression. FTIR imaging is a modern analytical technique enabling molecular imaging of a complex biological sample and is based on the absorption of IR radiation by vibrational transitions in covalent bonds. One major advantage of this technique is the acquisition of local molecular expression profiles, while maintaining the topographic integrity of the tissue and avoiding time-consuming extraction, purification, and separation steps. With this imaging technique, it is possible to obtain unique images of the spatial distribution of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, cholesterols, nucleic acids, phospholipids, and small molecules with high spatial resolution. Analysis and visualization of FTIR imaging datasets are challenging and the use of chemometric tools is crucial in order to take advantage of the full measurement. Therefore, methodologies for this task based on the novel developed algorithm for multivariate image analysis (MIA) are often necessary. In the present study, FTIR imaging and data analysis methods were combined to optimize the tissue measurement mode after deparaffinization and subsequent data evaluation (univariate analysis and MIAs). We demonstrate that it is possible to collect excellent IR spectra from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue microarrays (TMAs) of OSCC tissue sections employing an optimised analytical protocol. The correlation of FTIR

  16. Demographic determinants of delayed divorce.

    PubMed

    Chan, L Y; Heaton, T B

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies factors that predict delayed divorce in the US. The findings show that factors which influence marital stability in general also correlate with delayed divorce in the same direction. Wife's age at marriage, age of the youngest child, wife's religion, region of residence, and metropolitan residence have substantial effects of delayed divorce, but the effects of race, parental divorce, premarital pregnancy, and socioeconomic status are small.

  17. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  18. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  19. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  20. Inhibition of autophagy augments apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma under nutrient depletion.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Cheng; Xin, Zhi-Yuan; Deborah, Baremberg; Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Yuan, Dao-Ying; Xu, Kai; Liu, Xian-Bin; Jiang, Hu-Quan; Fan, Qing-Chun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Ke-Yi

    2015-05-01

    There has been little research conducted regarding autophagy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Given the prevalence of oral cancers which are OSCC and the severe side effects of current treatments, there is a pressing need to develop effective alternative therapies. In this study, we have endeavored to explore the biological characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line KB cells, in particular with regard to the role played by autophagy in their survival. Autophagy was activated by nutrient depletion via culturing cells in Earle's balanced salts (EBSS) and was measured via indices relating to Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (MAPLC3, LC3), p62, and Green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 plasmid transfection (GFP-LC3). Cell death and apoptosis induced by nutrient depletion was measured using both MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM). Compared to initial levels at 0 h, Beclin 1 density in EBSS-treated cells was found to have increased at 6, 12, and 18 h in a time-dependent manner and was found to have subsequently declined at 24 and 48 h. p62 levels, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and GFP-LC3 levels increased at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h in a time-dependent manner. 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was found to inhibit autophagy and the expression of Beclin 1 and significantly enhanced nutrient depletion-induced apoptosis and death. We concluded that nutrient depletion enhances OSCC cell autophagy in time-course patterns and that the inhibition of autophagy augments apoptosis in OSCC cells. We also deduced that Beclin 1 takes part in the development and progression of autophagy, potentially playing an important role in the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in OSCC cells. These findings suggest that nutrient depletion may be an effective way to explore autophagy and that autophagy inhibitors should be investigated as a potential novel agent for the adjuvant treatment of human OSCC.

  1. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  2. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kartha, Vinay K; Stawski, Lukasz; Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  3. Errors Disrupt Subsequent Early Attentional Processes

    PubMed Central

    Van der Borght, Liesbet; Schevernels, Hanne; Burle, Boris; Notebaert, Wim

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that target detection is impaired following an error in an unrelated flanker task. These findings support the idea that the occurrence or processing of unexpected error-like events interfere with subsequent information processing. In the present study, we investigated the effect of errors on early visual ERP components. We therefore combined a flanker task and a visual discrimination task. Additionally, the intertrial interval between both tasks was manipulated in order to investigate the duration of these negative after-effects. The results of the visual discrimination task indicated that the amplitude of the N1 component, which is related to endogenous attention, was significantly decreased following an error, irrespective of the intertrial interval. Additionally, P3 amplitude was attenuated after an erroneous trial, but only in the long-interval condition. These results indicate that low-level attentional processes are impaired after errors. PMID:27050303

  4. PRECISION TIME-DELAY CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.

    1959-03-17

    A tine-delay circuit which produces a delay time in d. The circuit a capacitor, an te back resistance, connected serially with the anode of the diode going to ground. At the start of the time delay a negative stepfunction is applied to the series circuit and initiates a half-cycle transient oscillatory voltage terminated by a transient oscillatory voltage of substantially higher frequency. The output of the delay circuit is taken at the junction of the inductor and diode where a sudden voltage rise appears after the initiation of the higher frequency transient oscillations.

  5. A programmable-delay line.

    PubMed

    Schiano, J L; Trahiotis, C

    1987-01-01

    A relatively simple circuit is described which delays audio signals in 5 microseconds steps from 0 microsecond to 4000 microseconds. Delays are programmed via twelve TTL-level data lines. The magnitude response is flat and the phase response is linear from DC to 5 kHz. The gain of the circuit is fixed and independent of the selected delay. Delays are accurate to within 1 microsecond of the programmed value. The device is a nice alternative to other methods which have diverse shortcomings.

  6. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  7. Hospitalization Type and Subsequent Severe Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Robert P.; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Hospitalization is associated with microbiome perturbation (dysbiosis), and this perturbation is more severe in patients treated with antimicrobials. Objectives: To evaluate whether hospitalizations known to be associated with periods of microbiome perturbation are associated with increased risk of severe sepsis after hospital discharge. Methods: We studied participants in the U.S. Health and Retirement Study with linked Medicare claims (1998–2010). We measured whether three hospitalization types associated with increasing severity of probable dysbiosis (non–infection-related hospitalization, infection-related hospitalization, and hospitalization with Clostridium difficile infection [CDI]) were associated with increasing risk for severe sepsis in the 90 days after hospital discharge. We used two study designs: the first was a longitudinal design with between-person comparisons and the second was a self-controlled case series design using within-person comparison. Measurements and Main Results: We identified 43,095 hospitalizations among 10,996 Health and Retirement Study–Medicare participants. In the 90 days following non–infection-related hospitalization, infection-related hospitalization, and hospitalization with CDI, adjusted probabilities of subsequent admission for severe sepsis were 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8–4.4%), 7.1% (95% CI, 6.6–7.6%), and 10.7% (95% CI, 7.7–13.8%), respectively. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of severe sepsis was 3.3-fold greater during the 90 days after hospitalizations than during other observation periods. The IRR was 30% greater after an infection-related hospitalization versus a non–infection-related hospitalization. The IRR was 70% greater after a hospitalization with CDI than an infection-related hospitalization without CDI. Conclusions: There is a strong dose–response relationship between events known to result in dysbiosis and subsequent severe sepsis hospitalization that is not present

  8. Parameter identification in periodic delay differential equations with distributed delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkamani, Shahab; Butcher, Eric A.; Khasawneh, Firas A.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a parameter identification approach for identifying the parameters of a periodic delayed system with distributed delay is introduced based on time series analysis and spectral element analysis. Using this approach the parameters of the distributed delayed system can be identified from the time series of the response of the system. The experimental or numerical data of the response is examined with Floquet theory and time series analysis techniques to estimate a reduced order dynamics, or truncated state space to identify the Floquet multipliers. Parameter identification is then completed using a dynamic map developed for the assumed model of the system which can relate the Floquet multipliers to the unknown parameters in the model. The parameter identification technique is validated numerically for first and second order delay differential equations with distributed delay.

  9. Amplitude death in networks of delay-coupled delay oscillators.

    PubMed

    Höfener, Johannes M; Sethia, Gautam C; Gross, Thilo

    2013-09-28

    Amplitude death is a dynamical phenomenon in which a network of oscillators settles to a stable state as a result of coupling. Here, we study amplitude death in a generalized model of delay-coupled delay oscillators. We derive analytical results for degree homogeneous networks which show that amplitude death is governed by certain eigenvalues of the network's adjacency matrix. In particular, these results demonstrate that in delay-coupled delay oscillators amplitude death can occur for arbitrarily large coupling strength k. In this limit, we find a region of amplitude death which already occurs at small coupling delays that scale with 1/k. We show numerically that these results remain valid in random networks with heterogeneous degree distribution.

  10. [Extensive squamous papillomatosis of the oesophagus with malignant transformation of squamous epithelium].

    PubMed

    Borgulya, M; Lorenz, D; Vieth, M; Ell, C; Pohl, J

    2011-11-01

    While small solitary oesophageal papillomas are uncommon findings that are occasionally identified on routine upper endoscopies, extensive oesophageal papillomatosis is an extremely rare condition with only 9 cases reported in the English literature. We report the case of a 72-year-old woman who was referred for progressive dysphagia for solid food and clinical signs for a reflux disease. Upper endoscopy demonstrated bizarre villous alterations of the mucosa covering the oesophagus subtotally and a suspicious area within these alterations. Histological work-up of the biopsy samples revealed marked papillary hypertrophy and a squamous epithelial carcinoma in situ corresponding to the suspicious lesion. The patient underwent oesophagectomy with cervical gastroesophageal anastomosis and proximal remnants of papillomatous mucosa above the anastomosis were destroyed with endoscopic argon plasma coagulation. In the 2-year follow-up the patient showed limited recurrence of the papillomatosis in the remaining proximal oesophagus containing a circumscript carcinoma that was successfully treated by local endoscopic mucosectomy. Our case strongly underscores the risk of malignant transformation in large areas of papillomatous mucosa and shows that systematic surveillance is essential. PMID:22069046

  11. Conservative treatment of coexisting microinvasive squamous and adenocarcinoma of the cervix: report of two cases and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sopracordevole, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Jacopo; Cervo, Silvia; Buttignol, Monica; Giorda, Giorgio; Ciavattini, Andrea; Canzonieri, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Coexistence of microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MISCC) and microinvasive adenocarcinoma (MIAC) of the cervix is a rare phenomenon with very few clinically significant cases described in the literature. While a conservative approach has been studied, and may be effective in MISCC, a lower number of studies that recommend conservative treatment are available for MIAC. We report two cases of synchronous cervix lesions in two separate foci, MISCC and MIAC, who underwent fertility-sparing treatment with long-term follow-up. We describe clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of the two cases. The first case is a 41-year-old female with a diagnosis of MIAC of endocervical type, grade 1 differentiation, with a stromal invasion, associated with a separate area of squamous cell carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/TNM stage: pT1a1G1). The second case is a 45-year-old female with a diagnosis of plurifocal MISCC, associated with an MIAC of endocervical type with a stromal invasion (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics/TNM stage: pT1a1G1). After multidisciplinary counseling, both patients accepted conization as definitive treatment. Eleven years after the conization, all tests (Papanicolaou smear, colposcopy, cervical curettage, and hybrid capture 2-human papillomavirus test) planned quarterly in the first year and every 6 months in the subsequent years were negative in both patients. In women affected by stage IA1 squamous cervical cancer coexisting with stage IA1 adenocarcinoma endocervical type, with clear margins, and without lymphovascular space invasion, cervical conization may be considered a fertility-preserving, safe, and definitive therapeutic option. PMID:26869798

  12. Radiofrequency hyperthermia-enhanced herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase/ganciclovir direct intratumoral gene therapy of esophageal squamous cancers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yaoping; Wang, Jianfeng; Bai, Zhibin; Li, Yonggang; Qiu, Longhua; Zhai, Bo; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in surgical technique and treatment strategies for esophageal cancer (EC), to effectively manage the advanced (metastatic or disseminated) and recurrent EC still remain a great challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of using intra-esophagus radiofrequency hyperthermia to enhance local HSV-TK/ganciclovir-mediated suicide gene therapy of an innovative animal models with orthotopic esophageal squamous cancers. Human esophageal squamous cancer (ESCa) cells were labeled with lentivirus/luciferase. ESCa cells and nude rats with orthotopic ESCa were divided into in four groups (n = 6/group) and treated with: i) combination therapy of MR imaging-heating-guidewire-mediated radiofrequency hyperthermia ((RFH, 42°C) plus local HSV-TK/GCV; ii) HSV-TK/GCV alone; iii) RFH alone; and (iv) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bioluminescence optical imaging and transcutaneous ultrasound imaging were used to follow up bioluminescence signal and size changes of tumors among different groups over two weeks, which were correlated with subsequent histology. We demonstrated that combination therapy of RFH with gene therapy resulted in the lowest cell proliferation (37.5±8.6%, P<0.0001), rendered the smallest relative tumor volume (0.90±0.15, P<0.01), and relative bioluminescence optical imaging photon signal intensity (0.81±0.17, P<0.01) of orthotopic esophageal cancers, compared with groups treated with gene therapy alone, RFH alone and PBS. Our study indicated that intra-esophageal radiofrequency hyperthermia could enhance the HSV-TK-mediated effect on esophageal squamous cancers. PMID:27725910

  13. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Involving the Parotid Area Lymph Nodes: Dose and Volume Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. Grekin, Roy C.; Garcia, Joaquin; Bucci, Mary K.; Margolis, Lawrence W.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: The intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes are the most commonly involved when skin cancer of the head and neck metastasizes beyond the primary site. We sought to report the clinical outcome of patients treated with radiation therapy for parotid-area metastases from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: The records of 36 patients treated with radiation therapy for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma involving the parotid-area lymph nodes were reviewed. All patients had clinically N0 necks and were without evidence of distant disease. Thirty patients (83%) were treated postoperatively after gross total tumor resection. Median dose to the parotid area was 60 Gy (range, 50-72 Gy). Treatment of clinically N0 necks consisted of surgical dissection (7 patients), irradiation (15 patients), and observation (14 patients). Results: The 5-year estimate of local (parotid) control was 86% in patients treated using surgery with postoperative therapy and 47% in patients treated using radiation therapy alone. Three of 4 patients with tumors that relapsed locally after surgery and postoperative radiation received a dose of less than 60 Gy. Elective neck irradiation decreased the incidence of subsequent nodal failures from 50% to 0% and significantly improved neck control (p < 0.001). The 5-year overall survival rate was 63%. Conclusions: Surgery followed by radiation therapy to doses of at least 60 Gy results in effective local control for patients with parotid area metastasis from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Routine irradiation of the clinically N0 neck is recommended.

  14. Geometric time delay interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2005-08-01

    The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using time delay interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the interspacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new and intuitive approach to extend this interpretation to all TDI observables. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of second-generation TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent arm lengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have improved high-frequency gravitational-wave sensitivity in realistic noise conditions (because they have fewer nulls in the gravitational-wave and noise response functions), and are less susceptible to instrumental gaps and glitches (because their component phase measurements span shorter time periods).

  15. Delayed traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Baratham, Gopal; Dennyson, William G.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-one out of 7,866 head injuries were complicated by the development of delayed intracerebral haematomata. The age distribution of patients with this condition closely resembled that of patients with subdural haematomata and differed sharply from patients with extradural haemorrhage. This finding, combined with the fact that the two conditions often coexisted, suggests the possibility of similar aetiological factors operating in their production. The injury producing the lesion was often minor and the larger haematomata appeared to be associated with longer `asymptomatic' intervals. The neurological deterioration was in most instances clearly the result of an increase in intracranial pressure. When possible, angiography followed by definitive craniotomy was the most satisfactory method of management and multiple burr holes even when combined with needling of the hemisphere yielded unsatisfactory results. The distribution of lesions tended to confirm their traumatic origin. On no occasion was there a vascular abnormality to account for the haemorrhage and, despite the fact that the ages of most patients were in the seventh and eighth decades, the incidence of degenerative vascular disease was small. Contusional injury causes a local failure of the mechanisms that regulate cerebral blood flow. Hypoxia, hypercapnia, and venous congestion produce cerebral hyperaemia which encourages gradual haematoma formation particularly at the sites of injury. This explains not only the situation of the lesions but also the latency between the trauma and their development. PMID:5084138

  16. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  17. Delayed unlatching mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2015-05-19

    In various embodiments an apparatus is presented for securing a structure such as a door, window, hatch, or gate that moves between an open and a closed position relative to a fixed structure to provide or deny access to a compartment, a room, an outdoor area, or a facility. Various embodiments provide a delay in opening the closure of sufficient duration to frustrate a rapid activation that might be desired by a person who is attempting to pass through the closure for some illicit purpose. Typically, hydraulics are used to activate the apparatus and no electrical energy or electronic signals are employed. In one embodiment, a plurality of actuations of a hand lever operates a hydraulic pump that moves a locking bolt from a first position in which a locking bolt is engaged with a recess in the fixed structure (preventing opening of a gate) to a second position in which the locking bolt is disengaged from the recess to permit opening of the gate.

  18. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  19. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  20. Delayed Reinforcement of Operant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2010-01-01

    The experimental analysis of delay of reinforcement is considered from the perspective of three questions that seem basic not only to understanding delay of reinforcement but also, by implication, the contributions of temporal relations between events to operant behavior. The first question is whether effects of the temporal relation between…

  1. Ectopic decidua and metastatic squamous carcinoma: presentation in a single pelvic lymph node.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C J

    1988-06-01

    The presence of ectopic decidua in pelvic lymph nodes from patients with squamous carcinoma of the cervix makes evaluation for metastatic disease difficult due to the light microscopic similarity between decidua and sheets of squamous epithelial cells. A patient is present in whom decidualized endometriosis was intimately associated with metastatic moderately differentiate squamous carcinoma in a single pelvic lymph node. This phenomenon afforded an excellent opportunity to study the unique morphologic features that distinguish these two entities. A prior report of this kind was not found. In the absence of obvious squamous differentiation (i.e., intercellular bridges, dyskeratosis, and keratin "pearl" formation), as is frequently the case with squamous carcinoma of the cervix, the light microscopic features that are most useful in distinguishing squamous carcinoma from decidua include the presence of well-defined nests of cohesive cells, nuclear hyperchromasia, and cellular pleomorphism.

  2. Subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Heidi C.; Weiner, Myron; Hynan, Linda S.; Cullum, C. Munro; Khera, Amit; Lacritz, Laura H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between measures of subclinical atherosclerosis and subsequent cognitive function. Method Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a population-based multiethnic study of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, were re-examined 8 years later (DHS-2) with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); N = 1904, mean age = 42.9, range 8–65. Associations of baseline measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium, abdominal aortic plaque, and abdominal aortic wall thickness) with MoCA scores measured at follow-up were examined in the group as a whole and in relation to age and ApoE4 status. Results A significant linear trend of successively lower MoCA scores with increasing numbers of atherosclerotic indicators was observed (F(3, 1150) = 5.918, p = .001). CAC was weakly correlated with MoCA scores (p = .047) and MoCA scores were significantly different between participants with and without CAC (M = 22.35 vs 23.69, p = 0.038). With the exception of a small association between abdominal AWT and MoCA in subjects over age 50, abdominal AWT and abdominal aortic plaque did not correlate with MoCA total score (p ≥.052). Cognitive scores and atherosclerosis measures were not impacted by ApoE4 status (p ≥.455). Conclusion In this ethnically diverse population-based sample, subclinical atherosclerosis was minimally associated with later cognitive function in middle-aged adults. PMID:25957568

  3. Intrapartum Cervical Laceration and Subsequent Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Luchin F.; Wilkes, Jacob; Korgenski, Kent; Varner, Michael W.; Manuck, Tracy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe pregnancy outcomes, including cervical insufficiency and preterm birth, in the subsequent pregnancy following an intrapartum cervical laceration. Study Design Retrospective cohort of women with their first two consecutive singleton pregnancies carried to ≥ 200/7 weeks' gestation within a tertiary health care system from 2002 to 2012. Cervical laceration cases were identified by ICD9 codes and included if suture repair was required. Results In this study, 55 women were confirmed to have a cervical laceration in the first delivery; 43 lacerations after vaginal delivery (VD) and 12 after cesarean delivery (CD). The median gestational age of the first delivery was 400/7 weeks and the median birth weight 3,545 g; these did not differ between VD and CD. In the second pregnancy, 2 of 55 women (4.6%) had a prophylactic cerclage placed; 1 carried to term and the other delivered at 356/7 weeks. In total, four women (9.3%) delivered the second pregnancy < 37 weeks: three had a prior term VD and one had a prior 34 weeks VD. There was only one case of recurrent cervical laceration, occurring in the setting of vaginal deliveries. Conclusion Obstetric cervical lacerations are uncommon. Complications in the following pregnancy were low, despite lack of additional prophylactic cerclage use. PMID:27621953

  4. Decisions reduce sensitivity to subsequent information

    PubMed Central

    Bronfman, Zohar Z.; Brezis, Noam; Moran, Rani; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Donner, Tobias; Usher, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural studies over half a century indicate that making categorical choices alters beliefs about the state of the world. People seem biased to confirm previous choices, and to suppress contradicting information. These choice-dependent biases imply a fundamental bound of human rationality. However, it remains unclear whether these effects extend to lower level decisions, and only little is known about the computational mechanisms underlying them. Building on the framework of sequential-sampling models of decision-making, we developed novel psychophysical protocols that enable us to dissect quantitatively how choices affect the way decision-makers accumulate additional noisy evidence. We find robust choice-induced biases in the accumulation of abstract numerical (experiment 1) and low-level perceptual (experiment 2) evidence. These biases deteriorate estimations of the mean value of the numerical sequence (experiment 1) and reduce the likelihood to revise decisions (experiment 2). Computational modelling reveals that choices trigger a reduction of sensitivity to subsequent evidence via multiplicative gain modulation, rather than shifting the decision variable towards the chosen alternative in an additive fashion. Our results thus show that categorical choices alter the evidence accumulation mechanism itself, rather than just its outcome, rendering the decision-maker less sensitive to new information. PMID:26108628

  5. Intrapartum Cervical Laceration and Subsequent Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Luchin F.; Wilkes, Jacob; Korgenski, Kent; Varner, Michael W.; Manuck, Tracy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to describe pregnancy outcomes, including cervical insufficiency and preterm birth, in the subsequent pregnancy following an intrapartum cervical laceration. Study Design  Retrospective cohort of women with their first two consecutive singleton pregnancies carried to ≥ 200/7 weeks' gestation within a tertiary health care system from 2002 to 2012. Cervical laceration cases were identified by ICD9 codes and included if suture repair was required. Results  In this study, 55 women were confirmed to have a cervical laceration in the first delivery; 43 lacerations after vaginal delivery (VD) and 12 after cesarean delivery (CD). The median gestational age of the first delivery was 400/7 weeks and the median birth weight 3,545 g; these did not differ between VD and CD. In the second pregnancy, 2 of 55 women (4.6%) had a prophylactic cerclage placed; 1 carried to term and the other delivered at 356/7 weeks. In total, four women (9.3%) delivered the second pregnancy < 37 weeks: three had a prior term VD and one had a prior 34 weeks VD. There was only one case of recurrent cervical laceration, occurring in the setting of vaginal deliveries. Conclusion  Obstetric cervical lacerations are uncommon. Complications in the following pregnancy were low, despite lack of additional prophylactic cerclage use. PMID:27621953

  6. Sleep quality influences subsequent motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Appleman, Erica R; Albouy, Genevieve; Doyon, Julien; Cronin-Golomb, Alice; King, Bradley R

    2016-06-01

    While the influence of sleep on motor memory consolidation has been extensively investigated, its relation to initial skill acquisition is less well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of sleep quality and quantity on subsequent motor skill acquisition in young adults without sleep disorders. Fifty-five healthy adults (mean age = 23.8 years; 34 women) wore actigraph wristbands for 4 nights, which provided data on sleep patterns before the experiment, and then returned to the laboratory to engage in a motor sequence learning task (explicit 5-item finger sequence tapping task). Indicators of sleep quality and quantity were then regressed on a measure of motor skill acquisition (Gains Within Training, GWT). Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO; i.e., the total amount of time the participants spent awake after falling asleep) was significantly and negatively related to GWT. This effect was not because of general arousal level, which was measured immediately before the motor task. Conversely, there was no relationship between GWT and sleep duration or self-reported sleep quality. These results indicate that sleep quality, as assessed by WASO and objectively measured with actigraphy before the motor task, significantly impacts motor skill acquisition in young healthy adults without sleep disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Decisions reduce sensitivity to subsequent information.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, Zohar Z; Brezis, Noam; Moran, Rani; Tsetsos, Konstantinos; Donner, Tobias; Usher, Marius

    2015-07-01

    Behavioural studies over half a century indicate that making categorical choices alters beliefs about the state of the world. People seem biased to confirm previous choices, and to suppress contradicting information. These choice-dependent biases imply a fundamental bound of human rationality. However, it remains unclear whether these effects extend to lower level decisions, and only little is known about the computational mechanisms underlying them. Building on the framework of sequential-sampling models of decision-making, we developed novel psychophysical protocols that enable us to dissect quantitatively how choices affect the way decision-makers accumulate additional noisy evidence. We find robust choice-induced biases in the accumulation of abstract numerical (experiment 1) and low-level perceptual (experiment 2) evidence. These biases deteriorate estimations of the mean value of the numerical sequence (experiment 1) and reduce the likelihood to revise decisions (experiment 2). Computational modelling reveals that choices trigger a reduction of sensitivity to subsequent evidence via multiplicative gain modulation, rather than shifting the decision variable towards the chosen alternative in an additive fashion. Our results thus show that categorical choices alter the evidence accumulation mechanism itself, rather than just its outcome, rendering the decision-maker less sensitive to new information. PMID:26108628

  8. A Phase Ib/II Study of BYL719 and Cetuximab in Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-30

    Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (RM HNSCC) Patients Who Are Resistant or Ineligible/Intolerant to Platinum-based Chemotherapy.; Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Gurudutt, Vivek V.; Genden, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  10. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Gurudutt, Vivek V; Genden, Eric M

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an epidemic that reaches all parts of the world. Making the diagnosis relies on the acumen of the clinician and pathologist. Various pathologic subtypes exist and differ in histology and prognosis. High-risk tumors need aggressive treatment and vigilant surveillance to monitor for recurrence. Large tumors, deep tissue invasion, perineural involvement, recurrence, location in high-risk areas, and immunosuppression are implicated in worsening prognosis. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with adjuvant radiation therapy as needed for aggressive tumors; however, other modalities are potentially useful for low-risk lesions. The use of Mohs surgery has become increasingly useful and has shown high success rates. Involvement of parotid and neck lymph nodes significantly affects outcomes and the physician should be comfortable with management of this complex disease. This paper examines the diagnosis, pathology, clinical course, and treatment options for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. PMID:21461387

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma in situ lining the uterine cavity.

    PubMed

    Anthuenis, J; Baekelandt, J; Bourgain, C; De Rop, C

    2016-01-01

    Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia is a very common and well-known pathology. However superficial spreading of this lesion is very rare. The authors present a case of a 72-year-old woman with an abdominal mass, who had previously undergone a cervical conisation for a high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia. Anatomo-pathological examination of the mass showed a large distended fluid-filled uterus with the entire endometrium replaced by a high-grade squamous cell lesion. There were only micro-invasive foci found. The authors performed a literature search in PubMed with the following MeSH-terms: "squamous cell carcinoma" and "endometrium". Other articles were selected out of the references of previously found articles. Only 31 similar cases were found. The presentation of the cases is varies extremely and a long-term prognosis is not yet known. PMID:27048127

  12. Pleura nodosum: fetal squamous debris in an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Kocovski, Linda; Stein, Nina; Arredondo, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We present a pathologic-radiologic case of a fetus with a right extralobar bronchopulmonary sequestration that required intervention in the form of a thoraco-amniotic shunt for management of a right pleural effusion. The intervention was successful in reducing the pleural effusion and the infant was born at 39 weeks gestational age but required some respiratory support for the 1st day of life. The pulmonary sequestration was excised on day 7 of life and demonstrated several small nodules on its pleural surface. Histologic examination demonstrated that the nodules consisted of granulomatous plaques containing squamous epithelium and hairs. The nodules are similar to those described in amnion nodosum, when the amniotic membrane incorporates fetal skin within the superficial tissue layers of the placenta in cases of oligohydramnios. To our knowledge, this is the 1st reported case of nodules containing amniotic fetal squamous debris to occur on lung visceral pleura.

  13. Penis keratoacanthoma transforming into squamous cell carcinoma: a rare case

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fei; Liu, Xuemei; Zhou, Yihong; Liu, Jianye; Tang, Yuxin; Tang, Jin; Yao, Kun; Xia, Bing; Dai, Yingbo

    2015-01-01

    Keratoacanthoma is variously regarded as a benign epithelial tumor, characterized by a rapid-growing and solitary flesh-colored nodule with a central keratin plug on the sun-exposed skin. Under certain circumstances, it can transform into squamous cell carcinoma. In this paper, we present a case of a 50-year-old man with a 2.5 × 3 × 2.2 cm mass on his penis stub-end. The patient was treat with a partial penectomy after further expert discussions and histopathology the lesion demonstrated penis keratoacanthoma. He received a partial penectomy again and the pathological result revealed squamous cell carcinoma this time. This case indicates that undergoing a partial penectomy on initial diagnosis of a penile tumor secondary to penile keratoacanthoma should be considered because of its high malignant potency. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to describe the malignant conversion of penis keratoacanthoma. PMID:26885065

  14. Targeted treatments for metastatic esophageal squamous cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Digklia, Antonia; Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma, one of the two major sub-types of esophageal carcinomas, constitutes the great majority of tumors in the upper and middle third of the organ. Declining in incidence in western countries, it continues to be a significant public health problem in the far east. Targeted treatments are novel therapies introduced in the clinical therapeutic armamentarium of oncology in the last 10-15 years. They represent a rational way of treating various cancers based on their molecular lesions. Although no such agent has been approved so far for the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC), several are in clinical trials and several others have displayed pre-clinical activity that would justify the efforts and risks of pursuing their clinical development in this disease. This paper discusses some of these targeted agents in more advanced development in metastatic ESCC, as well as some promising drugs with pre-clinical or initial clinical data in the disease. PMID:23799158

  15. Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Alonso-Alegre, Elisa M; Rodriguez-Alvaro, Alfonso; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Martinez-de-Merlo, Elena M; Sanchez-Maldonado, Belen

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old female adult reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Madrid for evaluation of a conjunctival mass on the left eye which had been present for about 2 months. A surgical excision was performed and biopsy material submitted for light microscopic evaluation which confirmed the diagnosis of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma. Nuclear p53 immunolabeling was found in 52% of the neoplastic cells. Follow-up examination at 12 months postsurgery did not reveal recurrence of this neoplasm. Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported previously in reindeer and seems to have similar characteristics to the one existing in bovine species.

  16. Squamous carcinoma arising in a parotid Warthin's tumour.

    PubMed

    Allevi, Fabiana; Biglioli, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Warthin's tumour is the second most common benign neoplasm to affect the salivary glands. It virtually affects the sole parotid gland. A sudden increase in a tumour's size is usually due to a malignant transformation of the tumour. The transformation of the lymphoid stroma into malignant lymphoma is relatively common, while an epithelial malignancy is extremely rare. In this paper, the authors present a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in Warthin's tumour. The patient underwent enucleoresection of the tumour. Intraoperative frozen section revealed the presence of a cystic component associated with the squamous cell carcinoma areas. In consideration of the result of the intraoperative consultation, the surgeons decided to enlarge the previous resection by removal of a 30×25 mm cuff from the surrounding parotid tissue. Close follow-up was carried out and 12 months after surgery there was no evidence of recurrence or metastatic neoplasm.

  17. Personalized targeted therapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng; Li, Yicheng; Li, Jianying; D'Amico, Thomas A; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma continues to heavily burden clinicians worldwide. Researchers have discovered the genomic landscape of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which holds promise for an era of personalized oncology care. One of the most pressing problems facing this issue is to improve the understanding of the newly available genomic data, and identify the driver-gene mutations, pathways, and networks. The emergence of a legion of novel targeted agents has generated much hope and hype regarding more potent treatment regimens, but the accuracy of drug selection is still arguable. Other problems, such as cancer heterogeneity, drug resistance, exceptional responders, and side effects, have to be surmounted. Evolving topics in personalized oncology, such as interpretation of genomics data, issues in targeted therapy, research approaches for targeted therapy, and future perspectives, will be discussed in this editorial. PMID:26167067

  18. Tadalafil augments tumor specific immunity in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Joseph A; Khan, Zubair; Noonan, Kimberly A.; Rudraraju, Lakshmi; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Hao; Goodman, Steven; Gourin, Christine G.; Ha, Patrick K.; Fakhry, Carole; Saunders, John; Levine, Marshall; Tang, Mei; Neuner, Geoffrey; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Blanco, Ray; Agrawal, Nishant; Koch, Wayne M.; Marur, Shanthi; Weed, Donald T.; Serafini, Paolo; Borrello, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors can augment immune function in head and neck cancer patients through inhibition of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Experimental Design We performed a randomized, prospective, double blinded, placebo controlled, phase II clinical trial to determine the in vivo effects of systemic PDE5 inhibition on immune function in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Results Tadalafil augmented immune response, increasing ex vivo T cell expansion to a mean 2.4 fold increase compared to 1.1 fold in control patients (P= 0.01), reducing peripheral MDSC numbers to mean 0.81 fold change compared to a 1.26 fold change in control patients (P=0.001), and increasing general immunity as measured by delayed type hypersensitivity response (P=0.002). Tumor specific immunity in response to HNSCC tumor lysate was augmented in tadalafil treated patients (P=0.04). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that tadalafil augments general and tumor-specific immunity in HNSCC patients and has therapeutic potential in HNSCC. Evasion of immune surveillance and suppression of systemic and tumor specific immunity is a significant feature of head and neck cancer development. This study demonstrates that a PDE5 inhibitor, tadalafil, can reverse tumor specific immune suppression in head and neck cancer patients, with potential for therapeutic application. PMID:25564570

  19. Delayed hypersensitivity to a corticosteroid suspension containing methylprednisolone. Two cases of conjunctival inflammation after retrobulbar injection.

    PubMed

    Mathias, C G; Robertson, D B

    1985-02-01

    Two patients with chronic iridocyclitis had a delayed hypersensitivity reaction, characterized by severe conjunctival inflammation, after retrobulbar injections with a commercial suspension of methylprednisolone acetate. Although patch test reactions to methylprednisolone at enhanced concentrations were negative, delayed hypersensitivity could be easily demonstrated by intradermal testing with this corticosteroid. Both patients also had concomitant delayed hypersensitivity to a proprietary preservative (myristyl gamma-picolinium chloride) in the commercial corticosteroid suspension, which was confirmed by intradermal testing. These observations (negative patch test reactions, positive intradermal test reactions) suggest that the route of administration may be an important determinant of antigenic hapten-protein complex formation and subsequent delayed hypersensitivity responses involving cutaneous or mucocutaneous tissue.

  20. Biphenotypic human papillomavirus-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Pitiyage, Gayani; Lei, Mary; Guererro Urbano, Teresa; Odell, Edward; Thavaraj, Selvam

    2015-07-11

    Human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is now recognised as a subtype of head and neck cancer with distinct clinical, molecular and histological characteristics. The majority of these carcinomas are of non-keratinising squamous type but there is a growing number of histomorphologic variants of this disease. Here we describe the clinical, histomorphologic and immunophenotypic features of two cases of human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma demonstrating a clearly delineated biphasic differentiated and undifferentiated phenotype.

  1. Review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu George; Rooban, T; Janani, V; Joshua, E; Rao, UK; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Malignancies are usually preceded by the presence of various paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which could be the indirect and/or remote effects of the metabolites produced by neoplastic cells. PNS manifested by oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, which is the most common head and neck malignancy, are highlighted in this review. Knowledge of the clinical spectrum of these syndromes will equip the oral physician for early diagnosis and management of these hidden malignancies, especially of the pharyngeal region. PMID:21731261

  2. Retinopathy secondary to radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Groomer, A.E.; Gutwein, D.E. )

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses a case of radiotherapy-induced retinopathy following treatment of squamous cell carcinoma. Treatment of the carcinoma with external beam radiotherapy to the supraorbital region and base of the skull was followed by the onset of retinopathy. The sensory retina, as well as other central nervous system tissues, is highly resistant to radiation damage; however, the retinal vasculature is extremely sensitive to radiation damage, producing a retinopathy that is characteristic of other vascular occlusive diseases. Management is discussed.

  3. Spontaneous regression in advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yeon Hee; Park, Bo Mi; Park, Se Yeon; Choi, Jae Woo; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Ju Ock; Jung, Sung Soo; Park, Hee Sun; Moon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous regression of malignant tumors is rare especially of lung tumor and biological mechanism of such remission has not been addressed. We report the case of a 79-year-old Korean patient with non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell cancer with a right hilar tumor and multiple lymph nodes, lung to lung metastasis that spontaneously regressed without any therapies. He has sustained partial remission state for one year and eight months after the first histological diagnosis. PMID:27076978

  4. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  5. Effects of hippocampal lesions on spatial delayed responses in dog.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, D M

    1995-01-01

    Thirteen dogs were trained to perform spatial delayed responses to auditory cues in a three-choice Nencki testing apparatus with a delay of 0 s and then 10 s with a criterion of 90% correct responses in 90 consecutive trials. Then six dogs received bilateral surgical removal of the hippocampus via the cortex of the suprasylvian gyrus (without additional injury to the entorhinal and parahippocampal cortex). Three dogs received control surgical ablation of the suprasylvian gyrus, which was damaged in ablation of the hippocampus, and four dogs served as intact controls. After the surgery or rest period, the dogs were tested for their retention (10-s delay), and then they were given additional tests with extended delays (30, 60, and 120 s) and with distractions during the 60-s delay period. In comparison with both control groups, dogs with hippocampal ablations had moderately impaired postoperative retention, as evidenced by the elevated numbers of errors on criterion. In subsequent stages of testing with extended delays, the impairment was greater and was significantly correlated with the extent of injury to the hippocampus. These data, together with an analysis of the animals' responses to the three-choice situation, indicate that in dogs lesions of the hippocampus impair spatial memory.

  6. Delayed-fission properties of neutron-deficient americium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, H.L. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-10-23

    Characteristics of the delayed-fission decay mode in light americium nuclei have been investigated. Measurements on the unknown isotopes {sup 230}Am and {sup 236}Am were attempted, and upper limits on the delayed-fission branches of these nuclei were determined. Evidence of the existence of {sup 236}Am was observed in radiochemical separations. Total kinetic energy and mass-yield distributions of the electron-capture delayed-fission mode were measured for {sup 232}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 1.31 {plus minus} 0.04 min) and for {sup 234}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 2.32 {plus minus} 0.08 min), and delayed-fission probabilities of 6.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, respectively, were determined. The total kinetic energy and the asymmetric mass-yield distributions are typical of fission of mid-range actinides. No discernible influence of the anomalous triple-peaked mass division characteristic of the thorium-radium region was detected. Measurements of the time correlation between the electron-capture x-rays and the subsequent fission conform that the observed fissions arise from the electron-capture delayed-fission mechanism. Delayed fission has provided a unique opportunity to extend the range of low-energy fission studies to previously inaccessible regions. 71 refs., 44 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Delayed Geodynamo in Hadean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.

    2014-12-01

    Paleointensity measurements of Archean rocks reveal a strong geodynamo at ~3.45 Ga, while excess nitrogen content of lunar soil samples implies no geodynamo at ~3.9 Ga. Here I propose that initiation of a strong geodynamo is delayed due to accretion style of Earth, involving collision and merging of a few dozen Moon to Mars size planetary embryos. Two accretion scenarios consisting of 25 and 50 embryos are investigated. The collision of an embryo heats the proto-Earth's core differentially and the rotating low-viscosity core stably stratifies, creating a spherically symmetric and radially increasing temperature distribution. Convection starts in the outer core after each impact but is destroyed by the next impact. The iron core of an impacting embryo descends in the mantle and merges to the proto-Earth's core. Both adiabatic and non-adiabatic merging cases are studied. A major part of the gravitational energy released due to core merging is used to lift up the upper portion of the core to emplace the impactor core material at the neutrally buoyant level in the proto-Earth's core. The remaining energy is converted to heat. In the adiabatic case the merging embryo's core retains all of the remaining energy, while in the non-adiabatic merging 50% of the remaining energy is shared with the outer part of the proto-Earth's core where the embryo's core descends. The two merging models result in significantly different temperature distributions in the core at the end of accretion. After the accretion, the convecting shell in the outer core grows monotonically and generates geodynamo gradually. It takes about 50-100 Myr for the convecting shell to generate a strong dipole field at the surface, 50,000 to 100,000 nT, in the presence of a large stably stratified liquid inner core when the convecting outer core thickness exceeds about one half the radius of the Earth's core.

  8. Delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Werner J

    2003-10-21

    Immune reactions to small molecular compounds, such as drugs, can cause a variety of diseases involving the skin, liver, kidney, and lungs. In many drug hypersensitivity reactions, drug-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells recognize drugs through their alphabeta T-cell receptors in an MHC-dependent way. Drugs stimulate T cells if they act as haptens and bind covalently to peptides or if they have structural features that allow them to interact with certain T-cell receptors directly. Immunohistochemical and functional studies of drug-reactive T cells in patients with distinct forms of exanthema reveal that distinct T-cell functions lead to different clinical phenotypes. In maculopapular exanthema, perforin-positive and granzyme B-positive CD4+ T cells kill activated keratinocytes, while a large number of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in the epidermis is associated with formation of vesicles and bullae. Drug-specific T cells also orchestrate inflammatory skin reactions through the release of various cytokines (for example, interleukin-5, interferon) and chemokines (such as interleukin-8). Activation of T cells with a particular function seems to lead to a specific clinical picture (for example, bullous or pustular exanthema). Taken together, these data allow delayed hypersensitivity reactions (type IV) to be further subclassified into T-cell reactions, which through the release of certain cytokines and chemokines preferentially activate and recruit monocytes (type IVa), eosinophils (type IVb), or neutrophils (type IVd). Moreover, cytotoxic functions by either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells (type IVc) seem to participate in all type IV reactions.

  9. Mental Imagery Affects Subsequent Automatic Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801

  10. Cough During Infancy and Subsequent Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Eyal; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Halonen, Marilyn; Wright, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Wheezing in infancy has been associated with subsequent asthma, but whether cough similarly influences asthma risk has been little studied. We sought to determine whether prolonged cough and cough without cold in the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma. METHODS Participants in the Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort, were surveyed 7 times in the first 9 months of life regarding presence of wheeze and cough. Cough for more than 28 days was defined as prolonged. Parents were asked at 1 year if the child ever coughed without a cold. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosis of asthma, with symptoms or medication use between 2–9 years. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds for asthma associated with cough characteristics. RESULTS 24% (97) of children experienced prolonged cough and 23% (95) cough without cold in the first 9 months, respectively. Prolonged cough was associated with increased risk of asthma relative to brief cough (OR 3.57, CI: 1.88, 6.76), with the risk being particularly high among children of asthmatic mothers. Cough without cold (OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.57) was also independently associated with risk of childhood asthma. Both relations persisted after adjustment for wheeze and total IgE at age 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prolonged cough in infancy and cough without cold are associated with childhood asthma, independent of infant wheeze. These findings suggest that characteristics of cough in infancy are early markers of asthma susceptibility, particularly among children with maternal asthma. PMID:26011047

  11. [Differential diagnosis of squamous epithelial carcinoma of the salivary glands].

    PubMed

    Seifert, G; Donath, K

    1998-05-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the salivary glands are localized predominantly in the major salivary glands and must be distinguished from metastases of extraglandular SCC of the skin, especially the head and neck area. Squamous cell metaplasia in non-tumourous diseases of the salivary gland (e.g. necrotizing sialometaplasia) as well as in benign or malignant salivary gland tumours (e.g. metaplastic Warthin tumour) can simulate SCC. Other differential diagnostic problems are the structural variants of SCC which develop predominantly in the minor salivary glands, but not in the major salivary glands. Special types include the very rare adenoid SCC with pseudoglandular structures as the result of acantholysis, the biphasic adenosquamous carcinoma with differentiation as SCC and adenocarcinoma, the biphasic basaloid squamous carcinoma with a structure as SCC and solid basaloid carcinoma (analogous to the solid type of adenoid-cystic carcinoma) and the poorly differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma (grade III) with biphasic structure of undifferentiated epidermoid and intermediate cells as well as inclusion of small groups of mucous-producing goblet cells. The differential diagnostic criteria are analysed concerning prognosis and treatment.

  12. Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis in gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joseph; Onate, Mairelys D; Pauley, Kaleb M; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Cha, Seunghee

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been recently linked to a variety of systemic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, preterm delivery, and oral cancer. The most common bacteria associated with periodontal disease, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has not yet been studied in the malignant gingival tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of P. gingivalis in specimens from squamous cell carcinoma patients. We have performed immunohistochemical staining to investigate the presence of P. gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii (S. gordonii), a non invasive oral bacteria, in paraffin embedded samples of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (n=10) and normal gingiva (n=5). Staining for P. gingivalis revealed the presence of the bacteria in normal gingival tissues and gingival carcinoma, with higher levels (more than 33%, P<0.05) detected in the carcinoma samples. The staining intensity was also significantly enhanced in the malignant tissue by 2 folds (P<0.023) compared to specimens stained for the non-invasive S. gordonii. P. gingivalis is abundantly present in malignant oral epithelium suggesting a potential association of the bacteria with gingival squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22010579

  13. Immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhen-ge; Ren, Xiao-hua; Wang, Sha-sha; Liang, Xin-hua; Tang, Ya-ling

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models can closely mimic human oral squamous epithelial carcinogenesis, greatly expand the in vivo research possibilities, and play a critical role in the development of diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. With the development of the recent research on the contribution of immunity/inflammation to cancer initiation and progression, mouse models have been divided into two categories, namely, immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models. And thus, this paper will review these two kinds of models applied in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to provide a platform to understand the complicated histological, molecular, and genetic changes of oral squamous epithelial tumorigenesis. PMID:26869799

  14. Delay of Gratification and Delay Discounting: A Unifying Feedback Model of Delay-Related Impulsive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Schiffbauer, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Delay of Gratification (DG) and Delay Discounting (DD) represent two indices of impulsive behavior often treated as though they represent equivalent or the same underlying processes. However, there are key differences between DG and DD procedures, and between certain research findings with each procedure, that suggest they are not equivalent. In…

  15. A role for sunlight in skin cancer: UV-induced p53 mutations in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Brash, D E; Rudolph, J A; Simon, J A; Lin, A; McKenna, G J; Baden, H P; Halperin, A J; Pontén, J

    1991-01-01

    Sunlight is a carcinogen to which everyone is exposed. Its UV component is the major epidemiologic risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Of the multiple steps in tumor progression, those that are sunlight-related would be revealed if they contained mutations specific to UV. In a series of New England and Swedish patients, we find that 14/24 (58%) of invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the skin contain mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, each altering the amino acid sequence. Involvement of UV light in these p53 mutations is indicated by the presence in three of the tumors of a CC----TT double-base change, which is only known to be induced by UV. UV is also implicated by a UV-like occurrence of mutations exclusively at dipyrimidine sites, including a high frequency of C----T substitutions. p53 mutations in internal malignancies do not show these UV-specific mutations. The dipyrimidine specificity also implicates dipyrimidine photoproducts containing cytosine as oncogenic photoproducts. We believe these results identify a carcinogen-related step in a gene involved in the subsequent human cancer. Images PMID:1946433

  16. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-01

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N2O and H2O . The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N2O , whereas the delays in H2O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N2O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ˜110 as. The unstructured continua of H2O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  17. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible. PMID:27610849

  18. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  19. Association between Incident Cancer and Subsequent Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Navi, Babak B.; Reiner, Anne S.; Kamel, Hooman; Iadecola, Costantino; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Panageas, Katherine S.; DeAngelis, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between incident cancer and the subsequent risk of stroke. Methods Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare linked database, we identified patients with a new primary diagnosis of breast, colorectal, lung, pancreatic, or prostate cancer from 2001 through 2007. These patients were individually matched by age, sex, race, registry, and medical comorbidities to a group of Medicare enrollees without cancer, and each pair was followed through 2009. Validated diagnosis codes were used to identify a primary outcome of stroke. Cumulative incidence rates were calculated using competing risk survival statistics. Results Among 327,389 pairs of cancer patients and matched controls, the 3-month cumulative incidence of stroke was generally higher in patients with cancer. Cumulative incidence rates were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9–5.2%) in patients with lung cancer compared to 1.2% (95% CI, 1.2–1.3%) in controls (p<0.001), 3.4% (95% CI, 3.1–3.6%) in patients with pancreatic cancer compared to 1.3% (95% CI, 1.1–1.5%) in controls (p<0.001), 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2–3.4%) in patients with colorectal cancer compared to 1.3% (95% CI, 1.2–1.4%) in controls (p<0.001), 1.5% (95% CI, 1.4–1.6%) in patients with breast cancer compared to 1.1% (95% CI, 1.0–1.2%) in controls (p<0.001), and 1.2% (95% CI, 1.1–1.3%) in patients with prostate cancer compared to 1.1% (95% CI, 1.0–1.2%) in controls (p=0.085). Excess risks attenuated over time and were generally no longer present beyond 1 year. Interpretation Incident cancer is associated with an increased short-term risk of stroke. This risk appears highest with lung, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers. PMID:25472885

  20. Hippocampus, delay discounting, and vicarious trial-and-error.

    PubMed

    Bett, David; Murdoch, Lauren H; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    In decision-making, an immediate reward is usually preferred to a delayed reward, even if the latter is larger. We tested whether the hippocampus is necessary for this form of temporal discounting, and for vicarious trial-and-error at the decision point. Rats were trained on a recently developed, adjustable delay-discounting task (Papale et al. (2012) Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12:513-526), which featured a choice between a small, nearly immediate reward, and a larger, delayed reward. Rats then received either hippocampus or sham lesions. Animals with hippocampus lesions adjusted the delay for the larger reward to a level similar to that of sham-lesioned animals, suggesting a similar valuation capacity. However, the hippocampus lesion group spent significantly longer investigating the small and large rewards in the first part of the sessions, and were less sensitive to changes in the amount of reward in the large reward maze arm. Both sham- and hippocampus-lesioned rats showed a greater amount of vicarious trial-and-error on trials in which the delay was adjusted. In a nonadjusting version of the delay discounting task, animals with hippocampus lesions showed more variability in their preference for a larger reward that was delayed by 10 s compared with sham-lesioned animals. To verify the lesion behaviorally, rat were subsequently trained on a water maze task, and rats with hippocampus lesions were significantly impaired compared with sham-lesioned animals. The findings on the delay discounting tasks suggest that damage to the hippocampus may impair the detection of reward magnitude.

  1. Delayed Nephropleural Fistula After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Kamaljot S.; Cwikla, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pleural effusions due to pleural injury following supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) occur in upwards of 15% of patients; however, these effusions are invariably diagnosed immediately postoperative or during the hospital stay. Herein, we report our initial experience with a delayed nephropleural fistula. A 52-year-old female underwent an uneventful supracostal right PCNL staghorn stone procedure and was discharged on postoperative day 1. She presented to the emergency department 8 days after her original procedure and one day after ureteral stent removal in the office, with right pleural effusion, concomitant contralateral renal colic secondary to migration of a left pelvic stone into her left proximal ureter, and acute renal failure/oliguria. She was treated with right chest tube drainage, bilateral nephrostomy tube placement, and subsequent left holmium laser ureterolithotripsy. PMID:27579431

  2. Delayed Nephropleural Fistula After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Kamaljot S; Cwikla, Daniel; Clayman, Ralph V

    2016-01-01

    Pleural effusions due to pleural injury following supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) occur in upwards of 15% of patients; however, these effusions are invariably diagnosed immediately postoperative or during the hospital stay. Herein, we report our initial experience with a delayed nephropleural fistula. A 52-year-old female underwent an uneventful supracostal right PCNL staghorn stone procedure and was discharged on postoperative day 1. She presented to the emergency department 8 days after her original procedure and one day after ureteral stent removal in the office, with right pleural effusion, concomitant contralateral renal colic secondary to migration of a left pelvic stone into her left proximal ureter, and acute renal failure/oliguria. She was treated with right chest tube drainage, bilateral nephrostomy tube placement, and subsequent left holmium laser ureterolithotripsy. PMID:27579431

  3. An Experimental Investigation of Hypergolic Ignition Delay of Hydrogen Peroxide with Fuel Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, John A.; Gostowski, Rudy; Chianese, Silvio

    2003-01-01

    An experimental investigation of hypergolicity and ignition delay of fuel mixtures with hydrogen peroxide is presented. Example results of high speed photography and schleiren from drop tests are shown. Also, a discussion of the sensitivity to experimental parameters such as drop size and subsequent uncertainty considerations of ignition delay results is presented. It is shown that using the described setup on the mixtures presented, the precision uncertainty is on the order of 6% of average ignition delay and 5% of average decomposition delay. This represents sufficient repeatability for first order discrimination of ignition delay for propellant development and screening. Two mixtures, each using commonly available amines and transition metal compounds, are presented as examples that result in ignition delays on the order of 10 milliseconds.

  4. 78 FR 59422 - Delayed Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Delayed Applications AGENCY: Office of Hazardous Materials Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  5. Prolonged Benefit from Ipilimumab Correlates with Improved Outcomes from Subsequent Pembrolizumab.

    PubMed

    Shreders, Amanda; Joseph, Richard; Peng, Chengwei; Ye, Fei; Zhao, Shilin; Puzanov, Igor; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Johnson, Douglas B

    2016-07-01

    Patients with metastatic melanoma whose disease progresses on ipilimumab can clearly derive benefit from subsequent anti-programmed death-1 (PD-1). However, patients experience heterogeneous outcomes with ipilimumab, including rapid or delayed progression, and it is unclear whether patterns of ipilimumab progression influence subsequent clinical responses to anti-PD-1. We retrospectively reviewed data from 116 patients with metastatic melanoma who progressed on ipilimumab and were subsequently treated with pembrolizumab. The study objectives were to determine whether progression-free survival (PFS) with ipilimumab was associated with PFS, objective response rate (ORR), and clinical benefit rate (CBR; ORR + stable disease) with pembrolizumab. Patients with PFS ≥90 days after treatment with ipilimumab generally had superior outcomes with subsequent pembrolizumab treatment compared with patients with PFS <90 days (ORR, 49% vs. 35%, P = 0.12; CBR, 66% vs. 46%, P = 0.03). Patients with prolonged ipilimumab benefit (PFS ≥ 180 days) had excellent outcomes with pembrolizumab compared with rapid progressors (PFS < 45 days; ORR, 55% vs. 25%; CBR, 80% vs. 25%; median PFS, 249 vs. 50 days). Using logistic regression models, PFS with ipilimumab was independently correlated with response to pembrolizumab (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.02-1.51). This study shows that prolonged PFS with ipilimumab predicts excellent outcomes with subsequent pembrolizumab treatment, offering valuable prognostic information for clinicians. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(7); 569-73. ©2016 AACR.

  6. Time delays in gated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wendy L; Becker, Nathan

    2009-07-28

    In gated radiotherapy, the accuracy of treatment delivery is determined by the accuracy with which both the imaging and treatment beams are gated. If the time delays (the time between the target entering/leaving the gated region and the first/last image acquired or treatment beam on/off) for the imaging and treatment systems are in the opposite directions, they may increase the required internal target volume (ITV) margin, above that indicated by the tolerance for either system measured individually. We measured a gating system's time delay on 3 fluoroscopy systems, and 3 linear accelerator treatment beams, using a motion phantom of known geometry, varying gating type (amplitude vs. phase), beam energy, dose rate, and period. The average beam on imaging time delays were -0.04 +/- 0.05 s (amplitude, 1 SD), -0.11 +/- 0.04 s (phase); while the average beam off imaging time delays were -0.18 +/- 0.08 s (amplitude) and -0.15 +/- 0.04 s (phase). The average beam on treatment time delays were 0.09 +/- 0.02 s (amplitude, 1 SD), 0.10 +/- 0.03 s (phase); while the average beam off time delays for treatment beams were 0.08 +/- 0.02 s (amplitude) and 0.07 +/- 0.02 s (phase). The negative value indicates the images were acquired early, and the positive values show the treatment beam was triggered late. We present a technique for calculating the margin necessary to account for time delays and found that the difference between the imaging and treatment time delays required a significant increase in the ITV margin in the direction of tumor motion at the gated level.

  7. Measuring Information-Transfer Delays

    PubMed Central

    Wibral, Michael; Pampu, Nicolae; Priesemann, Viola; Siebenhühner, Felix; Seiwert, Hannes; Lindner, Michael; Lizier, Joseph T.; Vicente, Raul

    2013-01-01

    In complex networks such as gene networks, traffic systems or brain circuits it is important to understand how long it takes for the different parts of the network to effectively influence one another. In the brain, for example, axonal delays between brain areas can amount to several tens of milliseconds, adding an intrinsic component to any timing-based processing of information. Inferring neural interaction delays is thus needed to interpret the information transfer revealed by any analysis of directed interactions across brain structures. However, a robust estimation of interaction delays from neural activity faces several challenges if modeling assumptions on interaction mechanisms are wrong or cannot be made. Here, we propose a robust estimator for neuronal interaction delays rooted in an information-theoretic framework, which allows a model-free exploration of interactions. In particular, we extend transfer entropy to account for delayed source-target interactions, while crucially retaining the conditioning on the embedded target state at the immediately previous time step. We prove that this particular extension is indeed guaranteed to identify interaction delays between two coupled systems and is the only relevant option in keeping with Wiener’s principle of causality. We demonstrate the performance of our approach in detecting interaction delays on finite data by numerical simulations of stochastic and deterministic processes, as well as on local field potential recordings. We also show the ability of the extended transfer entropy to detect the presence of multiple delays, as well as feedback loops. While evaluated on neuroscience data, we expect the estimator to be useful in other fields dealing with network dynamics. PMID:23468850

  8. Delay in cutaneous melanoma diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Marcus H.S.B.; Drummond-Lage, Ana P.; Baeta, Cyntia; Rocha, Lorena; Almeida, Alessandra M.; Wainstein, Alberto J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Advanced melanoma is an incurable disease with complex and expensive treatments. The best approach to prevent melanoma at advanced stages is an early diagnosis. A knowledge of factors associated with the process of detecting cutaneous melanomas and the reasons for delays in diagnosis is essential for the improvement of the secondary prevention of the disease. Identify sociodemographic, individual, and medical aspects related to cutaneous melanoma diagnosis delay. Interviews evaluated the knowledge of melanoma, signals, symptoms, persons who were suspected, delays in seeking medical attention, physician's deferrals, and related factors of 211 patients. Melanomas were self-discovered in 41.7% of the patients; healthcare providers detected 29.9% of patients and others detected 27%. The main component in delay was patient-related. Only 31.3% of the patients knew that melanoma was a serious skin cancer, and most thought that the pigmented lesion was not important, causing a delay in seeking medical assistance. Patients (36.4%) reported a wait interval of more than 6 months from the onset of an observed change in a pigmented lesion to the first visit to a physician. The delay interval from the first physician visit to a histopathological diagnosis was shorter (<1 month) in 55.5% of patients. Improper treatments without a histopathological confirmation occurred in 14.7% of patients. A professional delay was related to both inappropriate treatments performed without histopathological confirmation (P = 0.003) and long requirements for medical referrals (P < 0.001). A deficient knowledge in the population regarding melanoma and physicians’ misdiagnoses regarding suspicious lesions contributed to delays in diagnosis. PMID:27495055

  9. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics. PMID:26907568

  10. Basin stability in delayed dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Siyang; Lin, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Basin stability (BS) is a universal concept for complex systems studies, which focuses on the volume of the basin of attraction instead of the traditional linearization-based approach. It has a lot of applications in real-world systems especially in dynamical systems with a phenomenon of multi-stability, which is even more ubiquitous in delayed dynamics such as the firing neurons, the climatological processes, and the power grids. Due to the infinite dimensional property of the space for the initial values, how to properly define the basin’s volume for delayed dynamics remains a fundamental problem. We propose here a technique which projects the infinite dimensional initial state space to a finite-dimensional Euclidean space by expanding the initial function along with different orthogonal or nonorthogonal basis. A generalized concept of basin’s volume in delayed dynamics and a highly practicable calculating algorithm with a cross-validation procedure are provided to numerically estimate the basin of attraction in delayed dynamics. We show potential applicabilities of this approach by applying it to study several representative systems of biological or/and physical significance, including the delayed Hopfield neuronal model with multistability and delayed complex networks with synchronization dynamics.

  11. Radiation Therapy With Cisplatin, Docetaxel, or Cetuximab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  12. A review of clinical and histological parameters associated with contralateral neck metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Song; Tang, Qiong-lan; Lin, Ying-jin; Chen, Wei-liang; Li, Jin-song; Huang, Zhi-quan; Yang, Zhao-hui; Wang, You-yuan; Zhang, Da-ming; Wang, Hui-jing; Dias-Ribeiro, Eduardo; Cai, Qiang; Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high incidence of cervical micrometastases and sometimes metastasizes contralaterally because of the rich lymphatic intercommunications relative to submucosal plexus of oral cavity that freely communicate across the midline, and it can facilitate the spread of neoplastic cells to any area of the neck consequently. Clinical and histopathologic factors continue to provide predictive information to contralateral neck metastases (CLNM) in OSCC, which determine prophylactic and adjuvant treatments for an individual patient. This review describes the predictive value of clinical-histopathologic factors, which relate to primary tumor and cervical lymph nodes, and surgical dissection and adjuvant treatments. In addition, the indications for elective contralateral neck dissection and adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) and strategies for follow-up are offered, which is strongly focused by clinicians to prevent later CLNM and poor prognosis subsequently. PMID:22010576

  13. Delayed marriages in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sathar, Z A; Kiani, M F

    1986-01-01

    Data from the Migration Module of the Population, Labor Force, and Migration (PLM) Survey of 1979 and from the population censuses of 1961, 1972, and 1981 were examined to explore the impact of modernization, particularly of expansion of education and modern sector employment, urbanization, and migration on proportions never married in various age groups in Pakistan. Table 1 shows a noticeable and substantial increase in proportions never married between 1961 and 1975 and subsequently until 1981. The increase in proportions never married was more pronounced for young females aged 15-29 years than for males in the same age group. The figures for 1972 and 1981 were similar, indicating that increases in the proportions never married occurred more in the 1960s. The singulate mean age at marriage for females was computed to be 18.1 years in 1961, 19.8 years in 1972, and 20.7 years in 1981. Over the 1961-81 period, marital postponement for males was considerably less pronounced. In the age groups above age 30, the proportions never married were lower in 1981 than in 1961 for both males and females. Overall increases in the proportions never married were not as marked in the case of Pakistani males, which may be attributed to the fact that beginning in 1961 male marriage age was already considerably higher than female marriage age -- 23.6 years. Patterns of marriage behavior were expected to vary in the 4 provinces -- Punjab, Sind, NWFP, and Baluchistan -- because of differences in cultural patterns, levels of development, and urbanization. Punjab, the most developed province, contained the bulk of the proportion never married in the 15-19 age group, both in urban and in rural areas. The provincial differential in proportions never married was much greater for females than for males. Punjab had the highest proportions of never married females, followed by the NWFP and Sind, in both urban and rural areas. Urban Punjab had the least differences in average ages at marriage

  14. Prediction of Weather Related Center Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deepak, Kulkarni; Banavar, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of an initial study of relations between national delay, center level delays and weather. The results presented in the paper indicate: (a) the methodology used for estimating the delay at the national level can be extended to estimate delays caused by a center and delays experienced by a center, (b)delays caused by a center can be predicted using that center's Weather Impacted Traffic Index (WITI) whereas delays experienced by a center are best predicted using WITI of that center and that of a few prominent centers (c) there is differential impact of weather of different centers on center delays.

  15. Talactoferrin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-30

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  16. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris)

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Émilie L.; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  17. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Couture, Émilie L; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-12-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  18. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-12

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  19. Feedback delays eliminate auditory-motor learning in speech production.

    PubMed

    Max, Ludo; Maffett, Derek G

    2015-03-30

    Neurologically healthy individuals use sensory feedback to alter future movements by updating internal models of the effector system and environment. For example, when visual feedback about limb movements or auditory feedback about speech movements is experimentally perturbed, the planning of subsequent movements is adjusted - i.e., sensorimotor adaptation occurs. A separate line of studies has demonstrated that experimentally delaying the sensory consequences of limb movements causes the sensory input to be attributed to external sources rather than to one's own actions. Yet similar feedback delays have remarkably little effect on visuo-motor adaptation (although the rate of learning varies, the amount of adaptation is only moderately affected with delays of 100-200ms, and adaptation still occurs even with a delay as long as 5000ms). Thus, limb motor learning remains largely intact even in conditions where error assignment favors external factors. Here, we show a fundamentally different result for sensorimotor control of speech articulation: auditory-motor adaptation to formant-shifted feedback is completely eliminated with delays of 100ms or more. Thus, for speech motor learning, real-time auditory feedback is critical. This novel finding informs theoretical models of human motor control in general and speech motor control in particular, and it has direct implications for the application of motor learning principles in the habilitation and rehabilitation of individuals with various sensorimotor speech disorders.

  20. Prevalence of HIV seropositivity among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    PubMed Central

    Osahon, Adesuwa I; Ukponmwan, Catherine U; Uhunmwangho, Odarosa M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of HIV seropositivity among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Methods All patients with clinical and histopathological confirmation of squamous cell carcinoma seen during a ten year period (July 1999 to June 2009) were tested for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva who are HIV positive were counted. Results A total of thirty-three(33) eyes in thirty-two(32) patients were confirmed histopathologically to have conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. Their ages ranged from 22 years to 66 years with a mean age of (38.6±11.8) years (SD). The male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Twenty four (75%) of these patients were HIV positive. Conclusions Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with the human immunodeficiency virus and is thus a marker for the disease in Benin City, Nigeria. PMID:23569747

  1. CADM1 inhibits squamous cell carcinoma progression by reducing STAT3 activity

    PubMed Central

    Vallath, Sabari; Sage, Elizabeth K.; Kolluri, Krishna K.; Lourenco, Sofia N.; Teixeira, Vitor S.; Chimalapati, Suneeta; George, P. Jeremy; Janes, Sam M.; Giangreco, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Although squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) of the lungs, head and neck, oesophagus, and cervix account for up to 30% of cancer deaths, the mechanisms that regulate disease progression remain incompletely understood. Here, we use gene transduction and human tumor xenograft assays to establish that the tumour suppressor Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) inhibits SqCC proliferation and invasion, processes fundamental to disease progression. We determine that the extracellular domain of CADM1 mediates these effects by forming a complex with HER2 and integrin α6β4 at the cell surface that disrupts downstream STAT3 activity. We subsequently show that treating CADM1 null tumours with the JAK/STAT inhibitor ruxolitinib mimics CADM1 gene restoration in preventing SqCC growth and metastases. Overall, this study identifies a novel mechanism by which CADM1 prevents SqCC progression and suggests that screening tumours for loss of CADM1 expression will help identify those patients most likely to benefit from JAK/STAT targeted chemotherapies. PMID:27035095

  2. CADM1 inhibits squamous cell carcinoma progression by reducing STAT3 activity.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Sabari; Sage, Elizabeth K; Kolluri, Krishna K; Lourenco, Sofia N; Teixeira, Vitor S; Chimalapati, Suneeta; George, P Jeremy; Janes, Sam M; Giangreco, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Although squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) of the lungs, head and neck, oesophagus, and cervix account for up to 30% of cancer deaths, the mechanisms that regulate disease progression remain incompletely understood. Here, we use gene transduction and human tumor xenograft assays to establish that the tumour suppressor Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) inhibits SqCC proliferation and invasion, processes fundamental to disease progression. We determine that the extracellular domain of CADM1 mediates these effects by forming a complex with HER2 and integrin α6β4 at the cell surface that disrupts downstream STAT3 activity. We subsequently show that treating CADM1 null tumours with the JAK/STAT inhibitor ruxolitinib mimics CADM1 gene restoration in preventing SqCC growth and metastases. Overall, this study identifies a novel mechanism by which CADM1 prevents SqCC progression and suggests that screening tumours for loss of CADM1 expression will help identify those patients most likely to benefit from JAK/STAT targeted chemotherapies. PMID:27035095

  3. Genomic Characterization of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Reveals Critical Genes Underlying Tumorigenesis and Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hai-De; Liao, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Yuan-Bin; Huang, Shao-Yi; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Li, Fang-Fang; Ge, Xiao-Song; Liu, De-Qing; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Li, Xi-Zhao; Hu, Ye-Zhu; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Lehrman, Benjamin; Scott, Alan F; Lin, Dongxin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Shugart, Yin Yao; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-04-01

    The genetic mechanisms underlying the poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are not well understood. Here, we report somatic mutations found in ESCC from sequencing 10 whole-genome and 57 whole-exome matched tumor-normal sample pairs. Among the identified genes, we characterized mutations in VANGL1 and showed that they accelerated cell growth in vitro. We also found that five other genes, including three coding genes (SHANK2, MYBL2, FADD) and two non-coding genes (miR-4707-5p, PCAT1), were involved in somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) or structural variants (SVs). A survival analysis based on the expression profiles of 321 individuals with ESCC indicated that these genes were significantly associated with poorer survival. Subsequently, we performed functional studies, which showed that miR-4707-5p and MYBL2 promoted proliferation and metastasis. Together, our results shed light on somatic mutations and genomic events that contribute to ESCC tumorigenesis and prognosis and might suggest therapeutic targets.

  4. Overexpression of neuromedin U is correlated with regional metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Chen; Li, Fen; Hua, Qing-Quan; Chen, Shiming; Xiao, Bokui; Dai, Mengyuan; Li, Man; Zheng, Anyuan; Yu, Di; Hu, Zhang Wei; Tao, Zezhang

    2016-01-01

    Regional metastasis is an important prognostic factor for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Neuromedin U (Nmu) is a secreted neuropeptide, named due to its potent uterine contraction-inducing activity. The aim of the present study was to analyze the significance of Nmu in the regional metastasis of HNSCC. The characteristics of 240 patients recruited from the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Wuhan, China) were summarized retrospectively. The positive rate of neck dissection was analyzed according to the material. The expression levels of Nmu in human tumor samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, the expression of Nmu was investigated using a tissue microassay to analyze the association between Nmu protein expression and Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) status. The positive rate of neck dissection was 51.4% in the study sample. The expression levels of Nmu in primary tumors with regional metastasis were higher, compared with those without metastasis. There was increased protein expression of Nmu in the advanced tumor tissues. The data obtained in the present study demonstrated that the expression of Nmu was correlated with regional metastasis and TNM status. Overexpression of Nmu may be involved in the process of regional metastasis of HNSCC, and may serve as a novel and valuable biomarker for predicting regional metastasis in patients with HNSCC. PMID:27279246

  5. Methanol and Butanol Extracts of Paeonia lutea Leaves Repress Metastasis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mukudai, Yoshiki; Zhang, Meilin; Shiogama, Sunao; Kondo, Seiji; Ito, Chihiro; Motohashi, Hiromi; Kato, Kosuke; Fujii, Miharu; Shintani, Satoru; Shigemori, Hideyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga; Shirota, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common cancers of the head and neck region worldwide and is generally treated surgically in combination with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. However, anticancer agents have numerous serious side effects, and alternative, less toxic agents that are effective as chemotherapeutics for SCC are required. The Paeoniaceae family is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. We examined methanol and butanol extracts of Paeonia lutea (P. lutea) leaves for their potential as an anticancer agent. Both extracts decreased the proliferation of SCC cells, induced apoptotic cell death, and modulated migration, adhesion, chemotaxis, and haptotaxis in an extracellular matrix- (ECM-) dependent manner due to altered expression of several integrin subunits. Subsequently, SCC cells were subcutaneously transplanted into athymic nude mice; the extracts reduced the metastasis of SCC cells but had little effect on the volume of the primary tumor or survival or body weight of the mice. The results suggest that the extracts may hold promise for preventing cancer metastasis. PMID:27293462

  6. Genomic Characterization of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Reveals Critical Genes Underlying Tumorigenesis and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Hai-De; Liao, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Yuan-Bin; Huang, Shao-Yi; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Li, Fang-Fang; Ge, Xiao-Song; Liu, De-Qing; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Li, Xi-Zhao; Hu, Ye-Zhu; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Zhang, Lan-Jun; Lehrman, Benjamin; Scott, Alan F.; Lin, Dongxin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Shugart, Yin Yao; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms underlying the poor prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are not well understood. Here, we report somatic mutations found in ESCC from sequencing 10 whole-genome and 57 whole-exome matched tumor-normal sample pairs. Among the identified genes, we characterized mutations in VANGL1 and showed that they accelerated cell growth in vitro. We also found that five other genes, including three coding genes (SHANK2, MYBL2, FADD) and two non-coding genes (miR-4707-5p, PCAT1), were involved in somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) or structural variants (SVs). A survival analysis based on the expression profiles of 321 individuals with ESCC indicated that these genes were significantly associated with poorer survival. Subsequently, we performed functional studies, which showed that miR-4707-5p and MYBL2 promoted proliferation and metastasis. Together, our results shed light on somatic mutations and genomic events that contribute to ESCC tumorigenesis and prognosis and might suggest therapeutic targets. PMID:27058444

  7. Microsatellite instability in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J. K.; Kiaris, H.; Howard, P.; Vaughan, E. D.; Spandidos, D. A.; Jones, A. S.

    1995-01-01

    Genomic instability or microsatellite instability (MI) in simple repeated sequences was initially recognised in colonic carcinomas and subsequently in other tumours. MI has been associated with mutations in genes concerned with replication and DNA repair. We investigated 34 microsatellite markers in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Fifty-six tumours, were studied, of which 25 were investigated with ten or more microsatellite markers. In this study we consider two or more microsatellite alterations in a tumour to be diagnostic of MI. We demonstrated that 7/25 (28%) of the tumours had MI at two or more loci and three of these tumours exhibited evidence of 20 or more loci with MI. No correlations were found between MI and previous treatment, site, histological differentiation, positive nodes at pathology, a history of alcohol intake or survival. MI has been demonstrated in T1N0 stage tumours, indicating that these changes may occur early in the disease process. A negative correlation was found between MI and a history of smoking (P = 0.02). Two or more markers of MI were found in three of four non-smokers compared with one of 13 in the smoking group of patients, which suggests a novel mechanism of carcinogenesis in non-smokers. Images Figure 1 PMID:7734301

  8. MicroRNA-92b represses invasion-metastasis cascade of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Gang; Jing, Chao; Li, Lin; Huang, Furong; Ding, Fang; Wang, Baona; Lin, Dongmei; Luo, Aiping; Liu, Zhihua

    2016-01-01

    Invasion and metastasis are major contributors to cancer-caused death in patients suffered from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). To explore the microRNAs involved in regulating invasion-metastasis cascade of ESCC, we established two pairs of sublines (30-U/D and 180-U/D) with distinct motility capacity from two ESCC cell lines (KYSE30 and KYSE180). Screening of the differentially expressed microRNAs identified that microRNA-92b-3p (miR-92b) could dramatically inhibit invasion and metastasis of ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Subsequent studies showed that miR-92b exerted its inhibitory function through suppressing the expression of integrin αV (ITGAV), which further reduced phosphrylated FAK and impaired Rac1 activation. Moreover, higher expression of miR-92b in ESCC tissues correlated inversely with lymph node metastasis and indicated better prognosis. Together, these results for the first time describe how miR-92b suppresses the motility of ESCC cells and provide a promise for diagnosis or therapy of ESCC invasion and metastasis. PMID:26934001

  9. Somatically Acquired LINE-1 Insertions in Normal Esophagus Undergo Clonal Expansion in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Doucet-O'Hare, Tara T; Sharma, Reema; Rodić, Nemanja; Anders, Robert A; Burns, Kathleen H; Kazazian, Haig H

    2016-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC) is the most common form of esophageal cancer in the world and is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage when successful treatment is challenging. Understanding the mutational profile of this cancer may identify new treatment strategies. Because somatic retrotransposition has been shown in tumors of the gastrointestinal system, we focused on LINE-1 (L1) mobilization as a source of genetic instability in this cancer. We hypothesized that retrotransposition is ongoing in SCC patients. The expression of L1 encoded proteins is necessary for retrotransposition to occur; therefore, we evaluated the expression of L1 open reading frame 1 protein (ORF1p). Using immunohistochemistry, we detected ORF1p expression in all four SCC cases evaluated. Using L1-seq, we identified and validated 74 somatic insertions in eight tumors of the nine evaluated. Of these, 12 insertions appeared to be somatic, not genetically inherited, and sub-clonal (i.e., present in less than one copy per genome equivalent) in the adjacent normal esophagus (NE), while clonal in the tumor. Our results indicate that L1 retrotransposition is active in SCC of the esophagus and that insertion events are present in histologically NE that expands clonally in the subsequent tumor. PMID:27319353

  10. Human Papillomavirus–Related Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Chernock, Rebecca D.; Zhang, Qin; El-Mofty, Samir K.; Thorstad, Wade L.; Lewis, James S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the frequency of human papillomavirus–related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in African Americans and whites and to examine patient outcomes in these 2 groups. Design Retrospective study. Setting One tertiary care, university medical center. Patients Information on patients with stage III/IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2007, and with primary surgical samples available for review, were selected from a radiotherapy database. One patient was Native American and was excluded from analysis; data on 174 patients were analyzed. Results One hundred forty-eight patients (85.1%) were white and 26 (14.9%) were African American. Human papillomavirus in situ hybridization–positive and p16-positive tumors were much more common in whites (63.5% and 83.1% of tumors, respectively) than in African Americans (11.5% and 34.6% of tumors, respectively) (P<.001). African Americans were also more likely to have received definitive (nonsurgical) rather than postoperative radiation therapy (P=.001) and had a higher frequency of T3/T4–stage tumors (P=.03) compared with whites. Disease-free survival was significantly shorter for African Americans (P=.02). In multivariate analysis, viral status (P=.006), T stage (P=.02), and treatment type (P=.002), but not race (P=.98), were significant factors contributing to disease-free survival. Conclusions In high-stage oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, the proportion of human papillomavirus–related tumors is much higher in whites than in African Americans. African Americans also appear to develop higher T-stage tumors and are more likely to receive definitive therapy. The shorter disease-free survival observed in African Americans may be due to viral status, treatment type, and higher T stage, but does not appear to be due to race. PMID:21339403

  11. One’s Enough for Now: Children, Disability, and the Subsequent Childbearing of Mothers

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Maryhelen D.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study explores the subsequent childbearing of mothers whose firstborn children have disabilities. I make use of matched data from the 1993 NHIS - 1995 NSFG (N = 4,468) to determine the effects of child disability on the hazard of a second birth and draw on a series of 24 in-depth interviews that explore the lived experience of raising children with disabilities. My findings suggest that mothers whose firstborn children are disabled have a lower hazard of a second birth. This reduction stems from mothers’ recognition that children with disabilities have extensive needs and that, in order to meet those needs and maximize their potential, they need to make strategic choices such as delaying subsequent childbearing. PMID:23946550

  12. Error-Trellis Construction for Convolutional Codes Using Shifted Error/Syndrome-Subsequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Masato; Okino, Koji; Miyagoshi, Takashi

    In this paper, we extend the conventional error-trellis construction for convolutional codes to the case where a given check matrix H(D) has a factor Dl in some column (row). In the first case, there is a possibility that the size of the state space can be reduced using shifted error-subsequences, whereas in the second case, the size of the state space can be reduced using shifted syndrome-subsequences. The construction presented in this paper is based on the adjoint-obvious realization of the corresponding syndrome former HT(D). In the case where all the columns and rows of H(D) are delay free, the proposed construction is reduced to the conventional one of Schalkwijk et al. We also show that the proposed construction can equally realize the state-space reduction shown by Ariel et al. Moreover, we clarify the difference between their construction and that of ours using examples.

  13. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Venkataramanaiah, Padmalatha Gundappanayakanahalli; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-07-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  14. Natural Compounds: DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitors in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jha, Meenakshi; Aggarwal, Ruchi; Jha, Abhimanyu Kumar; Shrivastava, Anju

    2015-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a multistep process which is modulated by several endogenous and environmental factors. Epigenetic changes have been found to be equally responsible for OSCC as genetic changes. A plethora of genes showing hypermethylation have been discovered in OSCC. Since these changes are reversible, a lot of emphasis is on using the natural compounds for their ability to cause demethylation which could lead to reactivation of the inactivated tumor suppressor genes. This review encompasses the promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in OSCC and its possible reversal using natural compounds. In addition, new compounds which could be screened for their demethylating ability have also been proposed. PMID:26210787

  15. Enterovesical Fistula Secondary to Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder.

    PubMed

    Sellers, William; Fiorelli, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Enterovesical fistulas are a well-known complication of inflammatory and malignant bowel disease. Bladder carcinoma, however, is an extremely rare etiology. We describe a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder with an enterovesical fistula. This rare phenomenon has never been previously reported in western literature. We review the diagnosis, work up and treatment of enterovesical fistulas. Unfortunately, the prognosis for these highly invasive tumors is very poor and the treatment is often palliative. The high morbidity and mortality makes management of these patients exceptionally challenging.

  16. Papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma in koi carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Wildgoose, W H

    1992-02-22

    Over a period of two years four ornamental koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of one variety in a mixed population of 16 were affected with papillomas of the head and body. In one fish there was a transition of these tumours into a squamous cell carcinoma in the region of the head and posterior gill space, with deep invasion of the underlying bone. One of the fish recovered completely after the sloughing of the papillomas. In view of the progressive nature of the lesions, the condition was presumed to be due to an infectious agent, but transmission electron microscopy failed to reveal any virus particles. PMID:1566540

  17. Simultaneous Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Iradj; Shekarriz, Ramin; Nosrati, Anahita; Orang, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a rather common cancer in northern Iran. Incidence of adenocarcinoma of esophagus has an increasing trend in Iran. Co-existence of both cancers in one patient is very rare. We report a middle age woman from northern Iran with a typical presentation of esophageal cancer, who was found to have a dual esophageal cancer. The disease was found in the advanced stage with pulmonary metastasis at the presentation. Palliative chemo-radiotherapy induced partial clinical response PMID:26609356

  18. Simultaneous Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Iradj; Shekarriz, Ramin; Nosrati, Anahita; Orang, Elahe

    2015-10-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a rather common cancer in northern Iran. Incidence of adenocarcinoma of esophagus has an increasing trend in Iran. Co-existence of both cancers in one patient is very rare. We report a middle age woman from northern Iran with a typical presentation of esophageal cancer, who was found to have a dual esophageal cancer. The disease was found in the advanced stage with pulmonary metastasis at the presentation. Palliative chemo-radiotherapy induced partial clinical response. PMID:26609356

  19. Labeling index in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Balzi, M.; Ninu, B.M.; Becciolini, A.; Scubla, E.; Boanini, P.; Gallina, E.; Gallo, O.; Fini-Storchi, O.; Bondi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    Two cell kinetic parameters, the 3H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) and the mitotic index (MI), were studied in vitro on fragments of squamous cell carcinoma tissue of the larynx. They were evaluated to identify those elements able to characterize the growth of these solid tumors. The values of these parameters were analyzed as a function of the clinical stage and the involvement of the regional lymph nodes. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the TLI from stage T1 to T3. No statistically significant differences in the TLI values were observed between the patients with positive and negative lymph nodes.

  20. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature.

  1. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  2. Delayed repair of the quadriceps using the Mitek anchor system: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kerin, C; Hopgood, P; Banks, A J

    2006-03-01

    Extensor mechanism disruptions are relatively uncommon knee injuries. Within this group, delayed treatment is an infrequent but difficult clinical situation. Fibrous degeneration, muscle contraction and subsequent hiatus present a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon. We present an unusual case of a successful delayed repair using the Mitek anchors system (Mitek Products Inc., a division of Ethicon Inc., Westwood, Massachusetts).

  3. In vivo and in vitro observation of cellular immune parameters in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and its correlation with tumor load and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Das, S N; Khanna, N N; Khanna, S

    1986-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro observations of cellular immune response in 70 patients with squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity and in 40 age-matched normal controls, were made using delayed hypersensitivity responses to DNCB, PPD, and Candida albicans extract (Dermatophytin 'O'), absolute lymphocyte counts, absolute T-cell numbers, and PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis reactions as parameters. The results were correlated with clinical stage, tumor size, lymph node involvement, tumor differentiation, lymphoreticular responses, and outcome during a one-year follow-up period. A significant degree of impairment of both in vivo and in vitro parameters was found in oral cancer patients compared to normal control. The impairment was more prominent in advanced stages. Lymph node involvement was associated with impaired dermal hypersensitivity to recall antigens as well as a reduced T-cell population and blastogenic response. Only delayed hypersensitivity response to DNCB, PPD, and Candida showed a correlation with histologic features such as tumor differentiation and lymphoreticular response. Although absolute lymphocyte counts and T-cell population were reduced in the primary stage of the disease, the functional capacity of isolated lymphocytes to undergo blast formation was retained. PHA-induced lymphocyte blastogenesis showed a significant impairment only when the tumor was well established and disseminated beyond its local confines. Delayed hypersensitivity responses to DNCB, higher T-cell counts, and blastogenic indices were associated with recurrence-free survival. Immunologic parameters provide prognostic information beyond the clinical stage of the disease. Therefore, it seems that a multiparametric in vivo and in vitro observation of cellular immune response may be useful as an indicator of clinical course and prognosis of patients with squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity.

  4. Connections between winter snowpack and subsequent spring floods in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Lena; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Holmqvist, Erik; Bache Stranden, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    In Norway many inland and mountainous catchments have a hydrological regime where snow accumulates during winter. The runoff is delayed until the snow melts during spring. These processes are important for flood forecasting and water resource management, such as operation of hydropower reservoirs. It is commonly assumed that spring flood volume and peak linked to antecedent conditions such as winter snowpack, i.e. a large winter snowpack results in a high spring flood. The aims of this study are (i) to identify for which catchments a high correlation between snow water equivalent (SWE) at the end of the snow accumulation season and the subsequent spring flood, and (ii) establish regression models for these catchments to be used for seasonal flood forecasting. Daily runoff data from 43 distributed catchments all over Norway, each with at least 50 years of observations and a flood regime which is significantly influenced by snowmelt, were used. For each of these catchments we extracted SWE, precipitation and temperature on daily resolution from the on gridded data of Senorge.no. A peak-over-threshold approach was used to select independent flood events above the 90-th percentile. Maximum discharge, duration and volume were calculated for each event. The contribution of rain and snowmelt to each flood was additionally determined, based on snowmelt, precipitation and temperature data. The spring flood was defined as the first flood event that occurs after the date of maximum SWE, and the snowmelt contribution of at least 70%. The contribution of rain to a spring flood is independent of maximum SWE, resulting in a weaker correlation between maximum SWE and spring flood size. We therefore scaled the flood with the percentage of snow contribution to the flood event in order to adjust for the contribution from rain. The correlations between SWE and the spring flood were higher for scaled spring floods than for the unscaled ones. The results show for half of the stations a

  5. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    DOEpatents

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  6. Adaptation to delayed auditory feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, D. I.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Delayed auditory feedback disrupts the production of speech, causing an increase in speech duration as well as many articulatory errors. To determine whether prolonged exposure to delayed auditory feedback (DAF) leads to adaptive compensations in speech production, 10 subjects were exposed in separate experimental sessions to both incremental and constant-delay exposure conditions. Significant adaptation occurred for syntactically structured stimuli in the form of increased speaking rates. After DAF was removed, aftereffects were apparent for all stimulus types in terms of increased speech rates. A carry-over effect from the first to the second experimental session was evident as long as 29 days after the first session. The use of strategies to overcome DAF and the differences between adaptation to DAF and adaptation to visual rearrangement are discussed.

  7. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  8. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time....

  9. Unresectable basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nikhil P; Haresh, Kunhi Parambath; Das, Prasenjit; Kumar, Rajender; Prabhakar, Ramachandran; Sharma, Daya Nand; Heera, Puthiyeduthu; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2010-01-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon variant of squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea. We describe the case of an unresectable basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy up to a dose of 60 Gy in 33 fractions with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin. The pathological recognition of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and its distinction from adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea is important for its management. Combining systemic chemotherapy with locoregional radiation is a logical approach to treatment, especially for the basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the trachea, given its tendency to metastasize early after definitive therapy. PMID:21119264

  10. Delaying vortex breakdown by waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, M. F.; Jiang, L. B.; Wu, J. Z.; Ma, H. Y.; Pan, J. Y.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of spiral waves on delaying vortex breakdown in a tube is studied experimentally and theoretically. When a harmonic oscillation was imposed on one of guiding vanes in the tube, the breakdown was observed to be postponed appreciately. According to the generalized Lagrangian mean theory, proper forcing spiral waves may produce an additional streaming momentum, of which the effect is favorable and similar to an axial suction at downstream end. The delayed breakdown position is further predicted by using nonlinear wave theory. Qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained, and experimental comparison of the effects due to forcing spiral wave and axial suction is made.

  11. Variable Delay Testing Using ONE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of long and changing propagation delays on the performance of TCP file transfers. Tests are performed with machines that emulate communication from a low/medium-earth satellite to Earth by way of a geosynchronous satellite. As a result of these tests, we find that TCP is fairly robust to varying delays given a high enough TCP timer granularity. However, performance degrades noticeably for larger file transfers when a finer timer granularity is used. Such results have also been observed in previous simulations by other researchers, and thus, this work serves as an extension of those results.

  12. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  13. Metastasized squamous cell carcinoma developed on lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, V; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Tănase, Loredana Elena; Mogoantă, S S

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the most frequent cutaneous tuberculosis, representing more than 55% of the tuberculoses with this location. Malignization can occur after a long latency (10-30 years), in 1-2% of the cases, and it is mainly in squamous cell carcinoma. The histological exam is highly important in the observation of neoplasic transformations. The authors present a 59-years-old female patient, from the rural environment, working as a farmer, with lupus vulgaris developing since her first childhood years. It started at the age of 2 years, at the right ear lobule, after the empiric perforation for earrings. The evolution was progressive, eccentric, interesting the pinna and the right cheek in the meanwhile. At the first examination, in 2002, a diffuse mass of red-yellowish infiltration was found at the level of the right ear and the right cheek. In the following two years, an ulcero-vegetating tumor developed at the level of the right ear lobule, accompanied by the presence of a right retromandibular adenopathy, of about 1 cm, which was proved by the histopathologic exam to be a squamous cell carcinoma developed from a lupus vulgaris. After scraping out the right retromandibular ganglion, detected by palpation, a histological exam showed ganglion metastasis.

  14. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Lung squamous cell carcinoma (lung SqCC) is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in lung SqCC have not been comprehensively characterized and no molecularly targeted agents have been developed specifically for its treatment. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we profiled 178 lung SqCCs to provide a comprehensive landscape of genomic and epigenomic alterations. Lung SqCC is characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a mean of 360 exonic mutations, 165 genomic rearrangements, and 323 segments of copy number alteration per tumor. We found statistically recurrent mutations in 18 genes in including mutation of TP53 in nearly all specimens. Previously unreported loss-of-function mutations were seen in the HLA-A class I major histocompatibility gene. Significantly altered pathways included NFE2L2/KEAP1 in 34%, squamous differentiation genes in 44%, PI3K/AKT in 47%, and CDKN2A/RB1 in 72% of tumors. We identified a potential therapeutic target in the majority of tumors, offering new avenues of investigation for lung SqCC treatment. PMID:22960745

  15. Significance of Parafibromin Expression in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Inju; Lee, Mija; Lim, Sharon; Hong, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parafibromin is a product of the tumor suppressor gene that has been studied as a potential indicator of tumor aggressiveness in the parathyroid, breast, colorectum, and stomach. However, the clinical significance and potential function of parafibromin expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of parafibromin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and to verify its potential as a biomarker of tumor behavior. Methods: Parafibromin expression was evaluated in 30 cases of LSCC using immunohistochemistry. The correlations between parafibromin expression and clinicopathologic parameters were investigated. Results: Parafibromin expression was positive in 15 cases (50%) and negative in 15 cases (50%). Tumor size and T stage showed a statistically significant inverse relationship with parafibromin expression (p=.028 and p<.001, respectively). Parafibromin expression was not associated with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, tumor differentiation, or tumor location. There was no statistically significant relationship between parafibromin expression and progression-free survival in the patients (p>.05). Conclusions: Our results indicate that the downregulation or loss of parafibromin expression can be employed as a novel marker of tumor progression or aggressiveness in LSCC. PMID:27334641

  16. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Smaglo, Brandon G.; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Meyer, Joshua E.; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  17. Altered gene expression in conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Alka; Alkatan, Hind; Alwadani, Saeed; Othman, Maha; Suarez, Maria J; Price, Antoinette; Al-Hussain, Hailah; Jastaneiah, Sabah; Yu, Wayne; Maktabi, Azza; Deepak, Edward P; Eberhart, Charles G; Asnaghi, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma is a malignancy of the ocular surface. The molecular drivers responsible for the development and progression of this disease are not well understood. We therefore compared the transcriptional profiles of eight snap-frozen conjunctival squamous cell carcinomas and one in situ lesion with normal conjunctival specimens in order to identify diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. RNA was analyzed using oligonucleotide microarrays, and a wide range of transcripts with altered expression identified, including many dysregulated in carcinomas arising at other sites. Among the upregulated genes, we observed more than 30-fold induction of the matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-9 and MMP-11, as well as a prominent increase in the mRNA level of a calcium-binding protein important for the intracellular calcium signaling, S100A2, which was induced over 20-fold in the tumor cohort. Clusterin was the most downregulated gene, with an approximately 180-fold reduction in the mRNA expression. These alterations were all confirmed by qPCR in the samples used for initial microarray analysis. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the overexpression of MMP-11 and S100A2, as well as reductions in clusterin, in several independent in situ carcinomas of conjunctiva. These data identify a number of alterations, including upregulation of MMP-9, MMP-11, and S100A2, as well as downregulation of clusterin, associated with epithelial tumorigenesis in the ocular surface. PMID:26916071

  18. Radiation management of squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Prempree, T; Amornmarn, R

    1984-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 52 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder treated by irradiation between 1958 and 1978. There were 28 males and 24 females with hematuria being the leading symptom. At the time of initial presentation, 2 patients were evaluated to be stage B1, 34 patients to be B2C and 16 patients stage D. Nineteen patients were treated by preoperative irradiation (50 Gy/5 weeks) plus cystectomy and 33 patients were treated by irradiation alone (60-65 Gy/6-6 1/2 weeks). From our study, it appears that in stage B2C , irradiation plus cystectomy offered a better disease-free survival (40%) than irradiation alone (16%). Local failures occurred less frequently in the group treated by preoperative irradiation and surgery than those treated by irradiation alone. However, the majority of failures occurring in the preoperative group were distant failures. Factors determining the success and failures appear to include: stage of the disease, type of treatment, tumor size, degree of tumor necrosis, depth of muscle involvement, and tumor grade. It is suggested that the treatment of choice for this disease be a combined approach--preoperative irradiation and cystectomy whenever possible to minimize the loco-regional failures. Chemotherapeutic agents or radiation sensitizers combined with radiation should be further studied to minimize the distant metastases and loco-regional failures in most advanced inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder.

  19. Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 199 anal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Smaglo, Brandon G; Tesfaye, Anteneh; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Meyer, Joshua E; Wang, Jue; Gatalica, Zoran; Reddy, Sandeep; Arguello, David; Boland, Patrick M

    2015-12-22

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is a rare, HPV-associated malignancy typically diagnosed in early stages and definitively treated with chemoradiation. In situations where patients exhibit metastatic or recurrent disease, treatment options are severely limited. In this study, molecular alterations were identified that could be used to aid in therapeutic decisions for patients with metastatic or recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma. Specimens from patients with this cancer were tested via a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ) consisting of gene sequencing, protein expression by immunohistochemistry, and gene amplification with in situ hybridization. Utilizing these techniques, novel treatment strategies that could be explored were identified, including potential benefit with anti-EGFR therapies, immune checkpoint inhibitors, topoisomerase inhibitors, and taxanes. The frequency of overexpression of proteins that mark resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, such as MRP1 (chemotherapy efflux pump), ERCC1 (resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy), and thymidylate synthase (resistance to fluoropyrimidines) were also identified, suggesting a lack of benefit. This multiplatform strategy could be explored for its potential to generate a personalized treatment selection for patients with advanced ASCC, provide a guide for future therapeutic development for this cancer, and be extended to other rare cancer types as well. PMID:26498363

  20. Squamous Metaplasia Is Increased in the Bronchial Epithelium of Smokers with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rigden, Helen M.; Alias, Ahmad; Havelock, Thomas; O'Donnell, Rory; Djukanovic, Ratko; Davies, Donna E.; Wilson, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To quantify the extent of squamous metaplasia in bronchial biopsies and relate it to the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a smoking-related pathology. Methods Bronchial biopsies (n = 15 in each group) from smokers with COPD GOLD stage1 and GOLD stage2, smokers without COPD and healthy non-smokers were stained immunohistochemically with a panel of antibodies that facilitated the identification of pseudostratified epithelium and distinction of squamous metaplasia and squamous epithelium from tangentially cut epithelium. The percentage length of each of these epithelial phenotypes was measured as a percent of total epithelial length using computerised image analysis. Sections were also stained for carcinoembryonic antigen and p53, early markers of carcinogenesis, and Ki67, and the percentage epithelial expression measured. Results The extent of squamous metaplasia was significantly increased in both COPD1 and COPD2 compared to healthy smokers and healthy non-smokers. The amount of fully differentiated squamous epithelium was also increased in COPD1 and COPD2 compared to healthy non-smokers, as was the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen. These features correlated with one other. Conclusion In subjects with COPD there is a loss of pseudostratified epithelium accompanied by an increase in squamous metaplasia with transition into a fully squamous epithelium and expression of early markers of carcinogenesis. PMID:27228128

  1. Delayed School Entry in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 Uganda has seen a large increase in school enrolment. Despite this increased enrolment, universal education has remained elusive. Many children enrol in school, but not at the recommended age, and they drop out before completing school. This article focuses on one of these problems--delayed school entry. What household factors are…

  2. Attosecond Delays in Resonant Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maquet, Alfred

    2015-05-01

    Attosecond delays in the photoionization of atomic states have been evidenced in recent experiments performed in the 2010's. The delays were associated to the emission of photoelectron wave packets ejected from different atomic states, in the combined presence of attosecond pulses of XUV radiation and of a synchronized IR laser pulse, the latter being used as a reference ``clock''. These experiments were performed at XUV frequencies connecting the ground state to a ``flat'' continuum. Theoretical treatments were able to relate the measured delays to Wigner's definition of time delays in terms of the energy derivative of the phase-shift attached to the continuum wave functions of the photoelectrons. Attention has recently shifted towards the case of resonant photoionization in the course of which the XUV frequency is tuned close to a resonance of the target system. The case of a transition towards an autoionizing states of the target is particularly interesting as it makes evident the role of electronic correlations. Here, we shall present recent advances realized in the theoretical interpretation of this new class of experiments.

  3. Local Effects of Delayed Food

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Five pigeons were trained on a procedure in which seven concurrent variable-interval schedules arranged seven different food-rate ratios in random sequence in each session. Each of these components lasted for 10 response-produced food deliveries, and components were separated by 10-s blackouts. We varied delays to food (signaled by blackout)…

  4. Factors underlying diagnostic delay in tuberculosis patients in a rural area in Tanzania: a qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kapinga, R.; van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K. A. W. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diagnostic delay in patients with tuberculosis (TB) leads to ongoing TB transmission, higher mortality rates and increased patient and government health expenditure. Qualitative research focussed on patients’ self-perceptions of disease and their care-seeking behaviour helps to guide health education programmes by providing us with the understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices that underlie diagnostic delay. Patients and methods Semi-structured interviews with 28 recently diagnosed TB patients and four traditional healers were conducted. The interviews were audio-recorded and content analysis was performed. Results The median total delay was 188 days. The health provider delay (31 days) was longer than the patient delay (21 days) and the health system delay (26 days). The health system delay was longest in patients not being diagnosed at their first hospital visit and subsequently visiting other health care providers, mostly traditional healers. Conclusions A poor knowledge of TB signs and symptoms and patients’ beliefs about curses as the origin of diseases lead to delayed care-seeking at the hospital level in an area of North-Western Tanzania. Failure to identify TB cases by formal and non-formal health providers indicates that the education of both communities as well as health workers is essential in order to reduce diagnostic delays. PMID:20878458

  5. Acquisition of operant behavior in rats with delayed reinforcement: A retractable-lever procedure.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew A; Johnson, Lyndsey E; Tate, Christopher; Chiang, Thomas; Byrne, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally naïve rats acquired lever pressing with delayed reinforcement when the immediate programmed consequence for lever pressing was the simultaneous retraction of two identical levers. Presses on one lever also produced access to sweetened condensed milk after a delay of 10s following retraction. Presses on the second lever resulted in retraction only. Lever retraction prevented the possibility of adventitious reinforcement of contacting the operanda during the reinforcement delays. Several measures indicated that the delayed reinforcers strengthened behavior. The majority of responses for all rats were on the lever that initiated reinforcer delivery. Responding for seven out of eight rats decreased during a subsequent extinction phase in which retraction was the only consequence arranged for lever pressing. Responding recovered rapidly when food reinforcement was available again. Furthermore, when contingencies on the two levers were switched, rats allocated their behavior accordingly, showing control by the delayed reinforcers.

  6. A novel approach to synchronization of nonlinearly coupled network systems with delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Jui-Pin

    2016-06-01

    In this investigation, a novel approach to establishing the global synchronization of coupled network systems is presented. Under this approach, individual subsystems can be non-autonomous, and the coupling configuration is rather general. The coupling terms can be non-diffusive, nonlinear, time-dependent, asymmetric, and with time delays. With an iteration scheme, the problem of synchronization is transformed into solving a corresponding linear system of algebraic equations. Subsequently, delay-dependent and delay-independent criteria for global synchronization can be established. We implement the present approach to analyze synchronization of the FitzHugh-Nagumo systems under delayed and nonlinear sigmoidal coupling. Two examples are presented to demonstrate new dynamical scenarios, where oscillatory behavior and multistability emerge or are suppressed as the coupled neurons synchronize under the synchronization criterion. In addition, asynchrony induced by the coupling strength or coupling delay occurs while the synchronization criterion is violated.

  7. Acquisition of operant behavior in rats with delayed reinforcement: A retractable-lever procedure.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Andrew A; Johnson, Lyndsey E; Tate, Christopher; Chiang, Thomas; Byrne, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Experimentally naïve rats acquired lever pressing with delayed reinforcement when the immediate programmed consequence for lever pressing was the simultaneous retraction of two identical levers. Presses on one lever also produced access to sweetened condensed milk after a delay of 10s following retraction. Presses on the second lever resulted in retraction only. Lever retraction prevented the possibility of adventitious reinforcement of contacting the operanda during the reinforcement delays. Several measures indicated that the delayed reinforcers strengthened behavior. The majority of responses for all rats were on the lever that initiated reinforcer delivery. Responding for seven out of eight rats decreased during a subsequent extinction phase in which retraction was the only consequence arranged for lever pressing. Responding recovered rapidly when food reinforcement was available again. Furthermore, when contingencies on the two levers were switched, rats allocated their behavior accordingly, showing control by the delayed reinforcers. PMID:25464338

  8. Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, Philipp J.; Park, Henry S.; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Chiang, Veronica L.; Vortmeyer, Alexander O.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

  9. Multiple Delayed Scalp Reconstruction for Complicated Cranial Defects

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In cases of skull trauma, emergency surgery for cranial decompression typically involves the shortest approach, with the incision lying directly on or immediately near the bony defect. Subsequent reconstructive plastic surgery for the skull is difficult in such cases because incisions taken on the previous scar overlying the bony defect are prone to dehiscence and infection. Herein, we describe a technique for creating a well-vascularized delayed skin flap via multistaged operation before the actual skull reconstruction. Four patients (age range, 10–25 y) were prepared for skull reconstruction using this technique. Flap elevation was performed in 3 stages, with adequate time intervals (4 wk between each stage) to allow for adequate delay. Dissection under the galea aponeurotica was performed only after initial flap elevation allowing for adequate vascularization. Skull reconstruction was then performed using custom-made implants. The patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months. No complications, including infections, exposure of the artificial bone, or flap necrosis, were observed. All the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Despite the multiple stages required, we consider that our technique of using a delayed, well-vascularized bipedicled skin flap can be successfully used in the skull reconstruction of patients in whom the initial scar lies close to the bone defect. We recommend scalp incision be shifted outside of the foreseen bony flap to limit infectious risks during primary or subsequent cranial reconstruction. PMID:27622104

  10. Multiple Delayed Scalp Reconstruction for Complicated Cranial Defects

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Summary: In cases of skull trauma, emergency surgery for cranial decompression typically involves the shortest approach, with the incision lying directly on or immediately near the bony defect. Subsequent reconstructive plastic surgery for the skull is difficult in such cases because incisions taken on the previous scar overlying the bony defect are prone to dehiscence and infection. Herein, we describe a technique for creating a well-vascularized delayed skin flap via multistaged operation before the actual skull reconstruction. Four patients (age range, 10–25 y) were prepared for skull reconstruction using this technique. Flap elevation was performed in 3 stages, with adequate time intervals (4 wk between each stage) to allow for adequate delay. Dissection under the galea aponeurotica was performed only after initial flap elevation allowing for adequate vascularization. Skull reconstruction was then performed using custom-made implants. The patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months. No complications, including infections, exposure of the artificial bone, or flap necrosis, were observed. All the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Despite the multiple stages required, we consider that our technique of using a delayed, well-vascularized bipedicled skin flap can be successfully used in the skull reconstruction of patients in whom the initial scar lies close to the bone defect. We recommend scalp incision be shifted outside of the foreseen bony flap to limit infectious risks during primary or subsequent cranial reconstruction.

  11. Multiple Delayed Scalp Reconstruction for Complicated Cranial Defects.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Arnaud, Eric

    2016-08-01

    In cases of skull trauma, emergency surgery for cranial decompression typically involves the shortest approach, with the incision lying directly on or immediately near the bony defect. Subsequent reconstructive plastic surgery for the skull is difficult in such cases because incisions taken on the previous scar overlying the bony defect are prone to dehiscence and infection. Herein, we describe a technique for creating a well-vascularized delayed skin flap via multistaged operation before the actual skull reconstruction. Four patients (age range, 10-25 y) were prepared for skull reconstruction using this technique. Flap elevation was performed in 3 stages, with adequate time intervals (4 wk between each stage) to allow for adequate delay. Dissection under the galea aponeurotica was performed only after initial flap elevation allowing for adequate vascularization. Skull reconstruction was then performed using custom-made implants. The patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months. No complications, including infections, exposure of the artificial bone, or flap necrosis, were observed. All the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Despite the multiple stages required, we consider that our technique of using a delayed, well-vascularized bipedicled skin flap can be successfully used in the skull reconstruction of patients in whom the initial scar lies close to the bone defect. We recommend scalp incision be shifted outside of the foreseen bony flap to limit infectious risks during primary or subsequent cranial reconstruction. PMID:27622104

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma lung: Presented with bilateral lower limb deep venous thrombosis with gangrene formation

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Kaushik; Sengupta, Amitabha; Patra, Anupam; Jash, Debraj

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral venous thrombosis due to underlying malignancy is a rare entity. It is worthy to search for malignancy in patients of bilateral venous gangrene. Our patient presented with severe bilateral leg pain as a result of venous gangrene. There was associated left sided massive pleural effusion with scalp nodule. Fine needle aspiration cytology of scalp nodule revealed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma and fiber optic bronchoscopy guided biopsy from growth at left upper lobe bronchus confirmed the case as squamous cell carcinoma lung. It was rare for squamous cell carcinoma lung to present as bilateral venous gangrene with anticardiolipin antibody negative. PMID:24455526

  13. Radical chemoradiotherapy for urethral squamous cell carcinoma: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Coop, H; Pettit, L; Boon, C; Ramachandra, P

    2013-01-01

    Primary urethral squamous cell carcinoma is rare. Its management is particularly challenging owing to the paucity of evidence from randomised trials to inform practice. We report two male and female cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra, which were treated with concomitant cisplatin and radiotherapy. These cases add to the body of case reports that have shown benefit for concomitant chemoradiotherapy in urethral squamous cell carcinoma. They also illustrate that single agent chemotherapy, namely, cisplatin, may be used successfully with limited toxicities. PMID:23738187

  14. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis as a Result of Long-Standing Staghorn Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Jongyotha, Kamonchanok; Sriphrapradang, Chutintorn

    2015-01-01

    We report on a 79-year-old woman with staghorn calculi who presented with severe hypercalcemia. She was later found to have humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy caused by a rare tumor, squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Chronic irritation, infection and inflammation from staghorn stones cause squamous metaplasia, leading to squamous cell carcinoma of the renal collecting system. The prognosis is very poor, with a 5-year survival rate of <10%. This case highlights the importance of awareness of a very rare and aggressive carcinoma in a patient with long-standing nephrolithiasis. PMID:26557077

  15. Bilateral ovarian squamous cell carcinoma with an antecedent dermoid cyst in the left ovary.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Sruthi; Suguna, B V; Ravindra, Savithri

    2011-09-01

    Ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a rare malignancy and its occurrence is commonly attributed to malignant transformation of a pre-existing mature cystic teratoma. The de novo occurrence of primary squamous cell carcinoma is extremely rare. Malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma is almost always unilateral; however, there have been isolated reports of an uncomplicated mature cystic teratoma in the contralateral ovary. We report here a case of a 40-year-old woman presenting with squamous cell carcinoma of both ovaries with antecedent dermoid cyst in the left ovary, along with involvement of the fallopian tubes, cervix and omentum.

  16. Delayed Neutron and Delayed Photon Characteristics from Photofission of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Dore, D.; Berthoumieux, E.; Leprince, A.; Ridikas, D.

    2011-12-13

    Delayed neutron (DN) and delayed photon (DP) emissions from photofission reactions play an important role for applications involving nuclear material detection and characterization. To provide new, accurate, basic nuclear data for evaluations and data libraries, an experimental programme of DN and DP measurements has been undertaken for actinides with bremsstrahlung endpoint energy in the giant resonance region ({approx}15 MeV). In this paper, the experimental setup and the data analysis method will be described. Experimental results for DN and DP characteristics will be presented for {sup 232}Th, {sup 235,238}U, {sup 237}Np, and {sup 239}Pu. Finally, an example of an application to study the contents of nuclear waste packages will be briefly discussed.

  17. Delay discounting of cocaine by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Woolverton, William L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    The present, subjective value of a reinforcer typically decreases as a function of the delay to its receipt, a phenomenon termed delay discounting. Delay discounting, which is assumed to reflect impulsivity, is hypothesized to play an important role in drug abuse. The present study examined delay discounting of cocaine injections by rhesus monkeys. Subjects were studied on a discrete-trials task in which they chose between 2 doses of cocaine: a smaller, immediate dose and a larger, delayed dose. The immediate dose varied between 0.012 and 0.4 mg/kg/injection, whereas the delayed dose was always 0.2 mg/kg/injection and was delivered after a delay that varied between 0 and 300 s in different conditions. At each delay, the point at which a monkey chose the immediate and delayed doses equally often (i.e., the ED50) provided a measure of the present, subjective value of the delayed dose. Dose-response functions for the immediate dose shifted to the left as delay increased. The amount of the immediate dose predicted to be equal in subjective value to the delayed dose decreased as a function of the delay, and hyperbolic discounting functions provided good fits to the data (median R(2)=.86). The current approach may provide the basis for an animal model of the effect of delay on the subjective value of drugs of abuse. PMID:17563210

  18. Risk of subsequent cutaneous malignancy in patients with prior melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    van der Leest, R J T; Flohil, S C; Arends, L R; de Vries, E; Nijsten, T

    2015-06-01

    Melanoma patients are known to be at risk of developing multiple cutaneous (pre-) malignancies, however, the exact dimensions of these risks are unknown. In this meta-analysis, risks of developing a melanoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after a melanoma were investigated. An extensive systematic literature search was conducted (last performed on 18 January 2012). Studies reporting risks, i.e. proportions, standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and cumulative risks (CRs) were included. Fifty, of 233 fully read articles, met selection criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics and risks measurements. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool the risk estimates for the three tumour combinations. In melanoma patients, pooled proportions for a subsequent melanoma, BCC or SCC were respectively 3.8% (n = 47), 2.8% (n = 5) and 1.0% (n = 6). The pooled SIRs for a subsequent melanoma, BCC or SCC in melanoma patients were respectively 10.4 (n = 12), 4.6 (n = 2) and 2.8 (n = 2). Mean 20-year CRs of a subsequent melanoma, BCC or SCC in melanoma patients were respectively 5.4% (n = 3), 14.0% (n = 1) and 4.0% (n = 1). Subgroup analyses showed substantial differences in reported risks between continents and study design. In conclusion, a history of a prior melanoma is a strong predictor for development of a subsequent melanoma (approximately 10-fold increased risk) and to a lesser extent BCC or SCC. This information could serve as information for health care systems. Further, secondary prevention seems pivotal in this patient group. PMID:25491923

  19. Infant overweight is associated with delayed motor development

    PubMed Central

    Slining, Meghan; Adair, Linda S.; Goldman, Barbara Davis; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine how infant overweight and high subcutaneous fat relate to infant motor development. Study design Participants are from the Infant Care, Feeding, and Risk of Obesity Project, a prospective, longitudinal study of low-income African American mother-infant dyads assessed from 3 -18 months of age (836 observations on 217 infants). Exposures were overweight (weight-for-length z-score ≥90th percentile of 2000 CDC/NCHS growth reference) and high subcutaneous fat (sum of three skinfold measurements >90th percentile of our sample). Motor development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Developmental delay was characterized as a standardized Psychomotor Development Index score <85. Longitudinal models estimated developmental outcomes as functions of time-varying overweight and subcutaneous fat, controlling for age and sex. Alternate models tested concurrent and lagged relationships (prior weight or subcutaneous fat predicting current motor development). Results Motor delay was 1.80 times as likely in overweight compared with non-overweight infants (95% CI:1.09, 2.97), and 2.32 times as likely in infants with high subcutaneous fat compared with lower subcutaneous fat (95% CI:1.26, 4.29). High subcutaneous fat was also associated with delay in subsequent motor development (OR=2.27, 95% CI:1.08, 4.76). Conclusions Pediatric overweight and high subcutaneous fat are associated with delayed infant motor development. PMID:20227724

  20. T-regulatory cells are relatively deficient in squamous carcinomas undergoing regression in mice immunized with a squamous carcinoma vaccine enriched for immunotherapeutic cells.

    PubMed

    Chopra, A; O-Sullivan, I; Carr, J; Kim, T S; Cohen, E P

    2007-06-01

    In a prior report (Int J Cancer 2006; 119: 339-348), we described a new vaccination strategy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The vaccine was prepared by transfer of unfractionated DNA-fragments (25 kb) from KLN205 cells, a squamous carcinoma cell line (DBA/2 origin; H-2(d)) into LM cells, a highly immunogenic mouse fibroblast cell line (C3H/He origin; (H-2(k))). As only a small proportion of the transfected cell population was expected to have incorporated DNA segments that included genes specifying antigens associated with the squamous carcinoma cells, we devised a novel strategy to enrich the vaccine for immunotherapeutic cells. Enhanced immunity to squamous carcinoma was induced in tumor-bearing mice treated solely by immunization with the enriched vaccine, which translated into prolonged survival without toxicity. Here, we describe the characteristics of the cell populations infiltrating established squamous carcinomas undergoing regression in mice immunized with vaccines enriched for immunotherapeutic cells. The results indicated that CD8+ T cells were predominant and that T-regulatory cells (FoxP3+, CD4/CD25+, CD4/CD62L(high), CD4/CTLA-4e) were relatively deficient in the regressing tumors. Inflammatory infiltrates were not detected in various organs and tissues of mice immunized with the DNA-based vaccine.

  1. Delayed working memory consolidation during the attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Edward K; Luck, Steven J

    2002-12-01

    After the detection of a target (T1) in a rapid stream of visual stimuli, there is a period of 400-600 msec during which a subsequent target (T2) is missed. This impairment in performance has been labeled the attentional blink. Recent theories propose that the attentional blink reflects a bottleneck in working memory consolidation such that T2 cannot be consolidated until after T1 is consolidated, and T2 is therefore masked by subsequent stimuli if it is presented while T1 is being consolidated. In support of this explanation, Giesbrecht & Di Lollo (1998) found that when T2 is the final item in the stimulus stream, no attentional blink is observed, because there are no subsequent stimuli that might mask T2. To provide a direct test of this explanation of the attentional blink, in the present study we used the P3 component of the event-related potential waveform to track the processing of T2. When T2 was followed by a masking item, we found that the P3 wave was completely suppressed during the attentional blink period, indicating that T2 was not consolidated in working memory. When T2 was the last item in the stimulus stream, however, we found that the P3 wave was delayed but not suppressed, indicating that T2 consolidation was not eliminated but simply delayed. These results are consistent with a fundamental limit on the consolidation of information in working memory.

  2. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the liver: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Kyung; Kim, Byung Ik; Han, Eun Na; Kim, Dong Hyung; Yoo, Jung Hee; Lee, Seung Jae; Cho, Yong Kyun; Kim, Hong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the liver is very rare, and few cases have been reported in Korea. Primary SCC of the liver is known to be associated with hepatic cysts and intrahepatic stones. A 71-year-old male was admitted to our hospital, and a abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 10 × 6 cm mass in the liver. Analysis of a biopsy sample suggested SCC, and so our team performed a thorough workup to find the primary lesion, which was revealed hepatoma as a pure primary SCC of the liver with multiple distant metastases. The patient was treated with one cycle of radiotherapy, transferred to another hospital for hospice care, and then died 1 month after discharge. PMID:27044770

  3. [Functional surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Janot, François; Julieron, Morbize

    2002-12-01

    Surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma can alter speech, swallowing, and cosmoses. Recent tendency is to avoid mutilating surgery unless the tumour is aggressive or resistant to chemotherapy and or radiotherapy. Functional surgery is being widely employed, and for example it may vary between conventional partial surgery and endoscopic laser surgery for small sized vocal cord cancers. Various new reconstructive procedures have been developed to help early functional restoration. Loco-regional flaps can be used to replace gums and avoid dental extractions. Free flaps with micro-vascular anastomosis can be employed for immediate reconstruction of extensive surgical defects involving pharyngeal wall, tongue, mandible and mid-face to restore better function and cosmoses. Few recently developed techniques can be also employed in selected cases of laryngo-pharyngeal cancers to avoid permanent laryngeal mutilation. Another goal of functional surgery is to decrease the postoperative radiotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy sequelae, and obtain successful postoperative functional rehabilitation.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms and HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Limei; Song, Xicheng; Li, Guojun

    2015-10-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the United States, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC, including oral cavity and oropharynx) is rising in young adults. The reasons have been attributed to changes in sexual behaviors and the increasingly prevalent infection of oncogenic subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV), principally type16 and occasionally type18. However, only small proportion of individuals who have contracted HPV infection will develop OSCC, suggesting that there is an inter-individual variation in susceptibility to HPV infection and related OSCC. Identification of susceptible biomarkers for HPV status would be useful to identify those individuals who are susceptible to HPV infection, to refine the prognostication of HPV associated OSCC, and ultimately to improve prevention efforts for OSCC and potentially other HPV-associated diseases. Our public health OSCC prevention paradigm will need to expand beyond tobacco and alcohol control.

  5. Evaluation of preoperative staging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lin-Na; He, Long-Jun; Gao, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Xin-Xin; Shan, Hong-Bo; Luo, Guang-Yu; Li, Yin; Lin, Shi-Yong; Wang, Guo-Bao; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guo-Liang; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is known for its rapid progression and poor outcomes. China has the highest incidence and mortality in the world. Diagnoses made at early stages and accurate staging are associated with better outcomes, all of which can play a significant role in the selection of treatment protocols. ESCC is staged according to the widely accepted TNM system. Common imaging modalities used in staging ESCC before treatment include endoscopy, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Endoscopic ultrasound is useful for staging tumor depth and nodal status. Narrow band imaging is valuable for early stage disease assessment. CT and PET provide additional valuable information regarding node and metastasis staging. The ability of MRI to delineate ESCC is continuously being improved and adds information regarding locoregional status to routine examinations. PMID:27547011

  6. Verrucous tumor mimicking squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Villaverde, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cano, Daniel; Martinez-Peinado, Carmen M; Galan-Gutierrez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria cause a range of diseases in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed individuals. An increase in non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections targeting skin has been described. Many hypotheses have been developed in order to explain it: the increasing burden of immunocompromised individuals, immigration from endemic countries, improved laboratory identification techniques, and changes inhuman behavior that expose individuals to this NTM. Mycobacterium mucogenicum group comprises M. mucogenicum, Mycobacterium aubagnense, and Mycobacterium phocaicum. This group of organisms was first named Mycobacterium chelonae-like organism in 1982. Most clinically significant cases of those organisms involved catheter-related infections. Nevertheless, we report an interesting patient with a cutaneous infection produced by M. mucogenicum mimicking a squamous cell carcinoma; an excellent response to combined therapy with rifampicin and clarythromicin was observed. PMID:27267196

  7. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus: An Obscure Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Egeland, Charlotte; Achiam, Michael P.; Federspiel, Birgitte; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented with dysphagia, weight loss, and an endoscopically malignant tumor, but surgery was not performed until after 9 and 10 months, respectively, and then in order to get a diagnosis. At the last follow-up, both patients were without any recurrence of the disease. PMID:27721734

  8. Risk factors and treatment for recurrent vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nooij, L S; Brand, F A M; Gaarenstroom, K N; Creutzberg, C L; de Hullu, J A; van Poelgeest, M I E

    2016-10-01

    Recurrent disease occurs in 12-37% of patients with vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC). Decisions about treatment of recurrent VSCC mainly depend on the location of the recurrence and previous treatment, resulting in individualized and consensus-based approaches. Most recurrences (40-80%) occur within 2 years after initial treatment. Currently, wide local excision is the treatment of choice for local recurrences. Isolated local recurrence of VSCC has a good prognosis, with reported 5-year survival rates of up to 60%. Groin recurrences and distant recurrences are less common and have an extremely poor prognosis. For groin recurrences, surgery with or without (chemo) radiotherapy is a treatment option, depending on prior treatment. For distant recurrences, there are only palliative treatment options. In this review, we give an overview of the available literature and discuss epidemiology, risk factors, and prognostic factors for the different types of recurrent VSCC and we describe treatment options and clinical outcome. PMID:27637349

  9. Photodynamic detection and treatment of squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Snyder, Wendy J.; Marcus, J.; Glassberg, Edward; Dimino-Emme, L.; Fishbein, Michael C.; Thomas, Reem; Dhondt, M. D.; Lask, Gary P.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-02-01

    In this study the fluorescence intensity of photosensitizer in squamous cell tumors were quantified in terms of the tumor resolution rate. A He-Cd laser (442 nm - 17 mW) with a 600 micrometers core silica fiber was used for excitation. The same fiber was used for fluorescence acquisition and an optical multichannel analyzer (EG&G, OMA III) was used to analyze the fluorescence. Twelve days after carcinoma inoculation fluorescence signal from the tumor and skin (1 cm radius from the tumor) at the 12, 3, 6, and 9 o'clock positions were recorded. Benzoporphyrin Derivative (QLT, Canada -- 2 mg/kg of body weight) was then injected into the tail vein. The drug was photoactivated with a 690 nm modified argon pump cw-dye laser (Medtech) operating at 140 mW/cm2 for 15 mins. LIFS is capable of localizing in situ malignancy and evaluating photosensitizers for photodynamic fluorescence detection and therapy of tumors.

  10. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lacko, Martin; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Suárez, Carlos; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Takes, Robert P.

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  11. Granuloma inguinale mimicking as squamous cell carcinoma of penis.

    PubMed

    Pilani, Abhishek; Vora, Rita; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Granuloma inguinale (GI) is an acquired chronic, slowly progressive, mildly contagious disease of venereal origin, characterized by granulomatous ulceration of the genitalia and neighboring sites, with little or no tendency to spontaneous healing caused by Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium) granulomatis. A 55-year-old male presented with fissured, foul smelling, fungating growth over prepuce with phimosis mimicking squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) without lymphadenopathy. It started with painless papulonodular showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, infiltration in dermis, acanthosis and vacuolated macrophages suggestive of GI and not showing any histopathological features of SCC. Patient was successfully treated by giving cotrimoxazole twice a day for 21 days. Here, we presented a case of GI mimicking SCC of penis, which was diagnosed on basis of histopathology and treated with excision followed by medical therapy with cotrimoxazole. PMID:24958990

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma – similarities and differences among anatomical sites

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wusheng; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Erickson, Heidi S

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an epithelial malignancy involving many anatomical sites and is the most common cancer capable of metastatic spread. Development of early diagnosis methods and novel therapeutics are important for prevention and mortality reduction. In this effort, numerous molecular alterations have been described in SCCs. SCCs share many phenotypic and molecular characteristics, but they have not been extensively compared. This article reviews SCC as a disease, including: epidemiology, pathology, risk factors, molecular characteristics, prognostic markers, targeted therapy, and a new approach to studying SCCs. Through this comparison, several themes are apparent. For example, HPV infection is a common risk factor among the four major SCCs (NMSC, HNSC, ESCC, and NSCLC) and molecular abnormalities in cell-cycle regulation and signal transduction predominate. These data reveal that the molecular insights, new markers, and drug targets discovered in individual SCCs may shed light on this type of cancer as a whole. PMID:21938273

  13. Risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, U; Posner, M C; Safatle-Ribeiro, A V; Reynolds, J C

    1996-09-01

    Cancer of the oesophagus has great diversity in geographical distribution and incidence. The rate of oesophageal cancer has been increasing in some areas and the reasons for this are not clear. This review outlines fascinating epidemiological aspects and the risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. While in the Western world the effects of alcohol and tobacco are substantial preconditions, worldwide other factors, such as diet, nutritional deficiencies, environmental exposure and infectious agents (especially papillomavirus and fungi), play a significant role. Chronic irritation of the oesophagus appears to participate in the process of carcinogenesis, particularly in patients with thermal and/or mechanical injury, achalasia, oesophageal diverticulum, chronic lye stricture, radiation therapy, injection sclerotherapy and gastric resection before the appearance of oesophageal tumour. The association of Plummer-Vinson syndrome, coeliac disease, tylosis and scleroderma with oesophageal cancer has also been reviewed.

  14. Anterior Segment Imaging in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Gargi K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in anterior segment imaging have transformed the way ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is diagnosed and monitored. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) has been reported to be useful primarily in the assessment of intraocular invasion and metastasis. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) shows enlarged and irregular nuclei with hyperreflective cells in OSSN lesions and this has been found to correlate with histopathology findings. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) demonstrates thickened hyperreflective epithelium with an abrupt transition between abnormal and normal epithelium in OSSN lesions and this has also been shown to mimic histopathology findings. Although there are limitations to each of these imaging modalities, they can be useful adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of OSSN and could greatly assist the clinician in the management of OSSN patients. Nevertheless, anterior segment imaging has not replaced histopathology's role as the gold standard in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27800176

  15. Synchronization by small time delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruessner, G.; Cheang, S.; Jensen, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    Synchronization is a phenomenon observed in all of the living and in much of the non-living world, for example in the heart beat, Huygens' clocks, the flashing of fireflies and the clapping of audiences. Depending on the number of degrees of freedom involved, different mathematical approaches have been used to describe it, most prominently integrate-and-fire oscillators and the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators. In the present work, we study a very simple and general system of smoothly evolving oscillators, which continue to interact even in the synchronized state. We find that under very general circumstances, synchronization generically occurs in the presence of a (small) time delay. Strikingly, the synchronization time is inversely proportional to the time delay.

  16. Time delay and distance measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B. (Inventor); Sun, Xiaoli (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for measuring time delay and distance may include providing an electromagnetic radiation carrier frequency and modulating one or more of amplitude, phase, frequency, polarization, and pointing angle of the carrier frequency with a return to zero (RZ) pseudo random noise (PN) code. The RZ PN code may have a constant bit period and a pulse duration that is less than the bit period. A receiver may detect the electromagnetic radiation and calculate the scattering profile versus time (or range) by computing a cross correlation function between the recorded received signal and a three-state RZ PN code kernel in the receiver. The method also may be used for pulse delay time (i.e., PPM) communications.

  17. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    SciTech Connect

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  18. Stromal myofibroblasts in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de-Assis, Eliene M.; Pimenta, Luiz G.G.S.; Costa-e-Silva, Edson; Souza, Paulo E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the main potentially malignant disorder and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral mucosa. Stromal myofibroblasts play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, due to its ability to modify the extracellular matrix. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of stromal myofibroblasts in OL and OSCC. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among OL with distinct grades of epithelial dysplasia as well as between histologically high- and low-invasive OSCC were also assessed. Study Design: A total of 30 OL and 41 OSCC from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated. 10 samples of normal oral mucosa were used as a control. Myofibroblasts were identified by immunohistochemical detection of alpha smooth muscle actin and its presence was classified as negative, scanty or abundant. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among OL with distinct grades of epithelial dysplasia as well as between high- and low-invasive OSCC were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Myofibroblasts were not detected in normal oral mucosa and OL, whatever its histological grade. In OSCC, the presence of stromal myofibroblasts was classified as negative in 11 (26.8%), scanty in 15 (36.6%), and abundant in 15 samples (36.6%). The presence of stromal myofibroblasts was statistically higher in high-invasive OSCC than in low-invasive OSCC (p<0.05). Conclusions: Stromal myofibroblasts were not detected in OL, indicating that these cells are not important during oral carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, stromal myofibroblasts were heterogeneously detected in OSCC and its presence was higher in tumors with a more diffuse histological pattern of invasion. These findings suggest that myofibroblasts are associated with the creation of a permissive environment for tumor invasion in OSCC. Key words:Leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, myofibroblast. PMID:22322518

  19. Unresectable Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: An Outcomes Study

    SciTech Connect

    Newlin, Heather E.; Iyengar, Meera; Morris, Christopher G.; Olivier, Kenneth

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To report survival and control rates in patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: Two hundred seventy-five patients with inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (Stages I-IIIB) who received radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy given with curative intent at University of Florida between 1963 and 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Overall survival (OS) at 5 years for Stages I, II, and III was 10%, 14%, and 7% (p = 0.0034); local-regional control at 5 years was 51%, 38%, and 29% (p = 0.0003); and freedom from metastases at 5 years was 81%, 60%, and 65% (p = 0.0689), respectively. Patients who received doses {>=} 65 Gy had improved cause-specific survival (CSS), OS, and metastasis-free survival at 5 years compared with those who received doses < 65 Gy. Five-year regional control was significantly improved with twice-daily vs. once-daily treatment (37% vs. 14%, p = 0.02). Chemotherapy significantly improved 5-year regional control (36% for patients who received chemotherapy vs. 13% for those who did not; p = 0.01). Conclusions: Dose escalation, accelerated fractionation, and combined modality therapies improve outcomes in SCC of the lung. Our review of the literature highlights the different natural history for SCC vs. other non-small cell lung cancers and emphasizes the importance of tailoring treatment strategies to individual patients. At University of Florida, we have begun treating unresectable Stage III patients with SCC of the lung using 69.6 Gy twice daily with concurrent chemotherapy.

  20. Method for calcining delayed coke

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1981-02-17

    Delayed petroleum coke is calcined in an internally-fired vertical shaft kiln. A downwardly-moving bed of green coke is preheated in the top of the kiln by rising combustion gases, then heat soaked at calcining temperatures in the intermediate section of the kiln, and finally cooled by recycle gas moving upwardly from the lower part of the kiln. Partially cooled calcined coke is recovered from the bottom of the kiln.

  1. Evaluating Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability in Delayed Cerebral Infarction after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ivanidze, J.; Kesavabhotla, K.; Kallas, O.N.; Mir, D.; Baradaran, H.; Gupta, A.; Segal, A.Z.; Claassen, J.; Sanelli, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Patients with SAH are at increased risk of delayed infarction. Early detection and treatment of delayed infarction remain challenging. We assessed blood-brain barrier permeability, measured as permeability surface area product, by using CTP in patients with SAH with delayed infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective study of patients with SAH with delayed infarction on follow-up NCCT. CTP was performed before the development of delayed infarction. CTP data were postprocessed into permeability surface area product, CBF, and MTT maps. Coregistration was performed to align the infarcted region on the follow-up NCCT with the corresponding location on the CTP maps obtained before infarction. Permeability surface area product, CBF, and MTT values were then obtained in the location of the subsequent infarction. The contralateral noninfarcted region was compared with the affected side in each patient. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were performed to determine statistical significance. Clinical data were collected at the time of CTP and at the time of follow-up NCCT. RESULTS Twenty-one patients with SAH were included in the study. There was a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product in the regions of subsequent infarction compared with the contralateral control regions (P < .0001). However, CBF and MTT values were not significantly different in these 2 regions. Subsequent follow-up NCCT demonstrated new delayed infarction in all 21 patients, at which time 38% of patients had new focal neurologic deficits. CONCLUSIONS Our study reveals a statistically significant increase in permeability surface area product preceding delayed infarction in patients with SAH. Further investigation of early permeability changes in SAH may provide new insights into the prediction of delayed infarction. PMID:25572949

  2. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Seddik, Youssef; Brahmi, Sami Aziz; Afqir, Said

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a well known malignancy of the skin and other organs composed of squamous cells, which are normally not found inside the breast. Therefore, a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast is an exceedingly uncommon phenomen and the management of this type of disease is still unclear. We report the case of a 43-year-old Moroccan woman, without significant medical history, presented an infected mass of 9 cm in the left breast associated with ipsilateral axillary lymphadenopathy. The mass's surgical biopsy revealed a triple negative primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. She underwent a neoadjuvant chemotherapy using 5 Fluoro-Uracil and platinum. After three courses, she presented a contralateral breast progression and apparition of metastasis at D10. She received one course of a palliative chemotherapy based on weekly paclitaxel stopped because of her peformans status deterioration. She died 7 months after her admission. PMID:27386028

  3. Automatic detection of erythemato-squamous diseases using k-means clustering.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya; Doğdu, Erdoğan

    2010-04-01

    A new approach based on the implementation of k-means clustering is presented for automated detection of erythemato-squamous diseases. The purpose of clustering techniques is to find a structure for the given data by finding similarities between data according to data characteristics. The studied domain contained records of patients with known diagnosis. The k-means clustering algorithm's task was to classify the data points, in this case the patients with attribute data, to one of the five clusters. The algorithm was used to detect the five erythemato-squamous diseases when 33 features defining five disease indications were used. The purpose is to determine an optimum classification scheme for this problem. The present research demonstrated that the features well represent the erythemato-squamous diseases and the k-means clustering algorithm's task achieved high classification accuracies for only five erythemato-squamous diseases. PMID:20433056

  4. Primary Cutaneous Lymphoma-Associated Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia Masquerading as Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Young Adult.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mahsa; Azmoodeh Ardalan, Farid; Najafi, Masoumeh; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Ghanadan, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a T-cell malignancy with atypical CD30 positive lymphocytes. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is an uncommon finding in primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and may mimic squamous cell carcinoma as pseudomalignancy. Careful attention of a pathologist to correct diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and its underlying causes will help physicians to avoid inappropriate management. Here, we present a 22-year-old man referred to our hospital with a solitary nodule persistent on his forearm which was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma in the first biopsy. The lesion recurred after two months and histopathologic and immunohistochemistry examination revealed anaplastic large cell lymphoma with florid pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia which masquerading as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Diagnosis of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia must guide the pathologist to search for underlying causes, such as primary cutaneous lymphoma. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia may mimic squamous cell carcinoma and this can result in inappropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26749237

  5. Delayed recombination and standard rulers

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Galli, Silvia; Silk, Joseph I.; Verde, Licia

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAOs) in galaxy surveys have been recognized as a powerful tool for constraining dark energy. However, this method relies on the knowledge of the size of the acoustic horizon at recombination derived from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy measurements. This estimate is typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme; additional radiation sources can delay recombination altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from CMB and BAO data. In this paper we quantify the effect of delayed recombination on the determination of dark energy parameters from future BAO surveys such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey and the Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph. We find the impact to be small but still not negligible. In particular, if recombination is nonstandard (to a level still allowed by CMB data), but this is ignored, future surveys may incorrectly suggest the presence of a redshift-dependent dark energy component. On the other hand, in the case of delayed recombination, adding to the analysis one extra parameter describing deviations from standard recombination does not significantly degrade the error bars on dark energy parameters and yields unbiased estimates. This is due to the CMB-BAO complementarity.

  6. 29 CFR 20.55 - Second and subsequent notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within the time specified by the initial demand. Unless a response to the first or second demand... second and subsequent demands shall generally be made at 30 day intervals from the first, and shall state... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Second and subsequent notifications. 20.55 Section...

  7. 29 CFR 20.55 - Second and subsequent notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... within the time specified by the initial demand. Unless a response to the first or second demand... second and subsequent demands shall generally be made at 30 day intervals from the first, and shall state... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Second and subsequent notifications. 20.55 Section...

  8. 29 CFR 20.55 - Second and subsequent notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... within the time specified by the initial demand. Unless a response to the first or second demand... second and subsequent demands shall generally be made at 30 day intervals from the first, and shall state... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Second and subsequent notifications. 20.55 Section...

  9. 29 CFR 20.55 - Second and subsequent notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... within the time specified by the initial demand. Unless a response to the first or second demand... second and subsequent demands shall generally be made at 30 day intervals from the first, and shall state... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Second and subsequent notifications. 20.55 Section...

  10. 29 CFR 20.55 - Second and subsequent notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... within the time specified by the initial demand. Unless a response to the first or second demand... second and subsequent demands shall generally be made at 30 day intervals from the first, and shall state... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Second and subsequent notifications. 20.55 Section...

  11. 29 CFR 18.407 - Subsequent remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Subsequent remedial measures. 18.407 Section 18.407 Labor... remedial measures. When, after an event, measures are taken which, if taken previously, would have made the event less likely to occur, evidence of the subsequent measures is not admissible to prove negligence...

  12. 29 CFR 18.407 - Subsequent remedial measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsequent remedial measures. 18.407 Section 18.407 Labor... remedial measures. When, after an event, measures are taken which, if taken previously, would have made the event less likely to occur, evidence of the subsequent measures is not admissible to prove negligence...

  13. 7 CFR 1580.401 - Subsequent year petition recertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent year petition recertification. 1580.401... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.401 Subsequent year... Administrator (FAS) data for the most recent marketing year, and (2) The Administrator (FAS) shall make...

  14. 7 CFR 1580.401 - Subsequent year petition recertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent year petition recertification. 1580.401... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.401 Subsequent year... Administrator (FAS) data for the most recent marketing year, and (2) The Administrator (FAS) shall make...

  15. 7 CFR 1580.401 - Subsequent year petition recertification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent year petition recertification. 1580.401... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE FOR FARMERS § 1580.401 Subsequent year... Administrator (FAS) data for the most recent marketing year, and (2) The Administrator (FAS) shall make...

  16. 46 CFR 169.223 - Subsequent inspections for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsequent inspections for certification. 169.223 Section 169.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspection for Certification § 169.223 Subsequent...

  17. 46 CFR 169.223 - Subsequent inspections for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsequent inspections for certification. 169.223 Section 169.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspection for Certification § 169.223 Subsequent...

  18. 46 CFR 169.223 - Subsequent inspections for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsequent inspections for certification. 169.223 Section 169.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspection for Certification § 169.223 Subsequent...

  19. 46 CFR 169.223 - Subsequent inspections for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsequent inspections for certification. 169.223 Section 169.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspection for Certification § 169.223 Subsequent...

  20. 46 CFR 169.223 - Subsequent inspections for certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subsequent inspections for certification. 169.223 Section 169.223 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Inspection for Certification § 169.223 Subsequent...

  1. 24 CFR 213.259 - Computation of subsequent annual premiums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of subsequent annual premiums. 213.259 Section 213.259 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Computation of subsequent annual premiums. The premiums payable on and after the date of the first...

  2. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total amounts... Office of Management and Budget has approved the information collection requirements in this...

  3. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total amounts... Office of Management and Budget has approved the information collection requirements in this...

  4. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total...

  6. 38 CFR 36.4324 - Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. 36.4324 Section 36.4324 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... § 36.4324 Guaranty claims; subsequent accounting. (a) Subject to the limitation that the total...

  7. 43 CFR 3162.3-2 - Subsequent well operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subsequent well operations. 3162.3-2... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-2 Subsequent well operations. (a) A proposal for further well operations shall be submitted by the operator on Form 3160-5 for approval by the...

  8. 43 CFR 3162.3-2 - Subsequent well operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subsequent well operations. 3162.3-2... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-2 Subsequent well operations. (a) A proposal for further well operations shall be submitted by the operator on Form 3160-5 for approval by the...

  9. 43 CFR 3162.3-2 - Subsequent well operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subsequent well operations. 3162.3-2... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-2 Subsequent well operations. (a) A proposal for further well operations shall be submitted by the operator on Form 3160-5 for approval by the...

  10. Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Delays in Toddlers: Information for Parents Page Content Article Body Your baby ...

  11. 78 FR 43270 - List of Applications Delayed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration List of Applications Delayed AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180... Hazardous Materials Special Permits ] and Approvals, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  12. An overview on "cellular cannibalism" with special reference to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, M

    2015-12-01

    Cellular cannibalism has been defined as a large cell engulfing a slightly smaller one within its cytoplasm. It has been described in various cancers like bladder cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, gastric cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cellular cannibalism has been well correlated with anaplasia, tumor aggressiveness, grading and metastatic potential. Present review focuses on significance of cannibalism in relation to cancer with special emphasis on oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26710834

  13. Can MMP-9 be a Prognosticator Marker for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Shiva Kumar; Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Invasion and metastasis of malignant tumours severely endanger the life of cancer patients. Squamous cell carcinoma is one of the commonly found malignancies in the oral cavity and its survival rate has not improved from past few decades. Since an important risk factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma is the presence of epithelial dysplasia, it is necessary to check the presence of a prognosticator marker in both of them. As matrix metalloproteinase’s (MMP’s) are involved in degradation of type IV collagen, which are one of the important components of extracellular matrix components which play a relevant role in several steps of tumour progression such as invasion and metastasis. We have studied MMP-9 expression to evaluate its prognostic potential in oral cancers as well as oral epithelial dysplasia along with tissues of normal oral epithelium. Materials and Methods The expression was examined using immunohistochemistry procedure with MMP-9 in 100 samples including cases of epithelium from normal oral mucosa, oral dysplastic lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. One set of formalin fixed, paraffin embedded sections of the three categories were stained by haematoxylin and eosin. The sections were then evaluated under microscope. Data was examined for statistical significance using SPSS 13.0 by Mann-Whitney Test and Kruskal-Wallis Test. Results With MMP-9 gain of expression was noted from Control group to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic staining was seen with MMP-9. Statistically highly significant differences were seen between oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma and statistically significant differences were found between the control group and the oral squamous cell carcinoma group. Conclusion This study suggested that oral squamous cell carcinoma shows higher MMP-9 expression as compared to oral epithelial dysplasia followed by epithelium from normal oral mucosa. However, no correlation was found among the

  14. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  15. A Case of Synchronous Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Esophagus and Stomach: A Rare Duo

    PubMed Central

    Gambhire, Pravir; Zanvar, Vinay; Mohite, Ashok; Pawar, Sunil; Chafekar, Aniruddha; Rathi, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous squamous cell esophageal and squamous cell gastric cancer is a rare duo. A 48-year-old male visited our hospital with a history of dysphagia and melena and was diagnosed with synchronous esophageal and gastric cancer by endoscopy and histopathology. We report a case of a synchronous cancer that was successfully treated by chemotherapy followed by surgery. We also discuss the hypothesis regarding the origin and presentation of the synchronous cancer in the GIT.

  16. Treatment of squamous carcinoma in mice with a vaccine enriched for cells that induce immunity to squamous carcinoma--a new vaccination strategy.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Amla; Kim, Tae Sung; O-Sullivan, InSug; Martinez, Don; Cohen, Edward P

    2006-07-15

    We report a new vaccination strategy for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The vaccine was prepared by transfer of unfractionated DNA-fragments (25 kb) from squamous carcinoma cells (KLN205, DBA/2 origin (H-2(d))) into LM mouse fibroblasts (C3H/He origin; H-2(k)), a highly immunogenic cell line. To enhance their nonspecific immunogenic properties, the fibroblasts were modified before DNA transfer to secrete IL-2 and to express additional allogeneic MHC class I determinants. As the transferred DNA integrates into the genome of the recipient cells, and is replicated as the cells divide, sufficient DNA to prepare the vaccine could be obtained from as few as 10(7) squamous carcinoma cells (4 mm tumor). Since only a small proportion of the transfected cell-population was expected to have incorporated genes specifying antigens associated with the squamous carcinoma cells (TAA), we devised a novel approach to enrich the vaccine for cells that induce immunity to the SCC. Aliquots of the transfected population were divided into 10 small pools (initial inoculums = 1 x 10(3)). We reasoned that if the starting inoculums were sufficiently small, then the distribution of highly immunogenic and weakly immunogenic cells in each pool would not be the same. Cells from individual pools were allowed to increase in number. A portion of the expanded cell populations were maintained frozen/viable for later recovery. The remaining portions were used to immunize naïve DBA/2 mice. Pools containing greater numbers of immunogenic cells were identified by 2 independent assays. Frozen aliquots of cells from the pool that stimulated immunity to the squamous carcinoma to the greatest extent were recovered and subdivided for additional rounds of immune selection. Enhanced immunity to squamous carcinoma mediated by CD8+ T cells was induced in tumor-bearing mice treated solely by immunization with the enriched cell-population.

  17. Squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: 2004 modified terminology, ISSVD Vulvar Oncology Subcommittee.

    PubMed

    Sideri, Mario; Jones, Ronald W; Wilkinson, Edward J; Preti, Mario; Heller, Debra S; Scurry, James; Haefner, Hope; Neill, Sallie

    2005-11-01

    In the current classification, squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is categorized as VIN 1, 2 and 3 according to the degree of abnormality. There is neither evidence that the VIN 1-3 morphologic spectrum reflects a biologic continuum nor that VIN 1 is a cancer precursor. The VIN 2 and 3 category includes 2 types of lesion, which differ in morphology, biology and clinical features. VIN, usual type (warty, basaloid and mixed), is HPV related in most cases. Invasive squamous carcinomas of warty or basaloid type is associated with VIN, usual type. VIN, differentiated type, is seen particularly in older women with lichen sclerosus and/or squamous cell hyperplasia in some cases. Neither VIN, differentiated type, nor associated keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma is HPV related. The term VIN should apply only to histologically high grade squamous lesions (former terms, VIN 2 and VIN 3 and differentiated VIN 3). The term VIN 1 will no longer be used. Two categories should describe squamous VIN: VIN, usual type (encompassing former VIN 2 and 3 of warty, basaloid and mixed types) and VIN, differentiated type (VIN 3, differentiated type).

  18. Differences in the ARID-1 alpha expressions in squamous and adenosquamous carcinomas of uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Solakoglu Kahraman, Dudu; Diniz, Gulden; Sayhan, Sevil; Ayaz, Duygu; Uncel, Melek; Karadeniz, Tugba; Akman, Tulay; Ozdemir, Aykut

    2015-10-01

    AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A) is a tumor suppressor gene involved in chromatin remodeling which encodes ARID1A (BAF250a) protein. Recent studies have shown the loss of ARID1A expression in several types of tumors. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the differences in tissue expressions of ARID1A in a spectrum of cervical neoplasms. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasms, invasive squamous or adenosquamous carcinomas were identified in 100 patients recently diagnosed as cervical neoplasms based on pathology databases. In this series, there were 29 low- and 29 high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasms, 27 squamous cell carcinomas, and 15 adenosquamous carcinomas. Mean age of the patients was 47.8 ± 13 years (20-80 years). It was determined that the expression of ARID1A was statistically significantly down-regulated in adenosquamous carcinomas when compared with non-invasive or invasive squamous cell carcinomas (p = 0.015). Lower levels of the ARID1A expression were detected in cases with adenosquamous carcinomas (60%), low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) (31%), and squamous cell carcinomas (18.5%). Our findings have demonstrated the presence of a correlation between ARID1A expression and adenomatous differentiation of uterine squamous cell carcinomas. Therefore, ARID1A gene may suggestively have a role in the pathogenesis of cervical adenosquamous carcinomas.

  19. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  20. Caspase-3 expression in normal oral epithelium, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Veeravarmal, Veeran; Austin, Ravi David; Siddavaram, Nagini; Thiruneelakandan, Sambanthan; Nassar, Mohamed Hanifa Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Context: The epithelium atrophy, as the oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) progresses, is believed to be an after effect of stromal fibrosis, hyalinization, decrease in vascularity and cellularity and is considered as “ischemic atrophy.” Due to hypoxia, caspase-3 get activation and subsequent decrease in viable cell count can occur. Aims and Objectives: To determine caspase-3 expression in various grades of OSMF and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to find out whether upregulation of apoptosis is responsible for the epithelial changes in OSMF. Subjects and Methods: The control tissue (15 samples from normal oral mucosa) and study group comprising 97 cases of OSMF of different grades and OSCC associated with OSMF were stained with caspase-3 antibody, and the percentage of positive cells was calculated using ImageJ software. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's honest significance difference test and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: There was a nuclear expression of caspase-3 in basal and parabasal layers of normal epithelium. There was cytoplasmic expression of caspase-3 in OSMF without dysplasia, total absence of caspase-3 expression in dysplastic epithelium and in majority cases of OSCC. The caspase-3 percentage was increased in OSMF (0%–53%) when compared with OSCC (0%–8%). The statistical comparison of caspase-3 among normal, OSMF and OSCC patients revealed significant correlation (P < 0.00010). The comparison within different grades of OSMF and between dysplastic and nondysplastic epithelium OSMF also showed significance (P < 0.019). Conclusions: The decreased expression of caspase-3 in disease progression reflects its role in the malignant transformation. PMID:27721610

  1. Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Jassem, Jacek; Orecchia, Roberto

    2004-04-01

    Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from occult primary constitute about 2-5% of all patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP). Metastases in the upper and middle neck are generally attributed to head and neck cancers, whereas the lower neck (supraclavicular area) involvement is often associated with primary malignancies below the clavicles. The diagnostic procedures include physical examination with thorough evaluation of the head and neck mucosa using fiber-optic endoscopy, biopsies from all suspicious sites or blindly from the sites of possible origin of the primary, computer tomography and/or magnetic resonance. A systematic tonsillectomy in the absence of suspicious lesions is often recommended since up to 25% of primary tumors can be detected in this site. The thoracic primary (tracheal, bronchial, lung, esophagus) has to be excluded, especially in the case of lower neck involvement. Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose allows detection of primary tumor in about 25% of cases, but this procedure is still considered investigational. Therapeutic approaches include surgery (lymph node excision or neck dissection), with or without postoperative radiotherapy, radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy followed by surgery. In early stages (N1), neck dissection and radiotherapy seem to have similar efficacy, whereas more advanced cases (N2, N3) necessitate combined approaches. The extent of radiotherapy (irradiation of bilateral neck and mucosa versus ipsilateral neck radiotherapy) remains debatable. A potential benefit from extensive radiotherapy should be weighted against its acute and late morbidity and difficulties in re-irradiation in the case of subsequent primary emergence. The role of other methods, such as chemotherapy and hyperthermia, remains to be determined. PMID:15023433

  2. TET family proteins and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Murata, Asuka; Baba, Yoshifumi; Ishimoto, Takatsugu; Miyake, Keisuke; Kosumi, Keisuke; Harada, Kazuto; Kurashige, Junji; Iwagami, Shiro; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Naoya; Yamamoto, Manabu; Oda, Shinya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Baba, Hideo

    2015-09-15

    Mammalian DNA is epigenetically marked by 5'-cytosine methylation (5-methylcytosine [5-mC]). The Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes (TET1, TET2, and TET3) are implicated in DNA demethylation, through dioxygenase activity that converts 5-mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC). Although decreased TET is reportedly associated with decreased 5-hmC levels in various cancers, functions of 5-hmC and TET expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are unclear. We used ELISA and immunohistochemistry tests to analyze 5-hmC status in ESCC tissues, RT-qPCR to analyze TET family mRNA expression in normal and tumor tissues, and pyrosequencing to quantify LINE-1 (i.e., global DNA methylation) levels. ELISA and immunohistochemical testing showed 5-hmC levels were significantly lower in ESCC than in paired normal tissues (P < 0.0001). TET2 expression was significantly lower in ESCCs than paired normal tissues (P < 0.0001), and significantly associated with 5-hmC levels in ESCCs (P = 0.003, r = 0.33). 5-hmC levels were also significantly associated with LINE-1 methylation level (P = 0.0002, r = 0.39). Patients with low 5-hmC levels had shorter overall survival than those with higher levels, although not significantly so (P = 0.084). In conclusion, 5-hmC expression was decreased in ESCC tissues, and was associated with TET2 expression level. TET2 reduction and subsequent 5-hmC loss might affect ESCC development.

  3. Overexpression of p28GANK accelerates the metastasis of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shanhong; Qin, Jianping; Liu, Weihui; Zheng, Xiushan; Wu, Xiaoling; Xu, Hui; Qiao, Lijuan; Fan, Quanshui; Zeng, Weizheng; Jiang, Mingde

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of p28GANK expression on the metastasis of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and to investigate its roles in the metastasis of highly invasive and non‑invasive ESCC cell lines. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analyses were performed to assess p28GANK mRNA and protein expression in ESCC tissues and to analyse its significance in ESCC metastasis. qPCR and western blot analyses were used to detect p28GANK mRNA and protein expression in highly invasive and non‑invasive cell lines. Subsequently, lentivirus‑mediated p28GANK short interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into highly invasive ESCC cells, and Transwell assays were performed to analyse the effects of p28GANK knockdown on their migration and invasion. The mean expression levels of p28GANK mRNA in the ESCC tissues of patients with metastasis were significantly higher than those in the ESCC specimens from patients without metastasis. p28GANK expression in ESCC tissues was correlated with T‑stage, lymph node metastasis and lymphatic invasion. The mRNA and protein expression levels of p28GANK were significantly higher in highly invasive cell lines compared with those of matched, non‑invasive cell lines. Lentivirus‑mediated siRNA knockdown of p28GANK markedly decreased p28GANK expression in EC109‑P and EC9706‑P cells and supressed the metastasis of ESCC cells in vitro. In conclusion, p28GANK expression was increased in metastatic ESCC tissues and cells, and p28GANK knockdown decreased the metastatic ability of ESCC cells. These results suggested that p28GANK may be a potential therapeutic marker for ESCC metastasis.

  4. Anticancer effects of crocetin in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE-150 cells

    PubMed Central

    LI, SHENG; JIANG, SHENG; JIANG, WEI; ZHOU, YUE; SHEN, XIU-YIN; LUO, TAO; KONG, LING-PING; WANG, HUA-QIAO

    2015-01-01

    Crocetin is the main pharmacologically-active component of saffron and has been considered as a promising candidate for cancer chemoprevention. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of crocetin and the possible mechanisms of these properties in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line KYSE-150. The KYSE-150 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and incubated with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 μmol/l crocetin for 48 h. Cell proliferation was measured using an MTT assay. Hoechst 33258 staining and observation under fluorescent microscopy were used to analyze the proapoptotic effects of crocetin. The migration rate was assessed by a wound-healing assay. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry analysis subsequent to propidium iodide staining. The expression of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved caspase 3 was determined by western blot analysis. It was found that treatment of KYSE-150 cells with crocetin for 48 h significantly inhibited the proliferation of the cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the inhibition of proliferation was associated with S phase arrest. Crocetin was also found to induce morphological changes and cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner through increased expression of proapoptotic Bax and activated caspase 3. In addition, crocetin suppressed the migration of KYSE-150 cells. The present study provides evidence that crocetin exerts a prominent chemopreventive effect against esophageal cancer through the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and induction of apoptosis. These findings reveal that crocetin may be considered to be a promising future chemotherapeutic agent for esophageal cancer therapy. PMID:25663893

  5. Overexpression of MutSα Complex Proteins Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Salvadori, Gabriela; Meurer, Luise; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is responsible for the detection and correction of errors created during DNA replication, thereby avoiding the incorporation of mutations in dividing cells. The prognostic value of alterations in MMR system has not previously been analyzed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study comprised 115 cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1996 and 2010. The specimens collected were constructed into tissue microarray blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for MutSα complex proteins hMSH2 and hMSH6 was performed. The slides were subsequently scanned into high-resolution images, and nuclear staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 was analyzed using the Nuclear V9 algorithm. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in OSCC. All cases in the present cohort were positive for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and a direct correlation was found between the expression of the proteins (P < 0.05). The mean number of positive cells for hMSH2 and hMSH6 was 64.44 ± 15.21 and 31.46 ± 22.38, respectively. These values were used as cutoff points to determine high protein expression. Cases with high expression of both proteins simultaneously were classified as having high MutSα complex expression. In the multivariable analysis, high expression of the MutSα complex was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.75, P = 0.02). This study provides a first insight of the prognostic value of alterations in MMR system in OSCC. We found that MutSα complex may constitute a molecular marker for the poor prognosis of OSCC. PMID:27258499

  6. Contingency Tracking during Unsignaled Delayed Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keely, Josue; Feola, Tyler; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with rats in which responses on one lever (labeled the functional lever) produced reinforcers after an unsignaled delay period that reset with each response during the delay. Responses on a second, nonfunctional, lever did not initiate delays, but, in the first and third experiments, such responses during the last…

  7. Academic Delay of Gratification and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2011-01-01

    The ability to delay gratification is the cornerstone of all academic achievement and education. It is by delaying gratification that learners can pursue long-term academic and career goals. In general, "delay of gratification" refers to an individual's ability to forgo immediate rewards for the sake of more valuable ones later (Mischel, 1996).…

  8. Direct-reading group-delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technique for measuring modulation signal retardation in microwave components gives direct plot of dependence of delay time on carrier frequency. Recorder sensitivity can be adjusted to give convenient scale factor for group delay. From family of such recordings, it is possible to observe changes in group delay due to temperature, mechanical stress, and other factors.

  9. Children's Delay of Gratification and Preschool Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoville, Satsuki; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated the relationship between delay of gratification and preschool performance in 20 students aged 4 and 5 years old, and enrolled in a Head Start program. Gratification delay was measured through an experiment that allowed the students to choose between a smaller immediate reward or a larger delayed reward. Preschool…

  10. 40 CFR 1500.5 - Reducing delay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reducing delay. 1500.5 Section 1500.5 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PURPOSE, POLICY, AND MANDATE § 1500.5 Reducing delay. Agencies shall reduce delay by: (a) Integrating the NEPA process into early planning (§...

  11. Nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra Systems with Delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Zhidong

    2002-03-01

    The paper studies the general nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra multispecies systems with finite delays. The ultimate boundedness, permanence, global attractivity, and existence and uniqueness of strictly positive solutions, positive periodic solutions, and almost periodic solutions are obtained. These results are basically an extension of the known results for nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra multispecies systems without delay to systems with delay.

  12. Barrett's esophageal cancer in which magnifying narrow-band imaging was useful for diagnosing extension under the squamous epithelium.

    PubMed

    Koike, Tomoyuki; Endo, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2013-05-01

    A 36-year-old man complained of heartburn. Gastrointestinal endoscopies showed a reddish and slightly depressed lesion in the right-anterior wall of the esophagogastric junction. With white light imaging, the area of the adenocarcinoma under the squamous epithelium was difficult to detect, but a slightly flat, elevated lesion appeared in the area of adenocarcinoma under the squamous epithelium. With narrow-band imaging (NBI) in the area of the Barrett's esophageal cancer under the squamous epithelium, a slight, brownish change could be observed. In addition, with the magnifying technique, irregular mesh-like vessels were observed, suggesting the presence of differentiated adenocarcinoma under the squamous epithelium. The lesion was resected en bloc by endoscopic submucosal dissection, and Barrett's esophageal cancer under the squamous epithelium was histologically confirmed. In this case, NBI with magnifying endoscopy was very useful to diagnose the extension of Barrett's esophageal cancer under the squamous epithelium.

  13. Erupted complex odontoma delayed eruption of permanent molar.

    PubMed

    Ohtawa, Yumi; Ichinohe, Saori; Kimura, Eri; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Odontomas, benign tumors that develop in the jaw, rarely erupt into the oral cavity. We report an erupted odontoma which delayed eruption of the first molar. The patient was a 10-year-old Japanese girl who came to our hospital due to delayed eruption of the right maxillary first molar. All the deciduous teeth had been shed. The second premolar on the right side had erupted, but not the first molar. Slight inflammation of the alveolar mucosa around the first molar had exposed a tooth-like, hard tissue. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiopaque mass indicating a lesion approximately 1 cm in diameter. The border of the image was clear, and part of the mass was situated close to the occlusal surface of the first molar. The root of the maxillary right first molar was only half-developed. A clinical diagnosis of odontoma was made. The odontoma was subsequently extracted, allowing the crown of the first molar to erupt almost 5 months later. The dental germ of the permanent tooth had been displaced by the odontoma. However, after the odontoma had been extracted, the permanent tooth was still able to erupt spontaneously, as eruptive force still remained. When the eruption of a tooth is significantly delayed, we believe that it is necessary to examine the area radiographically. If there is any radiographic evidence of a physical obstruction that might delay eruption, that obstruction should be removed before any problems can arise. Regular dental checkups at schools might improve our ability to detect evidence of delayed eruption earlier.

  14. Erupted complex odontoma delayed eruption of permanent molar.

    PubMed

    Ohtawa, Yumi; Ichinohe, Saori; Kimura, Eri; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu

    2013-01-01

    Odontomas, benign tumors that develop in the jaw, rarely erupt into the oral cavity. We report an erupted odontoma which delayed eruption of the first molar. The patient was a 10-year-old Japanese girl who came to our hospital due to delayed eruption of the right maxillary first molar. All the deciduous teeth had been shed. The second premolar on the right side had erupted, but not the first molar. Slight inflammation of the alveolar mucosa around the first molar had exposed a tooth-like, hard tissue. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiopaque mass indicating a lesion approximately 1 cm in diameter. The border of the image was clear, and part of the mass was situated close to the occlusal surface of the first molar. The root of the maxillary right first molar was only half-developed. A clinical diagnosis of odontoma was made. The odontoma was subsequently extracted, allowing the crown of the first molar to erupt almost 5 months later. The dental germ of the permanent tooth had been displaced by the odontoma. However, after the odontoma had been extracted, the permanent tooth was still able to erupt spontaneously, as eruptive force still remained. When the eruption of a tooth is significantly delayed, we believe that it is necessary to examine the area radiographically. If there is any radiographic evidence of a physical obstruction that might delay eruption, that obstruction should be removed before any problems can arise. Regular dental checkups at schools might improve our ability to detect evidence of delayed eruption earlier. PMID:24521551

  15. BOLD delay times using group delay in sickle cell disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloigner, Julie; Vu, Chau; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2016-03-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder that effects red blood cells, which can lead to vasoocclusion, ischemia and infarct. This disease often results in neurological damage and strokes, leading to morbidity and mortality. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive technique for measuring and mapping the brain activity. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals contain also information about the neurovascular coupling, vascular reactivity, oxygenation and blood propagation. Temporal relationship between BOLD fluctuations in different parts of the brain provides also a mean to investigate the blood delay information. We used the induced desaturation as a label to profile transit times through different brain areas, reflecting oxygen utilization of tissue. In this study, we aimed to compare blood flow propagation delay times between these patients and healthy subjects in areas vascularized by anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In a group comparison analysis with control subjects, BOLD changes in these areas were found to be almost simultaneous and shorter in the SCD patients, because of their increased brain blood flow. Secondly, the analysis of a patient with a stenosis on the anterior cerebral artery indicated that signal of the area vascularized by this artery lagged the MCA signal. These findings suggest that sickle cell disease causes blood propagation modifications, and that these changes could be used as a biomarker of vascular damage.

  16. Dual induction of apoptotic and autophagic cell death by targeting survivin in head neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhang, W; Wang, Y-F; Liu, B; Zhang, W-F; Zhao, Y-F; Kulkarni, A B; Sun, Z-J

    2015-01-01

    Survivin is ubiquitously expressed in patients with head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is associated with poor survival and chemotherapy resistance. Sepantronium bromide (YM155) is a selective survivin suppressant that exhibits potent antitumor activities by inducing apoptosis and autophagy in various types of cancer. However, the curative effects and underlying mechanisms of YM155 in HNSCC remain unclear. This study showed that survivin overexpression positively correlated with p-S6, p-Rb and LAMP2 but negatively correlated with the autophagic marker LC3 in human HNSCC tissues. In vitro studies revealed that YM155 triggered apoptosis of HNSCC cells in mitochondria and death receptor-dependent manner. The treatment also significantly enhanced autophagy by upregulating Beclin1, which led to cell death. YM155 not only downregulated the expression of survivin but also remarkably suppressed the activation of the mTOR signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. YM155 displayed potent antitumor activities in both CAL27 xenograft and transgenic HNSCC mice models by delaying tumor onset and suppressing tumor growth. Furthermore, YM155 combined with docetaxel promoted tumor regression better than either treatment alone without causing considerable body weight loss in the HNSCC xenograft models. Overall, targeting survivin by YM155 can benefit HNSCC therapy by increasing apoptotic and autophagic cell death, and suppressing prosurvival pathways. PMID:26018732

  17. Vandetanib Restores Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells’ Sensitivity to Cisplatin and Radiation In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Valdecanas, David R.; Zhao, Mei; Molkentine, David P.; Takahashi, Yoko; Hanna, Ehab Y.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Heymach, John; Milas, Luka; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether vandetanib, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Rearranged during transfection (RET), could augment the antitumor activity of radiation with or without cisplatin in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Experimental design OSC-19 and HN5 HNSCC cells that were cisplatin and radioresistant were treated with vandetanib, cisplatin, and radiation alone or in combination in vitro and in vivo using an orthotopic nude mouse model. Treatment effects were assessed using clonogenic survival assay, tumor volume, bioluminescence imaging, tumor growth delay, survival, microvessel density, tumor and endothelial cell apoptosis, and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation data. Results Vandetanib plus cisplatin radiosensitized HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo. The combination treatment with vandetanib, cisplatin, and radiation was superior to the rest of treatments (including the double combinations) in antitumoral effects, prolonging survival, decreasing cervical lymph node metastases in vivo. It also increased both tumor and tumor-associated endothelial cell apoptosis and decreased microvessel density in vivo. An analysis of tumor growth delay data revealed that vandetanib plus cisplatin enhanced radioresponse in vivo. All vandetanib-containing treatments inhibited EGFR and Akt phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion The addition of vandetanib to combination therapy with cisplatin and radiation was able to effectively overcome cisplatin and radioresistance in in vitro and in vivo models of HNSCC. Further study of this regimen in clinical trials may be warranted. PMID:21350000

  18. Early Predictors of Dyslexia in Chinese Children: Familial History of Dyslexia, Language Delay, and Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Fanny; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Fong, Cathy Y. C.; Wong, Terry T. Y.; Wong, Simpson W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This work tested the rates at which Chinese children with either language delay or familial history of dyslexia at age 5 manifested dyslexia at age 7, identified which cognitive skills at age 5 best distinguished children with and without dyslexia at age 7, and examined how these early abilities predicted subsequent literacy skills.…

  19. Trajectories of Language Delay from Age 3 to 5: Persistence, Recovery and Late Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Imac Maria; Pons, Francisco; Eadie, Patricia; Ystrom, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Background: Knowledge is scarce on what contributes to whether children with early language delay (LD) show persistent, recovering or sometimes late-onset LD without a prior history of early LD in subsequent preschool years. Aims: To explore whether an integrative model of vital risk factors, including poor early communication skills, family…

  20. Working Memory Encoding Delays Top-Down Attention to Visual Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalf, Paige E.; Dux, Paul E.; Marois, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The encoding of information from one event into working memory can delay high-level, central decision-making processes for subsequent events [e.g., Jolicoeur, P., & Dell'Acqua, R. The demonstration of short-term consolidation. "Cognitive Psychology, 36", 138-202, 1998, doi:10.1006/cogp.1998.0684]. Working memory, however, is also believed to…

  1. ADHD and Delay Aversion: The Influence of Non-Temporal Stimulation on Choice for Delayed Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop, Inge; Stock, Pieter; Verte, Sylvie; Wiersema, Jan Roelt; Baeyens, Dieter; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Background: Delay aversion, the motivation to escape or avoid delay, results in preference for small immediate over large delayed rewards. Delay aversion has been proposed as one distinctive psychological process that may underlie the behavioural symptoms and cognitive deficits of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, the…

  2. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  3. Delayed onset arterial gas embolism.

    PubMed

    Moloff, A L

    1993-11-01

    Numerous civilian and military personnel are involved in SCUBA diving activities. In this day of rapid air travel it is important that all physicians, not just those living near the coast or dive centers, be familiar with the basics of diagnosing and treating diving-related injuries. One of the more serious complications of dysbarism is Arterial Gas Embolism (AGE). This case history involves an atypical presentation of delayed onset AGE in a military diver trainee, and its treatment. This article then reviews the incidence, etiology, pathophysiology, "classic" presentation and current treatment of this disease. Systemic pathophysiology secondary to the effects of intravascular air of AGE is also discussed.

  4. Delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Natalie; U-King-Im, Jean-Marie; Karalliedde, Janaka

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a delayed diagnosis of Pendred syndrome. The patient had a history of hearing loss from childhood and presented to the endocrine clinic when aged 32 with an enlarging goitre. The characteristic Mondini deformity was noted on auditory canal MRI scan. Genetic tests confirmed the diagnosis. Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterised by congenital sensorineural hearing loss, goitre and impaired iodide organification and can present at any age. We highlight to the general physician the classical features of this syndrome that would aid early diagnosis. PMID:27620717

  5. Does prior sepsis alter subsequent circadian and sickness behaviour response to lipopolysaccharide treatment in mice?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sean T; O'Callaghan, Emma K; Commins, Sean; Coogan, Andrew N

    2015-08-01

    Previous data has shown that prior history of immune challenge may affect central and behavioural responses to subsequent immune challenge, either leading to exaggerated responses via priming mechanisms or lessened responses via endotoxin tolerance. In this set of experiments we have examined how previously lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis shapes the response to subsequent treatment with lower dose LPS. After treatment with LPS (5 mg/kg) or saline mice were allowed to recover for 3-4 months before being challenged with a lower dose of LPS (100 μg/kg) for assessment of sickness behaviours. Performance on the open field test and the tail suspension test was assessed, and no evidence was found that prior sepsis altered sickness or depressive-like behaviour following LPS treatment. We then examined the responsiveness of the circadian system of mice to LPS. We found that in control animals, LPS induced a significant phase delay of the behavioural rhythm and that this was not the case in post-septic animals (4-6 weeks after sepsis), indicating that prior sepsis alters the responsivity of the circadian system to subsequent immune challenge. We further assessed the induction of the immediate early genes c-Fos and EGR1 in the hippocampus and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN; the master circadian pacemaker) by LPS in control or post-septic animals, and found that post-septic animals show elevated expression in the hippocampus but not the SCN. These data suggest that previous sepsis has some effect on behavioural and molecular responses to subsequent immune challenge in mice.

  6. Venous bullet embolism and subsequent endovascular retrieval – A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Cullen O.; Havens, Joaquim M.; Robinson, William P.; Menard, Matthew T.; Gates, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Vascular bullet embolism is a rare phenomenon with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 22 year-old male presented with a gunshot wound to the right lower quadrant. Imaging demonstrated a bullet lodged in his left lower quadrant. Upon operative exploration, a single hole was found in the right external iliac vein without injury into the left lower quadrant. The bullet was found to have migrated intravascularly from the right external to the left common iliac vein, and was subsequently removed endovascularly. DISCUSSION Bullet embolism occurs infrequently, with arterial more common than venous. Arterial embolization usually requires emergency operative intervention due to ischemia. While venous embolization is often asymptomatic, removal of the bullet is recommended to avoid delayed complications when possible. CONCLUSION Venous bullet emboli should be removed endovascularly whenever technically possible. PMID:22960120

  7. Squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder: clinicopathological analysis of 34 cases identified in 606 carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan C; Tapia, Oscar; Cakir, Asli; Basturk, Olca; Dursun, Nevra; Akdemir, Deniz; Saka, Burcu; Losada, Hector; Bagci, Pelin; Adsay, N Volkan

    2011-08-01

    The information in the literature on squamous cell and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder is highly limited. In this study, 606 resected invasive gallbladder carcinoma cases were analyzed. Squamous differentiation was identified in 41 cases (7%). Those without any identifiable glandular-type invasive component were classified as pure squamous cell carcinomas (8 cases) and those with the squamous component constituting 25-99% of the tumors were classified as adenosquamous carcinomas (26 cases) and included into the analysis. The remaining 7 that had <25% squamous component were classified as adenocarcinoma with focal squamous change and excluded. The clinicopathological characteristics of adenosquamous carcinoma/squamous cell carcinomas were documented and contrasted with that of ordinary gallbladder adenocarcinomas. The average patient age was 65 years (range 26-81); female/male ratio, 3.8. In only 13%, there was a preoperative clinical suspicion of malignancy. Grossly, 58% presented as thickening and hardening of the wall and 6% were polypoid. In 12%, mucosa adjacent to the tumor revealed squamous metaplasia. All pure squamous cell carcinomas had prominent keratinization. Giant cells and tumor-infiltrating eosinophils were observed in 29 and 51% of the squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas versus 10% (P=0.02) and 6% (P=0.001) in gallbladder adenocarcinomas, respectively. All but three cases had 'advanced' (pT2 and above) carcinomas. Follow-up was available in 31 patients: 25 died of disease (median=5 months, range 0-20), and 6 were alive (median=64 months, range 5-112.5). The survival of patients with squamous cell carcinomas/adenosquamous carcinomas was significantly worse than that of gallbladder adenocarcinomas (P=0.003), and this adverse prognosis persisted when compared with stage-matched advanced gallbladder adenocarcinoma cases (median=11.4 months, P=0.01). In conclusion, squamous differentiation was noted in 7% of gallbladder

  8. Human papillomavirus-related basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder associated with genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Ginori, Alessandro; Barone, Aurora; Santopietro, Rosa; Barbanti, Gabriele; Cecconi, Filippo; Tripodi, Sergio Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is a biologically aggressive neoplasm mainly found in the head and neck region. Recently, four cases of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder have been reported, and three of them occurred in patients with neurogenic bladder, repeated catheterizations and human papillomavirus infection of the urinary tract. To the best of our knowledge, none of the patients affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder described in the literature had documented genital involvement by human papillomavirus. Herein, we describe the case of a woman with neurogenic bladder affected by basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder and by a concomitant genital tract human papillomavirus infection.

  9. View from second floor platform looking up at subsequent platforms. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from second floor platform looking up at subsequent platforms. Note the Shuttle assembly outlined by the platform edges. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. 2. VIEW TOWARD EAST, WEST FACADE Subsequent views identified by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TOWARD EAST, WEST FACADE Subsequent views identified by bay. Four bays numbered sequentially one to four from north. - U.S. Military Academy, Ice House, Mills Road at Howze Place, West Point, Orange County, NY

  11. 12 CFR 226.20 - Subsequent disclosure requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Closed-End Credit § 226.20 Subsequent disclosure... premiums for continuation of insurance of the types described in § 226.4(d). (5) The renewal of...

  12. 4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOATHOUSE FROM SOUTH, TAKEN SUBSEQUENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF BOATHOUSE FROM SOUTH, TAKEN SUBSEQUENT TO FL-261-A-3 BUT PRIOR TO THE HURRICANE OF 1926 - Ralph M. Munroe House, Boathouse, 3485 Main Highway (Coconut Grove), Miami, Miami-Dade County, FL

  13. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  14. [Successful treatment of locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus by combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil plus nedaplatin following tracheal stent tube placement-a case report].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Junya; Kubo, Naoshi; Lee, Tomohiro; Shinto, Osamu; Sakurai, Katsunobu; Toyokawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Muguruma, Kazuya; Shibutani, Masatsune; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Nagahara, Hisashi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Amano, Ryosuke; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Yashiro, Masakazu; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2013-11-01

    The patient was a 68-year-old man who complained of hoarseness and dyspnea. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a type 3 tumor located in the middle thoracic esophagus at 30 cm from the incisor tooth that involved one-fourth of the circumference of the esophagus. Histopathological examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Chest computed tomography( CT) revealed severe tracheal stenosis due to compression by a metastatic lymph node along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. The patient was diagnosed as having cT4( 106recL-trachea), N2( 101L, 106recL, 106recR), M0, Stage IVa unresectable esophageal carcinoma. After insertion of a tracheal stent tube( spiral Z stent: diameter, 18 mm; length, 80 mm) to improve dyspnea, combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil( 5-FU) plus nedaplatin was administered. Subsequent CT and endoscopy showed that the main tumor and the metastatic lymph node had significantly reduced in size and that complete response (CR) had been achieved. Thirty months after the initial treatment, the patient showed no sign of disease recurrence, after completion of 19 cycles of chemotherapy. The patient did not experience any severe adverse events. We report a case of a patient with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus successfully treated with 5-FU/nedaplatin combination chemotherapy following tracheal stent tube placement.

  15. A 55-Year-Old Man with Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Right Groin after External Beam Radiation for Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ibilibor, Christine; Wells, Jeremy; Kavuri, Sravan; Moses, Kelvin A

    2014-01-01

    Treating testicular cancer with adjuvant radiation has been associated with a number of second malignancies affecting the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal structures; however, there have been few reported cases of cutaneous second malignancies. We report the case of a man who developed stage IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of a condyloma after orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation for testicular cancer. We also review relevant literature available to date. A 55-year-old Caucasian man presented to the hospital with a large growth at the right groin which had grown into his right thigh preventing ambulation. His past medical history was significant for right testicular cancer of unknown pathology treated with orchiectomy and adjuvant radiation twenty years ago. Punch biopsy of the lesion revealed superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent excision of the growth with subsequent Cisplatin, radiation boost, and Paclitaxel regimens. Despite an aggressive treatment regimen and an initial good response, the patient's cancer progressed requiring palliative care. It is unclear whether or not therapeutic radiation in this case promoted the conversion of the patient's condyloma to a malignant lesion. Further studies are required at this time to clarify the clinical implications of these findings. PMID:25024864

  16. Measurement of Gravitational Lens Time Delays with LSST (SULI Paper)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkby, Lowry Anna; /Oxford U. /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    The proposed Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will be the first to explore multiple dark energy probes simultaneously, including baryon acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, and strong gravitational lensing. The large data sample, covering the entire visible sky every few nights, will allow an unprecedented survey of deep supernova sources and their lensed images. The latter have not yet been observed. Notably, LSST will measure the time delays between different strong-lensed images of the same supernova. This will provide a unique probe of dark matter, dark energy, and the expansion rate of the Universe. By simulating LSST observations under realistic conditions, we determined the time delay precision of multiple images from a representative strong-lensed Type Ia supernova. The output of the simulation was a set of light curves according to field and filter, which were subsequently analyzed to determine the experimental time delays. We find that a time delay precision of better then 10% can be achieved under suitable conditions. Firstly, a minimum observed peak-magnitude of 22 is required for the lensed image, corresponding to an intrinsic source magnitude of about 24. The number of such supernova sources expected for LSST is under investigation, but it could amount to several thousand. Secondly, a minimum of about 50 visits per field is required, and, moreover, these visits must be evenly distributed over the duration of the event. The visit frequency should be approximately once per week, or better. Thirdly, the sky brightness should be below 21 magnitude arcsec{sup -2} to allow sufficient sensitivity to distance sources. Under the nominal LSST visiting schedule and field conditions, 15% of all fields satisfy these criteria, and allow time delay measurements of better than 10% precision. This performance can be further improved by fitting the predicted supernova light curves to the observations, rather than using the simple weighted mean as in the present study

  17. The influence of children's pain memories on subsequent pain experience.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; Klein, Raymond M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2012-08-01

    Healthy children are often required to repeatedly undergo painful medical procedures (eg, immunizations). Although memory is often implicated in children's reactions to future pain, there is a dearth of research directly examining the relationship between the 2. The current study investigated the influence of children's memories for a novel pain stimulus on their subsequent pain experience. One hundred ten healthy children (60 boys) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a laboratory pain task and provided pain ratings. Two weeks later, children provided pain ratings based on their memories as well as their expectancies about future pain. One month following the initial laboratory visit, children again completed the pain task and provided pain ratings. Results showed that children's memory of pain intensity was a better predictor of subsequent pain reporting than their actual initial reporting of pain intensity, and mediated the relationship between initial and subsequent pain reporting. Children who had negatively estimated pain memories developed expectations of greater pain prior to a subsequent pain experience and showed greater increases in pain ratings over time than children who had accurate or positively estimated pain memories. These findings highlight the influence of pain memories on healthy children's expectations of future pain and subsequent pain experiences and extend predictive models of subsequent pain reporting.

  18. The influence of children's pain memories on subsequent pain experience.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melanie; Chambers, Christine T; McGrath, Patrick J; Klein, Raymond M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2012-08-01

    Healthy children are often required to repeatedly undergo painful medical procedures (eg, immunizations). Although memory is often implicated in children's reactions to future pain, there is a dearth of research directly examining the relationship between the 2. The current study investigated the influence of children's memories for a novel pain stimulus on their subsequent pain experience. One hundred ten healthy children (60 boys) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a laboratory pain task and provided pain ratings. Two weeks later, children provided pain ratings based on their memories as well as their expectancies about future pain. One month following the initial laboratory visit, children again completed the pain task and provided pain ratings. Results showed that children's memory of pain intensity was a better predictor of subsequent pain reporting than their actual initial reporting of pain intensity, and mediated the relationship between initial and subsequent pain reporting. Children who had negatively estimated pain memories developed expectations of greater pain prior to a subsequent pain experience and showed greater increases in pain ratings over time than children who had accurate or positively estimated pain memories. These findings highlight the influence of pain memories on healthy children's expectations of future pain and subsequent pain experiences and extend predictive models of subsequent pain reporting. PMID:22560288

  19. Human papillomavirus detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vietía, Dayahindara; Liuzzi, Juan; Ávila, Maira; De Guglielmo, Zoraya; Prado, Yrneh; Correnti, María

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with benign and malignant lesions in different epitheliums. The relationship between specific genotypes of high-risk HPV and some human cancers is well established. The aim of this work was to detect the HPV genotypes present in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods We evaluated 71 samples of patients with histopathological diagnosis of HNSCC. The DNA extraction was conducted with the QIAGEN commercial kit. HPV detection and genotyping were performed by reverse hybridisation (INNO-LiPA) following the commercial specifications. Results The mean age of the patients evaluated was 60.7 ± 13.11 years. The distribution of the lesions included 25 (35.20%) cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity, 23 (32.39%) of larynx, 16 (22.50%) of the oropharynx, 4 (5.63%) of paranasal sinus, and 2 (2. 80%) cases of SCC of the nostril. Of the patients, 78.9% were males, and of these 76% were tobacco users and 67.6% were alcohol consumers. The viral DNA was detected in 67.6% of the samples. The oral cavity and the larynx were the highest HPV-positivity sites with 35.40% and 29.10% respectively. The most frequent genotype was 16 as single infection (18.70%), or in combination with another HPV types. In the oral cavity and larynx the genotypes 16 or the combination 6 and 51 were present in 11.76% and 14.28%, respectively; and in the oropharynx the most frequent genotype was 16 in 22.50% of the cases, and in the paranasal sinus 50% presented infection with HPV-6. We observed that tumours with most advanced size and stage presented greater HPV positivity. Conclusions This study shows a high percentage of HPV positivity in SCC is mainly associated with high-risk HPV. It is important to highlight that viral infection, especially HPV-16, could be a risk factor in HNSCC progression. PMID:25374623

  20. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Israel J; Remelius, Dennis K; Tiee, Joe J; Buck, Steven E; Whittemore, Stephen R; Thompson, David C; Shirey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  1. PRECISION TIME-DELAY GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Carr, B.J.; Peckham, V.D.

    1959-06-16

    A precision time-delay generator circuit with low jitter is described. The first thyratron has a series resonant circuit and a diode which is connected to the second thyratron. The first thyratron is triggered at the begin-ning of a time delay and a capacitor is discharged through the first thyratron and the diode, thereby, triggering the second thyratron. (T.R.H.) l6l9O The instrument described can measure pressures between sea level and 300,000 ft. The pressure- sensing transducer of the instrument is a small cylindrical tube with a thin foil of titanium-tritium fastened around the inside of the tube. Output is a digital signal which can be used for storage or telemetering more conveniently than an analog signal. (W.D.M.) l6l9l An experimental study was made on rolling contacts in the temperature range of 550 to 1000 deg F. Variables such as material composition, hardness, and operating conditions were investigated in a rolling test stand. Ball bearing tests were run to determine the effect of design parameters, bearing materials, lubricants, and operating conditions. (auth)

  2. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-15

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n{sub s}, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z{sub *}=1078{+-}11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1{sigma} to R=1.734{+-}0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: {epsilon}{sub {alpha}}<0.39 and {epsilon}{sub i}<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  3. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Silvia; Bean, Rachel; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, ns, and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z*=1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: γα<0.39 and γi<0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  4. Delayed coker fractionator advanced control

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisinghani, R.; Minter, B. ); Tica, A.; Puglesi, A.; Ojeda, R. )

    1993-08-01

    In a delayed coking process, as coke drum switches are made, rapid changes occur in both the fractionator feed rate and composition. With conventional control, it is not unusual to see long transient behavior of large swings in both quality and flowrates of coker gas oils. This can extract a heavy economic toll, not only in coker operation, but in the operation of downstream units as the upset is propagated. An advanced process control application (APC) was recently implemented on the coker fractionator at the Yacimentos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), Lujan de Cuyo Refinery, in Mendoza, Argentina. This coker fractionator control design was unique as it handled two different operating objectives: control of product qualities via tower temperature profile during normal operation and control of gas oil product flow ratio during drum switch. This combination of control objectives in one multivariable predictive control program was achieved by including special logic to decouple the individual tuning requirements. Also, additional logic was included to unambiguously detect and identify drum switch and drum steam out as discrete events within 30 seconds of their actual occurrence. These discrete events were then used as disturbance variables to minimize fractionator transient behavior. As a performance measure, the overhead temperature was controlled within 2 C to 2.5 C of its target, gas oil flows were stabilized during drum switches and steam generation via pump around was maximized. Overall, implementing advanced control for the delayed coker fractionator resulted in substantial benefits from product quality control, product flow control and minimized energy consumption.

  5. Delayed flowering and global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Wolkovich, E. M.; Parmesan, C.

    2011-12-01

    Within general trends toward earlier spring, observed cases of species and ecosystems that have not advanced their phenology, or have even delayed it, appear paradoxical, especially when made in temperate regions experiencing significant warming. The typical interpretation of this pattern has been that non-responders are insensitive to relatively small levels of warming over the past 40 years, while species showing delays are often viewed as statistical noise or evidence for unknown confounding factors at play. However, plant physiology studies suggest that when winter chilling (vernalization) is required to initiate spring development, winter warming may retard spring events, masking expected advances caused by spring warming. Here, we analyzed long-term data on phenology and seasonal temperatures from 490 species on two continents and demonstrate that 1) apparent non-responders are indeed responding to warming, but their responses to winter and spring warming are opposite in sign, 2) observed trends in first flowering date depend strongly on the magnitude of a given species' response to autumn/winter versus spring warming, and 3) inclusion of these effects strongly improves hindcast predictions of long-term flowering trends. With a few notable exceptions, climate change research has focused on the overall mean trend towards phenological advance, minimizing discussion of apparently non-responding species. Our results illuminate an under-studied source of complexity in wild species responses and support the need for models incorporating diverse environmental cues in order to improve predictability of species responses to anthropogenic climate change.

  6. Delayed prescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract infections: use of information leaflets.

    PubMed

    Agnew, J; Taaffe, M; Darker, C; O'Shea, B; Clarke, J

    2013-09-01

    The appropriate prescribing of antibiotics is a challenge in primary care12. We performed an interventional trial to determine if providing an information leaflet on antibiotics with a delayed antibiotic prescription influenced the patient's decision to use the antibiotic for a respiratory tract infection (RTI). The control group (n = 69) where given a delayed prescription and the intervention group (n = 46) were given an information leaflet on antibiotics with the delayed prescription. In the control group, 72% (n = 50) of patients indicated they subsequently used the antibiotic, and in the intervention group, 43%(n = 20) indicated they used the antibiotic, this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0018.) The key conclusion of this study is that delayed prescriptions should be issued with an appropriate information sheet. PMID:24282895

  7. Impact of human papillomavirus on head and neck squamous cell cancers in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ingrid, Labouba; Chloé, Bertolus; Hervé, Koumakpayi Ismail; Ernest, Belembaogo; Jérôme, Miloundja; Nicolas, Berthet

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell cancers are among the most aggressive. Their incidence and mortality rates are relatively lower in Middle Africa than worldwide, but in Gabon, these rates tend to be 2-3 fold higher than in neighboring countries. The main risk factors are alcohol and tobacco consumption. However, in the last decades, there was cumulated evidence that human papillomaviruses were a significant risk factor, particularly for oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer. In Gabon, as elsewhere in Africa, assessment of these 3 risk factors need to be improved to determine their respective role in the development of head and neck squamous cell cancers. The potential differences in alcohol/tobacco consumption habits as well as in infectious ecology between developing and developed countries can make it difficult to transpose current data on this issue. Determining the respective role of alcohol/tobacco consumption and human papillomaviruses in the development of head and neck squamous cell cancers is crucial for the management of these cancers that could become a serious public health issue in Gabon. Human papillomaviruses are not only a risk factor but also a biomarker with promising clinical potential for the follow-up of head and neck squamous cell cancers potentially able to select an adequate treatment. Then, assessing the epidemiological impact of human papillomaviruses in Gabon and in all of Africa would prove useful for the clinical follow-up of head and neck squamous cell cancers, and would also provide essential data to plan a global prevention strategy against head and neck squamous cell cancers due to human papillomaviruses. PMID:26557156

  8. Trefoil factor 3 as a novel biomarker to distinguish between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E

    2015-05-01

    In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an additional

  9. Trefoil Factor 3 as a Novel Biomarker to Distinguish Between Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Wang, Shu-Jing; Pandey, Vijay; Chen, Ping; Li, Qing; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Wu, Qiang; Lobie, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In carcinoma, such as of the lung, the histological subtype is important to select an appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients. However, carcinomas with poor differentiation cannot always be distinguished on the basis of morphology alone nor on clinical findings. Hence, delineation of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 most common epithelial-origin carcinomas, is pivotal for selection of optimum therapy. Herein, we explored the potential utility of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) as a biomarker for primary lung adenocarcinoma and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas derived from different organs. We observed that 90.9% of lung adenocarcinomas were TFF3-positive, whereas no expression of TFF3 was observed in squamous cell carcinomas. The subtype of lung carcinoma was confirmed by four established biomarkers, cytokeratin 7 and thyroid transcription factor 1 for adenocarcinoma and P63 and cytokeratin 5/6 for squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore, expression of TFF3 mRNA was observed by quantitative PCR in all of 11 human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and highly correlated with markers of the adenocarcinomatous lineage. In contrast, little or no expression of TFF3 was observed in 4 lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. By use of forced expression, or siRNA-mediated depletion of TFF3, we determined that TFF3 appeared to maintain rather than promote glandular differentiation of lung carcinoma cells. In addition, TFF3 expression was also determined in adenocarcinomas from colorectum, stomach, cervix, esophagus, and larynx. Among all these extrapulmonary carcinomas, 93.7% of adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 2.9% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. Totally, 92.9% of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary adenocarcinomas exhibited TFF3 positivity, whereas only 1.5% of squamous cell carcinomas were TFF3-positive. In conclusion, TFF3 is preferentially expressed in adenocarcinoma and may function as an

  10. Squamous cell cancer – 31-year epidemiological study in a city of south Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Nasser, Nilton; Nasser Filho, Nilton; Lehmkuhl, Rafaela Ludvig

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence and morbidity of squamous cell cancers are increasing worldwide. Epidemiological studies with morbidity coefficients about this type of cancer are scarce in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To determine morbidity coefficients, analyze and classify the squamous cell cancers diagnosed in the city of Blumenau - SC from 1980 to 2011, according to clinical and histological features. METHODS The authors revised 4000 histopathological exams with respect to sex, age, anatomic site and histological type. The morbidity coefficients were calculated using the number of squamous cell cancers found and the annual population estimated by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics between 1980 and 2011. RESULTS A total of 4000 tumors were identified, 2249 (56.2%) in male and 1751 (43.8%) in female patients. The standard incidence rates varied from 40 cases in 1980 to 120 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2011. The morbidity above 70 years of age reached 1484 cases/100,000 inhabitants in male and 975 in female patients. As to primary anatomic site, we found more tumors on the lips and ears in male and on the face and legs in female patients. As to the degree of involvement, the more frequent were Well Differentiated Squamous cell carcinomas (70%) and Moderate Squamous cell carcinomas (19,1%). The Low Differentiated Squamous cell carcinomas, which represented those with the worst prognosis, were found in 4.5% of the tumors. CONCLUSION Squamous cell cancers in Blumenau - SC have similar patterns of distribution regarding age, primary anatomic site and histological types as found in the international literature. The morbidity increased by 300% in the last 31 years, which indicates that we need to dedicate special attention to the older population. PMID:25672295

  11. Term induction of labor and subsequent preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    LEVINE, Lisa D.; BOGNER, Hillary R.; HIRSHBERG, Adi; ELOVITZ, Michal A.; SAMMEL, Mary D.; SRINVAS, Sindhu K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the rate of inductions continues to rise, there is a paucity of data investigating subsequent pregnancy outcomes after induction. Our objective was to compare term inductions to term spontaneous labor and evaluate the rate of subsequent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Study Design A retrospective cohort study of women with 2 consecutive deliveries from 2005–2010 was performed. Term inductions or term spontaneous labor in the index pregnancy were included, and those with a prior sPTB were excluded. Data were obtained through chart abstraction. The primary outcome was sPTB (<37wks) in a subsequent pregnancy. Categorical variables were compared with χ2 analyses and logistic regression was used to calculate odds. Results 887 women were included (622 inductions, 265 spontaneous labor). The overall subsequent sPTB rate was 7.2%. Term inductions were less likely to have a subsequent sPTB compared to term spontaneous labor (6 vs. 11%; OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29–0.81, p=0.005). This remained after adjusting for confounders (aOR 0.55, p=0.04). The sPTB risk depended on gestational age of index delivery. At 37–38.9wks, the sPTB rate after spontaneous labor was 24% vs. 9% after induction (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.44–6.16, p=0.003). This was not significant for 39–39.9wks (p=0.2) or ≥40wks (p=0.8). Conclusions Induction is not a risk factor for subsequent sPTB. Spontaneous labor; however, in the early term period is associated with subsequent sPTB. Further investigation among early term deliveries is warranted to evaluate the risk of sPTB and target interventions in this cohort. PMID:24184339

  12. Delayed Consecutive Contralateral Thalamic Hemorrhage after Spontaneous Thalamic Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hun; Choi, Hyuk Jai; Yang, Jin Seo; Kang, Suk Hyung; Cho, Yong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic hemorrhagic events have ranged from 12 to 19 in prior reports, with a time lag between bilateral thalamic hemorrhage of up to two days. Herein, we report the first case of delayed (17 days) consecutive contralateral thalamic hemorrhage after spontaneous first thalamic hemorrhage. A 65-year-old female initially presented with a drowsy mentality with a left-side motor weakness (grade II/III). Brain computed tomography (CT) demonstrated right side thalamic and intraventricular hemorrhage. She regained alertness with mild residual motor weakness (grade III/IV) under medical management. Seventeen days later, a sudden and generalized tonic-clonic seizure developed. Brain CT scans revealed a new contralateral thalamic hemorrhage coincident with microbleeds. Neurologic status remained unchanged, consisting of a stuporous mentality with quadriparesis of grade II/II. We report the first case of delayed consecutive contralateral thalamic hemorrhage up to 17 days after first thalamic hemorrhage. The case highlights the need for close monitoring of patients with thalamic hemorrhage who experience microbleeds on the contralateral side, due to the possibility of delayed hemorrhage.

  13. Transport delay compensation for computer-generated imagery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    In the problem of pure transport delay in a low-pass system, a trade-off exists with respect to performance within and beyond a frequency bandwidth. When activity beyond the band is attenuated because of other considerations, this trade-off may be used to improve the performance within the band. Specifically, transport delay in computer-generated imagery systems is reduced to a manageable problem by recognizing frequency limits in vehicle activity and manual-control capacity. Based on these limits, a compensation algorithm has been developed for use in aircraft simulation at NASA Ames Research Center. For direct measurement of transport delays, a beam-splitter experiment is presented that accounts for the complete flight simulation environment. Values determined by this experiment are appropriate for use in the compensation algorithm. The algorithm extends the bandwidth of high-frequency flight simulation to well beyond that of normal pilot inputs. Within this bandwidth, the visual scene presentation manifests negligible gain distortion and phase lag. After a year of utilization, two minor exceptions to universal simulation applicability have been identified and subsequently resolved.

  14. Molecular profiling of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gatalica, Zoran; Knezetic, Joseph; Reddy, Sandeep; Nathan, Cherie‐Ann; Javadi, Nader; Teknos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) exhibits high rates of recurrence, and with few approved targeted agents, novel treatments are needed. We analyzed a molecular profiling database for the distribution of biomarkers predictive of chemotherapies and targeted agents. Methods Seven hundred thirty‐five patients with advanced HNSCC (88 with known human papillomavirus [HPV] status), were profiled using multiple platforms (gene sequencing, gene copy number, and protein expression). Results Among the entire patient population studied, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was the protein most often overexpressed (90%), TP53 gene most often mutated (41%), and phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase (PIK3CA) most often amplified (40%; n = 5). With the exception of TP53 mutation, other biomarker frequencies were not significantly different among HPV‐positive or HPV‐negative patients. PIK3CA mutations and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss are frequent events, independent of HPV status. The immune response‐modulating programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) axis was active across sites, stages, and HPV status. Conclusion Molecular profiling utilizing multiple platforms provides a range of therapy options beyond standard of care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1625–E1638, 2016 PMID:26614708

  15. Comprehensive genomic characterization of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    2015-01-29

    The Cancer Genome Atlas profiled 279 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) to provide a comprehensive landscape of somatic genomic alterations. Here we show that human-papillomavirus-associated tumours are dominated by helical domain mutations of the oncogene PIK3CA, novel alterations involving loss of TRAF3, and amplification of the cell cycle gene E2F1. Smoking-related HNSCCs demonstrate near universal loss-of-function TP53 mutations and CDKN2A inactivation with frequent copy number alterations including amplification of 3q26/28 and 11q13/22. A subgroup of oral cavity tumours with favourable clinical outcomes displayed infrequent copy number alterations in conjunction with activating mutations of HRAS or PIK3CA, coupled with inactivating mutations of CASP8, NOTCH1 and TP53. Other distinct subgroups contained loss-of-function alterations of the chromatin modifier NSD1, WNT pathway genes AJUBA and FAT1, and activation of oxidative stress factor NFE2L2, mainly in laryngeal tumours. Therapeutic candidate alterations were identified in most HNSCCs. PMID:25631445

  16. Alcohol as a primary risk factor in oral squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mashberg, A; Garfinkel, L; Harris, S

    1981-01-01

    This case-control study investigates the role of alcohol as a primary risk factor in the development of oral cancer. A total of 181 patients diagnosed as having squamous carcinoma of the oral cavity were interviewed, and 497 controls. The relative risk for drinkers adjusted for smoking was 3.3, 15.2, and 10.6 for those who drank less than six, six to nine, and 10 or more whiskey equivalents (WEs) a day, respectively. The relative risk for smokers adjusted for drinking rose only from 3.2 to 4.5 to 5.0 for smokers of 10 to 19, 20 to 39, and 40 or more cigarettes a day, respectively. Beer/wine drinkers had much higher relative risks than the whiskey drinkers. The adjusted relative risk for whiskey drinkers consuming 10 or more WEs a day was 7.3; the adjusted relative risk for beer/wine drinkers consuming 10 or more WEs a day was 20.4. These results indicate that drinkers of six or more WEs a day may be at greater risk than smokers of 40 or more cigarettes a day, and that beer and wine may be greater risk factors than whiskey in the development of oral cancer.

  17. Clinicopathological features and proliferation markers in tongue squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gueiros, L A; Coletta, R D; Kowalski, L P; Lopes, M A

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological features and immunohistochemical expression of proliferation markers in oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC). Sixty-three patients without previous treatment or distant metastases were selected. Clinical information was retrieved from medical charts, histopathological analysis was performed and expression of proliferation markers (Ki-67, Mcm-2 and geminin) was evaluated. Most patients were men (81%) (male:female ratio 4.25:1). The age range was 31-92 years (mean 57.6 ± 11.81 years). A high Anneroth score was associated with tumour size (p=0.05), tumoural embolization of the blood vessels (p=0.003), nodal metastasis (p=0.05), nodal capsule rupture (p=0.016) and distant metastasis (p=0.002). Elevated Bryne scores were significantly associated with nodal capsule rupture (p=0.02), distant metastasis (p=0.002), shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.03) and disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.05) compared with patients with lower score. Elevated Ki-67+ cells (p=0.05) and Mcm-2+ cells (p=0.008) were associated with nodal metastasis and tumours with a high geminin score demonstrated a significant tendency for neural invasion (p=0.05). Anneroth and Bryne score in association with biomarkers of proliferation can be useful for evaluating the biological behaviour of OTSCC. PMID:21277167

  18. Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bann, Darrin V; Deschler, Daniel G; Goyal, Neerav

    2016-09-22

    The immune system plays a key role in preventing tumor formation by recognizing and destroying malignant cells. For over a century, researchers have attempted to harness the immune response as a cancer treatment, although this approach has only recently achieved clinical success. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, betel nut use, and human papillomavirus infection. Unfortunately, worldwide mortality from HNSCC remains high, partially due to limits on therapy secondary to the significant morbidity associated with current treatments. Therefore, immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC treatment are attractive for their potential to reduce morbidity while improving survival. However, the application of immunotherapies to this disease has been challenging because HNSCC is profoundly immunosuppressive, resulting in decreased absolute lymphocyte counts, impaired natural killer cell function, reduced antigen-presenting cell function, and a tumor-permissive cytokine profile. Despite these challenges, numerous clinical trials testing the safety and efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC treatment are currently underway, many of which have produced promising results. This review will summarize immunotherapeutic approaches to HNSCC that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

  19. Molecular carcinogenesis of squamous cell carcinomas of the skin.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Yoshiaki; Murao, Kazutoshi; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Arase, Seiji

    2002-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin were suggested to develop through a multistep process that involves activation of proto-oncogenes and/or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in the human skin keratinocytes. Exposure to ultra-violet (UV), especially UV-B, radiation is the most common cause for these genetic abnormalities in cells. We review causation of SCCs and genetic abnormalities in human SCCs with the current work. To elucidate the multistep process, we developed a method for examining the combinatorial function in vivo of plural genes in human keratinocytes. Using high efficiency retroviral transductions, we could express plural genes serially in normal human primary keratinocytes and use these cells to regenerate human skin on SCID mice. A combinatorial transduction of H-RasV12 and cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) produced human epidermal neoplasia resembling SCC. These findings were consistent with our previous results of mutation analysis in SCCs, one of which had both mutations of H-Ras gene and the INK4a locus. Therefore, it is suggested that a combination of these genetic abnormalities might be crucial to the carcinogenesis at least in a subset of SCCs. PMID:12322999

  20. Interstitial brachytherapy and early tongue squamous cell carcinoma management

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, J.L.; Coche-Dequeant, B.; Castelain, B.; Prevost, B.; Buisset, E.; Ton Van, J. )

    1990-05-01

    The results of treatment of 341 previously untreated patients with early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anterior two thirds of the tongue using iridium 192 implants (January 1974-December 1983) are presented. Furthermore, 265 patients underwent neck dissection, followed, in 102 cases, by radiotherapy. Incidence of local treatment complications was 19% (66 patients); however, only 3% (11 patients) needed more than a single medical treatment. Two months after completion of overall treatment, 326 patients (96%) were free of disease. Local failures occurred in 18% of cases; however, after successful salvage surgery this rate was reduced to 11%. Neck failures occurred in 18% of cases, but after successful salvage were reduced to 12%. Distant metastases were rare (1.5%), whereas metachronous cancers were frequent (102 patients). Survival rates were 61% (56% to 66%) at 3 years, 46% (41% to 51%) at 5 years, and 26% (23% to 34%) at 10 years. Deaths due to tongue cancer evolution (20%) equalled those due to metachronous cancers (18.5%) and intercurrent diseases (21%).