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Sample records for delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol thc

  1. tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] in Schedule II. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-11-22

    This final rule adopts without changes an interim final rule with request for comments published in the Federal Register on March 23, 2017. On July 1, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new drug application for Syndros, a drug product consisting of dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] oral solution. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) maintains FDA-approved products of oral solutions containing dronabinol in schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.

  2. On the pharmacological properties of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Costa, Barbara

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis is one of the first plants used as medicine, and the notion that it has potentially valuable therapeutic properties is a matter of current debate. The isolation of its main constituent, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous ligands) made possible studies concerning the pharmacological activity of cannabinoids. This paper reviews some of the most-important findings in the field of THC pharmacology. Clinical trials, anecdotal reports, and experiments employing animal models strongly support the idea that THC and its derivatives exhibit a wide variety of therapeutic applications. However, the psychotropic effects observed in laboratory animals and the adverse reactions reported during human trials, as well as the risk of tolerance development and potential dependence, limit the application of THC in therapy. Nowadays, researchers focus on other therapeutic strategies by which the endocannabinoid system might be modulated to clinical advantage (inhibitor or activator of endocannabinoid biosynthesis, cellular uptake, or metabolism). However, emerging evidence highlights the beneficial effects of the whole cannabis extract over those observed with single components, indicating cannabis-based medicines as new perspective to revisit the pharmacology of this plant.

  3. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) history fails to affect THC's ability to induce place preferences in rats.

    PubMed

    Hempel, Briana J; Wakeford, Alison G P; Clasen, Matthew M; Friar, Mary A; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-05-01

    In pre-clinical models of marijuana abuse, there is relatively limited evidence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol's (THC) rewarding effects, as indexed by its general inability to induce a place preference. One explanation for this failure is that its rewarding effects are masked by its concurrently occurring aversive properties. Consistent with this explanation, THC pre-exposure, which presumably weakens its aversive effects, induces place preferences. Such demonstrations are limited to mice and given reported species differences in THC reactivity, it is unknown to what extent the same shift in affective properties would be evident in rats. The present experiment examined the effect of THC history (3.2mg/kg) on THC (1 or 3.2mg/kg) induced place preference conditioning in rats. An assessment of taste avoidance was also run to independently characterize THC's aversive effects and any changes that occurred with drug pre-exposure. These assessments were made in a combined taste avoidance/place preference procedure in which a novel saccharin solution and environment were paired with THC (0, 1 or 3.2mg/kg). THC did not induce place conditioning, and a history of THC was ineffective in increasing THC's ability to do so, despite the fact that this same history significantly attenuated the aversive effects of THC. The failure of THC to consistently induce place preferences has been argued to be a function of its concurrently occurring aversive effects masking its rewarding properties. The fact that pre-exposure to THC significantly reduced its aversive effects without impacting THC's ability to induce place preferences suggests that THC has weak rewarding effects and/or its residual aversive affects may have still masked its rewarding properties. An important area for future work will be characterizing under what conditions THC is rewarding and whether its overall reinforcing effects are impacted by the relationship between its affective properties. Copyright © 2016

  4. Cognitive and subjective dose-response effects of acute oral Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in infrequent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Curran, H Valerie; Brignell, Catherine; Fletcher, Sally; Middleton, Paul; Henry, John

    2002-10-01

    Although some aspects of memory functions are known to be acutely impaired by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC; the main active constituent of marijuana), effects on other aspects of memory are not known and the time course of functional impairments is unclear. The present study aimed to detail the acute and residual cognitive effects of delta(9)-THC in infrequent cannabis users. A balanced, double-blind cross-over design was used to compare the effects of 7.5 mg and 15 mg delta(9)-THC with matched placebo in 15 male volunteers. Participants were assessed pre and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24 and 48 h post-drug. Delta(9)-THC 15 mg impaired performance on two explicit memory tasks at the time of peak plasma concentration (2 h post-drug). At the same time point, performance on an implicit memory task was preserved intact. The higher dose of delta(9)-THC resulted in no learning whatsoever occurring over a three-trial selective reminding task at 2 h. Working memory was generally unaffected by delta(9)-THC. In several tasks, delta(9)-THC increased both speed and error rates, reflecting "riskier" speed-accuracy trade-offs. Subjective effects were also most marked at 2 h but often persisted longer, with participants rating themselves as "stoned" for 8 h. Participants experienced a strong drug effect, liked this effect and, until 4 h, wanted more oral delta(9)-THC. No effects of delta(9)-THC were found 24 or 48 h following ingestion indicating that the residual effects of oral delta(9)-THC are minimal. These data demonstrate that oral delta(9)-THC impairs episodic memory and learning in a dose-dependent manner whilst sparing perceptual priming and working memory.

  5. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Medveczky, Maria M; Sherwood, Tracy A; Klein, Thomas W; Friedman, Herman; Medveczky, Peter G

    2004-09-15

    The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome of gamma herpesviruses persists in lymphoid cell nuclei in a latent episomal circular form. In response to extracellular signals, the latent virus can be activated, which leads to production of infectious virus progeny. Therefore, we evaluated the potential effects of THC on gamma herpesvirus replication. Tissue cultures infected with various gamma herpesviruses were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of THC and the amount of viral DNA or infectious virus yield was compared to those of control cultures. The effect of THC on Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication was measured by the Gardella method and replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) of monkeys, murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (MHV 68), and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) was measured by yield reduction assays. Inhibition of the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter activity was measured by the dual luciferase method. Micromolar concentrations of THC inhibit KSHV and EBV reactivation in virus infected/immortalized B cells. THC also strongly inhibits lytic replication of MHV 68 and HVS in vitro. Importantly, concentrations of THC that inhibit virus replication of gamma herpesviruses have no effect on cell growth or HSV-1 replication, indicating selectivity. THC was shown to selectively inhibit the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter of KSHV and MHV 68. THC specifically targets viral and/or cellular mechanisms required for replication and possibly shared by these gamma herpesviruses, and the endocannabinoid system is possibly involved in regulating gamma herpesvirus latency and lytic replication. The immediate early gene ORF 50 promoter activity was specifically inhibited by THC. These studies may also provide the foundation for the development

  6. Radioimmunoanalysis of delta-9-THC in blood by means of an /sup 125/I tracer. [Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, S.M.; McBay, A.J.; Reisner, H.M.

    A radioimmunoassay for delta-9-THC in plasma, whole blood, or hemolyzed blood specimens has been presented. Samples and standards were diluted with methanol and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant fluid was incubated with RIA buffer, /sup 125/I-labeled delta-8-THC and rabbit anti-THC serum. Solid phase goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins were added to separate bound from free THC. After centrifugation the supernatant fluid was aspirated and the radioactivity of the precipitate was counted in a gamma counter. The concentration of THC was calculated from a standard curve using the logit-log transformation of the average counts of duplicate tubes. The assay had several advantages.more » Methanol dilution gave better results than direct analysis. The /sup 125/I-labeled THC had high specific activity and could be counted in a gamma counter. The immunological separation of antibody-bound THC from free THC was better than separation techniques using ammonium sulfate and activated charcoal. THC was determined in 0.1 ml of sample with a sensitivity of 1.5 ng/ml in plasma and 3.0 ng/ml in hemolyzed blood.« less

  7. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) serum concentrations and pharmacological effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg THC.

    PubMed

    Hunault, Claudine C; Mensinga, Tjeert T; de Vries, Irma; Kelholt-Dijkman, Hermien H; Hoek, Jani; Kruidenier, Maaike; Leenders, Marianne E C; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2008-12-01

    Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). The pharmacokinetics of THC after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing more than approximately 35 mg THC (3.55% THC cigarettes) is unknown. To be able to perform suitable exposure risk analysis, it is important to know if there is a linear relation at higher doses. The present study aimed to characterise the pharmacokinetics of THC, the active metabolite 11-OH-THC and the inactive metabolite THC-COOH after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing high THC doses. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way, cross-over study included 24 male non-daily cannabis users (two to nine joints per month). Participants were randomly assigned to smoke cannabis cigarettes containing 29.3, 49.1 and 69.4 mg THC and a placebo. Serial serum samples collected over a period of 0-8 h were analysed by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Effects on heart rate, blood pressure and 'high' feeling were also measured. Mean maximal concentrations (Cmax) were 135.1, 202.9 and 231.0 microg/L for THC and 9.2, 16.4 and 15.8 microg/L for 11-OH-THC after smoking a 29.3-, 49.1- and 69.4-mg THC cigarette, respectively. A large inter-individual variability in Cmax was observed. Heart rate and 'high' feeling significantly increased with increasing THC dose. This study demonstrates that the known linear association between THC dose and THC serum concentration also applies for high THC doses.

  8. Reintoxication: the release of fat-stored delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) into blood is enhanced by food deprivation or ACTH exposure.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, N; Long, L E; Dawson, B L; Hansen, G H; Richardson, D P; Li, K M; Arnold, J C; McGregor, I S

    2009-11-01

    Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in adipose tissue where it is stored for long periods of time. Here we investigated whether conditions that promote lipolysis can liberate THC from adipocytes to yield increased blood levels of THC. In vitro studies involved freshly isolated rat adipocytes that were incubated with THC before exposure to the lipolytic agent adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). A complementary in vivo approach examined the effects of both food deprivation and ACTH on blood levels of THC in rats that had been repeatedly injected with THC (10 mg.kg(-1)) for 10 consecutive days. Lipolysis promoted by ACTH or food deprivation was indexed by measurement of glycerol levels. ACTH increased THC levels in the medium of THC-pretreated adipocytes in vitro. ACTH also enhanced THC release from adipocytes in vitro when taken from rats repeatedly pretreated with THC in vivo. Finally, in vivo ACTH exposure and 24 h food deprivation both enhanced the levels of THC and its metabolite, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in the blood of rats that had been pre-exposed to repeated THC injections. The present study shows that lipolysis enhances the release of THC from fat stores back into blood. This suggests the likelihood of 'reintoxication' whereby food deprivation or stress may raise blood THC levels in animals chronically exposed to the drug. Further research will need to confirm whether this can lead to functional effects, such as impaired cognitive function or 'flashbacks'.

  9. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) affects forelimb motor map expression but has little effect on skilled and unskilled behavior.

    PubMed

    Scullion, K; Guy, A R; Singleton, A; Spanswick, S C; Hill, M N; Teskey, G C

    2016-04-05

    It has previously been shown in rats that acute administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exerts a dose-dependent effect on simple locomotor activity, with low doses of THC causing hyper-locomotion and high doses causing hypo-locomotion. However the effect of acute THC administration on cortical movement representations (motor maps) and skilled learned movements is completely unknown. It is important to determine the effects of THC on motor maps and skilled learned behaviors because behaviors like driving place people at a heightened risk. Three doses of THC were used in the current study: 0.2mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg representing the approximate range of the low to high levels of available THC one would consume from recreational use of cannabis. Acute peripheral administration of THC to drug naïve rats resulted in dose-dependent alterations in motor map expression using high resolution short duration intracortical microstimulation (SD-ICMS). THC at 0.2mg/kg decreased movement thresholds and increased motor map size, while 1.0mg/kg had the opposite effect, and 2.5mg/kg had an even more dramatic effect. Deriving complex movement maps using long duration (LD)-ICMS at 1.0mg/kg resulted in fewer complex movements. Dosages of 1.0mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg THC reduced the number of reach attempts but did not affect percentage of success or the kinetics of reaching on the single pellet skilled reaching task. Rats that received 2.5mg/kg THC did show an increase in latency of forelimb removal on the bar task, while dose-dependent effects of THC on unskilled locomotor activity using the rotorod and horizontal ladder tasks were not observed. Rats may be employing compensatory strategies after receiving THC, which may account for the robust changes in motor map expression but moderate effects on behavior. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the treatment of end-stage open-angle glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Flach, Allan J

    2002-01-01

    Evidence exists that the administration of cannabinoid derivatives can lower intraocular pressure. Some patients with glaucoma believe they are being deprived of a potentially beneficial treatment. Therefore, the Research Advisory Panel of California instituted the Cannabis Therapeutic Research Program to permit compassionate access to cannabinoid derivatives. Data about the potential therapeutic usefulness and toxicity of these agents were collected. This study reviews the results of this program with the specific aim of providing further direction for these investigational efforts. A survey of local ophthalmologists indicated an impressive interest in participating in and contributing patients with glaucoma unresponsive to treatment to this study. Appropriate patients were treated with either orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol capsules or inhaled marijuana in addition to their existing therapeutic regimen. Although 20 ophthalmologists were approved as investigators, only nine patients were enrolled in the study. An initial decrease in intraocular pressure was observed in all patients, and the investigator's therapeutic goal was met in four of the nine patients. However, the decreases in intraocular pressure were not sustained, and all patients elected to discontinue treatment within 1 to 9 months for various reasons. This uncontrolled, unmasked, nonrandomized study does not permit definitive conclusions about the efficacy or toxicity of cannabinoids in the treatment of glaucoma. There is an impression that this treatment can lower intraocular pressure, but the development of tolerance and significant systemic toxicity appears to limit the usefulness of this potential treatment. Both patients and ophthalmologists greatly appreciated the opportunity to participate in this study.

  11. Short-Term Genetic Selection for Adolescent Locomotor Sensitivity to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Kasten, Chelsea R; Zhang, Yanping; Mackie, Ken; Boehm, Stephen L

    2018-05-01

    Cannabis use is linked to positive and negative outcomes. Identifying genetic targets of susceptibility to the negative effects of cannabinoid use is of growing importance. The current study sought to complete short-term selective breeding for adolescent sensitivity and resistance to the locomotor effects of a single 10 mg/kg THC dose in the open field. Selection for THC-locomotor sensitivity was moderately heritable, with the greatest estimates of heritability seen in females from the F2 to S3 generations. Selection for locomotor sensitivity also resulted in increased anxiety-like activity in the open field. These results are the first to indicate that adolescent THC-locomotor sensitivity can be influenced via selective breeding. Development of lines with a genetic predisposition for THC-sensitivity or resistance to locomotor effects allow for investigation of risk factors, differences in consequences of THC use, identification of correlated behavioral responses, and detection of genetic targets that may contribute to heightened cannabinoid sensitivity.

  12. Acute psychotropic effects of oral cannabis extract with a defined content of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R M; Kraft, B; Frey, R; Winkler, D; Weiszenbichler, S; Bäcker, C; Kasper, S; Kress, H G

    2010-01-01

    The medical use of cannabinoids is limited mainly by their undesirable effects. With respect to acute psychotropic effects, the aim of this study is the comparison of an oral cannabis extract and low-dose diazepam in a cross-over experiment in drug-naïve healthy women. Sixteen healthy females participated in this randomized, double-blind, active comparator-controlled, single-dose, balanced 2-way cross-over study. Cannabis extract with standardised Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content (20 mg) or active placebo (5 mg diazepam) was administered orally. Subjects were assessed by self- and observer-rated visual analogue scales (VAS), the BRIEF PSYCHIATRIC RATING SCALE (BPRS) and three psychomotor tests up to 6 h after administration. VAS showed significantly elevated fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, and "feeling high" after cannabis as compared to baseline and diazepam. BPRS scores were significantly higher after cannabis intake. Only in one psychomotor test a decrease of psychomotor activity after cannabis was evident. One subject in the cannabis condition experienced severe transient psychotic symptoms. Orally administered cannabis produced significant central depressant side-effects compared to diazepam, mostly subjective effects (VAS) but marginal effects in psychomotor performance in 15 healthy females. Regarding the medical use of cannabis, a rigorous benefit-risk analysis and an exact psychiatric assessment before and during treatment are necessary. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  13. Tolerance to Chronic Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in Rhesus Macaques Infected With Simian Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Winsauer, Peter J.; Molina, Patricia E.; Amedee, Angela M.; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; McGoey, Robin R.; Troxclair, Dana A.; Walker, Edith M.; Birke, Leslie L.; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Howard, Jessica M.; Leonard, Stuart T.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.; Lewis, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    Although Δ9-THC has been approved to treat anorexia and weight loss associated with AIDS, it may also reduce well-being by disrupting complex behavioral processes or enhancing HIV replication. To investigate these possibilities, four groups of male rhesus macaques were trained to respond under an operant acquisition and performance procedure, and administered vehicle or Δ9-THC before and after inoculation with simian immunodeficiency virus(SIVmac251, 100 TCID50/ml, i.v.). Prior to chronic Δ9-THC and SIV inoculation, 0.032– 0.32 mg/kg of Δ9-THC produced dose-dependent rate-decreasing effects and small, sporadic error-increasing effects in the acquisition and performance components in each subject. Following 28 days of chronic Δ9-THC (0.32 mg/kg, i.m.) or vehicle twice daily, delta-9-THC-treated subjects developed tolerance to the rate-decreasing effects, and this tolerance was maintained during the initial 7–12 months irrespective of SIV infection (i.e., +THC/−SIV, +THC/+SIV). Full necropsy was performed on all SIV subjects an average of 329 days post-SIV inoculation, with postmortem histopathology suggestive of a reduced frequency of CNS pathology as well as opportunistic infections in delta-9-THC-treated subjects. Chronic Δ9-THC also significantly reduced CB-1 and CB-2 receptor levels in the hippocampus, attenuated the expression of a proinflammatory cytokine (MCP-1), and did not increase viral load in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, or brain tissue compared to vehicle-treated subjects with SIV. Together, these data indicate that chronic Δ9-THC produces tolerance to its behaviorally disruptive effects on complex tasks while not adversely affecting viral load or other markers of disease progression during the early stages of infection. PMID:21463073

  14. Adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure fails to affect THC-induced place and taste conditioning in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Flax, Shaun M; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Riley, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent initiation of drug use has been linked to problematic drug taking later in life and may represent an important variable that changes the balance of the rewarding and/or aversive effects of abused drugs which may contribute to abuse vulnerability. The current study examined the effects of adolescent THC exposure on THC-induced place preference (rewarding effects) and taste avoidance (aversive effects) conditioning in adulthood. Forty-six male Sprague-Dawley adolescent rats received eight injections of an intermediate dose of THC (3.2mg/kg) or vehicle. After these injections, animals were allowed to mature and then trained in a combined CTA/CPP procedure in adulthood (PND ~90). Animals were given four trials of conditioning with intervening water-recovery days, a final CPP test and then a one-bottle taste avoidance test. THC induced dose-dependent taste avoidance but did not produce place conditioning. None of these effects was impacted by adolescent THC exposure. Adolescent exposure to THC had no effect on THC taste and place conditioning in adulthood. The failure to see an effect of adolescent exposure was addressed in the context of other research that has assessed exposure of drugs of abuse during adolescence on drug reactivity in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Neuropsychopharmacology of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol].

    PubMed

    Costentin, J

    2008-08-01

    Today, the main route of introduction of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main active substance of cannabis, into the human body is via the lungs, from smokes produced by combustion of a haschich-tobacco mixture. The use of a water pipe (nargileh-like) intensifies its fast supply to the body. THC reaches the brain easily where it stimulates CB1 receptors; their ubiquity underlies a wide variety of effects. THC disappears from extracellular spaces by dissolving in lipid rich membranes, and not by excretion from the body. This is followed by a slow release, leading to long lasting effects originating from brain areas containing a large proportion of spare receptors ("reserve receptors"). Far from mimicking the effects of endocannabinoids, THC caricatures and disturbs them. It induces both psychical and physical dependencies, but the perception of withdrawal is weak on account of its very slow elimination. THC disturbs cognition. Acutely, it develops anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, which causes a lot of users to abuse THC, thus leading to a tolerance (desensitization of CB1 receptors) making anxiety and depression to reappear more intensely than originally. THC has close relationships with schizophrenia. It incites to tobacco, alcohol and heroine abuses.

  16. Effect of the psychoactive metabolite of marijuana, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), on the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor by human large granular lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kusher, D I; Dawson, L O; Taylor, A C; Djeu, J Y

    1994-03-01

    The natural killer cell (NK)/3polymorphonuclear neutrophil axis has recently been identified to be important in early defense against the opportunistic fungi, Candida albicans. Repression of this system is therefore likely to contribute to susceptibility to opportunistic infections. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), an active constituent of marijuana, has been reported to be immunosuppressive at concentrations that exceed attainable plasma levels. In this report, we examine the possibility that human large granular lymphocytes (LGL) can be immunosuppressed by exposure to THC at physiologically relevant concentrations and probed two functions associated with LGL, i.e., cytokine production and tumoricidal activity. We find that these low levels of THC inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) induction from LGL by C. albicans and are dependent upon THC dose (0.005-5.0 micrograms/ml) and length of exposure (0.05-3.0 hr). Northern blot analysis indicates that the downregulation of TNF production from LGL by THC resides at the mRNA level. Moreover, exposure of LGL to physiological THC concentrations (0.01-2.0 micrograms/ml) diminishes their cytolytic activity against K562 tumor cells.

  17. Validation of a two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of cannabidiol, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC in plasma.

    PubMed

    Karschner, Erin L; Barnes, Allan J; Lowe, Ross H; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2010-05-01

    A sensitive analytical method for simultaneous quantification of sub-nanogram concentrations of cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) in plasma is presented for monitoring cannabinoid pharmacotherapy and illicit cannabis use. Analytes were extracted from 1 mL plasma by solid-phase extraction, derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide with 1% trimethylchlorosilane, and analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (2D-GCMS) with cryofocusing. The lower calibration curve was linear from 0.25-25 ng/mL for CBD and THC, 0.125-25 ng/mL for 11-OH-THC and 0.25-50 ng/mL for THCCOOH. A second higher linear range from 5-100 ng/mL, achieved through modification of injection parameters, was validated for THC, 11-OH-THC, and THCCOOH and was only implemented if concentrations exceeded the lower curve upper limit of linearity. This procedure prevented laborious re-extraction by allowing the same specimen to be re-injected for quantification on the high calibration curve. Intra- and inter-assay imprecision, determined at four quality control concentrations, were or=72.9% for all analytes. Analytes were stable when stored at 22 degrees C for 16 h, 4 degrees C for 48 h, after three freeze-thaw cycles at -20 degrees C and when stored on the autosampler for 48 h. This sensitive and specific 2D-GCMS assay provides a new means of simultaneously quantifying CBD, THC and metabolite biomarkers in clinical medicine, forensic toxicology, workplace drug testing, and driving under the influence of drugs programs.

  18. Blunting of the HPA-axis underlies the lack of preventive efficacy of early post-stressor single-dose Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Mayer, Tzur Alexander; Matar, Michael Alex; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2014-07-01

    The therapeutic value of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) in the aftermath of trauma has recently raised interest. A prospective animal model for posttraumatic stress disorder was employed to assess the behavioral effects of a single dose of Δ9-THC administered intraperitoneally following exposure to psychogenic stress. Animals were exposed to predator scent stress and treated 1h later with Δ9-THC (1, 5 and 10mg/kg) or vehicle. The outcome measures included behavior in an elevated plus-maze and acoustic startle response 1, 6 and 24 h or 7 days after exposure and freezing behavior upon exposure to a trauma cue on day 8. Pre-set cut-off behavioral criteria classified exposed animals as those with "extreme," "minimal" or "intermediate" (partial) response. Circulating corticosterone levels were assessed over 2h after exposure with and without Δ9-THC. The behavioral effects of a CB1 antagonist (AM251) administered systemically 1h post exposure were evaluated. In the short term (1-6 h), 5 mg/kg of Δ9-THC effectively attenuated anxiety-like behaviors. In the longer-term (7 days), it showed no effect in attenuating PTSD-like behavioral stress responses, or freezing response to trauma cue. Δ9-THC significantly decreased corticosterone levels. In contrast, administration of AM251 (a CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist) 1 h post exposure attenuated long-term behavioral stress responses through activation of the HPA-axis. The demonstrated lack of preventive efficacy of early Δ9-THC treatment and reports of its anxiogenic effects in many individuals raises doubts not only regarding its potential clinical value, but also the advisability of clinical trials. The endocannabinoids exert complex effects on behavioral responses mediating glucocorticoid effects on memory of traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantification of 11-Carboxy-Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in Meconium Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

    PubMed

    Peat, Judy; Davis, Brehon; Frazee, Clint; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Maternal substance abuse is an ongoing concern and detecting drug use during pregnancy is an important component of neonatal care when drug abuse is suspected. Meconium is the preferred specimen for drug testing because it is easier to collect than neonatal urine and it provides a much broader time frame of drug exposure. We describe a method for quantifying 11-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in meconium. After adding a labeled internal standard (THC-COOH D9) and acetonitrile, samples are sonicated to release both free and conjugated THC-COOH. The acetonitrile/aqueous layer is removed and mixed with a strong base to hydrolyze the conjugated THC-COOH. The samples are then extracted with an organic solvent mixture as part of a sample "cleanup." The organic solvent layer is discarded and the remaining aqueous sample is acidified. Following extraction with a second organic mixture, the organic layer is removed and concentrated to dryness. The resulting residue is converted to a trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode.

  20. Effects of chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration on neurotransmitter concentrations and receptor binding in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.F.; Newport, G.D.; Scallet, A.C.

    THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is also known as an hallucinogenic compound. Numerous reports have shown that large doses of THC produce significant alterations in various neurotransmitter systems. The present study was designed to determine whether chronic exposure to THC produces significant alterations in selected neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, GABAergic, benzodiazepine, and opiate) in the rat brain. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with vehicle, 10 or 20 mg THC/kg body weight daily, 5 days/week for 90 days. Animals were killed either 24 hours or two months after the last dose. Brains weremore » dissected into different regions for neurochemical analyses. Two months after the cessation of chronic administration, there was a significant decrease in GABA receptor binding in the hippocampus of animals in the high dose group. However, no other significant changes were found in neurotransmitter receptor binding characteristics in the hippocampus or in neurotransmitter concentrations in the caudate nucleus, hypothalamus or septum after chronic THC administration. In an attempt to replicate the GABA receptor binding changes and also to determine the (35S)TBPS binding in hippocampus, we designed Experiment 2. In this experiment, we dosed the animals by gavage with 0, 5, 10 or 20 mg THC/kg daily, 5 days/week or with 20 mg THC/kg Monday through Thursday and 60 mg/kg on Friday for 90 days. Results from this experiment failed to replicate the dose-dependent effect of THC on GABA receptor binding in hippocampus. Modulation of (35S)TBPS binding by GABA or 3 alpha-OH-DHP or inhibition by cold TBPS in frontal cortex did not show any significant dose-related effects.« less

  1. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THC-A) in urine of a 15-month-old child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Morini, Luca; Quaiotti, Jessica; Moretti, Matteo; Osculati, Antonio Marco Maria; Tajana, Luca; Groppi, Angelo; Vignali, Claudia

    2018-05-01

    The acidic forms of cannabinoids, THC-A and CBD-A are naturally present in cannabis plants and preparations and are generally decarboxylated to the active compounds before the use (e.g. thermally decarboxylated through smoking). Hence, the identification of the acidic compounds in urine could be an evidence of cannabis ingestion rather than a passive exposure to smoke. This case report described a 15-month-old child that suffered an acute intoxication by accidental cannabis ingestion. It is important to assess the ingestion and to discriminate it from a passive exposure to better interpret the clinical findings and to establish the correct therapeutic procedure. Urine samples were simply diluted in deionized water and directly injected in the LC-MS/MS system. D 3 -THCCOOH was used as internal standard. Chromatographic separation of THCCOOH, THC-A and CBD-A was carried out in reversed phase on a c18 column. A triple quad in MRM negative mode was used to monitor the three analytes. The developed LC-MS/MS method was simple and fast. A LOD of 3.0ng/mL and a LOQ of 10.0ng/mL were measured for the three compounds. The analytical procedure was validated accordingly to international guidelines. The two urine samples collected from the 15-month-old child at the hospitalization and after three days provided positive results for THCCOOH (130.0 and 10.0ng/mL respectively). THC-A was found only in the urine sample collected at the hospitalization (concentration: 70.0ng/mL). THC-A was detected and quantitated in a urine sample of a 15-month-old child. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Medicinal cannabis: is delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol necessary for all its effects?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, J D; Whalley, B J; Baker, D; Pryce, G; Constanti, A; Gibbons, S; Williamson, E M

    2003-12-01

    Cannabis is under clinical investigation to assess its potential for medicinal use, but the question arises as to whether there is any advantage in using cannabis extracts compared with isolated Delta9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9THC), the major psychoactive component. We have compared the effect of a standardized cannabis extract (SCE) with pure Delta9THC, at matched concentrations of Delta9THC, and also with a Delta9THC-free extract (Delta9THC-free SCE), using two cannabinoid-sensitive models, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and an in-vitro rat brain slice model of epilepsy. Whilst SCE inhibited spasticity in the mouse model of MS to a comparable level, it caused a more rapid onset of muscle relaxation, and a reduction in the time to maximum effect compared with Delta9THC alone. The Delta9THC-free extract or cannabidiol (CBD) caused no inhibition of spasticity. However, in the in-vitro epilepsy model, in which sustained epileptiform seizures were induced by the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine-M in immature rat piriform cortical brain slices, SCE was a more potent and again more rapidly-acting anticonvulsant than isolated Delta9THC, but in this model, the Delta9THC-free extract also exhibited anticonvulsant activity. Cannabidiol did not inhibit seizures, nor did it modulate the activity of Delta9THC in this model. Therefore, as far as some actions of cannabis were concerned (e.g. antispasticity), Delta9THC was the active constituent, which might be modified by the presence of other components. However, for other effects (e.g. anticonvulsant properties) Delta9THC, although active, might not be necessary for the observed effect. Above all, these results demonstrated that not all of the therapeutic actions of cannabis herb might be due to the Delta9THC content.

  3. Inhibition of cortiocosteroidogenesis by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Warner, W; Harris, L S; Carchman, R A

    1977-12-01

    ACTH, cholera toxin, cyclic AMP but not pregnenolone-induced steroidogenesis in Y-1 functional mouse adrenal tumor cells was significantly inhibited by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabinol. The inhibition of steroidogenesis could not be correlated with a general depression in cell function or viability. The data suggest that cannabinoids inhibit corticosteroidogenesis at a site between the synthesis of cAMP and of pregnenolone.

  4. Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J C; Perry, D D; Russell, D N; Jones, B F

    1981-01-01

    Systemic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), administered either by smoking marihuana or as synthetic THC in soft gelatin capsules, lowers ocular tension in various glaucomas, but at the expense of significant decreases in systolic blood pressure. Topical THC in light mineral oil vehicles, though effective in laboratory animals, was not shown effective in 0.05 and 0.1% topical solutions when administered to six subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma in a randomized, balanced, double-masked protocol. Light mineral oil, which has an affinity for corneal epithelium, is an optimum vehicle for administering drugs whose mechanisms of action are systemic rather than local within the eye. Further glaucoma research should therefore proceed with marihuanas containing insignificant levels of THC (less than 0.4%) and with various local delivery systems of the ocular-active cannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa.

  5. Alteration in the level of endogenous hypothalamic prostaglandins induced by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Coupar, I. M.; Taylor, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    1 Whole brain and regional brain levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-like material have been determined following administration of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9 -THC) in rats. 2 Intravenous administration of delta 9-THC 2 mg/kg, resulted in marked behavioural changes and hypothermia. The behavioural changes consisted mainly of catatonia (most apparent at 30 min after administration of delta 9-THC), followed by sedation (most evident at 60 min). Hypothermia was marked from 30 min after administration of delta 9-THC. 3 delta 9-THC did not after the whole brain levels of PGE2-like material 30, 60 or 120 min after administration. 4 delta 9-THC did not alter the levels of PGE2-like material in the medulla oblongata/pons, midbrain, cortex and cerebellum, 30 min after administration. However, there was a significant reduction of PGE2-like material in the hypothalamus, 30 min after delta 9-THC. 5 It is suggested that the delta 9-THC-induced decrease in hypothalamic PGE2-like material may contribute to the hypothermia observed following delta 9-THC administration. PMID:6282371

  6. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kollins, Scott H.; Schoenfelder, Erin N.; English, Joseph S.; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O’Brien, Benjamin R.; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10 mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0 mg, 10 mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10 mg THC + 0 mg, 10 mg, and 40 mg MPH = 89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of “Feel Drug,” “Good Effects,” and “Take Drug Again.” THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. PMID:25175495

  8. Hair analysis for delta(9)-THC, delta(9)-THC-COOH, CBN and CBD, by GC/MS-EI. Comparison with GC/MS-NCI for delta(9)-THC-COOH.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Maria João; Monsanto, Paula Verâncio; Pinho Marques, Estela Gouveia; Bermejo, Ana; Avila, Sofia; Castanheira, Alice Martelo; Margalho, Cláudia; Barroso, Mário; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2002-08-14

    A sensitive analytical method was developed for quantitative analysis of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), 11-nor-delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (delta(9)-THC-COOH), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in human hair. The identification of delta(9)-THC-COOH in hair would document Cannabis use more effectively than the detection of parent drug (delta(9)-THC) which might have come from environmental exposure. Ketamine was added to hair samples as internal standard for CBN and CBD. Ketoprofen was added to hair samples as internal standard for the other compounds. Samples were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase for 2h at 40 degrees C. After cooling, samples were extracted with a liquid-liquid extraction procedure (with chloroform/isopropyl alcohol, after alkalinization, and n-hexane/ethyl acetate, after acidification), which was developed in our laboratory. The extracts were analysed before and after derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) and pentafluoropropanol (PFPOH) using a Hewlett Packard gas chromatographer/mass spectrometer detector, in electron impact mode (GC/MS-EI). Derivatized delta(9)-THC-COOH was also analysed using a Hewlett Packard gas chromatographer/mass spectrometer detector, in negative ion chemical ionization mode (GC/MS-NCI) using methane as the reagent gas. Responses were linear ranging from 0.10 to 5.00 ng/mg hair for delta(9)-THC and CBN, 0.10-10.00 ng/mg hair for CBD, 0.01-5.00 ng/mg for delta(9)-THC-COOH (r(2)>0.99). The intra-assay precisions ranged from <0.01 to 12.40%. Extraction recoveries ranged from 80.9 to 104.0% for delta(9)-THC, 85.9-100.0% for delta(9)-THC-COOH, 76.7-95.8% for CBN and 71.0-94.0% for CBD. The analytical method was applied to 87 human hair samples, obtained from individuals who testified in court of having committed drug related crimes. Quantification of delta(9)-THC-COOH using GC/MS-NCI was found to be more convenient than GC/MS-EI. The latter may give rise

  9. Medicinal applications of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Voth, E A; Schwartz, R H

    1997-05-15

    The use of crude marijuana for herbal medicinal applications is now being widely discussed in both the medical and lay literature. Ballot initiatives in California and Arizona have recently made crude marijuana accessible to patients under certain circumstances. As medicinal applications of pure forms of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and crude marijuana are being considered, the most promising uses of any form of THC are to counteract the nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy and to stimulate appetite. We evaluated the relevant research published between 1975 and 1996 on the medical applications, physical complications, and legal precedents for the use of pure THC or crude marijuana. Our review focused on the medical use of THC derivatives for nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy, glaucoma, stimulation of appetite, and spinal cord spasticity. Despite the toxicity of THC delivered in any form, evidence supports the selective use of pure THC preparations to treat nausea associated with cancer chemotherapy and to stimulate appetite. The evidence does not support the reclassification of crude marijuana as a prescribable medicine.

  10. Therapeutic issues of marijuana and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol).

    PubMed

    Ungerleider, J T; Andrysiak, T

    1985-05-01

    This article summarizes current knowledge about the medicinal value of cannabis and its principal psychoactive ingredient, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), particularly in the control of nausea and vomiting, in glaucoma, and in reduction of spasticity in multiple sclerosis. The major issues in the controversy about marijuana and medicine, primarily moral and ethical, are discussed.

  11. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract.

    PubMed

    Nadulski, Thomas; Pragst, Fritz; Weinberg, Gordon; Roser, Patrik; Schnelle, Martin; Fronk, Eva-Maria; Stadelmann, Andreas Michael

    2005-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to modify the effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by decreasing anxiety and antagonizing other THC-effects. As a reason, pharmacodynamic as well as pharmacokinetic mechanisms were suggested. In context of the use of cannabis-based medicine extracts for therapeutic purposes, a study was performed in a double-blind and placebo-controlled cross-over design in which each of 24 volunteers (12 male and 12 female, age 18-45 years) obtained soft-gelatin capsules with 10 mg THC (THC-set), cannabis extract containing 10 mg THC +5.4 mg CBD (CAN-set) or placebo in weekly intervals. Blood samples were taken 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 9 hours and 24 hours after the intake. The concentrations of THC, of its metabolites 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH and of CBD in the plasma samples were determined by automatic solid phase extraction, derivatization with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)triflouroacetamide and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentration versus time curves (maximum concentrations Cmax, corresponding time tmax and areas under the curves AUC) were evaluated by statistical methods with respect to equivalence or differences between the CAN-set and the THC-set. Furthermore, the intra-individual ratios of Cmax and AUC for 11-OH-THC/THC, THC-COOH/THC and THC-COOH/11-OH-THC were compared between the THC-set and the CAN-set. Despite the large variation of the data, evidence emerged from the total of the results that CBD partially inhibits the CYP 2C catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC. The probability for this inhibition is particularly high for oral intake because THC and CBD attain relatively high concentrations in the liver and because of the high first-pass metabolism of THC. However, the effect of CBD is small in comparison to the variability caused by other factors. Therefore, a pharmacokinetic reason for the differences determined between pure THC and cannabis extract is improbable at

  12. Effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and pentobarbital on a cortical response evoked during conditioning.

    PubMed

    Boyd, E S; Boyd, E H; Brown, L E

    1976-05-05

    A surface-negative wave, evoked by tone cues, appeared in monkey post-arcuate cortex as the monkey learned that the cue signaled the availability of reward. This evoked activity was depressed, concomitantly with changes in the animal's behavioral responding, by doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) as low as 0.032 mg/kg and of pentobarbital as low as 4 mg/kg. Pentobarbital tended to increase the latency of the evoked wave, an effect not seen with delta9-THC.

  13. Plasma and urine profiles of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes.

    PubMed

    Brenneisen, Rudolf; Meyer, Pascale; Chtioui, Haithem; Saugy, Martial; Kamber, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Since 2004, cannabis has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency for all sports competitions. In the years since then, about half of all positive doping cases in Switzerland have been related to cannabis consumption. In doping urine analysis, the target analyte is 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), the cutoff being 15 ng/mL. However, the wide urinary detection window of the long-term metabolite of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) does not allow a conclusion to be drawn regarding the time of consumption or the impact on the physical performance. The purpose of the present study on light cannabis smokers was to evaluate target analytes with shorter urinary excretion times. Twelve male volunteers smoked a cannabis cigarette standardized to 70 mg THC per cigarette. Plasma and urine were collected up to 8 h and 11 days, respectively. Total THC, 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and THC-COOH were determined after hydrolysis followed by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The limits of quantitation were 0.1-1.0 ng/mL. Eight puffs delivered a mean THC dose of 45 mg. Plasma levels of total THC, THC-OH, and THC-COOH were measured in the ranges 0.2-59.1, 0.1-3.9, and 0.4-16.4 ng/mL, respectively. Peak concentrations were observed at 5, 5-20, and 20-180 min. Urine levels were measured in the ranges 0.1-1.3, 0.1-14.4, and 0.5-38.2 ng/mL, peaking at 2, 2, and 6-24 h, respectively. The times of the last detectable levels were 2-8, 6-96, and 48-120 h. Besides high to very high THC-COOH levels (245 +/- 1,111 ng/mL), THC (3 +/- 8 ng/mL) and THC-OH (51 +/- 246 ng/mL) were found in 65 and 98% of cannabis-positive athletes' urine samples, respectively. In conclusion, in addition to THC-COOH, the pharmacologically active THC and THC-OH should be used as target analytes for doping urine analysis. In the case of light cannabis use, this may allow the estimation of more recent consumption, probably influencing

  14. Distinct effects of {delta}9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on neural activation during emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, José A; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Allen, Paul; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Seal, Marc; Surguladze, Simon A; O'Carrol, Colin; Atakan, Zerrin; Zuardi, Antonio W; McGuire, Philip K

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis use can both increase and reduce anxiety in humans. The neurophysiological substrates of these effects are unknown. To investigate the effects of 2 main psychoactive constituents of Cannabis sativa (Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol [Delta9-THC] and cannabidiol [CBD]) on regional brain function during emotional processing. Subjects were studied on 3 separate occasions using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm while viewing faces that implicitly elicited different levels of anxiety. Each scanning session was preceded by the ingestion of either 10 mg of Delta9-THC, 600 mg of CBD, or a placebo in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design. Fifteen healthy, English-native, right-handed men who had used cannabis 15 times or less in their life. Regional brain activation (blood oxygenation level-dependent response), electrodermal activity (skin conductance response [SCR]), and objective and subjective ratings of anxiety. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol increased anxiety, as well as levels of intoxication, sedation, and psychotic symptoms, whereas there was a trend for a reduction in anxiety following administration of CBD. The number of SCR fluctuations during the processing of intensely fearful faces increased following administration of Delta9-THC but decreased following administration of CBD. Cannabidiol attenuated the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal in the amygdala and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex while subjects were processing intensely fearful faces, and its suppression of the amygdalar and anterior cingulate responses was correlated with the concurrent reduction in SCR fluctuations. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol mainly modulated activation in frontal and parietal areas. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD had clearly distinct effects on the neural, electrodermal, and symptomatic response to fearful faces. The effects of CBD on activation in limbic and paralimbic regions may contribute to its ability to

  15. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances breast cancer growth and metastasis by suppression of the antitumor immune response.

    PubMed

    McKallip, Robert J; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S

    2005-03-15

    In the current study, we tested the central hypothesis that exposure to Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), the major psychoactive component in marijuana, can lead to enhanced growth of tumors that express low to undetectable levels of cannabinoid receptors by specifically suppressing the antitumor immune response. We demonstrated that the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 and the mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 express low to undetectable levels of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, and that these cells are resistant to Delta9-THC-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, exposure of mice to Delta9-THC led to significantly elevated 4T1 tumor growth and metastasis due to inhibition of the specific antitumor immune response in vivo. The suppression of the antitumor immune response was mediated primarily through CB2 as opposed to CB1. Furthermore, exposure to Delta9-THC led to increased production of IL-4 and IL-10, suggesting that Delta9-THC exposure may specifically suppress the cell-mediated Th1 response by enhancing Th2-associated cytokines. This possibility was further supported by microarray data demonstrating the up-regulation of a number of Th2-related genes and the down-regulation of a number of Th1-related genes following exposure to Delta9-THC. Finally, injection of anti-IL-4 and anti-IL-10 mAbs led to a partial reversal of the Delta9-THC-induced suppression of the immune response to 4T1. Such findings suggest that marijuana exposure either recreationally or medicinally may increase the susceptibility to and/or incidence of breast cancer as well as other cancers that do not express cannabinoid receptors and are resistant to Delta9-THC-induced apoptosis.

  16. Effects of perinatal exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol on operant morphine-reinforced behavior.

    PubMed

    González, Begoña; de Miguel, Rosario; Martín, Sonsoles; Pérez-Rosado, Alberto; Romero, Julián; García-Lecumberri, Carmen; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Ramos, José Antonio; Ambrosio, Emilio

    2003-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) when administered during the perinatal period on morphine self-administration in adulthood. To this end, pregnant Wistar rats were daily exposed to Delta(9)-THC from the fifth day of gestation up to pup weaning, when they were separated by gender and left to mature to be used for analyses of operant food- and morphine-reinforced behavior in a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. We also analyzed dopaminergic activity (DOPAC/DA) in reward-related structures during specific phases of the behavioral study. In both reinforcement paradigms, food and morphine, females always reached higher patterns of self-administration than males, but this occurred for the two treatment groups, Delta(9)-THC or vehicle. These higher patterns measured in females corresponded with a higher DOPAC/DA in the nucleus accumbens prior to the onset of morphine self-administration in comparison to males. Interestingly, DOPAC/DA was lower in Delta(9)-THC-exposed females compared to oil-exposed females and similar to oil- and Delta(9)-THC-exposed males. In addition, Delta(9)-THC-exposed females also exhibited a reduction in DOPAC/DA in the ventral tegmental area, which did not exist in males. All these changes, however, disappeared after 15 days of morphine self-administration and they did not reappear after 15 additional days of extinction of this response. Our data suggest that females are more vulnerable than males in a PR schedule for operant food and morphine self-administration; perinatal Delta(9)-THC exposure is not a factor influencing this vulnerability. The neurochemical analysis revealed that the activity of limbic dopaminergic neurons prior to morphine self-administration was higher in females than males, as well as that the perinatal Delta(9)-THC treatment reduced the activity of these neurons only in females, although this had no influence on morphine vulnerability in these animals.

  17. Brain imaging study of the acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on attention and motor coordination in regular users of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Aviv; Brickner, Orit; Lerman, Hedva; Greemland, Mazal; Bloch, Miki; Lester, Hava; Chisin, Roland; Mechoulam, Raphael; Bar-Hamburger, Rachel; Freedman, Nanette; Even-Sapir, Einat

    2008-01-01

    Twelve regular users of marijuana underwent two positron emission tomography (PET) scans using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), one while subject to the effects of 17 mg THC, the other without THC. In both sessions, a virtual reality maze task was performed during the FDG uptake period. When subject to the effects of 17 mg THC, regular marijuana smokers hit the walls more often on the virtual maze task than without THC. Compared to results without THC, 17 mg THC increased brain metabolism during task performance in areas that are associated with motor coordination and attention in the middle and medial frontal cortices and anterior cingulate, and reduced metabolism in areas that are related to visual integration of motion in the occipital lobes. These findings suggest that in regular marijuana users, the immediate effects of marijuana may impact on cognitive-motor skills and brain mechanisms that modulate coordinated movement and driving.

  18. Chronic administration during early adulthood does not alter the hormonally-dependent disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on complex behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Winsauer, Peter J; Sutton, Jessie L

    2014-02-01

    This study examined whether chronic Δ(9)-THC during early adulthood would produce the same hormonally-dependent deficits in learning that are produced by chronic Δ(9)-THC during adolescence. To do this, either sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats received daily saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ(9)-THC i.p. for 40 days during early adulthood. Following chronic administration, and a drug-free period to train both a learning and performance task, acute dose-effect curves for Δ(9)-THC (0.56-10 mg/kg) were established in each of the four groups (intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline and OVX/THC). The dependent measures of responding under the learning and performance tasks were the overall response rate and the percentage of errors. Although the history of OVX and chronic Δ(9)-THC in early adulthood did not significantly affect non-drug or baseline behavior under the tasks, acute administration of Δ(9)-THC produced both rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects on learning and performance behavior, and these effects were dependent on their hormone condition. More specifically, both intact groups were more sensitive to the rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects of Δ(9)-THC than the OVX groups irrespective of chronic Δ(9)-THC administration, as there was no significant main effect of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between chronic treatment (saline or Δ(9)-THC) and the dose of Δ(9)-THC administered as an adult. Post mortem examination of 10 brain regions also indicated there were significant differences in agonist-stimulated GTPγS binding across brain regions, but no significant effects of chronic treatment and no significant interaction between the chronic treatment and cannabinoid signaling. Thus, acute Δ(9)-THC produced hormonally-dependent effects on learning and performance behavior, but a period of chronic administration during early adulthood did not alter these effects significantly, which is contrary to what we

  19. Chronic marijuana smoke exposure in the rhesus monkey. IV: Neurochemical effects and comparison to acute and chronic exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Scallet, A C; Paule, M G; Bailey, J R; Slikker, W

    1991-11-01

    THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is known to produce psychopharmacological effects in humans. These studies were designed to determine whether acute or chronic exposure to marijuana smoke or THC produces in vitro or in vivo neurochemical alterations in rat or monkey brain. For the in vitro study, THC was added (1-100 nM) to membranes prepared from different regions of the rat brain and muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) receptor binding was measured. For the acute in vivo study, rats were injected IP with vehicle, 1, 3, 10, or 30 mg THC/kg and sacrificed 2 h later. For the chronic study, rats were gavaged with vehicle or 10 or 20 mg THC/kg daily, 5 days/week for 90 days and sacrificed either 24 h or 2 months later. Rhesus monkeys were exposed to the smoke of a single 2.6% THC cigarette once a day, 2 or 7 days a week for 1 year. Approximately 7 months after the last exposure, animals were sacrificed by overdose with pentobarbital for neurochemical analyses. In vitro exposure to THC produced a dose-dependent inhibition of MCh receptor binding in several brain areas. This inhibition of MCh receptor binding, however, was also observed with two other nonpsychoactive derivatives of marijuana, cannabidiol and cannabinol. In the rat in vivo study, we found no significant changes in MCh or other neurotransmitter receptor binding in hippocampus, frontal cortex or caudate nucleus after acute or chronic exposure to THC. In the monkey brain, we found no alterations in the concentration of neurotransmitters in caudate nucleus, frontal cortex, hypothalamus or brain stem.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Suppression of human macrophage function in vitro by delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Specter, S; Lancz, G; Goodfellow, D

    1991-11-01

    The ability of macrophages to function in the presence of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component in marijuana, was evaluated. THC added to macrophage cultures prepared from human peripheral blood inhibited macrophage spreading and phagocytosis of yeast. The effects of THC were concentration dependent, with inhibitory effects observed from 10 to 1 micrograms/ml or lower. These results suggest that macrophages are more sensitive to THC than are lymphocytes because macrophage functions were inhibited by THC at concentrations that did not affect lymphocyte function. Thus, inhibition of lymphocyte function(s) by THC could be attributed to a direct effect of the drug on macrophages which indirectly results in lowered lymphoid cell activity.

  1. Suppressive effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in vitro on phagocytosis by murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Friedman, M; Cepero, M L; Klein, T; Friedman, H

    1986-06-01

    Incubation of normal mouse peritoneal cells consisting of over 90% phagocytizing macrophages with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) resulted in a inhibition of phagocytic function. The THC in a dose-related manner suppressed the percentage of macrophages per culture which ingested yeast and the average number of yeast particles ingested by the phagocytizing macrophages. The vehicle used to suspend the THC in vitro, i.e., DMSO, had no detectable effect on macrophage function. Suppression of phagocytosis with no effects on viability or cell number occurred with doses of 10 micrograms or less THC per milliliter culture medium. Measurable suppression also occurred after 24- to 48-hr treatment of the macrophages with the THC. This compound had little if any detectable effect on phagocytosis when added directly to the cultures shortly before testing for phagocytosis. Further studies concerning the effects of THC on macrophage function appear warranted.

  2. Acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract on the auditory evoked mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik; Nadulski, Thomas; Stadelmann, Andreas M; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2007-12-01

    Reduced amplitudes of auditory evoked mismatch negativity (MMN) have often been found in schizophrenic patients, indicating deficient auditory information processing and working memory. Cannabis-induced psychotic states may resemble schizophrenia. Currently, there are discussions focusing on the close relationship between cannabis, the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic system, and the onset of schizophrenic psychosis. This study investigated the effects of cannabis on MMN amplitude in 22 healthy volunteers (age 28+/-6 years, 11 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol (CBD) in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. The MMNs resulting from 1000 auditory stimuli were recorded by 32 channel EEG. The standard stimuli were 1000 Hz, 80 dB SPL, and 100 ms duration. The deviant stimuli differed in frequency (1500 Hz). Significantly greater MMN amplitude values at central electrodes were found under cannabis extract, but not under Delta(9)-THC. There were no significant differences between MMN amplitudes at frontal electrodes. MMN amplitudes at central electrodes were significantly correlated with 11-OH-THC concentration, the most important psychoactive metabolite of Delta(9)-THC. Since the main difference between Delta(9)-THC and standardized cannabis extract is CBD, which seems to have neuroprotective and anti-psychotic properties, it can be speculated whether the greater MMN amplitude that may imply higher cortical activation and cognitive performance is related to the positive effects of CBD. This effect may be relevant for auditory cortex activity in particular because only MMN amplitudes at the central, but not at the frontal electrodes were enhanced under cannabis.

  3. Cannabidiol reverses the reduction in social interaction produced by low dose Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in rats.

    PubMed

    Malone, Daniel Thomas; Jongejan, Dennis; Taylor, David Alan

    2009-08-01

    While Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant, a non-psychoactive constituent is cannabidiol (CBD). CBD has been implicated as a potential treatment of a number of disorders including schizophrenia and epilepsy and has been included with THC in a 1:1 combination for the treatment of conditions such as neuropathic pain. This study investigated the effect of THC and CBD, alone or in combination, on some objective behaviours of rats in the open field. Pairs of rats were injected with CBD or vehicle followed by THC or vehicle and behaviour in the open field was assessed for 10 min. In vehicle pretreated rats THC (1 mg/kg) significantly reduced social interaction between rat pairs. Treatment with CBD had no significant effect alone, but pretreatment with CBD (20 mg/kg) reversed the THC-induced decreases in social interaction. A higher dose of THC (10 mg/kg) produced no significant effect on social interaction. However, the combination of high dose CBD and high dose THC significantly reduced social interaction between rat pairs, as well as producing a significant decrease in locomotor activity. This data suggests that CBD can reverse social withdrawal induced by low dose THC, but the combination of high dose THC and CBD impairs social interaction, possibly by decreasing locomotor activity.

  4. Determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol content of cannabis seizures in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Souleman, Ahmed M A; Gaafar, Alaa El-Din M; Abdel-Salam, Omar M; ElShebiney, Shaimaa A

    2017-03-01

    To determine the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of cannabis seizures in Egypt. Unheated and heated extracts of cannabis seizures were prepared from the dried flowering tops and leaves (marijuana) or from the resin (hashish) and subjected to analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The heated resin extract had the peak of THC in a relative ratio of 31.34%, while extracting the resin directly without heating contained only 18.34% of THC. On the other hand, marijuana showed minimum percentage of THC at 11.188% on heating and 9.55% without heating. These results indicate the high potency of the abused cannabis plant in the illicit Egyptian market. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on evaluation of emotional images

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E; Bedi, Gillinder; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence that drugs of abuse alter processing of emotional information in ways that could be attractive to users. Our recent report that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) diminishes amygdalar activation in response to threat-related faces suggests that THC may modify evaluation of emotionally-salient, particularly negative or threatening, stimuli. In this study, we examined the effects of acute THC on evaluation of emotional images. Healthy volunteers received two doses of THC (7.5 and 15 mg; p.o.) and placebo across separate sessions before performing tasks assessing facial emotion recognition and emotional responses to pictures of emotional scenes. THC significantly impaired recognition of facial fear and anger, but it only marginally impaired recognition of sadness and happiness. The drug did not consistently affect ratings of emotional scenes. THC' effects on emotional evaluation were not clearly related to its mood-altering effects. These results support our previous work, and show that THC reduces perception of facial threat. Nevertheless, THC does not appear to positively bias evaluation of emotional stimuli in general PMID:22585232

  6. Potency trends of delta9-THC and other cannabinoids in confiscated marijuana from 1980-1997.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, M A; Ross, S A; Mehmedic, Z; Arafat, R; Yi, B; Banahan, B F

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of 35,312 cannabis preparations confiscated in the USA over a period of 18 years for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and other major cannabinoids is reported. Samples were identified as cannabis, hashish, or hash oil. Cannabis samples were further subdivided into marijuana (loose material, kilobricks and buds), sinsemilla, Thai sticks and ditchweed. The data showed that more than 82% of all confiscated samples were in the marijuana category for every year except 1980 (61%) and 1981 (75%). The potency (concentration of delta9-THC) of marijuana samples rose from less than 1.5% in 1980 to approximately 3.3% in 1983 and 1984, then fluctuated around 3% till 1992. Since 1992, the potency of confiscated marijuana samples has continuously risen, going from 3.1% in 1992 to 4.2% in 1997. The average concentration of delta9-THC in all cannabis samples showed a gradual rise from 3% in 1991 to 4.47% in 1997. Hashish and hash oil, on the other hand, showed no specific potency trends. Other major cannabinoids [cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabichromene (CBC)] showed no significant change in their concentration over the years.

  7. Rectal bioavailability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol from the hemisuccinate ester in monkeys.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, M A; Stanford, D F; Harland, E C; Hikal, A H; Walker, L A; Little, T L; Rider, J N; Jones, A B

    1991-10-01

    Oral administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinal (delta 9-THC) was shown to result in low and erratic bioavailability, while the drug showed no bioavailability from various suppository formulations. delta 9-THC-Hemisuccinate was formulated as a prodrug for delta 9-THC in suppositories using Witepsol H15 base. The bioavailability of delta 9-THC from this formulation was evaluated in monkeys. The plasma levels of delta 9-THC and its metabolite 11-nor-delta 9-THC-9-COOH were determined using GC/MS analysis. The calculated bioavailability of delta 9-THC from this formulation was found to be 13.5%. Non-compartmental analysis of the plasma concentration data using statistical moments showed the mean residence time (MRT) for delta 9-THC in the body to be 3 h following iv administration of delta 9-THC or its hemisuccinate ester (3.4 and 2.7 h, respectively), as compared with 5.8 h following rectal administration of the delta 9-THC hemisuccinate. The observed rectal bioavailability of delta 9-THC from suppositories containing the hemisuccinate ester as a prodrug is of significant importance in developing an alternative approach to oral administration of the drug.

  8. Chronic treatment with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances the locomotor response to amphetamine and heroin. Implications for vulnerability to drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Lamarque, S; Taghzouti, K; Simon, H

    2001-07-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are some of the most widely used illicit recreational drugs. In addition to their direct addictive potential, cannabinoids may influence the sensitivity to other drugs. The aim of the present study was to determine if a cross-sensitization between Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and other drugs (amphetamine and heroin) could be demonstrated. We examined the effects of a chronic treatment with Delta(9)-THC (0.6, 3 and 15mg/kg, ip) on the locomotor response to amphetamine (1mg/kg, ip) and heroin (1mg/kg, ip). Chronic treatment with Delta(9)-THC resulted in tolerance to the initial hypothermic and anorexic effects. Pre-treatment with Delta(9)-THC increased the locomotor responses to amphetamine and heroin. This cross-sensitization was time-dependent as it was observed three days after the last injection of Delta(9)-THC for amphetamine, and a relatively long time after the end of chronic treatment (41 days) for heroin. Moreover, the enhanced response to amphetamine or heroin was noted in some individuals only: the high-responder rats (HR). These animals have previously been shown to be vulnerable to drug taking behaviors. It is hypothesised that repeated use of Cannabis derivates may facilitate progression to the consumption of other illicit drugs in vulnerable individuals.

  9. Neuroprotection by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main active compound in marijuana, against ouabain-induced in vivo excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    van der Stelt, M; Veldhuis, W B; Bär, P R; Veldink, G A; Vliegenthart, J F; Nicolay, K

    2001-09-01

    Excitotoxicity is a paradigm used to explain the biochemical events in both acute neuronal damage and in slowly progressive, neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show in a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the main active compound in marijuana, reduces neuronal injury in neonatal rats injected intracerebrally with the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain to elicit excitotoxicity. In the acute phase Delta(9)-THC reduced the volume of cytotoxic edema by 22%. After 7 d, 36% less neuronal damage was observed in treated rats compared with control animals. Coadministration of the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716 prevented the neuroprotective actions of Delta(9)-THC, indicating that Delta(9)-THC afforded protection to neurons via the CB(1) receptor. In Delta(9)-THC-treated rats the volume of astrogliotic tissue was 36% smaller. The CB(1) receptor antagonist did not block this effect. These results provide evidence that the cannabinoid system can serve to protect the brain against neurodegeneration.

  10. Sex differences in antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wakley, Alexa A.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Craft, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sex differences in cannabinoid effects have been reported in rodents, with adult females typically being more sensitive than adult males. The present study compared the development of antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult, gonadally intact female vs. male rats. Methods Cumulative dose-effect curves were obtained for THC (1.0–18 mg/kg i.p.) on warm water tail withdrawal and paw pressure tests. Vehicle or the sex-specific ED80 dose for THC was administered twice daily for 9 days; THC dose-effect curves were then re-determined. Results On the pre-chronic test day, THC was significantly more potent in females than males in producing antinociception on the tail withdrawal and paw pressure tests. After 9 days of twice-daily THC treatment (5.4 mg/kg/injection in females, 7.6 mg/kg/injection in males), THC potency on both tests decreased more in females than males. On the tail withdrawal test, chronic THC produced 4.2- vs. 2.8-fold increases in ED50 values in females vs. males, respectively. On the paw pressure test, chronic THC produced 4.4- vs. 2.9-fold increases in ED50 values in females vs. males, respectively. Chronic THC treatment did not significantly disrupt estrous cycling in females. Conclusions These results demonstrate that – even when sex differences in acute THC potency are controlled for – females develop more antinociceptive tolerance to THC than males. Given the importance of drug tolerance in the development of drug dependence, these results suggest that females may be more vulnerable than males to developing dependence after chronic cannabinoid exposure. PMID:25131716

  11. A behavioural comparison of acute and chronic Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in C57BL/6JArc mice.

    PubMed

    Long, Leonora E; Chesworth, Rose; Huang, Xu-Feng; McGregor, Iain S; Arnold, Jonathon C; Karl, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Cannabis contains over 70 unique compounds and its abuse is linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia. The behavioural profiles of the psychotropic cannabis constituent Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) and the non-psychotomimetic constituent cannabidiol (CBD) were investigated with a battery of behavioural tests relevant to anxiety and positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Male adult C57BL/6JArc mice were given 21 daily intraperitoneal injections of vehicle, Delta9-THC (0.3, 1, 3 or 10 mg/kg) or CBD (1, 5, 10 or 50 mg/kg). Delta9-THC produced the classic cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated tetrad of hypolocomotion, analgesia, catalepsy and hypothermia while CBD had modest hyperthermic effects. While sedative at this dose, Delta9-THC (10 mg/kg) produced locomotor-independent anxiogenic effects in the open-field and light-dark tests. Chronic CBD produced moderate anxiolytic-like effects in the open-field test at 50 mg/kg and in the light-dark test at a low dose (1 mg/kg). Acute and chronic Delta9-THC (10 mg/kg) decreased the startle response while CBD had no effect. Prepulse inhibition was increased by acute treatment with Delta9-THC (0.3, 3 and 10 mg/kg) or CBD (1, 5 and 50 mg/kg) and by chronic CBD (1 mg/kg). Chronic CBD (50 mg/kg) attenuated dexamphetamine (5 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion, suggesting an antipsychotic-like action for this cannabinoid. Chronic Delta9-THC decreased locomotor activity before and after dexamphetamine administration suggesting functional antagonism of the locomotor stimulant effect. These data provide the first evidence of anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects of chronic but not acute CBD in C57BL/6JArc mice, extending findings from acute studies in other inbred mouse strains and rats.

  12. Effects of acute oral Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract on the auditory P300 event-related potential in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Juckel, Georg; Rentzsch, Johannes; Nadulski, Thomas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Stadelmann, Andreas M

    2008-08-01

    Reduced amplitudes of auditory evoked P300 are a robust finding in schizophrenic patients, indicating deficient attentional resource allocation and active working memory. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), the main active constituent of Cannabis sativa, has been known to acutely impair cognitive abilities in several domains, particularly in memory and attention. Given the psychotic-like effects of Delta9-THC, a cannabinoid hypothesis of schizophrenia has been proposed. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on P300 amplitude in 20 healthy volunteers (age 28.2+/-3.1 years, 10 male) by comparing Delta9-THC and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD). P300 waves were recorded during a choice reaction task. As expected, Delta9-THC revealed a significant reduction of P300 amplitude at midline frontal, central, and parietal electrodes. CBD has been known to abolish many of the psychotropic effects of Delta9-THC, but, unexpectedly, failed to demonstrate a reversal of Delta9-THC-induced P300 reduction. Moreover, there were no correlations between cannabinoid plasma concentrations and P300 parameters. These data suggest that Delta(9)-THC may lead to acute impairment of attentional functioning and working memory. It can be speculated whether the lack of effect of CBD may be due to an insufficient dose used or to an involvement of neurotransmitter systems in P300 generation which are not influenced by CBD.

  13. Validated method for the simultaneous determination of Delta9-THC and Delta9-THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and whole blood using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Helena; Verstraete, Alain; Proença, Paula; Corte-Real, Francisco; Monsanto, Paula; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2007-08-06

    A fully validated, sensitive and specific method for the extraction and quantification of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-THC (THC-COOH) and for the detection of 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-THC (11-OH THC) in oral fluid, urine and whole blood is presented. Solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) technique were used, with electrospray ionization. Three ions were monitored for THC and THC-COOH and two for 11-OH THC. The compounds were quantified by selected ion recording of m/z 315.31, 329.18 and 343.16 for THC, 11-OH THC and THC-COOH, respectively, and m/z 318.27 and 346.26 for the deuterated internal standards, THC-d(3) and THC-COOH-d(3), respectively. The method proved to be precise for THC and THC-COOH both in terms of intra-day and inter-day analysis, with intra-day coefficients of variation (CV) less than 6.3, 6.6 and 6.5% for THC in saliva, urine and blood, respectively, and 6.8 and 7.7% for THC-COOH in urine and blood, respectively. Day-to-day CVs were less than 3.5, 4.9 and 11.3% for THC in saliva, urine and blood, respectively, and 6.2 and 6.4% for THC-COOH in urine and blood, respectively. Limits of detection (LOD) were 2 ng/mL for THC in oral fluid and 0.5 ng/mL for THC and THC-COOH and 20 ng/mL for 11-OH THC, in urine and blood. Calibration curves showed a linear relationship for THC and THC-COOH in all samples (r(2)>0.999) within the range investigated. The procedure presented here has high specificity, selectivity and sensitivity. It can be regarded as an alternative method to GC-MS for the confirmation of positive immunoassay test results, and can be used as a suitable analytical tool for the quantification of THC and THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and/or blood samples.

  14. A Conversion of Oral Cannabidiol to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Seems Not to Occur in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nahler, Gerhard; Grotenhermen, Franjo; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of hemp, does not bind to CB1 receptors and is therefore devoid of psychotomimetic properties. Under acidic conditions, CBD can be transformed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids. It has been argued that this may occur also after oral administration in humans. However, the experimental conversion of CBD to THC and delta8-THC in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) is a highly artificial approach that deviates significantly from physiological conditions in the stomach; therefore, SGF does not allow an extrapolation to in vivo conditions. Unsurprisingly, the conversion of oral CBD to THC and its metabolites has not been observed to occur in vivo, even after high doses of oral CBD. In addition, the typical spectrum of side effects of THC, or of the very similar synthetic cannabinoid nabilone, as listed in the official Summary of Product Characteristics (e.g., dizziness, euphoria/high, thinking abnormal/concentration difficulties, nausea, tachycardia) has not been observed after treatment with CBD in double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials. In conclusion, the conversion of CBD to THC in SGF seems to be an in vitro artifact. PMID:28861507

  15. A Conversion of Oral Cannabidiol to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Seems Not to Occur in Humans.

    PubMed

    Nahler, Gerhard; Grotenhermen, Franjo; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A S

    2017-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of hemp, does not bind to CB1 receptors and is therefore devoid of psychotomimetic properties. Under acidic conditions, CBD can be transformed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids. It has been argued that this may occur also after oral administration in humans. However, the experimental conversion of CBD to THC and delta8-THC in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) is a highly artificial approach that deviates significantly from physiological conditions in the stomach; therefore, SGF does not allow an extrapolation to in vivo conditions. Unsurprisingly, the conversion of oral CBD to THC and its metabolites has not been observed to occur in vivo , even after high doses of oral CBD. In addition, the typical spectrum of side effects of THC, or of the very similar synthetic cannabinoid nabilone, as listed in the official Summary of Product Characteristics (e.g., dizziness, euphoria/high, thinking abnormal/concentration difficulties, nausea, tachycardia) has not been observed after treatment with CBD in double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials. In conclusion, the conversion of CBD to THC in SGF seems to be an in vitro artifact.

  16. The effect of Pro NanoLipospheres (PNL) formulation containing natural absorption enhancers on the oral bioavailability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Cherniakov, Irina; Izgelov, Dvora; Domb, Abraham J; Hoffman, Amnon

    2017-11-15

    The lipophilic phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) show therapeutic efficacy in various medical conditions. Both molecules are poorly water soluble and subjected to extensive first pass metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a limited oral bioavailability of approximately 9%. We have developed an advanced lipid based Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System termed Advanced Pro-NanoLiposphere (PNL) pre-concentrate. The PNL is composed of lipid and emulsifying excipients of GRAS status and are known to increase solubility and reduce Phase I metabolism of lipophilic active compounds. Advanced PNLs are PNLs with an incorporated natural absorption enhancers. These molecules are natural alkaloids and phenolic compounds which were reported to inhibit certain phase I and phase II metabolism processes. Here we use piperine, curcumin and resveratrol to formulate the Advanced-PNL formulations. Consequently, we have explored the utility of these Advanced-PNLs on CBD and THC oral bioavailability. Oral administration of CBD-piperine-PNL resulted in 6-fold increase in AUC compared to CBD solution, proving to be the most effective of the screened formulations. The same trend was found in pharmacokinetic experiments of THC-piperine-PNL which resulted in a 9.3-fold increase in AUC as compared to THC solution. Our Piperine-PNL can be used as a platform for synchronized delivery of piperine and CBD or THC to the enterocyte site. This co-localization provides an increase in CBD and THC bioavailability by its effect at the pre-enterocyte and the enterocyte levels of the absorption process. The extra augmentation in the absorption of CBD and THC by incorporating piperine into PNL is attributed to the inhibition of Phase I and phase II metabolism by piperine in addition to the Phase I metabolism and P-gp inhibition by PNL. These novel results pave the way to utilize piperine-PNL delivery system for other poorly soluble, highly metabolized

  17. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans infection.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Gideon W; Parsa, Arya; Park, Anthony K; McDowell, Beverly L P; Arroyo-Mendoza, Melissa; Girguis, Marie; Adler-Moore, Jill P; Olson, Jon; Buckley, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection. To determine the outcome of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or Δ9-THC (16 mg/kg) in vehicle on days 1-4, 8-11 and 15-18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×10(5) C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic Δ9-THC (4-64 mg/kg) treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×10(4) C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×10(5) C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic Δ9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, Δ9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, Δ9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-γ and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-γ that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge.

  18. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Potentiates Fear Memory Salience Through Functional Modulation of Mesolimbic Dopaminergic Activity States.

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, Aurelie; Zunder, Jordan; Tan, Huibing; Laviolette, Steven R

    2018-05-18

    Chronic or acute exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in cannabis, has been associated with numerous neuropsychiatric side-effects, including dysregulation of emotional processing and associative memory formation. Clinical and pre-clinical evidence suggests that the effects of THC are due to the ability to modulate mesolimbic dopamine (DA) activity states in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which THC modulates mesolimbic DA function and emotional processing are not well understood. Using an olfactory associative fear memory procedure combined with in vivo neuronal electrophysiology, we examined the effects of direct THC microinfusions targeting the shell region of the NAc (NASh) and examined how THC may modulate the processing of fear-related emotional memory and concomitant activity states of the mesolimbic DA system. We report that intra-NASh THC dose-dependently potentiates the emotional salience of normally sub-threshold fear-conditioning cues. These effects were dependent upon intra-VTA transmission through GABAergic receptor mechanisms and intra-NASh DAergic transmission. Furthermore, doses of intra-NASh THC that potentiated fear memory salience were found to modulate intra-VTA neuronal network activity by increasing the spontaneous firing and bursting frequency of DAergic neurons whilst decreasing the activity levels of a subpopulation of putative GABAergic VTA neurons. These findings demonstrate that THC can act directly in the NASh to modulate mesolimbic activity states and induce disturbances in emotional salience and memory formation through modulation of VTA DAergic transmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychomotor performance in relation to acute oral administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Gallinat, Jürgen; Weinberg, Gordon; Juckel, Georg; Gorynia, Inge; Stadelmann, Andreas M

    2009-08-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor performance are a consistent finding in schizophrenic patients as well as in chronic cannabis users. The high levels of central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum indicate their implication in the regulation of motor activity. Based on the close relationship between cannabis use, the endogenous cannabinoid system and motor disturbances found in schizophrenia, we expected that administration of cannabinoids may change pattern of psychomotor activity like in schizophrenic patients. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol. Psychomotor performance was assessed by using a finger tapping test series. Cannabis extract, but not Delta(9)-THC, revealed a significant reduction of right-hand tapping frequencies that was also found in schizophrenia. As to the pure Delta(9)-THC condition, left-hand tapping frequencies were correlated with the plasma concentrations of the Delta(9)-THC metabolite 11-OH-THC. These effects are thought to be related to cannabinoid actions on CB(1) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. Our data further demonstrate that acute CB(1) receptor activation under the cannabis extract condition may also affect intermanual coordination (IMC) as an index of interhemispheric transfer. AIR-Scale scores as a measure of subjective perception of intoxication were dose-dependently related to IMC which was shown by an inverted U-curve. This result may be due to functional changes involving GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission within the corpus callosum.

  20. Ultra Low Dose Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Protects Mouse Liver from Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Hochhauser, Edith; Lahat, Eylon; Sultan, Maya; Pappo, Orit; Waldman, Maayan; Sarne, Yosef; Shainberg, Asher; Gutman, Mordechai; Safran, Michal; Ben Ari, Ziv

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is the main cause of both primary graft dysfunction and primary non-function of liver allografts. Cannabinoids has been reported to attenuate myocardial, cerebral and hepatic I/R oxidative injury. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabinoid agonist, is the active components of marijuana. In this study we examined the role of ultralow dose THC (0.002mg/kg) in the protection of livers from I/R injury. This extremely low dose of THC was previously found by us to protect the mice brain and heart from a variety of insults. C57Bl Mice were studied in in vivo model of hepatic segmental (70%) ischemia for 60min followed by reperfusion for 6 hours. THC administration 2h prior to the induction of hepatic I/R was associated with significant attenuated elevations of: serum liver transaminases ALT and AST, the hepatic oxidative stress (activation of the intracellular signaling CREB pathway), the acute proinflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-1α, IL-10 and c-FOS hepatic mRNA levels, and ERK signaling pathway activation). This was followed by cell death (the cleavage of the pro-apoptotic caspase 3, DNA fragmentation and TUNEL) after 6 hours of reperfusion. Significantly less hepatic injury was detected in the THC treated I/R mice and fewer apoptotic hepatocytes cells were identified by morphological criteria compared with untreated mice. A single ultralow dose THC can reduce the apoptotic, oxidative and inflammatory injury induced by hepatic I/R injury. THC may serve as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hepatic I/R injury during liver transplantation, liver resection and trauma. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Gene expression changes in human small airway epithelial cells exposed to Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, Theodore; Habib, Nancy; Mao, Jenny T; Tsu, I-Hsien; Yamamoto, Mitsuko L; Hsu, Erin; Tashkin, Donald P; Roth, Michael D

    2005-08-14

    Marijuana smoking is associated with inflammation, cellular atypia, and molecular dysregulation of the tracheobronchial epithelium. While marijuana smoke shares many components in common with tobacco, it also contains a high concentration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The potential contribution of THC to airway injury was assessed by exposing primary cultures of human small airway epithelial (SAE) cells to THC (0.1-10.0 microg/ml) for either 1 day or 7 days. THC induced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability, ATP level, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Using a targeted gene expression array, we observed acute changes (24 h) in the expression of mRNA for caspase-8, catalase, Bax, early growth response-1, cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), metallothionein 1A, PLAB, and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). After 7 days of exposure, decrease in expression of mRNA for heat shock proteins (HSPs) and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was observed, while expression of GADD45A, IL-1A, CYP1A1, and PTGS-2 increased significantly. These findings suggest a contribution of THC to DNA damage, inflammation, and alterations in apoptosis. Treatment with selected prototypical toxicants, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenznzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and carbonyl cyanide-p-(trifluoramethoxy)-phenyl hydrazone (FCCP), produced partially overlapping gene expression profiles suggesting some similarity in mechanism of action with THC. THC, delivered as a component of marijuana smoke, may induce a profile of gene expression that contributes to the pulmonary pathology associated with marijuana use.

  2. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts ofmore » THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.« less

  3. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol/Cannabidiol Oromucosal Spray (Sativex®): A Review in Multiple Sclerosis-Related Spasticity.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2017-04-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (THC/CBD, Sativex ® , nabiximols) is available in numerous countries worldwide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS)-related moderate to severe spasticity in patients who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity-related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy. Twelve weeks' therapy with THC/CBD improved MS-related spasticity in patients with an inadequate response to other anti-spasticity agents who had undergone a successful initial trial of THC/CBD therapy, according to the results of a pivotal phase 3 trial. Improvements in spasticity were maintained in the longer term with THC/CBD with no evidence of dose tolerance, and results of real-world studies confirm the effectiveness of THC/CBD in everyday clinical practice. Improvements in health-related quality of life and activities of daily living were also seen with THC/CBD. THC/CBD is generally well tolerated; adverse effects such as dizziness may occur whilst the THC/CBD dosage is being optimized. THC/CBD has low abuse potential and a low risk of psychoactive effects. In conclusion, THC/CBD oromucosal spray is a useful option for the treatment of MS-related spasticity not completely relieved with current anti-spasticity medication.

  4. Single-dose pharmacokinetics and tolerability of oral delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Joerger, Markus; Wilkins, Justin; Fagagnini, Stefania; Baldinger, Reto; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Schneider, Ursula; Goldman, Bea; Weber, Markus

    2012-06-01

    Cannabinoids exert neuroprotective and symptomatic effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) and tolerability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in ALS patients. Nine patients received THC single oral doses of 5mg and 10mg, separated by a wash-out period of two weeks. Blood samples for the determination of THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH) and hydroxy-THC (THC-OH) were taken up to 8 hours after intake. Adverse events were assessed by visual analogue scales (VAS). Plasma concentrations of the active metabolite THC-OH were submitted to sequential pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic population modeling on individual heart rate as a proxy for THC's cardiovasculatory effects. Drowsiness, euphoria, orthostasis, sleepiness, vertigo and weakness were significantly more frequent in patients receiving 10mg compared to 5 mg THC. A marked interindividual variability was found for the absorption of oral THC (84%) and elimination of THC-COOH (45%). PK data did not support any clinically relevant deviation from linear PK in the investigated range of concentrations. Plasma concentrations of THC-OH were positively correlated with the individual heart rate. An E(max-model) was successfully fitted to individual heart rate, with a THC-OH plasma concentration of 3.2 x 10(-4) μmol/L for EC(50) and an E(max) of 93 bpm for heart rate. The higher 10mg dose of THC was dose-limiting in patients with ALS. High interindividual PK variability requires individuell titration of THC for potential therapeutic use in patients with ALS.

  5. Sex-dimorphic psychomotor activation after perinatal exposure to (-)-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol. An ontogenic study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Navarro, M; Rubio, P; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F

    1994-12-01

    The ontogeny and the adult expression of motor behaviors were studied in male and female rats born from mothers exposed to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, 5 mg/kg) during gestation and lactation. Perinatal exposure to THC increased both rearing and locomotor activities in males and females at immature preweanling ages (P-15 and P-20). These effects disappeared after ceasing THC exposure (postweaning ages), but they were observed again in adult (P-70) females. The effects appeared as persistently high motor activity in familiar environments, disappearing the characteristic habituation profile in locomotor and exploratory behaviors. In novel environment condition tests, adult (P-70) THC-exposed females, but not males, exhibited lower locomotor activity in the socio-sexual approach test, and an increase in the emergence latency in the dark-light emergence test. Additionally, animals of both sexes exposed to THC showed a increase in the time spent grooming measured in novelty conditions. These findings suggest that perinatal exposure to THC affects both the development and the adult expression of motor behaviors and it resulted in a sex-dimorphic psychomotor activation very similar to that observed after perinatal exposure to other drugs of abuse. A possible role of THC-induced pituitary-adrenal (PA) axis activation was also evaluated by measuring plasma corticosterone levels in adult animals perinatally exposed: THC-exposed females exhibit a clear increase of this adrenal hormone, whereas THC-exposed males displayed lower levels of this hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; Lutz, Joseph A; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis smokers often report that they use the drug to relax or to relieve emotional stress. However, few clinical studies have shown evidence of the stress-relieving effects of cannabis or cannabinoid agonists. In this study, we sought to assess the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a main active ingredient of cannabis, upon emotional responses to an acute psychosocial stressor among healthy young adults. Healthy volunteers (N=42) participated in two experimental sessions, one with psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and another with a non-stressful task, after receiving 0 (N=13), 7.5mg (N=14) or 12.5mg (N=15) oral THC. Capsules were administered under randomized, double blind conditions, 2.5h before the tasks began. We measured subjective mood and drug effects, vital signs and salivary cortisol before and at repeated times after the capsule and tasks. Subjects also appraised the tasks, before and after completion. In comparison to placebo, 7.5mg THC significantly reduced self-reported subjective distress after the TSST and attenuated post-task appraisals of the TSST as threatening and challenging. By contrast, 12.5mg THC increased negative mood overall i.e., both before and throughout the tasks, and pre-task ratings of the TSST as threatening and challenging. It also impaired TSST performance and attenuated blood pressure reactivity to the stressor. Our findings suggest that a low dose of THC produces subjective stress-relieving effects in line with those commonly reported among cannabis users, but that higher doses may non-specifically increase negative mood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of daily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, David R.; France, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Opioid abuse remains a significant public health problem; together with the greater availability of marijuana in some regions there is an increasing likelihood that opioids and marijuana will be used together. Poly-drug abuse is associated with increased toxicity and poorer treatment outcome; thus, a better understanding of the consequences of repeated co-administration of these drugs will facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment strategies. This study examined the effects of daily treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and its discontinuation on self-administration of heroin in rhesus monkeys (n=4) lever-pressing under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule. Heroin self-administration (0.32–32 μg/kg/infusion, i.v.) generated an inverted U-shaped dose–effect curve. Administered acutely, Δ9-THC (0.01–0.32 mg/kg, s.c.) dose dependently decreased responding for heroin and flattened the self-administration dose-effect curve. Daily treatment with Δ9-THC (0.01–0.1 mg/kg/12hr, s.c.) either had no effect on or decreased responding for heroin. In addition, daily treatment did not significantly impact extinction of heroin self-administration or resumption of responding for heroin after extinction. Discontinuation of daily Δ9-THC treatment did not systematically impact rates of heroin self-administration. These data suggest that repeated administration of a cannabinoid receptor agonist likely does not increase, and possibly decreases, the positive reinforcing effects of a mu opioid receptor agonist. PMID:26397756

  8. Effects of daily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-04-01

    Opioid abuse remains a significant public health problem; together with the greater availability of marijuana in some regions there is an increasing likelihood that opioids and marijuana will be used together. Polydrug abuse is associated with increased toxicity and poorer treatment outcome; thus, a better understanding of the consequences of repeated coadministration of these drugs will facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment strategies. This study examined the effects of daily treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and its discontinuation on self-administration of heroin in rhesus monkeys (n=4) lever-pressing under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule. Heroin self-administration (0.32-32 μg/kg/infusion, intravenously) generated an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve. Administered acutely, Δ-THC (0.01-0.32 mg/kg, subcutaneously) dose dependently decreased responding for heroin and flattened the self-administration dose-effect curve. Daily treatment with Δ-THC (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/12 h, subcutaneously) either had no effect on or decreased responding for heroin. In addition, daily treatment did not significantly impact extinction of heroin self-administration or resumption of responding for heroin after extinction. Discontinuation of daily Δ-THC treatment did not systematically impact rates of heroin self-administration. These data suggest that repeated administration of a cannabinoid receptor agonist likely does not increase, and possibly decreases, the positive reinforcing effects of a mu opioid receptor agonist.

  9. Hippocampal Protein Kinase C Signaling Mediates the Short-Term Memory Impairment Induced by Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Gomis-González, Maria; Salgado-Mendialdúa, Victòria; Galera-López, Lorena; Puighermanal, Emma; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael; Ozaita, Andrés

    2018-04-01

    Cannabis affects cognitive performance through the activation of the endocannabinoid system, and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. Using the novel object-recognition memory test in mice, we found that the main psychoactive component of cannabis, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), alters short-term object-recognition memory specifically involving protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent signaling. Indeed, the systemic or intra-hippocampal pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitors prevented the short-term, but not the long-term, memory impairment induced by THC. In contrast, systemic pre-treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitors, known to block the amnesic-like effects of THC on long-term memory, did not modify such a short-term cognitive deficit. Immunoblot analysis revealed a transient increase in PKC signaling activity in the hippocampus after THC treatment. Thus, THC administration induced the phosphorylation of a specific Ser residue in the hydrophobic-motif at the C-terminal tail of several PKC isoforms. This significant immunoreactive band that paralleled cognitive performance did not match in size with the major PKC isoforms expressed in the hippocampus except for PKCθ. Moreover, THC transiently enhanced the phosphorylation of the postsynaptic calmodulin-binding protein neurogranin in a PKC dependent manner. These data demonstrate that THC alters short-term object-recognition memory through hippocampal PKC/neurogranin signaling.

  10. Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and ethanol: differential effects on sympathetic activity in differing environmental setting.

    PubMed

    Ng, L K; Lamprecht, F; Williams, R B; Kopin, I J

    1973-06-29

    Serum dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity, a useful biochemical index of peripheral sympathetic nervous activity, was measured in rats treated with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or ethanol or both substances. After 7 days of treatment with either substance, serum dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity decreased significantly. Combined treatment with both agents enhanced the effects of each given alone. In rats subjected to immobilization stress, treatment with Delta(9)- tetrahydrocannabinol appeared to potentiate the stress-induced increase in serum enzyme activity. Treatment with ethanol, with or without Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, effectively blocked this increase in enzyme activity. These results show that both substances have significant effects on the sympathetic nervous system which are critically influenced by environmental setting.

  11. Chronic (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment induces sensitization to the psychomotor effects of amphetamine in rats.

    PubMed

    Gorriti, M A; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Navarro, M; Palomo, T

    1999-01-22

    Clinical and basic research studies have linked cannabinoid consumption to the onset of psychosis, specially schizophrenia. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of the natural psychoactive constituent of Cannabis (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the acute actions of the psychostimulant, D-amphetamine, on behaviour displayed by male rats on a hole-board, a proposed animal model of amphetamine-induced psychosis. Cannabinoid-amphetamine interactions were studied (1) 30 min after acute injection of (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (0.1 or 6.4 mg/kg, i.p.); (2) 30 min after the last injection of 14-daily treatment with (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (0.1 or 6.4 mg/kg) and 3) 24 h after the last injection of 14-daily treatment with (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (6.4 mg/kg). Acute cannabinoid exposure antagonized the amphetamine-induced dose-dependent increase in locomotion, exploration and the decrease in inactivity. Chronic treatment with (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol resulted in tolerance to this antagonistic effect on locomotion and inactivity but not on exploration, and potentiated amphetamine-induced stereotypies. Lastly, 24 h of withdrawal after 14 days of cannabinoid treatment resulted in sensitization to the effects of D-amphetamine on locomotion, exploration and stereotypies. Since (-)-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol is a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, densely present in limbic and basal ganglia circuits, and since amphetamine enhances monoaminergic inputs (i.e., dopamine, serotonin) in these brain areas, the present data support the hypothesis of a role for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor as a regulatory mechanism of monoaminergic neuron-mediated psychomotor activation. These findings may be relevant for the understanding of both cannabinoid-monoamines interactions and Cannabis-associated psychosis.

  12. Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R

    2010-05-01

    Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL.

  13. Potency of delta 9-THC and other cannabinoids in cannabis in England in 2005: implications for psychoactivity and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Potter, David J; Clark, Peter; Brown, Marc B

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography was used to study the cannabinoid content ("potency") of illicit cannabis seized by police in England in 2004/5. Of the four hundred and fifty two samples, indoor-grown unpollinated female cannabis ("sinsemilla") was the most frequent form, followed by resin (hashish) and imported outdoor-grown herbal cannabis (marijuana). The content of the psychoactive cannabinoid delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) varied widely. The median THC content of herbal cannabis and resin was 2.1% and 3.5%, respectively. The median 13.9% THC content of sinsemilla was significantly higher than that recorded in the UK in 1996/8. In sinsemilla and imported herbal cannabis, the content of the antipsychotic cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) was extremely low. In resin, however, the average CBD content exceeded that of THC, and the relative proportions of the two cannabinoids varied widely between samples. The increases in average THC content and relative popularity of sinsemilla cannabis, combined with the absence of the anti-psychotic cannabinoid CBD, suggest that the current trends in cannabis use pose an increasing risk to those users susceptible to the harmful psychological effects associated with high doses of THC.

  14. Effect of low doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on the extinction of cocaine-induced and amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Parker, Linda A; Burton, Page; Sorge, Robert E; Yakiwchuk, Christine; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2004-09-01

    Using the place-preference conditioning paradigm, we evaluated the potential of the two most prominent cannabinoids found in marijuana, the psychoactive component delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) and the nonpsychoactive component cannabidiol (CBD), to potentiate extinction of a cocaine-induced and an amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in rats. To determine the effects of pretreatment with delta9-THC or CBD on extinction, a cocaine-induced and amphetamine-induced place preference was first established. Rats were then given an extinction trial, during which they were confined to the treatment-paired floor for 15 min. Thirty minutes prior to the extinction trial, they were injected with a low dose of delta9-THC (0.5 mg/kg), CBD (5 mg/kg) or vehicle. The potential of the CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716, to reverse the effects of delta9-THC or CBD was also evaluated. To determine the hedonic effects of CBD, one distinctive floor was paired with CBD (5 mg/kg) and another with saline. Finally, to determine the effect of delta9-THC.or CBD on the establishment and/or the expression of a place preference during four cycles of conditioning trials, rats were injected with delta9-THC (0.25-1 mg/kg), CBD (5 mg/kg) or vehicle 25 min prior to receiving an injection of amphetamine followed by placement on the treatment floor; on alternate days, they received injections of vehicle followed by saline and placement on the nontreatment floor. The rats then received two test trials; on one trial they were pretreated with the cannabinoid and on the other trial with vehicle. delta9-THC and CBD potentiated the extinction of both cocaine-induced and amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference learning, and this effect was not reversed by SR141716. The cannabinoids did not affect learning or retrieval, and CBD was not hedonic on its own. These results are the first to show that both delta9-THC, which acts on both CB 1 and CB2 receptors, and CBD, which does not

  15. Gonadal hormones do not alter the development of antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Wakley, Alexa A; Wiley, Jenny L; Craft, Rebecca M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences in the development of antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are due to activational effects of gonadal hormones. Rats were sham-gonadectomized (sham-GDX) or gonadectomized (GDX). GDX females received no hormone replacement (GDX+0), estradiol (GDX+E2), progesterone (GDX+P4), or both (GDX+E2/P4). GDX male rats received no hormone (GDX+0) or testosterone (GDX+T). Two weeks later, antinociceptive potency of THC was determined (pre-chronic test) on the warm water tail withdrawal and paw pressure assays. Vehicle or a sex-specific THC dose (females, 5.7 mg/kg, males, 9.9 mg/kg) was administered twice-daily for 9 days, then the THC dose-effect curves were re-determined (post-chronic test). On the pre-chronic test (both assays), THC was more potent in sham-GDX females than males, and gonadectomy did not alter this sex difference. In GDX females, P4 significantly decreased THC’s antinociceptive potency, whereas E2 had no effect. In GDX males, T did not alter THC’s antinociceptive potency. After chronic THC treatment, THC’s antinociceptive potency was decreased more in sham-GDX females than males, on the tail withdrawal test; this sex difference in tolerance was not altered in GDX or hormone-treated groups. These results suggest that greater antinociceptive tolerance in females, which occurred despite females receiving 40% less THC than males, is not due to activational effects of gonadal hormones. PMID:25863271

  16. Cortical neuroinflammation contributes to long-term cognitive dysfunctions following adolescent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zamberletti, Erica; Gabaglio, Marina; Prini, Pamela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Over 180 million people consume cannabis globally. Cannabis use peaks during adolescence with a trend for continued consumption by adults. Notably, several studies have shown that long-term and heavy cannabis use during adolescence can impair brain maturation and predispose to neurodevelopmental disorders, although the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether, in female rats, chronic administration of increasing doses of the psychotropic plant-derived cannabis constituent, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), during adolescence (PND 35-45) could affect microglia function in the long-term. Furthermore, we explored a possible contribution of microglia to the development of THC-induced alterations in mood and cognition in adult female rats. Present data indicate that adolescent THC administration induces a persistent neuroinflammatory state specifically localized within the adult prefrontal cortex (PFC), characterized by increased expression of the pro-inflammatory markers, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, and reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. This neuroinflammatory phenotype is associated with down-regulation of CB1 receptor on neuronal cells and up-regulation of CB2 on microglia cells, conversely. Interestingly, blocking microglia activation with ibudilast during THC treatment significantly attenuates short-term memory impairments in adulthood, simultaneously preventing the increases in TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2 levels as well as the up-regulation of CB2 receptors on microglia cells. In contrast, THC-induced depressive-like behaviors were unaffected by ibudilast treatment. Our findings demonstrate that adolescent THC administration is associated with persistent neuroinflammation within the PFC and provide evidence for a causal association between microglial activation and the development long-term cognitive deficits induced by adolescent THC treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and

  17. An experimental study of catechol-o-methyltransferase Val158Met moderation of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced effects on psychosis and cognition.

    PubMed

    Henquet, Cécile; Rosa, Araceli; Krabbendam, Lydia; Papiol, Sergi; Fananás, Lourdes; Drukker, Marjan; Ramaekers, Johannes G; van Os, Jim

    2006-12-01

    Observational studies have suggested that psychometric psychosis liability and a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val(158)Met) gene moderate the psychosis-inducing effect of cannabis. To replicate and extend this finding, a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design was used in which patients with a psychotic disorder (n=30), relatives of patients with a psychotic disorder (n=12), and healthy controls (n=32) were exposed to Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC, the principal component of cannabis) or placebo, followed by cognitive assessment and assessment of current psychotic experiences. Previous expression of psychometric psychosis liability was also assessed. Models of current psychotic experiences and cognition were examined with multilevel random regression analyses to assess (i) main effects of genotype and condition, (ii) interactions between condition and genotype, and (iii) three-way interactions between condition, genotype, and psychometric psychosis liability. Carriers of the Val allele were most sensitive to Delta-9-THC-induced psychotic experiences, but this was conditional on prior evidence of psychometric psychosis liability. Delta-9-THC impacted negatively on cognitive measures. Carriers of the Val allele were also more sensitive to Delta-9-THC-induced memory and attention impairments compared to carriers of the Met allele. Experimental effects of Delta-9-THC on cognition and psychosis are moderated by COMT Val(158)Met genotype, but the effects may in part be conditional on the additional presence of pre-existing psychosis liability. The association between cannabis and psychosis may represent higher order gene-environment and gene-gene interactions.

  18. Repeated exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol reduces prefrontal cortical dopamine metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jentsch, J D; Verrico, C D; Le, D; Roth, R H

    1998-05-01

    Long-term abuse of marijuana by humans can induce profound behavioral deficits characterized by cognitive and memory impairments. In particular, deficits on tasks dependent on frontal lobe function have been reported in cannabis abusers. In the current study, we examined whether long-term exposure to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient in marijuana, altered the neurochemistry of the frontal cortex in rats. Two weeks administration of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol reduced dopamine transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex, while dopamine metabolism in striatal regions was unaffected. These data are consistent with earlier findings of dopaminergic regulation of frontal cortical cognition. Thus, cognitive deficits in heavy abusers of cannabis may be subserved by drug-induced alterations in frontal cortical dopamine transmission.

  19. Environmental Factors Involved in the Development of Tolerance to Behavioral Effects of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    tetrahydrocanrabinol (A -THC), a compound that appears to be the major active constituent of marijuana ( Mechoulam et al.. 1970). The experiments, conducted with...Frankenheim, J. M. and Kennedy, J. S. Z_-4A -trans-tetrahydrocannabinol in pigeons: tolerance to the behavioral effects. Science, 1970, 162, 501-503. Mechoulam

  20. Plasma cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and oromucosal cannabis extract administration.

    PubMed

    Karschner, Erin L; Darwin, W David; Goodwin, Robert S; Wright, Stephen; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-01-01

    Sativex(®), a cannabis extract oromucosal spray containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is currently in phase III trials as an adjunct to opioids for cancer pain treatment, and recently received United Kingdom approval for treatment of spasticity. There are indications that CBD modulates THC's effects, but it is unclear if this is due to a pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction. Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board-approved study. Participants received 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low-dose (5.4 mg THC and 5.0 mg CBD) and high-dose (16.2 mg THC and 15.0 mg CBD) Sativex, and placebo over 5 sessions. CBD, THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor- 9-carboxy-THC were quantified in plasma by 2-dimensional GC-MS. Lower limits of quantification were ≤0.25 μg/L. Nine cannabis smokers completed all 5 dosing sessions. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) and areas under the curve from 0-10.5 h postdose (AUC(0→10.5)) for all analytes were found between low and high doses of synthetic THC and Sativex. There were no statistically significant differences in C(max), time to maximum concentration or in the AUC(0→10.5) between similar oral THC and Sativex doses. Relative bioavailability was calculated to determine the relative rate and extent of THC absorption; 5 and 15 mg oral THC bioavailability was 92.6% (13.1%) and 98.8% (11.0%) of low- and high-dose Sativex, respectively. These data suggest that CBD modulation of THC's effects is not due to a pharmacokinetic interaction at these therapeutic doses.

  1. A comparison of the apoptotic effect of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the neonatal and adult rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Downer, Eric J; Gowran, Aoife; Campbell, Veronica A

    2007-10-17

    The maternal use of cannabis during pregnancy results in a number of cognitive deficits in the offspring that persist into adulthood. The endocannabinoid system has a role to play in neurodevelopmental processes such as neurogenesis, migration and synaptogenesis. However, exposure to phytocannabinoids, such as Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, during gestation may interfere with these events to cause abnormal patterns of neuronal wiring and subsequent cognitive impairments. Aberrant cell death evoked by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol may also contribute to cognitive deficits and in cultured neurones Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis via the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor. In this study we report that Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (5-50 microM) activates the stress-activated protein kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase, and the pro-apoptotic protease, caspase-3, in in vitro cerebral cortical slices obtained from the neonatal rat brain. The proclivity of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol to impact on these pro-apoptotic signalling molecules was not observed in in vitro cortical slices obtained from the adult rat brain. In vivo, subcutaneous administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (1-30 mg/kg) activated c-jun N-terminal kinase, caspase-3 and cathepsin-D, and induced DNA fragmentation in the cerebral cortex of neonatal rats. In contrast, in vivo administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol to adult rats was not associated with the apoptotic pathway in the cerebral cortex. The data provide evidence which supports the hypothesis that the neonatal rat brain is more vulnerable to the neurotoxic influence of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, suggesting that the cognitive deficits that are observed in humans exposed to marijuana during gestation may be due, in part, to abnormal engagement of the apoptotic cascade during brain development.

  2. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of FDA-Approved Products of Oral Solutions Containing Dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-transtetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] in Schedule II. Interim final rule, with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2017-03-23

    On July 1, 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new drug application for Syndros, a drug product consisting of dronabinol [(-)-delta-9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC)] oral solution. Thereafter, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) provided the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) with a scheduling recommendation that would result in Syndros (and other oral solutions containing dronabinol) being placed in schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). In accordance with the CSA, as revised by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act, DEA is hereby issuing an interim final rule placing FDA-approved products of oral solutions containing dronabinol in schedule II of the CSA.

  3. Determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in indoor air as an indicator of marijuana cigarette smoking using adsorbent sampling and in-injector thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chou, Su-Lien; Ling, Yong-Chien; Yang, Mo-Hsiung; Pai, Chung-Yen

    2007-08-13

    The marijuana leaves are usually mixed with tobaccos and smoked at amusement places in Taiwan. Recently, for investigation-legal purposes, the police asked if we can identify the marijuana smoke in a KTV stateroom (a private room at the entertainment spot for singing, smoking, alcohol drinking, etc.) without marijuana residues. A personal air-sampler pump fitted with the GC liner-tube packed with Tenax-TA adsorbent was used for air sampling. The GC-adsorbent tube was placed in the GC injector port and desorbed directly, followed by GC-MS analysis for the determination of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) in indoor air. The average desorption efficiency and limit of detection for delta9-THC were 89% and 0.1 microg m(-3), respectively, approximately needing 1.09 mg of marijuana leaves smoked in an unventilated closed room (3.0 m x 2.4 m x 2.7 m) to reach this level. The mean delta9-THC contained in the 15 marijuana plants seized from diverse locations was measured to be 0.32%. The delta9-THC in room air can be successfully identified from mock marijuana cigarettes, mixtures of marijuana and tobacco, and an actual case. The characteristic delta9-THC peak in chromatogram can serve as the indicator of marijuana. Positive result suggests marijuana smoking at the specific scene in the recent past, facilitating the formulation of further investigation.

  4. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (Sativex®): a review of its use in patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Syed, Yahiya Y; McKeage, Kate; Scott, Lesley J

    2014-04-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) [Sativex®] is an oromucosal spray formulation that contains principally THC and CBD at an approximately 1:1 fixed ratio, derived from cloned Cannabis sativa L. plants. The main active substance, THC, acts as a partial agonist at human cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and thus, may modulate the effects of excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (gamma-aminobutyric acid) neurotransmitters. THC/CBD is approved in a number of countries, including Germany and the UK, as an add-on treatment for symptom improvement in adult patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity-related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy. In the largest multinational clinical trial that evaluated the approved THC/CBD regimen in this population, 12 weeks' double-blind treatment with THC/CBD significantly reduced spasticity severity (primary endpoint) compared with placebo in patients who achieved a clinically significant improvement in spasticity after 4 weeks' single-blind THC/CBD treatment, as assessed by a patient-rated numerical rating scale. A significantly greater proportion of THC/CBD than placebo recipients achieved a ≥ 30% reduction (a clinically relevant reduction) in spasticity severity. The efficacy of THC/CBD has been also shown in at least one everyday clinical practice study (MOVE 2). THC/CBD was generally well tolerated in clinical trials. Dizziness and fatigue were reported most frequently during the first 4 weeks of treatment and resolved within a few days even with continued treatment. Thus, add-on THC/CBD is a useful symptomatic treatment option for its approved indication.

  5. delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol-dependent mice undergoing withdrawal display impaired spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Wise, Laura E; Varvel, Stephen A; Selley, Dana E; Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Long, Kelly A; Middleton, Lisa S; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Lichtman, Aron H

    2011-10-01

    Cannabis users display a constellation of withdrawal symptoms upon drug discontinuation, including sleep disturbances, irritability, and possibly memory deficits. In cannabinoid-dependent rodents, the CB(1) antagonist rimonabant precipitates somatic withdrawal and enhances forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in cerebellum, an effect opposite that of acutely administered ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary constituent in cannabis. Here, we tested whether THC-dependent mice undergoing rimonabant-precipitated withdrawal display short-term spatial memory deficits, as assessed in the Morris water maze. We also evaluated whether rimonabant would precipitate adenylyl cyclase superactivation in hippocampal and cerebellar tissue from THC-dependent mice. Rimonabant significantly impaired spatial memory of THC-dependent mice at lower doses than those necessary to precipitate somatic withdrawal behavior. In contrast, maze performance was near perfect in the cued task, suggesting sensorimotor function and motivational factors were unperturbed by the withdrawal state. Finally, rimonabant increased adenylyl cyclase activity in cerebellar, but not in hippocampal, membranes. The memory disruptive effects of THC undergo tolerance following repeated dosing, while the withdrawal state leads to a rebound deficit in memory. These results establish spatial memory impairment as a particularly sensitive component of cannabinoid withdrawal, an effect that may be mediated through compensatory changes in the cerebellum.

  6. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Objectives Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion. Methods Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. Results As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs’ effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Conclusions Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories. PMID:21647577

  7. Recent Self-Reported Cannabis Use Is Associated With the Biometrics of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew J; Alden, Eva C; Herrold, Amy A; Roberts, Andrea; Stern, Dan; Jones, Joseph; Barnes, Allan; O'Connor, Kailyn P; Huestis, Marilyn A; Breiter, Hans C

    2018-05-01

    Research typically characterizes cannabis use by self-report of cannabis intake frequency. In an effort to better understand relationships between measures of cannabis use, we evaluated if Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and metabolite concentrations (biometrics) were associated with a calibrated timeline followback (TLFB) assessment of cannabis use. Participants were 35 young adult male cannabis users who completed a calibrated TLFB measure of cannabis use over the past 30 days, including time of last use. The calibration required participants handling four plastic bags of a cannabis substitute (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.5 grams) to quantify cannabis consumed. Participants provided blood and urine samples for analysis of THC and metabolites, at two independent laboratories. Participants abstained from cannabis use on the day of sample collection. We tested Pearson correlations between the calibrated TLFB measures and cannabis biometrics. Strong correlations were seen between urine and blood biometrics (all r > .73, all p < .001). TLFB measures of times of use and grams of cannabis consumed were significantly related to each biometric, including urine 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) and blood THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), THCCOOH, THCCOOH-glucuronide (times of use: r > .48-.61, all p < .05; grams: r > .40-.49, all p < .05). This study extends prior work to show TLFB methods significantly relate to an extended array of cannabis biometrics. The calibration of cannabis intake in grams was associated with each biometric, although the simple TLFB measure of times of use produced the strongest relationships with all five biometrics. These findings suggest that combined self-report and biometric data together convey the complexity of cannabis use, but allow that either the use of calibrated TLFB measures or biometrics may be sufficient for assessment of cannabis use in research.

  8. Effects of varying marijuana potency on deposition of tar and delta9-THC in the lung during smoking.

    PubMed

    Matthias, P; Tashkin, D P; Marques-Magallanes, J A; Wilkins, J N; Simmons, M S

    1997-12-01

    To determine whether smoking more, compared to less, potent marijuana (MJ) cigarettes to a desired level of intoxication ("high") reduces pulmonary exposure to noxious smoke components, in 10 habitual smokers of MJ, we measured respiratory delivery and deposition of tar and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) boost, smoking topography, including cumulative puff volume (CPV) and breathholding time, change in heart rate (deltaHR) and "high" during ad lib smoking of 0, 1.77, and 3.95% MJ cigarettes on 3 separate days. At each session, subjects had access to only a single MJ cigarette. On average, smoking topography and COHb boost did not differ across the different strengths of MJ, while THC delivery, as well as HR, were significantly greater (p < 0.01) and tar deposition significantly less (p < 0.03) for 3.95% than 1.77% MJ. Although individual adaptations in smoking topography for 3.95% compared to 1.77% MJ were highly variable, three subjects with the lowest 3.95% MJ:1.77% MJ ratios for CPV also displayed the lowest 3.95% MJ:1.77% MJ ratios for tar deposition. In vitro studies using a standardized smoking technique revealed a mean 25% lower tar yield from 3.95% than 1.77% MJ (p < 0.05), but no difference between 1.77% and 0% marijuana. Under the conditions of this study, we conclude that tar delivery is reduced relative to THC content in a minority of subjects, and this reduction appears to be due to a reduced intake of smoke (decreased CPV) and/or a reduced tar yield from the stronger MJ preparation.

  9. Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Dopamine Release as a Function of Psychosis Risk: 18F-Fallypride Positron Emission Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuepper, Rebecca; Ceccarini, Jenny; Lataster, Johan; van Os, Jim; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus; van Gerven, Joop M. A.; Marcelis, Machteld; Van Laere, Koen; Henquet, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is associated with psychosis, particularly in those with expression of, or vulnerability for, psychotic illness. The biological underpinnings of these differential associations, however, remain largely unknown. We used Positron Emission Tomography and 18F-fallypride to test the hypothesis that genetic risk for psychosis is expressed by differential induction of dopamine release by Δ9-THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis). In a single dynamic PET scanning session, striatal dopamine release after pulmonary administration of Δ9-THC was measured in 9 healthy cannabis users (average risk psychotic disorder), 8 patients with psychotic disorder (high risk psychotic disorder) and 7 un-related first-degree relatives (intermediate risk psychotic disorder). PET data were analyzed applying the linear extension of the simplified reference region model (LSRRM), which accounts for time-dependent changes in 18F-fallypride displacement. Voxel-based statistical maps, representing specific D2/3 binding changes, were computed to localize areas with increased ligand displacement after Δ9-THC administration, reflecting dopamine release. While Δ9-THC was not associated with dopamine release in the control group, significant ligand displacement induced by Δ9-THC in striatal subregions, indicative of dopamine release, was detected in both patients and relatives. This was most pronounced in caudate nucleus. This is the first study to demonstrate differential sensitivity to Δ9-THC in terms of increased endogenous dopamine release in individuals at risk for psychosis. PMID:23936196

  10. Simultaneous quantification of delta-9-THC, THC-acid A, CBN and CBD in seized drugs using HPLC-DAD.

    PubMed

    Ambach, Lars; Penitschka, Franziska; Broillet, Alain; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Bernhard, Werner

    2014-10-01

    An HPLC-DAD method for the quantitative analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCA-A), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN) in confiscated cannabis products has been developed, fully validated and applied to analyse seized cannabis products. For determination of the THC content of plant material, this method combines quantitation of THCA-A, which is the inactive precursor of THC, and free THC. Plant material was dried, homogenized and extracted with methanol by ultrasonication. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Waters Alliance 2695 HPLC equipped with a Merck LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) precolumn and a Merck LiChroCart 125-4 LiChrospher 60 RP-Select B (5μm) analytical column. Analytes were detected and quantified using a Waters 2996 photo diode array detector. This method has been accepted by the public authorities of Switzerland (Bundesamt für Gesundheit, Federal Office of Public Health), and has been used to analyse 9092 samples since 2000. Since no thermal decarboxylation of THCA-A occurs, the method is highly reproducible for different cannabis materials. Two calibration ranges are used, a lower one for THC, CBN and CBD, and a higher one for THCA-A, due to its dominant presence in fresh plant material. As provider of the Swiss proficiency test, the robustness of this method has been tested over several years, and homogeneity tests even in the low calibration range (1%) show high precision (RSD≤4.3%, except CBD) and accuracy (bias≤4.1%, except CBN). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Determination of ∆-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC and Cannabidiol in Human Plasma using Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Andrenyak, David M; Moody, David E; Slawson, Matthew H; O'Leary, Daniel S; Haney, Margaret

    2017-05-01

    Two marijuana compounds of particular medical interest are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). A gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) method was developed to test for CBD, THC, hydroxy-THC (OH-THC) and carboxy-THC (COOH-THC) in human plasma. Calibrators (THC and OH-THC, 0.1 to 100; CBD, 0.25 to 100; COOH-THC, 0.5-500 ng/mL) and controls (0.3, 5 and 80 ng/mL, except COOH-THC at 1.5, 25 and 400 ng/mL) were prepared in blank matrix. Deuterated (d3) internal standards were added to 1-mL samples. Preparation involved acetonitrile precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction (hexane:ethyl acetate, 9:1), and MSTFA derivatization. An Agilent 7890 A GC was interfaced with an Agilent 7000 MS Triple Quadrupole. Selected reaction monitoring was employed. Blood samples were provided from a marijuana smoking study (two participants) and a CBD ingestion study (eight participants). Three analytes with the same transitions (THC, OH-THC and COOH-THC) were chromatographically separated. Matrix selectivity studies showed endogenous chromatographic peak area ratios (PAR) at the analyte retention times were <20% of the analyte limit of quantitation PAR. The intra-assay accuracy ranged from 83.5% to 118% of target and the intra-run imprecision ranged from 2.0% to 19.1%. The inter-assay accuracy ranged from 90.3% to 104% of target and the inter-run imprecision ranged from 6.5% to 12.0%. Stability was established for 25 hours at room temperature, 207 days at -20°C, after three freeze-thaw cycles and for 26 days for rederivatized processed samples. After smoking marijuana predictable concentrations of THC, OH-THC and COOH-THC were seen; low concentrations of CBD were detected at early time points. In moderate users who had not smoked for at least 9 hours before ingesting an 800 mg oral dose of CBD, the method was sensitive enough to follow residual concentrations of THC and OH-THC; sustained COOH-THC concentrations over 50 ng/mL validated its higher

  12. Determination of ∆-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC and Cannabidiol in Human Plasma using Gas Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Andrenyak, David M.; Slawson, Matthew H.; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Haney, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two marijuana compounds of particular medical interest are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). A gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS-MS) method was developed to test for CBD, THC, hydroxy-THC (OH-THC) and carboxy-THC (COOH-THC) in human plasma. Calibrators (THC and OH-THC, 0.1 to 100; CBD, 0.25 to 100; COOH-THC, 0.5–500 ng/mL) and controls (0.3, 5 and 80 ng/mL, except COOH-THC at 1.5, 25 and 400 ng/mL) were prepared in blank matrix. Deuterated (d3) internal standards were added to 1-mL samples. Preparation involved acetonitrile precipitation, liquid–liquid extraction (hexane:ethyl acetate, 9:1), and MSTFA derivatization. An Agilent 7890 A GC was interfaced with an Agilent 7000 MS Triple Quadrupole. Selected reaction monitoring was employed. Blood samples were provided from a marijuana smoking study (two participants) and a CBD ingestion study (eight participants). Three analytes with the same transitions (THC, OH-THC and COOH-THC) were chromatographically separated. Matrix selectivity studies showed endogenous chromatographic peak area ratios (PAR) at the analyte retention times were <20% of the analyte limit of quantitation PAR. The intra-assay accuracy ranged from 83.5% to 118% of target and the intra-run imprecision ranged from 2.0% to 19.1%. The inter-assay accuracy ranged from 90.3% to 104% of target and the inter-run imprecision ranged from 6.5% to 12.0%. Stability was established for 25 hours at room temperature, 207 days at −20°C, after three freeze-thaw cycles and for 26 days for rederivatized processed samples. After smoking marijuana predictable concentrations of THC, OH-THC and COOH-THC were seen; low concentrations of CBD were detected at early time points. In moderate users who had not smoked for at least 9 hours before ingesting an 800 mg oral dose of CBD, the method was sensitive enough to follow residual concentrations of THC and OH-THC; sustained COOH-THC concentrations over 50 ng

  13. Identification of 11-Nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine by ion trap GC-MS-MS in the context of doping analysis.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Gerardo M; D'Angelo, Carlos; Fraguío, Mariá Sol; Centurión, Osvaldo Teme

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a sensitive and specific alternative to current gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) selected ion monitoring confirmation methods of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (cTHC) in human urine samples, in the context of doping analysis. An identification procedure based on the comparison, among suspicious and control samples, of the relative abundances of cTHC selected product ions obtained by GC-tandem MS in an ion trap is presented. The method complies with the identification criteria for qualitative assays established by sports authorities; the comparison procedure is precise, reproducible, specific, and sensitive, thus indicating that it is fit for the purpose of identification accordingly to World Antidoping Agency requirements.

  14. [Simultaneous determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol cannabidiol and cannabinol in edible oil using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aizhi; Wang, Quanlin; Mo, Shijie

    2010-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) in edible oil was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted with methanol, purified by an LC-Alumina-N solid phase extraction cartridge, separated and detected by the UPLC-MS/MS. Quantitative analysis was corrected by an isotope internal standard method using delta-9-THC-D3 as internal standard. Average recoveries for the target compounds varied from 68.0% to 101.6% with the relative standard deviations ranging from 7.0% to 20.1% at three spiked levels. The limits of detection (LOD) of the method were from 0.06-0.17 microg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.20-0.52 microg/kg. The results showed that the method is able to meet the requirements for the simultaneous determination of THC, CBD and CBN in edible oil.

  15. Cannabis constituents modulate δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Jonathan A; Hill, Andrew J; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2010-05-01

    The hyperphagic effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9THC) in humans and rodents is well known. However, no studies have investigated the importance of Delta9THC composition and any influence other non-Delta9THC cannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa may have. We therefore compared the effects of purified Delta9THC, synthetic Delta9THC (dronabinol), and Delta9THC botanical drug substance (Delta9THC-BDS), a Delta9THC-rich standardized extract comparable in composition to recreationally used cannabis. Adult male rats were orally dosed with purified Delta9THC, synthetic Delta9THC, or Delta9THC-BDS, matched for Delta9THC content (0.34-2.68 mg/kg). Prior to dosing, subjects were satiated, and food intake was recorded following Delta9THC administration. Data were then analyzed in terms of hourly intake and meal patterns. All three Delta9THC substances tested induced significant hyperphagic effects at doses >or=0.67 mg/kg. These effects included increased intake during hour one, a shorter latency to onset of feeding and a greater duration and consumption in the first meal. However, while some differences in vehicle control intakes were observed, there were significant, albeit subtle, differences in pattern of effects between the purified Delta9THC and Delta9THC-BDS. All Delta9THC compounds displayed classical Delta9THC effects on feeding, significantly increasing shortterm intake whilst decreasing latency to the first meal. We propose that the subtle adjustment to the meal patterns seen between the purified Delta9THC and Delta9THC-BDS are due to non-Delta9THC cannabinoids present in Delta9THC-BDS. These compounds and other non-cannabinoids have an emerging and diverse pharmacology and can modulate Delta9THC-induced hyperphagia, making them worth further investigation for their therapeutic potential.

  16. Assessment of driving capability through the use of clinical and psychomotor tests in relation to blood cannabinoids levels following oral administration of 20 mg dronabinol or of a cannabis decoction made with 20 or 60 mg Delta9-THC.

    PubMed

    Ménétrey, Annick; Augsburger, Marc; Favrat, Bernard; Pin, Marie A; Rothuizen, Laura E; Appenzeller, Monique; Buclin, Thierry; Mangin, Patrice; Giroud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is frequently found in the blood of drivers suspected of driving under the influence of cannabis or involved in traffic crashes. The present study used a double-blind crossover design to compare the effects of medium (16.5 mg THC) and high doses (45.7 mg THC) of hemp milk decoctions or of a medium dose of dronabinol (20 mg synthetic THC, Marinol on several skills required for safe driving. Forensic interpretation of cannabinoids blood concentrations were attempted using the models proposed by Daldrup (cannabis influencing factor or CIF) and Huestis and coworkers. First, the time concentration-profiles of THC, 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) (active metabolite of THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in whole blood were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative ion chemical ionization. Compared to smoking studies, relatively low concentrations were measured in blood. The highest mean THC concentration (8.4 ng/mL) was achieved 1 h after ingestion of the strongest decoction. Mean maximum 11-OH-THC level (12.3 ng/mL) slightly exceeded that of THC. THCCOOH reached its highest mean concentration (66.2 ng/mL) 2.5-5.5 h after intake. Individual blood levels showed considerable intersubject variability. The willingness to drive was influenced by the importance of the requested task. Under significant cannabinoids influence, the participants refused to drive when they were asked whether they would agree to accomplish several unimportant tasks, (e.g., driving a friend to a party). Most of the participants reported a significant feeling of intoxication and did not appreciate the effects, notably those felt after drinking the strongest decoction. Road sign and tracking testing revealed obvious and statistically significant differences between placebo and treatments. A marked impairment was detected after ingestion of the strongest decoction. A CIF value, which relies on the

  17. Enzymatic digestion and selective quantification of underivatised delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cocaine in human hair using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Breidi, Salah Eddine; Barker, James; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) methods for drug analysis routinely employ derivatising reagents. The aim of this paper was to develop a method for the analysis of two recreational drugs, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) and cocaine in hair samples using GC-MS, without prior derivatisation, thus allowing the sample to be reanalysed in its original form. An enzymatic digestion technique was also developed. Ten hair samples, that were known positive for either Δ(9)-THC and/or cocaine, were enzymatically digested, extracted, and then analysed by GC-MS. All samples measured contained Δ(9)-THC and one sample contained cocaine. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 ng/mg and 0.05 ng/mg, respectively, for cocaine and 0.015 ng/mg and 0.02 ng/mg, respectively, for Δ(9)-THC. The wide detection window, ease of direct analysis by GC-MS, lower detection limits of underivatised samples, and the stability of drugs using this technique may offer an improved method of analysis.

  18. Enzymatic Digestion and Selective Quantification of Underivatised Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cocaine in Human Hair Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Breidi, Salah Eddine; Barker, James; Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P.

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) methods for drug analysis routinely employ derivatising reagents. The aim of this paper was to develop a method for the analysis of two recreational drugs, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cocaine in hair samples using GC-MS, without prior derivatisation, thus allowing the sample to be reanalysed in its original form. An enzymatic digestion technique was also developed. Ten hair samples, that were known positive for either Δ9-THC and/or cocaine, were enzymatically digested, extracted, and then analysed by GC-MS. All samples measured contained Δ9-THC and one sample contained cocaine. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.02 ng/mg and 0.05 ng/mg, respectively, for cocaine and 0.015 ng/mg and 0.02 ng/mg, respectively, for Δ9-THC. The wide detection window, ease of direct analysis by GC-MS, lower detection limits of underivatised samples, and the stability of drugs using this technique may offer an improved method of analysis. PMID:22567573

  19. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol + cannabidiol. A reasonable option for some patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Conventional drugs have only a limited impact on spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis and are rarely satisfactory. A solution for oral transmucosal delivery (spray) containing a mixture of cannabis extracts (2.7 mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol + 2.5 mg of cannabidiol per spray) has been granted marketing authorisation in France for patients who are inadequately relieved by standard treatments. Three double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in a total of about 300 patients tested this combination, in addition to ongoing treatment, for periods of 6 to 14 weeks. Individually, none of these trials showed any tangible anti-spastic efficacy, but two combined analyses showed "response rates" of about 35% with the mixture versus about 25% with placebo. In a trial with 572 patients, the 241 patients who "responded" after 4 weeks of treatment were randomised to either continue using the cannabis extract or receive placebo. Twelve weeks later, 75% of patients using the extract were still "responders", versus 51% of patients switched to placebo. The principal adverse effects of the cannabis extracts consist of neuropsychiatric disorders that resolve on treatment withdrawal. The potential for abuse increases with the dose and is tangible from 16 sprays per day. Pharmacokinetic interactions due to P-glycoprotein inhibition are likely. Treatment during pregnancy may lead to neonatal withdrawal symptoms. In practice, about 10% of patients in whom standard anti-spastic medications are unsatisfactory benefit from a specific effect of the cannabis extracts contained in this oral spray.

  20. Abstinence phenomena of chronic cannabis-addicts prospectively monitored during controlled inpatient detoxification (Part II): Psychiatric complaints and their relation to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in serum.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Udo; Borda, Thorsten; Scherbaum, Norbert; Specka, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the impact of inpatient detoxification treatment on psychiatric symptoms of chronic cannabis addicts and to analyze the influence of serum cannabinoid levels on the severity of these symptoms. Thirty five treatment-seeking, not active co-morbid chronic cannabis dependents (ICD-10) were studied on admission and on abstinence days 8 and 16, using several observational and self-report scales, such as Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Simultaneously obtained serum was analyzed with regard to levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolites 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). At admission, nearly 90% of the patients were not, or only mildly, affected by depression, anxiety or manic symptoms. In contrast, patients' self-description indicated a strong psychiatric burden in approximately 60% of the cases. All patients improved significantly within 16 days of the treatment. Effect sizes ranged from 0.7 to 1.4. (Cohen's d) for the respective scales. Serum THC-levels were positively associated with impairment of cognition in HAMA and motor retardation in BPRS. All other test results were not significantly related to the serum levels of the measured cannabinoids. Effects of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome and executive dysfunctions might explain the discrepancy between the observer ratings and self-reported psychiatric burden. Inpatient cannabis detoxification treatment significantly improved psychiatric symptoms. Serum THC-levels were not associated with affective symptoms and anxiety but predicted cognitive impairment and motor retardation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Cognitive Impairment Induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Occurs through Heteromers between Cannabinoid CB1 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Viñals, Xavier; Moreno, Estefanía; Lanfumey, Laurence; Cordomí, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de La Torre, Rafael; Gasperini, Paola; Navarro, Gemma; Howell, Lesley A; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluís, Carmen; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produces a variety of negative effects with major consequences in cannabis users that constitute important drawbacks for the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. For this reason, there is a tremendous medical interest in harnessing the beneficial effects of THC. Behavioral studies carried out in mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) revealed a remarkable 5-HT2AR-dependent dissociation in the beneficial antinociceptive effects of THC and its detrimental amnesic properties. We found that specific effects of THC such as memory deficits, anxiolytic-like effects, and social interaction are under the control of 5-HT2AR, but its acute hypolocomotor, hypothermic, anxiogenic, and antinociceptive effects are not. In biochemical studies, we show that CB1R and 5-HT2AR form heteromers that are expressed and functionally active in specific brain regions involved in memory impairment. Remarkably, our functional data shows that costimulation of both receptors by agonists reduces cell signaling, antagonist binding to one receptor blocks signaling of the interacting receptor, and heteromer formation leads to a switch in G-protein coupling for 5-HT2AR from Gq to Gi proteins. Synthetic peptides with the sequence of transmembrane helices 5 and 6 of CB1R, fused to a cell-penetrating peptide, were able to disrupt receptor heteromerization in vivo, leading to a selective abrogation of memory impairments caused by exposure to THC. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for the functional interaction between CB1R and 5-HT2AR mediating cognitive impairment. CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromers are thus good targets to dissociate the cognitive deficits induced by THC from its beneficial antinociceptive properties.

  2. Cognitive Impairment Induced by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Occurs through Heteromers between Cannabinoid CB1 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lanfumey, Laurence; Cordomí, Arnau; Pastor, Antoni; de La Torre, Rafael; Gasperini, Paola; Navarro, Gemma; Howell, Lesley A.; Pardo, Leonardo; Lluís, Carmen; Canela, Enric I.; McCormick, Peter J.; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) by delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) produces a variety of negative effects with major consequences in cannabis users that constitute important drawbacks for the use of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. For this reason, there is a tremendous medical interest in harnessing the beneficial effects of THC. Behavioral studies carried out in mice lacking 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) revealed a remarkable 5-HT2AR-dependent dissociation in the beneficial antinociceptive effects of THC and its detrimental amnesic properties. We found that specific effects of THC such as memory deficits, anxiolytic-like effects, and social interaction are under the control of 5-HT2AR, but its acute hypolocomotor, hypothermic, anxiogenic, and antinociceptive effects are not. In biochemical studies, we show that CB1R and 5-HT2AR form heteromers that are expressed and functionally active in specific brain regions involved in memory impairment. Remarkably, our functional data shows that costimulation of both receptors by agonists reduces cell signaling, antagonist binding to one receptor blocks signaling of the interacting receptor, and heteromer formation leads to a switch in G-protein coupling for 5-HT2AR from Gq to Gi proteins. Synthetic peptides with the sequence of transmembrane helices 5 and 6 of CB1R, fused to a cell-penetrating peptide, were able to disrupt receptor heteromerization in vivo, leading to a selective abrogation of memory impairments caused by exposure to THC. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism for the functional interaction between CB1R and 5-HT2AR mediating cognitive impairment. CB1R-5-HT2AR heteromers are thus good targets to dissociate the cognitive deficits induced by THC from its beneficial antinociceptive properties. PMID:26158621

  3. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs encoding but not retrieval of verbal information.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Mohini; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Addy, Peter H; Schnakenberg-Martin, Ashley M; Williams, Ashley H; Carbuto, Michelle; Elander, Jacqueline; Pittman, Brian; Andrew Sewell, R; Skosnik, Patrick D; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2017-10-03

    Cannabis and agonists of the brain cannabinoid receptor (CB 1 R) produce acute memory impairments in humans. However, the extent to which cannabinoids impair the component processes of encoding and retrieval has not been established in humans. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether the administration of Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis, impairs encoding and/or retrieval of verbal information. Healthy subjects were recruited from the community. Subjects were administered the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) either before administration of THC (experiment #1) (n=38) or while under the influence of THC (experiment #2) (n=57). Immediate and delayed recall on the RAVLT was compared. Subjects received intravenous THC, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized manner at doses known to produce behavioral and subjective effects consistent with cannabis intoxication. Total immediate recall, short delayed recall, and long delayed recall were reduced in a statistically significant manner only when the RAVLT was administered to subjects while they were under the influence of THC (experiment #2) and not when the RAVLT was administered prior. THC acutely interferes with encoding of verbal memory without interfering with retrieval. These data suggest that learning information prior to the use of cannabis or cannabinoids is not likely to disrupt recall of that information. Future studies will be necessary to determine whether THC impairs encoding of non-verbal information, to what extent THC impairs memory consolidation, and the role of other cannabinoids in the memory-impairing effects of cannabis. Cannabinoids, Neural Synchrony, and Information Processing (THC-Gamma) http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00708994 NCT00708994 Pharmacogenetics of Cannabinoid Response http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00678730 NCT00678730. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Exposure of Adolescent Mice to Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Long-Lasting Modulation of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in Hypothalamus and Hippocampus Similar to that Observed for Peripheral Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Sarah; Franchi, Silvia; Castelli, Mara; Amodeo, Giada; Somaini, Lorenzo; Panerai, Alberto; Sacerdote, Paola

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis use is frequent among adolescents. Its main component, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), affects the immune system. We recently demonstrated that chronic exposure of adolescent mice to THC suppressed immunity immediately after treatment but that after a washout period THC induced a long-lasting opposite modulation towards a proinflammatory and T-helper-1 phenotype in adulthood. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether the same effect was also present in brain regions such as the hypothalamus and hippocampus. Thirty-three-day-old adolescent and 80-day-old adult male mice were used. Acute THC administration induced a similar reduction of macrophage proinflammatory cytokines and an IL-10 increase in adult and adolescent mice. THC did not affect brain cytokines in adult mice, but a proinflammatory cytokine decrease was evident in the adolescent brain. A similar effect was present in the hypothalamus and hippocampus after 10 days' THC administration. In contrast, when brain cytokines were measured 47 days after the final THC administration, we observed an inverted effect in adult mice treated as adolescents, i.e., IL-1β and TNF-α increased and IL-10 decreased, indicating a shift toward neuroinflammation. These data suggest that THC exposure in adolescence has long-lasting effects on brain cytokines that parallel those present in the periphery. This modulation may affect vulnerability to immune and behavioural diseases in adulthood.

  5. A Preliminary Investigation of Individual Differences in Subjective Responses to D-Amphetamine, Alcohol, and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Using a Within-Subjects Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Marcus, Benjamin A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Polydrug use is common, and might occur because certain individuals experience positive effects from several different drugs during early stages of use. This study examined individual differences in subjective responses to single oral doses of d-amphetamine, alcohol, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy social drinkers. Each of these drugs produces feelings of well-being in at least some individuals, and we hypothesized that subjective responses to these drugs would be positively correlated. We also examined participants’ drug responses in relation to personality traits associated with drug use. In this initial, exploratory study, 24 healthy, light drug users (12 male, 12 female), aged 21–31 years, participated in a fully within-subject, randomized, counterbalanced design with six 5.5-hour sessions in which they received d-amphetamine (20mg), alcohol (0.8 g/kg), or THC (7.5 mg), each paired with a placebo session. Participants rated the drugs’ effects on both global measures (e.g. feeling a drug effect at all) and drug-specific measures. In general, participants’ responses to the three drugs were unrelated. Unexpectedly, “wanting more” alcohol was inversely correlated with “wanting more” THC. Additionally, in women, but not in men, “disliking” alcohol was negatively correlated with “disliking” THC. Positive alcohol and amphetamine responses were related, but only in individuals who experienced a stimulant effect of alcohol. Finally, high trait constraint (or lack of impulsivity) was associated with lower reports of liking alcohol. No personality traits predicted responses across multiple drug types. Generally, these findings do not support the idea that certain individuals experience greater positive effects across multiple drug classes, but instead provide some evidence for a “drug of choice” model, in which individuals respond positively to certain classes of drugs that share similar subjective effects, and dislike other

  6. Tar, CO and delta 9THC delivery from the 1st and 2nd halves of a marijuana cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, D P; Gliederer, F; Rose, J; Chang, P; Hui, K K; Yu, J L; Wu, T C

    1991-11-01

    Previous in vitro studies suggest that, with successive puffs from a marijuana cigarette, delta-9-THC becomes concentrated in the remaining uncombusted portion of the cigarette. These observations are consistent with the common practice of smoking marijuana cigarettes to a smaller butt length than that to which tobacco cigarettes are smoked. The purpose of the present study was to compare the delivery of delta-9-THC, as well as total insoluble smoke particulates (tar) and carbon monoxide, from the distal ("first") versus the proximal ("second") halves of a standard marijuana cigarette during "natural" smoking of marijuana. On 4 separate days, ten habitual marijuana users smoked nearly all or approximately 1/2 of a standard marijuana cigarette (83 mm length; 800-900 mg; 1.24% THC), as follows: day 1, "whole" cigarette (60 mm smoked, leaving a 23-mm butt); day 2, "first" half (first 30 mm); day 3, "second" half (second 30 mm) after the "first" half was presmoked with a syringe; and day 4, "second" half after the "first" half was excised. A previously described smoking apparatus (20) was used for measurement of puff volume and inhaled tar. Puff volume and number were allowed to vary spontaneously (provided that the specified length of cigarette was consumed), while inhaled volume (1.5 liters), breathholding time (14 s) and interpuff interval (30 s) were held constant. Blood samples were withdrawn prior to smoking and serially after completion of smoking for analysis of blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and serum delta-9-THC. Heart rate was measured before and 5 min after smoking. Subjects rated their level of "high" 20 min after completion of smoking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Martin-Santos, R; Crippa, J A; Batalla, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Atakan, Z; Borgwardt, S; Allen, P; Seal, M; Langohr, K; Farré, M; Zuardi, A W; McGuire, P K

    2012-01-01

    Animal and humans studies suggest that the two main constituents of cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have quite different acute effects. However, to date the two compounds have largely been studied separately. To evaluate and compare the acute pharmacological effects of both THC and CBD in the same human volunteers. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo controlled trial was conducted in 16 healthy male subjects. Oral THC 10 mg or CBD 600 mg or placebo was administered in three consecutive sessions, at one-month interval. Physiological measures and symptom ratings were assessed before, and at 1, 2 and 3 hours post drug administration. The area under the curve (AUC) between baseline and 3 hours, and the maximum absolute change from baseline at 2 hours were analysed by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance, with drug condition (THC or CBD or placebo) as the factor. Relative to both placebo and CBD, administration of THC was associated with anxiety, dysphoria, positive psychotic symptoms, physical and mental sedation, subjective intoxication (AUC and effect at 2 hours: p < 0.01), an increase in heart rate (p < 0.05). There were no differences between CBD and placebo on any symptomatic, physiological variable. In healthy volunteers, THC has marked acute behavioural and physiological effects, whereas CBD has proven to be safe and well tolerated.

  8. Detection of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid using the Rapid Stat point-of-collection drug-testing device.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, J; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Urban, R

    2010-04-01

    The Rapid Stat assay, a point-of-collection drug-testing device for detection of amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines in oral fluid, was evaluated for cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants. The Rapid Stat tests (n = 134) were applied by police officers in routine traffic checks. Oral fluid and blood samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and methylenedioxyamphetamine. The comparison of GC-MS analysis of oral fluid with the Rapid Stat results for cannabis showed a sensitivity of 85%, a specificity of 87%, and a total confirmation rate of 87%. When compared with serum, the sensitivity of the cannabis assay decreased to 71%, the specificity to 60%, and the total confirmation rate to 66%. These findings were possibly caused by an incorrect reading of the THC test results. Comparison of the Rapid Stat amphetamine assay with GC-MS in oral fluid showed a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 97%, and a total confirmation rate of 97%. Compared with serum, a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 90%, and a total confirmation rate of 92% was found. The amphetamine assay must, therefore, be regarded as satisfactory.

  9. Cannabis and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard; Trigo, Jose M; Sharkey, Keith A; Le Strat, Yann

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is one of the highest preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world [1]. It has been well known for a long time that exposure to cannabis produces an increase of appetite (a phenomenon referred to as the 'munchies'). This phenomenon led to an exploration of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome. This effort subsequently led to the development of a successful therapeutic approach for obesity that consisted of blocking the cannabinoid CB1 receptors using ligands such as Rimonabant in order to produce weight loss and improve metabolic profile [2]. Despite being efficacious, Rimonabant was associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and therefore removed from the market. We recently discovered that the prevalence of obesity is paradoxically much lower in cannabis users as compared to non-users and that this difference is not accounted for by tobacco smoking status and is still present after adjusting for variables such as sex and age. Here, we propose that this effect is directly related to exposure to the Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in cannabis smoke. We therefore propose the seemingly paradoxical hypothesis that THC or a THC/cannabidiol combination drug may produce weight loss and may be a useful therapeutic for the treatment of obesity and its complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.

    PubMed

    Paul, Buddha D; Jacobs, Aaron

    2002-10-01

    Bleach, nitrite, chromate, and hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase are effective urine adulterants used by the illicit drug users to conceal marijuana-positive results. Methods for detecting nitrite and chromate are available. Effects of other oxidizing agents that could possibly be used as adulterants and are difficult to detect or measure are presented in this report. Urine samples containing 40 ng/mL of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid (THC-acid) were treated with 10 mmol/L of commonly available oxidizing agents. Effects of horseradish peroxidase of activity 10 unit/mL and extracts from 2.5 g of red radish (Raphanus sativus, Radicula group), horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus, Daikon group), and black mustard seeds (Brassica nigra), all with 10 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide, were also examined. After 5 min, 16 h and 48 h of exposure at room temperature (23 degrees C) the specimens were tested by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for THC-acid. A control group treated with sodium hydrosulfite to reduce the oxidants, was also tested to investigate the effect of oxidizing agents on THC-acid in the extraction method. THC-acid was lost completely in the extraction method when treated with chromate, nitrite, oxone, and hydrogen peroxide/ferrous ammonium sulfate (Fenton's reagent). Some losses were also observed with persulfate and periodate (up to 25%). These oxidants, and other oxidizing agents like permanganate, periodate, peroxidase, and extracts from red radish, horseradish, Japanese radish and black mustard seeds destroyed most of the THC-acid (> 94%) within 48 h of exposure. Chlorate, perchlorate, iodate, and oxychloride under these conditions showed little or no effect. Complete loss was observed when THC-acid was exposed to 50 mmol/L of oxychloride for 48 h. Several oxidizing adulterants that are difficult to test by the present urine adulterant testing methods showed considerable effects on the destruction of THC

  11. Automated solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in human urine specimens: application to a high-throughput urine analysis laboratory.

    PubMed

    Robandt, P V; Klette, K L; Sibum, M

    2009-10-01

    An automated solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method for the analysis of 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in human urine specimens was developed. The method was linear (R(2) = 0.9986) to 1000 ng/mL with no carryover evidenced at 2000 ng/mL. Limits of quantification and detection were found to be 2 ng/mL. Interrun precision was evaluated at the 15 ng/mL level over nine batches spanning 15 days (n = 45). The coefficient of variation (%CV) was found to be 5.5% over the course of the validation. Intrarun precision of a 15 ng/mL control (n = 5) ranged from 0.58% CV to 7.4% CV for the same set of analytical batches. Interference was tested using (+/-)-11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, (-)-Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and cannabinol. One hundred and nineteen specimens previously found to contain THC-COOH by a previously validated gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure were compared to the SPE-LC-MS-MS method. Excellent agreement was found (R(2) = 0.9925) for the parallel comparison study. The automated SPE procedure eliminates the human factors of specimen handling, extraction, and derivatization, thereby reducing labor costs and rework resulting from human error or technique issues. Additionally, method runtime is greatly reduced (e.g., during parallel studies the SPE-LC-MS-MS instrument was often finished with analysis by the time the technician finished the offline SPE and derivatization procedure prior to the GC-MS analysis).

  12. Oromucosal delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol for neuropathic pain associated with multiple sclerosis: an uncontrolled, open-label, 2-year extension trial.

    PubMed

    Rog, David J; Nurmikko, Turo J; Young, Carolyn A

    2007-09-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP), pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction of the central nervous system, occurs in ~28% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol (THC/CBD), an endocannabinoid system modulator, has demonstrated efficacy for up to 4 weeks in randomized controlled trials in the treatment of CNP in patients with MS. The purpose of this extension was to establish long-term tolerability and effectiveness profiles for THC/CBD (Sativex (R), GW Pharmaceuticals plc, Salisbury, United Kingdom) oromucosal spray in CNP associated with MS. This uncontrolled, open-label trial was an indefinite-duration extension of a previously reported 5-week randomized study in patients with MS and CNP. In the initial trial, patients were randomized to placebo or THC/CBD. Patients were only required to maintain their existing analgesia in the randomized study. In the open-label trial they could vary their other analgesia as required. All patients (placebo and THC/CBD) who completed the randomized trial commenced the open-label follow-up on THC/CBD (27 mg/mL: 25 mg/mL). Patients titrated their dosage, maintaining their existing analgesia. The primary end point of the trial was the number, frequency, and type of adverse events (AEs) reported by patients. Secondary end points included changes from baseline in 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS-11) neuropathic pain score, hematology and clinical chemistry test results, vital signs, trial drug usage, and intoxication visual analogue scale scores. Sixty-six patients were enrolled in the randomized trial; 64 (97%) completed the randomized trial and 63 (95%) entered the open-label extension (race, white, 100%; sex, male, 14 [22%]; mean [SD] age, 49 [8.4] years [range, 27-71 years[). The mean (SD) duration of open-label treatment was 463 (378) days (median, 638 days; range, 3-917 days), with 34 (54%) patients completing >1 year of treatment with THC/CBD and 28 (44%) patients

  13. A study investigating the acute dose-response effects of 13 mg and 17 mg Delta 9- tetrahydrocannabinol on cognitive-motor skills, subjective and autonomic measures in regular users of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, A; Brickner, O; Lerman, H; Greemland, M; Bloch, M; Lester, H; Chisin, R; Sarne, Y; Mechoulam, R; Bar-Hamburger, R; Freedman, N; Even-Sapir, E

    2008-06-01

    Heavy use of marijuana is claimed to damage critical skills related to short-term memory, visual scanning and attention. Motor skills and driving safety may be compromised by the acute effects of marijuana. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of 13 mg and 17 mg Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on skills important for coordinated movement and driving and on subjective and autonomic measures in regular users of marijuana. Fourteen regular users of marijuana were enrolled. Each subject was tested on two separate days. On each test day, subjects smoked two low-nicotine cigarettes, one with and the other without THC. Seventeen mg THC was included in the cigarette on one test day and 13 mg on the other day. The sequence of cigarette types was unknown to the subject. During smoking, heart rate and blood pressure were monitored, and the subjects performed a virtual reality maze task requiring attention and motor coordination, followed by 3 other cognitive tasks (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), a "gambling" task and estimation of time and distance from an approaching car). After smoking a cigarette with 17 mg THC, regular marijuana users hit the walls more often on the virtual maze task than after smoking cigarettes without THC; this effect was not seen in patients after they smoked cigarettes with 13 mg THC. Performance in the WCST was affected with 17 mg THC and to a lesser extent with the use of 13 mg THC. Decision making in the gambling task was affected after smoking cigarettes with 17 mg THC, but not with 13 m THC. Smoking cigarettes with 13 and 17 mg THC increased subjective ratings of pleasure and satisfaction, drug "effect" and drug "high". These findings imply that smoking of 17 mg THC results in impairment of cognitive-motor skills that could be important for coordinated movement and driving, whereas the lower dose of 13 mg THC appears to cause less impairment of such skills in regular users of marijuana.

  14. Postmortem redistribution of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH)

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Michael G.; Schwope, David M.; Stoppacher, Robert; Gillen, Shane B.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Postmortem redistribution (PMR), a well-described phenomenon in forensic toxicology for certain drugs, can result in increased central blood concentrations relative to peripheral blood concentrations. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive component in cannabis or marijuana, is the illicit substance most commonly implicated in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) cases and fatally-injured drivers. No investigation of PMR of THC in human blood has been reported to date. Methods Matched heart and iliac postmortem blood specimens were collected from 19 medical examiner cases (16 Males, 3 Females) with positive cannabinoid urine immunoassay screens. THC, its equipotent metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and non-psychoactive metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with cryofocusing, with 0.5 ng/mL limits of quantification (LOQ) for all analytes. Results 10 cases had quantifiable THC and 11-OH-THC; THCCOOH was present in all 19. Median (range) heart:iliac blood ratios were 1.5 for THC (range: 0.3–3.1); 1.6 for 11-OH-THC (range: 0.3–2.7); and 1.8 for THCCOOH (range: 0.5–3.0). Discussion Cannabinoids, in general, exhibited a mean and median central: peripheral (C: P) concentration ratio of less than 2 following death. A trend was observed for greater PMR with increasing postmortem interval between death and sampling. To our knowledge, these are the first data on THC PMR in humans, providing important scientific data to aid in the interpretation of postmortem cannabinoid concentrations in medico-legal investigations. PMID:21764230

  15. [Usefulness of the initial medical examination on matters relating to persons suspected of driving under the influence of amphetamine and its analogs or delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol based on the materials the Department of Forensic Medicine, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin].

    PubMed

    Wolski, Stanisław; Lewandowska, Ewa; Kurzejamska-Parafiniuk, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Polish law forbids persons to drive under the influence of intoxicating substances, and those after the use of substances producing effects similar to alcohol. Therefore, there is a need to give an opinion based on a blood test, to establish whether or not the person from whom the blood was taken was under the influence of an intoxicating substance or after use of the drug while driving. Some authors reported that the final opinion should take into account chemical and toxicology test results identifying the parent compound and/or the metabolite only, but also the sampling time of the material to be analyzed in relation to the driving time, the result of the medical examination conducted prior to the collection of material for analysis, and the results of screening tests executed at the scene. Circumstances relating to the event, the findings and observations of third parties, and the testimony of the suspect are also relevant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the medical examination in the evaluation of cases concerning driving by persons who were potentially under the influence of amphetamine and its analogs, or delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, (delta9-THC) and conformity assessment of these results with the results of blood tests. An additional aim was to determine the factors considered by doctors when making their evaluation of patient's condition. The study group consisted of 350 persons suspected of driving while under the influence of amphetamine and its analogs, and/or delta9-THC, from whom blood samples were taken to test amphetamine content or its analogues and/or delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Blood tests were carried out according to the existing procedure developed by the department. Blood samples were initially analyzed with immunochemical methods. Positive preliminary results were verified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was conducted with independent tests for multi-way tables, i.e. the Pearson chi2 test

  16. The tumour suppressor protein, p53, is involved in the activation of the apoptotic cascade by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Downer, Eric J; Gowran, Aoife; Murphy, Aine C; Campbell, Veronica A

    2007-06-14

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug of abuse in Western society. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, regulates a variety of neuronal processes including neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission. An increasing body of evidence suggests that cannabinoids play a key role in the regulation of neuronal viability. In cortical neurons tetrahydrocannabinol has a neurodegenerative effect, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood, but involve the cannabinoid receptor subtype, CB(1). In this study we report that tetrahydrocannabinol (5 muM) evokes a rapid phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the tumour suppressor protein, p53, in a manner involving the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor, and the stress-activated protein kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase, in cultured cortical neurons. Tetrahydrocannabinol increased expression of the p53-transcriptional target, Bax and promoted Bcl phosphorylation. These events were abolished by the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-alpha (100 nM). The tetrahydrocannabinol-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic cysteine protease, caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation was also blocked by pifithrin-alpha. A siRNA knockdown of p53 further verified the role of p53 in tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis. This study demonstrates a novel cannabinoid signalling pathway involving p53 that culminates in neuronal apoptosis.

  17. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol accumulation, metabolism and cell-type-specific adverse effects in aggregating brain cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Hazekamp, Arno; Perret, Nicolas

    Despite the widespread use of Cannabis as recreational drug or as medicine, little is known about its toxicity. The accumulation, metabolism and toxicity of THC were analyzed 10 days after a single treatment, and after repeated exposures during 10 days. Mixed-cell aggregate cultures of fetal rat telencephalon were used as in vitro model, as well as aggregates enriched either in neurons or in glial cells. It was found that THC accumulated preferentially in neurons, and that glia-neuron interactions decreased THC accumulation. The quantification of 11-OH-THC and of THC-COOH showed that brain aggregates were capable of THC metabolism. No cell-type differencemore » was found for the metabolite 11-OH-THC, whereas the THC-COOH content was higher in mixed-cell cultures. No cell death was found at THC concentrations of 2 {mu}M in single treatment and of 1 {mu}M and 2 {mu}M in repeated treatments. Neurons, and particularly GABAergic neurons, were most sensitive to THC. Only the GABAergic marker was affected after the single treatment, whereas the GABAergic, cholinergic and astrocytic markers were decreased after the repeated treatments. JWH 015, a CB2 receptor agonist, showed effects similar to THC, whereas ACEA, a CB1 receptor agonist, had no effect. The expression of the cytokine IL-6 was upregulated 48 h after the single treatment with 5 {mu}M of THC or JWH 015, whereas the expression of TNF-{alpha} remained unchanged. These results suggest that the adverse effects of THC were related either to THC accumulation or to cannabinoid receptor activation and associated with IL-6 upregulation.« less

  18. Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P; Schafer, Grainne; Gardener, Chelsea; Das, Ravi K; Morgan, Celia J A; Curran, H Valerie

    2015-03-01

    Acute administration of the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs human facial affect recognition, implicating the endocannabinoid system in emotional processing. Another main constituent of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has seemingly opposite functional effects on the brain. This study aimed to determine the effects of THC and CBD, both alone and in combination on emotional facial affect recognition. 48 volunteers, selected for high and low frequency of cannabis use and schizotypy, were administered, THC (8mg), CBD (16mg), THC+CBD (8mg+16mg) and placebo, by inhalation, in a 4-way, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. They completed an emotional facial affect recognition task including fearful, angry, happy, sad, surprise and disgust faces varying in intensity from 20% to 100%. A visual analogue scale (VAS) of feeling 'stoned' was also completed. In comparison to placebo, CBD improved emotional facial affect recognition at 60% emotional intensity; THC was detrimental to the recognition of ambiguous faces of 40% intensity. The combination of THC+CBD produced no impairment. Relative to placebo, both THC alone and combined THC+CBD equally increased feelings of being 'stoned'. CBD did not influence feelings of 'stoned'. No effects of frequency of use or schizotypy were found. In conclusion, CBD improves recognition of emotional facial affect and attenuates the impairment induced by THC. This is the first human study examining the effects of different cannabinoids on emotional processing. It provides preliminary evidence that different pharmacological agents acting upon the endocannabinoid system can both improve and impair recognition of emotional faces. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and their combination on facial emotion recognition: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Hindocha, Chandni; Freeman, Tom P.; Schafer, Grainne; Gardener, Chelsea; Das, Ravi K.; Morgan, Celia J.A.; Curran, H. Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Acute administration of the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), impairs human facial affect recognition, implicating the endocannabinoid system in emotional processing. Another main constituent of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), has seemingly opposite functional effects on the brain. This study aimed to determine the effects of THC and CBD, both alone and in combination on emotional facial affect recognition. 48 volunteers, selected for high and low frequency of cannabis use and schizotypy, were administered, THC (8 mg), CBD (16 mg), THC+CBD (8 mg+16 mg) and placebo, by inhalation, in a 4-way, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. They completed an emotional facial affect recognition task including fearful, angry, happy, sad, surprise and disgust faces varying in intensity from 20% to 100%. A visual analogue scale (VAS) of feeling ‘stoned’ was also completed. In comparison to placebo, CBD improved emotional facial affect recognition at 60% emotional intensity; THC was detrimental to the recognition of ambiguous faces of 40% intensity. The combination of THC+CBD produced no impairment. Relative to placebo, both THC alone and combined THC+CBD equally increased feelings of being ‘stoned’. CBD did not influence feelings of ‘stoned’. No effects of frequency of use or schizotypy were found. In conclusion, CBD improves recognition of emotional facial affect and attenuates the impairment induced by THC. This is the first human study examining the effects of different cannabinoids on emotional processing. It provides preliminary evidence that different pharmacological agents acting upon the endocannabinoid system can both improve and impair recognition of emotional faces. PMID:25534187

  20. Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Measure Effects of Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Prefrontal Activity and Working Memory in Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Keles, Hasan O; Radoman, Milena; Pachas, Gladys N; Evins, A Eden; Gilman, Jodi M

    2017-01-01

    Intoxication from cannabis impairs cognitive performance, in part due to the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis) on prefrontal cortex (PFC) function. However, a relationship between impairment in cognitive functioning with THC administration and THC-induced change in hemodynamic response has not been demonstrated. We explored the feasibility of using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to examine the functional changes of the human PFC associated with cannabis intoxication and cognitive impairment. Eighteen adult regular cannabis users (final sample, n = 13) performed a working memory task ( n -back) during fNIRS recordings, before and after receiving a single dose of oral synthetic THC (dronabinol; 20-50 mg). Functional data were collected using a continuous-wave NIRS device, in which 8 Sources and 7 detectors were placed on the forehead, resulting in 20 channels covering PFC regions. Physiological changes and subjective intoxication measures were collected. We found a significant increase in the oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration after THC administration in several channels on the PFC during both the high working memory load (2-back) and the low working memory load (0-back) condition. The increased HbO response was accompanied by a trend toward an increased number of omission errors after THC administration. The current study suggests that cannabis intoxication is associated with increases in hemodynamic blood flow to the PFC, and that this increase can be detected with fNIRS.

  1. Acute injection of drugs with low addictive potential (delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, lysergic acid diamide) causes a much higher c-fos expression in limbic brain areas than highly addicting drugs (cocaine and morphine).

    PubMed

    Erdtmann-Vourliotis, M; Mayer, P; Riechert, U; Höllt, V

    1999-08-25

    It is regarded as a common pharmacological property responsible for the addictive potential of drugs of abuse that they are able to activate brain areas involved in the sensation of pleasure, especially the nucleus accumbens. To investigate the connection between addictive potential and stimulation of critical brain areas in more detail, we studied c-fos accumulation in response to various addicting drugs in direct comparison. The substances were injected into drug-naive rats, and c-fos mRNA levels were measured throughout the brain by in situ hybridization. Cocaine in a high dose of 50 mg/kg yielded only a discrete c-fos expression in the medial and central striatum. Morphine (50 mg/kg) caused a weak c-fos synthesis in the lateral septum. THC (delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol), 25 mg/kg, induced c-fos mRNA again in the lateral septum and furthermore in large parts of the striatum including the nucleus accumbens. LSD (lysergic acid diamide), 1 mg/kg, elicited a similar c-fos expression pattern as THC, but there was additionally a very strong hybridization signal in the cerebral cortex, especially in the upper layers, and in the ventral part of the periaqueductal gray. The widest range of brain areas was activated by MDMA (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy'), 6 mg/kg. In addition to the regions that responded to LSD, there was a very pronounced c-fos signal in the nucleus accumbens core and shell and in the mammillary nuclei. Taken together, our study revealed that the drugs with the highest addictive potential, cocaine and morphine, yielded a very low c-fos synthesis throughout the brain whereas the brain regions closely linked to pleasure (especially the nucleus accumbens) responded strongly to drugs with an apparently lower addictive potential (THC, LSD, MDMA).

  2. Suppression of STAT3 Signaling by Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Induces Trophoblast Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xinwen; Bian, Yiding; He, Qizhi; Yao, Julei; Zhu, Jingping; Wu, Jinting; Wang, Kai; Duan, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana is a widely used illicit drug and its consumption during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic intake of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major component of marijuana, on trophoblast function, placental development, and birth outcomes. The pathological characteristics and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in placenta were observed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Cell migration in response to THC was measured by transwell assays. The levels of cannabinoid receptors and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) were detected by western blot. We found the placenta expressed two main cannabinoid receptors, suggesting that THC induced biological responses in placental cells. Supporting this hypothesis, we observed dramatic alterations of placental morphology in marijuana users. Using THC and inhibitors of cannabinoid receptors, we demonstrated that THC impaired trophoblast cell migration and invasion partly via cannabinoid receptors. Additionally, pregnant mice injected with THC showed adverse reproductive events including reduced number of fetuses, lower maternal and placental weights. Mechanistically, STAT3 signaling pathway was involved in the THC-induced suppression of trophoblast cell motility and pregnancy outcomes. Our study indicates that the STAT3 signaling pathway plays a critical role in THC-induced trophoblast dysfunction. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The psychoactive substance of cannabis Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) negatively regulates CFTR in airway cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sheng-Wei; Wellmerling, Jack; Zhang, Xiaoli; Rayner, Rachael E; Osman, Wissam; Mertz, Sara; Amer, Amal O; Peeples, Mark E; Boyaka, Prosper N; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle

    2018-06-18

    Marijuana consumption is on the rise in the US but the health benefits of cannabis smoking are controversial and the impact of cannabis components on lung homeostasis is not well-understood. Lung function requires a fine regulation of the ion channel CFTR, which is responsible for fluid homeostasis and mucocilliary clearance. The goal of this study was to assess the effect that exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive substance present in marijuana, has on CFTR expression and function. Cultures of human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o- and primary human airway epithelial cells were exposed to THC. The expression of CFTR protein was determined by immunoblotting and CFTR function was measured using Ussing chambers. We also used specific pharmacological inhibitors of EGFR and ERK to determine the role of this pathway in THC-induced regulation of CFTR. THC decreased CFTR protein expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. This decrease was associated with reduced CFTR-mediated short-circuit currents. THC also induced activation of the ERK MAPK pathway via activation of EGFR. Inhibition of EGFR or MEK/ERK prevented THC-induced down regulation of CFTR protein expression. THC negatively regulates CFTR and this is mediated through the EGFR/ERK axis. This study provides the first evidence that THC present in marijuana reduces the expression and function of CFTR in airway epithelial cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Inhaled delivery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to rats by e-cigarette vapor technology.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacques D; Aarde, Shawn M; Vandewater, Sophia A; Grant, Yanabel; Stouffer, David G; Parsons, Loren H; Cole, Maury; Taffe, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Most human Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use is via inhalation, and yet few animal studies of inhalation exposure are available. Popularization of non-combusted methods for the inhalation of psychoactive drugs (Volcano(®), e-cigarettes) further stimulates a need for rodent models of this route of administration. This study was designed to develop and validate a rodent chamber suitable for controlled exposure to vaporized THC in a propylene glycol vehicle, using an e-cigarette delivery system adapted to standard size, sealed rat housing chambers. The in vivo efficacy of inhaled THC was validated using radiotelemetry to assess body temperature and locomotor responses, a tail-flick assay for nociception and plasma analysis to verify exposure levels. Hypothermic responses to inhaled THC in male rats depended on the duration of exposure and the concentration of THC in the vehicle. The temperature nadir was reached after ∼40 min of exposure, was of comparable magnitude (∼3 °Celsius) to that produced by 20 mg/kg THC, i.p. and resolved within 3 h (compared with a 6 h time course following i.p. THC). Female rats were more sensitive to hypothermic effects of 30 min of lower-dose THC inhalation. Male rat tail-flick latency was increased by THC vapor inhalation; this effect was blocked by SR141716 pretreatment. The plasma THC concentration after 30 min of inhalation was similar to that produced by 10 mg/kg THC i.p. This approach is flexible, robust and effective for use in laboratory rats and will be of increasing utility as users continue to adopt "vaping" for the administration of cannabis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr atmore » 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.« less

  6. The effects of pH and temperature on the in vitro bindings of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Papa, V M; Shen, M L; Ou, D W

    1990-01-01

    Albumin is a major carrier of drugs and fatty acids in biological fluids. These protein-drug complexes serve to solubilize, transport these compounds to sites of action, and have been associated with increased half-life for these compounds. The authors are interested in the pH and temperature effects of the binding of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol to albumin. Ultrafiltration techniques were used in the separation of free to bound compounds. Cannabinoids bind to bovine serum albumin rapidly. The cannabinoid binding sites are more sensitive to temperature changes (37-47 degrees C) than changes in pH with 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 resulting in optimal binding. These conditions would result in the greatest viability in the cells, while allowing for the use of a variety of compounds in in vitro studies for the administration of compounds to isolated cells and cell lines.

  7. Cannabidiol potentiates Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Klein, Charlotte; Karanges, Emily; Spiro, Adena; Wong, Alexander; Spencer, Jarrah; Huynh, Thanh; Gunasekaran, Nathan; Karl, Tim; Long, Leonora E; Huang, Xu-Feng; Liu, Kelly; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2011-11-01

    The interactions between Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) during chronic treatment, and at equivalent doses, are not well characterised in animal models. The aim of this study is to examine whether the behavioural effects of THC, and blood and brain THC levels are affected by pre-treatment with equivalent CBD doses. Adolescent rats were treated with ascending daily THC doses over 21 days (1 then 3 then 10 mg/kg). Some rats were given equivalent CBD doses 20 min prior to each THC injection to allow examination of possible antagonistic effects of CBD. During dosing, rats were assessed for THC and CBD/THC effects on anxiety-like behaviour, social interaction and place conditioning. At the end of dosing, blood and brain levels of THC, and CB(1) and 5-HT(1A) receptor binding were assessed. CBD potentiated an inhibition of body weight gain caused by chronic THC, and mildly augmented the anxiogenic effects, locomotor suppressant effects and decreased social interaction seen with THC. A trend towards place preference was observed in adolescent rats given CBD/THC but not those given THC alone. With both acute and chronic administration, CBD pre-treatment potentiated blood and brain THC levels, and lowered levels of THC metabolites (THC-COOH and 11-OH-THC). CBD co-administration did not alter the THC-induced decreases in CB(1) receptor binding and no drug effects on 5-HT(1A) receptor binding were observed. CBD can potentiate the psychoactive and physiological effects of THC in rats, most likely by delaying the metabolism and elimination of THC through an action on the CYP450 enzymes that metabolise both drugs.

  8. A chronic low dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) restores cognitive function in old mice.

    PubMed

    Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; Albayram, Onder; Draffehn, Astrid; Michel, Kerstin; Piyanova, Anastasia; Oppenheimer, Hannah; Dvir-Ginzberg, Mona; Rácz, Ildiko; Ulas, Thomas; Imbeault, Sophie; Bab, Itai; Schultze, Joachim L; Zimmer, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The balance between detrimental, pro-aging, often stochastic processes and counteracting homeostatic mechanisms largely determines the progression of aging. There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is part of the latter system because it modulates the physiological processes underlying aging. The activity of the ECS declines during aging, as CB1 receptor expression and coupling to G proteins are reduced in the brain tissues of older animals and the levels of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are lower. However, a direct link between endocannabinoid tone and aging symptoms has not been demonstrated. Here we show that a low dose of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reversed the age-related decline in cognitive performance of mice aged 12 and 18 months. This behavioral effect was accompanied by enhanced expression of synaptic marker proteins and increased hippocampal spine density. THC treatment restored hippocampal gene transcription patterns such that the expression profiles of THC-treated mice aged 12 months closely resembled those of THC-free animals aged 2 months. The transcriptional effects of THC were critically dependent on glutamatergic CB1 receptors and histone acetylation, as their inhibition blocked the beneficial effects of THC. Thus, restoration of CB1 signaling in old individuals could be an effective strategy to treat age-related cognitive impairments.

  9. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  10. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits the human trophoblast cell turnover.

    PubMed

    Costa, M A; Fonseca, B M; Marques, F; Teixeira, N A; Correia-da-Silva, G

    2015-08-06

    The noxious effects of cannabis consumption for fertility and pregnancy outcome are recognized for years. Its consumption during gestation is associated with alterations in foetal growth, low birth weight and preterm labor. The main psychoactive molecule of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs the production of reproductive hormones and is also able to cross the placenta barrier. However, its effect on the main placental cells, the trophoblasts, are unknown. Actually, the role of THC in cell survival/death of primary human cytotrophoblasts (CTs) and syncytiotrophoblasts (STs) and in the syncytialization process remains to be explored. Here, we show that THC has a dual effect, enhancing MTT metabolism at low concentrations, whereas higher doses decreased cell viability, on both trophoblast phenotypes, though the effects on STs were more evident. THC also diminished the generation of oxidative and nitrative stress and the oxidized form of glutathione, whereas the reduced form of this tripeptide was increased, suggesting that THC prevents ST cell death due to an antioxidant effect. Moreover, this compound enhanced the mitochondrial function of STs, as observed by the increased MTT metabolism and intracellular ATP levels. These effects were independent of cannabinoid receptors activation. Besides, THC impaired CT differentiation into STs, since it decreased the expression of biochemical and morphological biomarkers of syncytialization, through a cannabinoid receptor-dependent mechanism. Together, these results suggest that THC interferes with trophoblast turnover, preventing trophoblast cell death and differentiation, and contribute to disclose the cellular mechanisms that lead to pregnancy complications in women that consume cannabis-derived drugs during gestation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictive model accuracy in estimating last Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC.

    PubMed

    Karschner, Erin L; Schwope, David M; Schwilke, Eugene W; Goodwin, Robert S; Kelly, Deanna L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-10-01

    Determining time since last cannabis/Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure is important in clinical, workplace, and forensic settings. Mathematical models calculating time of last exposure from whole blood concentrations typically employ a theoretical 0.5 whole blood-to-plasma (WB/P) ratio. No studies previously evaluated predictive models utilizing empirically-derived WB/P ratios, or whole blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics after subchronic THC dosing. Ten male chronic, daily cannabis smokers received escalating around-the-clock oral THC (40-120 mg daily) for 8 days. Cannabinoids were quantified in whole blood and plasma by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Maximum whole blood THC occurred 3.0 h after the first oral THC dose and 103.5h (4.3 days) during multiple THC dosing. Median WB/P ratios were THC 0.63 (n=196), 11-hydroxy-THC 0.60 (n=189), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) 0.55 (n=200). Predictive models utilizing these WB/P ratios accurately estimated last cannabis exposure in 96% and 100% of specimens collected within 1-5h after a single oral THC dose and throughout multiple dosing, respectively. Models were only 60% and 12.5% accurate 12.5 and 22.5h after the last THC dose, respectively. Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Predictive model accuracy in estimating last Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC*

    PubMed Central

    Karschner, Erin L.; Schwope, David M.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Determining time since last cannabis/Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure is important in clinical, workplace, and forensic settings. Mathematical models calculating time of last exposure from whole blood concentrations typically employ a theoretical 0.5 whole blood-to-plasma (WB/P) ratio. No studies previously evaluated predictive models utilizing empirically-derived WB/P ratios, or whole blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics after subchronic THC dosing. Methods Ten male chronic, daily cannabis smokers received escalating around-the-clock oral THC (40-120 mg daily) for 8 days. Cannabinoids were quantified in whole blood and plasma by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Maximum whole blood THC occurred 3.0 h after the first oral THC dose and 103.5 h (4.3 days) during multiple THC dosing. Median WB/P ratios were THC 0.63 (n=196), 11-hydroxy-THC 0.60 (n=189), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) 0.55 (n=200). Predictive models utilizing these WB/P ratios accurately estimated last cannabis exposure in 96% and 100% of specimens collected within 1-5 h after a single oral THC dose and throughout multiple dosing, respectively. Models were only 60% and 12.5% accurate 12.5 and 22.5 h after the last THC dose, respectively. Conclusions Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily. PMID:22464363

  13. Tetrahydrocannabinols in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kochanowski, Maciej; Kała, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Cannabinoids are the natural constituents of marihuana (cannabis). The main of them are delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9THC)--psychoactive agent, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis is administered either by smoking or orally. 9THC potency and duration of action as well as its and two of its major metabolites concentrations in organism highly depend on the route of administration. A single active dose of 9THC is estimated on 520 mg. 9THC is rapidly metabolised. It is hydroxylated to an active metabolite, I1 -hydroxy-delta9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (11-OH-THC), then oxidised to an inactive 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH), which is conjugated with glucuronic acid and predominantly excreted in the urine. The maximum psychological effect persists for 4-6 h after administration despite of very low 9THC blood concentrations. 9THC plasma concentration declined to values of 2-3 ng/ml during 3-4 h after smoking. Such a low concentration of the active compound in human organism create a demand for use of sensitive analytical methods for detection and determination of 9THC and its metabolites. The most effective techniques for 9THC and related compounds determination in biological material are chromatographic ones (gas and liquid) with mass spectrometric detection and different ionization modes. 9THC and its two metabolites (11-OH-THC and THCCOOH) are present in blood and hair, 9THC in saliva, and THCCOOH in urine. 9THC and related compounds are determined in autopsy material, although deaths by overdose of cannabis are exceptionally rare. Fatalities happen most often after intravenous injection of hashish oil. 9THC and its metabolites determination in different biological materials gives the basis for a wide interpretation of analytical results for clinical and forensic toxicology purposes.

  14. Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Florian; Luftner, Diana; Possinger, Kurt; Ernst, Gernot; Ruhstaller, Thomas; Meissner, Winfried; Ko, You-Dschun; Schnelle, Martin; Reif, Marcus; Cerny, Thomas

    2006-07-20

    To compare the effects of cannabis extract (CE), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and placebo (PL) on appetite and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS). Adult patients with advanced cancer, CACS, weight loss (> or = 5% over 6 months), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) < or = 2 were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive CE (standardized for 2.5 mg THC and 1 mg cannabidiol) or THC (2.5 mg) or PL orally, twice daily for 6 weeks. Appetite, mood, and nausea were monitored daily with a visual analog scale (VAS); QOL was assessed with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (composite score: questions 29 and 30). Cannabinoid-related toxicity was assessed every 2 weeks. Of 289 patients screened, 243 were randomly assigned and 164 (CE, 66 of 95 patients; THC, 65 of 100 patients; and PL, 33 of 48 patients) completed treatment. At baseline, groups were comparable for age (mean, 61 years), sex (54% men), weight loss (32% > or = 10%), PS (13% ECOG = 2), antineoplastic treatment (50%), appetite (mean VAS score, 31/100 mm), and QOL (mean score, 30/100). Intent-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences between the three arms for appetite, QOL, or cannabinoid-related toxicity. Increased appetite was reported by 73%, 58%, and 69% of patients receiving CE, THC, or PL, respectively. An independent data review board recommended termination of recruitment because of insufficient differences between study arms. CE at the oral dose administered was well tolerated by these patients with CACS. No differences in patients' appetite or QOL were found either between CE, THC, and PL or between CE and THC at the dosages investigated.

  15. Differential effects of THC- or CBD-rich cannabis extracts on working memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Paola; Robinson, Lianne; Fratta, Walter; Pertwee, Roger G; Riedel, Gernot

    2004-12-01

    Cannabinoid receptors in the brain (CB(1)) take part in modulation of learning, and are particularly important for working and short-term memory. Here, we employed a delayed-matching-to-place (DMTP) task in the open-field water maze and examined the effects of cannabis plant extracts rich in either Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), or rich in cannabidiol (CBD), on spatial working and short-term memory formation in rats. Delta(9)-THC-rich extracts impaired performance in the memory trial (trial 2) of the DMTP task in a dose-dependent but delay-independent manner. Deficits appeared at doses of 2 or 5 mg/kg (i.p.) at both 30 s and 4 h delays and were similar in severity compared with synthetic Delta(9)-THC. Despite considerable amounts of Delta(9)-THC present, CBD-rich extracts had no effect on spatial working/short-term memory, even at doses of up to 50 mg/kg. When given concomitantly, CBD-rich extracts did not reverse memory deficits of the additional Delta(9)-THC-rich extract. CBD-rich extracts also did not alter Delta(9)-THC-rich extract-induced catalepsy as revealed by the bar test. It appears that spatial working/short-term memory is not sensitive to CBD-rich extracts and that potentiation and antagonism of Delta(9)-THC-induced spatial memory deficits is dependent on the ratio between CBD and Delta(9)-THC.

  16. An investigation of the stability of free and glucuronidated 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in authentic urine samples.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Gisela; Pötsch, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Preanalytical stability of a drug and its major metabolites is an important consideration in pharmacokinetic studies or whenever the analyte pattern is used to estimate drug habits. Firstly, the stability of free and glucuronidated 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH, THCCOOglu) in authentic urine samples was investigated. Random urine samples of cannabis users (n = 38) were stored at -20, 4, and 20 degrees C up to 15 days and up to 5 days at 40 degrees C, and alterations of the analyte pattern during storage were followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Secondly, the influence of pH (range 5.0-8.0) on the stability of the analytes was studied using spiked urine to elucidate the results obtained from authentic samples. In authentic urine samples, the initial pH ranged from 5.1 to 8.8. The glucuronide was found to be highly labile at a storage temperature of 4 degrees C and above. Initially, 18 urine samples tested positive for THCCOOH. After 2 days storage at 20 degrees C, THCCOOH was detectable in a further 4 samples, and 7 more samples tested positive for THCCOOH (5-81 ng/mL) after 15 days. Depending on time and temperature, the glucuronide concentration decreased, resulting in an increase of THCCOOH concentration. However, a loss in mean total THCCOOH concentration was found, which was significantly higher in deteriorated samples than in samples without signs of deterioration after 15 days of storage at 20 degrees C. In the drug-free urine sample separately spiked with THCCOOglu or THCCOOH, the investigations on the stability of the target analytes at various pH values revealed that THCCOOH was stable at pH 5.0. At higher pH values, its concentration slightly decreased with time, and about 69% of the initial THCCOOH concentration was still present at pH 8.0 on day 5. THCCOOglu concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing pH value. For example, only 72% of the initial THCCOOglu concentration could be detected at p

  17. Hair analysis for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after handling cannabis plant material.

    PubMed

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2016-01-01

    A previous study has shown that Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the non-psychoactive precursor of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the cannabis plant does not get incorporated in relevant amounts into the hair through the bloodstream after repeated oral intake. However, THCA-A can be measured in forensic hair samples in concentrations often exceeding the detected THC concentrations. To investigate whether the handling of cannabis plant material prior to consumption is a contributing factor for THC-positive hair results and also the source for THCA-A findings in hair, a study comprising ten participants was conducted. In this study, the participants rolled a marijuana joint on five consecutive days and hair samples of each participant were obtained. Urine samples were taken to exclude cannabis consumption prior to and during the study. THCA-A and THC could be detected in the hair samples from all participants taken at the end of the exposure period (concentration range: 15-1800 pg/mg for THCA-A and < 10-93 pg/mg for THC). Four weeks after the first exposure, THCA-A could still be detected in the hair samples of nine participants (concentration range: 4-57 pg/mg). Furthermore, THC could be detected in the hair samples of five participants (concentration range: < 10-17 pg/mg). Based on these results, it can be concluded that at least parts of the THC as well as the major part of THCA-A found in routine hair analysis derives from external contamination caused by direct transfer through contaminated fingers. This finding is of particular interest in interpreting THC-positive hair results of children or partners of cannabis users, where such a transfer can occur due to close body contact. Analytical findings may be wrongly interpreted as a proof of consumption or at least passive exposure to cannabis smoke. Such misinterpretation could lead to severe consequences for the people concerned. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. An indoor air quality-pharmacokinetic simulation of passive inhalation of marijuana smoke and the resultant buildup of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine.

    PubMed

    Giardino, N J

    1997-03-01

    In military courts of law, the good soldier defense is often used by the defendant to explain the presence of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in urine (hereafter referred to as THCA) above the Department of Defense (DOD) established limit of 15 ng/mL. The defense will contend the defendant unwittingly breathed side-stream marijuana smoke, thus resulting in the presence of THCA in the defendant's urine. The purpose of this work was to link an indoor air quality model (IAQ) with a pharmacokinetic (PK) model to predict a passive marijuana smoker's resultant concentration of the major urinary metabolite THCA.

  19. Effect of Norbinaltorphimine on Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-Induced Taste Avoidance in Adolescent and Adult Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Shaun M.; Wakeford, Alison G.P.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.; Riley, Anthony L.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The aversive effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are mediated by activity at the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) as assessed in adult animals; however, no studies have assessed KOR involvement in the aversive effects of THC in adolescents. Given that adolescents have been reported to be insensitive to the aversive effects induced by KOR agonists, a different mechanism might mediate the aversive effects of THC in this age group. Objectives The present study was designed to assess the impact of KOR antagonism on the aversive effects of THC in adolescent and adult rats using the conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) procedure. Methods Following a single pretreatment injection of norbinaltorphimine (norBNI; 15 mg/kg), CTAs induced by THC (0, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 and 3.2 mg/kg) were assessed in adolescent (n = 84) and adult (n = 83) Sprague Dawley rats. Results The KOR antagonist, norBNI, had weak and inconsistent effects on THC-induced taste avoidance in adolescent rats in that norBNI both attenuated and strengthened taste avoidance dependent on dose and trial. norBNI had limited impact on the final one-bottle avoidance and no effects on the two-bottle preference test. Interestingly, norBNI had no effect on THC-induced taste avoidance in adult rats as well. Conclusions That norBNI had no significant effect on THC-induced avoidance in adults and a minor and inconsistent effect in adolescents demonstrates that the aversive effects of THC are not mediated by KOR activity as assessed by the CTA design in Sprague Dawley rats. PMID:26025420

  20. A protocol for the delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) and combined CBD and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by vaporisation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant interest has emerged in the therapeutic and interactive effects of different cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects with high doses administered orally. We report a series of studies conducted to determine the vaporisation efficiency of high doses of CBD, alone and in combination with ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to achieve faster onset effects in experimental and clinical trials and emulate smoked cannabis. Methods Purified THC and CBD (40 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively) were loaded onto a liquid absorbing pad in a Volcano® vaporiser, vaporised and the vapours quantitatively analysed. Preliminary studies determined 200 mg CBD to be the highest dose effectively vaporised at 230°C, yielding an availability of approximately 40% in the vapour phase. Six confirmatory studies examined the quantity of each compound delivered when 200 mg or 4 mg CBD was loaded together with 8 mg of THC. Results THC showed 55% availability when vaporised alone or with low dose CBD, while large variation in the availability of high dose CBD impacted upon the availability of THC when co-administered, with each compound affecting the vaporisation efficiency of the other in a dynamic and dose-dependent manner. We describe optimised protocols that enable delivery of 160 mg CBD through vaporisation. Conclusions While THC administration by vaporisation is increasingly adopted in experimental studies, often with oral predosing with CBD to examine interactive effects, no studies to date have reported the administration of CBD by vaporisation. We report the detailed methodology aimed at optimising the efficiency of delivery of therapeutic doses of CBD, alone and in combination with THC, by vaporisation. These protocols provide a technical advance that may inform methodology for clinical trials in humans, especially for examining interactions between THC and CBD and for therapeutic applications of CBD. Trial

  1. A protocol for the delivery of cannabidiol (CBD) and combined CBD and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by vaporisation.

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Hazekamp, Arno

    2014-10-16

    Significant interest has emerged in the therapeutic and interactive effects of different cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to have anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects with high doses administered orally. We report a series of studies conducted to determine the vaporisation efficiency of high doses of CBD, alone and in combination with ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to achieve faster onset effects in experimental and clinical trials and emulate smoked cannabis. Purified THC and CBD (40 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively) were loaded onto a liquid absorbing pad in a Volcano vaporiser, vaporised and the vapours quantitatively analysed. Preliminary studies determined 200 mg CBD to be the highest dose effectively vaporised at 230 ° C, yielding an availability of approximately 40% in the vapour phase. Six confirmatory studies examined the quantity of each compound delivered when 200 mg or 4 mg CBD was loaded together with 8 mg of THC. THC showed 55% availability when vaporised alone or with low dose CBD, while large variation in the availability of high dose CBD impacted upon the availability of THC when co-administered, with each compound affecting the vaporisation efficiency of the other in a dynamic and dose-dependent manner. We describe optimised protocols that enable delivery of 160 mg CBD through vaporisation. While THC administration by vaporisation is increasingly adopted in experimental studies, often with oral predosing with CBD to examine interactive effects, no studies to date have reported the administration of CBD by vaporisation. We report the detailed methodology aimed at optimising the efficiency of delivery of therapeutic doses of CBD, alone and in combination with THC, by vaporisation. These protocols provide a technical advance that may inform methodology for clinical trials in humans, especially for examining interactions between THC and CBD and for therapeutic applications of CBD. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN24109245.

  2. Reintoxication: the release of fat-stored Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) into blood is enhanced by food deprivation or ACTH exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gunasekaran, N; Long, LE; Dawson, BL; Hansen, GH; Richardson, DP; Li, KM; Arnold, JC; McGregor, IS

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in adipose tissue where it is stored for long periods of time. Here we investigated whether conditions that promote lipolysis can liberate THC from adipocytes to yield increased blood levels of THC. Experimental approach: In vitro studies involved freshly isolated rat adipocytes that were incubated with THC before exposure to the lipolytic agent adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). A complementary in vivo approach examined the effects of both food deprivation and ACTH on blood levels of THC in rats that had been repeatedly injected with THC (10 mg·kg−1) for 10 consecutive days. Lipolysis promoted by ACTH or food deprivation was indexed by measurement of glycerol levels. Key results: ACTH increased THC levels in the medium of THC-pretreated adipocytes in vitro. ACTH also enhanced THC release from adipocytes in vitro when taken from rats repeatedly pretreated with THC in vivo. Finally, in vivo ACTH exposure and 24 h food deprivation both enhanced the levels of THC and its metabolite, (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in the blood of rats that had been pre-exposed to repeated THC injections. Conclusions and implications: The present study shows that lipolysis enhances the release of THC from fat stores back into blood. This suggests the likelihood of ‘reintoxication’ whereby food deprivation or stress may raise blood THC levels in animals chronically exposed to the drug. Further research will need to confirm whether this can lead to functional effects, such as impaired cognitive function or ‘flashbacks’. PMID:19681888

  3. Further human evidence for striatal dopamine release induced by administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): selectivity to limbic striatum.

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Mehta, Mitul A; van Berckel, Bart N M; Howes, Oliver D; Kahn, René S; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-08-01

    Elevated dopamine function is thought to play a key role in both the rewarding effects of addictive drugs and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates that cannabis use is a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. However, human neurochemical imaging studies that examined the impact of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component in cannabis, on striatal dopamine release have provided inconsistent results. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of a THC challenge on human striatal dopamine release in a large sample of healthy participants. We combined human neurochemical imaging data from two previous studies that used [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) (n = 7 and n = 13, respectively) to examine the effect of THC on striatal dopamine neurotransmission in humans. PET images were re-analysed to overcome differences in PET data analysis. THC administration induced a significant reduction in [(11)C]raclopride binding in the limbic striatum (-3.65 %, from 2.39 ± 0.26 to 2.30 ± 0.23, p = 0.023). This is consistent with increased dopamine levels in this region. No significant differences between THC and placebo were found in other striatal subdivisions. In the largest data set of healthy participants so far, we provide evidence for a modest increase in human striatal dopamine transmission after administration of THC compared to other drugs of abuse. This finding suggests limited involvement of the endocannabinoid system in regulating human striatal dopamine release and thereby challenges the hypothesis that an increase in striatal dopamine levels after cannabis use is the primary biological mechanism underlying the associated higher risk of schizophrenia.

  4. The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in male and female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Alison G P; Wetzell, Bradley B; Pomfrey, Rebecca L; Clasen, Matthew M; Taylor, William W; Hempel, Briana J; Riley, Anthony L

    2017-08-01

    Despite widespread cannabis use in humans, few rodent models exist demonstrating significant Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration, possibly due to THC's co-occurring aversive effects, which impact drug reinforcement. Cannabis contains a number of phytocannabinoids in addition to THC, one of which, cannabidiol (CBD), has been reported to antagonize some of the aversive effects of THC. Given such effects of CBD, it is possible that it might influence THC intravenous self-administration in rodents. Accordingly, male and female Long-Evans rats were trained to self-administer THC over a 3-week period and then were assessed for the effects of CBD on responding for THC at 1:1 and 1:10 dose ratios or for the establishment of cocaine self-administration (as a positive control for drug self-administration). Consistent with previous research, THC self-administration was modest and only evident in a subset of animals (and unaffected by sex). Cocaine self-administration was high and evident in the majority of animals tested, indicating that the design was sensitive to drug reinforcement. There was no effect of CBD pretreatment on THC intravenous self-administration at any CBD:THC dose ratio. Future developments of animal models of THC self-administration and the examination of factors that affect its display remain important to establish procedures designed to assess the basis for and treatment of cannabis use and abuse. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Acute and chronic effects of cannabidiol on Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC)-induced disruption in stop signal task performance.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, David S; Kohut, Stephen J; Jiang, Shan; Nikas, Spyros P; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bergman, Jack

    2016-10-01

    Recent clinical and preclinical research has suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) have interactive effects on measures of cognition; however, the nature of these interactions is not yet fully characterized. To address this, we investigated the effects of Δ9-THC and CBD independently and in combination with proposed therapeutic dose ratios of 1:1 and 1:3 Δ9-THC:CBD in adult rhesus monkeys (n = 6) performing a stop signal task (SST). Additionally, the development of tolerance to the effects of Δ9-THC on SST performance was evaluated by determining the effects of acutely administered Δ9-THC (0.1-3.2 mg/kg), during a 24-day chronic Δ9-THC treatment period with Δ9-THC alone or in combination with CBD. Results indicate that Δ9-THC (0.032-0.32 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased go success but did not alter go reaction time (RT) or stop signal RT (SSRT); CBD (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) was without effect on all measures and, when coadministered in a 1:1 dose ratio, did not exacerbate or attenuate the effects of Δ9-THC. When coadministered in a 1:3 dose ratio, CBD (1.0 mg/kg) attenuated the disruptive effects of 0.32 mg/kg Δ9-THC but did not alter the effects of other Δ9-THC doses. Increases in ED50 values for the effects of Δ9-THC on SST performance were apparent during chronic Δ9-THC treatment, with little evidence for modification of changes in sensitivity by CBD. These results indicate that CBD, when combined with Δ9-THC in clinically available dose ratios, does not exacerbate and, under restricted conditions may even attenuate, Δ9-THC's behavioral effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Acute and chronic effects of cannabidiol on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)-induced disruption in stop signal task performance

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David S.; Kohut, Stephen J.; Jiang, Shan; Nikas, Spyros P.; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Bergman, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Recent clinical and preclinical research suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) have interactive effects on measures of cognition; however, the nature of these interactions is not yet fully characterized. To address this, the effects of Δ9-THC and CBD were investigated independently and in combination with proposed therapeutic dose ratios of 1:1 and 1:3 Δ9-THC:CBD in adult rhesus monkeys (n=6) performing a stop signal task (SST). Additionally, the development of tolerance to the effects of THC on SST performance was evaluated by determining the effects of acutely administered Δ9-THC (0.1-3.2 mg/kg), during a 24-day chronic Δ9-THC treatment period with Δ9-THC alone or with CBD. Results indicate that Δ9-THC (0.032 - 0.32 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased ‘go’ success but did not alter ‘go’ reaction time or stop signal reaction time (SSRT); CBD (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) was without effect on all measures and, when co-administered in a 1:1 dose-ratio, did not exacerbate or attenuate the effects of Δ9-THC. When co-administered in a 1:3 dose-ratio, CBD (1.0 mg/kg) attenuated the disruptive effects of 0.32 mg/kg Δ9-THC but did not alter the effects of other Δ9-THC doses. Increases in ED50 values for the effects of Δ9-THC on SST performance were apparent during chronic Δ9-THC treatment, with little evidence for modification of changes in sensitivity by CBD. These results indicate that CBD, when combined with THC in clinically available dose-ratios does not exacerbate and, under restricted conditions, may even attenuate Δ9-THC’s behavioral effects. PMID:27690502

  7. A vapourized Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) delivery system part I: development and validation of a pulmonary cannabinoid route of exposure for experimental pharmacology studies in rodents.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Laurie A; Charchoglyan, Armen; Brewer, Dyanne; Matthews, Brittany A; Heipel, Heather; Mallet, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Most studies evaluating the effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) in animal models administer it via a parenteral route (e.g., intraperitoneal (IP) or intravenous injection (IV)), however, the common route of administration for human users is pulmonary (e.g., smoking or vapourizing marijuana). A vapourized Δ(9)-THC delivery system for rodents was developed and used to compare the effects of pulmonary and parenteral Δ(9)-THC administration on blood cannabinoid levels and behaviour. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to pulmonary Δ(9)-THC (1, 5, and 10mg of inhaled vapour) delivered via a Volcano® vapourizing device (Storz and Bickel, Germany) or to parenteral Δ(9)-THC (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mg/kg injected IP). Quantification of Δ(9)-THC and its psychoactive metabolite, 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-THC (11-OH-Δ(9)-THC), in blood was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In order to verify the potential for the vapourization procedure to produce a robust conditioned place preference (CPP) or conditioned place avoidance CPA, classical conditioning procedures were systematically varied by altering the exposure time (10 or 20min) and number of exposed rats (1 or 2) while maintaining the same vapourization dose (10mg). Blood collected at 20min intervals showed similar dose-dependent and time-dependent changes in Δ(9)-THC and 11-OH-Δ(9)-THC for both pulmonary and parenteral administration of Δ(9)-THC. However, vapourized Δ(9)-THC induced CPP under certain conditions whereas IP-administered Δ(9)-THC induced CPA. These results support and extend the limited evidence (e.g., in humans, Naef et al., 2004; in rodents, Niyuhire et al., 2007) that Δ(9)-THC produces qualitatively different effects on behaviour depending upon the route of administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fatty Acid-binding Proteins (FABPs) Are Intracellular Carriers for Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD)*

    PubMed Central

    Elmes, Matthew W.; Kaczocha, Martin; Berger, William T.; Leung, KwanNok; Ralph, Brian P.; Wang, Liqun; Sweeney, Joseph M.; Miyauchi, Jeremy T.; Tsirka, Stella E.; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G.

    2015-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally in marijuana (Cannabis) and may be formulated, individually or in combination in pharmaceuticals such as Marinol or Sativex. Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. Recent reports suggest that CBD and THC elevate the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) when administered to humans, suggesting that phytocannabinoids target cellular proteins involved in endocannabinoid clearance. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). By computational analysis and ligand displacement assays, we show that at least three human FABPs bind THC and CBD and demonstrate that THC and CBD inhibit the cellular uptake and catabolism of AEA by targeting FABPs. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to rodent FAAH, CBD does not inhibit the enzymatic actions of human FAAH, and thus FAAH inhibition cannot account for the observed increase in circulating AEA in humans following CBD consumption. Using computational molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis we identify key residues within the active site of FAAH that confer the species-specific sensitivity to inhibition by CBD. Competition for FABPs may in part or wholly explain the increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids reported after consumption of cannabinoids. These data shed light on the mechanism of action of CBD in modulating the endocannabinoid tone in vivo and may explain, in part, its reported efficacy toward epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:25666611

  9. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

    PubMed

    Elmes, Matthew W; Kaczocha, Martin; Berger, William T; Leung, KwanNok; Ralph, Brian P; Wang, Liqun; Sweeney, Joseph M; Miyauchi, Jeremy T; Tsirka, Stella E; Ojima, Iwao; Deutsch, Dale G

    2015-04-03

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) occur naturally in marijuana (Cannabis) and may be formulated, individually or in combination in pharmaceuticals such as Marinol or Sativex. Although it is known that these hydrophobic compounds can be transported in blood by albumin or lipoproteins, the intracellular carrier has not been identified. Recent reports suggest that CBD and THC elevate the levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) when administered to humans, suggesting that phytocannabinoids target cellular proteins involved in endocannabinoid clearance. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular proteins that mediate AEA transport to its catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). By computational analysis and ligand displacement assays, we show that at least three human FABPs bind THC and CBD and demonstrate that THC and CBD inhibit the cellular uptake and catabolism of AEA by targeting FABPs. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to rodent FAAH, CBD does not inhibit the enzymatic actions of human FAAH, and thus FAAH inhibition cannot account for the observed increase in circulating AEA in humans following CBD consumption. Using computational molecular docking and site-directed mutagenesis we identify key residues within the active site of FAAH that confer the species-specific sensitivity to inhibition by CBD. Competition for FABPs may in part or wholly explain the increased circulating levels of endocannabinoids reported after consumption of cannabinoids. These data shed light on the mechanism of action of CBD in modulating the endocannabinoid tone in vivo and may explain, in part, its reported efficacy toward epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBD, and CBN by GC-MS in plasma after oral application of small doses of THC and cannabis extract.

    PubMed

    Nadulski, Thomas; Sporkert, Frank; Schnelle, Martin; Stadelmann, Andreas M; Roser, Patrik; Schefter, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2005-01-01

    Besides the psychoactive Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), hashish and marijuana as well as cannabis-based medicine extracts contain varying amounts of cannabidiol (CBD) and of the degradation product cannabinol (CBN). The additional determination of these compounds is interesting from forensic and medical points of view because it can be used for further proof of cannabis exposure and because CBD is known to modify the effects of THC. Therefore, a method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of THC, its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), CBD and CBN from plasma was developed. The method was based on automatic solid-phase extraction with C(18) ec columns, derivatization with N,O-bistrimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) with deuterated standards. The limits of detection were between 0.15 and 0.29 ng/mL for THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, and CBD and 1.1 ng/mL for CBN. The method was applied in a prospective pharmacokinetic study after single oral administration of 10 mg THC alone or together with 5.4 mg CBD in cannabis extract. The maximum plasma concentrations after cannabis extract administration ranged between 1.2 and 10.3 ng/mL (mean 4.05 ng/mL) for THC, 1.8 and 12.3 ng/mL (mean 4.9 ng/mL) for 11-OH-THC, 19 and 71 ng/mL (mean 35 ng/mL) for THC-COOH, and 0.2 and 2.6 ng/mL (mean 0.95 ng/mg) for CBD. The peak concentrations (mean values) of THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, and CBD were observed at 56, 82, 115, and 60 min, respectively, after intake. CBN was not detected. Caused by the strong first-pass metabolism, the concentrations of the metabolites were increased during the first hours after drug administration when compared to literature data for smoking. Therefore, the concentration ratio 11-OH-THC/THC was discussed as a criterion for distinguishing oral from inhalative cannabis

  11. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) Promotes Neuroimmune-Modulatory MicroRNA Profile in Striatum of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-Infected Macaques.

    PubMed

    Simon, Liz; Song, Keijing; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; Hollenbach, Andrew; Amedee, Angela; Mohan, Mahesh; Winsauer, Peter; Molina, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Cannabinoid administration before and after simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-inoculation ameliorated disease progression and decreased inflammation in male rhesus macaques. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) did not increase viral load in brain tissue or produce additive neuropsychological impairment in SIV-infected macaques. To determine if the neuroimmunomodulation of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miR) expression, miR expression in the striatum of uninfected macaques receiving vehicle (VEH) or Δ9-THC (THC) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV) or Δ9-THC (THC/SIV) was profiled using next generation deep sequencing. Among the 24 miRs that were differentially expressed among the four groups, 16 miRs were modulated by THC in the presence of SIV. These 16 miRs were classified into four categories and the biological processes enriched by the target genes determined. Our results indicate that Δ9-THC modulates miRs that regulate mRNAs of proteins involved in 1) neurotrophin signaling, 2) MAPK signaling, and 3) cell cycle and immune response thus promoting an overall neuroprotective environment in the striatum of SIV-infected macaques. This is also reflected by increased Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and decreased proinflammatory cytokine expression compared to the VEH/SIV group. Whether Δ9-THC-mediated modulation of epigenetic mechanisms provides neuroprotection in other regions of the brain and during chronic SIV-infection remains to be determined.

  12. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, but not ondansetron, interfere with conditioned retching reactions elicited by a lithium-paired context in Suncus murinus: An animal model of anticipatory nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Parker, Linda A; Kwiatkowska, Magdalena; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2006-01-30

    Chemotherapy patients report not only acute nausea and vomiting during the treatment itself, but also report anticipatory nausea and vomiting upon re-exposure to the cues associated with the treatment. We present a model of anticipatory nausea based on the emetic reactions of the Suncus murinus (musk shrew). Following three pairings of a novel distinctive contextual cue with the emetic effects of an injection of lithium chloride, the context acquired the potential to elicit conditioned retching in the absence of the toxin. The expression of this conditioned retching reaction was completely suppressed by pretreatment with each of the principal cannabinoids found in marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol, at a dose that did not suppress general activity. On the other hand, pretreatment with a dose of ondansetron (a 5-HT(3) antagonist) that interferes with acute vomiting in this species, did not suppress the expression of conditioned retching during re-exposure to the lithium-paired context. These results support anecdotal claims that marijuana, but not ondansetron, may suppress the expression of anticipatory nausea.

  13. Automated extraction for the analysis of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in urine using a six-head probe Hamilton Microlab 2200 system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Whitter, P D; Cary, P L; Leaton, J I; Johnson, J E

    1999-01-01

    An automated extraction scheme for the analysis of 11 -nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid using the Hamilton Microlab 2200, which was modified for gravity-flow solid-phase extraction, has been evaluated. The Hamilton was fitted with a six-head probe, a modular valve positioner, and a peristaltic pump. The automated method significantly increased sample throughput, improved assay consistency, and reduced the time spent performing the extraction. Extraction recovery for the automated method was > 90%. The limit of detection, limit of quantitation, and upper limit of linearity were equivalent to the manual method: 1.5, 3.0, and 300 ng/mL, respectively. Precision at the 15-ng/mL cut-off was as follows: mean = 14.4, standard deviation = 0.5, coefficient of variation = 3.5%. Comparison of 38 patient samples, extracted by the manual and automated extraction methods, demonstrated the following correlation statistics: r = .991, slope 1.029, and y-intercept -2.895. Carryover was < 0.3% at 1000 ng/mL. Aliquoting/extraction time for the automated method (48 urine samples) was 50 min, and the manual procedure required approximately 2.5 h. The automated aliquoting/extraction method on the Hamilton Microlab 2200 and its use in forensic applications are reviewed.

  14. Effect of combined doses of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea using rat (Sprague- Dawley) models of conditioned gaping.

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A

    2015-12-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) found in cannabis both reduce the distressing symptom of nausea, but their combined effects are not understood. The potential of combined doses of THC and CBDA to reduce acute nausea and anticipatory nausea in rodent models was assessed. For acute nausea, the potential of cannabinoid pretreatment(s) to reduce LiCl-induced nausea paired with saccharin was evaluated in a subsequent drug free taste reactivity test, followed by a taste avoidance test. For anticipatory nausea, the potential of the cannabinoid pretreatment(s) to reduce the expression of LiCl-induced contextually elicited conditioned gaping was evaluated. Combined subthreshold doses of THC (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) and CBDA (0.01 and 0.1 μg/kg) reduced acute nausea. Higher doses of THC (1.0, 10 mg/kg) or CBDA (1.0, 10 μg/kg) alone, as well as these combined doses also reduced acute nausea. THC (10 mg/kg) interfered with conditioned taste avoidance, an effect attenuated by CBDA (10 μg/kg). On the other hand, combined subthreshold doses of THC (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) and CBDA (0.01 and 0.1 μg/kg) did not suppress contextually elicited conditioned gaping in a test for anticipatory nausea. However, higher doses of THC (1.0, 10 mg/kg) or CBDA (1.0, 10 μg/kg) alone, as well as these combined doses, also reduced anticipatory nausea. Only at the highest dose (10 mg/kg) did THC impair locomotor activity, but CBDA did not at any dose. Combined subthreshold doses of THC:CBDA are particularly effective as a treatment for acute nausea. At higher doses, CBDA may attenuate THC-induced interference with learning.

  15. Effect of norbinaltorphimine on ∆⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced taste avoidance in adolescent and adult Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Flax, Shaun M; Wakeford, Alison G P; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Riley, Anthony L

    2015-09-01

    The aversive effects of ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are mediated by activity at the kappa opioid receptor (KOR) as assessed in adult animals; however, no studies have assessed KOR involvement in the aversive effects of THC in adolescents. Given that adolescents have been reported to be insensitive to the aversive effects induced by KOR agonists, a different mechanism might mediate the aversive effects of THC in this age group. The present study was designed to assess the impact of KOR antagonism on the aversive effects of THC in adolescent and adult rats using the conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) procedure. Following a single pretreatment injection of norbinaltorphimine (norBNI; 15 mg/kg), CTAs induced by THC (0, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8, and 3.2 mg/kg) were assessed in adolescent (n = 84) and adult (n = 83) Sprague-Dawley rats. The KOR antagonist, norBNI, had weak and inconsistent effects on THC-induced taste avoidance in adolescent rats in that norBNI both attenuated and strengthened taste avoidance dependent on dose and trial. norBNI had limited impact on the final one-bottle avoidance and no effects on the two-bottle preference test. Interestingly, norBNI had no effect on THC-induced taste avoidance in adult rats as well. That norBNI had no significant effect on THC-induced avoidance in adults, and a minor and inconsistent effect in adolescents demonstrates that the aversive effects of THC are not mediated by KOR activity as assessed by the CTA design in Sprague-Dawley rats.

  16. Effect of combined oral doses of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models.

    PubMed

    Rock, Erin M; Connolly, Cassidy; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of oral combined cannabis constituents to reduce nausea. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of combining subthreshold oral doses of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) on acute and anticipatory nausea in rat models of conditioned gaping. The potential of intragastric (i.g.) administration of THC, CBDA, or combined doses, to interfere with acute nausea-induced conditioned gaping (acute nausea) or the expression of contextually elicited conditioned gaping (anticipatory nausea), was evaluated. For acute nausea, i.g. administration of subthreshold doses of THC (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) or CBDA (0.5 and 1 μg/kg) significantly suppressed acute nausea-induced gaping, whereas higher individual doses of both THC and CBDA were maximally effective. Combined i.g. administration of higher doses of THC and CBDA (2.5 mg/kg THC-2.5 μg/kg CBDA; 10 mg/kg THC-10 μg/kg CBDA; 20 mg/kg THC-20 μg/kg CBDA) also enhanced positive hedonic reactions elicited by saccharin solution during conditioning. For anticipatory nausea, combined subthreshold i.g. doses of THC (0.1 mg/kg) and CBDA (0.1 μg/kg) suppressed contextually elicited conditioned gaping. When administered i.g., THC was effective on its own at doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg, but CBDA was only effective at 10 μg/kg. THC alone was equally effective by intraperitoneal (i.p.) and i.g. administration, whereas CBDA alone was more effective by i.p. administration (Rock et al. in Psychopharmacol (Berl) 232:4445-4454, 2015) than by i.g. administration. Oral administration of subthreshold doses of THC and CBDA may be an effective new treatment for acute nausea and anticipatory nausea and appetite enhancement in chemotherapy patients.

  17. [Tetrahydrocannabinol pharmacokinetics; new synthetic cannabinoids; road safety and cannabis].

    PubMed

    Goullé, Jean-Perre; Guerbet, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, a drug which is commonly smoked This paper focuses on the pharmacokinetics of THC. The average THC content in cannabis plant material has risen by a factor offour over the past 20 years, from 4% to 16%. This increase has important implications not only for the pharmacokinetics but also for the pharmacology of THC The mean bioavailability of THC in smoked cannabis is about 25%. In a cigarette containing 3.55% of THC, a peak plasma level of about 160 ng/mL occurs approximately 10 min after inhalation. THC is quickly cleared from plasma in a multiphasic manner and is widely distributed to tissues, leading to its pharmacologic effects. Body fat is a long-term storage site. This particular pharmacokinetic behavior explains the lack of correlation between the THC blood level and clinical effects, contrary to ethanol. The main THC metabolites are 11-OH-THC (the only active metabolite) and THC-COOH, which is eliminated in feces and urine over several weeks. Therefore, abstinence can be established by analyzing THC-COOH in urine, while blood THC analysis is used to confirm recent exposure. Cannabis is the main illicit drug found among vehicle drivers. Various traffic safety studies indicate that recent use of this drug at least doubles the risk of causing an accident, and that simultaneous alcohol consumption multiplies this risk by afactor of 14. Since 2009, synthetic cannabinoids have emerged on the illicit drug market. These substances act on the same CB1 receptors as THC, but with higher afinity. Their pharmacokinetics differs from that of THC, as they are metabolized into multiple derivatives, most of which are more active than THC itself.

  18. A vapourized Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) delivery system part II: comparison of behavioural effects of pulmonary versus parenteral cannabinoid exposure in rodents.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Laurie A; Ford, Brittany; Matthews, Brittany A; Heipel, Heather; Mallet, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the rewarding and addictive properties of cannabinoids using rodents as animal models of human behaviour often fail to replicate findings from human studies. Animal studies typically employ parenteral routes of administration, whereas humans typically smoke cannabis, thus discrepancies may be related to different pharmacokinetics of parenteral and pulmonary routes of administration. Accordingly, a novel delivery system of vapourized Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) was developed and assessed for its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and behavioural effects in rodents. A commercially available vapourizer was used to assess the effects of pulmonary (vapourized) administration of Δ(9)-THC and directly compared to parenteral (intraperitoneal, IP) administration of Δ(9)-THC. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to pure Δ(9)-THC vapour (1, 2, 5, 10, and 20mg/pad), using a Volcano® vapourizing device (Storz and Bickel, Germany) or IP-administered Δ(9)-THC (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0mg/kg), and drug effects on locomotor activity, food and water consumption, and cross-sensitization to morphine (5mg/kg) were measured. Vapourized Δ(9)-THC significantly increased feeding during the first hour following exposure, whereas IP-administered Δ(9)-THC failed to produce a reliable increase in feeding at all doses tested. Acute administration of 10mg of vapourized Δ(9)-THC induced a short-lasting stimulation in locomotor activity compared to control in the first of four hours of testing over 7days of repeated exposure; this chronic exposure to 10mg of vapourized Δ(9)-THC did not induce behavioural sensitization to morphine. These results suggest vapourized Δ(9)-THC administration produces behavioural effects qualitatively different from those induced by IP administration in rodents. Furthermore, vapourized Δ(9)-THC delivery in rodents may produce behavioural effects more comparable to those observed in humans. We conclude that some of the conflicting findings in animal

  19. Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) exerts a direct neuroprotective effect in a human cell culture model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Carroll, C B; Zeissler, M-L; Hanemann, C O; Zajicek, J P

    2012-10-01

    Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) is neuroprotective in models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although CB1 receptors are increased within the basal ganglia of PD patients and animal models, current evidence suggests a role for CB1 receptor-independent mechanisms. Here, we utilized a human neuronal cell culture PD model to further investigate the protective properties of Δ⁹-THC. Differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were exposed to PD-relevant toxins: 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), lactacystin and paraquat. Changes in CB1 receptor level were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Cannabinoids and modulatory compounds were co-administered with toxins for 48 h and the effects on cell death, viability, apoptosis and oxidative stress assessed. We found CB1 receptor up-regulation in response to MPP+, lactacystin and paraquat and a protective effect of Δ⁹-THC against all three toxins. This neuroprotective effect was not reproduced by the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 or blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM251. Furthermore, the antioxidants α-tocopherol and butylhydroxytoluene as well as the antioxidant cannabinoids, nabilone and cannabidiol were unable to elicit the same neuroprotection as Δ⁹-THC. However, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) antagonist T0070907 dose-dependently blocked the neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects of Δ⁹-THC, while the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone resulted in protection from MPP+-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, Δ⁹-THC increased PPARγ expression in MPP+-treated SH-SY5Y cells, another indicator of PPARγ activation. We have demonstrated up-regulation of the CB1 receptor in direct response to neuronal injury in a human PD cell culture model, and a direct neuronal protective effect of Δ⁹-THC that may be mediated through PPARγ activation. © 2011 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology © 2011 British Neuropathological

  20. How cannabis causes paranoia: using the intravenous administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Paul J; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  1. How Cannabis Causes Paranoia: Using the Intravenous Administration of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to Identify Key Cognitive Mechanisms Leading to Paranoia

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M.; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M.; Harrison, Paul J.; Harmer, Catherine J.; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis—∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)—causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. PMID:25031222

  2. Strong increase in total delta-THC in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops.

    PubMed

    Pijlman, F T A; Rigter, S M; Hoek, J; Goldschmidt, H M J; Niesink, R J M

    2005-06-01

    The total concentration of THC has been monitored in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops since 1999. This annual monitoring was issued by the Ministry of Health after reports of increased potency. The level of the main psychoactive compound, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is measured in marijuana and hashish. A comparison is made between imported and Dutch preparations, and between seasons. Samples of cannabis preparations from randomly selected coffee shops were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC-FID) for THC, CBD and CBN. In 2004, the average THC level of Dutch home-grown marijuana (Nederwiet) (20.4% THC) was significantly higher than that of imported marijuana (7.0% THC). Hashish derived from Dutch marijuana (Nederhasj) contained 39.3% THC in 2004, compared with 18.2% THC in imported hashish. The average THC percentage of Dutch marijuana, Dutch hashish and imported hashish was significantly higher than in previous years. It nearly doubled over 5 years. During this period, the THC percentage in imported marijuana remained unchanged. A higher price had to be paid for cannabis with higher levels of THC. Whether the increase in THC levels causes increased health risks for users can only be concluded when more data are available on adjusted patterns of use, abuse liability, bioavailability and levels of THC in the brain.

  3. Short-term exposure and long-term consequences of neonatal exposure to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and ibuprofen in mice.

    PubMed

    Philippot, Gaëtan; Nyberg, Fred; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders; Viberg, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Both Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and ibuprofen have analgesic properties by interacting with the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) systems, respectively. Evaluation of these analgesics is important not only clinically, since they are commonly used during pregnancy and lactation, but also to compare them with acetaminophen, with a known interaction with both CB1R and the COX systems. Short-term exposure of neonatal rodents to acetaminophen during the first weeks of postnatal life, which is comparable with a period from the third trimester of pregnancy to the first years of postnatal life in humans, induces long-term behavioral disturbances. This period, called the brain growth spurt (BGS) and is characterized by series of rapid and fundamental changes and increased vulnerability, peaks around postnatal day (PND) 10 in mice. We therefore exposed male NMRI mice to either THC or ibuprofen on PND 10. At 2 months of age, the mice were subjected to a spontaneous behavior test, consisting of a 60min recording of the variables locomotion, rearing and total activity. Mice exposed to THC, but not ibuprofen, exhibited altered adult spontaneous behavior and habituation capability in a dose-dependent manner. This highlights the potency of THC as a developmental neurotoxicant, since a single neonatal dose of THC was enough to affect adult cognitive function. The lack of effect from ibuprofen also indicates that the previously seen developmental neurotoxicity of acetaminophen is non-COX-mediated. These results might be of importance in future research as well as in the ongoing risk/benefit assessment of THC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Trace detection of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with a SERS-based capillary platform prepared by the in situ microwave synthesis of AgNPs.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Sezin; Schwenke, Almut M; Soliveri, Guido; Ardizzone, Silvia; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Hoeppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-10-05

    In the present study, an ultra-sensitive and highly reproducible novel SERS-based capillary platform was developed and utilized for the trace detection of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The approach combines the advantages of microwave-assisted nanoparticle synthesis, plasmonics and capillary forces. By employing a microwave-assisted preparation method, glass capillaries were reproducibly coated with silver nanoparticles in a batch fabrication process that required a processing time of 3 min without needing to use any pre-surface modifications or add surfactants. The coated capillaries exhibited an excellent SERS activity with a high reproducibility and enabled the detection of low concentrations of target molecules. At the same time, only a small amount of analyte and a short and simple incubation process was required. The developed platform was applied to the spectroscopic characterization of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its identification at concentration levels down to 1 nM. Thus, a highly efficient detection system for practical applications, e.g., in drug monitoring/detection, is introduced, which can be fabricated at low cost by using microwave-assisted batch synthesis techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MDMA attenuates THC withdrawal syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Touriño, Clara; Maldonado, Rafael; Valverde, Olga

    2007-07-01

    3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and cannabis are widely abused illicit drugs that are frequently consumed in combination. Interactions between these two drugs have been reported in several pharmacological responses observed in animals, such as body temperature, anxiety, cognition, and reward. However, the interaction between MDMA and cannabis in addictive processes such as physical dependence has not been elucidated yet. In this study, the effects of acute and chronic MDMA were evaluated on the behavioral manifestations of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) abstinence in mice. THC withdrawal syndrome was precipitated by injecting the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice chronically treated with THC and receiving MDMA (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg i.p.) or saline just before the withdrawal induction or chronically after the THC administration. Both chronic and acute MDMA decreased in a dose-dependent manner the severity of THC withdrawal. In vivo microdialysis experiments showed that acute MDMA (5 mg/kg, i.p.) administration increased extracellular serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex, but not dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Our results also indicate that the attenuation of THC abstinence symptoms was not due to a direct interaction between rimonabant and MDMA nor to the result of the locomotor stimulating effects of MDMA. The modulation of the cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome by acute or chronic MDMA suggests a possible mechanism to explain the associated consumption of these two drugs in humans.

  6. The results of an experimental indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing study, using the 'Screen of Green' (ScrOG) method-Yield, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Knight, Glenys; Hansen, Sean; Connor, Mark; Poulsen, Helen; McGovern, Catherine; Stacey, Janet

    2010-10-10

    The results of an indoor hydroponic Cannabis growth study are presented. It is intended that this work will be of assistance to those with an interest in determining an estimation of yield and value of Cannabis crops. Three cycles of six plants were grown over a period of 1 year in order to ascertain the potential yield of female flowering head material from such an operation. The cultivation methods used were selected to replicate typical indoor hydroponic Cannabis growing operations, such as are commonly encountered by the New Zealand Police. The plants were also tested to ascertain the percentage of the psychoactive chemical Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in the flowering head material, and were genetically profiled by STR analysis. Phenotypic observations are related to the data collected. The inexperience of the growers was evidenced by different problems encountered in each of the three cycles, each of which would be expected to negatively impact the yield and THC data obtained. These data are therefore considered to be conservative. The most successful cycle yielded an average of 881g (31.1oz) of dry, groomed female flowering head per plant, and over the whole study the 18 plants yielded a total of 12,360g (436.0oz), or an average of 687g (24.2oz) of dry head per plant. THC data shows significant intra-plant variation and also demonstrates inter-varietal variation. THC values for individual plants ranged from 4.3 to 25.2%. The findings of this study and a separate ESR research project illustrate that the potency of Cannabis grown in New Zealand has dramatically increased in recent years. DNA analysis distinguished distinct groups in general agreement with the phenotypic variation observed. One plant however, exhibiting a unique triallelic pattern at two of the five loci tested, while remaining phenotypically indistinguishable from three other plants within the same grow. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative effects of phencyclidine (PCP) and. delta. /sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on glucose oxidation in the rat testis

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, S.; Bauer, V.

    Glucose and fructose are important fuels of cellular energetics in organs like testis and brain. The previous in-vitro studies indicated that THC may disrupt many gonadal functions by inhibiting energy metabolism in the testis. PCP is sold on the street as any one of a variety of psychoactive drugs. Most commonly it is misrepresented as THC. Therefore, to compare the effects of PCP and THC on glucose utilization, in-vitro radiorespirometric experiments were conducted in rat testicular tissues. The /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from 5.5 mM radiolabelled glucose was followed in the presence and absence of 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.01, 0.005,more » 0.0025 mM PCP. PCP produced a dose-dependent biphasic effect, stimulating /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production by 6.2, 17 and 5.8% and then inhibiting it by 13.2, 15.4 and 8.9% with respective concentrations of PCP. This is in contrast to THC which produced a dose-related inhibition of 15.2, 18.1, 20.1 and 25.3% in /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mM THC. These observations are significant due to the possible abuse of PCP together with THC either deliberately or by misrepresentation.« less

  8. Genetic moderation of the effects of cannabis: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) affects the impact of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on working memory performance but not on the occurrence of psychotic experiences.

    PubMed

    Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Stumpenhorst, Katharina; Harrison, Paul J; Morrison, Paul D; Freeman, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use can induce cognitive impairments and psychotic experiences. A functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (Val(158)Met) appears to influence the immediate cognitive and psychotic effects of cannabis, or ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its primary psychoactive ingredient. This study investigated the moderation of the impact of experimentally administered THC by COMT. Cognitive performance and psychotic experiences were studied in participants without a psychiatric diagnosis, using a between-subjects design (THC vs. placebo). The effect of COMT Val(158)Met genotype on the cognitive and psychotic effects of THC, administered intravenously in a double-blind, placebo-controlled manner to 78 participants who were vulnerable to paranoia, was examined. The results showed interactive effects of genotype and drug group (THC or placebo) on working memory, assayed using the Digit Span Backwards task. Specifically, THC impaired performance in COMT Val/Val, but not Met, carriers. In contrast, the effect of THC on psychotic experiences, measured using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) positive dimension, was unaffected by COMT genotype. This study is the largest to date examining the impact of COMT genotype on response to experimentally administered THC, and the first using a purely non-clinical cohort. The data suggest that COMT genotype moderates the cognitive, but not the psychotic, effects of acutely administered THC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) administration after neonatal exposure to phencyclidine potentiates schizophrenia-related behavioral phenotypes in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Yao, Katherine Lan; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Csernansky, John G; Dong, Hongxin

    2017-08-01

    The clinical onset of schizophrenia often coincides with cannabis use in adolescents and young adults. However, the neurobiological consequences of this co-morbidity are not well understood. In this study, we examined the effects of Δ9-THC exposure during early adulthood on schizophrenia-related behaviors using a developmental mouse model of schizophrenia. Phencyclidine (PCP) or saline was administered once in neonatal mice (at P7; 10mg/kg). In turn, Δ9-THC or saline was administered sub-acutely later in life to cohorts of animals who had received either PCP or saline (P55-80, 5mg/kg). Mice who were administered PCP alone displayed behavioral changes in the Morris water waze (MWM) and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) task paradigm that were consistent with schizophrenia-related phenotypes, but not in the locomotor activity or novel object recognition (NOR) task paradigms. Mice who were administered PCP and then received Δ9-THC later in life displayed behavioral changes in the locomotor activity paradigm (p<0.001) that was consistent with a schizophrenia-related phenotype, as well as potentiated changes in the NOR (p<0.01) and MWM (p<0.05) paradigms as compared to mice that received PCP alone. Decreased cortical receptor expression of NMDA receptor 1 subunit (NR1) was observed in mice that received PCP and PCP+Δ9-THC, while mice that received Δ9-THC and PCP+Δ9-THC displayed decreases in CB1 receptor expression. These findings suggest that administration of Δ9-THC during the early adulthood can potentiate the development of schizophrenia-related behavioral phenotypes induced by neonatal exposure to PCP in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of the endocannabinoid system in brain functions relevant for schizophrenia: an overview of human challenge studies with cannabis or ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; Jansma, J Martijn; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Ramsey, Nick F

    2014-07-03

    Accumulating evidence suggests involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, which signifies a potential application for this system in the treatment of this disorder. However, before new research can focus on potential treatments that work by manipulating the endocannabinoid system, it needs to be elucidated how this system is involved in symptoms of schizophrenia. Here we review human studies that investigated acute effects of cannabis or ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on brain functions that are implicated in schizophrenia. Results suggest that the impact of THC administration depends on the difficulty of the task performed. Impaired performance of cognitive paradigms is reported on more challenging tasks, which is associated with both activity deficits in temporal and prefrontal areas and a failure to deactivate regions of the default mode network. Comparable reductions in prefrontal activity and impairments in deactivation of the default mode network are seen in patients during performance of cognitive paradigms. Normal performance levels after THC administration demonstrated for less demanding tasks are shown to be related to either increased neural effort in task-specific regions ('neurophysiological inefficiency'), or recruitment of alternative brain areas, which suggests a change in strategy to meet cognitive demands. Particularly a pattern of performance and brain activity corresponding with an inefficient working memory system is consistently demonstrated in patients. These similarities in brain function between intoxicated healthy volunteers and schizophrenia patients provide an argument for a role of the endocannabinoid system in symptoms of schizophrenia, and further emphasize this system as a potential novel target for treatment of these symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), THC, CBN and CBD in hair.

    PubMed

    Roth, Nadine; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-02-01

    For analysis of hair samples derived from a pilot study ('in vivo' contamination of hair by sidestream marijuana smoke), an LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Hair samples were extracted in methanol for 4 h under occasional shaking at room temperature, after adding THC-D(3), CBN-D(3), CBD-D(3) and THCA-A-D(3) as an in-house synthesized internal standard. The analytes were separated by gradient elution on a Luna C18 column using 0.1% HCOOH and ACN + 0.1% HCOOH. Data acquisition was performed on a QTrap 4000 in electrospray ionization-multi reaction monitoring mode. Validation was carried out according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Limit of detection and lower limit of quantification were 2.5 pg/mg for THCA-A and 20 pg/mg for THC, CBN and CBD. A linear calibration model was applicable for all analytes over a range of 2.5 pg/mg or 20 pg/mg to 1000 pg/mg, using a weighting factor 1/x. Selectivity was shown for 12 blank hair samples from different sources. Accuracy and precision data were within the required limits for all analytes (bias between -0.2% and 6.4%, RSD between 3.7% and 11.5%). The dried hair extracts were stable over a time period of one to five days in the dark at room temperature. Processed sample stability (maximum decrease of analyte peak area below 25%) was considerably enhanced by adding 0.25% lecithin (w/v) in ACN + 0.1% HCOOH for reconstitution. Extraction efficiency for CBD was generally very low using methanol extraction. Hence, for effective extraction of CBD alkaline hydrolysis is recommended. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Novel method of determination of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol(THC) in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Hideya; Uezono, Yasuhito; Matoba, Motohiro

    2014-04-01

    In Europe and the United States, D9-tetrahydrocannabinol(THC, dronabinol), one of the psychoactive constituents of cannabis, has been used for both its anti-emetic and orexigenic effects in cancer patient receiving chemotherapy.However, dronabinol has not yet been launched in the market in Japan.In the future, it is necessary to ascertain the pharmacokinetics of dronabinol in cancer paitient.Therefore, we developed an HPLC procedure using electrochemical detection(ECD)for quan- titation of the concentrations of dronabinol in blood.An eluent of 50mM KH2PO4/CH3CN(9:16)was used as the mobile phase.The column was used the XTerra®RP18, and the voltage of the electrochemical detector in dronabinol was set at 400 mV.As a result, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 10 ng/mL to 100 ng/mL(y=964.85x -3,419, r=0.997).The lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ng/mL(S/N=3).The relative within-runs and between-runs standard deviations for the assay dronabinol were less than 4.7%. The method reported here is superior to previously reported methods in cancer patient.

  13. Solid-phase extraction and GC-MS analysis of THC-COOH method optimized for a high-throughput forensic drug-testing laboratory.

    PubMed

    Stout, P R; Horn, C K; Klette, K L

    2001-10-01

    In order to facilitate the confirmation analysis of large numbers of urine samples previously screened positive for delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), an extraction, derivitization, and GC-MS analysis method was developed. This method utilized a positive pressure manifold anion-exchange polymer-based solid-phase extraction followed by elution directly into the automated liquid sampling (ALS) vials. Rapid derivitization was accomplished using pentafluoropropionic anhydride/pentafluoropropanol (PFPA/PFPOH). Recoveries averaged 95% with a limit of detection of 0.875 ng/mL with a 3-mL sample volume. Performance of 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH)-d3 and THC-COOH-d9 internal standards were evaluated. The method was linear to 900 ng/mL THC-COOH using THC-COOH-d9 with negligible contribution from the internal standard to very weak samples. Excellent agreement was seen with previous quantitations of human urine samples. More than 1000 human urine samples were analyzed using the method with 300 samples analyzed using an alternate qualifier ion (m/z 622) after some interference was observed with a qualifier ion (m/z 489). The 622 ion did not exhibit any interference even in samples with interfering peaks present in the 489 ion. The method resulted in dramatic reductions in processing time, waste production, and exposure hazards to laboratory personnel.

  14. Tetrahydrocannabinol-induced suppression of macrophage spreading and phagocytic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Cepero, M; Friedman, M; Klein, T; Friedman, H

    1986-06-01

    The effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on several parameters of macrophage function in vitro were assessed. Delta 9 THC added to cultures of normal mouse peritoneal cells in vitro affected the ability of the cells to spread on glass surfaces and also had some effect on their ability to phagocytize yeast. These effects were dose related. A concentration of 20 micrograms of THC almost completely inhibited macrophage spreading, but it also decreased viability and the total number of these cells. Doses of 10 or 5 micrograms of THC also inhibited spreading but had little effect on cell viability or number. A dose of 1.0 microgram of THC had some inhibitory effect on spreading and the lowest dose affecting spreading appeared to be about 0.05 micrograms per culture. Higher doses of THC were necessary to inhibit phagocytosis of yeast particles as determined by direct microscopic examination or use of radiolabeled yeast as the test particles. These results indicate that several readily measured functions of macrophages may be suppressed by THC.

  15. The effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Jamontt, J M; Molleman, A; Pertwee, R G; Parsons, M E

    2010-06-01

    Cannabis is taken as self-medication by patients with inflammatory bowel disease for symptomatic relief. Cannabinoid receptor agonists decrease inflammation in animal models of colitis, but their effects on the disturbed motility is not known. (-)-Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to interact with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in behavioural studies, but it remains to be established if these cannabinoids interact in vivo in inflammatory disorders. Therefore the effects of CBD and THC alone and in combination were investigated in a model of colitis. The 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis in rats was used to assess damage, inflammation (myeloperoxidase activity) and in vitro colonic motility. Sulphasalazine was used as an active control drug. Sulphasalazine, THC and CBD proved beneficial in this model of colitis with the dose-response relationship for the phytocannabinoids showing a bell-shaped pattern on the majority of parameters (optimal THC and CBD dose, 10 mg.kg(-1)). THC was the most effective drug. The effects of these phytocannabinoids were additive, and CBD increased some effects of an ineffective THC dose to the level of an effective one. THC alone and in combination with CBD protected cholinergic nerves whereas sulphasalazine did not. In this model of colitis, THC and CBD not only reduced inflammation but also lowered the occurrence of functional disturbances. Moreover the combination of CBD and THC could be beneficial therapeutically, via additive or potentiating effects.

  16. Clarifying CB2 receptor-dependent and independent effects of THC on human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sarafian, Theodore; Montes, Cindy; Harui, Airi

    Marijuana smoking is associated with a number of abnormal findings in the lungs of habitual smokers. Previous studies revealed that {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) caused mitochondrial injury in primary lung epithelial cells and in the cell line, A549 [Sarafian, T. A., Kouyoumjian, S., Khoshaghideh, F., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2003). Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts mitochondrial function and cell energetics. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 284, L298-306; Sarafian, T., Habib, N., Mao, J. T., Tsu, I. H., Yamamoto, M. L., Hsu, E., Tashkin, D. P., and Roth, M. D. (2005). Gene expression changes in human small airway epithelialmore » cells exposed to Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Toxicol Lett 158, 95-107]. The role of cannabinoid receptors in this injury was unclear, as was the potential impact on cell function. In order to investigate these questions, A549 cells were engineered to over-express the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector. This transduction resulted in a 60-fold increase in CB2R mRNA relative to cells transduced with a control vector. Transduced cell lines were used to study the effects of THC on chemotactic activity and mitochondrial function. Chemotaxis in response to a 10% serum gradient was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to THC. CB2R-transduced cells exhibited less intrinsic chemotactic activity (p < 0.05) and were 80- to 100-fold more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of THC. Studies using SR144528, a selective CB2R antagonist, verified that these effects were mediated by the CB2R. Marijuana smoke extract, but not smoke extracts from tobacco or placebo marijuana cigarettes, reproduced these effects (p < 0.05). THC decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential ({psi}{sub m}) in both control and CB2R-transduced cells. However, these decreases did not play a significant role in chemotaxis inhibition since cyclosporine A, which protected against

  17. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Korthout, Henrie A A J; van Meeteren-Kreikamp, A P; Ehlert, Karl A; Wang, Mei; van der Greef, Jan; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Witkamp, Renger F

    2006-04-01

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocanabinoid acid (THCa). By heating Cannabis extracts, THCa was shown to be converted into THC. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were able to inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in culture supernatants from U937 macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages after stimulation with LPS in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition persisted over a longer period of time, whereas after prolonged exposure time THC and heated Cannabis extract tend to induce the TNF-alpha level. Furthermore we demonstrated that THCa and THC show distinct effects on phosphatidylcholine specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa inhibit the PC-PLC activity in a dose-dependent manner, while THC induced PC-PLC activity at high concentrations. These results suggest that THCa and THC exert their immuno-modulating effects via different metabolic pathways.

  18. Cannabis with high δ9-THC contents affects perception and visual selective attention acutely: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Böcker, K B E; Gerritsen, J; Hunault, C C; Kruidenier, M; Mensinga, Tj T; Kenemans, J L

    2010-07-01

    Cannabis intake has been reported to affect cognitive functions such as selective attention. This study addressed the effects of exposure to cannabis with up to 69.4mg Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) recorded during a visual selective attention task. Twenty-four participants smoked cannabis cigarettes with four doses of THC on four test days in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Two hours after THC exposure the participants performed a visual selective attention task and concomitant ERPs were recorded. Accuracy decreased linearly and reaction times increased linearly with THC dose. However, performance measures and most of the ERP components related specifically to selective attention did not show significant dose effects. Only in relatively light cannabis users the Occipital Selection Negativity decreased linearly with dose. Furthermore, ERP components reflecting perceptual processing, as well as the P300 component, decreased in amplitude after THC exposure. Only the former effect showed a linear dose-response relation. The decrements in performance and ERP amplitudes induced by exposure to cannabis with high THC content resulted from a non-selective decrease in attentional or processing resources. Performance requiring attentional resources, such as vehicle control, may be compromised several hours after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high doses of THC, as presently available in Europe and Northern America. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiol in MPP+ affected murine mesencephalic cultures.

    PubMed

    Moldzio, Rudolf; Pacher, Thomas; Krewenka, Christopher; Kranner, Barbara; Novak, Johannes; Duvigneau, Johanna Catharina; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2012-06-15

    Cannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa demonstrate neuroprotective properties in various cellular and animal models. Mitochondrial impairment and consecutive oxidative stress appear to be major molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Therefore we studied some major cannabinoids, i.e. delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) in mice mesencephalic cultures for their protective capacities against 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyridinium (MPP(+)) toxicity. MPP(+) is an established model compound in the research of parkinsonism that acts as a complex I inhibitor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in excessive radical formation and cell degeneration. MPP(+) (10 μM) was administered for 48 h at the 9th DIV with or without concomitant cannabinoid treatment at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 μM. All cannabinoids exhibited in vitro antioxidative action ranging from 669 ± 11.1 (THC), 16 ± 3.2 (THCA) to 356 ± 29.5 (CBD) μg Trolox (a vitamin E derivative)/mg substance in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay. Cannabinoids were without effect on the morphology of dopaminergic cells stained by tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreaction. THC caused a dose-dependent increase of cell count up to 17.3% at 10 μM, whereas CBD only had an effect at highest concentrations (decrease of cell count by 10.1-20% at concentrations of 0.01-10 μM). It influenced the viability of the TH immunoreactive neurons significantly, whereas THCA exerts no influence on dopaminergic cell count. Exposure of cultures to 10 μM of MPP(+) for 48 h significantly decreased the number of TH immunoreactive neurons by 44.7%, and shrunken cell bodies and reduced neurite lengths could be observed. Concomitant treatment of cultures with cannabinoids rescued dopaminergic cells. Compared to MPP(+) treated cultures, THC counteracted toxic effects in a dose-dependent manner. THCA and CBD treatment at a concentration of 10

  20. Comparison between self-report of cannabis use and toxicological detection of THC/THCCOOH in blood and THC in oral fluid in drivers in a roadside survey.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, Trudy; Silverans, Peter; Verstraete, Alain G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the number of drivers who self-reported cannabis use by questionnaires to the results of toxicological analysis. During roadside surveys, 2957 respondents driving a personal car or van completed a questionnaire to report their use of drugs and medicines during the previous two weeks and to indicate the time of their last intake. Cannabis was analyzed in oral fluid by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), in blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Frequencies in the time categories were calculated and compared with toxicological results. Diagnostic values were calculated for the time categories in which positive findings were to be expected (<4 h and <2 4h, respectively for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in blood, <12 h for THC in oral fluid). Most self-reported cannabis use was more than 12 h before driving. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was low, while the specificity and accuracy were high. Kappa statistics revealed a fair agreement between self-report and positive findings for THC in oral fluid and blood and moderate agreement with THCCOOH in blood. Self-report largely underestimates driving under the influence of cannabis, particularly recent cannabis use; therefore analysis of biological samples is necessary. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Chronic Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration May Not Attenuate Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Progression in Female Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Amedee, Angela M.; Nichols, Whitney A.; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Birke, Leslie L.; Lacour, Nedra; Winsauer, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) frequently use cannabinoids, either recreationally by smoking marijuana or therapeutically (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; Δ9-THC dronabinol). Previously, we demonstrated that chronic Δ9-THC administration decreases early mortality in male simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques. In this study, we sought to examine whether similar protective effects resulted from chronic cannabinoid administration in SIV-infected female rhesus macaques. Clinical and viral parameters were evaluated in eight female rhesus macaques that received either Δ9-THC (0.18–0.32 mg/kg, intramuscularly, twice daily) or vehicle (VEH) starting 28 days prior to intravenous inoculation with SIVmac251. SIV disease progression was assessed by changes in body weight, mortality, viral levels in plasma and mucosal sites, and lymphocyte subsets. In contrast to our results in male animals, chronic Δ9-THC did not protect SIV-infected female rhesus macaques from early mortality. Markers of SIV disease, including viral load and CD4+/CD8+ ratio, were not altered by Δ9-THC compared to control females; however, females that received chronic Δ9-THC did not gain as much weight as control animals. In addition, Δ9-THC administration increased total CXCR4 expression in both peripheral and duodenal CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes prior to SIV inoculation. Although protection from early mortality was not evident, chronic Δ9-THC did not affect clinical markers of SIV disease progression. The contrasting effects of chronic Δ9-THC in males versus females remain to be explained, but highlight the need for further studies to explore the sex-dependent effects of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids on the HIV disease course and their implications for virus transmission. PMID:25113915

  2. Chronic Δ⁸-THC Exposure Differently Affects Histone Modifications in the Adolescent and Adult Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Prini, Pamela; Penna, Federica; Sciuccati, Emanuele; Alberio, Tiziana; Rubino, Tiziana

    2017-10-04

    Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for the psychiatric consequences of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁸-THC) exposure, however, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability remain to be established. Histone modifications are emerging as important epigenetic mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, thus, we investigated the impact of chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure on histone modifications in different brain areas of female rats. We checked histone modifications associated to both transcriptional repression (H3K9 di- and tri-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation) and activation (H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation) after adolescent and adult chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. Chronic exposure to increasing doses of Δ⁸-THC for 11 days affected histone modifications in a region- and age-specific manner. The primary effect in the adolescent brain was represented by changes leading to transcriptional repression, whereas the one observed after adult treatment led to transcriptional activation. Moreover, only in the adolescent brain, the primary effect was followed by a homeostatic response to counterbalance the Δ⁸-THC-induced repressive effect, except in the amygdala. The presence of a more complex response in the adolescent brain may be part of the mechanisms that make the adolescent brain vulnerable to Δ⁸-THC adverse effects.

  3. Blockade of THC-seeking behavior and relapse in monkeys by the cannabinoid CB(1)-receptor antagonist rimonabant.

    PubMed

    Justinova, Zuzana; Munzar, Patrik; Panlilio, Leigh V; Yasar, Sevil; Redhi, Godfrey H; Tanda, Gianluigi; Goldberg, Steven R

    2008-11-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests the endocannabinoid system modulates environmental cues' ability to induce seeking of drugs, including nicotine and alcohol. However, little attention has been directed toward extending these advances to the growing problem of cannabis use disorders. Therefore, we studied intravenous self-administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana, using a second-order schedule of drug seeking. Squirrel monkeys' lever responses produced only a brief cue light until the end of the session, when the final response delivered THC along with the cue. When a reinstatement procedure was used to model relapse following a period of abstinence, THC-seeking behavior was robustly reinstated by the cue or by pre-session administration of THC, other cannabinoid agonists, or morphine, but not cocaine. The cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant blocked cue-induced drug seeking, THC-induced drug seeking, and the direct reinforcing effects of THC. Thus, rimonabant and related medications might be effective as treatments for cannabinoid dependence.

  4. A phase I study to assess the effect of food on the single dose bioavailability of the THC/CBD oromucosal spray.

    PubMed

    Stott, C G; White, L; Wright, S; Wilbraham, D; Guy, G W

    2013-04-01

    To assess the effect of food on the single-dose bioavailability of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) spray, an endocannabinoid system modulator, when administered to healthy male subjects. Twelve subjects took part in this fed-fasted cross-over study and received a single dose of THC/CBD spray (4 sprays = 10.8 mg THC + 10 mg CBD) in the fasted then fed state (or vice versa) with a 3-day wash-out period between treatments. Plasma samples were collected at designated time-points for analysis of CBD, THC, and its active metabolite, 11-hydroxy delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC). Statistically significant increases in the mean area under the curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) were observed in subjects during fed conditions. Mean AUC and Cmax were one to three-fold higher for THC and 11-OH-THC, and five and three-fold higher for CBD respectively during fed conditions. A large inter-subject variability in exposure from the same dose was observed, particularly for THC. The Cmax for THC in fed versus fasted subjects was higher in 7 subjects (4.80-14.91 ng/ml) and lower in 5 subjects (2.81-3.51 ng/ml) compared with the mean Cmax of 3.98 ng/ml (range 0.97-9.34 ng/ml) observed in the fasted state. Increases in mean AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf), and Cmax for THC, CBD, and 11-OH-THC in the fed state were within the range of inter-subject variability, which was considerable. Food also appeared to delay the time to peak concentration (Tmax) of all analytes by approximately 2-2.5 h. Only mild adverse events were reported. The THC/CBD spray was well tolerated in male subjects at a single dose of four sprays. The large inter-subject variability in exposure suggests that the changes observed are unlikely to be clinically relevant.

  5. The psychosis-like effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol are associated with increased cortical noise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Briones, Jose A; Cahill, John D; Skosnik, Patrick D; Mathalon, Daniel H; Williams, Ashley; Sewell, R Andrew; Roach, Brian J; Ford, Judith M; Ranganathan, Mohini; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-12-01

    Drugs that induce psychosis may do so by increasing the level of task-irrelevant random neural activity or neural noise. Increased levels of neural noise have been demonstrated in psychotic disorders. We tested the hypothesis that neural noise could also be involved in the psychotomimetic effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the principal active constituent of cannabis. Neural noise was indexed by measuring the level of randomness in the electroencephalogram during the prestimulus baseline period of an oddball task using Lempel-Ziv complexity, a nonlinear measure of signal randomness. The acute, dose-related effects of Δ(9)-THC on Lempel-Ziv complexity and signal power were studied in humans (n = 24) who completed 3 test days during which they received intravenous Δ(9)-THC (placebo, .015 and .03 mg/kg) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover, and counterbalanced design. Δ(9)-THC increased neural noise in a dose-related manner. Furthermore, there was a strong positive relationship between neural noise and the psychosis-like positive and disorganization symptoms induced by Δ(9)-THC, which was independent of total signal power. Instead, there was no relationship between noise and negative-like symptoms. In addition, Δ(9)-THC reduced total signal power during both active drug conditions compared with placebo, but no relationship was detected between signal power and psychosis-like symptoms. At doses that produced psychosis-like effects, Δ(9)-THC increased neural noise in humans in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, increases in neural noise were related with increases in Δ(9)-THC-induced psychosis-like symptoms but not negative-like symptoms. These findings suggest that increases in neural noise may contribute to the psychotomimetic effects of Δ(9)-THC. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The relationship between observed signs of impairment and THC concentration in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Alvarez, F Javier

    2014-11-01

    Studies have shown that cannabis intake increases the risk of traffic accidents. Controlled experiments support these findings and have shown a positive dose-effect relationship. In this retrospective cross-sectional study of data from a roadside survey, we investigated whether a police officer's judgment regarding signs of impairment is related to the concentration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the oral fluid (OF). We investigated 2,632 cases from a representative sample of 3,302 Spanish drivers: 253 drivers positive for THC only, 32 positive for THC and ethanol, 201 with only ethanol detected in their breath, and 2,146 drivers who tested negative for ethanol in breath and drugs in OF. Recorded data comprised breath alcohol concentrations, THC concentrations in the OF, and the 31 observed signs of impairment. Subject groups were compared using the chi-square test, and logistic regression was used to examine the risk of being categorized as exhibiting signs of impairment. A relationship was found between the OF THC concentration and some observed signs of impairment. Eye signs were noticeable from a THC concentration >3.0 ng/ml in OF, and >25 ng/ml was related to behavior, facial expression, and speech signs. Alcohol and THC contribute to impairment independently and, when taken simultaneously, the effects are comparable to the sum of the effects when consumed separately. The observation of signs of impairment due to cannabis occurs in an OF concentration-related manner but, as a clinical test, OF has low sensitivity and specificity in a random roadside survey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphine decreases social interaction of adult male rats, while THC does not affect it.

    PubMed

    Šlamberová, R; Mikulecká, A; Macúchová, E; Hrebíčková, I; Ševčíková, M; Nohejlová, K; Pometlová, M

    2016-12-22

    The aim of the present study was to compare effect of three low doses of morphine (MOR) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on social behavior tested in Social interaction test (SIT). 45 min prior to testing adult male rats received one of the drugs or solvents: MOR (1; 2.5; 5 mg/kg); saline as a solvent for MOR; THC (0.5; 1; 2 mg/kg); ethanol as a solvent for THC. Occurrence and time spent in specific patterns of social interactions (SI) and non-social activities (locomotion and rearing) was video-recorded for 5 min and then analyzed. MOR in doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg displayed decreased SI in total. Detailed analysis of specific patterns of SI revealed decrease in mutual sniffing and allo-grooming after all doses of MOR. The highest dose (5 mg/kg) of MOR decreased following and increased genital investigation. Rearing activity was increased by lower doses of MOR (1 and 2.5 mg/kg). THC, in each of the tested doses, did not induce any specific changes when compared to matching control group (ethanol). However, an additional statistical analysis showed differences between all THC groups and their ethanol control group when compared to saline controls. There was lower SI in total, lower mutual sniffing and allo-grooming, but higher rearing in THC and ethanol groups than in saline control group. Thus, changes seen in THC and ethanol groups are seemed to be attributed mainly to the effect of the ethanol. Based on the present results we can assume that opioids affect SI more than cannabinoid.

  8. THC inhibits the expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Filev, Renato; Engelke, Douglas S; Da Silveira, Dartiu X; Mello, Luiz E; Santos-Junior, Jair G

    2017-12-01

    The motivational circuit activated by ethanol leads to behavioral changes that recruit the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Case reports and observational studies suggest that the use of Cannabis sp. mitigates problematic ethanol consumption in humans. Here, we verified the effects of the two main phytocannabinoid compounds of Cannabis sp., cannabidiol (CBD) and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in the expression of ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. Male adult DBA/2 mice were exposed to locomotor sensitization by daily intraperitoneal injections of ethanol (2.5 g/kg) for 12 days; control groups received saline. After the acquisition phase, animals were treated with cannabinoids: CBD (2.5 mg/kg); THC (2.5 mg/kg); CBD + THC (1:1 ratio), or vehicle for 4 days with no access to ethanol during this period. One day after the last cannabinoid injection, all animals were challenged with ethanol (2.0 g/kg) to evaluate the expression of the locomotor sensitization. Mice treated with THC alone or THC + CBD showed reduced expression of locomotor sensitization, compared to the vehicle control group. No effects were observed with CBD treatment alone. Our findings showing that phytocannabinoid treatment prevents the expression of behavioral sensitization in mice provide insight into the potential therapeutic use of phytocannabinoids in alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic THC during adolescence increases the vulnerability to stress-induced relapse to heroin seeking in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Stopponi, Serena; Soverchia, Laura; Ubaldi, Massimo; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    Cannabis derivatives are among the most widely used illicit substances among young people. The addictive potential of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis is well documented in scientific literature. However, the consequence of THC exposure during adolescence on occurrence of addiction for other drugs of abuse later in life is still controversial. To explore this aspect of THC pharmacology, in the present study, we treated adolescent rats from postnatal day (PND) 35 to PND-46 with increasing daily doses of THC (2.5-10mg/kg). One week after intoxication, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. One month later (starting from PND 75), rats were trained to operantly self-administer heroin intravenously. Finally, following extinction phase, reinstatement of lever pressing elicited by the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine (1.25mg/kg) was evaluated. Data revealed that in comparison to controls, animals treated with chronic THC during adolescence showed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior. When tested for heroin (20μg per infusion) self-administration, no significant differences were observed in both the acquisition of operant responding and heroin intake at baseline. Noteworthy, following the extinction phase, administration of yohimbine elicited a significantly higher level of heroin seeking in rats previously exposed to THC. Altogether these findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to THC during adolescence is responsible for heightened anxiety and increased vulnerability to drug relapse in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. THC alters alters morphology of neurons in medial prefrontal cortex, orbital prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens and alters the ability of later experience to promote structural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Bryan; Li, Yilin; Robinson, Terry; Parker, Linda A

    2018-03-01

    Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). To determine if drugs other than psychomotor stimulants will also interfere with later experience-dependent structural plasticity we gave Long-Evans rats THC (0.5 mg/kg) or saline for 11 days before placing them in complex environments or standard laboratory caging for 90 days. Brains were subsequently processed for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology and spine density mPFC, orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and NAcc. THC altered both dendritic arborization and spine density in all three regions, and, like psychomotor stimulants, THC influenced the effect of later experience in complex environments to shape the structure of neurons in these three regions. We conclude that THC may therefore contribute to persistent behavioral and cognitive deficits associated with prolonged use of the drug. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Stability of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in Prepared Quality Control Medible Brownies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Carl E; Poklis, Justin L; Poklis, Alphonse

    2017-03-01

    The legalization of marijuana in the USA for both medicinal and recreational use has increased in the past few years. Currently, 24 states have legalized marijuana for medicinal use. The US Drug Enforcement Administration has classified marijuana as a Schedule I substance. The US Food and Drug Administration does not regulate formulations or packages of marijuana that are currently marketed in states that have legalized marijuana. Marijuana edibles or "medibles" are typically packages of candies and baked goods consumed for medicinal as well as recreational marijuana use. They contain major psychoactive drug in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and/or cannabidiol (CBD), which has reputed medical properties. Presented is a method for the preparation and application of THC and CBD containing brownies used as quality control (QC) material for the analysis of marijuana or cannabinoid baked medibles. The performance parameters of the assay including possible matrix effects and cannabinoid stability in the brownie QC over time are presented. It was determined that the process used to prepare and bake the brownie control material did not degrade the THC or CBD. The brownie matrix was found not to interfere with the analysis of a THC or a CBD. Ten commercially available brownie matrixes were evaluated for potential interferences; none of them were found to interfere with the analysis of THC or CBD. The laboratory baked medible QC material was found to be stable at room temperature for at least 3 months. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. [Time profile of serum THC levels in occasional and chronic marihuana smokers after acute drog use - implication for drivind motor vehicles].

    PubMed

    Balíková, Marie; Hložek, Tomáš; Páleníček, Tomáš; Tylš, Filip; Viktorinová, Michaela; Melicher, Tomáš; Androvičová, Renáta; Tomíček, Pavel; Roman, Michal; Horáček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis consumption has individual influence to cognitive and psychomotor functions of drivers and it has been generally accepted that driving under influence is risky in the perspective of traffic safety. However, rules how to assess fitness to drive are not quite clear. The psychoactive compound delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) impairs cognition, psychomotor behaviour and driving performance in a dose-related manner approximately. After a single drug dose, THC blood concentration peaks within minutes, before the end of smoking, with a subsequent rapid decrease to the analytical limit of detection. Peak euphoria is delayed compared to THC peak blood concentration and physiological and behavioural effects return to baseline within 3-5 hours. In chronic users, the lipophilic THC accumulates in fat tissues, where its slow redistribution into blood is the rate limiting process in its terminal elimination. In our experimental study we have attempted to contribute to this discussion with results obtained from human volunteers - cannabis consumers in Czech Republic. Aim of our study was to document the time profile of serum THC level in occasional and chronic cannabis users. The observational interval covered the time immediately after the drug consumption (an own cigarette/joint) till 24 hours after. Our preliminary results have shown that in occasional users, THC serum levels cannot be detected already 4 hours after usual cannabis dose, whereas in chronic users measurable THC concentrations in serum persist longer. Moreover, some chronic consumers were practically with permanent THC detection during our observation period and also the chronic users consumed higher THC doses significantly related to doses in occasional ones. Presented results of the experimental study with human volunteers confirm a great individual variability of the kinetic profile of THC in blood due to complicated redistribution. The practical forensic question is how long the psychotropic

  13. A Multiple-Dose, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group QT/QTc Study to Evaluate the Electrophysiologic Effects of THC/CBD Spray.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Edward M; Schoedel, Kerri; Bartlett, Cindy; Romach, Myroslava; Russo, Ethan B; Stott, Colin G; Wright, Stephen; White, Linda; Duncombe, Paul; Chen, Chien-Feng

    2013-07-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray has proved efficacious in the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis and chronic pain. A thorough QT/QTc study was performed to investigate the effects of THC/CBD spray on electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters in compliance with regulatory requirements, evaluating the effect of a recommended daily dose (8 sprays/day) and supratherapeutic doses (24 or 36 sprays/day) of THC/CBD spray on the QT/QTc interval in 258 healthy volunteers. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic profile of THC/CBD spray were also evaluated. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of THC/CBD spray had no effect on cardiac repolarization with primary and secondary endpoints of QTcI and QTcF/QTcB, respectively, showing similar results. There was no indication of any effect on heart rate, atrioventricular conduction, or cardiac depolarization and no new clinically relevant morphological changes were observed. Overall, 19 subjects (25.0%) in the supratherapeutic (24/36 daily sprays of THC/CBD spray) dose group and one (1.6%) in the moxifloxacin group withdrew early due to intolerable AEs. Four psychiatric serious adverse events (AEs) in the highest dose group resulted in a reduction in the surpatherapeutic dose to 24 sprays/day. In conclusion, THC/CBD spray does not significantly affect ECG parameters. Additionally, THC/CBD spray is well tolerated at therapeutic doses with an AE profile similar to previous clinical studies. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Sex-Dependent Psychoneuroendocrine Effects of THC and MDMA in an Animal Model of Adolescent Drug Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Llorente-Berzal, Alvaro; Puighermanal, Emma; Burokas, Aurelijus; Ozaita, Andrés; Maldonado, Rafael; Marco, Eva M.; Viveros, Maria-Paz

    2013-01-01

    Ecstasy is a drug that is usually consumed by young people at the weekends and frequently, in combination with cannabis. In the present study we have investigated the long-term effects of administering increasing doses of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC; 2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg; i.p.] from postnatal day (pnd) 28 to 45, alone and/or in conjunction with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA; two daily doses of 10 mg/kg every 5 days; s.c.] from pnd 30 to 45, in both male and female Wistar rats. When tested one day after the end of the pharmacological treatment (pnd 46), MDMA administration induced a reduction in directed exploration in the holeboard test and an increase in open-arm exploration in an elevated plus maze. In the long-term, cognitive functions in the novel object test were seen to be disrupted by THC administration to female but not male rats. In the prepulse inhibition test, MDMA-treated animals showed a decrease in prepulse inhibition at the most intense prepulse studied (80 dB), whereas in combination with THC it induced a similar decrease at 75 dB. THC decreased hippocampal Arc expression in both sexes, while in the frontal cortex this reduction was only evident in females. MDMA induced a reduction in ERK1/2 immunoreactivity in the frontal cortex of male but not female animals, and THC decreased prepro-orexin mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of males, although this effect was prevented when the animals also received MDMA. The results presented indicate that adolescent exposure to THC and/or MDMA induces long-term, sex-dependent psychophysiological alterations and they reveal functional interactions between the two drugs. PMID:24223797

  15. Impaired functional connectivity of brain reward circuitry in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use disorder: Effects of cannabis and THC.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Adina S; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Roth, Robert M; Brunette, Mary F; Green, Alan I

    2014-09-01

    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) occurs in up to 42% of patients with schizophrenia and substantially worsens disease progression. The basis of CUD in schizophrenia is unclear and available treatments are rarely successful at limiting cannabis use. We have proposed that a dysregulated brain reward circuit (BRC) may underpin cannabis use in these patients. In the present pilot study, we used whole-brain seed-to-voxel resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) to examine the BRC of patients with schizophrenia and CUD, and to explore the effects of smoked cannabis and orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the BRC. 12 patients with schizophrenia and CUD and 12 control subjects each completed two fMRI resting scans, with patients administered either a 3.6% THC cannabis cigarette (n=6) or a 15 mg THC capsule (n=6) prior to their second scan. Results revealed significantly reduced connectivity at baseline in patients relative to controls, with most pronounced hypoconnectivity found between the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortical BRC regions (i.e., anterior prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex). Both cannabis and THC administration increased connectivity between these regions, in direct correlation with increases in plasma THC levels. This study is the first to investigate interregional connectivity of the BRC and the effects of cannabis and THC on this circuit in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. The findings from this pilot study support the use of rs-fc as a means of measuring the integrity of the BRC and the effects of pharmacologic agents acting on this circuit in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Impaired Functional Connectivity of Brain Reward Circuitry in Patients with Schizophrenia and Cannabis Use Disorder: Effects of Cannabis and THC

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Adina S.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Roth, Robert M.; Brunette, Mary F.; Green, Alan I.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use disorder (CUD) occurs in up to 42% of patients with schizophrenia and substantially worsens disease progression. The basis of CUD in schizophrenia is unclear and available treatments are rarely successful at limiting cannabis use. We have proposed that a dysregulated brain reward circuit (BRC) may underpin cannabis use in these patients. In the present pilot study, we used whole-brain seed-to-voxel resting state functional connectivity (rs-fc) to examine the BRC of patients with schizophrenia and CUD, and to explore the effects of smoked cannabis and orally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the BRC. 12 patients with schizophrenia and CUD and 12 control subjects each completed two fMRI resting scans, with patients administered either a 3.6% THC cannabis cigarette (n=6) or a 15mg THC capsule (n=6) prior to their second scan. Results revealed significantly reduced connectivity at baseline in patients relative to controls, with most pronounced hypoconnectivity found between the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortical BRC regions (i.e., anterior prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex). Both cannabis and THC administration increased connectivity between these regions, in direct correlation with increases in plasma THC levels. This study is the first to investigate interregional connectivity of the BRC and the effects of cannabis and THC on this circuit in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. The findings from this pilot study support the use of rs-fc as a means of measuring the integrity of the BRC and the effects of pharmacologic agents acting on this circuit in patients with schizophrenia and CUD. PMID:25037524

  17. Decision making of heavy cannabis users on the Iowa Gambling Task: stronger association with THC of hair analysis than with personality traits of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Derik; Leménager, Tagrid; Gelbke, Jan; Welzel, Helga; Skopp, Gisela; Mann, Karl

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear whether impairment in decision making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), in addiction is substance-induced or the consequence of personality structure. Analysis of the IGT, the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and cannabinoids in hair and urine were performed in 13 cannabis users and matched controls. Hair Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) correlated negatively with the last subtrial (cards 80-100) of the IGT (R = -0.67). In all participants (n = 26) the TPQ dimension, harm avoidance, correlated negatively with the total IGT score (R = -0.46). The last IGT-subtrial correlated with adventure seeking (R = 0.43), harm avoidance (R = -0.39) and reward dependence (R = -0.44). The last subtrial gives information on whether a participant has learned the IGT strategy. Multiple regression confirmed the impact of THC on the last subtrial, whereas TPQ personality traits did not additionally explain variance. Former indications of the IGT performance depending on the amount of cannabis consumed were replicated with an objective measurement of chronic cannabis consumption (hair THC). Multiple regression analysis argues for a stronger impact of chronic THC consumption than personality traits, but does not provide a causal relationship. Other factors (e.g. genetic) may also play a role. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Tetrahydrocannabinol and endocannabinoids in feeding and appetite.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elliot M; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2002-08-01

    The physiological control of appetite and satiety, in which numerous neurotransmitters and neuropeptides play a role, is extremely complex. Here we describe the involvement of endocannabinoids in these processes. These endogenous neuromodulators enhance appetite in animals. The same effect is observed in animals and in humans with the psychotropic plant cannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which is an approved appetite-enhancing drug. The CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A blocks the effects on feeding produced by the endocannabinoids. If administered to mice pups, this antagonist blocks suckling. In obese humans, it causes weight reduction. Very little is known about the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in the effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and the cannabinoids in feeding and appetite.

  19. Testing the effects of Δ9-THC and D-cycloserine on extinction of conditioned fear in humans

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Floris; Denys, Damiaan; Kenemans, J Leon; Grillon, Christian; van der Aart, Jasper; Baas, Johanna MP

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical evidence implicates several neurotransmitter systems in the extinction of conditioned fear. These results are of great interest, because the reduction of acquired fear associations is critical in therapies for anxiety disorders. We tested whether findings with respect to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and cannabinoid receptor (CB) systems in animals carry over to healthy human subjects. To that end, we administered selected doses of D-cycloserine (partial NMDA receptor agonist, 250 mg), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, CB1 receptor agonist, 10 mg), or placebo prior to the extinction session of a 3-day conditioning protocol. D-cycloserine did not affect within-session extinction, or the retention of extinction in healthy human participants, in contrast with patient data but in line with previous reports in healthy volunteers. During extinction training, Δ9-THC reduced conditioned skin conductance responses, but not fear-potentiated startle. This effect was not retained at the retention test 2 days later, suggesting it was dependent on acute effects of the drug. Our findings implicate that facilitation of the CB1 or NMDA system with the substances used in this study does not affect conditioned fear extinction lastingly in healthy humans. The apparent discrepancy between these findings and the results from (pre-) clinical trials is discussed in terms of room for improvement in these systems in healthy volunteers, and the lack of specificity of THC as a CB1 agonist. PMID:22351380

  20. THC and endocannabinoids differentially regulate neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the subchronic PCP model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, David D; Giuffrida, Andrea; Lodge, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk to develop schizophrenia as well as symptom exacerbation in patients. In contrast, clinical studies have revealed an inverse relationship between the cerebrospinal fluid levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and symptom severity, suggesting a therapeutic potential for endocannabinoid-enhancing drugs. Indeed, preclinical studies have shown that these drugs can reverse distinct behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia. The mechanisms underlying the differences between exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid administration are currently unknown. Using the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia, we compared the effects on neuronal activity of systematic administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597. Specifically, we found that the inhibitory response in the prefrontal cortex to THC administration was absent in PCP-treated rats. In contrast, an augmented response to endocannabinoid upregulation was observed in the prefrontal cortex of PCP-treated rats. Interestingly, differential effects were also observed at the neuronal population level, as endocannabinoid upregulation induced opposite effects on coordinated activity when compared with THC. Such information is important for understanding why marijuana and synthetic cannabinoid use may be contraindicated in schizophrenia patients while endocannabinoid enhancement may provide a novel therapeutic approach. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Distribution of Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Acid in Postmortem Biological Fluids and Tissues From Pilots Fatally Injured in Aviation Accidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    classified as current marijuana ( Cannabis sativa) users in the United States and 5.4 million people aged 12 and older used marijuana on a daily or almost...report from the European Union, cannabis use is common in many parts of the world.3 As a result of such widespread marijuana use and its well...knowledge regarding the postmortem distribution of cannabi - noids in humans primarily because cannabinoid testing is not routine in many postmortem

  2. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Postmortem Fluid and Tissue Concentrations of THC, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Sunday R; Lewis, Russell J; Angier, Mike K; Wagner, Jarrad R

    2017-07-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug worldwide. Marijuana is used for its euphoric and relaxing properties. However, marijuana use has been shown to result in impaired memory, cognitive skills and psychomotor function. The Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute conducts toxicological analysis on aviation fatalities. Due to severe trauma associated with aviation accidents, blood is not always available; therefore, the laboratory must rely on specimens other than blood for toxicological analysis in ~30-40% of cases. However, the postmortem distribution of cannabinoids has not been well characterized. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the distribution of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and THC-COOH, in postmortem fluid and tissue specimens from 11 fatal aviation accident cases (2014-2015) previously found positive for cannabinoids. Specimens evaluated, when available, included: blood, urine, vitreous humor, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, muscle, brain, heart and bile. We developed and validated (following SWGTOX guidelines) a sensitive and robust method using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantify THC, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH in postmortem fluids and tissues. The method readily identified and quantified these cannabinoids in postmortem fluids and tissues below 1 ng/mL. Qualitative cannabinoid results within each case were comparable between blood and non-blood specimens. However, there was no consistent distribution of the cannabinoids between blood and any other fluids or tissues. Therefore, while quantitative interpretation of non-blood postmortem fluid and tissues samples is not prudent, a majority of the non-blood specimens tested could be suitable alternative/supplemental choices for qualitative cannabinoid detection. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US

  4. Simultaneous quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in human plasma using two-dimensional gas chromatography, cryofocusing, and electron impact-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Ross H.; Karschner, Erin L.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography/electron impact-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) method for simultaneous quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH) in human plasma was developed and validated. The method employs 2D capillary GC and cryofocusing for enhanced resolution and sensitivity. THC, 11-OH-THC, and THCCOOH were extracted by precipitation with acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction. GC separation of trimethylsilyl derivatives of analytes was accomplished with two capillary columns in series coupled via a pneumatic Deans switch system. Detection and quantification were accomplished with a bench-top single quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in electron impact-selected ion monitoring mode. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.125, 0.25 and 0.125 ng/mL for THC, 11-OH-THC, and THCCOOH, respectively. Accuracy ranged from 86.0 to 113.0% for all analytes. Intra- and inter-assay precision, as percent relative standard deviation, was less than 14.1% for THC, 11-OH-THC, and THCCOOH. The method was successfully applied to quantification of THC and its 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH metabolites in plasma specimens following controlled administration of THC. PMID:17640656

  5. Dose-Related Modulation of Event-Related Potentials to Novel and Target Stimuli by Intravenous Δ9-THC in Humans

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Fridberg, Daniel J; Skosnik, Patrick D; Williams, Ashley; Roach, Brian; Singh, Nagendra; Carbuto, Michelle; Elander, Jacqueline; Schnakenberg, Ashley; Pittman, Brian; Sewell, R Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini; Mathalon, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids induce a host of perceptual alterations and cognitive deficits in humans. However, the neural correlates of these deficits have remained elusive. The current study examined the acute, dose-related effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on psychophysiological indices of information processing in humans. Healthy subjects (n=26) completed three test days during which they received intravenous Δ9-THC (placebo, 0.015 and 0.03 mg/kg) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized, cross-over, and counterbalanced design. Psychophysiological data (electroencephalography) were collected before and after drug administration while subjects engaged in an event-related potential (ERP) task known to be a valid index of attention and cognition (a three-stimulus auditory ‘oddball' P300 task). Δ9-THC dose-dependently reduced the amplitude of both the target P300b and the novelty P300a. Δ9-THC did not have any effect on the latency of either the P300a or P300b, or on early sensory-evoked ERP components preceding the P300 (the N100). Concomitantly, Δ9-THC induced psychotomimetic effects, perceptual alterations, and subjective ‘high' in a dose-dependent manner. Δ9-THC -induced reductions in P3b amplitude correlated with Δ9-THC-induced perceptual alterations. Lastly, exploratory analyses examining cannabis use status showed that whereas recent cannabis users had blunted behavioral effects to Δ9-THC, there were no dose-related effects of Δ9-THC on P300a/b amplitude between cannabis-free and recent cannabis users. Overall, these data suggest that at doses that produce behavioral and subjective effects consistent with the known properties of cannabis, Δ9-THC reduced P300a and P300b amplitudes without altering the latency of these ERPs. Cannabinoid agonists may therefore disrupt cortical processes responsible for context updating and the automatic orientation of attention, while leaving processing speed and earlier sensory ERP components intact

  6. THC and endocannabinoids differentially regulate neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in the sub-chronic PCP model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, David D; Giuffrida, Andrea; Lodge, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with an increased risk to develop schizophrenia as well as symptom exacerbation in patients. In contrast, clinical studies have revealed an inverse relationship between the CSF levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and symptom severity, suggesting a therapeutic potential for endocannabinoid enhancing drugs. Indeed, preclinical studies have shown that these drugs can reverse distinct behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia. The mechanisms underlying the differences between exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid administration are currently unknown. Using the phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia, we compared the effects on neuronal activity of systematic administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597. Specifically, we found that the inhibitory response in the prefrontal cortex to THC administration was absent in PCP-treated rats. In contrast, an augmented response to endocannabinoid upregulation was observed in the prefrontal cortex of PCP-treated rats. Interestingly, differential effects were also observed at the neuronal population level, as endocannabinoid upregulation induced opposite effects on coordinated activity when compared to THC. Such information is important for understanding why marijuana and synthetic cannabinoid use may be contraindicated in schizophrenia patients while endocannabinoid enhancement may provide a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:26510449

  7. Development of a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites in rat whole blood after oral administration of a single high dose of CBD.

    PubMed

    Palazzoli, Federica; Citti, Cinzia; Licata, Manuela; Vilella, Antonietta; Manca, Letizia; Zoli, Michele; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Forni, Flavio; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2018-02-20

    The investigation of the possible conversion of cannabidiol (CBD) into Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vivo after oral administration of CBD is reported herein since recent publications suggested a rapid conversion in simulated gastric fluid. To this end, single high dose of CBD (50mg/kg) was administered orally to rats and their blood was collected after 3 and 6h. A highly sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated in compliance with the Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) standard practices for method validation in forensic toxicology. This method also involved the optimization of cannabinoids and their metabolites extraction in order to remove co-eluting phospholipids and increase the sensitivity of the MS detection. Neither THC nor its metabolites were detected in rat whole blood after 3 or 6h from CBD administration. After oral administration, the amount of CBD dissolved in olive oil was higher than that absorbed from an ethanolic solution. This could be explained by the protection of lipid excipients towards CBD from acidic gastric juice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Population pharmacokinetics model of THC used by pulmonary route in occasional cannabis smokers.

    PubMed

    Marsot, A; Audebert, C; Attolini, L; Lacarelle, B; Micallef, J; Blin, O

    Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main source of the pharmacological effect. Some studies have been carried out and showed significant variability in the described models as the values of the estimated pharmacokinetic parameters. The objective of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for THC in occasional cannabis smokers. Twelve male volunteers (age: 20-28years, body weight: 62.5-91.0kg), tobacco (3-8 cigarette per day) and cannabis occasional smokers were recruited from the local community. After ad libitum smoking cannabis cigarette according a standardized procedure, 16 blood samples up to 72h were collected. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a non-linear mixed effects model, with NONMEM software. Demographic and biological data were investigated as covariates. A three-compartment model with first-order elimination fitted the data. The model was parameterized in terms of micro constants and central volume of distribution (V 1 ). Normal ALT concentration (6.0 to 45.0IU/l) demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with k 10 . The mean values (%Relative Standard Error (RSE)) for k 10 , k 12 , k 21 , k 23 , k 32 and V 1 were 0.408h -1 (48.8%), 4.070h -1 (21.4%), 0.022h -1 (27.0%), 1.070h -1 (14.3%), 1.060h -1 (16.7%) and 19.10L (39.7%), respectively. We have developed a population pharmacokinetic model able to describe the quantitative relationship between administration of inhaled doses of THC and the observed plasma concentrations after smoking cannabis. In addition, a linear relationship between ALT concentration and value of k 10 has been described and request further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-lasting alterations of hippocampal GABAergic neurotransmission in adult rats following perinatal Δ9-THC exposure.

    PubMed

    Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea Celeste; Tomasini, Maria Cristina; Morgano, Lucia; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tanganelli, Sergio; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Luca

    2017-03-01

    The long-lasting effects of gestational cannabinoids exposure on the adult brain of the offspring are still controversial. It has already been shown that pre- or perinatal cannabinoids exposure induces learning and memory disruption in rat adult offspring, associated with permanent alterations of cortical glutamatergic neurotransmission and cognitive deficits. In the present study, the risk of long-term consequences induced by perinatal exposure to cannabinoids on rat hippocampal GABAergic system of the offspring, has been explored. To this purpose, pregnant rats were treated daily with Delta 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC; 5mg/kg) or its vehicle. Perinatal exposure to Δ 9 -THC induced a significant reduction (p<0.05) in basal and K + -evoked [ 3 H]-GABA outflow of 90-day-old rat hippocampal slices. These effects were associated with a reduction of hippocampal [ 3 H]-GABA uptake compared to vehicle exposed group. Perinatal exposure to Δ 9 -THC induced a significant reduction of CB1 receptor binding (B max ) in the hippocampus of 90-day-old rats. However, a pharmacological challenge with either Δ 9 -THC (0.1μM) or WIN55,212-2 (2μM), similarly reduced K + -evoked [ 3 H]-GABA outflow in both experimental groups. These reductions were significantly blocked by adding the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A. These findings suggest that maternal exposure to cannabinoids induces long-term alterations of hippocampal GABAergic system. Interestingly, previous behavioral studies demonstrated that, under the same experimental conditions as in the present study, perinatal cannabinoids exposure induced cognitive impairments in adult rats, thus resembling some effects observed in humans. Although it is difficult and sometimes misleading to extrapolate findings obtained from animal models to humans, the possibility that an alteration of hippocampus aminoacidergic transmission might underlie, at least in part, some of the cognitive deficits affecting the offspring

  10. Identification and quantification of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide (THC-COOH-glu) in hair by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as a potential hair biomarker of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; Marchei, Emilia; Martello, Simona; Gottardi, Massimo; Pellegrini, Manuela; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Lotti, Andrea; Chiarotti, Marcello; Pacifici, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    We developed and validated an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to identify and quantify 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide in hair of cannabis consumers. After hair washing with methyl alcohol and diethyl ether and subsequent addition of amiodarone as internal standard hair samples were treated with 500 μl VMA-T M3 buffer reagent for 1 h at 100 °C. After cooling, 10 μl VMA-T M3 extract were injected into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase column using a linear gradient elution with two solvents: 5 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 (solvent A) and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile (solvent B). The flow rate was kept constant at 0.4 ml/min during the analysis. The separated analytes were detected with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization. Linear calibration curves were obtained for 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide with correlation coefficients (r(2)) of 0.99 and a limit of quantification of 0.25 pg/mg hair. Analytical recovery was between 79.6% and 100.7% and intra- and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy were always lower than 15%. Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of 20 different hair samples of cannabis consumers disclosed the presence of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide in the range of 0.5-8.6 pg/mg hair. These data provided a good start to consider 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid glucuronide as alternative hair biomarker of cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term hippocampal glutamate synapse and astrocyte dysfunctions underlying the altered phenotype induced by adolescent THC treatment in male rats.

    PubMed

    Zamberletti, Erica; Gabaglio, Marina; Grilli, Massimo; Prini, Pamela; Catanese, Alberto; Pittaluga, Anna; Marchi, Mario; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis use has been frequently associated with sex-dependent effects on brain and behavior. We previously demonstrated that adult female rats exposed to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence develop long-term alterations in cognitive performances and emotional reactivity, whereas preliminary evidence suggests the presence of a different phenotype in male rats. To thoroughly depict the behavioral phenotype induced by adolescent THC exposure in male rats, we treated adolescent animals with increasing doses of THC twice a day (PND 35-45) and, at adulthood, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to measure affective- and psychotic-like symptoms as well as cognition. Poorer memory performance and psychotic-like behaviors were present after adolescent THC treatment in male rats, without alterations in the emotional component. At cellular level, the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit, GluN2B, as well as the levels of the AMPA subunits, GluA1 and GluA2, were significantly increased in hippocampal post-synaptic fractions from THC-exposed rats compared to controls. Furthermore, increases in the levels of the pre-synaptic marker, synaptophysin, and the post-synaptic marker, PSD95, were also present. Interestingly, KCl-induced [(3)H]D-ASP release from hippocampal synaptosomes, but not gliosomes, was significantly enhanced in THC-treated rats compared to controls. Moreover, in the same brain region, adolescent THC treatment also resulted in a persistent neuroinflammatory state, characterized by increased expression of the astrocyte marker, GFAP, increased levels of the pro-inflammatory markers, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2, as well as a concomitant reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Notably, none of these alterations was observed in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Together with our previous findings in females, these data suggest that the sex-dependent detrimental effects induced by adolescent THC exposure on adult behavior may rely on its

  12. Cannabidiol-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol interactions on acute pain and locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Britch, Stevie C; Wiley, Jenny L; Yu, Zhihao; Clowers, Brian H; Craft, Rebecca M

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) may potentiate or antagonize Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol's (THC) effects. The current study examined sex differences in CBD modulation of THC-induced antinociception, hypolocomotion, and metabolism. In Experiment 1, CBD (0, 10 or 30mg/kg) was administered 15min before THC (0, 1.8, 3.2, 5.6 or 10mg/kg), and rats were tested for antinociception and locomotion 15-360min post-THC injection. In Experiments 2 and 3, CBD (30mg/kg) was administered 13h or 15min before THC (1.8mg/kg); rats were tested for antinociception and locomotion 30-480min post-THC injection (Experiment 2), or serum samples were taken 30-360min post-THC injection to examine CBD modulation of THC metabolism (Experiment 3). In Experiment 1, CBD alone produced no antinociceptive effects, while enhancing THC-induced paw pressure but not tail withdrawal antinociception 4-6h post-THC injection. CBD alone increased locomotor activity at 6h post-injection, but enhanced THC-induced hypolocomotion 4-6h post-THC injection, at lower THC doses. There were no sex differences in CBD-THC interactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, CBD did not significantly enhance THC's effects when CBD was administered 13h or 15min before THC; however, CBD inhibited THC metabolism, and this effect was greater in females than males. These results suggest that CBD may enhance THC's antinociceptive and hypolocomotive effects, primarily prolonging THC's duration of action; however, these effects were small and inconsistent across experiments. CBD inhibition of THC metabolism as well other mechanisms likely contribute to CBD-THC interactions on behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of \\0x03949-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-\\0x03949-Tetrahydrocannabinol acid in postmortem biological fluids and tissues from pilots fatally injured in aviation accidents.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-12-01

    Despite a long history of research on the pharmacology of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active cannabinoid in marijuana, little is known of its distribution in postmortem fluids and tissues. This study presents postmortem fluid and tiss...

  14. Cannabis Intoxication Case Series: The Dangers of Edibles Containing Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Vo, Kathy T; Horng, Howard; Li, Kai; Ho, Raymond Y; Wu, Alan H B; Lynch, Kara L; Smollin, Craig G

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis and its principal active constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are increasingly available as edibles resembling commercially available food products. In this case series, we describe a population of predominantly pediatric patients who were inadvertently exposed to a THC-containing product in San Francisco. Twelve children and 9 adults were identified, with 16 patients having detectable serum THC and THC metabolites. All patients presented to hospitals with a variety of constitutional symptoms and all were discharged home within 12 hours. In general, pediatric patients had more severe symptoms and longer hospital length of stay, and, uniquely, a majority presented with leukocytosis and elevated lactic acid levels. We recommend that efforts be made to increase general public awareness in regard to the potential hazards of THC-containing edibles resembling commercially available food products. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel fast method for aqueous derivatization of THC, OH-THC and THC-COOH in human whole blood and urine samples for routine forensic analyses.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Fabio; Pesci, Federica Giorgia; Giusiani, Mario; Chericoni, Silvio

    2018-04-01

    A novel aqueous in situ derivatization procedure with propyl chloroformate (PCF) for the simultaneous, quantitative analysis of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (OH-THC) and 11-nor-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in human blood and urine is proposed. Unlike current methods based on the silylating agent [N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide] added in an anhydrous environment, this new proposed method allows the addition of the derivatizing agent (propyl chloroformate, PCF) directly to the deproteinized blood and recovery of the derivatives by liquid-liquid extraction. This novel method can be also used for hydrolyzed urine samples. It is faster than the traditional method involving a derivatization with trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate. The analytes are separated, detected and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, capacity of identification, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), carryover, linearity, intra-assay precision, inter-assay precision and accuracy. The LOD and LOQ in hydrolyzed urine were 0.5 and 1.3 ng/mL for THC and 1.2 and 2.6 ng/mL for THC-COOH, respectively. In blood, the LOD and LOQ were 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL for THC, 0.2 and 0.6 ng/mL for OH-THC, and 0.9 and 2.4 ng/mL for THC-COOH, respectively. This method was applied to 35 urine samples and 50 blood samples resulting to be equivalent to the previously used ones with the advantage of a simpler method and faster sample processing time. We believe that this method will be a more convenient option for the routine analysis of cannabinoids in toxicological and forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Determination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Δ9-THCA-A) in whole blood and plasma by LC-MS/MS and application in authentic samples from drivers suspected of driving under the influence of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Nikolaos; Schmid, Helene; Nussbaumer, Susanne; Ambach, Lars; Lanz, Stephan; Längin, Andreas; König, Stefan; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2014-10-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) is the biosynthetic precursor of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis plants, and has no psychotropic effects. THCA-A can be detected in blood and urine, and several metabolites have been identified. THCA-A was also shown to be incorporated in hair by side stream smoke to a minor extent, but incorporation via blood stream or sweat seems unlikely. The detection of THCA-A in biological fluids may serve as a marker for differentiating between the intake of prescribed THC medication - containing only pure THC - and cannabis products containing THC besides THC-acid A and other cannabinoids. However, the knowledge about its usefulness in forensic cases is very limited. The aim of the present work was the development of a reliable method for THCA-A determination in human blood or plasma using LC-MS/MS and application to cases of driving under the influence of drugs. Fifty eight (58) authentic whole blood and the respective plasma samples were collected from drivers suspected of driving under the influence of cannabis from the region of Bern (Switzerland). Samples were first tested for THC, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH, and then additionally for THCA-A. For this purpose, the existing LC-MS/MS method was modified and validated, and found to be selective and linear over a range of 1.0 to 200ng/mL (the correlation coefficients were above 0.9980 in all validation runs). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.3ng/mL and 1.0ng/mL respectively. Intra- and inter-assay accuracy were equal or better than 90% and intra- and inter-assay precision were equal or better than 11.1%. The mean extraction efficiencies were satisfactory being equal or higher than 85.4%. THCA-A was stable in whole blood samples after 3 freeze/thaw cycles and storage at 4°C for 7 days. Re-injection (autosampler) stability was also satisfactory. THC was present in all blood samples with levels ranging from 0.7 to 51ng/mL. THCA

  17. Inhibition of the cataleptic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol by other constituents of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Formukong, E A; Evans, A T; Evans, F J

    1988-02-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) induced catalepsy in mice, whereas a cannabis oil (6.68% w/w THC), four cannabinoids and a synthetic mixture did not. Cannabinol (CBN) and olivetol inhibited THC-induced catalepsy in the mornings and the evenings, but cannabidiol (CBD) exhibited this effect only in the evenings. A combination of CBN and CBD inhibited THC-induced catalepsy equal to that of CBN alone in the mornings, but this inhibition was greater than that produced by CBN alone in the evenings.

  18. Development and validation of an automated liquid-liquid extraction GC/MS method for the determination of THC, 11-OH-THC, and free THC-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) from blood serum.

    PubMed

    Purschke, Kirsten; Heinl, Sonja; Lerch, Oliver; Erdmann, Freidoon; Veit, Florian

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) from blood serum is a routine task in forensic toxicology laboratories. For examination of consumption habits, the concentration of the phase I metabolite THC-COOH is used. Recommendations for interpretation of analysis values in medical-psychological assessments (regranting of driver's licenses, Germany) include threshold values for the free, unconjugated THC-COOH. Using a fully automated two-step liquid-liquid extraction, THC, 11-OH-THC, and free, unconjugated THC-COOH were extracted from blood serum, silylated with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA), and analyzed by GC/MS. The automation was carried out by an x-y-z sample robot equipped with modules for shaking, centrifugation, and solvent evaporation. This method was based on a previously developed manual sample preparation method. Validation guidelines of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh) were fulfilled for both methods, at which the focus of this article is the automated one. Limits of detection and quantification for THC were 0.3 and 0.6 μg/L, for 11-OH-THC were 0.1 and 0.8 μg/L, and for THC-COOH were 0.3 and 1.1 μg/L, when extracting only 0.5 mL of blood serum. Therefore, the required limit of quantification for THC of 1 μg/L in driving under the influence of cannabis cases in Germany (and other countries) can be reached and the method can be employed in that context. Real and external control samples were analyzed, and a round robin test was passed successfully. To date, the method is employed in the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen, Germany, in daily routine. Automation helps in avoiding errors during sample preparation and reduces the workload of the laboratory personnel. Due to its flexibility, the analysis system can be employed for other liquid-liquid extractions as

  19. Long-Term Data of Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability in a Real-Life Setting of THC/CBD Oromucosal Spray-Treated Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Paolicelli, Damiano; Direnzo, Vita; Manni, Alessia; D'Onghia, Mariangela; Tortorella, Carla; Zoccolella, Stefano; Di Lecce, Valentina; Iaffaldano, Antonio; Trojano, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray was approved as add-on therapy for spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We show our 40-week postmarketing experience regarding efficacy and safety of THC/CBD spray in an Italian cohort of 102 MS patients. Patients were evaluated using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) for spasticity, the Ambulation Index (AI), and Timed 25-Foot Walk (T25-FW) at the beginning of treatment and then every 3 months. After 4 weeks, if a clinically significant improvement in spasticity (at least 20% of baseline NRS score) was not seen, administration of the drug was stopped. In our cohort, patients received an average of 6.5 ± 1.6 sprays each day. The mean reduction to the NRS spasticity score was 2.5 ± 1.2 points (P < .0001). Thirty-seven patients (36.2%) discontinued the treatment. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was 40.2%. Fifty-eight patients (56.9%) were also assessed using the NRS for pain, and 46 patients (45.1%) with bladder dysfunction were assessed for the IPSS (International Prostatic Symptoms Score) score, showing a significant improvement in these scales (P = .011 and P = .001, respectively). In conclusion, treatment with THC/CBD spray appears to be a valid answer to some of the unmet needs in MS patients, such as spasticity and other refractory-to-treatment symptoms. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. A multicentre, open-label, follow-on study to assess the long-term maintenance of effect, tolerance and safety of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in the management of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Hoggart, B; Ratcliffe, S; Ehler, E; Simpson, K H; Hovorka, J; Lejčko, J; Taylor, L; Lauder, H; Serpell, M

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathic pain (PNP) poses a significant clinical challenge. The long-term efficacy of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray was investigated in this 38-week open-label extension study. In total, 380 patients with PNP associated with diabetes or allodynia entered this study from two parent randomised, controlled trials. Patients received THC/CBD spray for a further 38 weeks in addition to their current analgesic therapy. Neuropathic pain severity was the primary efficacy measure using a pain 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS). Additional efficacy, safety and tolerability outcomes were also investigated. In total, 234 patients completed the study (62 %). The pain NRS showed a decrease in score over time in patients from a mean of 6.9 points (baseline in the parent studies) to a mean of 4.2 points (end of open-label follow-up). The proportion of patients who reported at least a clinically relevant 30 % improvement in pain continued to increase with time (up to 9 months); at least half of all patients reported a 30 % improvement at all time points. Improvements were observed for all secondary efficacy outcomes, including sleep quality 0-10 NRS scores, neuropathic pain scale scores, subject global impression of change and EQ-5D questionnaire scores. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated for the study duration and patients did not seek to increase their dose with time, with no new safety concerns arising from long-term use. In this previously difficult to manage patient population, THC/CBD spray was beneficial for the majority of patients with PNP associated with diabetes or allodynia.

  1. Development of a Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Amino Acid-Dicarboxylate Prodrug With Improved Ocular Bioavailability

    PubMed Central

    Adelli, Goutham R.; Bhagav, Prakash; Taskar, Pranjal; Hingorani, Tushar; Pettaway, Sara; Gul, Waseem; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Repka, Michael A.; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of the relatively hydrophilic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) prodrugs, mono and di-valine esters (THC-Val and THC-Val-Val) and the amino acid (valine)-dicarboxylic acid (hemisuccinate) ester (THC-Val-HS), with respect to ocular penetration and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering activity. THC, timolol, and pilocarpine eye drops were used as controls. Methods THC-Val, THC-Val-Val, and THC-Val-HS were synthesized and chemically characterized. Aqueous solubility and in vitro transcorneal permeability of THC and the prodrugs, in the presence of various surfactants and cyclodextrins, were determined. Two formulations were evaluated for therapeutic activity in the α-chymotrypsin induced rabbit glaucoma model, and the results were compared against controls comprising of THC emulsion and marketed timolol maleate and pilocarpine eye drops. Results THC-Val-HS demonstrated markedly improved solubility (96-fold) and in vitro permeability compared to THC. Selected formulations containing THC-Val-HS effectively delivered THC to the anterior segment ocular tissues in the anesthetized rabbits: 62.1 ng/100 μL of aqueous humor (AH) and 51.4 ng/50 mg of iris ciliary bodies (IC) (total THC). The duration and extent of IOP lowering induced by THC-Val-HS was 1 hour longer and 10% greater, respectively, than that obtained with THC and was comparable with the pilocarpine eye drops. Timolol ophthalmic drops, however, exhibited a longer duration of activity. Both THC and THC-Val-HS were detected in the ocular tissues following multiple dosing of THC-Val-HS in conscious animals. The concentration of THC in the iris-ciliary bodies at the 60- and 120-minute time points (53 and 57.4 ng/50 mg) were significantly greater than that of THC-Val-HS (24.2 and 11.3 ng/50 mg). Moreover, at the two time points studied, the concentration of THC was observed to increase or stay relatively constant, whereas THC-Val-HS concentration decreased

  2. Biological effects of THC and a lipophilic cannabis extract on normal and insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gallant, M; Odei-Addo, F; Frost, C L; Levendal, R-A

    2009-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, a chronic disease, affects about 150 million people world wide. It is characterized by insulin resistance of peripheral tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which in turn inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation. It has been reported that cannabis is used in the treatment of diabetes. A few reports indicate that smoking cannabis can lower blood glucose in diabetics. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. This study aimed to determine the effect of a lipophilic cannabis extract on adipogenesis, using 3T3-L1 cells, and to measure its effect on insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant adipocytes. Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and differentiated over a 3 day period for all studies. In the adipogenesis studies, differentiated cells were exposed to the extract in the presence and absence of insulin. Lipid content and glucose uptake was subsequently measured. Insulin-induced glucose uptake increased, while the rate of adipogenesis decreased with increasing THC concentration. Insulin-resistance was induced using TNF-alpha, exposed to the extract and insulin-induced glucose uptake measured. Insulin-induced glucose was increased in these cells after exposure to the extract. Semiquantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed after ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction to evaluate the effects of the extract on glucose transporter isotype 4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 gene expression.

  3. Cannabinoid ester constituents from high-potency Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Safwat A; Ross, Samir A; Slade, Desmond; Radwan, Mohamed M; Zulfiqar, Fazila; Matsumoto, Rae R; Xu, Yan-Tong; Viard, Eddy; Speth, Robert C; Karamyan, Vardan T; ElSohly, M A

    2008-04-01

    Eleven new cannabinoid esters, together with three known cannabinoid acids and Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Delta9-THC ), were isolated from a high-potency variety of Cannabis sativa. The structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses to be beta-fenchyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 1), epi-bornyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 2), alpha-terpenyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 3), 4-terpenyl Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 4), alpha-cadinyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 5), gamma-eudesmyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 6), gamma-eudesmyl cannabigerolate ( 7), 4-terpenyl cannabinolate ( 8), bornyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 9), alpha-fenchyl Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolate ( 10), alpha-cadinyl cannabigerolate ( 11), Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( Delta9-THC ), Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A ( Delta9-THCA ), cannabinolic acid A ( CBNA), and cannabigerolic acid ( CBGA). Compound 8 showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans ATCC 90028 with an IC 50 value of 8.5 microg/mL. The isolated acids and the ester-containing fractions showed low affinity to the CB-1 receptor. [corrected

  4. Pharmacokinetic and behavioural profile of THC, CBD, and THC+CBD combination after pulmonary, oral, and subcutaneous administration in rats and confirmation of conversion in vivo of CBD to THC.

    PubMed

    Hložek, Tomáš; Uttl, Libor; Kadeřábek, Lukáš; Balíková, Marie; Lhotková, Eva; Horsley, Rachel R; Nováková, Pavlína; Šíchová, Klára; Štefková, Kristýna; Tylš, Filip; Kuchař, Martin; Páleníček, Tomáš

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic and behavioural effects of, and interactions between Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are influenced by dose and administration route. Therefore we investigated, in Wistar rats, effects of pulmonary, oral and subcutaneous (sc.) THC, CBD and THC+CBD. Concentrations of THC, its metabolites 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH, and CBD in serum and brain were determined over 24h, locomotor activity (open field) and sensorimotor gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI) were also evaluated. In line with recent knowledge we expected metabolic and behavioural interactions between THC and CBD. While cannabinoid serum and brain levels rapidly peaked and diminished after pulmonary administration, sc. and oral administration produced long-lasting levels of cannabinoids with oral reaching the highest brain levels. Except pulmonary administration, CBD inhibited THC metabolism resulting in higher serum/brain levels of THC. Importantly, following sc. and oral CBD alone treatments, THC was also detected in serum and brain. S.c. cannabinoids caused hypolocomotion, oral treatments containing THC almost complete immobility. In contrast, oral CBD produced mild hyperlocomotion. CBD disrupted, and THC tended to disrupt PPI, however their combination did not. In conclusion, oral administration yielded the most pronounced behavioural effects which corresponded to the highest brain levels of cannabinoids. Even though CBD potently inhibited THC metabolism after oral and sc. administration, unexpectedly it had minimal impact on THC-induced behaviour. Of central importance was the novel finding that THC can be detected in serum and brain after administration of CBD alone which, if confirmed in humans and given the increasing medical use of CBD-only products, might have important legal and forensic ramifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on glucose uptake in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Miederer, I; Uebbing, K; Röhrich, J; Maus, S; Bausbacher, N; Krauter, K; Weyer-Elberich, V; Lutz, B; Schreckenberger, M; Urban, R

    2017-05-01

    Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected. The data were acquired for 70 min and arterial blood samples were collected throughout the scan. THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH were determined at 55 min p.i. Nine volumes of interest were defined, and the cerebral glucose uptake was calculated for each brain region. Low blood THC levels of < 1 ng/ml (injected dose: ≤ 0.01 mg/kg) corresponded to an increased glucose uptake (6-30 %), particularly in the hypothalamus (p = 0.007), while blood THC levels > 10 ng/ml (injected dose: ≥ 0.05 mg/kg) coincided with a decreased glucose uptake (-2 to -22 %), especially in the cerebellar cortex (p = 0.008). The effective concentration in this region was estimated 2.4 ng/ml. This glucose PET study showed that stimulation of CB1 receptors by THC affects the glucose uptake in the rat brain, whereby the effect of THC is regionally different and dependent on dose - an effect that may be of relevance in behavioural studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction between marihuana and altitude on a complex behavioral task in baboons.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    Marihuana, or its principal active ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), impairs performance on complex behavioral tasks in animals and man. Although there exists some evidence that altitude-induced hypoxia potentiates the physiologi...

  7. Can oral fluid cannabinoid testing monitor medication compliance and/or cannabis smoking during oral THC and oromucosal Sativex administration?

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Karschner, Erin L; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Goodwin, Robert S; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-06-01

    We characterize cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid (OF) after dronabinol, synthetic oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and Sativex, a cannabis-extract oromucosal spray, and evaluate whether smoked cannabis relapse or Sativex compliance can be identified with OF cannabinoid monitoring. 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low (5.4 mg THC, 5.0 mg cannabidiol (CBD)) and high (16.2 mg THC, 15.0 mg CBD) dose Sativex, and placebo were administered in random order (n=14). Oral fluid specimens were collected for 10.5 h after dosing and analyzed for THC, CBD, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). After oral THC, OF THC concentrations decreased over time from baseline, reflecting residual THC excretion from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. CBD and CBN also were rarely detected. After Sativex, THC, CBD and CBN increased greatly, peaking at 0.25-1 h. Median CBD/THC and CBN/THC ratios were 0.82-1.34 and 0.04-0.06, respectively, reflecting cannabinoids' composition in Sativex. THCCOOH/THC ratios within 4.5 h post Sativex were ≤ 1.6 pg/ng, always lower than after oral THC and placebo. THCCOOH/THC ratios increased throughout each dosing session. Lack of measurable THC, CBD and CBN in OF following oral THC, and high OF CBD/THC ratios after Sativex distinguish oral and sublingual drug delivery routes from cannabis smoking. Low THCCOOH/THC ratios suggest recent Sativex and smoked cannabis exposure. These data indicate that OF cannabinoid monitoring can document compliance with Sativex pharmacotherapy, and identify relapse to smoked cannabis during oral THC medication but not Sativex treatment, unless samples were collected shortly after smoking. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Can oral fluid cannabinoid testing monitor medication compliance and/or cannabis smoking during oral THC and oromucosal Sativex administration?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Karschner, Erin L.; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We characterize cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid (OF) after Dronabinol, synthetic oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and Sativex, a cannabis-extract oromucosal spray, and evaluate whether smoked cannabis relapse or Sativex compliance can be identified with OF cannabinoid monitoring. METHODS 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low (5.4 mg THC, 5.0 mg cannabidiol (CBD)) and high (16.2 mg THC, 15.0 mg CBD) dose Sativex, and placebo were administered in random order (n=14). Oral fluid specimens were collected for 10.5h after dosing and analyzed for THC, CBD, cannabinol (CBN), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). RESULTS After oral THC, OF THC concentrations decreased over time from baseline, reflecting residual THC excretion from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. CBD and CBN also were rarely detected. After Sativex, THC, CBD and CBN increased greatly, peaking at 0.25–1h. Median CBD/THC and CBN/THC ratios were 0.82–1.34 and 0.04–0.06, respectively, reflecting cannabinoids’ composition in Sativex. THCCOOH/THC ratios within 4.5h post Sativex were ≤1.6 pg/ng, always lower than after oral THC and placebo. THCCOOH/THC ratios increased throughout each dosing session. CONCLUSIONS Lack of measurable THC, CBD and CBN in OF following oral THC, and high OF CBD/THC ratios after Sativex distinguish oral and sublingual drug delivery routes from cannabis smoking. Low THCCOOH/THC ratios suggest recent Sativex and smoked cannabis exposure. These data indicate that OF cannabinoid monitoring can document compliance with Sativex pharmacotherapy, and identify relapse to smoked cannabis during oral THC medication but not Sativex treatment, unless samples were collected shortly after smoking. PMID:23146820

  9. Oral fluid cannabinoids in chronic cannabis smokers during oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol therapy and smoked cannabis challenge

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Mendu, Damodara R.; Anizan, Sebastien; Milman, Garry; Murray, Jeannie A.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is effective for attenuating cannabis withdrawal and may benefit treatment of cannabis use disorders. Oral fluid (OF) cannabinoid testing, increasing in forensic and workplace settings, could be valuable for monitoring during cannabis treatment. METHODS Eleven cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days, and received daily 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral THC in divided doses for 5 days. There was a 5-puff smoked cannabis challenge on the 5th day. Each medication session was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF was collected the evening prior to and throughout oral THC sessions and analyzed by 2-dimensional GC-MS for THC, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). RESULTS During all oral THC administrations, THC OF concentrations decreased to ≤78.2, 33.2, and 1.4 μg/L by 24, 48, and 72h, respectively. CBN also decreased over time with concentrations 10-fold lower than THC, with none detected beyond 69h. CBD and 11-OH-THC were rarely detected, only within 19 and 1.6h post smoking, respectively. THCCOOH OF concentrations were dose-dependent and increased over time during 120 mg THC dosing. After cannabis smoking, THC, CBN, and THCCOOH concentrations showed a significant dose-effect and decreased significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS Oral THC dosing significantly affected OF THCCOOH but minimally contributed to THC OF concentrations; prior ad libitum smoking was the primary source of THC, CBD and CBN. Higher cannabinoid concentrations following active oral THC administrations versus placebo suggest a compensatory effect of THC tolerance on smoking topography. PMID:23938457

  10. The effect of conditions influencing endogenous prostaglandins on the activity of delta'-tetrahydrocannabinol in mice.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, J W; Pickens, J T

    1980-07-01

    1 The cataleptic effect of delta'-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) depends upon the availability of the precursors of prostaglandins and the response is reduced in mice maintained on a diet deficient in arachidonic acid (AA) and restored by exogenous AA given intraperitoneally, or by feeding a normal diet. 2 In yeast-induced fever, which is accompanied by an increase in the synthesis of prostaglandins, THC shows an enhanced cataleptic effect. 3 Exposure to cold which results in depletion of prostaglandins reduces the effect of THC.

  11. 75 FR 71635 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of Five Synthetic Cannabinoids Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... have similar properties to delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) found in marijuana and have been found... these THC-like synthetic cannabinoids are marketed as ``legal'' alternatives to marijuana and are being...

  12. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in combination with the existing treatment regimen, in the relief of central neuropathic pain in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Mares, J; Novotna, A; Vachova, M; Novakova, I; Notcutt, W; Ratcliffe, S

    2013-04-01

    Central neuropathic pain (CNP) occurs in many multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The provision of adequate pain relief to these patients can very difficult. Here we report the first phase III placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of the endocannabinoid system modulator delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (USAN name, nabiximols; Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals, Salisbury, Wiltshire, UK), to alleviate CNP. Patients who had failed to gain adequate analgesia from existing medication were treated with THC/CBD spray or placebo as an add-on treatment, in a double-blind manner, for 14 weeks to investigate the efficacy of the medication in MS-induced neuropathic pain. This parallel-group phase of the study was then followed by an 18-week randomized-withdrawal study (14-week open-label treatment period plus a double-blind 4-week randomized-withdrawal phase) to investigate time to treatment failure and show maintenance of efficacy. A total of 339 patients were randomized to phase A (167 received THC/CBD spray and 172 received placebo). Of those who completed phase A, 58 entered the randomized-withdrawal phase. The primary endpoint of responder analysis at the 30 % level at week 14 of phase A of the study was not met, with 50 % of patients on THC/CBD spray classed as responders at the 30 % level compared to 45 % of patients on placebo (p = 0.234). However, an interim analysis at week 10 showed a statistically significant treatment difference in favor of THC/CBD spray at this time point (p = 0.046). During the randomized-withdrawal phase, the primary endpoint of time to treatment failure was statistically significant in favor of THC/CBD spray, with 57 % of patients receiving placebo failing treatment versus 24 % of patients from the THC/CBD spray group (p = 0.04). The mean change from baseline in Pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) (p = 0.028) and sleep quality NRS (p = 0.015) scores, both secondary endpoints in phase B, were also statistically

  13. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seeds, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Potential Overdose.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Lewis, Melissa M; Bello, Angelica M; Wasilewski, Ewa; Clarke, Hance A; Kotra, Lakshmi P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds are popular for their high nutrient content, and strict regulations are in place to limit the amount of potentially harmful phytocannabinoids, especially Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC). In Canada, this limit is 10 μg of Δ 9 -THC per gram of hemp seeds (10 ppm), and other jurisdictions in the world follow similar guidelines. Materials and Methods: We investigated three different brands of consumer-grade hemp seeds using four different procedures to extract phytocannabinoids, and quantified total Δ 9 -THC and cannabidiol (CBD). Discussion: We discovered that Δ 9 -THC concentrations in these hemp seeds could be as high as 1250% of the legal limit, and the amount of phytocannabinoids depended on the extraction procedure employed, Soxhlet extraction being the most efficient across all three brands of seeds. Δ 9 -THC and CBD exhibited significant variations in their estimated concentrations even from the same brand, reflecting the inhomogeneous nature of seeds and variability due to the extraction method, but almost in all cases, Δ 9 -THC concentrations were higher than the legal limit. These quantities of total Δ 9 -THC may reach as high as 3.8 mg per gram of hemp seeds, if one were consuming a 30-g daily recommended amount of hemp seeds, and is a cause for concern for potential toxicity. It is not clear if these high quantities of Δ 9 -THC are due to contamination of the seeds, or any other reason. Conclusion: Careful consideration of the extraction method is very important for the measurement of cannabinoids in hemp seeds.

  14. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) Seeds, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Potential Overdose

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Lewis, Melissa M.; Bello, Angelica M.; Wasilewski, Ewa; Clarke, Hance A.; Kotra, Lakshmi P.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cannabis sativa (hemp) seeds are popular for their high nutrient content, and strict regulations are in place to limit the amount of potentially harmful phytocannabinoids, especially Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). In Canada, this limit is 10 μg of Δ9-THC per gram of hemp seeds (10 ppm), and other jurisdictions in the world follow similar guidelines. Materials and Methods: We investigated three different brands of consumer-grade hemp seeds using four different procedures to extract phytocannabinoids, and quantified total Δ9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD). Discussion: We discovered that Δ9-THC concentrations in these hemp seeds could be as high as 1250% of the legal limit, and the amount of phytocannabinoids depended on the extraction procedure employed, Soxhlet extraction being the most efficient across all three brands of seeds. Δ9-THC and CBD exhibited significant variations in their estimated concentrations even from the same brand, reflecting the inhomogeneous nature of seeds and variability due to the extraction method, but almost in all cases, Δ9-THC concentrations were higher than the legal limit. These quantities of total Δ9-THC may reach as high as 3.8 mg per gram of hemp seeds, if one were consuming a 30-g daily recommended amount of hemp seeds, and is a cause for concern for potential toxicity. It is not clear if these high quantities of Δ9-THC are due to contamination of the seeds, or any other reason. Conclusion: Careful consideration of the extraction method is very important for the measurement of cannabinoids in hemp seeds. PMID:29098190

  15. Separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ⁹-THC in humans discriminating Δ⁹-THC.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2014-10-01

    Our previous research suggested the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in particular the GABAB receptor subtype, in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAA receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ(9)-THC using pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedures. Ten cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ(9)-THC from placebo and then received diazepam (5 and 10mg), Δ(9)-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Δ(9)-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug) and elevated heart rate. Diazepam alone impaired performance on psychomotor performance tasks and increased ratings on a limited number of self-report questionnaire items (e.g., Any Effect, Sedated), but did not substitute for the Δ(9)-THC discriminative stimulus or alter the Δ(9)-THC discrimination dose-response function. Similarly, diazepam had limited impact on the other behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC. These results suggest that the GABAA receptor subtype has minimal involvement in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective and physiological effects after controlled Sativex and oral THC administration.

    PubMed

    Karschner, E L; Darwin, W D; McMahon, R P; Liu, F; Wright, S; Goodwin, R S; Huestis, M A

    2011-03-01

    Sativex is a cannabis-plant extract delivering nearly 1:1 Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) by oromucosal spray. It has been suggested that CBD attenuates THC-induced tachycardia, anxiety, and euphoria. In this study, pharmacodynamic effects were compared over 10.5 h in nine cannabis smokers randomly assigned to receive placebo, 5 and 15 mg oral synthetic THC, and low (5.4 mg THC, 5.0 mg CBD) and high (16.2 mg THC, 15.0 mg CBD) doses of Sativex. At therapeutic doses, no substantial CBD-induced modulation of THC's effects was evident. Oral THC and Sativex produced similar, clinically insignificant increases in heart rate, anxiety, and "good drug effects" with no serious adverse events. Oral and oromucosal THC have slower absorption, lower rate of THC delivery to the brain, and fewer associated adverse events as compared with smoked cannabis. These results indicate that Sativex has a pharmacodynamic safety profile comparable to that of oral THC at low, therapeutic doses.

  17. Subjective and Physiological Effects After Controlled Sativex and Oral THC Administration

    PubMed Central

    Karschner, EL; Darwin, WD; McMahon, RP; Liu, F; Wright, S; Goodwin, RS; Huestis, MA

    2013-01-01

    Sativex is a cannabis-plant extract delivering nearly 1:1 Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) by oromucosal spray. It has been suggested that CBD attenuates THC-induced tachycardia, anxiety, and euphoria. In this study, pharmacodynamic effects were compared over 10.5 h in nine cannabis smokers randomly assigned to receive placebo, 5 and 15 mg oral synthetic THC, and low (5.4 mg THC, 5.0 mg CBD) and high (16.2 mg THC, 15.0 mg CBD) doses of Sativex. At therapeutic doses, no substantial CBD-induced modulation of THC's effects was evident. Oral THC and Sativex produced similar, clinically insignificant increases in heart rate, anxiety, and “good drug effects” with no serious adverse events. Oral and oromucosal THC have slower absorption, lower rate of THC delivery to the brain, and fewer associated adverse events as compared with smoked cannabis. These results indicate that Sativex has a pharmacodynamic safety profile comparable to that of oral THC at low, therapeutic doses. PMID:21289620

  18. Divergent effects of cannabidiol on the discriminative stimulus and place conditioning effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    PubMed Central

    Vann, Robert E.; Gamage, Thomas F.; Warner, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Ericka M.; Taylor, Nathan L.; Martin, Billy R.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana plant) contains myriad cannabinoid compounds; yet, investigative attention has focused almost exclusively on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its primary psychoactive substituent. Interest in modulation of THC’s effects by these other cannabinoids [e.g., cannabidiol (CBD)] has been stimulated anew by recent approval by Canada of Sativex (a 1:1 dose ratio combination of CBD:THC) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The goal of this study was to determine the degree to which THC’s abuse-related effects were altered by co-administration of CBD. To this end, CBD and THC were assessed alone and in combination in a two-lever THC discrimination procedure in Long-Evans rats and in a conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/A) model in ICR mice. CBD did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of THC at any CBD:THC dose ratio tested. In contrast, CBD, at CBD:THC dose ratios of 1:1 and 1:10, reversed CPA produced by acute injection with 10 mg/kg THC. When administered alone, CBD did not produce effects in either procedure. These results suggest that CBD, when administered with THC at therapeutically relevant ratios, may ameliorate aversive effects (e.g., dysphoria) often associated with initial use of THC alone. While this effect may be beneficial for therapeutic usage of a CBD:THC combination medication, our discrimination results showing that CBD did not alter THC’s discriminative stimulus effects suggest that CBD:THC combination medications may also produce THC-like subjective effects at these dose ratios. PMID:18206320

  19. Neural correlates of interactions between cannabidiol and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol in mice: implications for medical cannabis.

    PubMed

    Todd, S M; Arnold, J C

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that medicinal strains of cannabis and therapeutic preparations would be safer with a more balanced concentration ratio of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to cannabidiol (CBD), as CBD reduces the adverse psychotropic effects of THC. However, our understanding of CBD and THC interactions is limited and the brain circuitry mediating interactions between CBD and THC are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CBD modulated the functional effects and c-Fos expression induced by THC, using a 1:1 dose ratio that approximates therapeutic strains of cannabis and nabiximols. Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle, CBD, THC or a combination of CBD and THC (10 mg·kg(-1) i.p. for both cannabinoids) to examine effects on locomotor activity, anxiety-related behaviour, body temperature and brain c-Fos expression (a marker of neuronal activation). CBD potentiated THC-induced locomotor suppression but reduced the hypothermic and anxiogenic effects of THC. CBD alone had no effect on these measures. THC increased brain activation as measured by c-Fos expression in 11 of the 35 brain regions studied. CBD co-administration suppressed THC-induced c-Fos expression in six of these brain regions. This effect was most pronounced in the medial preoptic nucleus and lateral periaqueductal gray. Treatment with CBD alone diminished c-Fos expression only in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with vehicle. These data confirm that CBD modulated the pharmacological actions of THC and provide new information regarding brain regions involved in the interaction between CBD and THC. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. THC and CBD in blood samples and seizures in Norway: Does CBD affect THC-induced impairment in apprehended subjects?

    PubMed

    Havig, Stine Marie; Høiseth, Gudrun; Strand, Maren Cecilie; Karinen, Ritva Anneli; Brochmann, Gerd-Wenche; Strand, Dag Helge; Bachs, Liliana; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2017-07-01

    Several publications have suggested increasing cannabis potency over the last decade, which, together with lower amounts of cannabidiol (CBD), could contribute to an increase in adverse effects after cannabis smoking. Naturalistic studies on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD in blood samples are, however, missing. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples among cannabis users, and to compare cannabinoid concentrations with the outcome of a clinical test of impairment (CTI) and between traffic accidents and non-accident driving under the influence of drugs (DUID)-cases. Assessment of THC- and CBD contents in cannabis seizures was also included. THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples from subjects apprehended in Norway from April 2013-April 2015 were included (n=6134). A CTI result was compared with analytical findings in cases where only THC and/or CBD were detected (n=705). THC- and CBD content was measured in 41 cannabis seizures. Among THC-positive blood samples, 76% also tested positive for CBD. There was a strong correlation between THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples (Pearson's r=0.714, p<0.0005). Subjects judged as impaired by a CTI had significantly higher THC- (p<0.001) and CBD (p=0.008) concentrations compared with not impaired subjects, but after multivariate analyses, impairment could only be related to THC concentration (p=0.004). Analyzing seizures revealed THC/CBD ratios of 2:1 for hashish and 200:1 for marijuana. More than ¾ of the blood samples testing positive for THC, among subjects apprehended in Norway, also tested positive for CBD, suggesting frequent consumption of high CBD cannabis products. The simultaneous presence of CBD in blood does, however, not appear to affect THC-induced impairment on a CTI. Seizure sample analysis did not reveal high potency cannabis products, and while CBD content appeared high in hashish, it was almost absent in marijuana. Copyright

  1. Ocular disposition of the hemiglutarate ester prodrug of ∆⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol from various ophthalmic formulations.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Tushar; Adelli, Goutham R; Punyamurthula, Nagendra; Gul, Waseem; Elsohly, Mahmoud A; Repka, Michael A; Majumdar, Soumyajit

    2013-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to enhance ocular delivery of ∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) through the topical route. Solubility, stability and in vitro transcorneal permeability of the relatively hydrophilic hemiglutarate ester derivative, THC-HG, was studied in the presence of surfactants. The solutions were characterized with respect to micelle size, zeta potential and solution viscosity. In vivo studies were carried out in New Zealand albino rabbits. A previously reported promising THC-HG ion-pair formulation was also studied in vivo. Aqueous solubility and stability and in vitro transcorneal permeability of THC-HG was enhanced significantly in the presence of surfactants. THC levels in the ocular tissues (except cornea) were found to be below detection limits from mineral oil, surfactant or emulsion based formulations containing THC. In contrast, micellar and ion pair based THC-HG formulations produced significantly higher total THC concentrations in the anterior ocular chamber. In this study, although delivery of THC to the anterior chamber ocular tissues could be significantly increased through the prodrug and formulation approaches tested, further studies are needed to increase penetration to the back-of-the eye.

  2. A low-Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol cannabis extract induces hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Jonathan A; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2010-12-01

    Appetite stimulation via partial agonism of cannabinoid type 1 receptors by ΔtetrahydrocannabinolTHC) is well documented and can be modulated by non-ΔTHC phytocannabinoids. ΔTHC concentrations sufficient to elicit hyperphagia induce changes to both appetitive (reduced latency to feed) and consummatory (increased meal one size and duration) behaviours. Here, we show that a cannabis extract containing too little ΔTHC to stimulate appetite can induce hyperphagia solely by increasing appetitive behaviours. Twelve, male Lister hooded rats were presatiated before treatment with a low-ΔTHC cannabis extract (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg). Hourly intake and meal pattern data were recorded and analyzed using one-way analyses of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests. The cannabis extract significantly increased food intake during the first hour of testing (at 4.0 mg/kg) and significantly reduced the latency to feed versus vehicle treatments (at doses ≥1.0 mg/kg). Meal size and duration were unaffected. These results show only the increase in appetitive behaviours, which could be attributed to non-ΔTHC phytocannabinoids in the extract rather than ΔTHC. Although further study is required to determine the constituents responsible for these effects, these results support the presence of non-ΔTHC cannabis constituent(s) that exert a stimulatory effect on appetite and likely lack the detrimental psychoactive effects of ΔTHC.

  3. Decarboxylation of Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Kinetics and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotin-Brunel, Helene; Buijs, Wim; van Spronsen, Jaap; van Roosmalen, Maaike J. E.; Peters, Cor J.; Verpoorte, Rob; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2011-02-01

    Efficient tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9-THC) production from cannabis is important for its medical application and as basis for the development of production routes of other drugs from plants. This work presents one of the steps of Δ 9-THC production from cannabis plant material, the decarboxylation reaction, transforming the Δ 9-THC-acid naturally present in the plant into the psychoactive Δ 9-THC. Results of experiments showed pseudo-first order reaction kinetics, with an activation barrier of 85 kJ mol -1 and a pre-exponential factor of 3.7 × 10 8 s -1. Using molecular modeling, two options were identified for an acid catalyzed β-keto acid type mechanism for the decarboxylation of Δ 9-THC-acid. Each of these mechanisms might play a role, depending on the actual process conditions. Formic acid proved to be a good model for a catalyst of such a reaction. Also, the computational idea of catalysis by water to catalysis by an acid, put forward by Li and Brill, and Churchev and Belbruno was extended, and a new direct keto-enol route was found. A direct keto-enol mechanism catalyzed by formic acid seems to be the best explanation for the observed activation barrier and the pre-exponential factor of the decarboxylation of Δ 9-THC-acid. Evidence for this was found by performing an extraction experiment with Cannabis Flos. It revealed the presence of short chain carboxylic acids supporting this hypothesis. The presented approach is important for the development of a sustainable production of Δ 9-THC from the plant.

  4. Endocannabinoid contribution to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol discrimination in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Walentiny, D. Matthew; Wright, M. Jerry; Beardsley, Patrick M.; Burston, James J.; Poklis, Justin L.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Vann, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism through which marijuana produces its psychoactive effects is Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. These receptors are normally activated by endogenous lipids, including anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG). A logical “first step” in determination of the role of these endocannabinoids in THC’s psychoactive effects is to investigate the degree to which pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and/or 2-AG concentrations through exogenous administration and/or systemic administration of inhibitors of their metabolism, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively, share THC’s discriminative stimulus effects. To this end, adult male mice and rats were trained to discriminate THC (5.6 and 3 mg/kg, respectively). In Experiment 1, exogenous administration of anandamide or 2-AG did not substitute for THC in mice nor was substitution enhanced by co-administration of the FAAH or MAGL inhibitors, URB597 and N-arachidonyl maleimide (NAM), respectively. Significant decreases in responding may have prevented assessment of adequate endocannabinoid doses. In mice trained at higher baseline response rates (Experiment 2), the FAAH inhibitor PF3845 (10 mg/kg) enhanced anandamide substitution for THC without producing effects of its own. The MAGL inhibitor JZL184 increased brain levels of 2-AG in vitro and in vivo, increased THC-like responding without co-administration of 2-AG. In rats, neither URB597 nor JZL184 engendered significant THC-appropriate responding, but co-administration of these two enzyme inhibitors approached full substitution. The present results highlight the complex interplay between anandamide and 2-AG and suggest that endogenous increases of both endocannabinoids are most effective in elicitation of THC-like discriminative stimulus effects. PMID:24858366

  5. Distribution of ∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-Nor-9-Carboxy-∆(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol Acid in Postmortem Biological Fluids and Tissues From Pilots Fatally Injured in Aviation Accidents.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Philip M; Cardona, Patrick S; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Soper, John W

    2015-07-01

    Little is known of the postmortem distribution of ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its major metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). Data from 55 pilots involved in fatal aviation accidents are presented in this study. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis obtained mean THC concentrations in blood from multiple sites, liver, lung, and kidney of 15.6 ng/mL, 92.4 ng/g, 766.0 ng/g, 44.1 ng/g and mean THCCOOH concentrations of 35.9 ng/mL, 322.4 ng/g, 42.6 ng/g, 138.5 ng/g, respectively. Heart THC concentrations (two cases) were 184.4 and 759.3 ng/g, and corresponding THCCOOH measured 11.0 and 95.9 ng/g, respectively. Muscle concentrations for THC (two cases) were 16.6 and 2.5 ng/g; corresponding THCCOOH, "confirmed positive" and 1.4 ng/g. The only brain tested in this study showed no THC detected and 2.9 ng/g THCCOOH, low concentrations that correlated with low values in other specimens from this case. This research emphasizes the need for postmortem cannabinoid testing and demonstrates the usefulness of a number of tissues, most notably lung, for these analyses. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Fasting and exercise increase plasma cannabinoid levels in THC pre-treated rats: an examination of behavioural consequences.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexander; Keats, Kirily; Rooney, Kieron; Hicks, Callum; Allsop, David J; Arnold, Jonathon C; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-10-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, accumulates in fat tissue where it can remain for prolonged periods. Under conditions of increased fat utilisation, blood cannabinoid concentrations can increase. However, it is unclear whether this has behavioural consequences. Here, we examined whether rats pre-treated with multiple or single doses of THC followed by a washout would show elevated plasma cannabinoids and altered behaviour following fasting or exercise manipulations designed to increase fat utilisation. Behavioural impairment was measured as an inhibition of spontaneous locomotor activity or a failure to successfully complete a treadmill exercise session. Fat utilisation was indexed by plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels with plasma concentrations of THC and its terminal metabolite (-)-11-nor-9-carboxy-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) also measured. Rats given daily THC (10 mg/kg) for 5 days followed by a 4-day washout showed elevated plasma THC-COOH when fasted for 24 h relative to non-fasted controls. Fasted rats showed lower locomotor activity than controls suggesting a behavioural effect of fat-released THC. However, rats fasted for 20 h after a single 5-mg/kg THC injection did not show locomotor suppression, despite modestly elevated plasma THC-COOH. Rats pre-treated with THC (5 mg/kg) and exercised 20 h later also showed elevated plasma THC-COOH but did not differ from controls in their likelihood of completing 30 min of treadmill exercise. These results confirm that fasting and exercise can increase plasma cannabinoid levels. Behavioural consequences are more clearly observed with pre-treatment regimes involving repeated rather than single THC dosing.

  7. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase production in Pichia pastoris enables chemical synthesis of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kerstin; Schmid, Andreas; Julsing, Mattijs K

    2015-10-10

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is of increasing interest as a pharmaceutical and bioactive compound. Chemical synthesis of THC uses a laborious procedure and does not satisfy the market demand. The implementation of biocatalysts for specific synthesis steps might be beneficial for making natural product availability independent from the plant. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) from C. sativa L. catalyzes the cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which is non-enzymatically decarboxylated to THC. We report the preparation of THCAS in amounts sufficient for the biocatalytic production of THC(A). Active THCAS was most efficiently obtained from Pichia pastoris. THCAS was produced on a 2L bioreactor scale and the enzyme was isolated by single-step chromatography with a specific activity of 73Ug(-1)total protein. An organic/aqueous two-liquid phase setup for continuous substrate delivery facilitated in situ product removal. In addition, THCAS activity in aqueous environments lasted for only 20min whereas the presence of hexane stabilized the activity over 3h. In conclusion, production of THCAS in P. pastoris Mut(S) KM71 KE1, subsequent isolation, and its application in a two-liquid phase setup enables the synthesis of THCA on a mg scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Jahan P.; Christian, Rigel T.; Lau, Darryl; Zielinski, Anne J.; Horowitz, Maxx P.; Lee, Jasmine; Pakdel, Arash; Allison, Juanita; Limbad, Chandani; Moore, Dan H.; Yount, Garret L.; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; McAllister, Sean D.

    2009-01-01

    The cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor agonist, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to be a broad range inhibitor of cancer in culture and in vivo, and is currently being used in a clinical trial for the treatment of glioblastoma. It has been suggested that other plant-derived cannabinoids, which do not interact efficiently with CB1 and CB2 receptors, can modulate the actions of Δ9-THC. However, there are conflicting reports as to what extent other cannabinoids can modulate Δ9-THC activity, and most importantly, it is not clear whether other cannabinoid compounds can either potentiate or inhibit the actions of Δ9-THC. We therefore tested cannabidiol (CBD), the second most abundant plant derived cannabiniod, in combination with Δ9-THC. In U251 and SF126 glioblastoma cell lines, Δ9-THC and CBD acted synergistically to inhibit cell proliferation. The treatment of glioblastoma cells with both compounds led to significant modulations of the cell cycle and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis as well as specific modulations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and caspase activities. These specific changes were not observed with either compound individually, indicating that the signal transduction pathways affected by the combination treatment were unique. Our results suggest that the addition of CBD to Δ9-THC may improve the overall effectiveness of Δ9-THC in the treatment of glioblastoma in cancer patients. PMID:20053780

  9. ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism is associated with tetrahydrocannabinol blood levels in heavy cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Kebir, Oussama; Lafaye, Genevieve; Blecha, Lisa; Chaumette, Boris; Mouaffak, Fayçal; Laqueille, Xavier; Benyamina, Amine

    2018-04-01

    ABCB1 polymorphisms are known to modify drug pharmacokinetics but have yet to be studied for their role in generating and maintaining cannabis dependence. The objective of this study is to determine if ABCB1 C3435T (rs1045642) polymorphism may modulate Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) blood levels in a sample of heavy cannabis users. The study sample includes 39 Caucasian individuals, recruited in two French addictology centres, with isolated cannabis dependence and heavy use (defined as ≥ 7 joints per week). Each underwent clinical evaluation, cannabis blood metabolite dosage (THC, 11-OH-THC, and THC-COOH) and genotyping of ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism. In this population (males: 74.4%, average age 29.5 +/- 9), average cannabis use was 21 joints per week (median 12; range 7 - 80). T carriers (TT/CT) had significantly lower plasma THC levels (ng/ml) versus non T carriers (8 vs 15.70, significant), controlling for level of weekly use, 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH levels. Our results show that ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism may modulate serum THC levels in chronic heavy cannabis users. The exact mechanisms and roles that this may play in cannabis dependence genesis and evolution remain to be elucidated. These results should be controlled in a replication study using a larger population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cloud point extraction of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.

    PubMed

    Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

    2013-04-01

    A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 μg mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer.

  11. Cannabidiol fails to reverse hypothermia or locomotor suppression induced by Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Taffe, Michael A; Creehan, Kevin M; Vandewater, Sophia A

    2015-04-01

    Growing evidence shows cannabidiol (CBD) modulates some of the effects of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). CBD is a constituent of some strains of recreational cannabis but its content is highly variable. High CBD strains may have less memory-impairing effects than low-CBD strains and CBD can reverse behavioural effects of THC in monkeys. CBD/THC interactions in rodents are more complicated as CBD can attenuate or exacerbate the effects of THC. This study was undertaken to determine if CBD could reverse hypothermia or hypolocomotor effects caused by THC in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared with radiotelemetry devices and then given doses of THC (10-30 mg·kg(-1) , i.p.) with or without CBD. Experiments determined the effect of simultaneous or 30 min pretreatment with CBD in a 1:1 ratio with THC, as well as the effect of CBD in a 3:1 ratio. Additional experiments determined the effects of pretreatment with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (rimonabant). CBD did not attentuate THC-induced hypothermia or hypolocomotion but instead exaggerated these effects in some conditions. The antagonist SR141716 blocked hypolocomotor effects of THC for the first hour after injection and the hypothermia for 6 h; thus validating the pharmacological model. There is no evidence from this study that elevated CBD content in cannabis could provide protection from the physiological effects of THC, in rats. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Phenotypic assessment of THC discriminative stimulus properties in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout and wildtype mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Vann, Robert E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2015-06-01

    A number of studies have examined the ability of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide to elicit Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like subjective effects, as modeled through the THC discrimination paradigm. In the present study, we compared transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme primarily responsible for anandamide catabolism, to wildtype counterparts in a THC discrimination procedure. THC (5.6 mg/kg) served as a discriminative stimulus in both genotypes, with similar THC dose-response curves between groups. Anandamide fully substituted for THC in FAAH knockout, but not wildtype, mice. Conversely, the metabolically stable anandamide analog O-1812 fully substituted in both groups, but was more potent in knockouts. The CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant dose-dependently attenuated THC generalization in both groups and anandamide substitution in FAAH knockouts. Pharmacological inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary catabolic enzyme for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), with JZL184 resulted in full substitution for THC in FAAH knockout mice and nearly full substitution in wildtypes. Quantification of brain endocannabinoid levels revealed expected elevations in anandamide in FAAH knockout mice compared to wildtypes and equipotent dose-dependent elevations in 2-AG following JZL184 administration. Dual inhibition of FAAH and MAGL with JZL195 resulted in roughly equipotent increases in THC-appropriate responding in both groups. While the notable similarity in THC's discriminative stimulus effects across genotype suggests that the increased baseline brain anandamide levels (as seen in FAAH knockout mice) do not alter THC's subjective effects, FAAH knockout mice are more sensitive to the THC-like effects of pharmacologically induced increases in anandamide and MAGL inhibition (e.g., JZL184). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Around-the-clock oral THC effects on sleep in male chronic daily cannabis smokers.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Schwope, David M; Kelly, Deanna L; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-01-01

    Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) promotes sleep in animals; clinical use of THC is associated with somnolence. Human laboratory studies of oral THC have not shown consistent effects on sleep. We prospectively evaluated self-reported sleep parameters during controlled oral THC administration to research volunteers. Thirteen male chronic daily cannabis smokers (mean ± SD age 24.6± 3.7 years, self-reported smoking frequency of 5.5 ± 5.9 (range 1-24) joint-equivalents daily at study entry) were administered oral THC doses (20 mg) around-the-clock for 7 days (40-120 mg daily) starting the afternoon after admission. The St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire was completed every morning. Plasma THC and 11-OH-THC (active metabolite) concentrations were measured in venous blood samples collected every evening. Changes in sleep characteristics over time and associations between sleep characteristics and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were evaluated with repeated measures mixed linear regression. Higher evening THC and 11-OH-THC concentrations were significantly associated with shorter sleep latency, less difficulty falling asleep, and more daytime sleep the following day. In contrast, the duration of calculated and self-reported nighttime sleep decreased slightly (3.54 and 5.34 minutes per night, respectively) but significantly during the study. These findings suggest that tolerance to the somnolent effects of THC may have occurred, but results should be considered preliminary due to design limitations. Somnolence from oral THC may dissipate with chronic, high-dose use. This has implications for patients who may take chronic oral THC for medicinal purposes, including cannabis dependence treatment. (Am J Addict 2013;22:510-514). Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  14. Gonadal hormone modulation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced antinociception and metabolism in female versus male rats

    PubMed Central

    Craft, R.M.; Haas, A.E.; Wiley, J.L.; Yu, Z.; Clowers, B.H.

    2016-01-01

    The gonadal hormones testosterone (T) in adult males and estradiol (E2) in adult females have been reported to modulate behavioral effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This study determined whether activational effects of T and E2 are sex-specific, and whether hormones modulate production of the active metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and the inactive metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH). Adult male and female rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and treated with nothing (0), T (10-mm Silastic capsule/100 g body weight), or E2 (1-mm Silastic capsule/rat). Three weeks later, saline or the cytochrome P450 inhibitor proadifen (25 mg/kg; to block THC metabolism and boost THC's effects) was injected i.p.; one h later, vehicle or THC (3 mg/kg females, 5 mg/kg males) was injected i.p., and rats were tested for antinociceptive and motoric effects 15-240 min post-injection. T did not consistently alter THC-induced antinociception in males, but decreased it in females (tail withdrawal test). Conversely, T decreased THC-induced catalepsy in males, but had no effect in females. E2 did not alter THC-induced antinociception in females, but enhanced it in males. The discrepant effects of T and E2 on males’ and females’ behavioral responses to THC suggests that sexual differentiation of THC sensitivity is not simply due to activational effects of hormones, but also occurs via organizational hormone or sex chromosome effects. Analysis of serum showed that proadifen increased THC levels, E2 increased 11-OH-THC in GDX males, and T decreased 11-OH-THC (and to a lesser extent, THC) in GDX females. Thus, hormone modulation of THC's behavioral effects is caused in part by hormone modulation of THC oxidation to its active metabolite. However, the fact that hormone modulation of metabolism did not alter THC sensitivity similarly on all behavioral measures within each sex suggests that other mechanisms also play a role in gonadal hormone modulation of THC sensitivity in adult

  15. Opposing Actions of Chronic[Deta][superscript 9] Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabinoid Antagonists on Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Alexander F.; Oz, Murat; Yang, Ruiqin; Lichtman, Aron H.; Lupica, Carl R.

    2007-01-01

    Memory deficits produced by marijuana arise partly via interaction of the psychoactive component, [Deta][superscript 9]-tetrahydrocannabinol ([Deta][superscript 9]-THC), with cannabinoid receptors in the hippocampus. Although cannabinoids acutely reduce glutamate release and block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a potential substrate for…

  16. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Mason M.; Adams, Wendy K.; Morena, Maria; Hill, Matthew N.; Winstanley, Catharine A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana. We tested the hypothesis that THC impairs a relevant cognitive function for long-term success, namely willingness to exert cognitive effort for greater rewards, and that CBD could attenuate such decision-making impairments. Methods Male Long–Evans rats (n = 29) performing the rat cognitive effort task (rCET) received acute THC and CBD, independently and concurrently, in addition to other cannabinoids. Rats chose between 2 options differing in reward magnitude, but also in the cognitive effort (attentional load) required to obtain them. Results We found that THC decreased choice of hard trials without impairing the animals’ ability to accurately complete them. Strikingly, this impairment was correlated with CB1 receptor density in the medial prefrontal cortex — an area previously implicated in effortful decision-making. In contrast, CBD did not affect choice. Coadministration of 1:1 CBD:THC matching that in nabiximols modestly attenuated the deleterious effects of THC in “slacker” rats. Limitations Only male rats were investigated, and the THC/CBD coadministration experiment was carried out in a subset of individuals. Conclusion These findings confirm that THC, but not CBD, selectively impairs decision-making involving cognitive effort costs. However, coadministration of CBD only partially ameliorates such THC-induced dysfunction. PMID:28245177

  17. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort in male rats.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Mason M; Adams, Wendy K; Morena, Maria; Hill, Matthew N; Winstanley, Catharine A

    2017-03-01

    Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana. We tested the hypothesis that THC impairs a relevant cognitive function for long-term success, namely willingness to exert cognitive effort for greater rewards, and that CBD could attenuate such decision-making impairments. Male Long-Evans rats ( n = 29) performing the rat cognitive effort task (rCET) received acute THC and CBD, independently and concurrently, in addition to other cannabinoids. Rats chose between 2 options differing in reward magnitude, but also in the cognitive effort (attentional load) required to obtain them. We found that THC decreased choice of hard trials without impairing the animals' ability to accurately complete them. Strikingly, this impairment was correlated with CB1 receptor density in the medial prefrontal cortex - an area previously implicated in effortful decision-making. In contrast, CBD did not affect choice. Coadministration of 1:1 CBD:THC matching that in nabiximols modestly attenuated the deleterious effects of THC in "slacker" rats. Only male rats were investigated, and the THC/CBD coadministration experiment was carried out in a subset of individuals. These findings confirm that THC, but not CBD, selectively impairs decision-making involving cognitive effort costs. However, coadministration of CBD only partially ameliorates such THC-induced dysfunction.

  18. Recovery of spiked Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid from polypropylene containers.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Fu, Shanlin

    2013-04-10

    Oral fluid is currently used by Australian and international law enforcement agencies and employers to detect recent use of cannabis and other drugs of abuse. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is highly lipophilic and losses occur when in contact with plastic, possibly due to its adsorption onto the plastic surface. This study aims to investigate factors governing the interaction of THC with plastic and search for ways of overcoming such interaction so to improve THC recovery. As polypropylene is one of the most common types of plastic used in collection devices, it was the focus of this study. All experiments were done by preparing neat oral fluid samples spiked with THC in 2-mL polypropylene centrifuge tubes. Samples were transferred with or without prior addition of Triton(®) X-100 (0.25%) to glass tubes containing d3-THC as internal standard and 0.1M phosphate buffer was then added. Samples were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using hexane/ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v), dried and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatisation. No significant difference was found in terms of THC loss to plastic when the concentration ranged from 25 to 1000 ng/mL in the same volume of oral fluid. Varying the oral fluid volume (0.5-1.5 mL) while keeping THC at a constant concentration showed an upward trend with more loss associated with lower volumes. The use of Triton(®) X-100 significantly decreased the adherence of THC to the plastic tubes and increased the THC transfer (>96%) at all volumes tested. Degradation of THC during storage was also studied over a 4-week period and it was found that azide did not seem to play a significant role in preserving THC in oral fluid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics following Controlled Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Oromucosal Cannabis Extract Administration

    PubMed Central

    Karschner, Erin L.; Darwin, W. David; Goodwin, Robert S.; Wright, Stephen; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sativex®, a cannabis extract oromucosal spray containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is currently in phase III trials as an adjunct to opioids for cancer pain treatment, and recently received United Kingdom approval for treatment of spasticity. There are indications that CBD modulates THC’s effects, but it is unclear if this is due to a pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction. METHODS Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board–approved study. Participants received 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low-dose (5.4 mg THC and 5.0 mg CBD) and high-dose (16.2 mg THC and 15.0 mg CBD) Sativex, and placebo over 5 sessions. CBD, THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in plasma by 2-dimensional GC-MS. Lower limits of quantification were ≤0.25 μg/L. RESULTS Nine cannabis smokers completed all 5 dosing sessions. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) and areas under the curve from 0–10.5 h postdose (AUC0→10.5) for all analytes were found between low and high doses of synthetic THC and Sativex. There were no statistically significant differences in Cmax, time to maximum concentration or in the AUC0→10.5 between similar oral THC and Sativex doses. Relative bioavailability was calculated to determine the relative rate and extent of THC absorption; 5 and 15 mg oral THC bioavailability was 92.6% (13.1%) and 98.8% (11.0%) of low- and high-dose Sativex, respectively. CONCLUSION These data suggest that CBD modulation of THC’s effects is not due to a pharmacokinetic interaction at these therapeutic doses. PMID:21078841

  20. Oral Fluid and Plasma Cannabinoid Ratios after Around-the-Clock Controlled Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Administration

    PubMed Central

    Milman, Garry; Schwope, David M.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) testing is increasingly important for drug treatment, workplace, and drugged-driving programs. There is interest in predicting plasma or whole-blood concentrations from OF concentrations; however, the relationship between these matrices is incompletely characterized because of few controlled drug-administration studies. METHODS Ten male daily cannabis smokers received around-the-clock escalating 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, dronabinol) doses (40–120 mg/day) for 8 days. Plasma and OF samples were simultaneously collected before, during, and after dosing. OF THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were quantified by GC-MS at 0.5-μg/L, 0.5-μg/L, and 7.5-ng/L limits of quantification (LOQs), respectively. In plasma, the LOQs were 0.25 μg/L for THC and THCCOOH, and 0.5 μg/L for 11-hydroxy-THC. RESULTS Despite multiple oral THC administrations each day and increasing plasma THC concentrations, OF THC concentrations generally decreased over time, reflecting primarily previously self-administered smoked cannabis. The logarithms of the THC concentrations in oral fluid and plasma were not significantly correlated (r = −0.10; P = 0.065). The OF and plasma THCCOOH concentrations, albeit with 1000-fold higher concentrations in plasma, increased throughout dosing. The logarithms of OF and plasma THCCOOH concentrations were significantly correlated (r = 0.63; P < 0.001), although there was high interindividual variation. A high OF/plasma THC ratio and a high OF THC/THCCOOH ratio indicated recent cannabis smoking. CONCLUSIONS OF monitoring does not reliably detect oral dronabinol intake. The time courses of THC and THCCOOH concentrations in plasma and OF were different after repeated oral THC doses, and high inter-individual variation was observed. For these reasons, OF cannabinoid concentrations cannot predict concurrent plasma concentrations. PMID:21875944

  1. Modulation of adipocyte biology by δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diana; Pestana, Diogo; Faria, Ana; Calhau, Conceição; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário

    2010-11-01

    It is recognized that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a crucial role in the modulation of food intake and other aspects of energy metabolism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on adipocyte biology. 3T3-L1 cells were used to evaluate proliferation by sulforhodamine B (SRB) staining and methyl-(3)H-thymidine incorporation after 48 or 72 h of treatment with THC (1-500 nmol/l). Cells were differentiated in the presence or absence of the cannabinoid, and adipogenesis was determined by measuring lipid accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) transcription through reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). Lipolysis was quantified under basal conditions or after isoproterenol (IP, 100 nmol/l) or insulin (INS, 100 nmol/l) treatment. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), diacylglycerol lipase α, and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) transcriptions were determined by RT-PCR in preadipocytes and adipocytes and adiponectin only in adipocytes. THC treatment increased culture protein content and reduced methyl-(3)H-thymidine incorporation. Cells treated with THC underwent adipogenesis shown by the expression of PPARγ and had increased lipid accumulation. Basal and IP-stimulated lipolyses were inhibited by THC and there was no effect on lipolysis of INS-treated adipocytes. The effects on methyl-(3)H-thymidine incorporation and lipolysis seem to be mediated through CB1- and CB2-dependent pathways. THC decreased NAPE-PLD in preadipocytes and increased adiponectin and TGFβ transcription in adipocytes. These results show that the ECS interferes with adipocyte biology and may contribute to adipose tissue (AT) remodeling. Although these observations point toward increased AT deposition, the stimulation of adiponectin production and inhibition of lipolysis may be in favor of improved INS sensitivity under cannabinoid influence.

  2. Has the intake of THC by cannabis users changed over the last decade? Evidence of increased exposure by analysis of blood THC concentrations in impaired drivers.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, Vigdis; Strand, Dag Helge; Kristoffersen, Lena; Boix, Fernando; Mørland, Jørg

    2013-03-10

    The main psychoactive substance, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be present in highly variable amounts in different cannabis preparations. An increase in THC content in cannabis products has been suggested, and reported from several countries. However, it has not yet been investigated if products with high potency lead to increased human exposure, and thus to higher risk of adverse effects. In this study, we examined the mean concentrations of THC in whole blood samples from drivers apprehended in Norway in the period between 2000 and 2010 suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. Cases with only THC (n=1747) have been compared to cases with only ethanol (n=38796) or amphetamines (n=2493). The increase in mean THC concentration measured from 2000 to 2010 was from 4.0 ± 0.3 to 6.6 ± 0.4 ng/ml (58%), compared to 3% for ethanol and 16% for the amphetamines. This increase in THC concentrations was to some extent paralleled by an increase in the percentage of drivers which were judged as lightly impaired by a physician. Monitoring concentrations of drugs of abuse in blood from apprehended drivers indicated an increasing exposure to THC in Norway. If similar trends are observed globally, it should be further explored if this type of information could be used to elucidate the drug consumption patterns in a population and accordingly the consequences with regard to adverse effects of cannabis from a public health perspective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prevents Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, M. Paola; Casu, Angelo; Casti, Paola; Scherma, Maria; Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Ennas, M. Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent psychostimulant with neurotoxic properties. Heavy use increases the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), production of peroxynitrites, microglia stimulation, and induces hyperthermia and anorectic effects. Most METH recreational users also consume cannabis. Preclinical studies have shown that natural (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-THC) and synthetic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists exert neuroprotective effects on different models of cerebral damage. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Δ9-THC on METH-induced neurotoxicity by examining its ability to reduce astrocyte activation and nNOS overexpression in selected brain areas. Rats exposed to a METH neurotoxic regimen (4×10 mg/kg, 2 hours apart) were pre- or post-treated with Δ9-THC (1 or 3 mg/kg) and sacrificed 3 days after the last METH administration. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against nNOS and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP). Results showed that, as compared to corresponding controls (i) METH-induced nNOS overexpression in the caudate-putamen (CPu) was significantly attenuated by pre- and post-treatment with both doses of Δ9-THC (−19% and −28% for 1 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; −25% and −21% for 3 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals); (ii) METH-induced GFAP-immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly reduced in the CPu by post-treatment with 1 mg/kg Δ9-THC1 (−50%) and by pre-treatment with 3 mg/kg Δ9-THC (−53%); (iii) METH-induced GFAP-IR was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by pre- and post-treatment with both doses of Δ9-THC (−34% and −47% for 1 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; −37% and −29% for 3 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals). The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A attenuated METH-induced nNOS overexpression in the CPu, but failed to counteract the Δ9-THC-mediated reduction of METH-induced GFAP-IR both in the

  4. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol prevents methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Castelli, M Paola; Madeddu, Camilla; Casti, Alberto; Casu, Angelo; Casti, Paola; Scherma, Maria; Fattore, Liana; Fadda, Paola; Ennas, M Grazia

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent psychostimulant with neurotoxic properties. Heavy use increases the activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), production of peroxynitrites, microglia stimulation, and induces hyperthermia and anorectic effects. Most METH recreational users also consume cannabis. Preclinical studies have shown that natural (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-THC) and synthetic cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists exert neuroprotective effects on different models of cerebral damage. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of Δ9-THC on METH-induced neurotoxicity by examining its ability to reduce astrocyte activation and nNOS overexpression in selected brain areas. Rats exposed to a METH neurotoxic regimen (4 × 10 mg/kg, 2 hours apart) were pre- or post-treated with Δ9-THC (1 or 3 mg/kg) and sacrificed 3 days after the last METH administration. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies against nNOS and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP). Results showed that, as compared to corresponding controls (i) METH-induced nNOS overexpression in the caudate-putamen (CPu) was significantly attenuated by pre- and post-treatment with both doses of Δ9-THC (-19% and -28% for 1 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; -25% and -21% for 3 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals); (ii) METH-induced GFAP-immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly reduced in the CPu by post-treatment with 1 mg/kg Δ9-THC1 (-50%) and by pre-treatment with 3 mg/kg Δ9-THC (-53%); (iii) METH-induced GFAP-IR was significantly decreased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) by pre- and post-treatment with both doses of Δ9-THC (-34% and -47% for 1 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals; -37% and -29% for 3 mg/kg pre- and post-treated animals). The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A attenuated METH-induced nNOS overexpression in the CPu, but failed to counteract the Δ9-THC-mediated reduction of METH-induced GFAP-IR both in the PFC and CPu. Our

  5. A phase I study to assess the single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of THC/CBD oromucosal spray.

    PubMed

    Stott, C G; White, L; Wright, S; Wilbraham, D; Guy, G W

    2013-05-01

    A Phase I study to assess the single and multipledose pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety and tolerability of oromucosally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) spray, an endocannabinoid system modulator, in healthy male subjects. Subjects received either single doses of THC/CBD spray as multiple sprays [2 (5.4 mg THC and 5.0 mg CBD), 4 (10.8 mg THC and 10.0 mg CBD) or 8 (21.6 mg THC and 20.0 mg CBD) daily sprays] or multiple doses of THC/CBD spray (2, 4 or 8 sprays once daily) for nine consecutive days, following fasting for a minimum of 10 h overnight prior to each dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for CBD, THC, and its primary metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC, and various PK parameters were investigated. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD were rapidly absorbed following single-dose administration. With increasing single and multiple doses of THC/CBD spray, the mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) increased for all analytes. There was evidence of dose-proportionality in the single but not the multiple dosing data sets. The bioavailability of THC was greater than CBD at single and multiple doses, and there was no evidence of accumulation for any analyte with multiple dosing. Inter-subject variability ranged from moderate to high for all PK parameters in this study. The time to peak plasma concentration (Tmax) was longest for all analytes in the eight spray group, but was similar in the two and four spray groups. THC/CBD spray was well-tolerated in this study and no serious adverse events were reported. The mean Cmax values (<12 ng/mL) recorded in this study were well below those reported in patients who smoked/inhaled cannabis, which is reassuring since elevated Cmax values are linked to significant psychoactivity. There was also no evidence of accumulation on repeated dosing.

  6. Anandamide and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Directly Inhibit Cells of the Immune System via CB2 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Eisenstein, Toby K.; Meissler, Joseph J.; Wilson, Qiana; Gaughan, John P.; Adler, Martin W.

    2007-01-01

    This study shows that two cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and anandamide, induce dose related immunosuppression in both the primary and secondary in vitro plaque-forming cell assays of antibody formation. The immunosuppression induced by both compounds could be blocked by SR144528, an antagonist specific for the CB2 receptor, but not by SR141716, a CB1 antagonist. These studies are novel in that they show that both anadamide and THC are active in the nanomolar to picomolar (for anandamide) range in these assays of immune function, and that both mediate their effects directly on cells of the immune system through the CB2 receptor. PMID:17640739

  7. Interactions between THC and cannabidiol in mouse models of cannabinoid activity.

    PubMed

    Varvel, S A; Wiley, J L; Yang, R; Bridgen, D T; Long, K; Lichtman, A H; Martin, B R

    2006-06-01

    Interest persists in characterizing potential interactions between Delta(9)-tetrahydocannabinol (THC) and other marijuana constituents such as cannabidiol (CBD). Such interactions may have important implications for understanding the long-term health consequences of chronic marijuana use as well as for attempts to develop therapeutic uses for THC and other CB(1) agonists. We investigated whether CBD may modulate the pharmacological effects of intravenously administered THC or inhaled marijuana smoke on hypoactivity, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia, the well characterized models of cannabinoid activity. Intravenously administered CBD possessed very little activity on its own and, at a dose equal to a maximally effective dose of THC (3 mg/kg), failed to alter THC's effects on any measure. However, higher doses of CBD (ED(50)=7.4 mg/kg) dose-dependently potentiated the antinociceptive effects of a low dose of THC (0.3 mg/kg). Pretreatment with 30 mg/kg CBD, but not 3 mg/kg, significantly elevated THC blood and brain levels. No interactions between THC and CBD were observed in several variations of a marijuana smoke exposure model. Either quantities of CBD were applied directly to marijuana, CBD and THC were both applied to placebo plant material, or mice were pretreated intravenously with 30 mg/kg CBD before being exposed to marijuana smoke. As the amount of CBD found in most marijuana strains in the US is considerably less than that of THC, these results suggest that CBD concentrations relevant to what is normally found in marijuana exert very little, if any, modulatory effects on CB(1)-receptor-mediated pharmacological effects of marijuana smoke.

  8. Clinical and Preclinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Douglas L; Nguyen, Jacques D; Morgenson, Daralyn; Taffe, Michael A; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2018-01-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa, commonly called cannabis or marijuana, has been used for its psychotropic and mind-altering side effects for millennia. There has been growing attention in recent years on its potential therapeutic efficacy as municipalities and legislative bodies in the United States, Canada, and other countries grapple with enacting policy to facilitate the use of cannabis or its constituents for medical purposes. There are >550 chemical compounds and >100 phytocannabinoids isolated from cannabis, including Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is thought to produce the main psychoactive effects of cannabis, while CBD does not appear to have similar effects. Studies conflict as to whether CBD attenuates or exacerbates the behavioral and cognitive effects of THC. This includes effects of CBD on THC-induced anxiety, psychosis, and cognitive deficits. In this article, we review the available evidence on the pharmacology and behavioral interactions of THC and CBD from preclinical and human studies, particularly with reference to anxiety and psychosis-like symptoms. Both THC and CBD, as well as other cannabinoid molecules, are currently being evaluated for medicinal purposes, separately and in combination. Future cannabis-related policy decisions should include consideration of scientific findings, including the individual and interactive effects of CBD and THC.

  9. Simultaneous GC–EI-MS Determination of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-Hydroxy-Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, and 11-nor-9-Carboxy-Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Human Urine Following Tandem Enzyme-Alkaline Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Tsadik T.; Lowe, Ross H.; Pirnay, Stephane O.; Darwin, William D.; Huesti, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method for extraction and quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in human urine was developed and fully validated. To ensure complete hydrolysis of conjugates and capture of total analyte content, urine samples were hydrolyzed by two methods in series. Initial hydrolysis was with Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase (Type IX–A) followed by a second hydrolysis utilizing 10N NaOH. Specimens were adjusted to pH 5−6.5, treated with acetonitrile to precipitate protein, and centrifuged, and the supernatants were subjected to solid-phase extraction. Extracted analytes were derivatized with BSTFA and quantified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization. Standard curves were linear from 2.5 to 300 ng/mL. Extraction efficiencies were 57.0−59.3% for THC, 68.3−75.5% for 11-OH-THC, and 71.5−79.7% for THCCOOH. Intra- and interassay precision across the linear range of the assay ranged from 0.1 to 4.3% and 2.6 to 7.4%, respectively. Accuracy was within 15% of target concentrations. This method was applied to the analysis of urine specimens collected from individuals participating in controlled administration cannabis studies, and it may be a useful analytical procedure for determining recency of cannabis use in forensic toxicology applications. PMID:17988462

  10. A Two-Year Study of Δ 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentrations in Drivers; Part 2: Physiological Signs on Drug Recognition Expert (DRE) and non-DRE Examinations,.

    PubMed

    Declues, Kari; Perez, Shelli; Figueroa, Ariana

    2018-03-01

    Whole blood samples were examined for ∆ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) over 2 years in drivers suspected of driving under the influence. Part one of the study examined the link between [THC] and performance on field sobriety tests. This portion examined objective signs, eye examinations and physiological indicators; and their relationship to the presence of THC. Several objective signs were excellent indicators of the presence of THC: red eyes (94%), droopy eyelids (85.6%), affected speech (87.6%), tongue coating (96.2%), and odor of marijuana (82.4%). About 63.6% of THC positive subjects had dialted pupils (room light). THC positive subjects had either rebound dilation or hippus in 88.8% of cases. Pulse and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated to determine any correlation with [THC]. An increased pulse rate correlated well to the presence of THC (88.5%), but not [THC]. BP did not correlate to [THC] and was also a poor indicator of THC in the blood (50% high). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Cannabinoids and metabolites in expectorated oral fluid after 8 days of controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration.

    PubMed

    Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Schwope, David M; Schwilke, Eugene W; Goodwin, Robert S; Kelly, Deana L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-08-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an increasingly accepted matrix for drug testing programs, but questions remain about its usefulness for monitoring cannabinoids. Expectorated OF specimens (n = 360) were obtained from 10 adult daily cannabis smokers before, during, and after 37 20-mg oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses over 9 days to characterize cannabinoid disposition in this matrix. Specimens were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact ionization for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol, and negative chemical ionization for 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Linear ranges for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and cannabidiol were 0.25-50 ng/mL; cannabinol 1-50 ng/mL; and THCCOOH 5-500 pg/mL. THCCOOH was the most prevalent analyte in 344 specimens (96.9%), with concentrations up to 1,390.3 pg/mL. 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol were detected in 1, 1, and 3 specimens, respectively. THC was detected in only 13.8% of specimens. The highest THC concentrations were obtained at admission (median 1.4 ng/mL, range 0.3-113.6) from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. A total of 2.5 and 3.7% of specimens were THC-positive at the recommended Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2 ng/mL) and Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) (1 ng/mL) confirmation cutoffs, respectively. THC is currently the only analyte for monitoring cannabis exposure in OF; however, these data indicate chronic therapeutic oral THC administration and illicit oral THC use are unlikely to be identified with current guidelines. Measurement of THCCOOH may improve the detection and interpretation of OF cannabinoid tests and minimize the possibility of OF contamination from passive inhalation of cannabis smoke.

  12. Cannabinoids and metabolites in expectorated oral fluid after 8 days of controlled around-the-clock oral THC administration

    PubMed Central

    Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Schwope, David M.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Kelly, Deana L.; Gorelick, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is an increasingly accepted matrix for drug testing programs, but questions remain about its usefulness for monitoring cannabinoids. Expectorated OF specimens (n=360) were obtained from 10 adult daily cannabis smokers before, during, and after 37 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses over 9 days to characterize cannabinoid disposition in this matrix. Specimens were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry with electron-impact ionization for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol, and negative chemical ionization for 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Linear ranges for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and cannabidiol were 0.25–50 ng/mL; cannabinol 1–50 ng/mL; and THCCOOH 5–500 pg/mL. THCCOOH was the most prevalent analyte in 344 specimens (96.9%), with concentrations up to 1,390.3 pg/mL. 11-hydroxy-THC, cannabidiol, and cannabinol were detected in 1, 1, and 3 specimens, respectively. THC was detected in only 13.8% of specimens. The highest THC concentrations were obtained at admission (median 1.4 ng/mL, range 0.3–113.6) from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. A total of 2.5 and 3.7% of specimens were THC-positive at the recommended Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (2 ng/mL) and Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines (DRUID) (1 ng/mL) confirmation cutoffs, respectively. THC is currently the only analyte for monitoring cannabis exposure in OF; however, these data indicate chronic therapeutic oral THC administration and illicit oral THC use are unlikely to be identified with current guidelines. Measurement of THCCOOH may improve the detection and interpretation of OF cannabinoid tests and minimize the possibility of OF contamination from passive inhalation of cannabis smoke. PMID:21637933

  13. Clinical experience with THC:CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Jürgen; Feneberg, Wolfgang; Meier, Martin; Pöllmann, Walter

    2014-09-01

    This detailed medical charts' data collection study conducted at a multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic in Germany evaluated the effectiveness of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray in patients with resistant MS spasticity. Over a 15-month timeframe, THC:CBD spray was initiated in 166 patients. Mean follow-up was 9 months. In all, 120 patients remained on treatment for a response rate of 72%. THC:CBD spray was used as add-on therapy in 95 patients and as monotherapy in 25 patients to achieve best-possible therapeutic results. Among responders, the mean spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) score decreased by 57%, from 7.0 before treatment to 3.0 within 10 days of starting THC:CBD spray. The mean dosage was 4 sprays/day. Most patients who withdrew from treatment (40/46) had been receiving THC:CBD spray for less than 60 days. Main reasons for treatment discontinuation were: adverse drug reactions, mainly dizziness, fatigue and oral discomfort (23 patients; 13.9%); lack of efficacy (14 patients; 8.4%); or need for a baclofen pump (9 patients; 5.4%). No new safety signals were noted with THC:CBD spray during the evaluation period. In this routine clinical practice setting at an MS clinic in Germany, THC:CBD spray was effective and well tolerated as add-on therapy or as monotherapy in a relevant proportion of patients with resistant MS spasticity.

  14. Effects of Δ9-THC and cannabidiol vapor inhalation in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Javadi-Paydar, Mehrak; Nguyen, Jacques D; Kerr, Tony M; Grant, Yanabel; Vandewater, Sophia A; Cole, Maury; Taffe, Michael A

    2018-06-16

    Previous studies report sex differences in some, but not all, responses to cannabinoids in rats. The majority of studies use parenteral injection; however, most human use is via smoke inhalation and, increasingly, vapor inhalation. To compare thermoregulatory and locomotor responses to inhaled ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and their combination using an e-cigarette-based model in male and female rats METHODS: Male and female Wistar rats were implanted with radiotelemetry devices for the assessment of body temperature and locomotor activity. Animals were then exposed to THC or CBD vapor using a propylene glycol (PG) vehicle. THC dose was adjusted via the concentration in the vehicle (12.5-200 mg/mL) and the CBD (100, 400 mg/mL) dose was also adjusted by varying the inhalation duration (10-40 min). Anti-nociception was evaluated using a tail-withdrawal assay following vapor inhalation. Plasma samples obtained following inhalation in different groups of rats were compared for THC content. THC inhalation reduced body temperature and increased tail-withdrawal latency in both sexes equivalently and in a concentration-dependent manner. Female temperature, activity, and tail-withdrawal responses to THC did not differ between estrus and diestrus. CBD inhalation alone induced modest hypothermia and suppressed locomotor activity in both males and females. Co-administration of THC with CBD, in a 1:4 ratio, significantly decreased temperature and activity in an approximately additive manner and to similar extent in each sex. Plasma THC varied with the concentration in the PG vehicle but did not differ across rat sex. In summary, the inhalation of THC or CBD, alone and in combination, produces approximately equivalent effects in male and female rats. This confirms the efficacy of the e-cigarette-based method of THC delivery in female rats.

  15. Cannabidiol Does Not Convert to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in an In Vivo Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Wray, Louise; Stott, Colin; Jones, Nicholas; Wright, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) can convert to Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro with prolonged exposure to simulated gastric fluid; however, in vitro conditions may not be representative of the in vivo gut environment. Using the minipig, we investigated whether enteral CBD converts to THC in vivo . Materials and Methods: Synthetic CBD (100 mg/mL) was administered orally in a sesame oil formulation twice daily to minipigs ( N =3) in 15 mg/kg doses for 5 consecutive days. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after morning doses on Days 1 and 5. Six hours after the final dose on Day 5, the animals were euthanized, and samples of gastrointestinal (GI) tract contents were obtained. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analysis determined CBD, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) concentrations. Lower limits of quantification: plasma CBD=1 ng/mL, plasma THC and 11-OH-THC=0.5 ng/mL, GI tract CBD=2 ng/mL, and GI tract THC and 11-OH-THC=1 ng/mL. Results: THC and 11-OH-THC were undetectable in all plasma samples. Maximum plasma concentrations ( C max ) of CBD were observed between 1 and 4 h on Days 1 and 5. CBD was present in plasma 6 h after administration on Days 1 (mean 33.6 ng/mL) and 5 (mean 98.8 ng/mL). Mean C max CBD values, 328 ng/mL (Day 1) and 259 ng/mL (Day 5), were within range of those achieved in clinical studies. Mean CBD exposure over 6 h was similar on Days 1 (921 h·ng/mL) and 5 (881 h·ng/mL). THC and 11-OH-THC were not detected in all GI tract samples. Mean CBD concentrations reached 84,500 ng/mL in the stomach and 43,900 ng/mL in the small intestine. Conclusions: Findings of the present study show that orally dosed CBD, yielding clinically relevant plasma exposures, does not convert to THC in the minipig, a species predictive of human GI tract function.

  16. Cannabidiol Does Not Convert to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in an In Vivo Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Louise; Stott, Colin; Jones, Nicholas; Wright, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) can convert to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vitro with prolonged exposure to simulated gastric fluid; however, in vitro conditions may not be representative of the in vivo gut environment. Using the minipig, we investigated whether enteral CBD converts to THC in vivo. Materials and Methods: Synthetic CBD (100 mg/mL) was administered orally in a sesame oil formulation twice daily to minipigs (N=3) in 15 mg/kg doses for 5 consecutive days. Blood samples were taken before and 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after morning doses on Days 1 and 5. Six hours after the final dose on Day 5, the animals were euthanized, and samples of gastrointestinal (GI) tract contents were obtained. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analysis determined CBD, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) concentrations. Lower limits of quantification: plasma CBD=1 ng/mL, plasma THC and 11-OH-THC=0.5 ng/mL, GI tract CBD=2 ng/mL, and GI tract THC and 11-OH-THC=1 ng/mL. Results: THC and 11-OH-THC were undetectable in all plasma samples. Maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) of CBD were observed between 1 and 4 h on Days 1 and 5. CBD was present in plasma 6 h after administration on Days 1 (mean 33.6 ng/mL) and 5 (mean 98.8 ng/mL). Mean Cmax CBD values, 328 ng/mL (Day 1) and 259 ng/mL (Day 5), were within range of those achieved in clinical studies. Mean CBD exposure over 6 h was similar on Days 1 (921 h·ng/mL) and 5 (881 h·ng/mL). THC and 11-OH-THC were not detected in all GI tract samples. Mean CBD concentrations reached 84,500 ng/mL in the stomach and 43,900 ng/mL in the small intestine. Conclusions: Findings of the present study show that orally dosed CBD, yielding clinically relevant plasma exposures, does not convert to THC in the minipig, a species predictive of human GI tract function. PMID:29285522

  17. Effects of haloperidol on the behavioral, subjective, cognitive, motor, and neuroendocrine effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans

    PubMed Central

    Braley, Gabriel; Blaise, Rebecca; Vendetti, Michael; Oliver, Stephen; Pittman, Brian; Ranganathan, Mohini; Bhakta, Savita; Zimolo, Zoran; Cooper, Thomas; Perry, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cannabinoids produce a spectrum of effects in humans including euphoria, cognitive impairments, psychotomimetic effects, and perceptual alterations. The extent to which dopaminergic systems contribute to the effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) remains unclear. This study evaluated whether pretreatment with a dopamine receptor antagonist altered the effects of Δ-9-THC in humans. Materials and methods In a 2-test-day double-blind study, 28 subjects including healthy subjects (n=17) and frequent users of cannabis (n=11) were administered active (0.057 mg/kg) or placebo oral haloperidol in random order followed 90 and 215 min later by fixed order intravenous administration of placebo (vehicle) and active (0.0286 mg/kg) Δ-9-THC, respectively. Results Consistent with previous reports, intravenous Δ-9-THC produced psychotomimetic effects, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects including “high.” Δ-9-THC also impaired verbal recall and attention. Haloperidol pretreatment did not reduce any of the behavioral effects of Δ-9-THC. Haloperidol worsened the immediate free and delayed free and cued recall deficits produced by Δ-9-THC. Haloperidol and Δ-9-THC worsened distractibility and vigilance. Neither drug impaired performance on a motor screening task, the Stockings of Cambridge task, or the delayed match to sample task. Frequent users had lower baseline plasma prolactin levels and blunted Δ-9-THC induced memory impairments. Conclusions The deleterious effects of haloperidol pretreatment on the cognitive effects of Δ-9-THC are consistent with the preclinical literature in suggesting crosstalk between DAergic and CBergic systems. However, it is unlikely that DA D2 receptor mechanisms play a major role in mediating the psychotomimetic and perceptual altering effects of Δ-9-THC. Further investigation is warranted to understand the basis of the psychotomimetic effects of Δ-9-THC and to better understand the crosstalk between DAergic

  18. Tolerance to effects of high-dose oral δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and plasma cannabinoid concentrations in male daily cannabis smokers.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-01-01

    Oral cannabinoids are taken for medicinal or recreational purposes, yet little is known about tolerance to their effects after high-dose extended exposure. The development of tolerance to effects of around-the-clock oral synthetic Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (20 mg every 3.5-6 h) was evaluated in 13 healthy male daily cannabis smokers residing on a secure research unit: 40 mg on Day 1; 100 mg on Days 2-4; 120 mg on Days 5-6. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and symptoms of subjective intoxication (100 mm visual-analogue scales, VAS) were assessed the morning of Day 1 (before any oral THC), and on Days 2, 4 and 6, every 30 min for 3 h after the first morning THC dose. Morning subjective intoxication ratings increased from Days 1 to 2, and then declined on Days 4 and 6. The morning THC dose increased intoxication ratings on Day 2, but had less effect on Days 4 and 6, a pattern consistent with tolerance. THC lowered BP and increased heart rate over the six days. Plasma THC and 11-OH-THC concentrations increased significantly over the first five days of dosing. Six days of around-the-clock, oral THC produced tolerance to subjective intoxication, but not to cardiovascular effects.

  19. Tetrahydrocannabinol induces brain mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction and increases oxidative stress: a potential mechanism involved in cannabis-related stroke.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Valérie; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Rouyer, Olivier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Singh, François; Auger, Cyril; Schini-Kerth, Valérie; Marescaux, Christian; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis has potential therapeutic use but tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive component, appears as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young adults. We therefore evaluate the effects of THC on brain mitochondrial function and oxidative stress, key factors involved in stroke. Maximal oxidative capacities V max (complexes I, III, and IV activities), V succ (complexes II, III, and IV activities), V tmpd (complex IV activity), together with mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0), were determined in control conditions and after exposure to THC in isolated mitochondria extracted from rat brain, using differential centrifugations. Oxidative stress was also assessed through hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production, measured with Amplex Red. THC significantly decreased V max (-71%; P < 0.0001), V succ (-65%; P < 0.0001), and V tmpd (-3.5%; P < 0.001). Mitochondrial coupling (V max/V 0) was also significantly decreased after THC exposure (1.8±0.2 versus 6.3±0.7; P < 0.001). Furthermore, THC significantly enhanced H2O2 production by cerebral mitochondria (+171%; P < 0.05) and mitochondrial free radical leak was increased from 0.01±0.01 to 0.10±0.01% (P < 0.001). Thus, THC increases oxidative stress and induces cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction. This mechanism may be involved in young cannabis users who develop ischemic stroke since THC might increase patient's vulnerability to stroke.

  20. Is 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin a Suitable Carrier for Central Administration of Δ9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol? Preclinical Evidence.

    PubMed

    Agabio, R; Sanna, F; Lobina, C; Monduzzi, M; Nairi, V; Cugia, F; Mameli, S; Pisanu, G M; Gessa, G L; Melis, M R

    2017-12-01

    Preclinical Research Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a hydrophobic compound that has a potent antinociceptive effect in animals after intrathecal (IT) or intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration. The lack of a suitable solvent precludes its IT administration in humans. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) increases the water solubility of hydrophobic drugs and is approved for IT administration in humans. To investigate whether HPβCD might be a suitable carrier for ICV administration of THC in rats, two formulations containing THC complexed with HPβCD (30 and 135 μg of THC per animal) and vehicle were administered to Wistar rats. The antinociceptive effect (using the tail flick test), locomotor activity, and body temperature were evaluated. ICV injection of 135 μg of THC/HPβCD complex increased tail flick latency, reduced locomotor activity, and had a dual effect on body temperature. The 30 μg THC/HPβCD formulation only produced a hyperthermic effect. All animals appeared healthy, with no difference between the groups. These results were similar to those obtained in other preclinical studies in which THC was administered centrally using solvents that are unsuitable for IT administration in humans because of their toxicity. Our findings suggest that HPβCD may be a useful carrier for IT administration of THC in humans. Drug Dev Res 78 : 411-419, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Repeated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure in adolescent monkeys: persistent effects selective for spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Verrico, Christopher D; Gu, Hong; Peterson, Melanie L; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological findings suggest that, relative to adults, adolescents are more vulnerable to the adverse persistent effects of cannabis on working memory. However, the potential confounds inherent in human studies preclude direct determination of a cause-and-effect relationship between adolescent cannabis use and heightened susceptibility to persistent working memory impairments. Consequently, the authors examined the effects of repeated exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on performance of spatial and object working memory tasks in adolescent monkeys. Seven pairs of male adolescent rhesus monkeys, matched for baseline cognitive performance, received vehicle or THC intravenously 5 days/week for 6 months. Performance on spatial and object memory tasks was assessed 23 or 71 hours after drug administration throughout the study. In addition, acute effects on working memory were also assessed at the beginning and end of the 6-month period. Relative to the vehicle-exposed control animals, those with repeated THC exposure had a blunted trajectory of accuracy improvements on the spatial working memory task in a delay-dependent manner. Accuracy improvements on the object working memory task did not differ between groups. Relative to the acute effects of THC on working memory at the beginning of the study, neither sensitivity nor tolerance was evident after 6 months of THC exposure. Because maturation of performance is later for spatial than for object working memory, these findings suggest that persistent effects of THC on cognitive abilities are more evident when exposure coincides with the developmental stage during which the underlying neural circuits are actively maturing.

  2. Development of markers for Delta9-Stearoyl-ACP-Desaturase (SAD) to screen for cold acclimation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Delta 9-Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase (SAD) is an important enzyme of fatty acid biosynthesis in higher plants. Located in the plastid stroma, SAD catalyzes the desaturation of stearoyl-ACP to oleyl-ACP. SAD plays a key role in determining the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsat...

  3. Expression and evolution of delta9 and delta11 desaturase genes in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Hao, Guixia; Liu, Weitian; Piña, Benjamín; Rooney, Alejandro P; Camps, Francisco; Roelofs, Wendell L; Fabriàs, Gemma

    2004-12-01

    Desaturation of fatty acids is a key reaction in the biosynthesis of moth sex pheromones. The main component of Spodoptera littoralis sex pheromone blend is produced by the action of Delta11 and Delta9 desaturases. In this article, we report on the cloning of four desaturase-like genes in this species: one from the fat body (Sls-FL1) and three (Sls-FL2, Sls-FL3 and Sls-FL4) from the pheromone gland. By means of a computational/phylogenetic method, as well as functional assays, the desaturase gene products have been characterized. The fat body gene expressed a Delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1:4.5) ratio, whereas the pheromone gland Sls-FL2 expressed a Delta9 desaturase that produced (Z)-9-hexadecenoic and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acids in a (1.5:1) ratio. Although both Delta9 desaturases produced (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid from myristic acid, transformed yeast grown in the presence of a mixture of myristic and (E)-11-tetradecenoic acids produced (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid, but not (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid. The Sls-FL3 gene expressed a protein that produced a mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenoic, (Z)-11-tetradecenoic, (Z)-11-hexadecenoic and (Z)-11-octadecenoic acids in a 5:4:60:31 ratio. Despite having all the characteristics of a desaturase gene, no function could be found for Sls-FL4.

  4. Separate and combined effects of the cannabinoid agonists nabilone and Δ⁹-THC in humans discriminating Δ⁹-THC.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2011-07-01

    Agonist replacement treatment is a promising strategy to manage cannabis-use disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the combined effects of the synthetic cannabinoid agonist nabilone and Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC) using drug-discrimination procedures, which are sensitive to drug interactions. Testing the concurrent administration of nabilone and Δ⁹-THC was also conducted to provide initial safety and tolerability data, which is important because cannabis users will likely lapse during treatment. Six cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ⁹-THC from placebo and then received nabilone (0, 1 and 3mg) and Δ⁹-THC (0, 5, 15 and 30 mg), alone and in combination. Subjects completed the multiple-choice procedure to assess drug reinforcement, and self-report, task performance and physiological measures were collected. Δ⁹-THC and nabilone alone shared discriminative-stimulus effects with the training dose of Δ⁹-THC, increased crossover point on the multiple-choice procedure, produced overlapping subject ratings and decreased skin temperature. Nabilone alone also elevated heart rate. In combination, nabilone shifted the discriminative-stimulus effects of Δ⁹-THC leftward/upward and enhanced Δ⁹-THC effects on the other outcome measures. These results replicate a previous study demonstrating that nabilone shares agonist effects with the active constituent of cannabis in cannabis users, and contribute further by indicating that nabilone would likely be safe and well tolerated when combined with cannabis. These data support the conduct of future studies to determine if nabilone treatment would produce cross-tolerance to the abuse-related effects of cannabis and reduce cannabis use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural correlates of interactions between cannabidiol and Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol in mice: implications for medical cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Todd, S M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been proposed that medicinal strains of cannabis and therapeutic preparations would be safer with a more balanced concentration ratio of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to cannabidiol (CBD), as CBD reduces the adverse psychotropic effects of THC. However, our understanding of CBD and THC interactions is limited and the brain circuitry mediating interactions between CBD and THC are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CBD modulated the functional effects and c‐Fos expression induced by THC, using a 1:1 dose ratio that approximates therapeutic strains of cannabis and nabiximols. Experimental Approach Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with vehicle, CBD, THC or a combination of CBD and THC (10 mg·kg−1 i.p. for both cannabinoids) to examine effects on locomotor activity, anxiety‐related behaviour, body temperature and brain c‐Fos expression (a marker of neuronal activation). Key Results CBD potentiated THC‐induced locomotor suppression but reduced the hypothermic and anxiogenic effects of THC. CBD alone had no effect on these measures. THC increased brain activation as measured by c‐Fos expression in 11 of the 35 brain regions studied. CBD co‐administration suppressed THC‐induced c‐Fos expression in six of these brain regions. This effect was most pronounced in the medial preoptic nucleus and lateral periaqueductal gray. Treatment with CBD alone diminished c‐Fos expression only in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared with vehicle. Conclusions and Implications These data confirm that CBD modulated the pharmacological actions of THC and provide new information regarding brain regions involved in the interaction between CBD and THC. PMID:26377899

  6. Blood levels do not predict behavioral or physiological effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in rhesus monkeys with different patterns of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Hruba, Lenka; Zaki, Armia; Javors, Martin; McMahon, Lance R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent changes in the legality of cannabis have prompted evaluation of whether blood levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or its metabolites could be used to substantiate impairment, particularly related to behavioral tasks such as driving. However, because marked tolerance develops to behavioral effects of THC, the applicability of a particular threshold of blood THC as an index of impairment in people with different patterns of use remains unclear. Studies relevant to this issue are difficult to accomplish in humans, as prior drug exposure is difficult to control. Methods Here, effects of THC to decrease rectal temperature and operant response rate compared to levels of THC and its metabolites were studied in blood in two groups of monkeys: one received intermittent treatment with THC (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) and another received chronic THC (1 mg/kg/12 h s.c.) for several years. Results In monkeys with intermittent THC exposure, a single dose of THC (3.2 mg/kg s.c.) decreased rectal temperature and response rate. The same dose did not affect response rate or rectal temperature in chronically exposed monkeys, indicative of greater tolerance. In both groups, blood levels of THC peaked 20–60 min post-injection and had a similar half life of elimination, indicating no tolerance to the pharmacokinetics of THC. Notably, in both groups, the behavioral effects of THC were not apparent when blood levels were maximal (20-min post-administration). Conclusion These data indicate that thresholds for blood levels of THC do not provide a consistent index of behavioral impairment across individuals with different patterns of THC exposure. PMID:24703610

  7. Persistent effects of chronic Δ9-THC exposure on motor impulsivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Cristina; Polis, Ilham Y; Stouffer, David; Parsons, Loren H

    2015-08-01

    In humans, long-term marijuana use is associated with impaired impulse control and attentional capacity, though it has been difficult to distinguish pre-existing cognitive deficits from possible consequences of prolonged marijuana exposure. To evaluate the effects of long-term exposure to Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in marijuana, on indices of impulse control and attentional capacity using the rat 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT). Ten 14-day cycles of Δ9-THC dosing and 5-CSRTT testing were employed, each comprised of 5-day Δ9-THC dosing (0.3 or 3 mg/kg b.i.d.) and 5-CSRTT testing during the 9 days of drug abstinence. Subsequent 5-CSRTT testing continued during 5 weeks of protracted abstinence. Dose-dependent increases in motor impulsivity (premature responses) and behavioral disinhibition (perseverative responses) emerged following 5 cycles of Δ9-THC exposure that persisted for the remaining dosing and testing cycles. Δ9-THC-related disruptions in motor impulsivity and behavioral inhibition were most pronounced during cognitively challenging 5-CSRTT sessions incorporating varying novel inter-trial intervals (ITIs), and these disruptions persisted for at least 5 weeks of Δ9-THC abstinence. Δ9-THC-related impairments in attentional capacity (response accuracy) were also evident during variable ITI challenge tests, though these attentional disruptions abated within 3 weeks of Δ9-THC abstinence. These observations demonstrate that long-term intermittent exposure to clinically meaningful Δ9-THC doses induces persistent impairments in impulse control and attentional function. If present in humans, these disruptions may impact academic and professional performance.

  8. Effect of oral THC pretreatment on marijuana cue-induced responses in cannabis dependent volunteers.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2015-04-01

    The current study tested whether oral Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC: 0-, 10-, and 20-mg) pretreatment would attenuate polysensory cue-induced craving for marijuana. Cannabis dependent participants (7 males and 7 females, who smoked on average 5.4 ± 1.1 blunts daily) completed 3 experimental sessions (oral THC pretreatment dose; counterbalanced order) using a placebo-controlled within-subject crossover design. During each session, participants completed a baseline evaluation and were first exposed to neutral cues then marijuana cues while physiological measures and subjective ratings of mood, craving, and drug effect were recorded. Following placebo oral THC pretreatment, marijuana (vs. neutral) cues significantly increased ratings of marijuana craving (desire and urge to use, Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ)-Compulsivity scale), anxious mood and feeling hungry. Males also reported feeling more "Down" during marijuana cues relative to females. Pretreatment with oral THC (10-mg and/or 20-mg vs. placebo) significantly attenuated marijuana cue-induced increases in craving and anxiety but not hunger. Oral THC attenuation of the cue-induced increase in MCQ-Compulsivity ratings was observed in females only. Oral THC produced statistically (but not clinically) significant increases in heart rate and decreases in diastolic blood pressure, independent of cues. These marijuana-cue findings replicate earlier results and further demonstrate that oral THC can attenuate selected effects during marijuana multi-cue exposure, and that some of these effects may be sex-related. Results of this study suggest oral THC may be effective for reducing marijuana cue-elicited (conditioned) effects. Further study is needed to determine whether females may selectively benefit from oral THC for this purpose. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, A. J.; Grimaldi, M.; Axelrod, J.; Wink, D.

    1998-01-01

    The neuroprotective actions of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids were examined in rat cortical neuron cultures exposed to toxic levels of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. Glutamate toxicity was reduced by both cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive constituent of marijuana, and the psychotropic cannabinoid (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabinoids protected equally well against neurotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid receptors, or kainate receptors. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-induced toxicity has been shown to be calcium dependent; this study demonstrates that 2-amino-3-(4-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-5-yl)propionic acid/kainate receptor-type neurotoxicity is also calcium-dependent, partly mediated by voltage sensitive calcium channels. The neuroprotection observed with cannabidiol and THC was unaffected by cannabinoid receptor antagonist, indicating it to be cannabinoid receptor independent. Previous studies have shown that glutamate toxicity may be prevented by antioxidants. Cannabidiol, THC and several synthetic cannabinoids all were demonstrated to be antioxidants by cyclic voltametry. Cannabidiol and THC also were shown to prevent hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants in a chemical (Fenton reaction) system and neuronal cultures. Cannabidiol was more protective against glutamate neurotoxicity than either ascorbate or α-tocopherol, indicating it to be a potent antioxidant. These data also suggest that the naturally occurring, nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol, may be a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of oxidative neurological disorders such as cerebral ischemia. PMID:9653176

  10. Rapid elimination of Carboxy-THC in a cohort of chronic cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John; Molnar, Anna; Allsop, David; Copeland, Jan; Fu, Shanlin

    2016-01-01

    Urinary 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (Carboxy-THC) concentrations, normalised to creatinine output, have been demonstrated to be a useful tool in the interpretation of the results of a series of urine tests for cannabis. These tests, often termed historical data, can be used to identify potential chronic cannabis users who may present occupational health and safety risks within the workplace. Conversely, the data can also be used to support employee claims of previous regular, rather than recent, cannabis use. This study aimed at examining the mean elimination of Carboxy-THC in 37 chronic users undergoing voluntary abstinence over a 2-week period. Urine specimens were collected prior to the study and after 1 and 2 weeks of abstinence. Carboxy-THC levels in urine were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following alkaline hydrolysis, organic solvent extraction and derivatisation to form its pentafluoropropionic derivative. The creatinine-normalised Carboxy-THC concentrations declined rapidly over the 2 weeks of abstinence period and the majority of chronic cannabis users (73%) reduced their urinary Carboxy-THC levels to below the 15-μg/L confirmatory cutoff within that time. The study further highlights the value of historical urinary Carboxy-THC data as a means of identifying potential occupational health and safety risks among chronic cannabis users.

  11. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of supratherapeutic oral doses of Δ9-THC in cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Charnigo, Richard J.; Stinchcomb, Audra L.; Hays, Lon R.

    2013-01-01

    Oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) has been evaluated as a medication for cannabis dependence, but repeated administration of acute oral doses up to 40 mg has not been effective at reducing drug-taking behavior. Larger doses might be necessary to affect cannabis use. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the physiological and behavioral effects of oral Δ9-THC at acute doses higher than those tested previously. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of oral Δ9-THC, administered in ascending order in 15 mg increments across separate sessions, up to a maximum of 90 mg, was determined in seven cannabis users. Five subjects received all doses and two experienced untoward side effects at lower doses. Δ9-THC produced a constellation of effects consistent with previous clinical studies. Low cannabinoid concentrations were associated with significant effects on drug- sensitive measures, although progressively greater levels did not lead to proportionately larger drug effects. Considerable variability in Cmax and tmax was observed. Doses of oral Δ9-THC larger than those tested previously can be administered to individuals with a history of cannabis use, although given the pharmacokinetic variability of oral Δ9-THC and individual differences in sensitivity, individualized dose adjustment is needed to avoid side effects and maximize therapeutic response. PMID:23754596

  12. Can You Pass the Acid Test? Critical Review and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid A.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sanz, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A) is the acidic precursor of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound found in Cannabis sativa . THCA-A is biosynthesized and accumulated in glandular trichomes present on flowers and leaves, where it serves protective functions and can represent up to 90% of the total THC contained in the plant. THCA-A slowly decarboxylates to form THC during storage and fermentation and can further degrade to cannabinol. Decarboxylation also occurs rapidly during baking of edibles, smoking, or vaporizing, the most common ways in which the general population consumes Cannabis. Contrary to THC, THCA-A does not elicit psychoactive effects in humans and, perhaps for this reason, its pharmacological value is often neglected. In fact, many studies use the term "THCA" to refer indistinctly to several acid derivatives of THC. Despite this perception, many in vitro studies seem to indicate that THCA-A interacts with a number of molecular targets and displays a robust pharmacological profile that includes potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, and antineoplastic properties. Moreover, the few in vivo studies performed with THCA-A indicate that this compound exerts pharmacological actions in rodents, likely by engaging type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. Although these findings may seem counterintuitive due to the lack of cannabinoid-related psychoactivity, a careful perusal of the available literature yields a plausible explanation to this conundrum and points toward novel therapeutic perspectives for raw, unheated Cannabis preparations in humans.

  13. Cannabidiol attenuates deficits of visuospatial associative memory induced by Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol

    PubMed Central

    Wright, M Jerry; Vandewater, Sophia A; Taffe, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent human studies suggest that recreational cannabis strains that are relatively high in cannabidiol (CBD) content produce less cognitive impairment than do strains with negligible CBD and similar Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. Self-selection in such studies means it is impossible to rule out additional variables which may determine both cannabis strain selection and basal cognitive performance level. Controlled laboratory studies can better determine a direct relationship. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In this study, adult male rhesus monkeys were assessed on visuospatial Paired Associates Learning and Self-Ordered Spatial Search memory tasks, as well as additional tests of motivation and manual dexterity. Subjects were challenged with THC (0.2, 0.5 mg·kg−1, i.m.) in randomized order and evaluated in the presence or absence of 0.5 mg·kg−1 CBD. KEY RESULTS CBD attenuated the effects of THC on paired associates learning and a bimanual motor task without affecting the detrimental effects of THC on a Self-Ordered Spatial Search task of working memory. CBD did not significantly reverse THC-induced impairment of a progressive ratio or a rotating turntable task. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study provides direct evidence that CBD can oppose the cognitive-impairing effects of THC and that it does so in a task-selective manner when administered simultaneously in a 1:1 ratio with THC. The addition of CBD to THC-containing therapeutic products may therefore help to ameliorate unwanted cognitive side-effects. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Mechoulam and Parker, pp 1363–1364 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12400 PMID:23550724

  14. Cannabidiol attenuates deficits of visuospatial associative memory induced by Δ(9) tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Wright, M Jerry; Vandewater, Sophia A; Taffe, Michael A

    2013-12-01

    Recent human studies suggest that recreational cannabis strains that are relatively high in cannabidiol (CBD) content produce less cognitive impairment than do strains with negligible CBD and similar Δ(9) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content. Self-selection in such studies means it is impossible to rule out additional variables which may determine both cannabis strain selection and basal cognitive performance level. Controlled laboratory studies can better determine a direct relationship. In this study, adult male rhesus monkeys were assessed on visuospatial Paired Associates Learning and Self-Ordered Spatial Search memory tasks, as well as additional tests of motivation and manual dexterity. Subjects were challenged with THC (0.2, 0.5 mg·kg(-1) , i.m.) in randomized order and evaluated in the presence or absence of 0.5 mg·kg(-1) CBD. CBD attenuated the effects of THC on paired associates learning and a bimanual motor task without affecting the detrimental effects of THC on a Self-Ordered Spatial Search task of working memory. CBD did not significantly reverse THC-induced impairment of a progressive ratio or a rotating turntable task. This study provides direct evidence that CBD can oppose the cognitive-impairing effects of THC and that it does so in a task-selective manner when administered simultaneously in a 1:1 ratio with THC. The addition of CBD to THC-containing therapeutic products may therefore help to ameliorate unwanted cognitive side-effects. This article is commented on by Mechoulam and Parker, pp 1363-1364 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12400. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Visual search and urban city driving under the influence of marijuana and alcohol

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine the separate and combined effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol on visual search and actual city driving performance. On separate evenings, 16 subjects were given weight-calib...

  16. Marijuana, alcohol and actual driving performance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to empirically determine the separate and combined effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol on actual driving performance. This was the first study ever in which the drugs' combined effects were measured...

  17. Human urinary excretion profile after smoking and oral administration of ( sup 14 C)delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, E.; Gillespie, H.K.; Halldin, M.M.

    The urinary excretion profiles of delta 1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 1-THC) metabolites have been evaluated in two chronic and two naive marijuana users after smoking and oral administration of ({sup 14}C)delta 1-THC. Urine was collected for five days after each administration route and analyzed for total delta 1-THC metabolites by radioactivity determination, for delta 1-THC-7-oic acid by high-performance liquid chromatography, and for cross-reacting cannabinoids by the EMIT d.a.u. cannabinoid assay. The average urinary excretion half-life of {sup 14}C-labeled delta 1-THC metabolites was calculated to be 18.2 +/- 4.9 h (+/- SD). The excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings weremore » similar to the excretion profile of {sup 14}C-labeled metabolites in the naive users. However, in the chronic users the excretion profiles of delta 1-THC-7-oic acid and EMIT readings did not resemble the radioactive excretion due to the heavy influence from previous Cannabis use. Between 8-14% of the radioactive dose was recovered in the urine in both user groups after oral administration. Lower urinary recovery was obtained both in the chronic and naive users after smoking--5 and 2%, respectively.« less

  18. Changes in fatty acid composition in plant tissues expressing a mammalian delta9 desaturase.

    PubMed

    Moon, H; Hazebroek, J; Hildebrand, D F

    2000-05-01

    Plant tissues expressing a mammalian stearoyl-CoA delta9 desaturase were reported to accumulate delta9 hexadecenoic acid (16:1), normally very minor in most plant tissues. The transgenic plants were thoroughly analyzed for alterations of individual lipids in different subcellular sites. Western blot analysis indicated that the animal desaturase was targeted to the microsomes. The delta9 16:1 was incorporated into both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of all the major membrane lipids tested, indicating that the endoplasmic reticulum acyltransferases do not exclude unsaturated C16 fatty acids from the sn-2 position. In addition to increases in monounsaturated and decreases in saturated fatty acids, accumulation of 16:1 was accompanied by a reduction in 18:3 in all the lipids tested except phosphatidylglycerol, and increases in 18:2 in phospholipids. Total C16 fatty acid content in the galactolipids of the transgenics was significantly higher than that in the control, but those in the phospholipids were unchanged. In transgenics, delta11 18:1 was detected in the sn-1 position of the lipids tested except phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine. Introduction of the animal desaturase, controlled by a seed-specific phaseolin promoter, into soybean somatic embryo resulted in a significant reduction in saturated fatty acids. Such effects were greater in cotyledons than hypocotyl-radicles. This study demonstrated that the animal desaturase can be used to decrease the levels of saturated fatty acids in a crop plant.

  19. Cannabidiol fails to reverse hypothermia or locomotor suppression induced by Ù9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Taffe, Michael A; Creehan, Kevin M; Vandewater, Sophia A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Growing evidence shows cannabidiol (CBD) modulates some of the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). CBD is a constituent of some strains of recreational cannabis but its content is highly variable. High CBD strains may have less memory-impairing effects than low-CBD strains and CBD can reverse behavioural effects of THC in monkeys. CBD/THC interactions in rodents are more complicated as CBD can attenuate or exacerbate the effects of THC. This study was undertaken to determine if CBD could reverse hypothermia or hypolocomotor effects caused by THC in rats. Experimental Approaches Male Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared with radiotelemetry devices and then given doses of THC (10–30 mg·kg−1, i.p.) with or without CBD. Experiments determined the effect of simultaneous or 30 min pretreatment with CBD in a 1:1 ratio with THC, as well as the effect of CBD in a 3:1 ratio. Additional experiments determined the effects of pretreatment with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (rimonabant). Key Results CBD did not attentuate THC-induced hypothermia or hypolocomotion but instead exaggerated these effects in some conditions. The antagonist SR141716 blocked hypolocomotor effects of THC for the first hour after injection and the hypothermia for 6 h; thus validating the pharmacological model. Conclusions and Implications There is no evidence from this study that elevated CBD content in cannabis could provide protection from the physiological effects of THC, in rats. PMID:25425111

  20. Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Michael E; Gallo, David A; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs' effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion. Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs' effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories.

  1. Sex differences in the subjective effects of oral Δ9-THC in cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Jessica S; Kelly, Thomas H; Westgate, Philip M; Lile, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there are sex differences in endocannabinoid function and the response to exogenous cannabinoids, though data from clinical studies comparing acute cannabinoid effects in men and women under controlled laboratory conditions are limited. To further explore these potential differences, data from 30 cannabis users (N=18 M, 12 F) who completed previous Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) discrimination studies were combined for this retrospective analysis. In each study, subjects learned to discriminate between oral Δ 9 -THC and placebo and then received a range of Δ 9 -THC doses (0, 5, 15 and a "high" dose of either 25 or 30mg). Responses on a drug-discrimination task, subjective effects questionnaire, psychomotor performance tasks, and physiological measures were assessed. Δ 9 -THC dose-dependently increased drug-appropriate responding, ratings on "positive" Visual Analog Scale (VAS) items (e.g., good effects, like drug, take again), and items related to intoxication (e.g., high, stoned). Δ 9 -THC also dose-dependently impaired performance on psychomotor tasks and elevated heart rate. Sex differences on VAS items emerged as a function of dose. Women exhibited significantly greater subjective responses to oral drug administration than men at the 5mg Δ 9 -THC dose, whereas men were more sensitive to the subjective effects of the 15mg dose of Δ 9 -THC than women. These results demonstrate dose-dependent separation in the subjective response to oral Δ 9 -THC administration by sex, which might contribute to the differential development of problematic cannabis use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in exhaled breath and physiological effects following cannabis intake - A pilot study using illicit cannabis.

    PubMed

    Coucke, Line; Massarini, Enrico; Ostijn, Zachery; Beck, Olof; Verstraete, Alain G

    2016-09-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be measured in exhaled breath by using an aerosol particle collection device. The sampling procedure is simple, non-invasive and takes only 2-3min. In the present study we measured the amount of THC in exhaled breath of cannabis users at specific time intervals up to 3h after smoking one cannabis cigarette. The breath concentration-effect relationship was studied by measuring the pulse rate and the pupil diameter to assess physiological changes. THC and the main metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol were analyzed in exhaled breath by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Thirteen subjects (9 males and 4 females, aged 23-24years) participated. Five of those were using cannabis more frequently than monthly. THC was detected in most subjects already at baseline, concentrations increased following smoking and remained detectable for over 3h (mean THC concentration in breath at 3h: 1479pg/sample). Pulse rate (p=0.015) and pupil diameter (p=0.044) were significantly altered up to 30min after smoking. The detection window of cannabis in breath after smoking one cannabis cigarette in occasional and chronic smokers was at least 3h. Only THC was detected, and not the metabolite. The THC concentration in exhaled breath was related to the physiological changes that occur over time. Exhaled breath can be used to detect recent cannabis exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions between cannabidiol and Δ9-THC following acute and repeated dosing: Rebound hyperactivity, sensorimotor gating and epigenetic and neuroadaptive changes in the mesolimbic pathway.

    PubMed

    Todd, Stephanie M; Zhou, Cilla; Clarke, David J; Chohan, Tariq W; Bahceci, Dilara; Arnold, Jonathon C

    2017-02-01

    The evidence base for the use of medical cannabis preparations containing specific ratios of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is limited. While there is abundant data on acute interactions between CBD and THC, few studies have assessed the impact of their repeated co-administration. We previously reported that CBD inhibited or potentiated the acute effects of THC dependent on the measure being examined at a 1:1 CBD:THC dose ratio. Further, CBD decreased THC effects on brain regions involved in memory, anxiety and body temperature regulation. Here we extend on these finding by examining over 15 days of treatment whether CBD modulated the repeated effects of THC on behaviour and neuroadaption markers in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. After acute locomotor suppression, repeated THC caused rebound locomotor hyperactivity that was modestly inhibited by CBD. CBD also slightly reduced the acute effects of THC on sensorimotor gating. These subtle effects were found at a 1:1 CBD:THC dose ratio but were not accentuated by a 5:1 dose ratio. CBD did not alter the trajectory of enduring THC-induced anxiety nor tolerance to the pharmacological effects of THC. There was no evidence of CBD potentiating the behavioural effects of THC. However we demonstrated for the first time that repeated co-administration of CBD and THC increased histone 3 acetylation (H3K9/14ac) in the VTA and ΔFosB expression in the nucleus accumbens. These changes suggest that while CBD may have protective effects acutely, its long-term molecular actions on the brain are more complex and may be supradditive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Affinity and Efficacy Studies of Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid A at Cannabinoid Receptor Types One and Two.

    PubMed

    McPartland, John M; MacDonald, Christa; Young, Michelle; Grant, Phillip S; Furkert, Daniel P; Glass, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis biosynthesizes Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA-A), which decarboxylates into Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). There is growing interest in the therapeutic use of THCA-A, but its clinical application may be hampered by instability. THCA-A lacks cannabimimetic effects; we hypothesize that it has little binding affinity at cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1 ). Materials and Methods: Purity of certified reference standards were tested with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Binding affinity of THCA-A and THC at human (h) CB 1 and hCB 2 was measured in competition binding assays, using transfected HEK cells and [ 3 H]CP55,940. Efficacy at hCB 1 and hCB 2 was measured in a cyclic adenosine monophosphase (cAMP) assay, using a Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET) biosensor. Results: The THCA-A reagent contained 2% THC. THCA-A displayed small but measurable binding at both hCB 1 and hCB 2 , equating to approximate K i values of 3.1μM and 12.5μM, respectively. THC showed 62-fold greater affinity at hCB 1 and 125-fold greater affinity at hCB 2 . In efficacy tests, THCA-A (10μM) slightly inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP at hCB 1 , suggestive of weak agonist activity, and no measurable efficacy at hCB 2 . Discussion: The presence of THC in our THCA-A certified standard agrees with decarboxylation kinetics (literature reviewed herein), which indicate contamination with THC is nearly unavoidable. THCA-A binding at 10μM approximated THC binding at 200nM. We therefore suspect some of our THCA-A binding curve was artifact-from its inevitable decarboxylation into THC-and the binding affinity of THCA-A is even weaker than our estimated values. We conclude that THCA-A has little affinity or efficacy at CB 1 or CB 2 .

  5. Potency trends of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in cannabis in the Netherlands: 2005-15.

    PubMed

    Niesink, Raymond J M; Rigter, Sander; Koeter, Maarten W; Brunt, Tibor M

    2015-12-01

    Between 2000 and 2005 the average percentage of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana as sold in Dutch coffeeshops has increased substantially; the potency of domestic products (Nederwiet and Nederhasj) has particularly increased. In contrast with imported marijuana, Nederwiet hardly contained any cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid that is thought to offset some of the adverse effects of THC. In 2005, the THC content in Nederwiet was significantly lower than in 2004. This study investigates the further decrease or increase of cannabinoids in these cannabis products. From 2005 to 2015 five different cannabis products were bought anonymously in 50 coffeeshops that were selected randomly each year from all coffeeshops in the Netherlands. A total of 2126 cannabis samples were bought, consisting of 664 Nederwiet samples (most popular), 537 Nederwiet samples (supposed strongest varieties), 183 imported herbal cannabis samples, 140 samples of cannabis resin made of Nederwiet and 602 samples of imported cannabis resin. All samples were analysed chemically for their THC, CBD and cannabinol (CBN) content. Between 2005 and 2015, the mean potencies of the most popular and the strongest Nederwiet and of imported cannabis resin were 16.0±4.0%, 17.0±3,9% and 16.5±6.3%, respectively. Imported herbal cannabis (6.5±3.5%) and cannabis resin made from Nederwiet (30.2±16.4%) contained, respectively, less (β=-10.0, P<0.001) and more (β=13.7, P<0.001) THC than imported cannabis resin. Linear regression models were used to study the trends in THC of the different cannabis products over time. A marginal, but significant (P<0.001), overall decline of THC per year of 0.22% was found in all cannabis products. However, no significant difference was found between the five products in the THC linear trajectories across time. Of all the cannabis products, only imported cannabis resin contained a relatively high CBD/THC ratio (median 0.42). The average tetrahydrocannabinol (THC

  6. Tetrahydrocannabinol:Cannabidiol Oromucosal Spray for Multiple Sclerosis-Related Resistant Spasticity in Daily Practice.

    PubMed

    Vermersch, Patrick; Trojano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) is an add-on therapy for moderate-to-severe multiple sclerosis (MS)-related drug-resistant spasticity (MSS). The MOVE-2 EU study collected data from everyday clinical practice concerning the effectiveness and tolerability of THC:CBD. This was an observational, prospective, multicentre, non-interventional study. Patients with resistant MSS prescribed add-on THC:CBD oromucosal spray according to approved labelling, were followed for 3 months. After 1 month, only responders (≥20% improvement in spasticity) continued treatment. The main endpoints were the evolution of MSS and associated symptoms, quality of life (QoL) and tolerability. Four hundred and thirty three patients (55% female) were recruited (98% in Italy). The mean duration of MSS was 7.4 years and baclofen was used by 78.1% of participants. Three hundred and forty nine participants continued with THC:CBD oromucosal spray after 1 month, and 281 after 3 months. THC:CBD mean dosage was 6 sprays/day. MSS scores and spasticity-related symptoms (spasms, fatigue, pain, sleep quality and bladder dysfunction) were significantly improved by THC:CBD at 3 months, as were activities of daily living, and QoL (EQ-5D VAS). Adverse events, none of which were severe or serious, were reported by 10.4% of patients. In everyday clinical practice, THC:CBD oromucosal spray provided symptomatic relief of MSS and related troublesome symptoms. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol alone and combined with cannabidiol mitigate fear memory through reconsolidation disruption.

    PubMed

    Stern, Cristina A J; Gazarini, Lucas; Vanvossen, Ana C; Zuardi, Antonio W; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Guimaraes, Francisco S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Bertoglio, Leandro J

    2015-06-01

    Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the major constituents of the Cannabis sativa plant, which is frequently consumed by subjects exposed to life-threatening situations to relief their symptomatology. It is still unknown, however, whether THC could also affect the maintenance of an aversive memory formed at that time when taken separately and/or in conjunction with CBD. The present study sought to investigate this matter at a preclinical level. We report that THC (0.3-10mg/kg, i.p.) was able to disrupt the reconsolidation of a contextual fear memory, resulting in reduced conditioned freezing expression for over 22 days. This effect was dependent on activation of cannabinoid type-1 receptors located in prelimbic subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex and on memory retrieval/reactivation. Since CBD may counteract the negative psychotropic effects induced by THC and has been shown to be a reconsolidation blocker, we then investigated and demonstrated that associating sub-effective doses of these two compounds was equally effective in attenuating fear memory maintenance in an additive fashion and in a dose ratio of 10 to 1, which contrasts with that commonly found in C. sativa recreational samples. Of note, neither THC alone nor CBD plus THC interfered with anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity, as assessed in the elevated plus-maze test, at a time point coinciding with that used to evaluate their effects on memory reconsolidation. Altogether, present findings suggest a potential therapeutic value of using THC and/or CBD to mitigate a dysfunctional aversive memory through reconsolidation disruption in post-traumatic stress disorder patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioural and biochemical evidence for signs of abstinence in mice chronically treated with Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Daniel M; Th. Tzavara, Eleni; Smadja, Claire; Valjent, Emmanuel; Roques, Bernard P; Hanoune, Jacques; Maldonado, Rafael

    1998-01-01

    Tolerance and dependence induced by chronic Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration were investigated in mice. The effects on body weight, analgesia and hypothermia were measured during 6 days of treatment (10 or 20 mg kg−1 THC twice daily). A rapid tolerance to the acute effects was observed from the second THC administration.The selective CB-1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A (10 mg kg−1) was administered at the end of the treatment, and somatic and vegetative manifestations of abstinence were evaluated. SR 141716A administration precipitated several somatic signs that included wet dog shakes, frontpaw tremor, ataxia, hunched posture, tremor, ptosis, piloerection, decreased locomotor activity and mastication, which can be interpreted as being part of a withdrawal syndrome.Brains were removed immediately after the behavioural measures and assayed for adenylyl cyclase activity. An increase in basal, forskolin and calcium/calmodulin stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities was specifically observed in the cerebellum of these mice.The motivational effects of THC administration and withdrawal were evaluated by using the place conditioning paradigm. No conditioned change in preference to withdrawal associated environment was observed. In contrast, a conditioned place aversion was produced by the repeated pairing of THC (20 mg kg−1), without observing place preference at any of the doses used.This study constitutes a clear behavioural and biochemical model of physical THC withdrawal with no motivational aversive consequences. This model permits an easy quantification of THC abstinence in mice and can be useful for the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in cannabinoid dependence. PMID:9884086

  9. Disruption of frontal θ coherence by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol is associated with positive psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Paul D; Nottage, Judith; Stone, James M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Tunstall, Nigel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Holt, David; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alex; McGuire, Philip; Murray, Robin M; Kapur, Shitij; Ffytche, Dominic H

    2011-03-01

    The main ingredient in cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can elicit acute psychotic reactions in healthy individuals and precipitate relapse in schizophrenic patients. However, the neural mechanism of this is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that THC psychopathology is related to changes in electroencephalography (EEG) power or inter-regional coherence. In a within-subjects design, participants (n=16) were given intravenous THC (1.25 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions, during EEG recordings. Using fast-Fourier transform, EEG data were analyzed for power and coherence in the delta (1-3.5 Hz), theta (3.5-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (14-25 Hz), low-gamma (30-40 Hz), and high-gamma (60-70 Hz) bands during engagement in the n-back test of working memory (WM). Compared with placebo, THC evoked positive and negative psychotic symptoms, as measured by the positive and negative syndrome scale (p<0.001) and slowed WM performance (p<0.05). Under THC, theta power was specifically reduced, (p<0.001) regardless of WM load; however, the reduction showed no relationship with psychotic symptoms or WM impairment. Coherence between bi-frontal electrodes in the theta band was also reduced by THC (p<0.05) and these reductions correlated with the change-in positive psychotic symptoms (rho=0.79, p<0.001). Bi-frontal specificity was suggested by the absence of a relationship between psychotic symptoms and fronto-parietal coherence. The results reveal that the pro-psychotic effects of THC might be related to impaired network dynamics with impaired communication between the right and left frontal lobes.

  10. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on balance and gait in patients with dementia: A randomised controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    van den Elsen, Geke Ah; Tobben, Lieke; Ahmed, Amir Ia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Kramers, Cornelis; Marijnissen, Radboud M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel Gm; van der Marck, Marjolein A

    2017-02-01

    Oral tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is currently studied for its possible efficacy on dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), but might lead to increased risk of falling. This was a randomised, double-blind, crossover study to evaluate the effects of THC on mobility in dementia patients. Eighteen community-dwelling patients ( M age =77 years) received 1.5 mg of oral THC twice daily and placebo, in random order, for three days, separated by a four-day washout. Balance and gait were assessed using SwayStar TM and GAITRite TM within two hours after administration, in two consecutive intervention periods, under the following conditions: standing with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC), preferred speed walking with and without a cognitive dual task. THC significantly increased sway during standing EC (roll angle 0.32[±0.6]°, p=0.05; pitch angle 1.04[±1.5]°, p=0.009; pitch velocity 1.96[±3.3]°/s, p=0.02), but not during standing EO. During preferred speed walking, THC increased stride length (4.3[±5.4] cm, p=0.005) and trunk sway (pitch angle 1.18[±1.6]°, p=0.005). No effects were observed during dual task walking. No differences in the number and type of adverse events were found, and no falls occurred after administration of THC. This study showed that 3 mg of THC per day has a benign adverse event profile regarding mobility and was well tolerated by community-dwelling dementia patients.

  11. Induction of psychosis by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function during attentional salience processing.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Crippa, José Alexandre; Allen, Paul; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Borgwardt, Stefan; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Rubia, Katya; Kambeitz, Joseph; O'Carroll, Colin; Seal, Marc L; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Atakan, Zerrin; McGuire, Philip K

    2012-01-01

    The aberrant processing of salience is thought to be a fundamental factor underlying psychosis. Cannabis can induce acute psychotic symptoms, and its chronic use may increase the risk of schizophrenia. We investigated whether its psychotic effects are mediated through an influence on attentional salience processing. To examine the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on regional brain function during salience processing. Volunteers were studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging on 3 occasions after administration of Δ9-THC, CBD, or placebo while performing a visual oddball detection paradigm that involved allocation of attention to infrequent (oddball) stimuli within a string of frequent (standard) stimuli. University center. Fifteen healthy men with minimal previous cannabis use. Symptom ratings, task performance, and regional brain activation. During the processing of oddball stimuli, relative to placebo, Δ9-THC attenuated activation in the right caudate but augmented it in the right prefrontal cortex. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol also reduced the response latency to standard relative to oddball stimuli. The effect of Δ9-THC in the right caudate was negatively correlated with the severity of the psychotic symptoms it induced and its effect on response latency. The effects of CBD on task-related activation were in the opposite direction of those of Δ9-THC; relative to placebo, CBD augmented left caudate and hippocampal activation but attenuated right prefrontal activation. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD differentially modulate prefrontal, striatal, and hippocampal function during attentional salience processing. These effects may contribute to the effects of cannabis on psychotic symptoms and on the risk of psychotic disorders.

  12. Comparison of the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic cannabinoids in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L; Lefever, Timothy W; Marusich, Julie A; Craft, Rebecca M

    2017-03-01

    Women report greater sensitivity to the subjective effects of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Similarly, female rodents tend to be more sensitive to some pharmacological effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids. This study examined sex differences in discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids in rats. A cumulative dosing THC discrimination procedure was utilized to evaluate sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of THC and three synthetic cannabinoids: CP47,497, WIN55,212-2, and JWH-018. Sex differences in the effects of these four compounds and a degradant of A-834735 on response rates also were assessed in a food-reinforced discrete dosing procedure. Females required a lower training dose than males for acquisition of the discrimination. Further, THC was more potent at producing rimonabant-reversible discriminative stimulus and response rate effects in females. While synthetic cannabinoids were more potent in producing THC-like effects than was THC in female rats, greater discrepancies were observed in male rats. Similar sensitivity to the response rate-decreasing effects induced by most, but not all (A-834735 degradant), synthetic cannabinoids was seen in both sexes. This study represents one of the first direct comparisons of sex differences in THC discrimination. Females were more sensitive to THC's effects, which may be related, in part, to sex differences in THC metabolism. Synthetic cannabinoids were more potent than THC in both sexes, but were considerably more so in male than in female rats. Future research should emphasize further characterization of sex differences in cannabinoid pharmacology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Δ9-THC-caused synaptic and memory impairments are mediated through COX-2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rongqing; Zhang, Jian; Fan, Ni; Teng, Zhao-Qian; Wu, Yan; Yang, Hongwei; Tang, Ya-Ping; Sun, Hao; Song, Yunping; Chen, Chu

    2013-11-21

    Marijuana has been used for thousands of years as a treatment for medical conditions. However, untoward side effects limit its medical value. Here, we show that synaptic and cognitive impairments following repeated exposure to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) are associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostanoids in the brain. COX-2 induction by Δ(9)-THC is mediated via CB1 receptor-coupled G protein βγ subunits. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of COX-2 blocks downregulation and internalization of glutamate receptor subunits and alterations of the dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons induced by repeated Δ(9)-THC exposures. Ablation of COX-2 also eliminates Δ(9)-THC-impaired hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity, working, and fear memories. Importantly, the beneficial effects of decreasing β-amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration by Δ(9)-THC in Alzheimer's disease animals are retained in the presence of COX-2 inhibition. These results suggest that the applicability of medical marijuana would be broadened by concurrent inhibition of COX-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Δ9-THC-caused synaptic and memory impairments are mediated through COX-2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongwei; Tang, Ya-ping; Sun, Hao; Song, Yunping; Chen, Chu

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Marijuana has been used for thousands of years as a treatment for medical conditions. However, untoward side effects limit its medical value. Here we show that synaptic and cognitive impairments following repeated exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme that converts arachidonic acid to prostanoids, in the brain. COX-2 induction by Δ9-THC is mediated via CB1 receptor-coupled G-protein βγ subunits. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of COX-2 blocks down-regulation and internalization of glutamate receptor subunits and alterations of the dendritic spine density of hippocampal neurons induced by repeated Δ9-THC exposures. Ablation of COX-2 also eliminates Δ9-THC-impaired hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity, spatial, and fear memories. Importantly, the beneficial effects of decreasing β-amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration by Δ9-THC in Alzheimer’s disease animals are retained in the presence of COX-2 inhibition. These results suggest that the applicability of medical marijuana would be broadened by concurrent inhibition of COX-2. PMID:24267894

  15. Acute administration of THC impairs spatial but not associative memory function in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, Tim; Prinz, Nicole; Oellers, Nadine; Seidel, Nathan Ian; Jonas, Annika; Albayram, Onder; Bilkei-Gorzo, Andras; von der Emde, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute administration of endocannabinoid receptor CB1 ligand ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on intracellular signalling in the brain and retrieval from two different memory systems in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). First, fish were treated with THC and changes in the phosphorylation level of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Akt and Erk in the brain were determined 1 h after drug treatment. Next, animals of a second group learned in a two-alternative choice paradigm to discriminate between two colours, whereas a third group solved a spatial cognition task in an open-field maze by use of an ego-allocentric strategy. After memory acquisition and consolidation, animals were pharmacologically treated using the treatment regime as in the first group and then tested again for memory retrieval. We found an enhanced Erk but not Akt phosphorylation suggesting that THC treatment specifically activated Erk signalling in the zebrafish telencephalon. While CB1 agonist THC did not affect behavioural performance of animals in the colour discrimination paradigm, spatial memory was significantly impaired. The effect of THC on spatial learning is probably specific, since neither motor activity nor anxiety-related behaviour was influenced by the drug treatment. That indicates a striking influence of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) on spatial cognition in zebrafish. The results are very coincident with reports on mammals, demonstrating that the ECS is functional highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. We further conclude that the zebrafish provides a promising model organism for ongoing research on the ECS.

  16. Disposition of Cannabichromene, Cannabidiol, and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and its Metabolites in Mouse Brain following Marijuana Inhalation Determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Poklis, Justin L.; Thompson, Candace C.; Long, Kelly A.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Poklis, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS–MS) method was developed for the analysis of marijuana cannabinoids in mouse brain tissue using an Applied Biosystems 3200 Q trap with a turbo V source for TurbolonSpray attached to a Shimadzu SCL HPLC system. The method included cannabichromene (CBC), cannabidiol (CBD), D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxytetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-D9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). These compounds were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction using cold acetonitrile. The following transition ions were monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM): m/z 315>193, 315>259 for THC/CBD/CBC; m/z 331>193, 331>105 for 11-OH-THC; m/z 345>299, 345>193 for THC-COOH;c m/z 318>196 for THC-d3; m/z 334>196 for 11-OH-THC-d3, and m/z 348>302 for THCCOOH-d3. Linearity for THC, 1-OH-THC, and THC-COOH was 1-200 ng/g; for CBC and CBD, it was 0.5–20 ng/g. Within-run and between-run precisions for all the analytes yielded coefficients of variation of < 20%. Four C57BL6 mice were sacrificed 20 min after nose-only exposure to the smoke of 200 mg of marijuana containing 0.44 mg CBC, 0.93 mg CBD, and 8.81 mg THC. The mean brain concentrations were 3.9 ± 1.5 ng/g CBC, 21 ± 3.9 ng/g CBD, 364 ± 74 ng/g THC, and 28 ± 5.9 ng/g 11-OH-THC. THCCOOH was not detected. The relative mean brain cannabinoid concentrations correlated to the amounts of the cannabinoids in the inhaled marijuana. PMID:21258613

  17. Rapid analysis of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Beek, Teris A; Pennings, Ed J M; Nielen, Michel W F

    2014-04-15

    Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. Hair samples were attached to stainless steel mesh screens and scanned in the X-direction using direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient ionization orbitrap MS. The DART gas temperature and the accuracy of the probed hair zone were optimized using Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a model compound. Since external contamination is a major issue in forensic hair analysis, sub-samples were measured before and after dichloromethane decontamination. The relative intensity of the THC signal in spiked blank hair versus that of quinine as the internal standard showed good reproducibility (26% RSD) and linearity of the method (R(2)  = 0.991). With the DART hair scan THC could be detected in hair samples from different chronic cannabis users. The presence of THC was confirmed by quantitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Zones with different THC content could be clearly distinguished, indicating that the method might be used for retrospective timeline assessments. Detection of THC in decontaminated drug user hair showed that the DART hair scan not only probes THC on the surface of hair, but penetrates deeply enough to measure incorporated THC. A new approach in forensic hair analysis has been developed by probing complete locks of hair using DART-MS. Longitudinal scanning enables detection of incorporated compounds and can be used as pre-screening for THC without sample preparation. The method could also be adjusted for the analysis of other drugs of abuse. Copyright

  18. Novel Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol formulation Namisol® has beneficial pharmacokinetics and promising pharmacodynamic effects

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Linda E; Beumer, Tim L; van Hasselt, Johan G C; Lipplaa, Astrid; Karger, Lennard B; Kleinloog, H Daniël; Freijer, Jan I; de Kam, Marieke L; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Among the main disadvantages of currently available Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) formulations are dosing difficulties due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics. Namisol® is a novel THC formulation, designed to improve THC absorption. The study objectives were to investigate the optimal administration route, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and tolerability of Namisol®. METHODS This first in human study consisted of two parts. Panel I included healthy males and females (n = 6/6) in a double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, crossover study with sublingual (crushed tablet) and oral administration of Namisol® (5 mg THC). Based on these results, male and female (n = 4/5) participants from panel I received oral THC 6.5 and 8.0 mg or matching placebo in a randomized, crossover, rising dose study during panel II. PD measurements were body sway; visual analogue scales (VAS) mood, psychedelic and heart rate. THC and 11-OH-THC population PK analysis was performed. RESULTS Sublingual administration showed a flat concentration profile compared with oral administration. Oral THC apparent t1/2 was 72–80 min, tmax was 39–56 min and Cmax 2.92–4.69 ng ml−1. THC affected body sway (60.8%, 95% CI 29.5, 99.8), external perception (0.078 log mm, 95% CI 0.019, 0.137), alertness (−2.7 mm, 95% CI −4.5, −0.9) feeling high (0.256 log mm, 95% CI 0.093, 0.418) and heart rate (5.6 beats min–1, 95% CI 2.7, 6.5). Namisol® was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS Oral Namisol® showed promising PK and PD characteristics. Variability and tmax of THC plasma concentrations were smaller for Namisol® than reported for studies using oral dronabinol and nabilone. This study was performed in a limited number of healthy volunteers. Therefore, future research on Namisol® should study clinical effects in patient populations. PMID:22680341

  19. Potency of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids in cannabis in England in 2016: Implications for public health and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Potter, David J; Hammond, Kathy; Tuffnell, Shaun; Walker, Christopher; Di Forti, Marta

    2018-04-01

    In 2005 and 2008, studies reported that cannabis in England had become dominated by the sinsemilla (unseeded female) form. The average potency (Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] content) of this material had doubled over the previous decade. Cannabis resin then circulating contained approximately equal ratios of THC and cannabidiol (CBD), whereas sinsemilla was almost devoid of CBD. Despite raised health concerns regarding sinsemilla use and the development of psychotic disorders, no update on street cannabis potency has been published since 2008. A total of 995 seized cannabis samples were acquired from the same 5 constabulary areas included in the 2005 study. The differing forms were segregated, and a representative 460 samples analyzed to assess their cannabinoid content using gas chromatography. The resultant median sinsemilla potency of 14.2% THC was similar to that observed in 2005 (13.9%). In each case, sinsemilla contained minimal CBD. Compared with 2005, resin had significantly higher mean THC (6.3%) and lower CBD (2.3%) contents (p < 0.0001). Although the average THC concentration in sinsemilla samples across the 5 constabularies has remained stable since 2005, the availability of this potent form of cannabis has further increased. Moreover, the now rarer resin samples show significantly decreased CBD contents and CBD:THC ratios, leaving the United Kingdom's cannabis street market populated by high-potency varieties of cannabis, which may have concerning implications for public health. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND ISOLATION OF TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL ISOMERS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    additional amount of cannabidiol . The structure of tetrahydrocannabinol B was elucidated by chemical and spectral evidence. The partial syntheses of...In addition to cannabinol, cannabidiol , and trans-1-hydroxy-3-n-amyl-6, 6, 9 trimethyl-6a, 7, 8, 10a-tetrahydro-6-dibenzopyran (tetrahydrocannabinol...only cannabidiolic acid. A second sample of Mexican marijuana furnished only tetrahydrocannabinol A and cannabinol, while a Spanish sample contained an

  1. Cannabidiol inhibits THC-elicited paranoid symptoms and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Englund, Amir; Morrison, Paul D; Nottage, Judith; Hague, Dominic; Kane, Fergus; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Stone, James M; Reichenberg, Avi; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Holt, David; Feilding, Amanda; Walker, Lucy; Murray, Robin M; Kapur, Shitij

    2013-01-01

    Community-based studies suggest that cannabis products that are high in Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but low in cannabidiol (CBD) are particularly hazardous for mental health. Laboratory-based studies are ideal for clarifying this issue because THC and CBD can be administered in pure form, under controlled conditions. In a between-subjects design, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with CBD inhibited THC-elicited psychosis and cognitive impairment. Healthy participants were randomised to receive oral CBD 600 mg (n=22) or placebo (n=26), 210 min ahead of intravenous (IV) THC (1.5 mg). Post-THC, there were lower PANSS positive scores in the CBD group, but this did not reach statistical significance. However, clinically significant positive psychotic symptoms (defined a priori as increases ≥ 3 points) were less likely in the CBD group compared with the placebo group, odds ratio (OR)=0.22 (χ²=4.74, p<0.05). In agreement, post-THC paranoia, as rated with the State Social Paranoia Scale (SSPS), was less in the CBD group compared with the placebo group (t=2.28, p<0.05). Episodic memory, indexed by scores on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Task-revised (HVLT-R), was poorer, relative to baseline, in the placebo pre-treated group (-10.6 ± 18.9%) compared with the CBD group (-0.4% ± 9.7 %) (t=2.39, p<0.05). These findings support the idea that high-THC/low-CBD cannabis products are associated with increased risks for mental health.

  2. Acute effects of THC on time perception in frequent and infrequent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Sewell, R Andrew; Schnakenberg, Ashley; Elander, Jacqueline; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Williams, Ashley; Skosnik, Patrick D; Pittman, Brian; Ranganathan, Mohini; D'Souza, D Cyril

    2013-03-01

    Cannabinoids have been shown to alter time perception, but existing literature has several limitations. Few studies have included both time estimation and production tasks, few control for subvocal counting, most had small sample sizes, some did not record subjects' cannabis use, many tested only one dose, and used either oral or inhaled administration of Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), leading to variable pharmacokinetics, and some used whole-plant cannabis containing cannabinoids other than THC. Our study attempted to address these limitations. This study aims to characterize the acute effects of THC and frequent cannabis use on seconds-range time perception. THC was hypothesized to produce transient, dose-related time overestimation and underproduction. Frequent cannabis smokers were hypothesized to show blunted responses to these alterations. IV THC was administered at doses from 0.015 to 0.05 mg/kg to 44 subjects who participated in several double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced, crossover, placebo-controlled studies. Visual time estimation and production tasks in the seconds range were presented to subjects three times on each test day. All doses induced time overestimation and underproduction. Chronic cannabis use had no effect on baseline time perception. While infrequent/nonsmokers showed temporal overestimation at medium and high doses and temporal underproduction at all doses, frequent cannabis users showed no differences. THC effects on time perception were not dose related. A psychoactive dose of THC increases internal clock speed as indicated by time overestimation and underproduction. This effect is not dose related and is blunted in chronic cannabis smokers who did not otherwise have altered baseline time perception.

  3. Effects of 20 mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the olfactory function of healthy volunteers*

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Carmen; Oertel, Bruno G; Ludyga, Dagmar; Ultsch, Alfred; Hummel, Thomas; Lötsch, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Aims Olfactory loss impairs the patient's quality of life. In individualized therapies, olfactory drug effects gain clinical importance. Molecular evidence suggests that among drugs with potential olfactory effects is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is approved for several indications, including neuropathic pain or analgesia in cancer patients. The present study aimed at assessing the olfactory effects of THC to be expected during analgesic treatment. Methods The effects of 20 mg oral THC on olfaction were assessed in a placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study in healthy volunteers. Using an established olfactory test (Sniffin' Sticks), olfactory thresholds, odour discrimination and odour identification were assessed in 15 subjects at baseline and 2 h after THC administration. Results Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol impaired the performance of subjects (n = 15) in the olfactory test. Specifically, olfactory thresholds were increased and odour discrimination performance was reduced. This resulted in a significant drop in composite threshold, discrimination, identification (TDI) olfactory score by 5.5 points (from 37.7 ± 4.2 to 32.2 ± 5.6, 95% confidence interval for differences THC vs. placebo, −7.8 to −2.0, P = 0.003), which is known to be a subjectively perceptible impairment of olfactory function. Conclusions Considering the resurgence of THC in medical use for several pathological conditions, the present results indicate that THC-based analgesics may be accompanied by subjectively noticeable reductions in olfactory acuity. In particular, for patients relying on their sense of smell, this might be relevant information for personalized therapy strategies. PMID:24802974

  4. Effects of 20 mg oral Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol on the olfactory function of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Walter, Carmen; Oertel, Bruno G; Ludyga, Dagmar; Ultsch, Alfred; Hummel, Thomas; Lötsch, Jörn

    2014-11-01

    Olfactory loss impairs the patient's quality of life. In individualized therapies, olfactory drug effects gain clinical importance. Molecular evidence suggests that among drugs with potential olfactory effects is Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is approved for several indications, including neuropathic pain or analgesia in cancer patients. The present study aimed at assessing the olfactory effects of THC to be expected during analgesic treatment. The effects of 20 mg oral THC on olfaction were assessed in a placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study in healthy volunteers. Using an established olfactory test (Sniffin' Sticks), olfactory thresholds, odour discrimination and odour identification were assessed in 15 subjects at baseline and 2 h after THC administration. Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol impaired the performance of subjects (n = 15) in the olfactory test. Specifically, olfactory thresholds were increased and odour discrimination performance was reduced. This resulted in a significant drop in composite threshold, discrimination, identification (TDI) olfactory score by 5.5 points (from 37.7 ± 4.2 to 32.2 ± 5.6, 95% confidence interval for differences THC vs. placebo, -7.8 to -2.0, P = 0.003), which is known to be a subjectively perceptible impairment of olfactory function. Considering the resurgence of THC in medical use for several pathological conditions, the present results indicate that THC-based analgesics may be accompanied by subjectively noticeable reductions in olfactory acuity. In particular, for patients relying on their sense of smell, this might be relevant information for personalized therapy strategies. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Endocannabinoid signaling at the periphery: 50 years after THC

    PubMed Central

    Maccarrone, Mauro; Bab, Itai; Bíró, Tamás; Cabral, Guy A.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Konje, Justin C.; Kunos, George; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pal; Sharkey, Keith A.; Zimmer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago (in 1964) the psychoactive ingredient of Cannabis sativa, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was isolated. Nearly 30 years later the endogenous counterparts of THC, collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), were discovered: N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) in 1992, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995. Since then, considerable research has shed light on the impact of eCBs on human health and disease, identifying an ensemble of proteins that bind, synthesize and degrade them, and that altogether form the eCB system. eCBs control basic biological processes, including cell-choice between survival and death, and progenitor/stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Not surprisingly, in the past two decades, eCBs have been recognized as key mediators of several aspects of human pathophysiology, and thus have emerged among the most widespread and versatile signaling molecules ever discovered. Here, some of the pioneers of this research field review the state-of-the-art of critical eCB functions in peripheral organs. Our community effort is aimed at establishing consensus views on the relevance of the peripheral eCB system for human health and disease pathogenesis, as well as to highlight emerging challenges and therapeutic hopes. PMID:25796370

  6. Endocannabinoid signaling at the periphery: 50 years after THC.

    PubMed

    Maccarrone, Mauro; Bab, Itai; Bíró, Tamás; Cabral, Guy A; Dey, Sudhansu K; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Konje, Justin C; Kunos, George; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pal; Sharkey, Keith A; Zimmer, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In 1964, the psychoactive ingredient of Cannabis sativa, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was isolated. Nearly 30 years later the endogenous counterparts of THC, collectively termed endocannabinoids (eCBs), were discovered: N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) (AEA) in 1992 and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in 1995. Since then, considerable research has shed light on the impact of eCBs on human health and disease, identifying an ensemble of proteins that bind, synthesize, and degrade them and that together form the eCB system (ECS). eCBs control basic biological processes including cell choice between survival and death and progenitor/stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Unsurprisingly, in the past two decades eCBs have been recognized as key mediators of several aspects of human pathophysiology and thus have emerged to be among the most widespread and versatile signaling molecules ever discovered. Here some of the pioneers of this research field review the state of the art of critical eCB functions in peripheral organs. Our community effort is aimed at establishing consensus views on the relevance of the peripheral ECS for human health and disease pathogenesis, as well as highlighting emerging challenges and therapeutic hopes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic cannabinoids in female and male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Marusich, Julie A.; Craft, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Women report greater sensitivity to the subjective effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Similarly, female rodents tend to be more sensitive to some pharmacological effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids. This study examined sex differences in discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of THC and synthetic cannabinoids in rats. Methods A cumulative dosing THC discrimination procedure was utilized to evaluate sex differences in the discriminative stimulus effects of THC and three synthetic cannabinoids: CP47,497, WIN55,212-2, and JWH-018. Sex differences in the effects of these four compounds and a degradant of A-834735 on response rates also were assessed in a food-reinforced discrete dosing procedure. Results Females required a lower training dose than males for acquisition of the discrimination. Further, THC was more potent at producing rimonabant-reversible discriminative stimulus and response rate effects in females. While synthetic cannabinoids were more potent in producing THC-like effects than was THC in female rats, greater discrepancies were observed in male rats. Similar sensitivity to the response rate-decreasing effects induced by most, but not all (A-834735 degradant), synthetic cannabinoids was seen in both sexes. Conclusions This study represents one of the first direct comparisons of sex differences in THC discrimination. Females were more sensitive to THC’s effects, which may be related, in part, to sex differences in THC metabolism. Synthetic cannabinoids were more potent than THC in both sexes, but were considerably more so in male than in female rats. Future research should emphasize further characterization of sex differences in cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:28130989

  8. Cannabis-based medicines--GW pharmaceuticals: high CBD, high THC, medicinal cannabis--GW pharmaceuticals, THC:CBD.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    GW Pharmaceuticals is undertaking a major research programme in the UK to develop and market distinct cannabis-based prescription medicines [THC:CBD, High THC, High CBD] in a range of medical conditions. The cannabis for this programme is grown in a secret location in the UK. It is expected that the product will be marketed in the US in late 2003. GW's cannabis-based products include selected phytocannabinoids from cannabis plants, including D9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The company is investigating their use in three delivery systems, including sublingual spray, sublingual tablet and inhaled (but not smoked) dosage forms. The technology is protected by patent applications. Four different formulations are currently being investigated, including High THC, THC:CBD (narrow ratio), THC:CBD (broad ratio) and High CBD. GW is also developing a specialist security technology that will be incorporated in all its drug delivery systems. This technology allows for the recording and remote monitoring of patient usage to prevent any potential abuse of its cannabis-based medicines. GW plans to enter into agreements with other companies following phase III development, to secure the best commercialisation terms for its cannabis-based medicines. In June 2003, GW announced that exclusive commercialisation rights for the drug in the UK had been licensed to Bayer AG. The drug will be marketed under the Sativex brand name. This agreement also provides Bayer with an option to expand their license to include the European Union and certain world markets. GW was granted a clinical trial exemption certificate by the Medicines Control Agency to conduct clinical studies with cannabis-based medicines in the UK. The exemption includes investigations in the relief of pain of neurological origin and defects of neurological function in the following indications: multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, central nervous system damage, neuroinvasive

  9. Repeated Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure in Adolescent Monkeys: Persistent Effects Selective for Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Verrico, Christopher D.; Gu, Hong; Peterson, Melanie L.; Sampson, Allan R.; Lewis, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological findings suggest that, relative to adults, adolescents are more vulnerable to the adverse persistent effects of cannabis on working memory. However, the potential confounds inherent in human studies preclude direct determination of a cause-and-effect relationship between adolescent cannabis use and heightened susceptibility to persistent working memory impairments. Consequently, the authors examined the effects of repeated exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on performance of spatial and object working memory tasks in adolescent monkeys. Method Seven pairs of male adolescent rhesus monkeys, matched for baseline cognitive performance, received vehicle or THC intravenously 5 days/week for 6 months. Performance on spatial and object memory tasks was assessed 23 or 71 hours after drug administration throughout the study. In addition, acute effects on working memory were also assessed at the beginning and end of the 6-month period. Results Relative to the vehicle-exposed control animals, those with repeated THC exposure had a blunted trajectory of accuracy improvements on the spatial working memory task in a delay-dependent manner. Accuracy improvements on the object working memory task did not differ between groups. Relative to the acute effects of THC on working memory at the beginning of the study, neither sensitivity nor tolerance was evident after 6 months of THC exposure. Conclusions Because maturation of performance is later for spatial than for object working memory, these findings suggest that persistent effects of THC on cognitive abilities are more evident when exposure coincides with the developmental stage during which the underlying neural circuits are actively maturing. PMID:24577206

  10. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Endocannabinoid Degradative Enzyme Inhibitors Attenuate Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Travis W.; Owens, Robert A.; Lazenka, Matthew F.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Vann, Robert E.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Wiley, Jenny L.; Negus, S. Stevens; Lichtman, Aron H.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates endogenous cannabinoids as modulators of the mesolimbic dopamine system and motivated behavior. Paradoxically, the reinforcing effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, have been difficult to detect in preclinical rodent models. In this study, we investigated the impact of THC and inhibitors of the endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) on operant responding for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle [intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)], which is known to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. These drugs were also tested in assays of operant responding for food reinforcement and spontaneous locomotor activity. THC and the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 (4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)hydroxymethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 4-nitrophenyl ester) attenuated operant responding for ICSS and food, and also reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. In contrast, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide) was largely without effect in these assays. Consistent with previous studies showing that combined inhibition of FAAH and MAGL produces a substantially greater cannabimimetic profile than single enzyme inhibition, the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 (4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester) produced a similar magnitude of ICSS depression as that produced by THC. ICSS attenuation by JZL184 was associated with increased brain levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), whereas peak effects of SA-57 were associated with increased levels of both N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-AG. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not the cannabinoid receptor type 2 receptor antagonist SR144528, blocked the attenuating effects of THC, JZL184, and SA-57 on ICSS

  11. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and endocannabinoid degradative enzyme inhibitors attenuate intracranial self-stimulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M; Grim, Travis W; Owens, Robert A; Lazenka, Matthew F; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Abdullah, Rehab A; Niphakis, Micah J; Vann, Robert E; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Wiley, Jenny L; Negus, S Stevens; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates endogenous cannabinoids as modulators of the mesolimbic dopamine system and motivated behavior. Paradoxically, the reinforcing effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, have been difficult to detect in preclinical rodent models. In this study, we investigated the impact of THC and inhibitors of the endocannabinoid hydrolytic enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) on operant responding for electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle [intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)], which is known to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. These drugs were also tested in assays of operant responding for food reinforcement and spontaneous locomotor activity. THC and the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 (4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)hydroxymethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 4-nitrophenyl ester) attenuated operant responding for ICSS and food, and also reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. In contrast, the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide) was largely without effect in these assays. Consistent with previous studies showing that combined inhibition of FAAH and MAGL produces a substantially greater cannabimimetic profile than single enzyme inhibition, the dual FAAH-MAGL inhibitor SA-57 (4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester) produced a similar magnitude of ICSS depression as that produced by THC. ICSS attenuation by JZL184 was associated with increased brain levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), whereas peak effects of SA-57 were associated with increased levels of both N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-AG. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not the cannabinoid receptor type 2 receptor antagonist SR144528, blocked the attenuating effects of THC, JZL184, and SA-57 on

  12. The effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinole treatment on gonadal micro-vascularization and affected fertility examined by SEM and 3D-morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlbacher, K. M. T.; Minnich, B.

    2015-10-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on the reproductive system in nude rats with special emphasis on how Δ9-THC impacts the vascularization of testes which in turn indirectly influences fertility. Basically, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) causes not only negative (psychoactive) effects in the human body as cannabinole administration in medical use (dose-dependent) offers multiple new treatment opportunities such as pain relief or containment of various cancers. Concerning the reproductive system it strongly influences CB-receptors along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis resulting in reduced plasma testosterone levels. There is also altered sperm quality parameters reported such as sperm motility or sperm count. On the other hand Δ9-THC effects endothelial growth factors (VEGF, Ang-1 etc.) respectively acts on their specific receptors which in turn modify angiogenesis and vascularization of tissues and organs (e.g. tumorous tissues). This leads to new therapeutical strategies in the suppression of various cancers by inhibiting (neo-)vascularization and in turn famishment of tumorous tissues (lack of nutrition supply). Here we studied the micro-vascularization of gonads in a long-term THC-treated nude rat model by vascular corrosion casting, SEM and 3D-morphometry.

  13. Novel time-dependent vascular actions of {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    SciTech Connect

    O'Sullivan, Saoirse E.; Tarling, Elizabeth J.; Bennett, Andrew J.

    Cannabinoids have widespread effects on the cardiovascular system, only some of which are mediated via G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors. The active ingredient of cannabis, {delta}{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes acute vasorelaxation in various arteries. Here we show for the first time that THC also causes slowly developing vasorelaxation through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPAR{gamma}). In vitro, THC (10 {mu}M) caused time-dependent vasorelaxation of rat isolated arteries. Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC was similar to that produced by the PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone and was inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 (1 {mu}M), but not the cannabinoid CB{sub 1} receptor antagonist AM251more » (1 {mu}M). Time-dependent vasorelaxation to THC requires an intact endothelium, nitric oxide, production of hydrogen peroxide, and de novo protein synthesis. In transactivation assays in cultured HEK293 cells, THC-activated PPAR{gamma}, transiently expressed in combination with retinoid X receptor {alpha} and a luciferase reporter gene, in a concentration-dependent manner (100 nM-10 {mu}M). In vitro incubation with THC (1 or 10 {mu}M, 8 days) stimulated adipocyte differentiation in cultured 3T3L1 cells, a well-accepted property of PPAR{gamma} ligands. The present results provide strong evidence that THC is a PPAR{gamma} ligand, stimulation of which causes time-dependent vasorelaxation, implying some of the pleiotropic effects of cannabis may be mediated by nuclear receptors.« less

  14. Acute Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration in female rats attenuates immediate responses following losses but not multi-trial reinforcement learning from wins.

    PubMed

    Wong, Scott A; Randolph, Sienna H; Ivan, Victorita E; Gruber, Aaron J

    2017-09-29

    Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of marijuana and has potent effects on decision-making, including a proposed reduction in cognitive flexibility. We demonstrate here that acute THC administration differentially affects some of the processes that contribute to cognitive flexibility. Specifically, THC reduces lose-shift responding in which female rats tend to immediately shift choice responses away from options that result in reward omission on the previous trial. THC, however, did not impair the ability of rats to flexibly bias responses toward feeders with higher probability of reward in a reversal task. This response adaptation developed over several trials, suggesting that THC did not impair slower forms of reinforcement learning needed to choose among options with unequal utility. This dissociation of THC's effects on innate/rapid and learned/gradual decision-making processes was unexpected, but is supported by emerging evidence that lose-shift responding is mediated by neural mechanisms distinct from those involved in other forms of reinforcement learning. The present data suggest that, at least in some tasks, the apparent reductions in cognitive flexibility by THC may be explained by the immediate effects on loss sensitivity, rather than impairments of all processes used for choice adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Δ9-THC Disrupts Gamma (γ)-Band Neural Oscillations in Humans.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Briones, Jose; Skosnik, Patrick D; Mathalon, Daniel; Cahill, John; Pittman, Brian; Williams, Ashley; Sewell, R Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini; Roach, Brian; Ford, Judith; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-08-01

    Gamma (γ)-band oscillations play a key role in perception, associative learning, and conscious awareness and have been shown to be disrupted by cannabinoids in animal studies. The goal of this study was to determine whether cannabinoids disrupt γ-oscillations in humans and whether these effects relate to their psychosis-relevant behavioral effects. The acute, dose-related effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) were studied in humans (n=20) who completed 3 test days during which they received intravenous Δ(9)-THC (placebo, 0.015, and 0.03 mg/kg) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover, and counterbalanced design. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while subjects listened to auditory click trains presented at 20, 30, and 40 Hz. Psychosis-relevant effects were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS). Δ(9)-THC (0.03 mg/kg) reduced intertrial coherence (ITC) in the 40 Hz condition compared with 0.015 mg/kg and placebo. No significant effects were detected for 30 and 20 Hz stimulation. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between 40 Hz ITC and PANSS subscales and total scores under the influence of Δ(9)-THC. Δ(9)-THC (0.03 mg/kg) reduced evoked power during 40 Hz stimulation at a trend level. Recent users of cannabis showed blunted Δ(9)-THC effects on ITC and evoked power. We show for the first time in humans that cannabinoids disrupt γ-band neural oscillations. Furthermore, there is a relationship between disruption of γ-band neural oscillations and psychosis-relevant phenomena induced by cannabinoids. These findings add to a growing literature suggesting some overlap between the acute effects of cannabinoids and the behavioral and psychophysiological alterations observed in psychotic disorders.

  16. Δ9-THC Disrupts Gamma (γ)-Band Neural Oscillations in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Cortes-Briones, Jose; Skosnik, Patrick D; Mathalon, Daniel; Cahill, John; Pittman, Brian; Williams, Ashley; Sewell, R Andrew; Ranganathan, Mohini; Roach, Brian; Ford, Judith; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Gamma (γ)-band oscillations play a key role in perception, associative learning, and conscious awareness and have been shown to be disrupted by cannabinoids in animal studies. The goal of this study was to determine whether cannabinoids disrupt γ-oscillations in humans and whether these effects relate to their psychosis-relevant behavioral effects. The acute, dose-related effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) were studied in humans (n=20) who completed 3 test days during which they received intravenous Δ9-THC (placebo, 0.015, and 0.03 mg/kg) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover, and counterbalanced design. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while subjects listened to auditory click trains presented at 20, 30, and 40 Hz. Psychosis-relevant effects were measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale (PANSS). Δ9-THC (0.03 mg/kg) reduced intertrial coherence (ITC) in the 40 Hz condition compared with 0.015 mg/kg and placebo. No significant effects were detected for 30 and 20 Hz stimulation. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between 40 Hz ITC and PANSS subscales and total scores under the influence of Δ9-THC. Δ9-THC (0.03 mg/kg) reduced evoked power during 40 Hz stimulation at a trend level. Recent users of cannabis showed blunted Δ9-THC effects on ITC and evoked power. We show for the first time in humans that cannabinoids disrupt γ-band neural oscillations. Furthermore, there is a relationship between disruption of γ-band neural oscillations and psychosis-relevant phenomena induced by cannabinoids. These findings add to a growing literature suggesting some overlap between the acute effects of cannabinoids and the behavioral and psychophysiological alterations observed in psychotic disorders. PMID:25709097

  17. THC reduces the anticipatory nucleus accumbens response to reward in subjects with a nicotine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Jansma, J M; van Hell, H H; Vanderschuren, L J M J; Bossong, M G; Jager, G; Kahn, R S; Ramsey, N F

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has implicated the endocannabinoid (eCB) system in nicotine addiction. The eCB system also has an important role in reward mechanisms, and nicotine addiction has been associated with aberrant reward processing. Motivated by this evidence, we tested the hypothesis that eCB modulation of reward processing is altered in subjects with a nicotine addiction (NAD). For this purpose, we compared reward-related activity in NAD with healthy controls (HC) in a pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study using Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration to challenge the eCB system. Eleven HC and 10 NAD participated in a 3-T functional MRI (fMRI) study with a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled design, using a Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) paradigm with three reward levels. Reward activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and caudate putamen during anticipation and feedback of reward was compared after THC and placebo. fMRI results indicated a significant reduction of reward anticipation activity in the NAcc in NAD after THC administration, which was not present in HC. This is indicated by a significant group by drug by reward interaction. Our data show that THC significantly reduces the NAcc response to monetary reward anticipation in NAD. These results suggest that nicotine addiction is associated with altered eCB modulation of reward processing in the NAcc. This study adds important human data to existing evidence implicating the eCB system in nicotine addiction. PMID:23443360

  18. Chronic Adolescent Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Treatment of Male Mice Leads to Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Dysfunction, Which Are Prevented by Concurrent Cannabidiol Treatment.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michelle; Mills, Sierra; Winstone, Joanna; Leishman, Emma; Wager-Miller, Jim; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The high prevalence of adolescent cannabis use, the association between this use and later psychiatric disease, and increased access to high-potency cannabis highlight the need for a better understanding of the long-term effects of adolescent cannabis use on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, increasing Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in high-potency cannabis is accompanied by a decrease in cannabidiol (CBD), thus an understanding of the interactions between CBD and THC in the neurodevelopmental effects of THC is also important. The current study examined the immediate and long-term behavioral consequences of THC, CBD, and their combination in a mouse model of adolescent cannabis use. Materials and Methods: Male CD1 mice received daily injections of THC (3 mg/kg), CBD (3 mg/kg), CBD+THC (3 mg/kg each), vehicle, or remained undisturbed in their home cage (no handling/injections), either during adolescence (postnatal day [PND] 28-48) or during early adulthood (PND 69-89). Animals were then evaluated with a battery of behavioral tests 1 day after drug treatment, and again after 42 drug-free days. The tests included the following: open field (day 1), novel object recognition (NOR; day 2), marble burying (day 3), elevated plus maze (EPM; day 4), and Nestlet shredding (day 5). Results: Chronic administration of THC during adolescence led to immediate and long-term impairments in object recognition/working memory, as measured by the NOR task. In contrast, adult administration of THC caused immediate, but not long term, impairment of object/working memory. Adolescent chronic exposure to THC increased repetitive and compulsive-like behaviors, as measured by the Nestlet shredding task. Chronic administration of THC, either during adolescence or during adulthood, led to a delayed increase in anxiety as measured by the EPM. All THC-induced behavioral abnormalities were prevented by the coadministration of CBD+THC, whereas CBD alone did not

  19. Chronic Adolescent Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Treatment of Male Mice Leads to Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Dysfunction, Which Are Prevented by Concurrent Cannabidiol Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michelle; Mills, Sierra; Winstone, Joanna; Leishman, Emma; Wager-Miller, Jim; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The high prevalence of adolescent cannabis use, the association between this use and later psychiatric disease, and increased access to high-potency cannabis highlight the need for a better understanding of the long-term effects of adolescent cannabis use on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, increasing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in high-potency cannabis is accompanied by a decrease in cannabidiol (CBD), thus an understanding of the interactions between CBD and THC in the neurodevelopmental effects of THC is also important. The current study examined the immediate and long-term behavioral consequences of THC, CBD, and their combination in a mouse model of adolescent cannabis use. Materials and Methods: Male CD1 mice received daily injections of THC (3 mg/kg), CBD (3 mg/kg), CBD+THC (3 mg/kg each), vehicle, or remained undisturbed in their home cage (no handling/injections), either during adolescence (postnatal day [PND] 28–48) or during early adulthood (PND 69–89). Animals were then evaluated with a battery of behavioral tests 1 day after drug treatment, and again after 42 drug-free days. The tests included the following: open field (day 1), novel object recognition (NOR; day 2), marble burying (day 3), elevated plus maze (EPM; day 4), and Nestlet shredding (day 5). Results: Chronic administration of THC during adolescence led to immediate and long-term impairments in object recognition/working memory, as measured by the NOR task. In contrast, adult administration of THC caused immediate, but not long term, impairment of object/working memory. Adolescent chronic exposure to THC increased repetitive and compulsive-like behaviors, as measured by the Nestlet shredding task. Chronic administration of THC, either during adolescence or during adulthood, led to a delayed increase in anxiety as measured by the EPM. All THC-induced behavioral abnormalities were prevented by the coadministration of CBD+THC, whereas CBD alone

  20. The influence of THC:CBD oromucosal spray on driving ability in patients with multiple sclerosis-related spasticity.

    PubMed

    Celius, Elisabeth G; Vila, Carlos

    2018-05-01

    Driving ability is a key function for the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) to help maintain daily interactions. Both physical and cognitive disability, as well as treatments, may affect the ability to drive. Spasticity is a common symptom associated with MS, and it may affect driving performance either directly or via the medications used to treat it. In this article, we review the evidence relating the antispasticity medicine, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex ® ), and its potential impact on driving performance. Articles were identified by searching PubMed from 1/1/2000 to 30/6/2017 using a specified list of search terms. The articles identified using these search terms were augmented with relevant references from these papers and other articles known to the authors. The results from THC:CBD oromucosal spray driving studies and real-world registries did not show any evidence of an increase in motor vehicle accidents associated with THC:CBD oromucosal spray. The majority of patients reported an improvement in driving ability after starting THC:CBD oromucosal spray, and it was speculated that this may be related to reduced spasticity and/or better cognitive function. It should be noted that THC blood levels are significantly lower than the levels associated with recreational use of herbal cannabis. THC:CBD oromucosal spray was shown not to impair driving performance. However, periodic assessment of patients with MS driving ability is recommended, especially after relapses and changes in treatment. Blood THC measurements might be above authorized thresholds for some countries following administration of THC:CBD oromucosal spray, thus specific knowledge of each country's driving regulations and a medical certificate are recommended.

  1. Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R; Murray, Jeannie A; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-09-01

    Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/day followed by a five-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. During ad libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median, 6.1; range, 0.2-348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1-20.7 (median, 2.1) by 13.0-17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4 to 5.5 (0.04-245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12 to 0.17 (0.04-5.1) at 10.5 h post-smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3-2.5 (range, 0.1-14.7) ng/μg, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations.

  2. Oral fluid/plasma cannabinoid ratios following controlled oral THC and smoked cannabis administration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dayong; Vandrey, Ryan; Milman, Garry; Bergamaschi, Mateus; Mendu, Damodara R.; Murray, Jeannie A.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oral fluid (OF) is a valuable biological alternative for clinical and forensic drug testing. Evaluating OF to plasma (OF/P) cannabinoid ratios provides important pharmacokinetic data on the disposition of drug and factors influencing partition between matrices. METHODS Eleven chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit for 51 days. There were four 5-day sessions of 0, 30, 60, and 120 mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/per day followed by a 5-puff smoked cannabis challenge on Day 5. Each session was separated by 9 days ad-libitum cannabis smoking. OF and plasma specimens were analyzed for THC and metabolites. RESULTS During ad-libitum smoking, OF/P THC ratios were high (median 6.1, range 0.2– 348.5) within 1 h after last smoking, decreasing to 0.1–20.7 (median 2.1) by 13.0–17.1 h. OF/P THC ratios also decreased during 5-days oral THC dosing, and after the smoked cannabis challenge, median OF/P THC ratios decreased from 1.4–5.5 (0.04–245.6) at 0.25 h to 0.12–0.17 (0.04–5.1) at 10.5 h post smoking. In other studies, longer exposure to more potent cannabis smoke and oromucosal cannabis spray was associated with increased OF/P THC peak ratios. Median OF/P 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) ratios were 0.3–2.5 (range 0.1–14.7) ng/µg, much more consistent in various dosing conditions over time. CONCLUSIONS OF/P THC, but not THCCOOH, ratios were significantly influenced by oral cavity contamination after smoking or oromucosal spray of cannabinoid products, followed by time-dependent decreases. Establishing relationships between OF and plasma cannabinoid concentrations is essential for making inferences of impairment or other clinical outcomes from OF concentrations. PMID:23831756

  3. The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide shares discriminative stimulus effects with ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in fatty acid amide hydrolase knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Walentiny, D Matthew; Gamage, Thomas F; Warner, Jonathan A; Nguyen, Thanh K; Grainger, Darren B; Wiley, Jenny L; Vann, Robert E

    2011-04-10

    The endogenous cannabinoid system has been noted for its therapeutic potential, as well as the psychoactivity of cannabinoids such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, less is known about the psychoactivity of anandamide (AEA), an endocannabinoid ligand. Thus, the goals of this study were to establish AEA as a discriminative stimulus in transgenic mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase (i.e., FAAH -/- mice unable to rapidly metabolize AEA), evaluate whether THC or oleamide, a fatty acid amide, produced AEA-like responding, and assess for CB(1) mediation of AEA's discriminative stimulus. Mice readily discriminated between 6mg/kg AEA and vehicle in a two-lever drug discrimination task. AEA dose-dependently generalized to itself. THC elicited full AEA-like responding, whereas oleamide failed to substitute. The CB(1) antagonist rimonabant attenuated AEA- and THC-induced AEA-appropriate responding, demonstrating CB(1) mediation of AEA's discriminative stimulus. These findings suggest that, in the absence of FAAH, AEA produces intoxication comparable to THC, and consequently to marijuana. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress and cannabinoid receptor expression in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas following treatment with Δ⁹-THC.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Zeynep Mine; Bolkent, Sema

    2014-10-01

    The objectives of study were (a) to determine alteration of feeding, glucose level and oxidative stress and (b) to investigate expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas treated with Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, Δ(9)-THC, diabetes and diabetes + Δ(9)-THC groups. Diabetic rats were treated with a single dose of nicotinamide (85 mg/kg) 15 min before injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Δ(9)-THC was administered intraperitoneally at 3 mg/kg/day for 7 days. Body weights and blood glucose level of rats in all groups were measured on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. On day 15 after the Δ(9)-THC injections, pancreatic tissues were removed. Blood glucose levels and body weights of diabetic rats treated with Δ(9)-THC did not show statistically significant changes when compared with the diabetic animals on days 7, 14 and 21. Treatment with Δ(9)-THC significantly increased pancreas glutathione levels, enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in diabetes compared with non-treatment diabetes group. The cannabinoid 1 receptor was found in islets, whereas the cannabinoid 2 receptor was found in pancreatic ducts. Their localization in cells was both nuclear and cytoplasmic. We can suggest that Δ(9) -THC may be an important agent for the treatment of oxidative damages induced by diabetes. However, it must be supported with anti-hyperglycaemic agents. Furthermore, the present study for the first time emphasizes that Δ(9)-THC may improve pancreatic cells via cannabinoid receptors in diabetes. The aim of present study was to elucidate the effects of Δ(9)-THC, a natural cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors, and oxidative stress statue in type-2 diabetic rat pancreas. Results demonstrate that the cannabinoid receptors are presented in both Langerhans islets and duct regions. The curative effects

  5. The endocannabinoid system and emotional processing: a pharmacological fMRI study with ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Bossong, Matthijs G; van Hell, Hendrika H; Jager, Gerry; Kahn, René S; Ramsey, Nick F; Jansma, J Martijn

    2013-12-01

    Various psychiatric disorders such as major depression are associated with abnormalities in emotional processing. Evidence indicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in emotional processing, and thus potentially in related abnormalities, is increasing. In the present study, we examined the role of the endocannabinoid system in processing of stimuli with a positive and negative emotional content in healthy volunteers. A pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted with a placebo-controlled, cross-over design, investigating effects of the endocannabinoid agonist ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on brain function related to emotional processing in 11 healthy subjects. Performance and brain activity during matching of stimuli with a negative ('fearful faces') or a positive content ('happy faces') were assessed after placebo and THC administration. After THC administration, performance accuracy was decreased for stimuli with a negative but not for stimuli with a positive emotional content. Our task activated a network of brain regions including amygdala, orbital frontal gyrus, hippocampus, parietal gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and regions in the occipital cortex. THC interacted with emotional content, as activity in this network was reduced for negative content, while activity for positive content was increased. These results indicate that THC administration reduces the negative bias in emotional processing. This adds human evidence to support the hypothesis that the endocannabinoid system is involved in modulation of emotional processing. Our findings also suggest a possible role for the endocannabinoid system in abnormal emotional processing, and may thus be relevant for psychiatric disorders such as major depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Chronic administration of THC prevents the behavioral effects of intermittent adolescent MDMA administration and attenuates MDMA-induced hyperthermia and neurotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Erica Y.; Ali, Syed F.; Meyer, Jerrold S.

    2011-01-01

    Most recreational users of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or “ecstasy”) also take cannabis, in part because cannabis can reduce the dysphoric symptoms of the ecstasy come-down such as agitation and insomnia. Although previous animal studies have examined the acute effects of co-administering MDMA and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the major psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, research on chronic exposure to this drug combination is lacking. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic adolescent administration of both THC and MDMA on behavior and on regional serotonin transporter (SERT) binding and serotonin (5-HT) concentrations as indices of serotonergic system integrity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four drug administration groups: (1) MDMA alone, (2) THC alone, (3) MDMA plus THC, and (4) vehicle controls. MDMA (2 × 10 mg/kg × 4 h) was administered every fifth day from postnatal day (PD) 35 to 60 to simulate intermittent recreational ecstasy use, whereas THC (5 mg/kg) was given once daily over the same time period to simulate heavy cannabis use. THC unexpectedly produced a modest hyperthermic effect when administered alone, but in animals co-treated with both THC and MDMA, there was an attenuation of MDMA-induced hyperthermia on dosing days. Subsequent testing conducted after a drug washout period revealed that THC reduced MDMA-related behavioral changes in the emergence and social interaction tests of anxiety-like behavior and also blunted the MDMA-induced decrease in exploratory behavior in the hole-board test. THC additionally attenuated MDMA -induced decreases in 5-HT levels and in SERT binding in the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and striatum, but not in the hippocampus. These results suggest that chronic co-administration of THC during adolescence can provide some protection against various adverse physiological, behavioral, and neurochemical effects produced by MDMA. PMID

  7. Chronic administration of THC prevents the behavioral effects of intermittent adolescent MDMA administration and attenuates MDMA-induced hyperthermia and neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Erica Y; Ali, Syed F; Meyer, Jerrold S

    2011-12-01

    Most recreational users of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") also take cannabis, in part because cannabis can reduce the dysphoric symptoms of the ecstasy come-down such as agitation and insomnia. Although previous animal studies have examined the acute effects of co-administering MDMA and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the major psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, research on chronic exposure to this drug combination is lacking. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic adolescent administration of both THC and MDMA on behavior and on regional serotonin transporter (SERT) binding and serotonin (5-HT) concentrations as indices of serotonergic system integrity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four drug administration groups: (1) MDMA alone, (2) THC alone, (3) MDMA plus THC, and (4) vehicle controls. MDMA (2 × 10 mg/kg × 4 h) was administered every fifth day from postnatal day (PD) 35 to 60 to simulate intermittent recreational ecstasy use, whereas THC (5mg/kg) was given once daily over the same time period to simulate heavy cannabis use. THC unexpectedly produced a modest hyperthermic effect when administered alone, but in animals co-treated with both THC and MDMA, there was an attenuation of MDMA-induced hyperthermia on dosing days. Subsequent testing conducted after a drug washout period revealed that THC reduced MDMA-related behavioral changes in the emergence and social interaction tests of anxiety-like behavior and also blunted the MDMA-induced decrease in exploratory behavior in the hole-board test. THC additionally attenuated MDMA -induced decreases in 5-HT levels and in SERT binding in the frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and striatum, but not in the hippocampus. These results suggest that chronic co-administration of THC during adolescence can provide some protection against various adverse physiological, behavioral, and neurochemical effects produced by MDMA. Published by

  8. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremy R; Burnell-Nugent, Mary; Lossignol, Dominique; Ganae-Motan, Elena Doina; Potts, Richard; Fallon, Marie T

    2010-02-01

    This study compared the efficacy of a tetrahydrocannabinol:cannabidiol (THC:CBD) extract, a nonopioid analgesic endocannabinoid system modulator, and a THC extract, with placebo, in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 177 patients with cancer pain, who experienced inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, entered a two-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Patients were randomized to THC:CBD extract (n = 60), THC extract (n = 58), or placebo (n = 59). The primary analysis of change from baseline in mean pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) score was statistically significantly in favor of THC:CBD compared with placebo (improvement of -1.37 vs. -0.69), whereas the THC group showed a nonsignificant change (-1.01 vs. -0.69). Twice as many patients taking THC:CBD showed a reduction of more than 30% from baseline pain NRS score when compared with placebo (23 [43%] vs. 12 [21%]). The associated odds ratio was statistically significant, whereas the number of THC group responders was similar to placebo (12 [23%] vs. 12 [21%]) and did not reach statistical significance. There was no change from baseline in median dose of opioid background medication or mean number of doses of breakthrough medication across treatment groups. No significant group differences were found in the NRS sleep quality or nausea scores or the pain control assessment. However, the results from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Cancer Questionnaire showed a worsening in nausea and vomiting with THC:CBD compared with placebo (P = 0.02), whereas THC had no difference (P = 1.0). Most drug-related adverse events were mild/moderate in severity. This study shows that THC:CBD extract is efficacious for relief of pain in patients with advanced cancer pain not fully relieved by strong opioids. Copyright 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Pesta, Dominik H; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Burtscher, Martin; Roberts, Christian K

    2013-12-13

    Caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are among the most prevalent and culturally accepted drugs in western society. For example, in Europe and North America up to 90% of the adult population drinks coffee daily and, although less prevalent, the other drugs are also used extensively by the population. Smoked tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption and marijuana (cannabis) smoking are addictive and exhibit adverse health effects. These drugs are not only common in the general population, but have also made their way into elite sports because of their purported performance-altering potential. Only one of the drugs (i.e., caffeine) has enough scientific evidence indicating an ergogenic effect. There is some preliminary evidence for nicotine as an ergogenic aid, but further study is required; cannabis and alcohol can exhibit ergogenic potential under specific circumstances but are in general believed to be ergolytic for sports performance. These drugs are currently (THC, ethanol) or have been (caffeine) on the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency or are being monitored (nicotine) due to their potential ergogenic or ergolytic effects. The aim of this brief review is to evaluate the effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and THC by: 1) examining evidence supporting the ergogenic or ergolytic effects; 2) providing an overview of the mechanism(s) of action and physiological effects; and 3) where appropriate, reviewing their impact as performance-altering aids used in recreational and elite sports.

  10. The effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol, and tetrahydrocannabinol on exercise performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are among the most prevalent and culturally accepted drugs in western society. For example, in Europe and North America up to 90% of the adult population drinks coffee daily and, although less prevalent, the other drugs are also used extensively by the population. Smoked tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption and marijuana (cannabis) smoking are addictive and exhibit adverse health effects. These drugs are not only common in the general population, but have also made their way into elite sports because of their purported performance-altering potential. Only one of the drugs (i.e., caffeine) has enough scientific evidence indicating an ergogenic effect. There is some preliminary evidence for nicotine as an ergogenic aid, but further study is required; cannabis and alcohol can exhibit ergogenic potential under specific circumstances but are in general believed to be ergolytic for sports performance. These drugs are currently (THC, ethanol) or have been (caffeine) on the prohibited list of the World Anti-Doping Agency or are being monitored (nicotine) due to their potential ergogenic or ergolytic effects. The aim of this brief review is to evaluate the effects of caffeine, nicotine, ethanol and THC by: 1) examining evidence supporting the ergogenic or ergolytic effects; 2) providing an overview of the mechanism(s) of action and physiological effects; and 3) where appropriate, reviewing their impact as performance-altering aids used in recreational and elite sports. PMID:24330705

  11. Guanfacine Attenuates Adverse Effects of Dronabinol (THC) on Working Memory in Adolescent-Onset Heavy Cannabis Users: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mathai, David S; Holst, Manuela; Rodgman, Christopher; Haile, Colin N; Keller, Jake; Hussain, Mariyah Z; Kosten, Thomas R; Newton, Thomas F; Verrico, Christopher D

    2018-01-01

    The cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, adversely effects working memory performance in humans. The α2A-adrenoceptor (AR) agonist guanfacine improves working memory performance in humans. The authors aimed to determine the effects of short-term (6 days) treatment with guanfacine on adverse cognitive effects produced by THC. Employing a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, the cognitive, subjective, and cardiovascular effects produced by oral THC (20 mg) administration were determined twice in the same cannabis users: once after treatment with placebo and once after treatment with guanfacine (3 mg/day). Compared with performance at baseline, THC negatively affected accuracy on spatial working memory trials while participants were maintained on placebo (p=0.012) but not guanfacine (p=0.497); compared with placebo, accuracy was significantly (p=0.003, Cohen's d=-0.640) improved while individuals were treated with guanfacine. Similarly, compared with baseline, THC increased omission errors on an attentional task while participants were maintained on placebo (p=0.017) but not on guanfacine (p=0.709); compared with placebo, there were significantly (p=0.034, Cohen's d=0.838) fewer omissions while individuals were maintained on guanfacine. Although THC increased visual analog scores of subjective effects and heart rate, these increases were similar during treatment with placebo and guanfacine. THC did not significantly affect performance of a recognition memory task or blood pressure while individuals were maintained on either treatment. Although preliminary, these results suggest that guanfacine warrants further testing as a potential treatment for cannabis-induced cognitive deficits.

  12. The effect of five day dosing with THCV on THC-induced cognitive, psychological and physiological effects in healthy male human volunteers: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Englund, Amir; Atakan, Zerrin; Kralj, Aleksandra; Tunstall, Nigel; Murray, Robin; Morrison, Paul

    2016-02-01

    Cannabis is mostly grown under illegal and unregulated circumstances, which seems to favour a product increasingly high in its main cannabinoid ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is a relatively untested cannabinoid which is said to be a cannabinoid receptor neutral antagonist, and may inhibit the effects of THC. To explore the safety and tolerability of repeated THCV administration and its effects on symptoms normally induced by THC in a sample of healthy volunteers. Ten male cannabis users (<25 use occasions) were recruited for this within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over pilot study. 10mg oral pure THCV or placebo were administered daily for five days, followed by 1mg intravenous THC on the fifth day. THCV was well tolerated and subjectively indistinguishable from placebo. THC did not significantly increase psychotic symptoms, paranoia or impair short-term memory, while still producing significant intoxicating effects. Delayed verbal recall was impaired by THC and only occurred under placebo condition (Z=-2.201, p=0.028), suggesting a protective effect of THCV. THCV also inhibited THC-induced increased heart rate (Z=-2.193, p=0.028). Nine out of ten participants reported THC under THCV condition (compared to placebo) to be subjectively weaker or less intense (χ(2)=6.4, p=0.011). THCV in combination with THC significantly increased memory intrusions (Z=-2.155, p=0.031). In this first study of THC and THCV, THCV inhibited some of the well-known effects of THC, while potentiating others. These findings need to be interpreted with caution due to a small sample size and lack of THC-induced psychotomimetic and memory-impairing effect, probably owing to the choice of dose. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Polymeric Systems for Amorphous Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Produced by a Hot-Melt Method. Part II: Effect of Oxidation Mechanisms and Chemical Interactions on Stability

    PubMed Central

    MUNJAL, MANISH; ELSOHLY, MAHMOUD A.; REPKA, MICHAEL A.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the present research investigations were to (i) elucidate the mechanism for the oxidative degradation of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in polymer matrix systems prepared by a hot-melt fabrication procedure, and (ii) study the potential for controlling these mechanisms to reduce the degradation of THC in solid dosage formulations. Various factors considered and applied included drug-excipient compatibility, use of antioxidants, cross-linking in polymeric matrices, microenvironment pH, and moisture effect. Instability of THC in polyethylene oxide (PEO)-vitamin E succinate (VES) patches was determined to be due to chemical interaction between the drug and the vitamin as well as with the atmospheric oxygen. Of the different classes and mechanisms of antioxidants studied, quenching of oxygen by reducing agents, namely, ascorbic acid was the most effective in stabilizing THC in PEO-VES matrices. Only 5.8% of the drug degraded in the ascorbic acid-containing patch as compared to the control (31.6%) after 2 months of storage at 40°C. This coupled with the cross-linking extent and adjustment of the pH microenvironment, which seemed to have an impact on the THC degradation, might be effectively utilized towards stabilization of the drug in these polymeric matrices and other pharmaceutical dosage forms. These studies are relevant to the development of a stable transmucosal matrix system for the therapeutic delivery of amorphous THC. PMID:16886199

  14. Psychomotor performance, subjective and physiological effects and whole blood Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations in heavy, chronic cannabis smokers following acute smoked cannabis.

    PubMed

    Schwope, David M; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-07-01

    Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the illicit drug most frequently observed in accident and driving under the influence of drugs investigations. Whole blood is often the only available specimen collected during such investigations, yet few studies have examined relationships between cannabis effects and whole blood concentrations following cannabis smoking. Nine male and one female heavy, chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked ad libitum one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in whole blood and plasma. Assessments were performed before and up to 6 h after smoking, including subjective [visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales], physiological (heart rate, blood pressure and respirations) and psychomotor (critical-tracking and divided-attention tasks) measures. THC significantly increased VAS responses and heart rate, with concentration-effect curves demonstrating counter-clockwise hysteresis. No significant differences were observed for critical-tracking or divided-attention task performance in this cohort of heavy, chronic cannabis smokers. The cannabis influence factor was not suitable for quantifying psychomotor impairment following cannabis consumption and was not precise enough to determine recent cannabis use with accuracy. These data inform our understanding of impairment and subjective effects following acute smoked cannabis and interpretation of whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in forensic investigations.

  15. Impaired NFAT and NFκB activation are involved in suppression of CD40 ligand expression by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in human CD4(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2013-11-15

    We have previously reported that Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, suppresses CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by activated mouse CD4(+) T cells. CD40L is involved in pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Δ(9)-THC-mediated suppression of CD40L expression using peripheral blood human T cells. Pretreatment with Δ(9)-THC attenuated CD40L expression in human CD4(+) T cells activated by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level, as determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Δ(9)-THC suppressed the DNA-binding activity of both NFAT and NFκB to their respective response elements within the CD40L promoter. An assessment of the effect of Δ(9)-THC on proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling induced by anti-CD3/CD28 showed significant impairment in the rise of intracellular calcium, but no significant effect on the phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β. Collectively, these findings identify perturbation of the calcium-NFAT and NFκB signaling cascade as a key mechanistic event by which Δ(9)-THC suppresses human T cell function. © 2013.

  16. The yin and yang of cannabis-induced psychosis: the actions of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in rodent models of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Arnold, J C; Boucher, A A; Karl, T

    2012-01-01

    The link between cannabis and psychosis has often been debated with polarized views on the topic. There is substantial epidemiological evidence showing that cannabis increases the risk of psychosis, whereas other research suggests that schizophrenia patients self-medicate with the substance. These conflicting accounts may at least be partially explained by the two phytocannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and their opposing actions on schizophrenia-related symptoms. In the present review we will first focus on how traditional rodent models of schizophrenia have been used to improve our understanding of the propsychotic actions of THC and the antipsychotic actions of CBD. We will also review novel rodent models used to address genetic vulnerability to cannabis-induced schizophrenia and show that specific genes are being uncovered that modulate cannabinoid action (e.g. the schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1). We will also review rodent studies that have addressed interactions between THC and CBD. These animal studies underscore great complexity with some studies showing that CBD antagonises the neurobehavioural effects of THC, while others show the opposite, that CBD potentiates the actions of THC. Various mechanisms are put forth to explain these divergent effects such as CBD antagonism at central CB1 receptors or that CBD inhibits proteins that regulate THC disposition and metabolism (e.g. the ABC transporter, P-glycoprotein).

  17. Preliminary, open-label, pilot study of add-on oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Roitman, Pablo; Mechoulam, Raphael; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Shalev, Arieh

    2014-08-01

    Many patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) achieve but partial remission with current treatments. Patients with unremitted PTSD show high rates of substance abuse. Marijuana is often used as compassion add-on therapy for treatment-resistant PTSD. This open-label study evaluates the tolerance and safety of orally absorbable Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for chronic PTSD. Ten outpatients with chronic PTSD, on stable medication, received 5 mg of Δ(9)-THC twice a day as add-on treatment. There were mild adverse effects in three patients, none of which led to treatment discontinuation. The intervention caused a statistically significant improvement in global symptom severity, sleep quality, frequency of nightmares, and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Orally absorbable Δ(9)-THC was safe and well tolerated by patients with chronic PTSD.

  18. Functional interaction and cross-tolerance between ethanol and Δ9-THC: possible modulation by mouse cerebellar adenosinergic A1/GABAergic-A receptors.

    PubMed

    Dar, M Saeed

    2014-08-15

    We have previously shown a functional motor interaction between ethanol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) that involved cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABAergic A receptor modulation. We now report the development of cross-tolerance between intracerebellar Δ(9)-THC and intraperitoneal ethanol using ataxia as the test response in male CD-1 mice. The drugs [Δ(9)-THC (20 μg), N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine, CHA (12 ng), muscimol (20 ng)] used in the study were directly microinfused stereotaxically via guide cannulas into the cerebellum except ethanol. Δ(9)-THC, infused once daily for 5 days followed 16 h after the last infusion by acute ethanol (2g/kg) and Rotorod evaluation, virtually abolished ethanol ataxia indicating development of cross-tolerance. The cross-tolerance was also observed when the order of ethanol and Δ(9)-THC treatment was reversed, i.e., ethanol injected once daily for 5 days followed 16 h after the last ethanol injection by Δ(9)-THC infusion. The cross-tolerance appeared within 24-48 h, lasted over 72 h and was maximal in 5-day ethanol/Δ(9)-THC-treated animals. Finally, tolerance in chronic ethanol/Δ(9)-THC/-treated animals developed not only to ethanol/Δ(9)-THC-induced ataxia, respectively, but also to the ataxia potentiating effect of CHA and muscimol, indicating modulation by cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABAA receptors. A practical implication of these results could be that marijuana smokers may experience little or no negative effects such as ataxia following alcohol consumption. Clinically, such antagonism of ethanol-induced ataxia can be observed in marijuana users thereby encouraging more alcohol consumption and thus may represent a risk factor for the development of alcoholism in this segment of population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of topical THC in DNFB-mediated mouse allergic contact dermatitis independent of CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Gaffal, E; Cron, M; Glodde, N; Tüting, T

    2013-08-01

    ∆(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active constituent of Cannabis sativa, exerts its biological effects in part through the G-protein-coupled CB1 and CB2 receptors, which were initially discovered in brain and spleen tissue, respectively. However, THC also has CB1/2 receptor-independent effects. Because of its immune-inhibitory potential, THC and related cannabinoids are being considered for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Here we investigated the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of THC and the role of CB1 and CB2 receptors. We evaluated the impact of topically applied THC on DNFB-mediated allergic contact dermatitis in wild-type and CB1/2 receptor-deficient mice. We performed immunohistochemical analyses for infiltrating immune cells and studied the influence of THC on the interaction between T cells, keratinocytes and myeloid immune cells in vitro. Topical THC application effectively decreased contact allergic ear swelling and myeloid immune cell infiltration not only in wild-type but also in CB1/2 receptor-deficient mice. We found that THC (1) inhibited the production of IFNγ by T cells, (2) decreased the production of CCL2 and of IFNγ-induced CCL8 and CXL10 by epidermal keratinocytes and (3) thereby limited the recruitment of myeloid immune cells in vitro in a CB1/2 receptor-independent manner. Topically applied THC can effectively attenuate contact allergic inflammation by decreasing keratinocyte-derived pro-inflammatory mediators that orchestrate myeloid immune cell infiltration independent of CB1/2 receptors. This has important implications for the future development of strategies to harness cannabinoids for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. An open-label extension study to investigate the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD oromucosal spray and oromucosal THC spray in patients with terminal cancer-related pain refractory to strong opioid analgesics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremy R; Lossignol, Dominique; Burnell-Nugent, Mary; Fallon, Marie T

    2013-08-01

    Chronic pain in patients with advanced cancer poses a serious clinical challenge. The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (U.S. Adopted Name, nabiximols; Sativex(®)) is a novel cannabinoid formulation currently undergoing investigation as an adjuvant therapy for this treatment group. This follow-up study investigated the long-term safety and tolerability of THC/CBD spray and THC spray in relieving pain in patients with advanced cancer. In total, 43 patients with cancer-related pain experiencing inadequate analgesia despite chronic opioid dosing, who had participated in a previous three-arm (THC/CBD spray, THC spray, or placebo), two-week parent randomized controlled trial, entered this open-label, multicenter, follow-up study. Patients self-titrated THC/CBD spray (n=39) or THC spray (n=4) to symptom relief or maximum dose and were regularly reviewed for safety, tolerability, and evidence of clinical benefit. The efficacy end point of change from baseline in mean Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form scores for "pain severity" and "worst pain" domains showed a decrease (i.e., improvement) at each visit in the THC/CBD spray patients. Similarly, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 scores showed a decrease (i.e., improvement) from baseline in the domains of insomnia, pain, and fatigue. No new safety concerns associated with the extended use of THC/CBD spray arose from this study. This study showed that the long-term use of THC/CBD spray was generally well tolerated, with no evidence of a loss of effect for the relief of cancer-related pain with long-term use. Furthermore, patients who kept using the study medication did not seek to increase their dose of this or other pain-relieving medication over time, suggesting that the adjuvant use of cannabinoids in cancer-related pain could provide useful benefit. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Rapid isolation procedure for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA) from Cannabis sativa using two flash chromatography systems.

    PubMed

    Wohlfarth, Ariane; Mahler, Hellmut; Auwärter, Volker

    2011-10-15

    Two isolation procedures for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA), the biogenetic precursor in the biosynthesis of the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the cannabis plant, are presented. Two flash chromatography systems that can be used independently from each other were developed to separate THCA from other compounds of a crude cannabis extract. In both systems UV absorption at 209 and 270 nm was monitored. Purity was finally determined by HPLC-DAD, NMR and GC-MS analysis with a focus on the impurity THC. System 1 consisted of a normal phase silica column (120 g) as well as cyclohexane and acetone--both spiked with the modifier pyridine--as mobile phases. Gradient elution was performed over 15 min. After the chromatographic run the fractions containing THCA fractions were pooled, extracted with hydrochloric acid to eliminate pyridine and evaporated to dryness. Loading 1800 mg cannabis extract yielded 623 mg THCA with a purity of 99.8% and a THC concentration of 0.09%. System 2 was based on a reversed-phase C18 column (150 g) combined with 0.55% formic acid and methanol as mobile phases. A very flat gradient was set over 20 minutes. After pooling the THCA-containing fractions methanol was removed in a rotary evaporator. THCA was re-extracted from the remaining aqueous phase with methyl tert-butyl ether. The organic phase was finally evaporated under high vacuum conditions. Loading 300 mg cannabis extract yielded 51 mg THCA with a purity of 98.8% and a THC concentration of 0.67%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Even High Doses of Oral Cannabidol Do Not Cause THC-Like Effects in Humans: Comment on Merrick et al. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2016;1(1):102-112; DOI: 10.1089/can.2015.0004.

    PubMed

    Grotenhermen, Franjo; Russo, Ethan; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo

    2017-01-01

    This short communication examines the question whether the experimental data presented in a study by Merrick et al. are of clinical relevance. These authors found that cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of the cannabis plant devoid of psychotropic effects and of great interest for therapeutic use in several medical conditions, may be converted in gastric fluid into the psychoactive cannabinoids delta-8-THC and delta-9-THC to a relevant degree. They concluded that "the acidic environment during normal gastrointestinal transit can expose orally CBD-treated patients to levels of THC and other psychoactive cannabinoids that may exceed the threshold for a positive physiological response." They issued a warning concerning oral use of CBD and recommend the development of other delivery methods. However, the available clinical data do not support this conclusion and recommendation, since even high doses of oral CBD do not cause psychological, psychomotor, cognitive, or physical effects that are characteristic for THC or cannabis rich in THC. On the contrary, in the past decades and by several groups, high doses of oral CBD were consistently shown to cause opposite effects to those of THC in clinical studies. In addition, administration of CBD did not result in detectable THC blood concentrations. Thus, there is no reason to avoid oral use of CBD, which has been demonstrated to be a safe means of administration of CBD, even at very high doses.

  3. Even High Doses of Oral Cannabidiol Do Not Cause THC-Like Effects in Humans: Comment on Merrick et al. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2016;1(1):102–112; DOI: 10.1089/can.2015.0004

    PubMed Central

    Grotenhermen, Franjo; Russo, Ethan; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This short communication examines the question whether the experimental data presented in a study by Merrick et al. are of clinical relevance. These authors found that cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of the cannabis plant devoid of psychotropic effects and of great interest for therapeutic use in several medical conditions, may be converted in gastric fluid into the psychoactive cannabinoids delta-8-THC and delta-9-THC to a relevant degree. They concluded that “the acidic environment during normal gastrointestinal transit can expose orally CBD-treated patients to levels of THC and other psychoactive cannabinoids that may exceed the threshold for a positive physiological response.” They issued a warning concerning oral use of CBD and recommend the development of other delivery methods. However, the available clinical data do not support this conclusion and recommendation, since even high doses of oral CBD do not cause psychological, psychomotor, cognitive, or physical effects that are characteristic for THC or cannabis rich in THC. On the contrary, in the past decades and by several groups, high doses of oral CBD were consistently shown to cause opposite effects to those of THC in clinical studies. In addition, administration of CBD did not result in detectable THC blood concentrations. Thus, there is no reason to avoid oral use of CBD, which has been demonstrated to be a safe means of administration of CBD, even at very high doses. PMID:28861499

  4. Pre-encoding administration of amphetamine or THC preferentially modulates emotional memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Michael E.; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Many addictive drugs are known to have effects on learning and memory, and these effects could motivate future drug use. Specifically, addictive drugs may affect memory of emotional events and experiences in ways that are attractive to some users. However, few studies have investigated the effects of addictive drugs on emotional memory in humans. Objectives This study examined the effects of the memory-enhancing drug dextroamphetamine (AMP) and the memory-impairing drug Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on emotional memory in healthy volunteers. Methods Participants completed three experimental sessions across which they received capsules containing placebo and two doses of either AMP (10 and 20 mg; N=25) or THC (7.5 and 15 mg; N=25) before viewing pictures of positive (pleasant), neutral, and negative (unpleasant) scenes. Memory for the pictures was assessed two days later, under drug-free conditions. Results Relative to placebo, memory for emotional pictures was improved by AMP and impaired by THC, but neither drug significantly affected memory for unemotional pictures. Positive memory biases were not observed with either drug, and there was no indication that the drugs’ memory effects were directly related to their subjective or physiological effects alone. Conclusions This study provides the first clear evidence that stimulant drugs can preferentially strengthen, and cannabinoids can preferentially impair, memory for emotional events in humans. Although addictive drugs do not appear to positively bias memory, the possibility remains that these drugs’ effects on emotional memory could influence drug use among certain individuals. PMID:23224510

  5. Differential behavioral and molecular alterations upon protracted abstinence from cocaine versus morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jérôme A J; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Le Merrer, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Unified theories of addiction are challenged by differing drug-seeking behaviors and neurobiological adaptations across drug classes, particularly for narcotics and psychostimulants. We previously showed that protracted abstinence to opiates leads to despair behavior and social withdrawal in mice, and we identified a transcriptional signature in the extended amygdala that was also present in animals abstinent from nicotine, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol. Here we examined whether protracted abstinence to these four drugs would also share common behavioral features, and eventually differ from abstinence to the prototypic psychostimulant cocaine. We found similar reduced social recognition, increased motor stereotypies and increased anxiety with relevant c-fos response alterations in morphine, nicotine, THC and alcohol abstinent mice. Protracted abstinence to cocaine, however, led to strikingly distinct, mostly opposing adaptations at all levels, including behavioral responses, neuronal activation and gene expression. Together, these data further document the existence of common hallmarks for protracted abstinence to opiates, nicotine, THC and alcohol that develop within motivation/emotion brain circuits. In our model, however, these do not apply to cocaine, supporting the notion of unique mechanisms in psychostimulant abuse. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Chronic Administration of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Induces Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory MicroRNA Expression during Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Lawrance C.; Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Stouwe, Curtis Vande; Winsauer, Peter; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recreational and medical use of cannabis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) inhibited viral replication and intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation and systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including Δ9-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30, and 60 days postinfection (days p.i.) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving Δ9-THC (n = 3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n = 4) or THC (THC/SIV; n = 4). Chronic Δ9-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60 days p.i. At 60 days p.i., ∼28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in the VEH/SIV group compared to none showing decrease in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149, and miR-187, previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator, was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4+ crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV macaques compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal

  7. Single and combined effects of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    King, Kirsten M; Myers, Alyssa M; Soroka-Monzo, Ariele J; Tuma, Ronald F; Tallarida, Ronald J; Walker, Ellen A; Ward, Sara Jane

    2017-09-01

    The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) can affect the pharmacological effects of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). We tested the possible synergy between CBD and THC in decreasing mechanical sensitivity in a mouse model of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain. We also tested the effects of CBD on oxaliplatin- and vincristine-induced mechanical sensitivity. Paclitaxel-treated mice (8.0 mg·kg -1 i.p., days 1, 3, 5 and 7) were pretreated with CBD (0.625-20.0 mg·kg -1 i.p.), THC (0.625-20.0 mg·kg -1 i.p.) or CBD + THC (0.04 + 0.04-20.0 + 20.0 mg·kg -1 i.p.), and mechanical sensitivity was assessed on days 9, 14 and 21. Oxaliplatin-treated (6.0 mg·kg -1 i.p., day 1) or vincristine-treated mice (0.1 mg·kg -1 i.p. days 1-7) were pretreated with CBD (1.25-10.0 mg·kg -1 i.p.), THC (10.0 mg·kg -1 i.p.) or THC + CBD (0.16 mg·kg -1 THC + 0.16 mg·kg -1 CBD i.p.). Both CBD and THC alone attenuated mechanical allodynia in mice treated with paclitaxel. Very low ineffective doses of CBD and THC were synergistic when given in combination. CBD also attenuated oxaliplatin- but not vincristine-induced mechanical sensitivity, while THC significantly attenuated vincristine- but not oxaliplatin-induced mechanical sensitivity. The low dose combination significantly attenuated oxaliplatin- but not vincristine-induced mechanical sensitivity. CBD may be potent and effective at preventing the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, and its clinical use may be enhanced by co-administration of low doses of THC. These treatment strategies would increase the therapeutic window of cannabis-based pharmacotherapies. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Sensitive determination of THC and main metabolites in human plasma by means of microextraction in packed sorbent and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rosado, T; Fernandes, L; Barroso, M; Gallardo, E

    2017-02-01

    Cannabis is one of the most available and consumed illicit drug in the world and its identification and quantification in biological specimens can be a challenge given its low concentrations in body fluids. The present work describes a fast and fully validated procedure for the simultaneous detection and quantification of ▵ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (▵ 9_ THC) and its two main metabolites 11-hydroxy ▵ 9_ tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-▵ 9 - tetrahydrocannbinol (THC-COOH) in plasma samples using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A small plasma volume (0.25mL) pre-diluted (1:20), was extracted with MEPS M1 sorbent as follows: conditioning (4 cycles of 250μL methanol and 4 cycles of 250μL 0.1% formic acid in water); sample load (26 cycles of 250μL); wash (100μL of 3% acetic acid in water followed by 100μL 5% methanol in water); and elution (6 cycles of 100μL of 10% ammonium hydroxide in methanol). The procedure allowed the quantification of all analytes in the range of 0.1-30ng/mL. Recoveries ranged from 53 to 78% (THC), 57 to 66% (11-OH-THC) and 62 to 65% (THC-COOH), allowing the limits of detection and quantification to be set at 0.1ng/mL for all compounds. Intra-day precision and accuracy revealed coefficients of variation (CVs) lower than 10% at the studied concentrations, with a mean relative error within±9%, while inter-day precision and accuracy showed CVs lower than 15% for all analytes at the tested concentrations, with an inaccuracy within±8%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the relative percentage distribution of THCA and Δ(9)-THC in herbal cannabis seized in Austria - Impact of different storage temperatures on stability.

    PubMed

    Taschwer, Magdalena; Schmid, Martin G

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is globally by far the most widespread illicit drug of abuse. Especially since its legalization in some of the US, controversies about the legal status of cannabis for recreational and medical use have come up. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), which is the major active ingredient in cannabis products, is mainly responsible for the psychoactive effects. Its inactive biosynthetic precursor tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is present in different quantities in fresh and undried cannabis plants. Under influence of drying, temperature and UV exposure it decomposes to Δ(9)-THC. In this study, a quantification of Δ(9)-THC and THCA was carried out to check the stability of cannabis samples. The determination of the degradation of THCA to Δ(9)-THC in 29 cannabis products seized in Austria was monitored by HPLC-UV. Mobile phase consisted of a 25mM triethylammoniumphosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile (36:64). A common LiChrospher(®) 100 RP-18 column was utilized as stationary phase. To check the influence of low as well as high temperature on the degradation process of the cannabinoid THCA to Δ(9)-THC, samples were stored in a freezer or in a drying cabinet for a specified time period. It was shown successfully that high storage temperatures led to a more rapid and complete decomposition of THCA to Δ(9)-THC while at low temperatures only slight or no changes of the percentage distribution were determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative effects of pulmonary and parenteral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure on extinction of opiate-induced conditioned aversion in rats.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Laurie A; Mallet, Paul E

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggesting that the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system can be manipulated to facilitate or impair extinction of learned behaviours has important consequences for opiate withdrawal and abstinence. We demonstrated that the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which increases eCB levels, facilitates extinction of a naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA). The potential of the exogenous CB1 ligand, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), to facilitate extinction of this CPA was tested. Effects of both pulmonary and parenteral Δ(9)-THC exposure were evaluated using comparable doses previously determined. Rats trained to associate a naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal with a floor cue were administered Δ(9)-THC-pulmonary (1, 5, 10 mg vapour inhalation) or parenteral (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection)-prior to each of 20 to 28 extinction/testing trials. Vapourized Δ(9)-THC facilitated extinction of the CPA in a dose- and time-dependent manner: 5 and 10 mg facilitated extinction compared to vehicle and 1 mg Δ(9)-THC. Injected Δ(9)-THC significantly impaired extinction only for the 1.0-mg/kg dose: it prolonged the CPA fourfold longer than the vehicle and 0.5- and 1.5-mg/kg doses. These data suggest that both dose and route of Δ(9)-THC administration have important consequences for its pharmacokinetic and behavioural effects; specifically, pulmonary exposure at higher doses facilitates, whereas pulmonary and parenteral exposure at lower doses impairs, rates of extinction learning for CPA. Pulmonary-administered Δ(9)-THC may prove beneficial for potentiation of extinction learning for aversive memories, such as those supporting drug-craving/seeking in opiate withdrawal syndrome, and other causes of conditioned aversions, such as illness and stress.

  11. Strain and sex differences in puberty onset and the effects of THC administration on weight gain and brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Keeley, R J; Trow, J; McDonald, R J

    2015-10-01

    The use of recreational marijuana is widespread and frequently begins and persists through adolescence. Some research has shown negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use, but this is not seen across studies, and certain factors, like genetic background and sex, may influence the results. It is critical to identify which characteristics predispose an individual to be susceptible to the negative consequences of chronic exposure to marijuana in adolescence on brain health and behavior. To this end, using males and females of two strains of rats, Long-Evans hooded (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats, we explored whether these anatomically and behaviorally dimorphic strains demonstrated differences in puberty onset and strain-specific effects of adolescent exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana. Daily 5 mg/kg treatment began on the day of puberty onset and continued for 14 days. Of particular interest were metrics of growth and volumetric estimates of brain areas involved in cognition that contain high densities of cannabinoid receptors, including the hippocampus and its subregions, the amygdala, and the frontal cortex. Brain volumetrics were analyzed immediately following the treatment period. LER and WR females started puberty at different ages, but no strain differences were observed in brain volumes. THC decreased weight gain throughout the treatment period for all groups. Only the hippocampus and some of its subregions were affected by THC, and increased volumes with THC administration was observed exclusively in females, regardless of strain. Long-term treatment of THC did not affect all individuals equally, and females displayed evidence of increased sensitivity to the effects of THC, and by extension, marijuana. Identifying differences in adolescent physiology of WR and LER rats could help determine the cause for strain and sex differences in brain and behavior of adults and help to refine the use of animal models

  12. Adolescent THC exposure does not sensitize conditioned place preferences to subthreshold d-amphetamine in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Robin J; Bye, Cameron; Trow, Jan; McDonald, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    The acute effects of marijuana consumption on brain physiology and behaviour are well documented, but the long-term effects of its chronic use are less well known. Chronic marijuana use during adolescence is of increased interest, given that the majority of individuals first use marijuana during this developmental stage , and  adolescent marijuana use is thought to increase the susceptibility to abusing other drugs when exposed later in life. It is possible that marijuana use during critical periods in adolescence could lead to increased sensitivity to other drugs of abuse later on. To test this, we chronically administered ∆ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to male and female Long-Evans (LER) and Wistar (WR) rats directly after puberty onset. Rats matured to postnatal day 90 before being exposed to a conditioned place preference task (CPP). A subthreshold dose of d-amphetamine, found not to induce place preference in drug naïve rats, was used as the unconditioned stimulus. The effect of d-amphetamine on neural activity was inferred by quantifying cfos expression in the nucleus accumbens and dorsal hippocampus following CPP training. Chronic exposure to THC post-puberty had no potentiating effect on a subthreshold dose of d-amphetamine to induce CPP. No differences in cfos expression were observed. These results show that chronic exposure to THC during puberty did not increase sensitivity to d-amphetamine in adult LER and WR rats. This supports the concept that THC may not sensitize the response to all drugs of abuse.

  13. [Testing the pharmacological activity of some synthetic cannabinoids in mice (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ganz, A J; Waser, P G

    1980-01-01

    A series of synthetic cannabinoids were tested in mice for analgesic, anticonvulsant, sedative and reserpine antagonistic properties as well as for influence on body temperature and on motor coordination and compared with the natural delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 8-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). All cannabinoids were injected s.c. or i.p. in mice as solutions in olive oil. The synthetic cannabinoids, with the exception of the lipophilic ones, were less active than the natural delta 9-THC. 1',1'-dimethyl-delta 8-tetrahydrocannabinol (DM-delta 8-THC) has an analgesic ED 50 of 16 mg/kg s.c. (writhing test) and is three times more active than delta 9-THC, but also eight times less active than morphine. The lipophilic derivatives of delta 8-THC prolonged pentobarbitone narcosis and diminished locomotor activity in mice. Anticonvulsant activities could never be detected; all cannabinoids slightly diminished body temperature and antagonized weakly the hypothermia induced by reserpine. The trained capacity of remaining on the rotating rod was severely shortened for a long time after application of all cannabinoids but mainly by the lipophilic ones. The influence of derivation on the activity of delta 9-THC is discussed.

  14. delta 9-(16 alpha-/sup 125/I)iodo-19-nortestosterone: a gamma-emitting photoaffinity label for the progesterone receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, D.J.; Bullock, D.W.; Hoyte, R.M.

    1988-05-01

    We have synthesized 16 alpha-iodo-4,9-estradien-17 beta-ol-3-one (delta 9-16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone (delta 9-INT)) labeled with 125I (delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT) to provide a new gamma-emitting photoaffinity ligand for the progesterone receptor that has many advantages over the currently available (3H)R5020. We have characterized the interaction of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT with the rabbit uterine progesterone receptor and have demonstrated the usefulness of this compound for studies of receptor structure. The binding of 2 nM (3H)progesterone to receptor in rabbit uterine cytosol was specifically competed for by 19-nortestosterone, 16 alpha-iodo-19-nortestosterone, and delta 9-INT. Scatchard analysis demonstrated that delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and (3H)progesterone estimated the samemore » number of binding sites in rabbit uterine cytosol, with a Kd for delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT of about 2.7 nM. The binding of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT was inhibited by both progesterone and R5020, whereas testosterone, estradiol, and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone were ineffective. In cytosol, delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT covalently labeled the same mol wt receptor forms as (3H)R5020. Although the efficiency of cross-linking was similar for (3H)R5020 (3%) and delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT (4%), the radioactivity was 10-fold greater due to the higher specific activity of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT and the lack of sample quench. The use of delta 9-(16 alpha-125I)INT greatly increases the sensitivity and efficiency of the photoaffinity labeling technique; it will provide a valuable tool for further studies of the progesterone receptor, allowing the detection of receptor in dilute cytosol after gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions.« less

  15. THC Prevents MDMA Neurotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Touriño, Clara; Zimmer, Andreas; Valverde, Olga

    2010-02-10

    The majority of MDMA (ecstasy) recreational users also consume cannabis. Despite the rewarding effects that both drugs have, they induce several opposite pharmacological responses. MDMA causes hyperthermia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage, especially at warm ambient temperature. However, THC, the main psychoactive compound of cannabis, produces hypothermic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, THC may have a neuroprotective effect against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. Mice receiving a neurotoxic regimen of MDMA (20 mg/kg x 4) were pretreated with THC (3 mg/kg x 4) at room (21 degrees C) and at warm (26 degrees C) temperature, and body temperature, striatal glial activation and DA terminal loss were assessed. To find out the mechanisms by which THC may prevent MDMA hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, the same procedure was carried out in animals pretreated with the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251 and the CB(2) receptor antagonist AM630, as well as in CB(1), CB(2) and CB(1)/CB(2) deficient mice. THC prevented MDMA-induced-hyperthermia and glial activation in animals housed at both room and warm temperature. Surprisingly, MDMA-induced DA terminal loss was only observed in animals housed at warm but not at room temperature, and this neurotoxic effect was reversed by THC administration. However, THC did not prevent MDMA-induced hyperthermia, glial activation, and DA terminal loss in animals treated with the CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251, neither in CB(1) and CB(1)/CB(2) knockout mice. On the other hand, THC prevented MDMA-induced hyperthermia and DA terminal loss, but only partially suppressed glial activation in animals treated with the CB(2) cannabinoid antagonist and in CB(2) knockout animals. Our results indicate that THC protects against MDMA neurotoxicity, and suggest that these neuroprotective actions are primarily mediated by the reduction of hyperthermia through the activation of CB(1) receptor, although CB(2) receptors may also contribute to

  16. THC Prevents MDMA Neurotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Touriño, Clara; Zimmer, Andreas; Valverde, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The majority of MDMA (ecstasy) recreational users also consume cannabis. Despite the rewarding effects that both drugs have, they induce several opposite pharmacological responses. MDMA causes hyperthermia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage, especially at warm ambient temperature. However, THC, the main psychoactive compound of cannabis, produces hypothermic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, THC may have a neuroprotective effect against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. Mice receiving a neurotoxic regimen of MDMA (20 mg/kg ×4) were pretreated with THC (3 mg/kg ×4) at room (21°C) and at warm (26°C) temperature, and body temperature, striatal glial activation and DA terminal loss were assessed. To find out the mechanisms by which THC may prevent MDMA hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, the same procedure was carried out in animals pretreated with the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 and the CB2 receptor antagonist AM630, as well as in CB1, CB2 and CB1/CB2 deficient mice. THC prevented MDMA-induced-hyperthermia and glial activation in animals housed at both room and warm temperature. Surprisingly, MDMA-induced DA terminal loss was only observed in animals housed at warm but not at room temperature, and this neurotoxic effect was reversed by THC administration. However, THC did not prevent MDMA-induced hyperthermia, glial activation, and DA terminal loss in animals treated with the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251, neither in CB1 and CB1/CB2 knockout mice. On the other hand, THC prevented MDMA-induced hyperthermia and DA terminal loss, but only partially suppressed glial activation in animals treated with the CB2 cannabinoid antagonist and in CB2 knockout animals. Our results indicate that THC protects against MDMA neurotoxicity, and suggest that these neuroprotective actions are primarily mediated by the reduction of hyperthermia through the activation of CB1 receptor, although CB2 receptors may also contribute to attenuate neuroinflammation in this

  17. Role of Dopamine Type 1 Receptors and Dopamine- and cAMP-Regulated Phosphoprotein Mr 32 kDa in Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-Mediated Induction of ΔFosB in the Mouse Forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lazenka, Matthew F; Tomarchio, Aaron J; Lichtman, Aron H; Greengard, Paul; Flajolet, Marc; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J

    2015-09-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of marijuana, produces motor and motivational effects via interactions with the dopaminergic system in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. However, the molecular events that underlie these interactions after THC treatment are not well understood. Our study shows that pretreatment with dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonists before repeated administration of THC attenuated induction of Δ FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (ΔFosB) in the nucleus accumbens, caudate-putamen, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex. Anatomical studies showed that repeated THC administration induced ΔFosB in D1R-containing striatal neurons. Dopamine signaling in the striatum involves phosphorylation-specific effects of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which regulates protein kinase A signaling. Genetic deletion of DARPP-32 attenuated ΔFosB expression measured after acute, but not repeated, THC administration in both the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. THC was then acutely or repeatedly administered to wild-type (WT) and DARPP-32 knockout (KO) mice, and in vivo responses were measured. DARPP-32 KO mice exhibited enhanced acute THC-mediated hypolocomotion and developed greater tolerance to this response relative to the WT mice. Agonist-stimulated guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) binding showed that cannabinoid-stimulated G-protein activity did not differ between DARPP-32 KO and WT mice treated with vehicle or repeated THC. These results indicate that D1Rs play a major role in THC-mediated ΔFosB induction in the forebrain, whereas the role of DARPP-32 in THC-mediated ΔFosB induction and modulation of motor activity appears to be more complex. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Impaired NFAT and NFκB activation are involved in suppression of CD40 ligand expression by Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol in human CD4{sup +} T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University; Kaplan, Barbara L.F.

    We have previously reported that Δ{sup 9}-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ{sup 9}-THC), the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, suppresses CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression by activated mouse CD4{sup +} T cells. CD40L is involved in pathogenesis of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of Δ{sup 9}-THC-mediated suppression of CD40L expression using peripheral blood human T cells. Pretreatment with Δ{sup 9}-THC attenuated CD40L expression in human CD4{sup +} T cells activated by anti-CD3/CD28 at both the protein and mRNA level, as determined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that Δ{supmore » 9}-THC suppressed the DNA-binding activity of both NFAT and NFκB to their respective response elements within the CD40L promoter. An assessment of the effect of Δ{sup 9}-THC on proximal T cell-receptor (TCR) signaling induced by anti-CD3/CD28 showed significant impairment in the rise of intracellular calcium, but no significant effect on the phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β. Collectively, these findings identify perturbation of the calcium-NFAT and NFκB signaling cascade as a key mechanistic event by which Δ{sup 9}-THC suppresses human T cell function. - Highlights: • Δ{sup 9}-THC attenuated CD40L expression in activated human CD4+ T cells. • Δ{sup 9}-THC suppressed DNA-binding activity of NFAT and NFκB. • Δ{sup 9}-THC impaired elevation of intracellular Ca2+. • Δ{sup 9}-THC did not affect phosphorylation of ZAP70, PLCγ1/2, Akt, and GSK3β.« less

  19. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    PubMed

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence. Copyright © 2016 Springer. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. THC/CBD oromucosal spray in patients with multiple sclerosis overactive bladder: a pilot prospective study.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Aponte, R; Bruzzese, D; Guarcello, G; Manzo, V; Napolitano, M; Moreggia, O; Chiariello, F; Florio, C

    2018-01-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunctions (LUTDs) are commonly reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and are mainly related to neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). The aim of this observational study was to assess the effect of a tetrahydrocannabinol-cannabidiol (THC/CBD) oromucosal spray on resistant OAB by means of clinical and instrumental tools. Twenty-one MS patients were screened, and 15 cases have been evaluated. They underwent a specific clinical assessment (overactive bladder symptom score, OABSS) and a urodynamic assessment evaluating the maximal cystometric capacity (CCmax), bladder compliance (Qmax), maximum detrusor pressure (Pdet max), detrusor pressure at the first desire (Pdet first), bladder volume at the first desire (BVFD), leakage volume (LV), and post-void residual volume (PVR), before and after 4 weeks of THC/CBD administration. A complete neurological evaluation, including the assessment of their spasticity using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and the spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS), was performed at the same times. Mobility was evaluated through the 25-ft walking-time test (T25-WT). The THC/CBD treatment successfully reduced the OAB symptoms (p = 0.001). Regarding the urodynamic findings after the end of treatment, PVR was significantly reduced (p = 0.016). Regarding the urodynamic findings after the end of treatment, PVR was significantly reduced (p = 0.016), while BVFD and CCmax were increased although the difference was not statistically significant. THC/CBD oromucosal spray has shown to be effective in improving overactive bladder symptoms in MS patients demonstrating a favorable impact on detrusor overactivity.

  1. Drift-Scale THC Seepage Model

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Bryan

    The purpose of this report (REV04) is to document the thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) seepage model, which simulates the composition of waters that could potentially seep into emplacement drifts, and the composition of the gas phase. The THC seepage model is processed and abstracted for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA). This report has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Coupled Processes (Mountain-Scale TH/THC/THM, Drift-Scale THC Seepage, and Post-Processing Analysis for THC Seepage) Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172761]). The technical work plan (TWP) describes planning information pertainingmore » to the technical scope, content, and management of this report. The plan for validation of the models documented in this report is given in Section 2.2.2, ''Model Validation for the DS THC Seepage Model,'' of the TWP. The TWP (Section 3.2.2) identifies Acceptance Criteria 1 to 4 for ''Quantity and Chemistry of Water Contacting Engineered Barriers and Waste Forms'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) as being applicable to this report; however, in variance to the TWP, Acceptance Criterion 5 has also been determined to be applicable, and is addressed, along with the other Acceptance Criteria, in Section 4.2 of this report. Also, three FEPS not listed in the TWP (2.2.10.01.0A, 2.2.10.06.0A, and 2.2.11.02.0A) are partially addressed in this report, and have been added to the list of excluded FEPS in Table 6.1-2. This report has been developed in accordance with LP-SIII.10Q-BSC, ''Models''. This report documents the THC seepage model and a derivative used for validation, the Drift Scale Test (DST) THC submodel. The THC seepage model is a drift-scale process model for predicting the composition of gas and water that could enter waste emplacement drifts and the effects of mineral alteration on flow in rocks surrounding drifts. The DST THC submodel uses a drift

  2. 40 CFR 1065.660 - THC and NMHC determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false THC and NMHC determination. 1065.660... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.660 THC and NMHC determination. (a) THC determination and THC/CH 4 initial contamination corrections. (1) If we require you to...

  3. Simultaneous Inhibition of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase and Monoacylglycerol Lipase Shares Discriminative Stimulus Effects with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hruba, Lenka; Seillier, Alexandre; Zaki, Armia; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors exert preclinical effects indicative of therapeutic potential (i.e., analgesia). However, the extent to which MAGL and FAAH inhibitors produce unwanted effects remains unclear. Here, FAAH and MAGL inhibition was examined separately and together in a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC; 5.6 mg/kg i.p.) discrimination assay predictive of subjective effects associated with cannabis use, and the relative contribution of N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen to those effects was examined. Δ9-THC dose-dependently increased Δ9-THC appropriate responses (ED50 value = 2.8 mg/kg), whereas the FAAH inhibitors PF-3845 [N-3-pyridinyl-4-[[3-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-1-piperidinecarboxamide] and URB597 [(3′-​(aminocarbonyl)[1,​1′-​biphenyl]-​3-​yl)-​cyclohexylcarbamate] or a MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-​nitrophenyl-​4-​(dibenzo[d][1,​3]dioxol-​5-​yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-​1-​carboxylate] alone did not substitute for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus. The nonselective FAAH/MAGL inhibitors SA-57 [4-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1-piperidinecarboxylic acid 2-(methylamino)-2-oxoethyl ester] and JZL195 [4-​nitrophenyl 4-​(3-​phenoxybenzyl)piperazine-​1-​carboxylate] fully substituted for Δ9-THC with ED50 values equal to 2.4 and 17 mg/kg, respectively. Full substitution for Δ9-THC was also produced by a combination of JZL184 and PF-3845, but not by a combination of JZL184 and URB597 (i.e., 52% maximum). Cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist rimonabant attenuated the discriminative stimulus effects of Δ9-THC, SA-57, JZL195, and the combined effects of JZL184 and PF-3845. Full substitution for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus occurred only when both 2-AG and AEA were significantly elevated, and the patterns of increased endocannabinoid content were

  4. Adolescent Female Cannabinoid Exposure Diminishes the Reward-Facilitating Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and d-Amphetamine in the Adult Male Offspring.

    PubMed

    Pitsilis, George; Spyridakos, Dimitrios; Nomikos, George G; Panagis, George

    2017-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most commonly abused illicit drug. According to recent studies, cannabinoid use occurring prior to pregnancy can impact brain plasticity and behavior in future generations. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether adolescent exposure of female rats to Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) induces transgenerational effects on the reward-facilitating effects of Δ 9 -THC and d -amphetamine in their adult male offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received Δ 9 -THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle during postnatal days 28-50. As adults, females were mated with drug-naïve males. We then assessed potential alterations of the Δ 9 -THC's (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and d -amphetamine's (0, 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) reward-modifying effects using the curve-shift variant of the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure in their adult male F1 offspring. The reward-facilitating effect of the 0.1 mg dose of Δ 9 -THC was abolished in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ 9 -THC (0.1 or 1 mg/kg), whereas the reward-attenuating effect of the 1 mg dose of Δ 9 -THC remained unaltered. The reward-facilitating effects of 0.5 and 1 mg of d -amphetamine were significantly decreased in the F1 offspring of females that were exposed to Δ 9 -THC (1 mg/kg and 0.1 or 1 mg, respectively). The present results reveal that female Δ 9 -THC exposure during adolescence can diminish the reward-facilitating effects of Δ 9 -THC and d -amphetamine in the adult male offspring. These transgenerational effects occur in the absence of in utero exposure. It is speculated that Δ 9 -THC exposure during female adolescence may affect neural mechanisms that are shaping reward-related behavioral responses in a subsequent generation, as indicated by the shifts in the reward-facilitating effects of commonly used and abused drugs.

  5. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase: The application of a plant secondary metabolite enzyme in biocatalytic chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kerstin; Schmid, Andreas; Julsing, Mattijs K

    2016-09-10

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) from the secondary metabolism of Cannabis sativa L. catalyzes the oxidative formation of an intramolecular CC bond in cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) to synthesize Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which is the direct precursor of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Aiming on a biotechnological production of cannabinoids, we investigated the potential of the heterologously produced plant oxidase in a cell-free system on preparative scale. THCAS was characterized in an aqueous/organic two-liquid phase setup in order to solubilize the hydrophobic substrate and to allow in situ product removal. Compared to the single phase aqueous setup the specific activity decreased by a factor of approximately 2 pointing to a substrate limitation of CBGA in the two-liquid phase system. However, the specific activity remained stable for at least 3h illustrating the benefit of the two-liquid phase setup. In a repeated-batch setup, THCAS showed only a minor loss of specific activity in the third batch pointing to a high intrinsic stability and high solvent tolerance of the enzyme. Maximal space-time-yields of 0.121gL(-1)h(-1) were reached proving the two-liquid phase concept suitable for biotechnological production of cannabinoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Separate and combined effects of gabapentin and Δ9-THC in humans discriminating Δ9-THC

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Wesley, Michael J.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Hays, Lon R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine a potential mechanism of action of gabapentin to manage cannabis-use disorders by determining the interoceptive effects of gabapentin in cannabis users discriminating Δ9-THC using a pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedure. Eight cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ9-THC from placebo and then received gabapentin (600 and 1200 mg), Δ9-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Δ9-THC served as a discriminative stimulus, produced positive subjective effects, elevated heart rate and impaired psychomotor performance. Both doses of gabapentin substituted for the Δ9-THC discriminative stimulus and engendered subjective and performance-impairing effects that overlapped with those of Δ9-THC when administered alone. When administered concurrently, gabapentin shifted the discriminative-stimulus effects of Δ9-THC leftward/upward, and combinations of Δ9-THC and gabapentin generally produced larger effects on cannabinoid-sensitive outcomes relative to Δ9-THC alone. These results suggest that one mechanism by which gabapentin might facilitate cannabis abstinence is by producing effects that overlap with those of cannabinoids. PMID:26313650

  7. Combined effects of THC and caffeine on working memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Panlilio, Leigh V; Ferré, Sergi; Yasar, Sevil; Thorndike, Eric B; Schindler, Charles W; Goldberg, Steven R

    2012-04-01

    Cannabis and caffeine are two of the most widely used psychoactive substances. Δ(9)