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Sample records for delta-opioid receptor endocytosis

  1. Structure of the [delta]-opioid receptor bound to naltrindole

    SciTech Connect

    Granier, Sébastien; Manglik, Aashish; Kruse, Andrew C.; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Thian, Foon Sun; Weis, William I.; Kobilka, Brian K.

    2012-07-11

    The opioid receptor family comprises three members, the {mu}-, {delta}- and {kappa}-opioid receptors, which respond to classical opioid alkaloids such as morphine and heroin as well as to endogenous peptide ligands like endorphins. They belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and are excellent therapeutic targets for pain control. The {delta}-opioid receptor ({delta}-OR) has a role in analgesia, as well as in other neurological functions that remain poorly understood. The structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR have recently been solved. Here we report the crystal structure of the mouse {delta}-OR, bound to the subtype-selective antagonist naltrindole. Together with the structures of the {mu}-OR and {kappa}-OR, the {delta}-OR structure provides insights into conserved elements of opioid ligand recognition while also revealing structural features associated with ligand-subtype selectivity. The binding pocket of opioid receptors can be divided into two distinct regions. Whereas the lower part of this pocket is highly conserved among opioid receptors, the upper part contains divergent residues that confer subtype selectivity. This provides a structural explanation and validation for the 'message-address' model of opioid receptor pharmacology, in which distinct 'message' (efficacy) and 'address' (selectivity) determinants are contained within a single ligand. Comparison of the address region of the {delta}-OR with other GPCRs reveals that this structural organization may be a more general phenomenon, extending to other GPCR families as well.

  2. Delta opioid receptor analgesia: recent contributions from pharmacology and molecular approaches

    PubMed Central

    Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte Lina

    2012-01-01

    Delta opioid receptors represent a promising target for the development of novel analgesics. A number of tools have been developed recently that have significantly improved our knowledge of delta receptor function in pain control. These include several novel delta agonists with potent analgesic properties, as well as genetic mouse models with targeted mutations in the delta opioid receptor gene. Also, recent findings have further documented the regulation of delta receptor function at cellular level, which impacts on the pain-reducing activity of the receptor. These regulatory mechanisms occur at transcriptional and post-translational levels, along agonist-induced receptor activation, signaling and trafficking, or in interaction with other receptors and neuromodulatory systems. All these tools for in vivo research, as well as proposed mechanisms at molecular level, have tremendously increased our understanding of delta receptor physiology, and contribute to designing innovative strategies for the treatment of chronic pain and other diseases such as mood disorders. PMID:21836459

  3. Activation of delta-opioid receptor contributes to the antinociceptive effect of oxycodone in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pao-Pao; Yeh, Geng-Chang; Yeh, Teng-Kuang; Xi, Jinghua; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee; Tao, Pao-Luh

    2016-09-01

    Oxycodone has been used clinically for over 90 years. While it is known that it exhibits low affinity for the multiple opioid receptors, whether its pharmacological activities are due to oxycodone activation of the opioid receptor type or due to its active metabolite (oxymorphone) that exhibits high affinity for the mu-opioid receptors remains unresolved. Ross and Smith (1997) reported the antinociceptive effects of oxycodone (171nmol, i.c.v.) are induced by putative kappa-opioid receptors in SD rat while others have reported oxycodone activities are due to activation of mu- and/or delta-opioid receptors. In this study, using male mu-opioid receptor knock-out (MOR-KO) mice, we examined whether delta-opioid receptor was involved in oxycodone antinociception. Systemic subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of oxycodone (above 40mg/kg) could induce a small but significant antinociceptive effect in MOR-KO mice by the tail flick test. Delta-opioid receptor antagonist (naltrindole, 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg, i.p.) could block this effect. When oxycodone was injected directly into the brain of MOR-KO mice by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route, oxycodone at doses of 50nmol or higher could induce similar level of antinociceptive responses to those observed in wild type mice at the same doses by i.c.v. Delta-opioid receptor antagonists (naltrindole at 10nmol or ICI 154,129 at 20μg) completely blocked the supraspinal antinociceptive effect of oxycodone in MOR-KO mice. Such oxycodone antinociceptive responses were probably not due to its active metabolites oxymorphone because (a) the relative low level of oxymorphone was found in the brain after systemically or centrally oxycodone injection using LC/MS/MS analysis; (b) oxymorphone at a dose that mimics the level detected in the mice brain did not show any significant antinocieption effect; (c) oxycodone exhibits equal potency as oxymorphone albeit being a partial agonist in regulating [Ca(2+)]I transients in a clonal cell line

  4. Agonist-Specific Recruitment of Arrestin Isoforms Differentially Modify Delta Opioid Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    Perroy, Julie; Walwyn, Wendy M.; Smith, Monique L.; Vicente-Sanchez, Ana; Segura, Laura; Bana, Alia; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Ligand-specific recruitment of arrestins facilitates functional selectivity of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Here, we describe agonist-selective recruitment of different arrestin isoforms to the delta opioid receptor in mice. A high-internalizing delta opioid receptor agonist (SNC80) preferentially recruited arrestin 2 and, in arrestin 2 knock-outs (KOs), we observed a significant increase in the potency of SNC80 to inhibit mechanical hyperalgesia and decreased acute tolerance. In contrast, the low-internalizing delta agonists (ARM390, JNJ20788560) preferentially recruited arrestin 3 with unaltered behavioral effects in arrestin 2 KOs. Surprisingly, arrestin 3 KO revealed an acute tolerance to these low-internalizing agonists, an effect never observed in wild-type animals. Furthermore, we examined delta opioid receptor–Ca2+ channel coupling in dorsal root ganglia desensitized by ARM390 and the rate of resensitization was correspondingly decreased in arrestin 3 KOs. Live-cell imaging in HEK293 cells revealed that delta opioid receptors are in pre-engaged complexes with arrestin 3 at the cell membrane and that ARM390 strengthens this membrane interaction. The disruption of these complexes in arrestin 3 KOs likely accounts for the altered responses to low-internalizing agonists. Together, our results show agonist-selective recruitment of arrestin isoforms and reveal a novel endogenous role of arrestin 3 as a facilitator of resensitization and an inhibitor of tolerance mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agonists that bind to the same receptor can produce highly distinct signaling events and arrestins are a major mediator of this ligand bias. Here, we demonstrate that delta opioid receptor agonists differentially recruit arrestin isoforms. We found that the high-internalizing agonist SNC80 preferentially recruits arrestin 2 and knock-out (KO) of this protein results in increased efficacy of SNC80. In contrast, low-internalizing agonists (ARM390 and JNJ20788560

  5. Knockin mice expressing fluorescent delta-opioid receptors uncover G protein-coupled receptor dynamics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Grégory; Tryoen-Tóth, Petra; Filliol, Dominique; Matifas, Audrey; Laustriat, Delphine; Cao, Yu Q; Basbaum, Allan I; Dierich, Andrée; Vonesh, Jean-Luc; Gavériaux-Ruff, Claire; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2006-06-20

    The combination of fluorescent genetically encoded proteins with mouse engineering provides a fascinating means to study dynamic biological processes in mammals. At present, green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were mainly developed to study gene expression patterns or cell morphology and migration. Here we used enhanced GFP (EGFP) to achieve functional imaging of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) in vivo. We created mice where the delta-opioid receptor (DOR) is replaced by an active DOR-EGFP fusion. Confocal imaging revealed detailed receptor neuroanatomy throughout the nervous system of knock-in mice. Real-time imaging in primary neurons allowed dynamic visualization of drug-induced receptor trafficking. In DOR-EGFP animals, drug treatment triggered receptor endocytosis that correlated with the behavioral response. Mice with internalized receptors were insensitive to subsequent agonist administration, providing evidence that receptor sequestration limits drug efficacy in vivo. Direct receptor visualization in mice is a unique approach to receptor biology and drug design. PMID:16766653

  6. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C; Mennicken, Françoise; O'Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Woodbury, C Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I; MacDermott, Amy B; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-03-19

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  7. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

    PubMed Central

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A.; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C.; Mennicken, Françoise; O’Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Woodbury, C. Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I.; MacDermott, Amy B.; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  8. Delta opioid receptor ligands modulate anxiety-like behaviors in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A; Hoshaw, Brian A; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2006-01-01

    The role of the delta opioid receptor in regulating anxiety-like behavior in male Sprague–Dawley rats was examined. Using an elevated plus maze, the effects of the selective delta opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (1 or 5 mg kg−1) and agonist SNC80 (1, 5 or 20 mg kg−1) on anxiety-like behavior were measured. Anxiety was also measured following administration of diazepam (3 mg kg−1) and amphetamine (1 mg kg−1) and compared to the effects of SNC80. Locomotor activity following administration of naltrindole, SNC80, diazepam, and amphetamine was measured. Finally, the defensive burying paradigm was used to confirm the findings from the elevated plus maze. Results demonstrated that SNC80 produced dose-dependent anxiolytic effects similar to that of the classical antianxiety agent, diazepam. Administration of naltrindole caused anxiogenic behavior in rats further supporting the involvement of the delta opioid receptor system in regulating anxiety. Naltrindole also blocked the anxiolytic effects of SNC80. Amphetamine had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. SNC80 induced hyperactivity similar to amphetamine at the doses tested, while naltrindole and diazepam did not significantly affect locomotor activity. Although SNC80 can increase locomotor activity, control experiments reported herein indicate that hyperlocomotion is not sufficient to produce an anxiolytic response on the elevated plus maze. Together with the results from the defensive burying paradigm, this suggests that the effects of SNC80 on reducing anxiety are independent of its effects on locomotion. Collectively these data show that the delta opioid receptor system can regulate anxiety-like behavior in an anxiolytic (agonist) and anxiogenic (antagonist) manner. PMID:16491101

  9. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  10. GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity.

    PubMed

    Brackley, Allison Doyle; Gomez, Ruben; Akopian, Armen N; Henry, Michael A; Jeske, Nathaniel A

    2016-09-01

    Opioids remain the standard for analgesic care; however, adverse effects of systemic treatments contraindicate long-term administration. While most clinical opioids target mu opioid receptors (MOR), those that target the delta class (DOR) also demonstrate analgesic efficacy. Furthermore, peripherally restrictive opioids represent an attractive direction for analgesia. However, opioid receptors including DOR are analgesically incompetent in the absence of inflammation. Here, we report that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) naively associates with plasma membrane DOR in peripheral sensory neurons to inhibit analgesic agonist efficacy. This interaction prevents optimal Gβ subunit association with the receptor, thereby reducing DOR activity. Importantly, bradykinin stimulates GRK2 movement away from DOR and onto Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP). protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent RKIP phosphorylation induces GRK2 sequestration, restoring DOR functionality in sensory neurons. Together, these results expand the known function of GRK2, identifying a non-internalizing role to maintain peripheral DOR in an analgesically incompetent state. PMID:27568556

  11. The pharmacological profile of delta opioid receptor ligands, (+) and (-) TAN-67 on pain modulation.

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Yajima, Y; Fujii, H; Kawamura, K; Narita, M; Kamei, J; Suzuki, T

    2001-04-01

    We designed the nonpeptidic highly selective delta opioid receptor agonist on the basis of message address concept and the accessory site theory and synthesized (+/-) TAN-67. In spite of highly potent agonistic activity in in vitro assay, (+/-) TAN-67 (racemate) afforded a weak antinociceptive effect in the mouse tail-flick test. This result led us to separate (+/-) TAN-67 to optical pure compounds, (+) and (-) TAN-67. An i.t.-treatment with (-) TAN-67 produced profound antinociceptive effects through specifically acting on delta1 receptors. Unlike (-) TAN-67, i.t.-administered (+) TAN-67 displayed dose-related nociceptive behaviors such as scratching, biting and licking. The effect of (+) TAN-67 was blocked by i.t.-treatment with NTI (delta receptor antagonist) and (-) TAN-67 (delta1 receptor agonist), but not by morphine (mu receptor agonist). The mechanisms involved in spinal pain modulation induced by (+) and (-) TAN-67 were also described. PMID:11358331

  12. Immunohistochemical observations of methionine-enkephalin and delta opioid receptor in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Sha, Ailong; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan

    2013-02-01

    The study was designed to determine whether methionine-enkephalin (met-Enk) or delta opioid receptor was present in the digestive system of Octopus ocellatus. The results showed that they were both in the bulbus oris, esophagus, crop, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, posterior salivary glands of O. ocellatus, one of them, met-Enk in the rectum, anterior salivary glands, digestive gland. And the distributions were extensive in the digestive system. Strong or general met-Enk immunoreactivity was observed in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, stomach, gastric cecum, intestine, anterior salivary glands and the adventitia of the intestine and rectum, and so was the delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in the inner epithelial cells of the bulbus oris, esophagus, and crop, however, they were weak in other parts. Combining with delta opioid receptor, met-Enk may be involved in the regulations of food intake, absorption, movement of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and secretion of digestive gland. The different densities of met-Enk and delta opioid receptor may be related to the different functions in the digestive system of O. ocellatus.

  13. Delta-opioid receptor blockade in the ventral pallidum increases perceived palatability and consumption of saccharin solution in rats.

    PubMed

    Inui, Tadashi; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

    2014-08-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is involved in ingestive behaviour. It receives dense GABAergic projections from the nucleus accumbens. GABAergic terminals in the VP co-express enkephalin, an endogenous ligand of delta-opioid receptors. The role of the delta-opioid receptors in the VP in the context of ingestive behaviour remains unclear, in contrast to the well-understood involvement of the mu-opioid receptors. We used the single-bottle test to examine the effects of VP microinjections of the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole on consumption of a saccharin solution. Naltrindole injections significantly increased the intake of saccharin, but not water, during a 2-h test session. We also investigated perceived palatability of saccharin using a taste reactivity test. The drug treatments increased ingestive responses to intraorally infused saccharin. Further experimentation explored the role of VP delta-opioid receptors in behavioural responses to saccharin that were previously paired with malaise upon the retrieval of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Naltrindole-injected rats exhibited longer latency for the first occurrence of aversive responses than vehicle-injected control rats. However, there was no between-group difference in total aversive responses. These results suggest that naltrindole injections into the VP induce an enhancement of perceived palatability of a normally preferred saccharin solution, and thereby facilitate consumption of the solution. On the other hand, delayed aversive responses to the conditioned aversive saccharin suggest that the delta-opioid receptors in the VP mediate the initiation of aversive taste reactivity responses to the conditioned stimulus upon CTA retrieval.

  14. Potent cyclic enkephalin analogues for delta opioid receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, G.; Kao, J.; Hruby, V.; Morelli, M.; Gulya, K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1986-03-01

    (/sup 3/H) (D-Pen/sup 2/,D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DPDPE) and (/sup 3/H) (D-Pen/sup 2/, L-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin ((/sup 3/H)DPLPE) characterization studies showed high affinity binding of these radioligands to rat brain membranes with dissociation constants of 1.8 and 1.0 nM, respectively, while a similar number of receptor density was found with both radiolabeled ligands (77 fmoles/mg protein). Unlabeled DPDPE inhibited both radioligands with high affinity (IC50 = 7 nM0 while morphine (IC50 = 80 nM), DAGO (IC50 = 250 nM) and PLO17 (no inhibition at 1000 nM) were less effective in inhibiting the binding, thus, illustrating the selective action of these radiolabeled ligands at the delta opioid receptor. A series of conformationally restricted D-penicillamine containing cyclic enkephalin analogues were synthesized using standard solid phase methods and their ability to inhibit (/sup 3/H)DPDPE and (/sup 3/H)DPLPE were examined in rat brain radioreceptor assays. Substitutions in the DPDPE molecule were made in phe/sup 4/. These substitutions were pNO/sub 2/-phe/sup 4/, beta-methyl-phe/sup 4/, pNO/sub 2/-beta-methyl-phe/sub 4/, pNO/sub 2/-beta-methyl-phe/sup 4/ (three isomeric forms: A,B,D). The IC50 values for the above enkephalin analogues were 3.7, 16, 7, 7, 200 nM, respectively. Thus, these potent analogues of DPDPE should be useful in determining the structure activity relationships of the delta opioid receptor in rat brain.

  15. Impact of chronic morphine on delta opioid receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Erbs, E; Faget, L; Ceredig, R A; Matifas, A; Vonesch, J-L; Kieffer, B L; Massotte, D

    2016-01-28

    Delta opioid (DOP) receptors participate to the control of chronic pain and emotional responses. Recent data also identified their implication in spatial memory and drug-context associations pointing to a critical role of hippocampal delta receptors. To better appreciate the impact of repeated drug exposure on their modulatory activity, we used fluorescent knock-in mice that express a functional delta receptor fused at its carboxy-terminus with the green fluorescent protein in place of the native receptor. We then tested the impact of chronic morphine treatment on the density and distribution of delta receptor-expressing cells in the hippocampus. A decrease in delta receptor-positive cell density was observed in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus without alteration of the distribution across the different GABAergic populations that mainly express delta receptors. This effect partly persisted after four weeks of morphine abstinence. In addition, we observed increased DOP receptor expression at the cell surface compared to saline-treated animals. In the hippocampus, chronic morphine administration thus induces DOP receptor cellular redistribution and durably decreases delta receptor-expressing cell density. Such modifications are likely to alter hippocampal physiology, and to contribute to long-term cognitive deficits.

  16. Repeated activation of delta opioid receptors counteracts nerve injury-induced TNF-α up-regulation in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Vicario, Nunzio; Parenti, Rosalba; Aricò, Giuseppina; Turnaturi, Rita; Scoto, Giovanna Maria; Chiechio, Santina

    2016-01-01

    Despite mu opioid receptor agonists are the cornerstones of moderate-to-severe acute pain treatment, their effectiveness in chronic pain conditions is controversial. In contrast to mu opioid receptor agonists, a number of studies have reported the effectiveness of delta opioid receptor agonists on neuropathic pain strengthening the idea that delta opioid receptors gain importance when chronic pain develops. Among other effects, it has been shown that delta opioid receptor activation in optic nerve astrocytes inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation in response to severe hypoxia. Considering the involvement of tumor necrosis factor-α in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, with this study we sought to correlate the effect of delta opioid receptor agonist on the development of mechanical allodynia to tumor necrosis factor-α expression at the site of nerve injury in rats subjected to chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. To this aim, we measured the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain after repeated injections with a delta opioid receptor agonist. Results obtained demonstrated that repeated administrations of the delta opioid receptor agonist SNC80 (10 mg/kg, i.p. for seven consecutive days) significantly inhibited the development of mechanical allodynia in rats with neuropathic pain and that the improvement of neuropathic symptom was timely related to the reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α in the rat sciatic nerve. We demonstrated also that when treatment with the delta opioid receptor agonist was suspended both allodynia and tumor necrosis factor-α up-regulation in the sciatic nerve of rats with neuropathic pain were restored. These results show that persistent delta opioid receptor activation significantly attenuates neuropathic pain and negatively regulates sciatic nerve tumor necrosis factor-α expression in chronic constriction injury rats. PMID:27590071

  17. Induction of delta-opioid receptor function in the midbrain after chronic morphine treatment.

    PubMed

    Hack, Stephen P; Bagley, Elena E; Chieng, Billy C H; Christie, MacDonald J

    2005-03-23

    Delta-opioid receptor (DOPr) activation fails to produce cellular physiological responses in many brain regions, including the periaqueductal gray (PAG), despite neural expression of high densities of the receptor. Previous histochemical studies have demonstrated that a variety of stimuli, including chronic morphine treatment, induce the translocation of DOPr from intracellular pools to the surface membrane of CNS neurons. PAG neurons in slices taken from untreated mice exhibited mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) but not DOPr-mediated presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic synaptic currents. In contrast, after 5-6 d of chronic morphine treatment, DOPr stimulation inhibited synaptic GABA release onto most neurons. Shorter exposure to morphine in vitro (upto 4 h) or in vivo (18 h) did not induce functional DOPr responses. DOPr-mediated presynaptic inhibition could not be induced in slices from untreated animals by increasing synaptic activity in vitro using high extracellular potassium concentrations or activation of protein kinase A. Induction of functional DOPr signaling by chronic morphine required MOPr expression, because no DOPr receptor responses were observed in MOPr knock-out mice. DOPr agonists also had no effect on miniature IPSCs in beta-arrestin-2 knock-out mice after chronic morphine. These results suggest that induction of DOPr-mediated actions in PAG by chronic morphine requires prolonged MOPr stimulation and expression of beta-arrestin-2.

  18. Protecting motor networks during perinatal ischemia: the case for delta opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stephen M.; Freiberg, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal ischemia is a common clinical problem with few successful therapies to prevent neuronal damage. Delta-opioid receptor (DOR) activation is a versatile, evolutionarily-conserved, endogenous neuroprotective mechanism that blocks several steps in the deleterious cascade of neurological events during ischemia. DOR activation prior to ischemia or severe hypoxia is neuroprotective in spinal motor networks, as well as cortical, cerebellar, and hippocampal neural networks. In addition to providing acute and long-lasting neuroprotection against ischemia, DOR activation appears to provide neuroprotection when given before, during, or following the onset of ischemia. Finally, DORs can be upregulated by several physiological and experimental perturbations. Potential adverse side effects affecting motor control, such as respiratory depression and seizures, are not well established in young mammals and may be mitigated by altering drug choice and method of drug administration. The unique features of DOR-dependent neuroprotection make it an attractive potential therapy that may be given to at-risk pregnant mothers shortly before delivery to provide long-lasting neuroprotection against unpredictable perinatal ischemic events. PMID:20536941

  19. Cocaine withdrawal-induced trafficking of delta-opioid receptors in rat nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa M; Peiris, Niluk B; Unterwald, Ellen M; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2008-05-19

    Interactions between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems in the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) play a critical role in mediating cocaine withdrawal-induced effects on cell signaling and behavior. In support of this, increased activation of striatal dopamine-D1 receptors (D1R) results in desensitization of delta-opioid receptor (DOR) signaling through adenylyl cyclase during early cocaine withdrawal. A potential cellular substrate underlying receptor desensitization is receptor internalization. The present study examined the effect of cocaine withdrawal on subcellular localization of DOR in dendrites of the NAcb core (NAcbC) and shell (NAcbS) using immunoelectron microscopy. Female and male rats received binge-pattern cocaine or saline for 14 days and subsequently underwent 48 h withdrawal. Animals were transcardially perfused and tissue sections were processed for immunogold-silver localization of DOR. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that cocaine withdrawal caused an increase in the percentage of DOR localized intracellularly in the NAcbS of male and female rats and the NAcbC of male rats compared to saline controls. In contrast, in the NAcbC of female rats, there was an increase in DOR associated with the plasma membrane following cocaine withdrawal. To determine whether modulation of D1R could directly impact DOR containing neurons, the hypothesis that DOR and D1R co-exist in common neurons of the NAcb was examined in naïve rats. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed a subset of profiles containing both DOR and D1R immunoreactivities. The present findings demonstrate a redistribution of DOR in the NAcb following cocaine withdrawal and provide anatomical evidence supporting D1R regulation of DOR function in a subset of NAcb neurons. PMID:18417105

  20. Role of Mu and Delta Opioid Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens in Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Diana; Self, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that opioid receptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but not the nucleus accumbens (NAc), play a role in relapse to drug-seeking behavior. However, environmental stimuli that elicit relapse also release the endogenous opioid β-endorphin in the NAc. Using a within–session extinction/reinstatement paradigm in rats that self-administer cocaine, we found that NAc infusions of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO moderately reinstated responding on the cocaine-paired lever at low doses (1.0–3.0 ng/side), whereas the delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonist DPDPE induced greater responding at higher doses (300–3000 ng/side) that also enhanced inactive lever responding. Using doses of either agonist that induced responding on only the cocaine-paired lever, we found that DAMGO-induced responding was blocked selectively by pretreatment with the MOR antagonist CTAP, while DPDPE-induced responding was selectively blocked by the DOR antagonist naltrindole. Cocaine-primed reinstatement was blocked by intra-NAc CTAP but not naltrindole, indicating a role for endogenous MOR-acting peptides in cocaine-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. In this regard, intra-NAc infusions of β-endorphin (100–1000 ng/side) induced marked cocaine-seeking behavior, an effect blocked by intra-NAc pretreatment with the MOR but not DOR antagonist. Conversely, cocaine seeking elicited by the enkephalinase inhibitor thiorphan (1–10 μg/side) was blocked by naltrindole but not CTAP. MOR stimulation in more dorsal caudate-putamen sites was ineffective, while DPDPE infusions induced cocaine seeking. Together, these findings establish distinct roles for MOR and DOR in cocaine relapse, and suggest that NAc MOR could be an important therapeutic target to neutralize the effects of endogenous β-endorphin release on cocaine relapse. PMID:19279569

  1. Potent delta-opioid receptor agonists containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2002-12-01

    Conversion of delta-opioid receptor antagonists containing the 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (Tic) pharmacophore into potent delta-agonists required a third heteroaromatic nucleus, such as 1H-benzimidazole-2-yl (Bid) and a linker of specified length both located C-terminally to Tic in the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R'. The distance between Tic and Bid is a determining factor responsible for the acquisition of delta agonism (2, 2', 3, 4, 6) or delta antagonism (8). Compounds containing a C-terminal Ala (1, 1'), Asp (5), or Asn (7) with an amide (1, 1', 5) or free acid group (7) served as delta-antagonist controls lacking the third heteroaromatic ring. A change in chirality of the spacer (2, 2') or inclusion of a negative charge via derivatives of Asp (4, 6) resulted in potent delta agonism and moderate mu agonism, although delta-receptor affinity decreased about 10-fold for 4 while mu affinity fell by over 2 orders of magnitude. Repositioning of the negative charge in the linker altered activity: H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(CH(2)-Bid)COOH (6) maintained high delta affinity (K(i) = 0.042 nM) and delta agonism (IC(50) = 0.015 nM), but attachment of the free acid group to Bid [H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid(CH(2)-COOH) (9)] reconstituted delta antagonism (K(e) = 0.27 nM). The data demonstrate that a linker separating the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore and Bid, regardless of the presence of a negative charge, is important in the acquisition of opioids exhibiting potent delta agonism and weak mu agonism from a parent delta antagonist.

  2. Delta opioid receptors colocalize with corticotropin releasing factor in hippocampal interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tanya J.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampal formation (HF) is an important site at which stress circuits and endogenous opioid systems intersect, likely playing a critical role in the interaction between stress and drug addiction. Prior study findings suggest that the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) may localize to similar neuronal populations within HF lamina. Here, hippocampal sections of male and cycling female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for immunolabeling using antisera directed against the DOR and CRF peptide, as well as interneuron subtype markers somatostatin or parvalbumin, and analyzed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Both DOR- and CRF-labeling was observed in interneurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate hilus. Males and normal cycling females displayed a similar number of CRF immunoreactive neurons co-labeled with DOR and a similar average number of CRF-labeled neurons in the dentate hilus and stratum oriens of CA1 and CA3. In addition, 70% of DOR/CRF dual-labeled neurons in the hilar region co-labeled with somatostatin, suggesting a role for these interneurons in regulating perforant path input to dentate granule cells. Ultrastructural analysis of CRF-labeled axon terminals within the hilar region revealed that proestrus females have a similar number of CRF-labeled axon terminals that contain DORs compared to males but an increased number of CRF-labeled axon terminals without DORs. Taken together, these findings suggest that while DORs are anatomically positioned to modulate CRF immunoreactive interneuron activity and CRF peptide release, their ability to exert such regulatory activity may be compromised in females when estrogen levels are high. PMID:21277946

  3. Dual efficacy of delta opioid receptor-selective ligands for ethanol drinking and anxiety.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Richard M; Brissett, Daniela I; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2010-10-01

    Alcoholism and anxiety disorders have a huge impact on society and afflict 17.6 million and 40 million people in the United States, respectively. A strong comorbidity exists between alcoholism and anxiety disorders. Indeed, alcohol withdrawal-induced anxiety is a primary contributing factor for relapse, and anxiolytics are a common adjuvant therapy prescribed for treatment-seeking alcoholics. It is thought that the use of alcohol to self-medicate and relieve anxiety contributes to the development of addiction. Treatment for anxiety disorders and alcoholism exist but are not universally effective. The delta opioid receptor (DOR) plays a role in both alcohol consumption and anxiety, making it a very interesting clinical target. Two pharmacologically distinct DORs have been described: DOR1 and DOR2. We find here that the relative specificity of DOR agonists for DOR1 or DOR2 can greatly affect the effects they exert on ethanol consumption and anxiety. The DOR1 agonist 2-methyl-4aα-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3,4,4a,5,12,12aα-octahydro-quinolino[2,3,30g]isoquinoline (TAN-67), although not effective in decreasing anxiety-like behavior in naive mice, has anxiolytic-like properties in ethanol-withdrawn mice. In contrast, a less subtype-selective agonist, (+)-4-[(αR)-α-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC80), while also reducing anxiety-like behavior, increases ethanol consumption. In addition, we found that the conical anxiolytic diazepam [DZ; 7-chloro-1-methyl-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2(1H)-one] is a less effective anxiolytic in ethanol-withdrawn mice than in naive mice. Together, our findings suggest that selective DOR agonists can decrease anxiety-like behavior and are more effective than diazepam at reducing ethanol consumption. We believe the dual efficacy of DOR1 agonists makes these receptors an interesting therapeutic target for treatment-seeking alcoholics.

  4. Hormonal regulation of delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tanya J.; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Chapleau, Jeanette D.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that women and men differ in relapse vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior during abstinence periods. As relapse is frequently triggered by exposure of the recovered addict to objects previously associated with drug use and the formation of these associations requires memory systems engaged by the hippocampal formation (HF), studies exploring ovarian hormone modulation of hippocampal function are warranted. Previous studies revealed that ovarian steroids alter endogenous opioid peptide levels and trafficking of mu opioid receptors in the HF, suggesting cooperative interaction between opioids and estrogens in modulating hippocampal excitability. However, whether ovarian steroids affect the levels or trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) in the HF is unknown. Here, hippocampal sections of adult male and normal cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for quantitative immunoperoxidase light microscopy and dual label fluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy using antisera directed against the DOR and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Consistent with previous studies in males, DOR-immunoreactivity (-ir) localized to select interneurons and principal cells in the female HF. In comparison to males, females, regardless of estrous cycle phase, show reduced DOR-ir in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and proestrus (high estrogen) females, in particular, display reduced DOR-ir in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Ultrastructural analysis of DOR-labeled profiles in CA1 revealed that while females generally show fewer DORs in the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, proestrus females, in particular, exhibit DOR internalization and trafficking towards the soma. Dual label studies revealed that DORs are found in NPY-labeled interneurons in the hilus, CA3, and CA1. While DOR colocalization frequency in NPY-labeled neuron somata was similar between animals in the hilus, proestrus females had fewer NPY-labeled neurons that

  5. Hormonal regulation of delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in interneurons and pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tanya J; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Chapleau, Jeanette D; Milner, Teresa A

    2011-02-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies indicate that women and men differ in relapse vulnerability to drug-seeking behavior during abstinence periods. As relapse is frequently triggered by exposure of the recovered addict to objects previously associated with drug use and the formation of these associations requires memory systems engaged by the hippocampal formation (HF), studies exploring ovarian hormone modulation of hippocampal function are warranted. Previous studies revealed that ovarian steroids alter endogenous opioid peptide levels and trafficking of mu opioid receptors in the HF, suggesting cooperative interaction between opioids and estrogens in modulating hippocampal excitability. However, whether ovarian steroids affect the levels or trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) in the HF is unknown. Here, hippocampal sections of adult male and normal cycling female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for quantitative immunoperoxidase light microscopy and dual label fluorescence or immunoelectron microscopy using antisera directed against the DOR and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Consistent with previous studies in males, DOR-immunoreactivity (-ir) localized to select interneurons and principal cells in the female HF. In comparison to males, females, regardless of estrous cycle phase, show reduced DOR-ir in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus and proestrus (high estrogen) females, in particular, display reduced DOR-ir in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Ultrastructural analysis of DOR-labeled profiles in CA1 revealed that while females generally show fewer DORs in the distal apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, proestrus females, in particular, exhibit DOR internalization and trafficking towards the soma. Dual label studies revealed that DORs are found in NPY-labeled interneurons in the hilus, CA3, and CA1. While DOR colocalization frequency in NPY-labeled neuron somata was similar between animals in the hilus, proestrus females had fewer NPY-labeled neurons that

  6. Synthesis and characterization of a dual kappa-delta opioid receptor agonist analgesic blocking cocaine reward behavior.

    PubMed

    Váradi, András; Marrone, Gina F; Eans, Shainnel O; Ganno, Michelle L; Subrath, Joan J; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Hunkele, Amanda; Pasternak, Gavril W; McLaughlin, Jay P; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-11-18

    3-Iodobenzoyl naltrexamine (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic belonging to the pharmacologically diverse 6β-amidoepoxymorphinan group of opioids. We present the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of five analogs of IBNtxA. The scaffold of IBNtxA was modified by removing the 14-hydroxy group, incorporating a 7,8 double bond and various N-17 alkyl substituents. The structural modifications resulted in analogs with picomolar affinities for opioid receptors. The lead compound (MP1104) was found to exhibit approximately 15-fold greater antinociceptive potency (ED50 = 0.33 mg/kg) compared with morphine, mediated through the activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite its kappa agonism, this lead derivative did not cause place aversion or preference in mice in a place-conditioning assay, even at doses 3 times the analgesic ED50. However, pretreatment with the lead compound prevented the reward behavior associated with cocaine in a conditioned place preference assay. Together, these results suggest the promise of dual acting kappa- and delta-opioid receptor agonists as analgesics and treatments for cocaine addiction.

  7. Selective and interactive down-regulation of mu- and delta-opioid receptors in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Baumhaker, Y; Gafni, M; Keren, O; Sarne, Y

    1993-08-01

    Human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells, which contain both mu- and delta-opioid receptors, were grown under conditions that provided a mu:delta ratio of 1.5:1. Both receptors were down-regulated after 72 hr of exposure to 100 nM etorphine. Selective down-regulation was demonstrated using selective opioid agonists; the mu agonist Tyr-D-Ala2-Gly-(Me)Phe4-Gly-ol down-regulated mu- but not delta-opioid receptors, whereas prolonged exposure to the selective delta agonist D-Pen2,D-Pen5-enkephalin resulted in delta- but not mu-opioid receptor down-regulation. Morphine, which binds mu- as well as delta-opioid receptors, down-regulated both receptor subtypes. NG108-15 cells, which contain delta receptors exclusively, were also tested. NG108-15 cells did not exhibit delta-opioid receptor down-regulation when exposed to morphine. The discrepancy between the effect of chronic morphine treatment on delta receptors in SK-N-SH cells and in NG108-15 cells raised the question of whether the coexistence of mu receptors in the former allowed morphine to down-regulate delta receptors. The role of mu-opioid receptors in morphine-induced delta receptor down-regulation was studied by using the irreversible mu antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. Pretreatment of SK-N-SH cells with beta-funaltrexamine prevented down-regulation of delta receptors in response to chronic exposure to morphine but did not affect down-regulation of delta receptors in response to D-Pen2,D-Pen5-enkephalin. The experimental data indicate that morphine-induced delta-opioid receptor down-regulation is dependent on the presence of functional mu receptors in the same cell.

  8. Design and synthesis of a metabolically stable and potent antitussive agent, a novel delta opioid receptor antagonist, TRK-851.

    PubMed

    Sakami, Satoshi; Kawai, Koji; Maeda, Masayuki; Aoki, Takumi; Fujii, Hideaki; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Nakao, Kaoru; Izumimoto, Naoki; Matsuura, Hirotoshi; Endo, Takashi; Ueno, Shinya; Natsume, Kazuto; Nagase, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    We have previously reported on antitussive effect of (5R,9R,13S,14S)-17-cyclopropylmethyl-6,7-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-5',6'-dihydro-3-methoxy-4'H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinolino[2',1':6,7]morphinan-14-ol(1b) methanesulfonate (TRK-850), a selective delta opioid receptor antagonist which markedly reduced the number of coughs in a rat cough model. We designed TRK-850 based on naltrindole (NTI), a typical delta opioid receptor antagonist, to improve its permeability through the blood-brain barrier by introducing hydrophobic moieties to NTI. The ED(50) values of NTI and compound 1b by intraperitoneal injections were 104 microg/kg and 2.07 microg/kg, respectively. This increased antitussive potency probably resulted from the improved brain exposure of compound 1b. However, 1b was extremely unstable toward metabolism by cytochrome P450. In this study, we designed and synthesized compound 1b derivatives to improve the metabolic instability, which resulted in affording highly potent and metabolically stable oral antitussive agent (5R,9R,13S,14S)-17-cyclopropylmethyl-6,7-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-8'-fluoro-5',6'-dihydro-4'H-pyrrolo[3,2,1-ij]quinolino[2',1':6,7]morphinan-3,14-diol (1c) methanesulfonate (TRK-851).

  9. Interaction of 3,8-diazabicyclo (3.2.1) octanes with mu and delta opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Cignarella, G; Barlocco, D; Tranquillini, M E; Volterra, A; Brunello, N; Racagni, G

    1988-05-01

    A series of 3,8-diazabicyclo (3.2.1) octanes (DBO) (1) substituted at the nitrogen atoms by acyl and aralkenyl groups, were tested in in vitro binding assays towards mu and delta opioid receptors. The most representative terms (1a, 1d, 1g, 1j,) were also evaluated for the analgesic potency in vivo by the hot plate method. Among the compounds tested the most potent was the p.nitrocinnamyl DBO (1d) which displayed a mu/delta selectivity and an analgesic activity respectively 25 and 17 fold those of morphine. On the contrary, the m.hydroxycinnamyl DBO (1g) was markedly less active as agonist than the parent 1a, thus suggesting that structure 1 interacts with opioid receptors in a different fashion than morphine. Compound 1j isomer of 1a which is provided with high mu affinity, but lower analgesic potency, was found to possess a mixed agonist-antagonist activity.

  10. Synthesis of a potent and selective (18)F-labeled delta-opioid receptor antagonist derived from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore for positron emission tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Wu, Zhanhong; Chen, Kai; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Marczak, Ewa D; Sasaki, Yusuke; Ambo, Akihiro; Salvadori, Severo; Ren, Chuancheng; Zhao, Heng; Balboni, Gianfranco; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2008-03-27

    Identification and pharmacological characterization of two new selective delta-opioid receptor antagonists, derived from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, of potential utility in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are described. On the basis of its high delta selectivity, H-Dmt-Tic--Lys(Z)-OH (reference compound 1) is a useful starting point for the synthesis of (18)F-labeled compounds prepared by the coupling of N-succinimidyl 4-[ (18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB) with Boc-Dmt-Tic--Lys(Z)-OH under slightly basic conditions at 37 degrees C for 15 min, deprotection with TFA, and HPLC purification. The total synthesis time was 120 min, and the decay-corrected radiochemical yield of [(18)F]- 1 was about 25-30% ( n = 5) starting from [(18)F]SFB ( n = 5) with an effective specific activity about 46 GBq/micromol. In vitro autoradiography studies showed prominent uptake of [ (18)F]- 1 in the striatum and cortex with significant blocking by 1 and UFP-501 (selective delta-opioid receptor antagonist), suggesting high specific binding of [(18)F]- 1 to delta-opioid receptors. Noninvasive microPET imaging studies revealed the absence of [(18)F]- 1 in rat brain, since it fails to cross the blood-brain barrier. This study demonstrates the suitability of [ (18)F]- 1 for imaging peripheral delta-opioid receptors.

  11. [Cys(O2NH2)2]enkephalin analogues and dalargin: selectivity for delta-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Bocheva, A; Dimitrov, E; Ivancheva, C; Radomirov, R

    1996-05-23

    To investigate the structure-activity relationships for potent and selective action of enkephalins at the delta-opioid receptors, two newly synthesized analogues, [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5]enkephalin and [Cys(O2NH2)2, Met5] enkephalin and the hexapeptide [D-Ala2,Leu5]enkephalyl-Arg (dalargin) were tested and compared with [Leu5]enkephalin and [Met5]enkephalin, for their effectiveness to inhibit electrically evoked contractions of the mouse vas deferens (predominantly enkephalin-selective delta-opioid receptors) and the guinea pig ileum (mu- and kappa-opioid receptors). The mouse vas deferens assays included evaluation of the effects of opioid agonists on the first, purinergic, and the second, adrenergic, components of electrically evoked biphasic responses (10 Hz and 20 Hz) and on ATP- or noradrenaline-evoked, tetrodotoxin-resistant responses. The opioids tested inhibited in a similar manner: (i) the purinergic and the adrenergic components of the electrically evoked contractions; and (ii) the ATP- and noradrenaline-induced postjunctional responses of the mouse vas deferens. Extremely low IC50 values (of 2-5 orders) were found for [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5] enkephalin, whose relative potency was between 239 and 1316 times higher than that of [Leu5]enkephalin. The order of potency for the other peptides in this tissue was: [Cys(O2NH2)2,Met5]enkephalin > [Leu5]enkephalin > dalargin > [Met5]enkephalin. The highest IC50 values in the guinea pig ileum assays, indicating the lowest affinity for mu-/kappa-opioid receptors, were obtained for the cysteine sulfonamide analogues, while dalargin showed a potency four times higher than that of [Met5]enkephalin. The order of potency in this tissue was: dalargin > [Met5]enkephalin > [Leu5]enkephalin > [Cys(O2NH2)2,Met5]enkephalin > [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5]enkephalin. The ratio, IC50 in guinea pig ileum: IC50 in mouse vas deferens, indicating selectivity of the respective peptide for delta-opioid receptors, was extremely high for [Cys(O2NH2)2,Leu5

  12. Autoradiographic comparison of the distribution of the neutral endopeptidase enkephalinase and of. mu. and delta opioid receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Waksman, G.; Hamel, E.; Fournie-Zaluski, M.C.; Roques, B.P.

    1986-03-01

    The neutral endopeptidase EC 3.4.24.11, also designated enkephalinase, has been visualized by in vitro autoradiography using the tritiated inhibitor (/sup 3/H)-N-((2RS)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-oxopropyl)glycine, ((/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly). Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly corresponding to 85% of the total binding to brain slices was inhibited by 1 ..mu..M thiorphan, a selective inhibitor of enkephalinase, but remained unchanged in the presence of captopril, a selective inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Very high levels of (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly binding were found in the choroid plexus and the substantia nigra. High levels were present in the caudate putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord. The distribution of enkephalinase was compared to that of ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors, selectively labeled with (/sup 3/H)Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-glycinol and (/sup 3/H)Try-D-Thr-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr, respectively. In the caudate putamen, (/sup 3/H)HACBO-Gly binding overlapped the clustered ..mu.. sites but appeared more closely related to the diffusely distributed delta sites. The association of enkephalinase with delta and ..mu.. opioid receptors in these areas is consistent with the observed role of the enzyme in regulating the effects of opioid peptides in striatal dopamine release and analgesia, respectively. Except for the choroid plexus and the cerebellum, the close similarity observed in numerous rat brain areas between the distribution of enkephalinase and that of ..mu.. and/ or delta opioid binding sites could account for most of the pharmacological effects elicited by enkephalinase inhibitors.

  13. Ovarian hormones influence corticotropin releasing factor receptor colocalization with delta opioid receptors in CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Tanya J.; Akama, Keith T.; Knudsen, Margarete G.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Stress interacts with addictive processes to increase drug use, drug seeking, and relapse. The hippocampal formation (HF) is an important site at which stress circuits and endogenous opioid systems intersect and likely plays a critical role in the interaction between stress and drug addiction. Our prior studies demonstrate that the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the delta-opioid receptor (DOR) colocalize in interneuron populations in the hilus of the dentate gyrus and stratum oriens of CA1 and CA3. While independent ultrastructural studies of DORs and CRF receptors suggest that each receptor is found in CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites and dendritic spines, whether DORs and CRF receptors colocalize in CA1 neuronal profiles has not been investigated. Here, hippocampal sections of adult male and proestrus female Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for dual label pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy using well-characterized antisera directed against the DOR for immunoperoxidase and against the CRF receptor for immunogold. DOR-immunoreactivity (-ir) was found presynaptically in axons and axon terminals as well as postsynaptically in somata, dendrites and dendritic spines in stratum radiatum of CA1. In contrast, CRF receptor-ir was predominantly found postsynaptically in CA1 somata, dendrites, and dendritic spines. CRF receptor-ir frequently was observed in DOR-labeled dendritic profiles and primarily was found in the cytoplasm rather than at or near the plasma membrane. Quantitative analysis of CRF receptor-ir colocalization with DOR-ir in pyramidal cell dendrites revealed that proestrus females and males show comparable levels of CRF receptor-ir per dendrite and similar cytoplasmic density of CRF receptor-ir. In contrast, proestrus females display an increased number of dual-labeled dendritic profiles and increased membrane density of CRF receptor-ir in comparison to males. We further examined the functional consequences of CRF

  14. Direct influence of C-terminally substituted amino acids in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore on delta-opioid receptor selectivity and antagonism.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2004-07-29

    A series of 17 analogues were developed on the basis of the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R' (denotes chirality; R = charged, neutral, or aromatic functional group; R' = -OH or -NH(2)). These compounds were designed to test the following hypothesis: the physicochemical properties of third-residue substitutions C-terminal to Tic in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore modify delta-opioid receptor selectivity and delta-opioid receptor antagonism through enhanced interactions with the mu-opioid receptor. The data substantiate the following conclusions: (i) all compounds had high receptor affinity [K(i)(delta) = 0.034-1.1 nM], while that for the mu-opioid receptor fluctuated by orders of magnitude [K(i)(mu) = 15.1-3966 nM]; (ii) delta-opioid receptor selectivity [K(i)(mu)/K(i)(delta)] declined 1000-fold from 22,600 to 21; (iii) a C-terminal carboxyl group enhanced selectivity but only as a consequence of the specific residue; (iv) amidated, positive charged residues [Lys-NH(2) (6), Arg-NH(2) (7)], and a negatively charged aromatic residue [Trp-OH (11)] enhanced mu-opioid affinity [K(i)(mu) = 17.0, 15.1, and 15.7 nM, respectively], while Gly-NH(2) (8), Ser-NH(2) (10), and His-OH (12) were nearly one-tenth as active; and (v) D-isomers exhibited mixed effects on mu-opioid receptor affinity (2' < 3' < 4' < 1' < 5') and decreased delta-selectivity in D-Asp-NH(2) (1') and D-Lys(Ac)-OH (5'). The analogues exhibited delta-opioid receptor antagonism (pA(2) = 6.9-10.07) and weak mu-opioid receptor agonism (IC(50) > 1 microM) except H-Dmt-Tic-Glu-NH(2) (3), which was a partial delta-opioid receptor agonist (IC(50) = 2.5 nM). Thus, these C-terminally extended analogues indicated that an amino acid residue containing a single charge, amino or guanidino functionality, or aromatic group substantially altered the delta-opioid receptor activity profile (selectivity and antagonism) of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, which suggests that the C-terminal constituent plays a major role in determining

  15. Delta opioid receptors are involved in morphine-induced inhibition of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lunawati; Ratka, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Opioids play an important role in the regulation of lutenizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH). In the present study, we attempted to find out the subtype of opioid receptors involved in the inhibitory effect of morphine on LHRH. Experiments were conducted on SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells that express both micro and delta opioid receptors, LHRH mRNA, and release the LHRH peptide. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to measure the levels of LHRH. LHRH level was decreased by 1000 microM of morphine regardless of the duration of exposure or differentiation status of the SK-N-SH cells and was not reversed by naloxone. Selective antagonism of micro opioid receptors, but not delta opioid receptors, allowed lower concentrations (1-100 microM) of morphine to inhibit LHRH. The results of this study imply that (1) delta opioid receptors may mediate the inhibitory effect of lower concentrations of morphine on LHRH levels in SK-N-SH cells, and (2) inhibition of LHRH level by high concentrations of morphine may involve systems other than opioid receptors.

  16. Side chain methyl substitution in the delta-opioid receptor antagonist TIPP has an important effect on the activity profile.

    PubMed

    Tourwé, D; Mannekens, E; Diem, T N; Verheyden, P; Jaspers, H; Tóth, G; Péter, A; Kertész, I; Török, G; Chung, N N; Schiller, P W

    1998-12-17

    The delta-opioid antagonist H-Tyr-Tic-Phe-Phe-OH (TIPP-OH) or its C-terminal amide analogue was systematically modified topologically by substitution of each amino acid residue by all stereoisomers of the corresponding beta-methyl amino acid. The potency and selectivity (delta- vs mu- and kappa-opioid receptor) were evaluated by radioreceptor binding assays. Agonist or antagonist potency were assayed in the mouse vas deferens and in the guinea pig ileum. In the TIPP analogues containing L-beta-methyl amino acids the influence on delta-receptor affinity and on delta-antagonist potency is limited, the [(2S,3R)-beta-MePhe3]TIPP-OH analogue being among the most potent delta-antagonists reported. In the D-beta-methyl amino acid series, the [D-beta-MeTic2] analogues are delta-selective antagonists whereas [D-Tic2]TIPP-NH2 is a delta-agonist. NMR studies did not indicate any influence of the beta-methyl substituent on the conformation of the Tic residue. The [(2R,3S)-beta-MePhe3]TIPP-NH2 is a potent delta-agonist, its C-terminal carboxylic acid analogue being more delta-selective but displaying partial agonism in both the delta- and mu-bioassay. These results constitute further examples of a profound influence of beta-methyl substitution on the potency, selectivity, and signal transduction properties of a peptide.

  17. Cellular and subcellular distributions of delta opioid receptor activation sites in the ventral oral pontine tegmentum of the cat.

    PubMed

    Alvira-Botero, Maria Ximena; Garzón, Miguel

    2006-12-01

    The ventral division of the reticular oral pontine nucleus (vRPO) is a pontine tegmentum region critically involved in REM sleep generation. Previous reports of morphine microinjections in the cat pontine tegmentum have shown that opioid receptor activation in this region modulates REM sleep. Even though opiate administration has marked effects on sleep-wake cycle architecture, the distribution of opioid receptors in vRPO has only been partially described. Using an antiserum directed against delta opioid receptor (DOR), to which morphine binds, in the present study, we use (1) light microscopy to determine DOR cellular distribution in the rostral pontine tegmentum and (2) electron microscopy to determine DOR subcellular distribution in the cat vRPO. In the dorsal pons, DOR immunoreactivity was evenly distributed throughout the neuropil of the reticular formation and was particularly intense in the parabrachial nuclei and locus coeruleus; the ventral and central areas of the RPO and locus coeruleus complex were especially rich in DOR-labeled somata. Within the vRPO, DOR was localized mainly in the cytoplasm and on plasma membranes of medium to large dendrites (47.8% of DOR-labeled profiles), which received both symmetric and asymmetric synaptic contacts mainly from non-labeled (82% of total inputs) axon terminals. Less frequently, DOR was distributed presynaptically in axon terminals (19% of DOR-labeled profiles). Our results suggest that DOR activation in vRPO regulates REM sleep occurrence by modulating postsynaptic responses to both excitatory and inhibitory afferents. DOR activation in vRPO could have, however, an additional role in direct modulation of neurotransmitter release from axon terminals.

  18. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus☆

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Suzanne R.; Williams, Tanya J.; Lane, Diane A.; Knudsen, Margarete G.; Pickel, Virginia M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Waters, Elizabeth M.; Milner, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    In the hippocampus, ovarian hormones and sex can alter the trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) and the proportion of DORs that colocalize with the stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor. Here, we assessed the effects of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and sex on the phosphorylation of DORs in the rat hippocampus. We first localized an antibody to phosphorylated DOR (pDOR) at the SER363 carboxy-terminal residue, and demonstrated its response to an opioid agonist. By light microscopy, pDOR-immunoreactivity (ir) was located predominantly in CA2/CA3a pyramidal cell apical dendrites and in interneurons in CA1-3 stratum oriens and the dentate hilus. By electron microscopy, pDOR-ir primarily was located in somata and dendrites, associated with endomembranes, or in dendritic spines. pDOR-ir was less frequently found in mossy fibers terminals. Quantitative light microscopy revealed a significant increase in pDOR-ir in the CA2/CA3a region of male rats 1 h following an injection of the opioid agonist morphine (20 mg/kg, I.P). To look at the effects of stress on pDOR, we compared pDOR-ir in males and cycling females after AIS. The level of pDOR-ir in stratum radiatum of CA2/CA3a was increased in control estrus (elevated estrogen and progesterone) females compared to proestrus and diestrus females and males. However, immediately following 30 min of AIS, no significant differences in pDOR levels were seen across estrous cycle phase or sex. These findings suggest that hippocampal levels of phosphorylated DORs vary with estrous cycle phase and that acute stress may dampen the differential effects of hormones on DOR activation in females. PMID:23583481

  19. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated delta opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Suzanne R; Williams, Tanya J; Lane, Diane A; Knudsen, Margarete G; Pickel, Virginia M; McEwen, Bruce S; Waters, Elizabeth M; Milner, Teresa A

    2013-06-26

    In the hippocampus, ovarian hormones and sex can alter the trafficking of delta opioid receptors (DORs) and the proportion of DORs that colocalize with the stress hormone, corticotropin releasing factor. Here, we assessed the effects of acute immobilization stress (AIS) and sex on the phosphorylation of DORs in the rat hippocampus. We first localized an antibody to phosphorylated DOR (pDOR) at the SER363 carboxy-terminal residue, and demonstrated its response to an opioid agonist. By light microscopy, pDOR-immunoreactivity (ir) was located predominantly in CA2/CA3a pyramidal cell apical dendrites and in interneurons in CA1-3 stratum oriens and the dentate hilus. By electron microscopy, pDOR-ir primarily was located in somata and dendrites, associated with endomembranes, or in dendritic spines. pDOR-ir was less frequently found in mossy fibers terminals. Quantitative light microscopy revealed a significant increase in pDOR-ir in the CA2/CA3a region of male rats 1h following an injection of the opioid agonist morphine (20mg/kg, I.P). To look at the effects of stress on pDOR, we compared pDOR-ir in males and cycling females after AIS. The level of pDOR-ir in stratum radiatum of CA2/CA3a was increased in control estrus (elevated estrogen and progesterone) females compared to proestrus and diestrus females and males. However, immediately following 30min of AIS, no significant differences in pDOR levels were seen across estrous cycle phase or sex. These findings suggest that hippocampal levels of phosphorylated DORs vary with estrous cycle phase and that acute stress may dampen the differential effects of hormones on DOR activation in females. PMID:23583481

  20. Solid-phase synthetic strategy and bioevaluation of a labeled delta-opioid receptor ligand Dmt-Tic-Lys for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Josan, Jatinder S; Morse, David L; Xu, Liping; Trissal, Maria; Baggett, Brenda; Davis, Peg; Vagner, Josef; Gillies, Robert J; Hruby, Victor J

    2009-06-18

    A general solid-phase synthetic strategy is developed to prepare fluorescent and/or lanthanide-labeled derivatives of the delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) ligand H-Dmt-Tic-Lys(R)-OH. The high delta-OR affinity (K(i) = 3 nM) and desirable in vivo characteristics of the Cy5 derivative 1 suggest its usefulness for structure-function studies and receptor localization and as a high-contrast noninvasive molecular marker for live imaging ex vivo or in vivo.

  1. Coincident signalling between the Gi/Go-coupled delta-opioid receptor and the Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor at the level of intracellular free calcium in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Yeo, A; Samways, D S; Fowler, C E; Gunn-Moore, F; Henderson, G

    2001-03-01

    In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of delta-opioid receptors with [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 1 microM) did not alter the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). However, when DPDPE was applied during concomitant Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor stimulation by carbachol or oxotremorine-M, it produced an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). The DPDPE-evoked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was abolished when the carbachol-sensitive intracellular Ca(2+) store was emptied. There was a marked difference between the concentration-response relationship for the elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) by carbachol (EC(50) 13 microM, Hill slope 1) and the concentration-response relationship for carbachol's permissive action in revealing the delta-opioid receptor-mediated elevation of [Ca(2+)] (EC(50) 0.7 mM; Hill slope 1.8). Sequestration of free G protein beta gamma dimers by transient transfection of cells with a beta gamma binding protein (residues 495-689 of the C terminal tail of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2) reduced the ability of delta opioid receptor activation to elevate [Ca(2+)](i). However, DPDPE did not elevate either basal or oxotremorine-M-evoked inositol phosphate production indicating that delta-opioid receptor activation did not stimulate phospholipase C. Furthermore, delta-opioid receptor activation did not result in the reversal of muscarinic receptor desensitization, membrane hyperpolarization or stimulation of sphingosine kinase. There was no coincident signalling between the delta-opioid receptor and the lysophosphatidic acid receptor which couples to elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) in SH-SY5Y cells by a PLC-independent mechanism. In SH-SY5Y cells the coincident signalling between the endogenously expressed delta-opioid and m3 muscarinic receptors appears to occur in the receptor activation-Ca(2+) release signalling pathway at a step after the activation of phospholipase C. PMID:11259487

  2. Blockade of central delta-opioid receptors inhibits salt appetite in sodium-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A I R; Ferreira, H S; Cerqueira, D R; Fregoneze, J B

    2014-05-01

    Various studies have investigated the role of central opioid peptides in feeding behavior; however, only a few have addressed the participation of opioids in the control of salt appetite. The present study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular injections of the δ-opioid antagonist, naltrindole (5, 10 and 20 nmol/rat) and the agonist, deltorphin II (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 nmol/rat) on salt intake. Two protocols for inducing salt intake were used: sodium-depletion and the central injection of angiotensin II. In addition, the effect of a central δ-opioid receptor blockade on locomotor activity, on palatable solution intake (0.1% saccharin) and on blood pressure was also studied. The blockade of central δ-opioid receptors inhibits salt intake in sodium-depleted rats, while the pharmacological stimulation of these receptors increases salt intake in sodium-replete animals. Furthermore, the blockade of central δ-opioid receptors inhibits salt intake induced by central angiotensinergic stimulation. These data suggest that during sodium-depletion activation of the δ-opioid receptors regulates salt appetite to correct the sodium imbalance and it is possible that an interaction between opioidergic and angiotensinergic brain system participates in this control. Under normonatremic conditions, δ-opioid receptors may be necessary to modulate sodium intake, a response that could be mediated by angiotensin II. The decrease in salt intake following central δ-opioid receptors blockade does not appear to be due to a general inhibition of locomotor activity, changes in palatability or in blood pressure.

  3. Effects of the delta-opioid receptor agonist SNC80 on learning relative to its antidepressant-like effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Jutkiewicz, E M; Rice, K C; Woods, J H; Winsauer, P J

    2003-11-01

    Delta-opioid receptor agonists produce decreases in immobility in the forced swim test, suggesting that these compounds have antidepressant-like activity. There is also the possibility that these compounds decrease immobility in the forced swim test by disrupting learning processes that occur during the swim, or with successive swim exposures, thus falsely identifying them as having "antidepressant" potential. This study investigated the effects of the delta-opioid receptor agonist, SNC80, on responding in a repeated-acquisition procedure and in the forced swim test in rats, and the effects were compared directly to those of scopolamine, a compound known to disrupt memory and learning. SNC80 disrupted acquisition of a response sequence (learning) and produced a significant antidepressant-like effect in the forced swim test. Scopolamine, however, produced larger decrements in learning without producing behavioral changes consistent with an antidepressant-like profile of action. These results suggest that SNC80 produces antidepressant-like activity through a mechanism independent of its disruptive effects on learning.

  4. 3-(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-alkyl-N-arylbenzamides: potent, non-peptidic agonists of both the micro and delta opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Michael J; Garrido, Dulce M; Boswell, G Evan; Collins, Mark A; Harris, Philip A; McNutt, Robert W; O'Neill, Scott J; Wei, Ke; Chang, Kwen-Jen

    2003-02-13

    Opioid analgesics with both micro and delta opioid receptor activation represent a new approach to the treatment of severe pain with an improved safety profile. Compounds with this profile may exhibit strong analgesic properties due to micro agonism, with a reduced side effect profile resulting from delta agonism. Replacing the p-diethylamide of the known potent delta opioid receptor selective agonist BW373U86 with a m-diethylamide resulted in a compound with agonist activity at both the micro and delta opioid receptors. Modifying the amide to an N-methyl-N-phenylamide increased agonist potency at both receptors. A series of 3-(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-alkyl-N-arylbenzamides have been made to explore the structure-activity relationship (SAR) around the N-methyl-N-phenylamide. Several potent agonists of both the micro and delta opioid receptors have been identified, including (+)-3-((alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-hydroxybenzyl)-N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-methylbenzamide (23), which has EC50 values of 0.67 and 1.1 nM at the micro (guinea pig ileum assay) and delta (mouse vas deferens assay) opioid receptors, respectively.

  5. Discrete mapping of brain Mu and delta opioid receptors using selective peptides: Quantitative autoradiography, species differences and comparison with kappa receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharif, N.A.; Hughes, J. )

    1989-05-01

    The opioid peptides, (3H)DAGO and (3H)DPDPE, bound to rat and guinea pig brain homogenates with a high, nanomolar affinity and to a high density of mu and delta receptors, respectively. (3H)DAGO binding to mu receptors was competitively inhibited by unlabelled opioids with the following rank order of potency: DAGO greater than morphine greater than DADLE greater than naloxone greater than etorphine much greater than U50488 much greater than DPDPE. In contrast, (3H)DPDPE binding to delta receptors was inhibited by compounds with the following rank order of potency: DPDPE greater than DADLE greater than etorphine greater than dynorphin(1-8) greater than naloxone much greater than U50488 much greater than DAGO. These profiles were consistent with specific labelling of the mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively. In vitro autoradiographic techniques coupled with computer-assisted image analyses revealed a discrete but differential anatomical localization of mu and delta receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain. In general, mu and delta receptor density in the rat exceeded that in the guinea pig brain and differed markedly from that of kappa receptors in these species. However, while mu receptors were distributed throughout the brain with hotspots in the fore-, mid- and hindbrain of the two rodents, the delta sites were relatively diffusely distributed, and were mainly concentrated in the forebrain with particularly high levels within the olfactory bulb (OB), n. accumbens and striatum. Notable regions of high density of mu receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain were the accessory olfactory bulb, striatal patches and streaks, amygdaloid nuclei, ventral hippocampal subiculum and dentate gyrus, numerous thalamic nuclei, geniculate bodies, central grey, superior and inferior colliculi, solitary and pontine nuclei and s. nigra.

  6. {delta}-Opioid receptor-stimulated Akt signaling in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells involves receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated PI3K activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heiss, Anika; Ammer, Hermann; Eisinger, Daniela A.

    2009-07-15

    {delta}-Opioid receptor (DOR) agonists possess cytoprotective properties, an effect associated with activation of the 'pro-survival' kinase Akt. Here we delineate the signal transduction pathway by which opioids induce Akt activation in neuroblastoma x glioma (NG108-15) hybrid cells. Exposure of the cells to both [D-Pen{sup 2,5}]enkephalin and etorphine resulted in a time- and dose-dependent increase in Akt activity, as measured by means of an activation-specific antibody recognizing phosphoserine-473. DOR-mediated Akt signaling is blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone and involves inhibitory G{sub i/o} proteins, because pre-treatment with pertussis toxin, but not over-expression of the G{sub q/11} scavengers EBP50 and GRK2-K220R, prevented this effect. Further studies with Wortmannin and LY294002 revealed that phophoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) plays a central role in opioid-induced Akt activation. Opioids stimulate Akt activity through transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), because pre-treatment of the cells with inhibitors for neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (AG879) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1 (AG1024), but not over-expression of the G{beta}{gamma} scavenger phosducin, abolished this effect. Activated Akt translocates to the nuclear membrane, where it promotes GSK3 phosphorylation and prevents caspase-3 cleavage, two key events mediating inhibition of cell apoptosis and enhancement of cell survival. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in NG108-15 hybrid cells DOR agonists possess cytoprotective properties mediated by activation of the RTK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  7. β-arrestin-2-biased agonism of delta opioid receptors sensitizes transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) in primary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Matthew P; Szteyn, Kalina; Doyle, Allison P; Gomez, Ruben; Henry, Michael A; Jeske, Nathaniel A

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding the signaling mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of chronic pain, the pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain has seen little advancement. Agonists at the mu opioid receptor (MOPr) continue to be vital in the treatment of many forms of chronic pain, but side-effects limit their clinical utility and range from relatively mild, such as constipation, to major, such as addiction and dependence. Additionally, chronic activation of MOPr results in pain hypersensitivity known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), and we have shown recently that recruitment of β-arrestin2 to MOPr, away from transient potential vanilloid eceptor type 1 (TRPV1) in primary sensory neurons contributes to this phenomenon. The delta opioid receptor (DOPr) has become a promising target for the treatment of chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of chronic activation of DOPr on nociceptor sensitivity and OIH. Here we report that chronic activation of DOPr by the DOPr-selective agonist, SNC80, results in the sensitization of TRPV1 and behavioral signs of OIH via β-arrestin2 recruitment to DOPr and away from TRPV1. Conversely, chronic treatment with ARM390, a DOPr-selective agonist that does not recruit β-arrestin2, neither sensitized TRPV1 nor produced OIH. Interestingly, the effect of SNC80 to sensitize TRPV1 is species-dependent, as rats developed OIH but mice did not. Taken together, the reported data identify a novel side-effect of chronic administration of β-arrestin2-biased DOPr agonists and highlight the importance of potential species-specific effects of DOPr agonists.

  8. Anti-analgesic effect of the mu/delta opioid receptor heteromer revealed by ligand-biased antagonism.

    PubMed

    Milan-Lobo, Laura; Enquist, Johan; van Rijn, Richard M; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Delta (DOR) and mu opioid receptors (MOR) can complex as heteromers, conferring functional properties in agonist binding, signaling and trafficking that can differ markedly from their homomeric counterparts. Because of these differences, DOR/MOR heteromers may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of pain. However, there are currently no ligands selective for DOR/MOR heteromers, and, consequently, their role in nociception remains unknown. In this study, we used a pharmacological opioid cocktail that selectively activates and stabilizes the DOR/MOR heteromer at the cell surface by blocking its endocytosis to assess its role in antinociception. We found that mice treated chronically with this drug cocktail showed a significant right shift in the ED50 for opioid-mediated analgesia, while mice treated with a drug that promotes degradation of the heteromer did not. Furthermore, promoting degradation of the DOR/MOR heteromer after the right shift in the ED50 had occurred, or blocking signal transduction from the stabilized DOR/MOR heteromer, shifted the ED50 for analgesia back to the left. Taken together, these data suggest an anti-analgesic role for the DOR/MOR heteromer in pain. In conclusion, antagonists selective for DOR/MOR heteromer could provide an avenue for alleviating reduced analgesic response during chronic pain treatment.

  9. Differential effects of impaired mitochondrial energy production on the function of mu and delta opioid receptors in neuronal SK-N-SH cells.

    PubMed

    Raut, Atul; Iglewski, Myriam; Ratka, Anna

    2006-08-14

    Oxidative stress contributes to changes in neurosensory processing, including pain, that occur during aging and neurodegeneration. The effects of neuronal oxidation on the opioid system are poorly understood. In this in vitro study, oxidative stress was induced by 3-nitroproprionic acid (3-NPA) in opioid-responsive differentiated SK-N-SH cells. Changes in the inhibitory effects of opioid receptor agonists on intracellular cAMP were used as a marker of the function of mu and delta opioid receptors (MOR and DOR, respectively). Cells were treated with morphine and selective MOR and DOR agonists and antagonists to characterize the function of each receptor subtype. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate assay. Exposure of cells to 3-NPA resulted in an increase in ROS. After 3-NPA exposure, there was a significant attenuation of the inhibitory effect of morphine and DAMGO but not of DPDPE on cAMP. In cells pretreated with CTOP, 3-NPA did not change the inhibitory effect on cAMP. These findings demonstrate for the first time that under conditions of mitochondrial damage, the function of MOR is significantly decreased, while the function of DOR does not change, suggesting that the effect of 3-NPA on opioid receptors is subtype-specific.

  10. Synergistic activity between the delta-opioid agonist SNC80 and amphetamine occurs via a glutamatergic NMDA-receptor dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Kelly E.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Schultz, Kristin N.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Gnegy, Margaret E.; Traynor, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is known to cause the release of dopamine through a Ca2+-sensitive mechanism that involves activation of NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the delta opioid agonist SNC80 acts indirectly, via the glutamatergic system, to enhance both amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux from striatal preparations and amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity. SNC80 increased extracellular glutamate content, which was accompanied by a concurrent decrease in GABA levels. Inhibition of NMDA signaling with the selective antagonist MK801 blocked the enhancement of both amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux and hyperlocomotion observed with SNC80 pretreatment. Addition of exogenous glutamate also potentiated amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux in a Mg2+- and MK801-sensitive manner. After removal of Mg2+ to relieve the ion conductance inhibition of NMDA receptors, SNC80 both elicited dopamine release alone and produced a greater enhancement of amphetamine-evoked dopamine efflux. The action of SNC80 to enhance amphetamine-evoked dopamine efflux was mimicked by the GABAB antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen. These cumulative findings suggest SNC80 modulates amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux through an intra-striatal mechanism involving inhibition of GABA transmission leading to the local release of glutamate followed by subsequent activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:24035916

  11. (D-Pen2,4 prime -125I-Phe4,D-Pen5)enkephalin: A selective high affinity radioligand for delta opioid receptors with exceptional specific activity

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.J.; Sharma, S.D.; Toth, G.; Duong, M.T.; Fang, L.; Bogert, C.L.; Weber, S.J.; Hunt, M.; Davis, T.P.; Wamsley, J.K. )

    1991-09-01

    (D-Pen2,4{prime}-125I-Phe4,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((125I)DPDPE) is a highly selective radioligand for the delta opioid receptor with a specific activity (2200 Ci/mmol) that is over 50-fold greater than that of tritium-labeled DPDPE analogs. (125I)DPDPE binds to a single site in rat brain membranes with an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) value of 421 {plus minus} 67 pM and a receptor density (Bmax) value of 36.4 {plus minus} 2.7 fmol/mg protein. The high affinity of this site for delta opioid receptor ligands and its low affinity for mu or kappa receptor-selective ligands are consistent with its being a delta opioid receptor. The distribution of these sites in rat brain, observed by receptor autoradiography, is also consistent with that of delta opioid receptors. Association and dissociation binding kinetics of 1.0 nM (125I) DPDPE are monophasic at 25 degrees C. The association rate (k + 1 = 5.80 {plus minus} 0.88 {times} 10(7) M-1 min-1) is about 20- and 7-fold greater than that measured for 1.0 nM (3H) DPDPE and 0.8 nM (3H) (D-Pen2,4{prime}-Cl-Phe4, D-Pen5)enkephalin, respectively. The dissociation rate of (125I)DPDPE (0.917 {plus minus} 0.117 {times} 10(-2) min-1) measured at 1.0 nM is about 3-fold faster than is observed for either of the other DPDPE analogs. The rapid binding kinetics of (125I)DPDPE is advantageous because binding equilibrium is achieved with much shorter incubation times than are required for other cyclic enkephalin analogs. This, in addition to its much higher specific activity, makes (125I)DPDPE a valuable new radioligand for studies of delta opioid receptors.

  12. Orally administered H-Dmt-Tic-Lys-NH-CH2-Ph (MZ-2), a potent mu/delta-opioid receptor antagonist, regulates obese-related factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Marczak, Ewa D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Myers, Page H; Blankenship, Terry; Wilson, Ralph; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2009-08-15

    Orally active dual mu-/delta-opioid receptor antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-Lys-NH-CH(2)-Ph (MZ-2) was applied to study body weight gain, fat content, bone mineral density, serum insulin, cholesterol and glucose levels in female ob/ob (B6.V-Lep/J homozygous) and lean wild mice with or without voluntary exercise on wheels for three weeks, and during a two week post-treatment period under the same conditions. MZ-2 (10mg/kg/day, p.o.) exhibited the following actions: (1) reduced body weight gain in sedentary obese mice that persisted beyond the treatment period without effect on lean mice; (2) stimulated voluntary running on exercise wheels of both groups of mice; (3) decreased fat content, enhanced bone mineral density (BMD), and decreased serum insulin and glucose levels in obese mice; and (4) MZ-2 (30 microM) increased BMD in human osteoblast cells (MG-63) comparable to naltrexone, while morphine inhibited mineral nodule formation. Thus, MZ-2 has potential application in the clinical management of obesity, insulin and glucose levels, and the amelioration of osteoporosis.

  13. Chromosomal localization of the [delta] opioid receptor gene to human 1p34. 3-36. 1 and mouse 4D bands by in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Befort, K.; Kieffer, B. ); Mattei, M.G.; Roeckel, N. )

    1994-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the precise localization of this gene in the murine as well as human genome by in situ hybridization. Southern analysis, using the noncoding part of the cDNA as a probe (NotI-BamHI fragment, 1040 bp) under high-stringency conditions, shows the existence of a single-copy gene in the murine genome. In a similar analysis performed on human genomic DNA, the coding part of the cDNA (PstI-NotI fragment, 976 bp) clearly detected a single gene in the human genome (not shown). The authors therefore used these two probes for the chromosomal localization of the murine gene and its human counterpart, respectively. Chromosome spread preparations from concanavalin A (mouse) or phytohemagglutinin (human)-stimulated lymphocytes were hybridized with tritium-labeled cDNAs, exposed for 15 days, and developed, as described previously. For the murine assignment, a total of 100 metaphase cells were examined, and 149 silver grains were found. Forty-two grains were associated with chromosome 4, and 73.8% of them mapped to the D1-D3 region of the chromosome. In the 120 metaphase human cells analyzed, 197 silver grains were found, 25.8% of which were located on chromosome 1. The distribution of grains allowed mapping of the human [delta] opioid receptor gene to the p34.3-p36.1 region of the short arm with a maximum in the p35 band.

  14. Synthesis and Opioid Receptor Binding Affinities of 2-Substituted and 3-Aminomorphinans: Ligands for mu, kappa and delta Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Michael; Si, Yu-Gui; Knapp, Brian I.; Bidlack, Jean M.; Neumeyer, John L.

    2009-01-01

    The phenolic group of the potent μ and κ opioid morphinan agonist/antagonists cyclorphan and butorphan was replaced by phenylamino and benzylamino groups including compounds with p-substituents in the benzene ring. These compounds are highly potent μ and κ ligands, e. g. p-methoxyphenylaminocyclorphan showing a Ki of 0.026 nM at the mu and a Ki of 0.03 nM at the kappa receptor. Phenyl carbamates and phenylureas were synthesized and investigated. Selective o-formylation of butorphan and levorphanol was achieved. This reaction opened the way to a large set of 2-substituted 3-hydroxymorphinans, including 2-hydroxymethyl-, 2-aminomethyl-, and N-substituted 2-aminomethyl-3-hydroxymorphinans. Bivalent ligands bridged in the 2-position were also synthesized and connected with secondary and tertiary aminomethyl groups, amide bonds or hydroxymethylene groups, respectively. Although most of the 2-substituted morphinans showed considerably lower affinities compared to their parent compounds, the bivalent ligand approach led to significantly higher affinities compared to the univalent aminomethylmorphinans. PMID:19928862

  15. The novel delta opioid receptor agonist UFP-512 dually modulates motor activity in hemiparkinsonian rats via control of the nigro-thalamic pathway.

    PubMed

    Mabrouk, O S; Marti, M; Salvadori, S; Morari, M

    2009-12-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the ability of the novel delta opioid peptide (DOP) receptor agonist H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(CH2-COOH)-Bid (UFP-512) to attenuate motor deficits in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemilesioned rats. Lower doses (0.1-10 microg/kg) of UFP-512 administered systemically (i.p.) stimulated stepping activity in the drag test and overall gait abilities in the rotarod test whereas higher doses (100-1000 microg/kg) were ineffective or even worsened Parkinsonism. Microdialysis coupled to an akinesia test (bar test) was then used to determine the circuitry involved in the motor actions of UFP-512. An antiakinetic dose of UFP-512 (10 microg/kg) decreased GABA in globus pallidus (GP) as well as GABA and glutamate (GLU) release in substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). On the other hand, a pro-akinetic dose (1000 microg/kg) of UFP-512 increased pallidal GABA, simultaneously producing a decrease in GABA and an increase in nigral GLU release. Moreover, to test the hypothesis that changes in motor behavior were associated with changes in nigro-thalamic transmission, amino acid release in ventromedial thalamus (VMTh, a target of nigro-thalamic GABAergic projections) was also measured. The anti-akinetic dose of UFP-512 reduced GABA and increased thalamic GLU release while the pro-akinetic dose increased GABA without affecting thalamic GLU release. Finally, regional microinjections were performed to investigate the brain areas involved in motor actions of UFP-512. UFP-512 microinjections into GP increased akinesia whereas UFP-512 microinjections into SNr reduced akinesia. Furthermore, the selective DOP receptor antagonist naltrindole (NTD) increased akinesia when injected into either area, GP being more sensitive. We conclude that UFP-512, depending on dose, improves or worsens motor activity in hemiparkinsonian rats by acting differentially as a DOP receptor agonist in SNr and a DOP receptor antagonist in GP, ultimately decreasing or increasing the activity of

  16. Endocytosis of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Lai Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis is the major regulator of signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The canonical model of RTK endocytosis involves rapid internalization of an RTK activated by ligand binding at the cell surface and subsequent sorting of internalized ligand-RTK complexes to lysosomes for degradation. Activation of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of RTKs results in autophosphorylation, which is mechanistically coupled to the recruitment of adaptor proteins and conjugation of ubiquitin to RTKs. Ubiquitination serves to mediate interactions of RTKs with sorting machineries both at the cell surface and on endosomes. The pathways and kinetics of RTK endocytic trafficking, molecular mechanisms underlying sorting processes, and examples of deviations from the standard trafficking itinerary in the RTK family are discussed in this work. PMID:23637288

  17. Cholesterol reduction by methyl-β-cyclodextrin attenuates the delta opioid receptor-mediated signaling in neuronal cells but enhances it in non-neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Peng; Xu, Wei; Yoon, Su-In; Chen, Chongguang; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Opioid receptors have been shown to be located in and regulated by lipid rafts/caveolae in caveolin-rich non-neuronal cells. Here, we found that caveolin-1 level was very low in rat brain and undetectable in NG108-15 cells, which endogenously express delta opioid receptors (DOR). Rat caudate putamen (CPu) membranes, NG108-15 cells and CHO cells stably transfected with FLAG-mouse-DOR (CHO-FLAG-mDOR) were homogenized, sonicated in a detergent-free 0.5 M Na2CO3 buffer and fractionated through discontinuous or continuous sucrose density gradients. About 70% of opioid receptors in CPu and DOR in both cell lines were present in low-density (5-20% sucrose) membrane-domains enriched in cholesterol and ganglioside M1 (GM1), characteristics of lipid rafts in plasma membranes. In both cells, stimulation with permeable or non-permeable full agonists, but not with partial or inverse agonists, for 30 min shifted ∼25% of DORs out of rafts, by a naloxone-reversible and pertussis toxin-insensitive mechanism, which may undergo internalization. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) treatment greatly reduced cholesterol and shifted DOR to higher-density fractions and decreased DPDPE affinities. MCD treatment attenuated DPDPE-induced [35S]GTPγS binding in CPu and NG108-15 cells, but enhanced it in CHO-FLAG-mDOR cells. In CHO-FLAG-mDOR cells, Gαi co-immunoprecipitated with caveolin-1, which was shown to inhibit Gαi/o, and MCD treatment dramatically reduced the association leading to disinhibition. Thus, although localization in rafts and agonist-induced shift of DOR are independent of caveolin-1, lipid rafts sustain DOR-mediated signaling in caveolin-deficient neuronal cells, but appear to inhibit it in caveolin-enriched non-neuronal cells. Cholesterol-dependent association of caveolin-1 with and the resulting inhibition of G proteins may be a contributing factor. PMID:17141202

  18. β-endorphin via the delta opioid receptor is a major factor in the incubation of cocaine craving.

    PubMed

    Dikshtein, Yahav; Barnea, Royi; Kronfeld, Noam; Lax, Elad; Roth-Deri, Ilana; Friedman, Alexander; Gispan, Iris; Elharrar, Einat; Levy, Sarit; Ben-Tzion, Moshe; Yadid, Gal

    2013-11-01

    Cue-induced cocaine craving intensifies, or 'incubates', during the first few weeks of abstinence and persists over extended periods of time. One important factor implicated in cocaine addiction is the endogenous opioid β-endorphin. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of β-endorphin in the incubation of cocaine craving. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg, 10 days, 6 h/day), followed by either a 1-day or a 30-day period of forced abstinence. Subsequent testing for cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior (without cocaine reinforcement) was performed. Rats exposed to the drug-associated cue on day 1 of forced abstinence demonstrated minimal cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior concurrently with a significant increase in β-endorphin release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Conversely, exposure to the cue on day 30 increased cocaine seeking, while β-endorphin levels remained unchanged. Intra-NAc infusion of an anti-β-endorphin antibody (4 μg) on day 1 increased cue-induced cocaine seeking, whereas infusion of a synthetic β-endorphin peptide (100 ng) on day 30 significantly decreased cue response. Both intra-NAc infusions of the δ opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (1 μg) on day 1 and naltrindole together with β-endorphin on day 30 increased cue-induced cocaine-seeking behavior. Intra-NAc infusion of the μ opioid receptor antagonist CTAP (30 ng and 3 μg) had no behavioral effect. Altogether, these results demonstrate a novel role for β-endorphin and the δ opioid receptor in the development of the incubation of cocaine craving. PMID:23800967

  19. Berberine induces pacemaker potential inhibition via cGMP-dependent ATP-sensitive K+ channels by stimulating mu/delta opioid receptors in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal from mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Hyungwoo; Jung, Myeong Ho; Kwon, Young Kyu; Kim, Byung Joo

    2016-10-01

    Berberine is traditionally used to treat gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders. The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract, which are responsible for the production of gut movements. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of berberine on pacemaker potentials (PPs) in cultured ICC clusters from the mouse small intestine, and sought to identify the receptors involved and the underlying mechanisms of action. All experiments were performed on cultured ICCs, and a whole‑cell patch‑clamp configuration was used to record PPs from ICC clusters (current clamp mode). Under current clamp mode, berberine was shown to decrease the amplitude and frequency of PPs. However, these effects were suppressed by treatment with glibenclamide, a specific ATP‑sensitive K+ channel blocker. Nor‑binaltorphimine dihydrochloride (a kappa opioid receptor antagonist) did not suppress berberine‑induced PP inhibition, whereas ICI 174,864 (a delta opioid receptor antagonist) and CTOP (a mu opioid receptor antagonist) did suppress the inhibitory effects of berberine. Pretreatment with SQ‑22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) or with KT‑5720 (a protein kinase A inhibitor) did not suppress the effects of berberine; however, pretreatment with 1H‑[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3‑a] quinoxalin‑1‑one (a guanylate cyclase inhibitor) or KT‑5823 [a protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor] did. In addition, berberine stimulated cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production in ICCs. These observations indicate that berberine may inhibit the pacemaker activity of ICC clusters via ATP‑sensitive K+ channels and the cGMP‑PKG‑dependent pathway by stimulating mu and delta opioid receptors. Therefore, berberine may provide a basis for the development of novel agents for the treatment of GI motility dysfunction. PMID:27601272

  20. mu and delta opioid agonists at low concentrations decrease voltage-dependent K+ currents in F11 neuroblastoma x DRG neuron hybrid cells via cholera toxin-sensitive receptors.

    PubMed

    Fan, S F; Shen, K F; Crain, S M

    1993-03-12

    In a previous study, we showed that microM concentrations of mu or delta opioid agonists increase voltage-dependent outward K+ currents in neuroblastoma x DRG neuron hybrid F11 cells via pertussis toxin-sensitive receptors. The present study demonstrates that much lower concentrations (fM to nM) of these opioids (DAGO and DPDPE) decreased voltage-dependent outward K+ currents during step depolarization. The opioid antagonist, naloxone (3 nM) prevented these decreases in K+ current as did the cholera toxin subunits A or B (ca. 1 nM). Furthermore, the specific mu opioid receptor antagonist, beta-funaltrexamine (5 nM) blocked the decrease by DAGO and the specific delta antagonist, naltrindole (1 nM) blocked that by DPDPE. Acute GM1 ganglioside (1 microM) treatment markedly enhanced the efficacy of opioid-induced decrease in K+ current. After treating the cells with pertussis toxin (1 microgram/ml) for 2 days or more, these opioids decreased the K+ current even when tested at concentrations as high as 1 microM. These results indicate that the decrease in K+ current elicited in F11 cells by low concentrations of mu and delta opioid agonists resembles the opioid-induced prolongation of the action potential duration and decrease in voltage-dependent K+ conductance that occur in DRG neurons in primary cultures. The F11 cell line provides therefore a valuable model system for correlative pharmacologic, electrophysiologic and biochemical analyses of Gs-coupled, GM1 ganglioside-regulated excitatory opioid receptor functions, in addition to G(i)/G(o)-coupled inhibitory receptor functions, in sensory neurons.

  1. ( sup 3 H)(D-PEN sup 2 , D-PEN sup 5 ) enkephalin binding to delta opioid receptors on intact neuroblastoma-glioma (NG 108-15) hybrid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, R.J.; Yamamura, H.I. )

    1990-01-01

    ({sup 3}H)(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5})enkephalin binding to intact NG 108-15 cells has been measured under physiological conditions of temperature and medium. The dissociation constant, receptor density, and Hill slope values measured under these conditions are consistent with values obtained by others using membranes prepared from these cells. Kinetic analysis of the radioligand binding to these cells show biphasic association and monophasic dissociation processes suggesting the presence of different receptor affinity states for the agonist. The data show that the binding affinity of ({sup 3}H)(D-Pen{sup 2}, D-Pen{sup 5})enkephalin under physiological conditions is not substantially different to that measured in 50 mM Tris buffer using cell membrane fractions. Unlike DPDPE, the {mu} opioid agonists morphine, normorphine, PL-17, and DAMGO, have much lower affinity for the {delta} receptor measured under these conditions than is observed by studies using 50 mM Tris buffer. The results described here suggest that this assay may serve as a useful model of {delta} opioid receptor binding in vivo.

  2. Further evidence for the interaction of mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the antinociceptive effects of the dual inhibitor of enkephalin catabolism, RB101(S). A spinal c-Fos protein study in the rat under carrageenin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Stéphanie; Catheline, Gwénaëlle; Fournié-Zaluski, Marie Claude; Roques, Bernard Pierre; Besson, Jean Marie; Buritova, Jaroslava

    2003-03-28

    We have previously shown that RB101, a dual inhibitor of enkephalin-degrading enzymes, decreased carrageenin-evoked c-Fos protein expression at the spinal cord level in awake rats. Moreover, we have also shown that c-Fos expression is a useful marker of the possible direct or indirect interactions between neural pathways, such as opioid and cholecystokinin systems. We now investigated the respective roles of the three main types of opioid receptors (mu, delta, or kappa) and their possible interactions, in the depressive effects of RB101 in inflammatory nociceptive conditions induced by intraplantar carrageenin (6 mg/150 microl of saline). We used beta-funaltrexamine (beta-FNA), naltrindole (NTI), and nor-binaltorphimine (BNI) as specific antagonists for mu, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors, respectively. c-Fos protein-immunoreactivity (c-Fos-IR) was evaluated as the number of c-Fos-IR nuclei in the lumbar spinal cord 90 min after carrageenin. c-Fos-IR nuclei were preferentially located in the superficial (I-II) and deep (V-VI) laminae of segments L4-L5 (areas containing numerous neurons responding exclusively, or not, to nociceptive stimuli). RB101(S) (30 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly reduced the total number of carrageenin-evoked c-Fos-IR nuclei (30% reduction, P<0.01). This effect was completely blocked by beta-FNA (10 mg/kg, i.v.), or NTI (1 mg/kg, i.v.). In contrast, BNI (2.5 mg/kg, i.v.) did not reverse the reducing effects of RB101(S) on carrageenin-evoked c-Fos protein expression. These results suggest that functional interactions occur between mu- and delta-opioid receptors in enkephalin-induced antinociceptive effects.

  3. Novel diazabicycloalkane delta opioid agonists.

    PubMed

    Loriga, Giovanni; Lazzari, Paolo; Manca, Ilaria; Ruiu, Stefania; Falzoi, Matteo; Murineddu, Gabriele; Bottazzi, Mirko Emilio Heiner; Pinna, Giovanni; Pinna, Gérard Aimè

    2015-09-01

    Here we report the investigation of diazabicycloalkane cores as potential new scaffolds for the development of novel analogues of the previously reported diazatricyclodecane selective delta (δ) opioid agonists, as conformationally constrained homologues of the reference δ agonist (+)-4-[(αR)-α((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC80). In particular, we have simplified the diazatricyclodecane motif of δ opioid agonist prototype 1a with bridged bicyclic cores. 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 3,9-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane, 3,9-diazabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane, and 3,10-diazabicyclo[4.3.1]decane were adopted as core motifs of the novel derivatives. The compounds were synthesized and biologically assayed as racemic (3-5) or diastereoisomeric (6,7) mixtures. All the novel compounds 3-7 showed δ agonism behaviour and remarkable affinity to δ receptors. Amongst the novel derivatives, 3,8-diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane based compound 4 evidenced improved δ affinity and selectivity relative to SNC80.

  4. Modulation of MDMA-induced behavioral and transcriptional effects by the delta opioid antagonist naltrindole in mice

    PubMed Central

    Belkaï, Emilie; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Noble, Florence; Marie-Claire, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    The delta opioid system is involved in the behavioral effects of various drugs of abuse. However, only few studies have focused on the possible interactions between the opioid system and the effects of MDMA. In order to examine the possible role of the delta opioid system in MDMA-induced behaviors in mice, locomotor activity and conditioned place preference were investigated in the presence of naltrindole, a selective delta opioid antagonist. Moreover, the consequences of acute and chronic MDMA administration on Penk (pro-enkephalin) and Pomc (pro-opioimelanocortin) gene expression were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that, after acute MDMA administration (9mg/kg; i.p.), naltrindole (5mg/kg, s.c.) was able to totally block MDMA-induced hyperlocomotion. Penk expression gene was not modulated by acute MDMA but a decrease of Pomc gene expression was observed that was not antagonized by naltrindole. Administration of the antagonist prevented the acquisition of MDMA-induced conditioned place preference, suggesting an implication of the delta opioid receptors in this behavior. Following chronic MDMA treatment only the level of Pomc was modulated. The observed increase was totally blocked by naltrindole pretreatment. All these results confirm the interactions between the delta opioid system (receptors and peptides) and the effects of MDMA. PMID:19523041

  5. Peripheral kappa and delta opioid receptors are involved in the antinociceptive effect of crotalphine in a rat model of cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Brigatte, Patricia; Konno, Katsuhiro; Gutierrez, Vanessa Pacciari; Sampaio, Sandra Coccuzzo; Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Picolo, Gisele; Curi, Rui; Cury, Yara

    2013-08-01

    Cancer pain is an important clinical problem and may not respond satisfactorily to the current analgesic therapy. We have characterized a novel and potent analgesic peptide, crotalphine, from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. In the present work, the antinociceptive effect of crotalphine was evaluated in a rat model of cancer pain induced by intraplantar injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells. Intraplantar injection of tumor cells caused the development of hyperalgesia and allodynia, detected on day 5 after tumor cell inoculation. Crotalphine (6 μg/kg), administered p.o., blocked both phenomena. The antinociceptive effect was detected 1 h after treatment and lasted for up to 48 h. Intraplantar injection of nor-binaltorphimine (50 g/paw), a selective antagonist of κ-opioid receptors, antagonized the antinociceptive effect of the peptide, whereas N,N-diallyl-Tyr-Aib-Phe-Leu (ICI 174,864, 10 μg/paw), a selective antagonist of δ-opioid receptors, partially reversed this effect. On the other hand, D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr amide (CTOP, 20 g/paw), an antagonist of μ-opioid receptors, did not modify crotalphine-induced antinociception. These data indicate that crotalphine induces a potent and long lasting opioid-mediated antinociception in cancer pain.

  6. Evaluation of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore: conversion of a potent delta-opioid receptor antagonist into a potent delta agonist and ligands with mixed properties.

    PubMed

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Guerrini, Remo; Salvadori, Severo; Bianchi, Clementina; Rizzi, Daniela; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2002-01-31

    Analogues of the 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (Tic) pharmacophore were prepared to test the hypothesis that a "spacer" and a third aromatic center in opioid peptides are required to convert a delta-antagonist into ligands with delta-agonist or with mixed delta-antagonist/mu-agonist properties. Potent delta-agonists and bifunctional compounds with high delta- and mu-opioid receptor affinities were obtained by varying the spacer length [none, NH-CH(2), NH-CH(2)-CH(2), Gly-NH-CH(2)] and C-terminal aromatic nucleus [1H-benzimidazole-2-yl, phenyl (Ph) and benzyl groups]. C-terminal modification primarily affected mu-opioid receptor affinities, which increased maximally 1700-fold relative to the prototype delta-antagonist H-Dmt-Tic-NH(2) and differentially modified bioactivity. In the absence of a spacer (1), the analogue exhibited dual delta-agonism (pEC(50), 7.28) and delta-antagonism (pA(2), 7.90). H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl (Bid) (2) became a highly potent delta-agonist (pEC(50), 9.90), slightly greater than deltorphin C (pEC(50), 9.56), with mu-agonism (pE(50), 7.57), while H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-CH(2)-Bid (4) retained potent delta-antagonism (pA(2), 9.0) but with an order of magnitude less mu-agonism. Similarly, H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph (5) had nearly equivalent high delta-agonism (pEC(50), 8.52) and mu-agonism (pEC(50), 8.59), while H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-CH(2)-Ph (6) whose spacer was longer by a single methylene group exhibited potent delta-antagonism (pA(2), 9.25) and very high mu-agonism (pEC(50), 8.57). These data confirm that the distance between the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore and a third aromatic nucleus is an important criterion in converting Dmt-Tic from a highly potent delta-antagonist into a potent delta-agonist or into ligands with mixed delta- and mu-opioid properties.

  7. Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking of Human Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Madhan; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Borrego, Francisco; Coligan, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a vital role in the defense against viral infections and tumor development. NK cell function is primarily regulated by the sum of signals from a broad array of activation and inhibitory receptors. Key to generating the input level of either activating or inhibitory signals is the maintenance of receptor expression levels on the cell surface. Although the mechanisms of endocytosis and trafficking for some cell surface receptors, such as transferrin receptor, and certain immune receptors, are very well known, that is not the situation for receptors expressed by NK cells. Recent studies have uncovered that endocytosis and trafficking routes characteristic for specific activation and inhibitory receptors can regulate the functional responses of NK cells. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of receptor endocytosis and trafficking, and integrate this with our current understanding of NK cell receptor trafficking. PMID:19719476

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  9. Crosslinking-induced endocytosis of acetylcholine receptors by quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Wai; Zhang, Hailong; Geng, Lin; Peng, H Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  10. Crosslinking-Induced Endocytosis of Acetylcholine Receptors by Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Lin; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In a majority of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies target postsynaptic AChR clusters and thus compromise the membrane integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and lead to muscle weakness. Antibody-induced endocytosis of AChRs in the postsynaptic membrane represents the initial step in the pathogenesis of MG; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying AChR endocytosis remain largely unknown. Here, we developed an approach to mimic the pathogenic antibodies for inducing the crosslinking and internalization of AChRs from the postsynaptic membrane. Using biotin-α-bungarotoxin and quantum dot (QD)-streptavidin, cell-surface and internalized AChRs could be readily distinguished by comparing the size, fluorescence intensity, trajectory, and subcellular localization of the QD signals. QD-induced AChR endocytosis was mediated by clathrin-dependent and caveolin-independent mechanisms, and the trafficking of internalized AChRs in the early endosomes required the integrity of microtubule structures. Furthermore, activation of the agrin/MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) signaling pathway strongly suppressed QD-induced internalization of AChRs. Lastly, QD-induced AChR crosslinking potentiated the dispersal of aneural AChR clusters upon synaptic induction. Taken together, our results identify a novel approach to study the mechanisms of AChR trafficking upon receptor crosslinking and endocytosis, and demonstrate that agrin-MuSK signaling pathways protect against crosslinking-induced endocytosis of AChRs. PMID:24587270

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  12. The role of mu opioid receptor desensitization and endocytosis in morphine tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lene; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2007-10-01

    Following activation, most G protein coupled receptors undergo regulation by a cascade of events that promote receptor desensitization and endocytosis. Following endocytosis, receptors can then be recycled to the plasma membrane, retained in an intracellular compartment, or targeted for degradation. For receptors that are recycled, like the mu opioid receptor (MOR), endocytosis serves as the first step toward resensitizing receptors. For receptors that are degraded, endocytosis serves as the first step toward receptor downregulation. Thus, for receptors like the MOR, the desensitization-endocytosis-resensitization cycle serves as a rapid and dynamic means to titrate signaling through the receptor. However, not all agonist ligands at the MOR promote the same degree of receptor desensitization and endocytosis. For example, the endogenous peptide ligands at the MOR induce rapid desensitization, endocytosis, and recycling. By contrast, morphine induces only weak or partial desensitization and little to no endocytosis. As a consequence, signal transduction promoted by morphine is less dynamic than that induced by endogenous ligands as well as other opioid agonists that promote endocytosis. The resulting imbalance of desensitization-endocytosis-resensitization has at least two consequences: (1) in cell types where morphine induces desensitization but not endocytosis and/or resensitization, desensitization is protracted; (2) in cell types where morphine induces neither desensitization nor endocytosis, prolonged signaling through the receptor leads to multiple cellular adaptations downstream of receptor-G protein coupling. Both protracted desensitization and adaptive cellular changes probably contribute to the pronounced in vivo tolerance and dependence that occur with chronic morphine treatment. As a consequence, facilitating receptor endocytosis, using either genetic or pharmacological approaches, can restore the balance of signaling through the receptor and affect the

  13. Visualization of Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Jon; Konopka, James; Singer-Kruger, Birgit; Zerial, Marino; Botstein, David

    1999-01-01

    We studied the ligand-induced endocytosis of the yeast α-factor receptor Ste2p by immuno-electron microscopy. We observed and quantitated time-dependent loss of Ste2p from the plasma membrane of cells exposed to α-factor. This ligand-induced internalization of Ste2p was blocked in the well-characterized endocytosis-deficient mutant sac6Δ. We provide evidence that implicates furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane as the site of receptor internalization. These invaginations are distinct from the finger-like plasma membrane invaginations within actin cortical patches. Consistent with this, we show that Ste2p is not located within the cortical actin patch before and during receptor-mediated endocytosis. In wild-type cells exposed to α-factor we also observed and quantitated a time-dependent accumulation of Ste2p in intracellular, membrane-bound compartments. These compartments have a characteristic electron density but variable shape and size and are often located adjacent to the vacuole. In immuno-electron microscopy experiments these compartments labeled with antibodies directed against the rab5 homologue Ypt51p (Vps21p), the resident vacuolar protease carboxypeptidase Y, and the vacuolar H+-ATPase Vph1p. Using a new double-labeling technique we have colocalized antibodies against Ste2p and carboxypeptidase Y to this compartment, thereby identifying these compartments as prevacuolar late endosomes. PMID:10069819

  14. An ultrasensitive sorting mechanism for EGF Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Vacheva, Ivayla; Hoeller, Daniela; Dikic, Ivan; Eils, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Background The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor has been shown to internalize via clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) in a ligand concentration dependent manner. From a modeling point of view, this resembles an ultrasensitive response, which is the ability of signaling networks to suppress a response for low input values and to increase to a pre-defined level for inputs exceeding a certain threshold. Several mechanisms to generate this behaviour have been described theoretically, the underlying assumptions of which, however, have not been experimentally demonstrated for the EGF receptor internalization network. Results Here, we present a mathematical model of receptor sorting into alternative pathways that explains the EGF-concentration dependent response of CIE. The described mechanism involves a saturation effect of the dominant clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway and implies distinct steady-states into which the system is forced for low vs high EGF stimulations. The model is minimal since no experimentally unjustified reactions or parameter assumptions are imposed. We demonstrate the robustness of the sorting effect for large parameter variations and give an analytic derivation for alternative steady-states that are reached. Further, we describe extensibility of the model to more than two pathways which might play a role in contexts other than receptor internalization. Conclusion Our main result is that a scenario where different endocytosis routes consume the same form of receptor corroborates the observation of a clear-cut, stimulus dependent sorting. This is especially important since a receptor modification discriminating between the pathways has not been found experimentally. The model is not restricted to EGF receptor internalization and might account for ultrasensitivity in other cellular contexts. PMID:18394191

  15. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Brain Delivery of Therapeutic Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guangqing

    2013-01-01

    Transport of macromolecules across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) requires both specific and nonspecific interactions between macromolecules and proteins/receptors expressed on the luminal and/or the abluminal surfaces of the brain capillary endothelial cells. Endocytosis and transcytosis play important roles in the distribution of macromolecules. Due to the tight junction of BBB, brain delivery of traditional therapeutic proteins with large molecular weight is generally not possible. There are multiple pathways through which macromolecules can be taken up into cells through both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins/receptors on the cell surface. This review is focused on the current knowledge of receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis and brain delivery using the Angiopep-2-conjugated system and the molecular Trojan horses. In addition, the role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in regulating the efflux of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from brain to blood, and approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic biologics by generating Fc fusion proteins, and increasing the pH dependent binding affinity between Fc and FcRn, are discussed. PMID:23840214

  16. Morphine-induced receptor endocytosis in a novel knockin mouse reduces tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joseph A; Bartlett, Selena; He, Li; Nielsen, Carsten K; Chang, Amy M; Kharazia, Viktor; Waldhoer, Maria; Ou, Chrissi J; Taylor, Stacy; Ferwerda, Madeline; Cado, Dragana; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2008-01-22

    Opioid drugs, such as morphine, are among the most effective analgesics available. However, their utility for the treatment of chronic pain is limited by side effects including tolerance and dependence. Morphine acts primarily through the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-R) , which is also a target of endogenous opioids. However, unlike endogenous ligands, morphine fails to promote substantial receptor endocytosis both in vitro, and in vivo. Receptor endocytosis serves at least two important functions in signal transduction. First, desensitization and endocytosis act as an "off" switch by uncoupling receptors from G protein. Second, endocytosis functions as an "on" switch, resensitizing receptors by recycling them to the plasma membrane. Thus, both the off and on function of the MOP-R are altered in response to morphine compared to endogenous ligands. To examine whether the low degree of endocytosis induced by morphine contributes to tolerance and dependence, we generated a knockin mouse that expresses a mutant MOP-R that undergoes morphine-induced endocytosis. Morphine remains an excellent antinociceptive agent in these mice. Importantly, these mice display substantially reduced antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence. These data suggest that opioid drugs with a pharmacological profile similar to morphine but the ability to promote endocytosis could provide analgesia while having a reduced liability for promoting tolerance and dependence.

  17. Central D-Ala2-Met5-enkephalinamide mu/delta-opioid receptor activation reverses the anxiogenic-like properties of cholecystokinin on locomotor and rearing activity in CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Hebb, Andrea L O; Zacharko, Robert M

    2003-04-25

    There is evidence to suggest an antagonistic interaction between the anxiogenic peptide, cholecystokinin (CCK) and the anxiolytic opioid peptide, enkephalin in mesolimbic sites following stressor applications in humans and animals which may define specific behavioral symptom subsets and alter the course of anxiety-like behavior. Locomotor and rearing behavior were decreased following a central CCK-8S (50 ng) injection among independent groups of mice relative to saline-treated animals. Central administration of DALA not only ameliorated the CCK-induced behavioral deficits but exaggerated behavioral activity of CCK and saline control mice (SAL). Locomotor activity and rearing behavior were depressed 24 h following DALA administration yet returned to basal values 168 h following drug applications. Eighteen days following the initial 50 ng CCK-8S and intervening DALA challenge, mice were administered 5 ng CCK-8S. An intervening dose of DALA in mice following the original 50 ng CCK-8S administration on Day 1 was associated with elevated locomotor activity in mice in response to the 5 ng CCK-8S challenge on Day 18. In contrast to locomotor activity, mice administered DALA following the original 50 ng CCK-8S administration on Day 1 demonstrated decreased rearing behavior to both 5 ng CCK-8S challenge and SAL on Day 18. Moreover, administration of 5 ng CCK-8S on Day 18 was associated with decreased rearing behavior in mice previously administered SAL on Day 1. These data imply that while CCK induces relatively protracted behavioral disturbances, mu/delta receptor activation may change the course of psychopathology.

  18. A luminescent assay for real-time measurements of receptor endocytosis in living cells.

    PubMed

    Robers, Matthew B; Binkowski, Brock F; Cong, Mei; Zimprich, Chad; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Otto, George; Eggers, Christopher T; Hartnett, Jim; Machleidt, Thomas; Fan, Frank; Wood, Keith V

    2015-11-15

    Ligand-mediated endocytosis is a key autoregulatory mechanism governing the duration and intensity of signals emanating from cell surface receptors. Due to the mechanistic complexity of endocytosis and its emerging relevance in disease, simple methods capable of tracking this dynamic process in cells have become increasingly desirable. We have developed a bioluminescent reporter technology for real-time analysis of ligand-mediated receptor endocytosis using genetic fusions of NanoLuc luciferase with various G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This method is compatible with standard microplate formats, which should decrease work flows for high-throughput screens. This article also describes the application of this technology to endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), demonstrating potential applicability of the method beyond GPCRs.

  19. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X; Zamponi, Gerald W; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  20. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  1. Endocytosis of hyaluronic acid by rat liver endothelial cells. Evidence for receptor recycling.

    PubMed Central

    McGary, C T; Raja, R H; Weigel, P H

    1989-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is cleared from the blood by liver endothelial cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis [Eriksson, Fraser, Laurent, Pertoft & Smedsrod (1983) Exp. Cell Res. 144, 223-238]. We have measured the capacity of cultured rat liver endothelial cells to endocytose and degrade 125I-HA (Mr approximately 44,000) at 37 degrees C. Endocytosis was linear for 3 h and then reached a plateau. The rate of endocytosis was concentration-dependent and reached a maximum of 250 molecules/s per cell. Endocytosis of 125I-HA was inhibited more than 92% by a 150-fold excess of non-radiolabelled HA. HA, chondroitin sulphate and heparin effectively competed for endocytosis of 125I-HA, whereas glucuronic acid, N-acetylglucosamine, DNA, RNA, polygalacturonic acid and dextran did not compete. In the absence of cycloheximide, endothelial cells processed 13 times more 125I-HA in 6 h than their total (cell-surface and intracellular) specific HA-binding capacity. This result was not due to degradation and rapid replacement of receptors, because, even in the presence of cycloheximide, these cells processed 6 times more HA than their total receptor content in 6 h. Also, in the presence of cycloheximide, no decrease in 125I-HA-binding capacity was seen in cells processing or not processing HA for 6 h, indicating that receptors are not degraded after the endocytosis of HA. During endocytosis of HA at 37 degrees C, at least 65% of the intracellular HA receptors became occupied with HA within 30 min. This indicates that the intracellular HA receptors (75% of the total) function during continuous endocytosis. Hyperosmolarity inhibits endocytosis and receptor recycling in the asialoglycoprotein and low-density-lipoprotein receptor systems by disrupting the coated-pit pathway [Heuser & Anderson (1987) J. Cell Biol. 105, 230a; Oka & Weigel (1988) J. Cell. Biochem. 36, 169-183]. Hyperosmolarity inhibited 125I-HA endocytosis in liver endothelial cells by more than 90%, suggesting use of a

  2. Increased survival of tumor-bearing mice by the delta opioid SNC 80.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Flores, Ricardo; Caballero-Hernández, Diana; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Tamez-Guerra, Patricia; Rice, Kenner C; Hicks, Mary E; Weber, Richard J

    2005-01-01

    Opioids represent a major source of relief from pain. However, opioid abuse may cause immunosuppression and cancer. We have recently reported results on novel non-peptidic delta- and mu-selective opioids that induced immunopotentiation of T cell and macrophage functions in vitro and ex vivo. In the present study, the effects of the delta-opioid receptor agonist and potent analgesic (+)-4-((alpha R)-alpha-((2S, 5R)-4-allyl-2, 5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl)-N, N-diethyl-benzamide (SNC80) on in vitro and in vivo tumor cell growth were investigated using the L5178Y-R murine model. SNC80 marginally, but significantly (p < 0.05), inhibited (up to 14%) the in vitro growth of L5178Y-R tumor cells. However, in vivo intratumor administration of SNC80 (2 and 4 mg/kg) reduced up to 60% L5178Y-R tumor-bearing Balb/c mice death, and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced tumor weights (up to 73% reduction) in these animals. This study may support the evaluation of SNC80 in preclinical and clinical studies.

  3. Specific factors are required for kinase-dependent endocytosis of insulin receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, J B; Worthylake, R; Wiley, H S; Gill, G N

    1994-01-01

    Mouse B82 cells that support high affinity saturable endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) exhibited only low rates of nonsaturable internalization of insulin receptors (InsR). To investigate the defect in endocytosis of InsR in B82 cells, we examined the role of sequence motifs and tyrosine kinase, the two receptor components shown to be required for efficient saturable endocytosis of InsR in Rat 1 cells. Placement of residues encoded by exon 16 of the InsR onto an EGFR truncated to residue 958 restored EGF-induced internalization of this mutant receptor indicating that the sequence codes in exon 16 are recognized by B82 cells. To determine whether the kinase function could be provided in trans, a B82 cell expressing both receptors was established. EGF-activated EGFR kinase was not able to restore insulin-dependent rapid endocytosis to InsR. However, fusion of untransfected Rat1 cells with InsR-expressing B82 cells enabled rapid endocytosis of InsR, indicating that the internalization defect can be complemented. These results indicate that, although internalization codes can function in the context of other receptors, activation of tyrosine kinase receptors requires an additional specific component. Images PMID:7919536

  4. Endocytosis as a biological response in receptor pharmacology: evaluation by fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Campa, Víctor M; Capilla, Almudena; Varela, María J; de la Rocha, Arlet M Acanda; Fernandez-Troyano, Juan C; Barreiro, R Belén; Lopez-Gimenez, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method -the Q-Endosomes algorithm- that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP) receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution.

  5. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin and recycling of the transferrin receptor in rat reticulocytes

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    At 4 degrees C transferrin bound to receptors on the reticulocyte plasma membrane, and at 37 degrees C receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin occurred. Uptake at 37 degrees C exceeded binding at 4 degrees C by 2.5-fold and saturated after 20-30 min. During uptake at 37 degrees C, bound transferrin was internalized into a trypsin- resistant space. Trypsinization at 4 degrees C destroyed surface receptors, but with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C, surface receptors rapidly appeared (albeit in reduced numbers), and uptake occurred at a decreased level. After endocytosis, transferrin was released, apparently intact, into the extracellular space. At 37 degrees C colloidal gold-transferrin (AuTf) clustered in coated pits and then appeared inside various intracellular membrane-bounded compartments. Small vesicles and tubules were labeled after short (5-10 min) incubations at 37 degrees C. Larger multivesicular endosomes became heavily labeled after longer (20-35 min) incubations. Multivesicular endosomes apparently fused with the plasma membrane and released their contents by exocytosis. None of these organelles appeared to be lysosomal in nature, and 98% of intracellular AuTf was localized in acid phosphatase-negative compartments. AuTf, like transferrin, was released with subsequent incubation at 37 degrees C. Freeze-dried and freeze-fractured reticulocytes confirmed the distribution of AuTf in reticulocytes and revealed the presence of clathrin-coated patches amidst the spectrin coating the inner surface of the plasma membrane. These data suggest that transferrin is internalized via coated pits and vesicles and demonstrate that transferrin and its receptor are recycled back to the plasma membrane after endocytosis. PMID:6309857

  6. Dual single-scission event analysis of constitutive transferrin receptor (TfR) endocytosis and ligand-triggered β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) or Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Marko; Pierre, Fabienne; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Krasel, Cornelius; Merrifield, Christien J

    2014-10-01

    The dynamic relationship between constitutive and ligand-triggered clathrin-mediated endocytosis is only poorly characterized, and it remains controversial whether clathrin-coated pits specialize to internalize particular receptor cargo. Here we analyzed the ligand-triggered endocytosis of the model G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) at the level of individual endocytic events using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM)-based assay. Similar to the constitutive endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR), ligand- triggered endocytosis of β2AR occurs via quantized scission events hosted by clathrin spots and plaques of variable size and persistence. To address whether clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) specialize to internalize particular GPCRs, we adapted the TIRFM imaging assay to simultaneously quantify the internalization of TfR and the ligand- triggered endocytosis of the β2AR or MOR. Agonist-triggered β2AR or MOR endocytosis extended the maturation time of CCSs, as shown previously, but did not affect the rate of constitutive TfR endocytosis or loading of TfR into individual endocytic vesicles. Both the β2AR and the MOR receptors entered cells in the same vesicles as TfR, and the overall evidence for CCS specialization was weak. These data support a simple model in which different cargoes internalize through common CCSs.

  7. Dual single-scission event analysis of constitutive transferrin receptor (TfR) endocytosis and ligand-triggered β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) or Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Marko; Pierre, Fabienne; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Krasel, Cornelius; Merrifield, Christien J.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic relationship between constitutive and ligand-triggered clathrin-mediated endocytosis is only poorly characterized, and it remains controversial whether clathrin-coated pits specialize to internalize particular receptor cargo. Here we analyzed the ligand-triggered endocytosis of the model G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) at the level of individual endocytic events using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM)–based assay. Similar to the constitutive endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR), ligand- triggered endocytosis of β2AR occurs via quantized scission events hosted by clathrin spots and plaques of variable size and persistence. To address whether clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) specialize to internalize particular GPCRs, we adapted the TIRFM imaging assay to simultaneously quantify the internalization of TfR and the ligand- triggered endocytosis of the β2AR or MOR. Agonist-triggered β2AR or MOR endocytosis extended the maturation time of CCSs, as shown previously, but did not affect the rate of constitutive TfR endocytosis or loading of TfR into individual endocytic vesicles. Both the β2AR and the MOR receptors entered cells in the same vesicles as TfR, and the overall evidence for CCS specialization was weak. These data support a simple model in which different cargoes internalize through common CCSs. PMID:25079691

  8. Molecular mediators for raft-dependent endocytosis of syndecan-1, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keyang; Williams, Kevin Jon

    2013-05-17

    Endocytosis via rafts has attracted considerable recent interest, but the molecular mediators remain incompletely characterized. Here, we focused on the syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor that we previously showed to undergo raft-dependent endocytosis upon clustering. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of three to five consecutive cytoplasmic residues at a time revealed that a conserved juxtamembrane motif, MKKK, was the only region required for efficient endocytosis after clustering. Endocytosis of clustered syndecan-1 occurs in two phases, each requiring a kinase and a corresponding cytoskeletal partner. In the initial phase, ligands trigger rapid MKKK-dependent activation of ERK and the localization of syndecan-1 into rafts. Activation of ERK drives the dissociation of syndecan-1 from α-tubulin, a molecule that may act as an anchor for syndecan-1 at the plasma membrane in the basal state. In the second phase, Src family kinases phosphorylate tyrosyl residues within the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of syndecan-1, a process that also requires MKKK. Tyrosine phosphorylation of syndecan-1 triggers the robust recruitment of cortactin, which we found to be an essential mediator of efficient actin-dependent endocytosis. These findings represent the first detailed characterization of the molecular events that drive endocytosis of a raft-dependent receptor and identify a novel endocytic motif, MKKK. Moreover, the results provide new tools to study syndecan function and regulation during uptake of its biologically and medically important ligands, such as HIV-1, atherogenic postprandial remnant lipoproteins, and molecules implicated in Alzheimer disease.

  9. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is required for immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptor kinases.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Malick; Bourdais, Gildas; Gervasi, Fabio; Beck, Martina; Zhou, Ji; Spallek, Thomas; Bartels, Sebastian; Boller, Thomas; Ueda, Takashi; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-09-27

    Sensing of potential pathogenic bacteria is of critical importance for immunity. In plants, this involves plasma membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors, one of which is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) receptor kinase. Ligand-activated FLS2 receptors are internalized into endosomes. However, the extent to which these spatiotemporal dynamics are generally present among pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their regulation remain elusive. Using live-cell imaging, we show that at least three other receptor kinases associated with plant immunity, PEP RECEPTOR 1/2 (PEPR1/2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), internalize in a ligand-specific manner. In all cases, endocytosis requires the coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1), and thus depends on receptor activation status. We also show the internalization of liganded FLS2, suggesting the transport of signaling competent receptors. Trafficking of activated PRRs requires clathrin and converges onto the same endosomal vesicles that are also shared with the hormone receptor BRASSINOSTERIOD INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). Importantly, clathrin-dependent endocytosis participates in plant defense against bacterial infection involving FLS2-mediated stomatal closure and callose deposition, but is uncoupled from activation of the flagellin-induced oxidative burst and MAP kinase signaling. In conclusion, immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptors depends on clathrin, a critical component for the endocytosis of signaling competent receptors into a common endosomal pathway. PMID:27651493

  10. The miR-199-dynamin regulatory axis controls receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Goedeke, Leigh; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that modulate many physiological processes; however, their role in regulating intracellular transport remains largely unknown. Intriguingly, we found that the dynamin (DNM) genes, a GTPase family of proteins responsible for endocytosis in eukaryotic cells, encode the conserved miR-199a and miR-199b family of miRNAs within their intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that miR-199a and miR-199b regulate endocytic transport by controlling the expression of important mediators of endocytosis such as clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Rab5A, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Importantly, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p overexpression markedly inhibits CLTC, Rab5A, LDLR and Cav-1 expression, thus preventing receptor-mediated endocytosis in human cell lines (Huh7 and HeLa). Of note, miR-199a-5p inhibition increases target gene expression and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our work identifies a new mechanism by which microRNAs regulate intracellular trafficking. In particular, we demonstrate that the DNM, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p genes act as a bifunctional locus that regulates endocytosis, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity in the regulation of intracellular trafficking.

  11. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of proteoglycans by human fibroblasts involves recognition of the protein core.

    PubMed Central

    Glössl, J; Schubert-Prinz, R; Gregory, J D; Damle, S P; von Figura, K; Kresse, H

    1983-01-01

    Endocytosis by cultured human skin fibroblasts of 35SO4(2-)-labelled or [3H]leucine-labelled proteoglycans from fibroblast secretions and of 125I-proteodermatan sulphate from pig skin was quantitatively investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) Core proteins prepared by digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase were at least as efficiently endocytosed as native proteoglycans. Pig skin proteodermatan sulphate was a competitive inhibitor of endocytosis of 35SO4(2-)-labelled proteoglycans. (2) Proteoglycans produced in the presence of tunicamycin and native proteoglycans degraded with endoglycosaminidase H were internalized at a normal rate. Several monosaccharides that can be bound by mammalian lectins were unable to influence the internalization of proteoglycans. Treatment of proteoglycans with neuraminidase, however, resulted in an increased clearance rate. (3) Reductive methylation or acetoacetylation of lysine residues was accompanied by a parallel decrease in the rate of proteoglycan endocytosis. Reversal of acetoacetylation normalized the uptake properties. Endocytosis of native proteoglycans was also reduced in the presence of poly-L-lysine, and this reduction in endocytosis was observed as well with proteoglycans synthesized in the presence of the lysine analogue S-2-aminoethylcysteine. These results suggest that the recognition marker required for receptor-mediated endocytosis of proteodermatan sulphate resides in its protein moiety and involves lysine residues. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6316923

  12. Diabetogenic effect of a series of tricyclic delta opioid agonists structurally related to cyproheptadine.

    PubMed

    Codd, Ellen E; Baker, Judith; Brandt, Michael R; Bryant, Stewart; Cai, Chaozhong; Carson, John R; Chevalier, Kristen M; Colburn, Raymond W; Coogan, Timothy P; Dax, Scott L; Decorte, Bart; Kemmerer, Michael; Legrand, Edmund K; Lenhard, James M; Leone, Angelique M; Lin, Ling; Mabus, John R; McDonnell, Mark E; McMillian, Michael K; McNally, James J; Stone, Dennis J; Wang, Charles Y; Zhang, Sui-Po; Flores, Christopher M

    2010-10-01

    The unexpected observation of a hyperglycemic effect of some tricycle-based delta opioid receptor (DOR) agonists led to a series of studies to better understand the finding. Single administration of two novel tricyclic DOR agonists dose dependently elevated rat plasma glucose levels; 4-week toxicology studies confirmed the hyperglycemic finding and further revealed pancreatic β-cell hypertrophy, including vacuole formation, as well as bone dysplasia and Harderian gland degeneration with regeneration. Similar diabetogenic effects were observed in dog. A review of the literature on the antiserotonergic and antihistaminergic drug cyproheptadine (CPH) and its metabolites revealed shared structural features as well as similar hyperglycemic effects to the present series of DOR agonists. To further evaluate these effects, we established an assay measuring insulin levels in the rat pancreatic β-cell-derived RINm5F cell line, extensively used to study CPH and its metabolites. Like CPH, the initial DOR agonists studied reduced RINm5F cell insulin levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, compound DOR potency did not correlate with the insulin-reducing potency. Furthermore, the RINm5F cell insulin results correlated with the diabetogenic effect of the compounds in a 5-day mouse study. The RINm5F cell insulin assay enabled the identification of aryl-aryl-amine DOR agonists that lacked an insulin-reducing effect and did not elevate blood glucose in repeated dosing studies conducted over a suprapharmacologic dose range. Thus, not only did the RINm5F cell assay open a path for the further discovery of DOR agonists lacking diabetogenic potential but also it established a reliable, economical, and high-throughput screen for such potential, regardless of chemotype or target pharmacology. The present findings also suggest a mechanistic link between the toxicity observed here and that underlying Wolcott-Rallison Syndrome.

  13. A critical role for PSD-95/AKAP interactions in endocytosis of synaptic AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Biou, Virginie; Xu, Weifeng; Schlüter, Oliver; Malenka, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) underlies several forms of synaptic plasticity including NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this trafficking remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that PSD-95, a major postsynaptic density protein, plays a key role in NMDAR-triggered endocytosis of synaptic AMPARs because of its binding to AKAP150, a scaffold for specific protein kinases and phosphatases. Knockdown of PSD-95 with shRNA blocks NMDAR-triggered, but not constitutive nor mGluR-triggered endocytosis of AMPARs. Deletion of PSD-95’s SH3 and GK domains as well as a point mutation (L460P), both of which inhibit binding of PSD-95 to AKAP150, also block NMDAR-triggered AMPAR endocytosis. Furthermore, expression of a mutant AKAP150 that does not bind calcineurin inhibits this NMDAR-triggered trafficking event. These results suggest that PSD-95’s interaction with AKAP150 is critical for NMDAR-triggered AMPAR endocytosis and LTD, possibly because these scaffolds position calcineurin in the appropriate subsynaptic domain. PMID:19169250

  14. Membrane protrusion powers clathrin-independent endocytosis of interleukin-2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Basquin, Cyril; Trichet, Michaël; Vihinen, Helena; Malardé, Valérie; Lagache, Thibault; Ripoll, Léa; Jokitalo, Eija; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Gautreau, Alexis; Sauvonnet, Nathalie

    2015-08-13

    Endocytosis controls many functions including nutrient uptake, cell division, migration and signal transduction. A clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis pathway is used by important physiological cargos, including interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R). However, this process lacks morphological and dynamic data. Our electron microscopy (EM) and tomography studies reveal that IL-2R-pits and vesicles are initiated at the base of protrusions. We identify the WAVE complex as a specific endocytic actor. The WAVE complex interacts with IL-2R, via a WAVE-interacting receptor sequence (WIRS) present in the receptor polypeptide, and allows for receptor clustering close to membrane protrusions. In addition, using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF) and automated analysis we demonstrate that two timely distinct bursts of actin polymerization are required during IL-2R uptake, promoted first by the WAVE complex and then by N-WASP. Finally, our data reveal that dynamin acts as a transition controller for the recruitment of Arp2/3 activators required for IL-2R endocytosis. Altogether, our work identifies the spatio-temporal specific role of factors initiating clathrin-independent endocytosis by a unique mechanism that does not depend on the deformation of a flat membrane, but rather on that of membrane protrusions.

  15. AMPA Receptor Endocytosis in Rat Perirhinal Cortex Underlies Retrieval of Object Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazakoff, Brittany N.; Howland, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms consistent with long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) play a fundamental role in object recognition memory; however, whether AMPA receptor endocytosis is involved in distinct phases of recognition memory is not known. To address this question, we used local PRh infusions of the cell membrane-permeable Tat-GluA2[subscript…

  16. Membrane protrusion powers clathrin-independent endocytosis of interleukin-2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Basquin, Cyril; Trichet, Michaël; Vihinen, Helena; Malardé, Valérie; Lagache, Thibault; Ripoll, Léa; Jokitalo, Eija; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Gautreau, Alexis; Sauvonnet, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis controls many functions including nutrient uptake, cell division, migration and signal transduction. A clathrin- and caveolin-independent endocytosis pathway is used by important physiological cargos, including interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R). However, this process lacks morphological and dynamic data. Our electron microscopy (EM) and tomography studies reveal that IL-2R-pits and vesicles are initiated at the base of protrusions. We identify the WAVE complex as a specific endocytic actor. The WAVE complex interacts with IL-2R, via a WAVE-interacting receptor sequence (WIRS) present in the receptor polypeptide, and allows for receptor clustering close to membrane protrusions. In addition, using total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF) and automated analysis we demonstrate that two timely distinct bursts of actin polymerization are required during IL-2R uptake, promoted first by the WAVE complex and then by N-WASP. Finally, our data reveal that dynamin acts as a transition controller for the recruitment of Arp2/3 activators required for IL-2R endocytosis. Altogether, our work identifies the spatio-temporal specific role of factors initiating clathrin-independent endocytosis by a unique mechanism that does not depend on the deformation of a flat membrane, but rather on that of membrane protrusions. PMID:26124312

  17. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis.

  18. Non-Ligand-Induced Dimerization is Sufficient to Initiate the Signalling and Endocytosis of EGF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kourouniotis, George; Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to EGF receptor (EGFR) stimulates cell mitogenesis and survival through various signalling cascades. EGF also stimulates rapid EGFR endocytosis and its eventual degradation in lysosomes. The immediate events induced by ligand binding include receptor dimerization, activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase and autophosphorylation. However, in spite of intensified efforts, the results regarding the roles of these events in EGFR signalling and internalization is still very controversial. In this study, we constructed a chimeric EGFR by replacing its extracellular domain with leucine zipper (LZ) and tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) at its C-terminus. We showed that the chimeric LZ-EGFR-GFP was constitutively dimerized. The LZ-EGFR-GFP dimer autophosphorylated each of its five well-defined C-terminal tyrosine residues as the ligand-induced EGFR dimer does. Phosphorylated LZ-EGFR-GFP was localized to both the plasma membrane and endosomes, suggesting it is capable of endocytosis. We also showed that LZ-EGFR-GFP activated major signalling proteins including Src homology collagen-like (Shc), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt. Moreover, LZ-EGFR-GFP was able to stimulate cell proliferation. These results indicate that non-ligand induced dimerization is sufficient to activate EGFR and initiate cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. We conclude that receptor dimerization is a critical event in EGF-induced cell signalling and EGFR endocytosis. PMID:27463710

  19. Essential role of endocytosis for interleukin-4-receptor-mediated JAK/STAT signalling.

    PubMed

    Kurgonaite, Kristina; Gandhi, Hetvi; Kurth, Thomas; Pautot, Sophie; Schwille, Petra; Weidemann, Thomas; Bökel, Christian

    2015-10-15

    Many important signalling cascades operate through specialized signalling endosomes, but a corresponding mechanism has as yet not been described for hematopoietic cytokine receptors. Based on live-cell affinity measurements, we recently proposed that ligand-induced interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) complex formation and thus JAK/STAT pathway activation requires a local subcellular increase in receptor density. Here, we show that this concentration step is provided by the internalization of IL-4R subunits through a constitutive, Rac1-, Pak- and actin-mediated endocytosis route that causes IL-4R subunits to become enriched by about two orders of magnitude within a population of cortical endosomes. Consistently, ligand-induced receptor dimers are preferentially detected within these endosomes. IL-4 signalling can be blocked by pharmacological inhibitors targeting the actin polymerization machinery driving receptor internalization, placing endocytosis unambigously upstream of receptor activation. Taken together, these observations demonstrate a role for endocytosis that is mechanistically distinct from the scaffolding function of signalling endosomes in other pathways.

  20. Target shape dependence in a simple model of receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, David M.; Endres, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis are vitally important particle uptake mechanisms in many cell types, ranging from single-cell organisms to immune cells. In both processes, engulfment by the cell depends critically on both particle shape and orientation. However, most previous theoretical work has focused only on spherical particles and hence disregards the wide-ranging particle shapes occurring in nature, such as those of bacteria. Here, by implementing a simple model in one and two dimensions, we compare and contrast receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis for a range of biologically relevant shapes, including spheres, ellipsoids, capped cylinders, and hourglasses. We find a whole range of different engulfment behaviors with some ellipsoids engulfing faster than spheres, and that phagocytosis is able to engulf a greater range of target shapes than other types of endocytosis. Further, the 2D model can explain why some nonspherical particles engulf fastest (not at all) when presented to the membrane tip-first (lying flat). Our work reveals how some bacteria may avoid being internalized simply because of their shape, and suggests shapes for optimal drug delivery. PMID:27185939

  1. Internalisation of the bleomycin molecules responsible for bleomycin toxicity: a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pron, G; Mahrour, N; Orlowski, S; Tounekti, O; Poddevin, B; Belehradek, J; Mir, L M

    1999-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) does not diffuse through the plasma membrane but nevertheless displays cytotoxic activity due to DNA break generation. The aim of the study was to describe the mechanism of BLM internalisation. We previously provided evidence for the existence of BLM-binding sites at the surface of DC-3F Chinese hamster fibroblasts, as well as of their involvement in BLM cytotoxicity on DC-3F cells and related BLM-resistant sublines. Here we report that A253 human cells and their BLM-resistant subline C-10E also possessed a membrane protein of ca. 250 kDa specifically binding BLM. Part of this C-10E cell resistance could be explained by a decrease in the number of BLM-binding sites exposed at the cell surface with respect to A253 cells. The comparison between A253 and DC-3F cells exposing a similar number of BLM-binding sites revealed that the faster the fluid phase endocytosis, the greater the cell sensitivity to BLM. Moreover, the experimental modification of endocytotic vesicle size showed that BLM cytotoxicity was directly correlated with the flux of plasma membrane area engulfed during endocytosis rather than with the fluid phase volume incorporated. Thus, BLM would be internalised by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism which would first require BLM binding to its membrane receptor and then the transfer of the complex into intracellular endocytotic vesicles, followed by BLM entry into the cytosol, probably from a nonacidic compartment.

  2. Endocytosis of Ligand-Activated Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Mediated by the Clathrin-Pathway.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Patrick M; Kang, Yuan-Lin; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is one of five G protein-coupled receptors activated by the lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Stimulation of S1PR1 by binding S1P or the synthetic agonist FTY720P results in rapid desensitization, associated in part with depletion of receptor from the cell surface. We report here combining spinning disc confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to show that rapid internalization of activated S1PR1 relies on a functional clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Uptake of activated S1PR1 was strongly inhibited in cells disrupted in their clathrin-mediated endocytosis by depleting clathrin or AP-2 or by treating cells with dynasore-OH. The uptake of activated S1P1R was strongly inhibited in cells lacking both β-arrestin 1 and β-arrestin 2, indicating that activated S1PR1 follows the canonical route of endocytosis for G-protein coupled receptor's (GPCR)'s.

  3. CIN85 regulates dopamine receptor endocytosis and governs behaviour in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Noriaki; Haglund, Kaisa; Hölter, Sabine M; Grabbe, Caroline; Kirkin, Vladimir; Koibuchi, Noriyuki; Schultz, Christian; Rozman, Jan; Hoeller, Daniela; Qiu, Chun-Hong; Londoño, Marina B; Ikezawa, Jun; Jedlicka, Peter; Stein, Birgit; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Wolfer, David P; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Heuchel, Rainer; Nezis, Ioannis; Brech, Andreas; Schmidt, Mirko H H; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Klingenspor, Martin; Bogler, Oliver; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deller, Thomas; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Dikic, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Despite extensive investigations of Cbl-interacting protein of 85 kDa (CIN85) in receptor trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics, little is known about its functions in vivo. Here, we report the study of a mouse deficient of the two CIN85 isoforms expressed in the central nervous system, exposing a function of CIN85 in dopamine receptor endocytosis. Mice lacking CIN85 exon 2 (CIN85Δex2) show hyperactivity phenotypes, characterized by increased physical activity and exploratory behaviour. Interestingly, CIN85Δex2 animals display abnormally high levels of dopamine and D2 dopamine receptors (D2DRs) in the striatum, an important centre for the coordination of animal behaviour. Importantly, CIN85 localizes to the post-synaptic compartment of striatal neurons in which it co-clusters with D2DRs. Moreover, it interacts with endocytic regulators such as dynamin and endophilins in the striatum. Absence of striatal CIN85 causes insufficient complex formation of endophilins with D2DRs in the striatum and ultimately decreased D2DR endocytosis in striatal neurons in response to dopamine stimulation. These findings indicate an important function of CIN85 in the regulation of dopamine receptor functions and provide a molecular explanation for the hyperactive behaviour of CIN85Δex2 mice. PMID:20551902

  4. Endocytosis and the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, James; Caplan, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The regulated intracellular transport of nutrient, adhesion, and growth factor receptors is crucial for maintaining cell and tissue homeostasis. Endocytosis, or endocytic membrane trafficking, involves the steps of intracellular transport that include, but are not limited to, internalization from the plasma membrane, sorting in early endosomes, transport to late endosomes/lysosomes followed by degradation, and/or recycling back to the plasma membrane through tubular recycling endosomes. In addition to regulating the localization of transmembrane receptor proteins, the endocytic pathway also controls the localization of non-receptor molecules. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src (Src) and its closely related family members Yes and Fyn represent three proteins whose localization and signaling activities are tightly regulated by endocytic trafficking. Here, we provide a brief overview of endocytosis, Src function and its biochemical regulation. We will then concentrate on recent advances in understanding how Src intracellular localization is regulated and how its subcellular localization ultimately dictates downstream functioning. As Src kinases are hyperactive in many cancers, it is essential to decipher the spatiotemporal regulation of this important family of tyrosine kinases. PMID:25372749

  5. A domain of the insulin receptor required for endocytosis in rat fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Thies, R S; Webster, N J; McClain, D A

    1990-06-15

    To study the mechanism and role of ligand-dependent endocytosis, we have engineered a mutant insulin receptor that retains its insulin binding and insulin-stimulated tyrosine kinase activities but does not exhibit ligand-induced internalization. The mutant has a deletion of the 16th exon which encodes 22 amino acids (residues 944-965) on the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane region of the receptor beta-subunit. When the cDNA is transfected in Rat 1 cells, the mutant receptor (HIR delta ex16) is processed to a glycosylated alpha 2 beta 2 heterotetramer and expressed at the cell surface. HIR delta ex16 receptors bind insulin with lower affinity than normal receptors (ED50 for insulin competition = 1.1 nM compared with 0.2 nM for normal receptors), but binding is normal in detergent solution. The mutant HIR delta ex16 receptor undergoes insulin-dependent autophosphorylation and activation as a tyrosine kinase toward exogenous substrates in vitro. In vivo, the receptor is also enzymatically active, as assessed 1) by the ability of antiphosphotyrosine antibodies to precipitate equivalent proportions (58-60%) of occupied wild type or mutant receptors and 2) by immunoblotting extracts of insulin-stimulated cells using antiphosphotyrosine antibodies. In the latter experiment, cells expressing HIR delta ex16 receptors exhibit tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta-subunits as well as of pp 185, a putative substrate of the receptor. Despite the ability to bind insulin and activate as a tyrosine kinase, HIR delta ex16 receptors do not internalize in Rat 1 cells. Whereas normal surface receptors covalently labeled with the photoaffinity reagent 125I-NAPA-DP insulin are 36% intracellular after 1 h at 37 degrees C, only background levels of internalization are seen when HIR delta ex16 receptors are labeled. The HIR delta ex16 receptors mediate no internalization or degradation of 125I-insulin compared with control untransfected Rat 1 cells, and they do not down

  6. Tyrosine-based signal mediates LRP6 receptor endocytosis and desensitization of Wnt/β-catenin pathway signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Kanekiyo, Takahisa; Roth, Barbara; Bu, Guojun

    2014-10-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling orchestrates a number of critical events including cell growth, differentiation, and cell survival during development. Misregulation of this pathway leads to various human diseases, specifically cancers. Endocytosis and phosphorylation of the LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), an essential co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signaling, play a vital role in mediating Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction. However, its regulatory mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we define the mechanisms by which LRP6 endocytic trafficking regulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation. We show that LRP6 mutant with defective tyrosine-based signal in its cytoplasmic tail has an increased cell surface distribution and decreased endocytosis rate. These changes in LRP6 endocytosis coincide with an increased distribution to caveolae, increased phosphorylation, and enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We further demonstrate that treatment of Wnt3a ligands or blocking the clathrin-mediated endocytosis of LRP6 leads to a redistribution of wild-type receptor to lipid rafts. The LRP6 tyrosine mutant also exhibited an increase in signaling activation in response to Wnt3a stimulation when compared with wild-type LRP6, and this activation is suppressed when caveolae-mediated endocytosis is blocked. Our results reveal molecular mechanisms by which LRP6 endocytosis routes regulate its phosphorylation and the strength of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and have implications on how this pathway can be modulated in human diseases.

  7. Role of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Ost in negative regulation of receptor endocytosis by the small GTPase Rac1.

    PubMed

    Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Ueda, Shuji; Kataoka, Tohru; Satoh, Takaya

    2007-08-10

    The Rho family of GTPases has been implicated in the regulation of intracellular vesicle trafficking. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis of cell surface receptors mediated by the Rho family protein Rac1. Contrary to previous reports, only the activated mutant of Rac1, but not other Rho family members including RhoA and Cdc42, suppressed internalization of the transferrin receptor. On the other hand, down-regulation of Rac1 expression by RNA interference resulted in enhanced receptor internalization, suggesting that endogenous Rac1 in fact functions as a negative regulator. We identified a guanine nucleotide exchange factor splice variant designated Ost-III, which contains a unique C-terminal region including an Src homology 3 domain, as a regulator of Rac1 involved in the inhibition of receptor endocytosis. In contrast, other splice variants Ost-I and Ost-II exerted virtually no effect on receptor endocytosis. We also examined subcellular localization of synaptojanin 2, a putative Rac1 effector implicated in negative regulation of receptor endocytosis. Each Ost splice variant induced distinct subcellular localization of synaptojanin 2, depending on Rac1 activation. Furthermore, we isolated gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) as a protein that binds to the C-terminal region of Ost-III. When ectopically expressed, GABARAP was co-localized with Ost-III and potently suppressed the Ost-III-dependent Rac1 activation and the inhibition of receptor endocytosis. Lipid modification of GABARAP was necessary for the suppression of Ost-III. These results are discussed in terms of subcellular region-specific regulation of the Rac1-dependent signaling pathway that negatively regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  8. Macrophage Receptor with Collagenous Structure (MARCO) Is Processed by either Macropinocytosis or Endocytosis-Autophagy Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Seishiro; Kanno, Sanae

    2015-01-01

    The Macrophage Receptor with COllagenous structure (MARCO) protein is a plasma membrane receptor for un-opsonized or environmental particles on phagocytic cells. Here, we show that MARCO was internalized either by ruffling of plasma membrane followed by macropinocytosis or by endocytosis followed by fusion with autophagosome in CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with GFP-MARCO. The macropinocytic process generated large vesicles when the plasma membrane subsided. The endocytosis/autophagosome (amphisome) generated small fluorescent puncta which were visible in the presence of glutamine, chloroquine, bafilomycin, ammonia, and other amines. The small puncta, but not the large vesicles, co-localized with LC3B and lysosomes. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio increased in the presence of glutamine, ammonia, and chloroquine in various cells. The small puncta trafficked between the peri-nuclear region and the distal ends of cells back and forth at rates of up to 2–3 μm/sec; tubulin, but not actin, regulated the trafficking of the small puncta. Besides phagocytosis MARCO, an adhesive plasma membrane receptor, may play a role in incorporation of various extracellular materials into the cell via both macropinocytic and endocytic pathways. PMID:26545255

  9. Role of coated vesicles, microfilaments, and calmodulin in receptor- mediated endocytosis by cultured B lymphoblastoid cells

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Cell surface receptor IgM molecules of cultured human lymlphoblastoid cells (WiL2) patch and redistribute into a cap over the Golgi region of the cell after treatment with multivalent anti-IgM antibodies. During and after the redistribution, ligand-receptor clusters are endocytosed into coated pits and coated vesicles. Morphometric analysis of the distribution of ferritin-labeled ligand at EM resolution reveals the following sequence of events in the endocytosis of cell surface IgM: (a) binding of the multivalent ligand in a diffuse cell surface distribution, (b) clustering of the ligand-receptor complexes, (c) recruitment of clathrin coats to the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane opposite ligand-receptor clusters, (d) assembly and (e) internalization of coated vesicles, and (f) delivery of label into a large vesicular compartment, presumably partly lysosomal. Most of the labeled ligand enters this pathway. The recruitment of clathrin coats to the membrane opposite ligand-receptor clusters is sensitive to the calmodulin-directed drug Stelazine (trifluoperazine dihydrochloride). In addition, Stelazine inhibits an alternate pathway of endocytosis that does not involve coated vesicle formation. The actin-directed drug dihydrocytochalasin B has no effect on the recruitment of clathrin to the ligand-receptor clusters and the formation of coated pits and little effect on the alternate pathway, but this drug does interfere with subsequent coated vesicle formation and it inhibits capping. Cortical microfilaments that decorate with heavy meromyosin with constant polarity are observed in association with the coated regions of the plasma membrane and with coated vesicles. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of a coated vesicle preparation isolated from WiL2 cells demonstrates that the major polypeptides in the fraction are a 175-kdalton component that comigrates with calf brain clathrin, a 42- kdalton component that comigrates with rabbit muscle actin and a

  10. Understanding magnetic nanoparticle osteoblast receptor-mediated endocytosis using experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Nhiem; Webster, Thomas J.

    2013-05-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for controlling drug delivery through an external magnetic force to treat a wide range of diseases, including osteoporosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that in the presence of hydroxyapatite coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, osteoblast (or bone forming cell) proliferation and long-term functions (such as calcium deposition) were significantly enhanced. Hydroxyapatite is the major inorganic component of bone. As a further attempt to understand why, in the current study, the uptake of such nanoparticles into osteoblasts was experimentally investigated and mathematically modeled. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and were coated with hydroxyapatite. A cellular uptake experiment at low temperatures indicated that receptor-mediated endocytosis contributed to the internalization of the magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts. A model was further developed to explain the uptake of magnetic nanoparticles into osteoblasts using receptor-mediated endocytosis. This model may explain the internalization of hydroxyapatite into osteoblasts to elevate intracellular calcium levels necessary to promote osteoblast functions to treat a wide range of orthopedic problems, including osteoporosis.

  11. Specific Endocytosis Blockade of Trypanosoma cruzi Exposed to a Poly-LAcNAc Binding Lectin Suggests that Lectin-Sugar Interactions Participate to Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Brosson, Sébastien; Fontaine, Frédéric; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Perez-Morga, David; Pays, Etienne; Bousbata, Sabrina; Salmon, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite transmitted by a triatomine insect, and causing human Chagas disease in South America. This parasite undergoes a complex life cycle alternating between non-proliferative and dividing forms. Owing to their high energy requirement, replicative epimastigotes of the insect midgut display high endocytic activity. This activity is mainly restricted to the cytostome, by which the cargo is taken up and sorted through the endosomal vesicular network to be delivered to reservosomes, the final lysosomal-like compartments. In African trypanosomes tomato lectin (TL) and ricin, respectively specific to poly-N-acetyllactosamine (poly-LacNAc) and β-D-galactose, allowed the identification of giant chains of poly-LacNAc in N-glycoproteins of the endocytic pathway. We show that in T. cruzi epimastigote forms also, glycoproteins of the endocytic pathway are characterized by the presence of N-linked glycans binding to both ricin and TL. Affinity chromatography using both TL and Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSLII), specific to non-reducing terminal residue of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), led to an enrichment of glycoproteins of the trypanosomal endocytic pathway. Incubation of live parasites with TL, which selectively bound to the cytostome/cytopharynx, specifically inhibited endocytosis of transferrin (Tf) but not dextran, a marker of fluid endocytosis. Taken together, our data suggest that N-glycan modification of endocytic components plays a crucial role in receptor-mediated endocytosis of T. cruzi. PMID:27685262

  12. Administration of pyrene lipids by receptor-mediated endocytosis and their degradation in skin fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Agmon, V.; Dinur, T.; Cherbu, S.; Dagan, A.; Gatt, S. )

    1991-10-01

    Sphingomyelin and seven glycosphingolipids were labeled with the fluorescent probe pyrene and administered into cultured fibroblasts by receptor-mediated endocytosis. For this purpose pyrene sphingomyelin or mixtures of pyrene glycolipid and unlabeled sphingomyelin were dispersed as small, unilamellar liposomes. Apolipoprotein E was then added and the receptor for this ligand on the cell surface was utilized for uptake of the liposomes and their transport to the lysosomes, where the respective pyrene lipids were degraded. Following incubation with each of the respective pyrene lipids, only the administered compound and the pyrene ceramide were present; intermediate hydrolysis products were not detected. This indicated that, in skin fibroblasts, the lysosomal ceramidase was limiting and controlled the rate of total degradation of the pyrene sphingolipids.

  13. Selectivity of commonly used inhibitors of clathrin-mediated and caveolae-dependent endocytosis of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuohan; Zhang, Xiaohan; Zheng, Mei; Zhang, Xiaowei; Min, Chengchun; Wang, Zengtao; Cheon, Seung Hoon; Oak, Min-Ho; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2015-10-01

    Among the multiple G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) endocytic pathways, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and caveolar endocytosis are more extensively characterized than other endocytic pathways. A number of endocytic inhibitors have been used to block CME; however, systemic studies to determine the selectivity of these inhibitors are needed. Clathrin heavy chain or caveolin1-knockdown cells have been employed to determine the specificity of various chemical and molecular biological tools for CME and caveolar endocytosis. Sucrose, concanavalin A, and dominant negative mutants of dynamin blocked other endocytic pathways, in addition to CME. In particular, concanavalin A nonspecifically interfered with the signaling of several GPCRs tested in the study. Decreased pH, monodansylcadaverine, and dominant negative mutants of epsin were more specific for CME than other treatments were. A recently introduced CME inhibitor, Pitstop2™, showed only marginal selectivity for CME and interfered with receptor expression on the cell surface. Blockade of receptor endocytosis by epsin mutants and knockdown of the clathrin heavy chain enhanced the β2AR-mediated ERK activation. Overall, our studies show that previous experimental results should be interpreted with discretion if they included the use of endocytic inhibitors that were previously thought to be CME-selective. In addition, our study shows that endocytosis of β2 adrenoceptor through clathrin-mediated pathway has negative effects on ERK activation.

  14. Mechanisms of Toll-like Receptor 4 Endocytosis Reveal a Common Immune-Evasion Strategy Used by Pathogenic and Commensal Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yunhao; Zanoni, Ivan; Cullen, Thomas W; Goodman, Andrew L; Kagan, Jonathan C

    2015-11-17

    Microbe-induced receptor trafficking has emerged as an essential means to promote innate immune signal transduction. Upon detection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), CD14 induces an inflammatory endocytosis pathway that delivers Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) to endosomes. Although several regulators of CD14-dependent TLR4 endocytosis have been identified, the cargo-selection mechanism during this process remains unknown. We reveal that, in contrast to classic cytosolic interactions that promoted the endocytosis of transmembrane receptors, TLR4 was selected as cargo for inflammatory endocytosis entirely through extracellular interactions. Mechanistically, the extracellular protein MD-2 bound to and dimerized TLR4 in order to promote this endocytic event. Our analysis of LPS variants from human pathogens and gut commensals revealed a common mechanism by which bacteria prevent inflammatory endocytosis. We suggest that evasion of CD14-dependent endocytosis is an attribute that transcends the concept of pathogenesis and might be a fundamental feature of bacteria that inhabit eukaryotic hosts.

  15. Distinct CCR7 glycosylation pattern shapes receptor signaling and endocytosis to modulate chemotactic responses.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Mark A; Kindinger, Ilona; Laufer, Julia M; Späte, Anne-Katrin; Bucher, Delia; Vanes, Sarah L; Krueger, Wolfgang A; Wittmann, Valentin; Legler, Daniel F

    2016-06-01

    The homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and their common cognate chemokine receptor CCR7 orchestrate immune cell trafficking by eliciting distinct signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that human CCR7 is N-glycosylated on 2 specific residues in the N terminus and the third extracellular loop. Conceptually, CCR7 glycosylation adds steric hindrance to the receptor N terminus and extracellular loop 3, acting as a "swinging door" to regulate receptor sensitivity and cell migration. We found that freshly isolated human B cells, as well as expanded T cells, but not naïve T cells, express highly sialylated CCR7. Moreover, we identified that human dendritic cells imprint T cell migration toward CCR7 ligands by secreting enzymes that deglycosylate CCR7, thereby boosting CCR7 signaling on T cells, permitting enhanced T cell locomotion, while simultaneously decreasing receptor endocytosis. In addition, dendritic cells proteolytically convert immobilized CCL21 to a soluble form that is more potent in triggering chemotactic movement and does not desensitize the receptor. Furthermore, we demonstrate that soluble CCL21 functionally resembles neither the CCL19 nor the CCL21 phenotype but acts as a chemokine with unique features. Thus, we advance the concept of dendritic cell-dependent generation of micromilieus and lymph node conditioning by demonstrating a novel layer of CCR7 regulation through CCR7 sialylation. In summary, we demonstrate that leukocyte subsets express distinct patterns of CCR7 sialylation that contribute to receptor signaling and fine-tuning chemotactic responses. PMID:26819318

  16. Rab GTPases regulate endothelial cell protein C receptor-mediated endocytosis and trafficking of factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ramesh C; Keshava, Shiva; Esmon, Charles T; Pendurthi, Usha R; Rao, L Vijaya Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have established that factor VIIa (FVIIa) binds to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). FVIIa binding to EPCR may promote the endocytosis of this receptor/ligand complex. Rab GTPases are known to play a crucial role in the endocytic and exocytic pathways of receptors or receptor/ligand complexes. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Rab GTPases in the intracellular trafficking of EPCR and FVIIa. CHO-EPCR cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were transduced with recombinant adenoviral vectors to express wild-type, constitutively active, or dominant negative mutant of various Rab GTPases. Cells were exposed to FVIIa conjugated with AF488 fluorescent probe (AF488-FVIIa), and intracellular trafficking of FVIIa, EPCR, and Rab proteins was evaluated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. In cells expressing wild-type or constitutively active Rab4A, internalized AF488-FVIIa accumulated in early/sorting endosomes and its entry into the recycling endosomal compartment (REC) was inhibited. Expression of constitutively active Rab5A induced large endosomal structures beneath the plasma membrane where EPCR and FVIIa accumulated. Dominant negative Rab5A inhibited the endocytosis of EPCR-FVIIa. Expression of constitutively active Rab11 resulted in retention of accumulated AF488-FVIIa in the REC, whereas expression of a dominant negative form of Rab11 led to accumulation of internalized FVIIa in the cytoplasm and prevented entry of internalized FVIIa into the REC. Expression of dominant negative Rab11 also inhibited the transport of FVIIa across the endothelium. Overall our data show that Rab GTPases regulate the internalization and intracellular trafficking of EPCR-FVIIa.

  17. Effect of the anti-receptor ligand-blocking 225 monoclonal antibody on EGF receptor endocytosis and sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Maria L. . E-mail: maria.jaramillo@nrc.ca; Leon, Zully; Grothe, Suzanne; Paul-Roc, Beatrice; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; O'Connor McCourt, Maureen

    2006-09-10

    The anti-receptor antibody, 225 mAb, is known to block binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the effect of this neutralizing antibody on EGFR endocytosis, trafficking and degradation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that endocytosis of {sup 125}I-225 mAb occurs, albeit with a slower rate than that of EGF. Using pulse chase assays, we show that internalized {sup 125}I-225 mAb is recycled to the surface much more efficiently than internalized {sup 125}I-EGF. Also, we found that internalization of {sup 125}I-225 mAb, in contrast to that of EGF, is independent of receptor tyrosine kinase activity, as evidenced by its insensitivity to AG1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Analysis of the levels of cell surface and total EGFR showed that treatment with 225 mAb results in a 30-40% decrease in surface EGFR and a relatively slow downregulation of total EGFR. Taken together, these data indicate that 225 mAb induces internalization and downregulation of EGFR via a mechanism distinct from that underlying EGF-induced EGFR internalization and downregulation.

  18. Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling by Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Patrick; Schooler, Kevin; Wiley, H S.

    2001-06-01

    Ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leads to its rapid internalization and eventual delivery to lysosomes. This process is thought to be a mechanism to attenuate signaling, but signals could potentially be generated following endocytosis. To directly evaluate EGFR signaling during receptor trafficking, we developed a technique to rapidly and selectively isolate internalized EGFR and associated molecules using reversibly-biotinylated anti-EGFR antibodies. In addition, we developed antibodies specific to tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR. Using a combination of fluorescence imaging and affinity precipitation approaches, we evaluated the state of EGFR activation and substrate association during trafficking in epithelial cells. We found that following internalization, EGFR remained active in the early endosomes. However, receptors were inactivated prior to degradation, apparently due to ligand removal from endosomes. Adapter molecules, such as Shc, were associated with EGFR both at the cell surface and within endosomes. Some molecules, such as Grb2, were primarily found associated with surface EGFR, while others, such as Eps8, were only found with intracellular receptors. During the inactivation phase, c-Cbl became EGFR-associated, consistent with its postulated role in receptor attenuation. We conclude that the association of the EGFR with different proteins is compartment-specific . In addition, ligand loss is the proximal cause of EGFR inactivation. Thus, regulated trafficking could potentially influence the pattern as well as the duration of signal transduction.

  19. The nuclear architectural protein HMGA1a triggers receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wuwei; Wan, Wei; Li, Alexander D Q

    2009-11-01

    High mobility group proteins A (HMGA), nuclear architectural factors, locate in the cell nuclei and mostly execute gene-regulation function. However, our results reveal that a HMGA member (HMGA1a) has a unique plasma membrane receptor; this receptor specifically binds to HMGA-decorated species, effectively mediates endocytosis, and internalizes extracellular HMGA-functionalized cargoes. Indeed, dyes or nanoparticles labeled with HMGA1a protein readily enter Hela cells. Using a stratagem chemical cross-linker, we covalently bonded the HMGA receptor to the HMGA1a-GFP fusion protein, thus capturing the plasma membrane receptor. Subsequent Western blots and SDS-PAGE gel revealed that the HMGA receptor is a 26-kDa protein. Confocal live-cell microscopic imaging was used to monitor the whole endocytic process, in which the internalized HMGA1a-decorated species are transported by motor proteins on microtubules and eventually arrive at the late endosomes/lysosomes. Cell viability assays also suggested that extracellular HMGA1a protein directly influences the survival ability of Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner, implying versatility of HMGA1a protein and its potent role to suppress cancer cell survivability and to regulate growth. PMID:19739099

  20. Polarized endocytosis by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with functional chicken liver glycoprotein receptor

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the expression of the chicken hepatic glycoprotein receptor (chicken hepatic lectin [CHL]) in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, by transfection of its cDNA under the control of a retroviral promotor. Transfected cell lines stably express 87,000 surface receptors/cell with a kd = 13 nM. In confluent monolayers, approximately 40% of CHL is localized at the plasma membrane. 98% of the surface CHL is expressed at the basolateral surface where it performs polarized endocytosis and degradation of glycoproteins carrying terminal N-acetylglucosamine at a rate of 50,000 ligand molecules/h. Studies of the half-life of metabolically labeled receptor and of the stability of biotinylated cell surface receptor after internalization indicate that transfected CHL performs several rounds of uptake and recycling before it gets degraded. The successful expression of a functional basolateral receptor in MDCK cells opens the way for the characterization of the mechanisms that control targeting and recycling of proteins to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells. PMID:2687287

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubule cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J; Stuart, J; Tobin, A B; Walls, J; Nahorski, S

    1998-05-15

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin is an important function of the kidney proximal tubule epithelium. We have measured endocytosis of [125I]-albumin in opossum kidney cells and examined the regulation of this process by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Albumin endocytosis was inhibited by both wortmannin (IC50 6.9 nM) and LY294002 (IC50 6.5 microM) at concentrations that suggested the involvement of PI 3-kinase in its regulation. Recycling rates were unaffected. We transfected OK cells with either a wild-type p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, or a dominant negative form of the p85 subunit (Deltap85) using the LacSwitch expression system. Transfects were screened by immunoblotting with anti-PI 3-kinase antibodies. Under basal conditions, transfects demonstrated no expression of p85 or Deltap85, but expression was briskly induced by treatment of the cells with IPTG (EC50 13.7 microM). Inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity by Deltap85 was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay of anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from transfected cells stimulated with insulin. Expression of Deltap85 resulted in marked inhibition of albumin endocytosis, predominantly as a result of reduction of the Vmax of the transport process. Expression of p85 had no significant effect on albumin uptake. The results demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates an early step in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubular cells. PMID:9593770

  2. Mutant Chinese hamster ovary cells pleiotropically defective in receptor-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Populations of Chinese hamster ovary cells selected for resistance to diphtheria toxin were found to be highly enriched for mutants deficient in the uptake of lysosomal hydrolases via the mannose 6-phosphate receptor. One doubly defective mutant, DTF 1-5-1, exhibited increased resistance to Sindbis virus, although it was able to bind and internalize virus normally. Normal production of virus was obtained when, subsequent to virus binding, the mutant was exposed for 2 min to acidic pH. Similarly, a shift to acidic pH increased the sensitivity of DTF 1-5-1 to diphtheria toxin 12-fold. Decreased uptake of lysosomal hydrolases by the mutant correlated with decreased mannose 6-phosphate receptor activity at the cell surface; results of lactoperoxidase- catalyzed iodination indicated that the surface-associated receptor was present but inactive on DTF 1-5-1. Total mannose 6-phosphate receptor activity was also decreased in the mutant and this decrease was reflected by increased secretion of lysosomal hydrolases. The phenotype of DTF 1-5-1 resembles in many ways that of cells treated with ammonia. We suggest that the defect in DTF 1-5-1 stems from an inability to deliver virus, diphtheria toxin, and lysosomal hydrolases to an acidic compartment. Other ligands may be endocytosed through a different pathway since the defect of DTF 1-5-1 did not decrease the endocytosis of ricin, modeccin, or Pseudomonas toxin and had minimal effects on uptake and degradation of low density lipoprotein. PMID:6300143

  3. Endocytosis of pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors and its relevance for signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Heike M; Wohlfahrt, Julia; Mais, Christine; Hergovits, Sabine; Jahn, Daniel; Geier, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are key players of the innate and adaptive immunity. Their activity needs to be tightly controlled to allow the initiation of an appropriate immune response as defense mechanism against pathogens or tissue injury. Excessive or sustained signaling of either of these cytokines leads to severe diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), steatohepatitis, periodic fevers and even cancer. Studies carried out in the last 30 years have emphasized that an elaborate control system for each of these cytokines exists. Here, we summarize what is currently known about the involvement of receptor endocytosis in the regulation of these pro-inflammatory cytokines' signaling cascades. Particularly in the last few years it was shown that this cellular process is far more than a mere feedback mechanism to clear cytokines from the circulation and to shut off their signal transduction.

  4. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of. beta. -glucuronidase

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human {beta}-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3{percent} of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of {beta}-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14{percent} the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized {beta}-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

  5. C-C chemokine receptor-7 mediated endocytosis of antibody cargoes into intact cells.

    PubMed

    Charest-Morin, Xavier; Pépin, Rémy; Gagné-Henley, Angélique; Morissette, Guillaume; Lodge, Robert; Marceau, François

    2013-01-01

    The C-C chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) is a G protein coupled receptor that has a role in leukocyte homing, but that is also expressed in aggressive tumor cells. Preclinical research supports that CCR7 is a valid target in oncology. In view of the increasing availability of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that carry cytotoxic cargoes, we studied the feasibility of forcing intact cells to internalize known monoclonal antibodies by exploiting the cycle of endocytosis and recycling triggered by the CCR7 agonist CCL19. Firstly, an anti-CCR7 antibody (CD197; clone 150503) labeled surface recombinant CCR7 expressed in intact HEK 293a cells and the fluorescent antibody was internalized following CCL19 treatment. Secondly, a recombinant myc-tagged CCL19 construction was exploited along the anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6. The myc-tagged ligand was produced as a conditioned medium of transfected HEK 293a cells that contained the equivalent of 430 ng/ml of immunoreactive CCL19 (average value, ELISA determination). CCL19-myc, but not authentic CCL19, carried the fluorophore-labeled antibody 4A6 into other recipient cells that expressed recombinant CCR7 (microscopy, cytofluorometry). The immune complexes were apparent in endosomal structures, co-localized well with the small GTPase Rab5 and progressed toward Rab7-positive endosomes. A dominant negative form of Rab5 (GDP-locked) inhibited this endocytosis. Further, endosomes in CCL19-myc- or CCL19-stimulated cells were positive for β-arrestin2, but rarely for β-arrestin1. Following treatment with CCL19-myc and the 4A6 antibody, the melanoma cell line A375 that expresses endogenous CCR7 was specifically stained using a secondary peroxidase-conjugated antibody. Agonist-stimulated CCR7 can transport antibody-based cargoes, with possible therapeutic applications in oncology.

  6. Dynamin 2-dependent endocytosis sustains T-cell receptor signaling and drives metabolic reprogramming in T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Willinger, Tim; Staron, Matthew; Ferguson, Shawn M; De Camilli, Pietro; Flavell, Richard A

    2015-04-01

    Prolonged T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling is required for the proliferation of T lymphocytes. Ligation of the TCR activates signaling, but also causes internalization of the TCR from the cell surface. How TCR signaling is sustained for many hours despite lower surface expression is unknown. Using genetic inhibition of endocytosis, we show here that TCR internalization promotes continued TCR signaling and T-lymphocyte proliferation. T-cell-specific deletion of dynamin 2, an essential component of endocytosis, resulted in reduced TCR signaling strength, impaired homeostatic proliferation, and the inability to undergo clonal expansion in vivo. Blocking endocytosis resulted in a failure to maintain mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity and to stably induce the transcription factor myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc), which led to metabolic stress and a defect in cell growth. Our results support the concept that the TCR can continue to signal after it is internalized from the cell surface, thereby enabling sustained signaling and cell proliferation.

  7. Coated vesicles participate in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We have purified coated vesicles from rat liver by differential ultracentrifugation. Electron micrographs of these preparations reveal only the polyhedral structures typical of coated vesicles. SDS PAGE of the coated vesicle preparation followed by Coomassie Blue staining of proteins reveals a protein composition also typical of coated vesicles. We determined that these rat liver coated vesicles possess a latent insulin binding capability. That is, little if any specific binding of 125I-insulin to coated vesicles is observed in the absence of detergent. However, coated vesicles treated with the detergent octyl glucoside exhibit a substantial specific 125I-insulin binding capacity. We visualized the insulin binding structure of coated vesicles by cross- linking 125I-insulin to detergent-solubilized coated vesicles using the bifunctional reagent disuccinimidyl suberate followed by electrophoresis and autoradiography. The receptor structure thus identified is identical to that of the high-affinity insulin receptor present in a variety of tissues. We isolated liver coated vesicles from rats which had received injections of 125I-insulin in the hepatic portal vein. We found that insulin administered in this fashion was rapidly and specifically taken up by liver coated vesicles. Taken together, these data are compatible with a functional role for coated vesicles in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin. PMID:6131074

  8. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase reduce receptor-mediated endocytosis in opossum kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Sidaway, James E; Davidson, Robert G; McTaggart, Fergus; Orton, Terry C; Scott, Robert C; Smith, Graham J; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2004-09-01

    Renal proximal tubule cells are responsible for the reabsorption of proteins that are present in the tubular lumen. This occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process that has a requirement for some GTP-binding proteins. Statins are inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase used for the therapeutic reduction of cholesterol-containing plasma lipoproteins. However, they can also reduce intracellular levels of isoprenoid pyrophosphates that are derived from the product of the enzyme, mevalonate, and are required for the prenylation and normal function of GTP-binding proteins. The hypothesis that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase in renal proximal tubule cells could reduce receptor mediated-endocytosis was therefore tested. Five different statins inhibited the uptake of FITC-labeled albumin by the proximal tubule-derived opossum kidney cell line in a dose-dependent manner and in the absence of cytotoxicity. The reduction in albumin uptake was related to the degree of inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Simvastatin (e.g., statin) inhibited receptor-mediated endocytosis of both FITC-albumin and FITC-beta(2)-microglobulin to similar extents but without altering the binding of albumin to the cell surface. The effect on albumin endocytosis was prevented by mevalonate and by the isoprenoid geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate but not by cholesterol. Finally, evidence that the inhibitory effect of statins on endocytosis of proteins may be caused by reduced prenylation and thereby decreased function of one or more GTP-binding proteins is provided. These data establish the possibility in principle that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase by statins in proximal tubule cells may reduce tubular protein reabsorption. PMID:15339975

  9. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Lysozyme in Renal Proximal Tubules of the Frog Rana Temporaria

    PubMed Central

    Seliverstova, E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endo-somes), and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intra-cellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals. PMID:26150156

  10. Wnt5a promotes cancer cell invasion and proliferation by receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Shojima, Kensaku; Sato, Akira; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tsujimoto, Ikuko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Hattori, Kazunari; Sato, Yuji; Dohi, Keiji; Hirata, Michinari; Yamamoto, Hideki; Kikuchi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Wnt5a activates the Wnt/β-catenin-independent pathway and its overexpression is associated with tumor aggressiveness enhancing invasive activity. For this action, Wnt5a-induced receptor endocytosis with clathrin is required. Wnt5a expression was previously believed to be associated with cancer cell motility but not proliferation. Recently, it was reported that Wnt5a is also implicated in cancer cell proliferation, but the mechanism was not clear. In this study, we generated a neutralizing anti-Wnt5a monoclonal antibody (mAb5A16) to investigate the mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates cancer cell proliferation. Wnt5a stimulated both invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells, including HeLaS3 cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells although Wnt5a promoted invasion but not proliferation in other cancer cells such as KKLS gastric cancer cells. mAb5A16 did not affect the binding of Wnt5a to its receptor, but it suppressed Wnt5a-induced receptor-mediated endocytosis. mAb5A16 inhibited invasion but not proliferation of HeLaS3 and A549 cells. Wnt5a activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and Wnt5a-dependent cancer cell proliferation was dependent on SFKs, yet blockade of receptor-mediated endocytosis did not affect cancer cell proliferation and SFK activity. These results suggest that Wnt5a promotes invasion and proliferation of certain types of cancer cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. PMID:25622531

  11. Initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is unaffected but endocytosis is delayed in mice lacking the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Herz, J; Qiu, S Q; Oesterle, A; DeSilva, H V; Shafi, S; Havel, R J

    1995-01-01

    Two endocytic receptors, the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein (LRP), are thought to act in concert in the hepatic uptake of partially metabolized dietary lipoproteins, the chylomicron remnants. We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants in normal mice and in LDLR-deficient [LDLR (-/-)] mice. The rate of chylomicron remnant removal by the liver was normal up to 30 min after intravenous injection of chylomicrons into LDLR (-/-) mice and was unaffected by receptor-associated protein (RAP), a potent inhibitor of ligand binding to LRP. In contrast, endocytosis of the remnants by the hepatocytes, measured by their accumulation in the endosomal fraction and by the rate of hydrolysis of component cholesteryl esters, was dramatically reduced in the absence of the LDLR. Coadministration of RAP prevented the continuing hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants in LDL (-/-) mice after 30 min, consistent with blockade of the slow endocytosis by a RAP-sensitive process. Taken together with previous studies, our results are consistent with a model in which the initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is primarily mediated by mechanisms that do not include LDLR or LRP, possibly involving glycosaminoglycan-bound hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein E. After the remnants bind to these alternative sites on the hepatocyte surface, endocytosis is predominantly mediated by the LDLR and also by a slower and less efficient backup process that is RAP sensitive and therefore most likely involves LRP. PMID:7753850

  12. Biomarkers of morphine tolerance and dependence are prevented by morphine-induced endocytosis of a mutant mu-opioid receptor.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Kim, Joseph A; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2009-12-01

    Growing evidence shows that trafficking of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR) is a critical process in functional recovery from desensitization following activation and plays important roles in morphine tolerance and dependence largely because of the failure of morphine to promote such trafficking. However, morphine tolerance and dependence are believed to be mediated by multiple mechanisms, including well-documented biochemical changes in cAMP activity, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), glucocorticoid receptors (GRs), and c-fos. Here, we assess the consequences of promoting morphine-induced endocytosis on these biochemical changes utilizing a knock-in mouse model, RMOR, in which MORs undergo morphine-induced endocytosis. Chronic morphine treatment of wild-type (WT) mice promoted superactivation of adenylyl cyclase, alterations in NMDARs, and up-regulation of GR and c-fos in distinct brain regions. Notably, none of these biochemical changes occurred in the RMOR-knock-in mice. Together, these data demonstrate that morphine tolerance and dependence are mediated by multiple biochemical mechanisms and that MOR endocytosis plays a critical role in each of these mechanisms.

  13. Phospholipase D2 Localizes to the Plasma Membrane and Regulates Angiotensin II Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Guangwei; Huang, Ping; Liang, Bruce T.; Frohman, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a key facilitator of multiple types of membrane vesicle trafficking events. Two PLD isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, exist in mammals. Initial studies based on overexpression studies suggested that in resting cells, human PLD1 localized primarily to the Golgi and perinuclear vesicles in multiple cell types. In contrast, overexpressed mouse PLD2 was observed to localize primarily to the plasma membrane, although internalization on membrane vesicles was observed subsequent to serum stimulation. A recent report has suggested that the assignment of PLD2 to the plasma membrane is in error, because the endogenous isoform in rat secretory cells was imaged and found to be present primarily in the Golgi apparatus. We have reexamined this issue by using a monoclonal antibody specific for mouse PLD2, and find, as reported initially using overexpression studies, that endogenous mouse PLD2 is detected most readily at the plasma membrane in multiple cell types. In addition, we report that mouse, rat, and human PLD2 when overexpressed all similarly localize to the plasma membrane in cell lines from all three species. Finally, studies conducted using overexpression of wild-type active or dominant-negative isoforms of PLD2 and RNA interference-mediated targeting of PLD2 suggest that PLD2 functions at the plasma membrane to facilitate endocytosis of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. PMID:14718562

  14. The carboxyl terminus of human cytomegalovirus-encoded 7 transmembrane receptor US28 camouflages agonism by mediating constitutive endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Waldhoer, Maria; Casarosa, Paola; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Smit, Martine J; Leurs, Rob; Whistler, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Thue W

    2003-05-23

    US28 is one of four 7 transmembrane (7TM) chemokine receptors encoded by human cytomegalovirus and has been shown to both signal and endocytose in a ligand-independent, constitutively active manner. Here we show that the constitutive activity and constitutive endocytosis properties of US28 are separable entities in this viral chemokine receptor. We generated chimeric and mutant US28 proteins that were altered in either their constitutive endocytic (US28 Delta 300, US28 Delta 317, US28-NK1-ctail, and US28-ORF74-ctail) or signaling properties (US28R129A). By using this series of mutants, we show that the cytoplasmic tail domain of US28 per se regulates receptor endocytosis, independent of the signaling ability of the core domain of US28. The constitutive endocytic property of the US28 c-tail was transposable to other 7TM receptors, the herpes virus 8-encoded ORF74 and the tachykinin NK1 receptor (ORF74-US28-ctail and NK1-US28-ctail). Deletion of the US28 C terminus resulted in reduced constitutive endocytosis and consequently enhanced signaling capacity of all receptors tested as assessed by inositol phosphate turnover, NF-kappa B, and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein transcription assays. We further show that the constitutive endocytic property of US28 affects the action of its chemokine ligand fractalkine/CX3CL1 and show that in the absence of the US28 C terminus, fractalkine/CX3CL1 acts as an agonist on US28. This demonstrates for the first time that the endocytic properties of a 7TM receptor can camouflage the agonist properties of a ligand.

  15. Endocytosis separates EGF receptors from endogenous fluorescently labeled HRas and diminishes receptor signaling to MAP kinases in endosomes.

    PubMed

    Pinilla-Macua, Itziar; Watkins, Simon C; Sorkin, Alexander

    2016-02-23

    Signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to extracellular-stimuli-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is proposed to be transduced not only from the cell surface but also from endosomes, although the role of endocytosis in this signaling pathway is controversial. Ras is the only membrane-anchored component in the EGFR-ERK signaling axis, and therefore, its location determines intracellular sites of downstream signaling. Hence, we labeled endogenous H-Ras (HRas) with mVenus fluorescent protein using gene editing in HeLa cells. mVenus-HRas was primarily located at the plasma membrane, and in small amounts in tubular recycling endosomes and associated vesicles. EGF stimulation resulted in fast but transient activation of mVenus-HRas. Although EGF:EGFR complexes were rapidly accumulated in endosomes together with the Grb2 adaptor, very little, if any, mVenus-HRas was detected in these endosomes. Interestingly, the activities of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 remained high beyond the point of the physical separation of HRas from EGF:EGFR complexes and down-regulation of Ras activity. Paradoxically, this sustained MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation was dependent on the active EGFR kinase. Cell surface biotinylation and selective inactivation of surface EGFRs suggested that a small fraction of active EGFRs remaining in the plasma membrane is responsible for continuous signaling to MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. We propose that, under physiological conditions of cell stimulation, EGFR endocytosis serves to spatially separate EGFR-Grb2 complexes and Ras, thus terminating Ras-mediated signaling. However, sustained minimal activation of Ras by a small pool of active EGFRs in the plasma membrane is sufficient for extending MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activities.

  16. Endocytosis separates EGF receptors from endogenous fluorescently labeled HRas and diminishes receptor signaling to MAP kinases in endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla-Macua, Itziar; Watkins, Simon C.; Sorkin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to extracellular-stimuli–regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is proposed to be transduced not only from the cell surface but also from endosomes, although the role of endocytosis in this signaling pathway is controversial. Ras is the only membrane-anchored component in the EGFR–ERK signaling axis, and therefore, its location determines intracellular sites of downstream signaling. Hence, we labeled endogenous H-Ras (HRas) with mVenus fluorescent protein using gene editing in HeLa cells. mVenus-HRas was primarily located at the plasma membrane, and in small amounts in tubular recycling endosomes and associated vesicles. EGF stimulation resulted in fast but transient activation of mVenus-HRas. Although EGF:EGFR complexes were rapidly accumulated in endosomes together with the Grb2 adaptor, very little, if any, mVenus-HRas was detected in these endosomes. Interestingly, the activities of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 remained high beyond the point of the physical separation of HRas from EGF:EGFR complexes and down-regulation of Ras activity. Paradoxically, this sustained MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activation was dependent on the active EGFR kinase. Cell surface biotinylation and selective inactivation of surface EGFRs suggested that a small fraction of active EGFRs remaining in the plasma membrane is responsible for continuous signaling to MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. We propose that, under physiological conditions of cell stimulation, EGFR endocytosis serves to spatially separate EGFR–Grb2 complexes and Ras, thus terminating Ras-mediated signaling. However, sustained minimal activation of Ras by a small pool of active EGFRs in the plasma membrane is sufficient for extending MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 activities. PMID:26858456

  17. HDL endocytosis and resecretion.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert

    2013-11-01

    HDL removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers it to the liver and steroidogenic tissues via selective lipid uptake without catabolism of the HDL particle itself. In addition, endocytosis of HDL holo-particles has been debated for nearly 40years. However, neither the connection between HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake, nor the physiological relevance of HDL uptake has been delineated clearly. This review will focus on HDL endocytosis and resecretion and its relation to cholesterol transfer. We will discuss the role of HDL endocytosis in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in tissues and cell types involved in atherosclerosis, focusing on liver, macrophages and endothelium. We will critically summarize the current knowledge on the receptors mediating HDL endocytosis including SR-BI, F1-ATPase and CD36 and on intracellular HDL transport routes. Dependent on the tissue, HDL is either resecreted (retro-endocytosis) or degraded after endocytosis. Finally, findings on HDL transcytosis across the endothelial barrier will be summarized. We suggest that HDL endocytosis and resecretion is a rather redundant pathway under physiologic conditions. In case of disturbed lipid metabolism, however, HDL retro-endocytosis represents an alternative pathway that enables tissues to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

  18. The Human Hyaluronan Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE/Stabilin-2) Is a Systemic Clearance Receptor for Heparin*

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Edward N.; Weigel, Janet A.; Weigel, Paul H.

    2008-01-01

    The hyaluronic acid receptor for endocytosis (HARE; also designated Stabilin-2) mediates systemic clearance of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates from the vascular and lymphatic circulations. The internalized glycosaminoglycans are degraded in lysosomes, thus completing their normal turnover process. Sinusoidal endothelial cells of human liver, lymph node, and spleen express two HARE isoforms of 315 and 190 kDa. Here we report that the 190- and 315-kDa HARE isoforms, expressed stably either in Flp-In 293 cell lines or as soluble ectodomains, specifically bind heparin (Hep). The Kd for Hep binding to purified 190- and 315-kDa HARE ectodomains was 17.2 ± 4.9 and 23.4 ± 5.3 nm, respectively. Cells expressing HARE readily and specifically internalized 125I-streptavidin-biotin-Hep complexes, which was inhibited >70% by hyperosmolar conditions, confirming that uptake is mediated by the clathrin-coated pit pathway. Internalization of Hep occurred for many hours with an estimated HARE recycling time of ∼12 min. Internalized fluorescent streptavidin-biotin-Hep was present in a typical endocytic vesicular pattern and was delivered to lysosomes. We conclude that HARE in the sinusoidal endothelial cells of lymph nodes and liver likely mediates the efficient systemic clearance of Hep and many different Hep-binding protein complexes from the lymphatic and vascular circulations. PMID:18434317

  19. Mechanism-Based Tumor-Targeting Drug Delivery System. Validation of Efficient Vitamin Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Drug Release

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Wong, S.; Zhao, X.; Chen, J.; Chen, J.; Kuznetsova, L.; Ojima, I.

    2010-05-01

    An efficient mechanism-based tumor-targeting drug delivery system, based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis, has been developed. The tumor-targeting drug delivery system is a conjugate of a tumor-targeting molecule (biotin: vitamin H or vitamin B-7), a mechanism-based self-immolative linker and a second-generation taxoid (SB-T-1214) as the cytotoxic agent. This conjugate (1) is designed to be (i) specific to the vitamin receptors overexpressed on tumor cell surface and (ii) internalized efficiently through receptor-mediated endocytosis, followed by smooth drug release via glutathione-triggered self-immolation of the linker. In order to monitor and validate the sequence of events hypothesized, i.e., receptor-mediated endocytosis of the conjugate, drug release, and drug-binding to the target protein (microtubules), three fluorescent/fluorogenic molecular probes (2, 3, and 4) were designed and synthesized. The actual occurrence of these processes was unambiguously confirmed by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and flow cytometry using L1210FR leukemia cells, overexpressing biotin receptors. The molecular probe 4, bearing the taxoid linked to fluorescein, was also used to examine the cell specificity (i.e., efficacy of receptor-based cell targeting) for three cell lines, L1210FR (biotin receptors overexpressed), L1210 (biotin receptors not overexpressed), and WI38 (normal human lung fibroblast, biotin receptor negative). As anticipated, the molecular probe 4 exhibited high specificity only to L1210FR. To confirm the direct correlation between the cell-specific drug delivery and anticancer activity of the probe 4, its cytotoxicity against these three cell lines was also examined. The results clearly showed a good correlation between the two methods. In the same manner, excellent cell-specific cytotoxicity of the conjugate 1 (without fluorescein attachment to the taxoid) against the same three cell lines was confirmed. This mechanism

  20. Dopamine D(3) receptors are down-regulated following heterologous endocytosis by a specific interaction with G protein-coupled receptor-associated sorting protein-1.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dawn; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-01-14

    The D(3) dopamine receptor is endocytosed through a heterologous mechanism mediated by phorbol esters. Here, we show that following this endocytosis the D(3) dopamine receptors fail to recycle and are instead targeted for degradation through an interaction with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1). Furthermore, we identified a specific binding motif in the C terminus common to the D(3) and D(2) that confers GASP-1 binding. shRNA knockdown of GASP-1 delayed post-endocytic degradation of both the D(2) and D(3) dopamine receptors. In addition, mutation of the D(2) and D(3) receptor C termini to resemble the D(4), which does not interact with GASP-1, not only inhibited GASP-1 binding but slowed degradation after endocytosis. Conversely, mutation of the C terminus of the D(4) to resemble that of the D(2) and D(3) facilitated GASP-1 binding and promoted post-endocytic degradation of the mutant D(4) receptor. Thus, we have identified a motif that is both necessary and sufficient to promote GASP-1 binding and receptor degradation. In addition, these data demonstrated that GASP-1 can mediate post-endocytic degradation of dopamine receptors that have been endocytosed not only as a consequence of dopamine activation but also as a consequence of activation by phorbol esters.

  1. Syndecan-4 Is a Receptor for Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis of Arginine-Rich Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshimasa; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Kuwata, Keiko; Chiba, Junya; Hatanaka, Yasumaru; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Futaki, Shiroh

    2016-04-20

    Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) such as Tat and oligoarginine peptides have been widely used as carriers for intracellular delivery of bioactive molecules. Despite accumulating evidence for involvement of endocytosis in the cellular uptake of arginine-rich CPPs, the primary cell-surface receptors for these peptide carriers that would initiate endocytic processes leading to intracellular delivery of bioactive cargoes have remained poorly understood. Our previous attempt to identify membrane receptors for octa-arginine (R8) peptide, one of the representative arginine-rich CPPs, using the photo-cross-linking probe bearing a photoreactive diazirine was not successful due to considerable amounts of cellular proteins nonspecifically bound to the affinity beads. To address this issue, here we developed a photo-cross-linking probe in which a cleavable linker of a diazobenzene moiety was employed to allow selective elution of cross-linked proteins by reducing agent-mediated cleavage. We demonstrated that introduction of the diazobenzene moiety into the photoaffinity probe enables efficient purification of cross-linked proteins with significant reduction of nonspecific binding proteins, leading to successful identification of 17 membrane-associated proteins that would interact with R8 peptide. RNAi-mediated knockdown experiments in combination with the pharmacological inhibitors revealed that, among the proteins identified, syndecan-4, one of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, is an endogenous membrane-associated receptor for the cellular uptake of R8 peptide via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This syndecan-4-dependent pathway was also involved in the intracellular delivery of bioactive proteins mediated by R8 peptide. These results reveal that syndecan-4 is a primary cell-surface target for R8 peptide that allows intracellular delivery of bioactive cargo molecules via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:27019270

  2. Zonal differences in ethanol-induced impairments in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.A.; Kragskow, S.L.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J. )

    1991-02-01

    We have shown previously that ethanol-induced defects in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid occurred as early as 1 wk after ethanol feeding. This study was undertaken as an initial attempt to establish a possible role of defective receptor-mediated endocytosis in liver injury by investigating whether differences exist in the effects of ethanol on receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatocytes isolated from different regions of the liver. Perivenule cells, present in the distal half of the liver, are thought to be more susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury than are the periportal cells located in the proximal half of the liver acini. For these studies, we fed male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days with liquid diets containing either ethanol (36% of calories) or isocaloric carbohydrate. Perivenule and periportal hepatocytes were then isolated using a digitonin-collagenase perfusion method. In control animals, cells isolated from the perivenule region bound significantly more ligand than did cells from the periportal region. Amounts of ligand internalized and degraded were also greater in perivenule than in periportal cells in these animals. After ethanol feeding, cells isolated from both the perivenule and periportal regions bound significantly less ligand than their respective controls. This impairment in surface and total binding was more pronounced in perivenule than in periportal cells. Internalization and degradation of the ligand were also more adversely affected in the centrilobular region as shown by decreases of greater than 60% in perivenule cells and by only 20% to 30% in periportal cells of ethanol-fed animals compared with controls.

  3. Advanced glycation end products are eliminated by scavenger-receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatic sinusoidal Kupffer and endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Smedsrød, B; Melkko, J; Araki, N; Sano, H; Horiuchi, S

    1997-01-01

    Long-term incubation of proteins with glucose leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE). Physiological aspects of the catabolism of non-enzymically glycated proteins were studied in vivo and in vitro. AGE-modified BSA (AGE-BSA) was a mixture of high-Mr (cross-linked), monomeric and low-Mr (fragmented) AGE-BSA. After intravenous administration in rat, all three fractions of AGE-BSA accumulated extremely rapidly and almost exclusively in liver. Uptake in liver endothelial, Kupffer and parenchymal cells accounted for approx. 60%, 25% and 10-15% respectively of hepatic elimination. Both cross-linked and monomeric AGE-BSA were efficiently taken up and degraded in cultures of purified liver endothelial and Kupffer cells. Endocytosis of AGE-BSA by these cells was inhibited by several ligands for the scavenger receptor. Although 125I-Hb was not endocytosed in vitro, 125I-AGE-Hb was effectively endocytosed by a mechanism that was subject to inhibition by AGE-BSA. Endocytosis of N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, a physiological ligand for the scavenger receptor, was effectively inhibited by AGE-Hb and AGE-BSA. We conclude that AGE-modification renders macromolecules susceptible for elimination via the scavenger receptor of both liver endothelial and Kupffer cells. PMID:9065778

  4. Adaptor Protein 2 Regulates Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Cyst Formation in Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Rivero, Maria R.; Vranych, Cecilia V.; Bisbal, Mariano; Maletto, Belkys A.; Ropolo, Andrea S.; Touz, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The parasite Giardia lamblia possesses peripheral vacuoles (PVs) that function as both endosomes and lysosomes and are implicated in the adaptation, differentiation, and survival of the parasite in different environments. The mechanisms by which Giardia traffics essential proteins to these organelles and regulates their secretion have important implications in the control of parasite dissemination. In this study, we describe the participation of the heterotetrameric clathrin-adaptor protein gAP2 complex in lysosomal protein trafficking. A specific monoclonal antibody against the medium subunit (gμ2) of gAP2 showed localization of this complex to the PVs, cytoplasm, and plasma membrane in the growing trophozoites. gAP2 also colocalized with clathrin in the PVs, suggesting its involvement in endocytosis. Uptake experiments using standard molecules for the study of endocytosis revealed that gAP2 specifically participated in the endocytosis of LDL. Targeted downregulation of the gene encoding gμ2 in growing and encysting trophozoites resulted in a large decrease in the amount of cell growth and cyst wall formation, suggesting a distinct mechanism in which gAP2 is directly involved in both endocytosis and vesicular trafficking. PMID:20199400

  5. Corticosterone suppresses vasotocin-enhanced clasping behavior in male rough-skinned newts by novel mechanisms interfering with V1a receptor availability and receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Davis, Audrey; Abraham, Emily; McEvoy, Erin; Sonnenfeld, Sarah; Lewis, Christine; Hubbard, Catherine S; Dolence, E Kurt; Rose, James D; Coddington, Emma

    2015-03-01

    In rough-skinned newts, Taricha granulosa, exposure to an acute stressor results in the rapid release of corticosterone (CORT), which suppresses the ability of vasotocin (VT) to enhance clasping behavior. CORT also suppresses VT-induced spontaneous activity and sensory responsiveness of clasp-controlling neurons in the rostromedial reticular formation (Rf). The cellular mechanisms underlying this interaction remain unclear. We hypothesized that CORT blocks VT-enhanced clasping by interfering with V1a receptor availability and/or VT-induced endocytosis. We administered a physiologically active fluorescent VT conjugated to Oregon Green (VT-OG) to the fourth ventricle 9 min after an intraperitoneal injection of CORT (0, 10, 40 μg/0.1mL amphibian Ringers). The brains were collected 30 min post-VT-OG, fixed, and imaged with confocal microscopy. CORT diminished the number of endocytosed vesicles, percent area containing VT-OG, sum intensity of VT-OG, and the amount of VT-V1a within each vesicle; indicating that CORT was interfering with V1a receptor availability and VT-V1a receptor-mediated endocytosis. CORT actions were brain location-specific and season-dependent in a manner that is consistent with the natural and context-dependent expression of clasping behavior. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the Rf to CORT was much higher in animals during the breeding season, arguing for ethologically appropriate seasonal variation in CORT's ability to prevent VT-induced endocytosis. Our data are consistent with the time course and interaction effects of CORT and VT on clasping behavior and neurophysiology. CORT interference with VT-induced endocytosis may be a common mechanism employed by hormones across taxa for mediating rapid context- and season-specific behavioral responses.

  6. CPG2 Recruits Endophilin B2 to the Cytoskeleton for Activity-Dependent Endocytosis of Synaptic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Loebrich, Sven; Benoit, Marc Robert; Konopka, Jaclyn Aleksandra; Cottrell, Jeffrey Richard; Gibson, Joanne; Nedivi, Elly

    2016-02-01

    Internalization of glutamate receptors at the postsynaptic membrane via clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key mechanism for regulating synaptic strength. A role for the F-actin cytoskeleton in CME is well established, and recently, PKA-dependent association of candidate plasticity gene 2 (CPG2) with the spine-cytoskeleton has been shown to mediate synaptic glutamate receptor internalization. Yet, how the endocytic machinery is physically coupled to the actin cytoskeleton to facilitate glutamate receptor internalization has not been demonstrated. Moreover, there has been no distinction of endocytic-machinery components that are specific to activity-dependent versus constitutive glutamate receptor internalization. Here, we show that CPG2, through a direct physical interaction, recruits endophilin B2 (EndoB2) to F-actin, thus anchoring the endocytic machinery to the spine cytoskeleton and facilitating glutamate receptor internalization. Regulation of CPG2 binding to the actin cytoskeleton by protein kinase A directly impacts recruitment of EndoB2 and clathrin. Specific disruption of EndoB2 or the CPG2-EndoB2 interaction impairs activity-dependent, but not constitutive, internalization of both NMDA- and AMPA-type glutamate receptors. These results demonstrate that, through direct interactions with F-actin and EndoB2, CPG2 physically bridges the spine cytoskeleton and the endocytic machinery, and this tripartite association is critical specifically for activity-dependent CME of synaptic glutamate receptors. PMID:26776730

  7. Towards predicting the lung fibrogenic activity of MWCNT: Key role of endocytosis, kinase receptors and ERK 1/2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Vietti, Giulia; Ibouraadaten, Saloua; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Yakoub, Yousof; Piret, Jean-Pascal; Marbaix, Etienne; Lison, Dominique; van den Brule, Sybille

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been reported to induce lung inflammation and fibrosis in rodents. We investigated the direct and indirect cellular mechanisms mediating the fibrogenic activity of multi-wall (MW) CNT on fibroblasts. We showed that MWCNT indirectly stimulate lung fibroblast (MLg) differentiation, via epithelial cells and macrophages, whereas no direct effect of MWCNT on fibroblast differentiation or collagen production was detected. MWCNT directly stimulated the proliferation of fibroblasts primed with low concentrations of growth factors, such as PDGF, TGF-β or EGF. MWCNT prolonged ERK 1/2 phosphorylation induced by low concentrations of PDGF or TGF-β in fibroblasts. This phenomenon and the proliferative activity of MWCNT on fibroblasts was abrogated by the inhibitors of ERK 1/2, PDGF-, TGF-β- and EGF-receptors. This activity was also reduced by amiloride, an endocytosis inhibitor. Finally, the lung fibrotic response to several MWCNT samples (different in length and diameter) correlated with their in vitro capacity to stimulate the proliferation of fibroblasts and to prolong ERK 1/2 signaling in these cells. Our findings point to a crosstalk between MWCNT, kinase receptors, ERK 1/2 signaling and endocytosis which stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts. The mechanisms of action identified in this study contribute to predict the fibrogenic potential of MWCNT.

  8. N-alkyl-4-[(8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]-oct-3-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamides, micro and delta opioid agonists: a micro address.

    PubMed

    Carson, John R; Coats, Steven J; Codd, Ellen E; Dax, Scott L; Lee, Jung; Martinez, Rebecca P; McKown, Linda A; Anne Neilson, Lou; Pitis, Philip M; Wu, Wu-Nan; Zhang, Sui-Po

    2004-05-01

    The tertiary amide delta opioid agonist 2 is a potent antinociceptive agent. Compound 2 was metabolized in vitro and in vivo to secondary amide 3, a potent and selective micro opioid agonist. The SAR of a series of N-alkyl-4-[(8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]-oct-3-ylidene)phenylmethyl]benzamides was examined.

  9. Synergistic antidepressant-like effects between a kappa opioid antagonist (LY2444296) and a delta opioid agonist (ADL5859) in the mouse forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Tunis, Julia; Parry, Christopher; Tallarida, Ronald; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2016-06-15

    Kappa opioid (KOP) receptor antagonists and delta opioid (DOP) receptor agonists have antidepressant-like effects in animal tests and may be useful for treatment-resistant depression in humans. In this study, we examined whether the combination of a KOP receptor antagonist and a DOP receptor agonist would produce a better than additive effect (i.e. synergy). LY2444296 is a short-acting selective nonpeptide KOP receptor antagonist. ADL5859 is a selective nonpeptide DOP receptor agonist which does not produce seizures and EEG disturbances. Each compound and combinations of the two were examined in the forced swim test (FST) one h post injection, a screening test for antidepressant-like effect, in male adult C57BL/6J mice (Jackson Lab). LY2444296 [subcutaneous (s.c.) injection] at 10 and 30mg/kg, but not 3mg/kg, significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ADL5859 also reduced immobility time dose-dependently at doses of 3 and 10mg/kg, but not at 1mg/kg. An analysis was conducted using the method of Tallarida and Raffa (2010), which employed dose equivalence. The relative potency of the drugs was determined to be LY2444296: ADL5859=1:0.28, which was the dose ratio for combination studies. Six combinations of the two compounds were tested in mice at a fixed dose ratio. We found that LY2444296 and ADL5859 yielded significant synergistic effects for the antidepressant-like effect at the combined dose ranging from 3.84mg/kg to 9.0mg/kg. ADL5859 (10mg/kg), LY2444296 (30mg/kg) and their combined dose (3.84mg/kg) had no effects on locomotor activities. Since the two drugs have distinct pharmacological profiles, such a synergism will allow use of lower doses of both drugs to achieve desired antidepressant effects with fewer side effects. PMID:27044434

  10. Synergistic antidepressant-like effects between a kappa opioid antagonist (LY2444296) and a delta opioid agonist (ADL5859) in the mouse forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Tunis, Julia; Parry, Christopher; Tallarida, Ronald; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan

    2016-06-15

    Kappa opioid (KOP) receptor antagonists and delta opioid (DOP) receptor agonists have antidepressant-like effects in animal tests and may be useful for treatment-resistant depression in humans. In this study, we examined whether the combination of a KOP receptor antagonist and a DOP receptor agonist would produce a better than additive effect (i.e. synergy). LY2444296 is a short-acting selective nonpeptide KOP receptor antagonist. ADL5859 is a selective nonpeptide DOP receptor agonist which does not produce seizures and EEG disturbances. Each compound and combinations of the two were examined in the forced swim test (FST) one h post injection, a screening test for antidepressant-like effect, in male adult C57BL/6J mice (Jackson Lab). LY2444296 [subcutaneous (s.c.) injection] at 10 and 30mg/kg, but not 3mg/kg, significantly decreased immobility time in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ADL5859 also reduced immobility time dose-dependently at doses of 3 and 10mg/kg, but not at 1mg/kg. An analysis was conducted using the method of Tallarida and Raffa (2010), which employed dose equivalence. The relative potency of the drugs was determined to be LY2444296: ADL5859=1:0.28, which was the dose ratio for combination studies. Six combinations of the two compounds were tested in mice at a fixed dose ratio. We found that LY2444296 and ADL5859 yielded significant synergistic effects for the antidepressant-like effect at the combined dose ranging from 3.84mg/kg to 9.0mg/kg. ADL5859 (10mg/kg), LY2444296 (30mg/kg) and their combined dose (3.84mg/kg) had no effects on locomotor activities. Since the two drugs have distinct pharmacological profiles, such a synergism will allow use of lower doses of both drugs to achieve desired antidepressant effects with fewer side effects.

  11. Differential regulation of translation and endocytosis of alternatively spliced forms of the type II bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Ayelet R.; Marom, Barak; Shapira, Keren E.; Hirschhorn, Tal; Preisler, Livia; Paarmann, Pia; Knaus, Petra; Henis, Yoav I.; Ehrlich, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The expression and function of transforming growth factor-β superfamily receptors are regulated by multiple molecular mechanisms. The type II BMP receptor (BMPRII) is expressed as two alternatively spliced forms, a long and a short form (BMPRII-LF and –SF, respectively), which differ by an ∼500 amino acid C-terminal extension, unique among TGF-β superfamily receptors. Whereas this extension was proposed to modulate BMPRII signaling output, its contribution to the regulation of receptor expression was not addressed. To map regulatory determinants of BMPRII expression, we compared synthesis, degradation, distribution, and endocytic trafficking of BMPRII isoforms and mutants. We identified translational regulation of BMPRII expression and the contribution of a 3’ terminal coding sequence to this process. BMPRII-LF and -SF differed also in their steady-state levels, kinetics of degradation, intracellular distribution, and internalization rates. A single dileucine signal in the C-terminal extension of BMPRII-LF accounted for its faster clathrin-mediated endocytosis relative to BMPRII-SF, accompanied by mildly faster degradation. Higher expression of BMPRII-SF at the plasma membrane resulted in enhanced activation of Smad signaling, stressing the potential importance of the multilayered regulation of BMPRII expression at the plasma membrane. PMID:26739752

  12. Epidermal growth factor–stimulated Akt phosphorylation requires clathrin or ErbB2 but not receptor endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Camilo; Judge, Gurjeet; Lucarelli, Stefanie; Bautista, Stephen; Pandey, Rohan; Singh, Tanveer; Antonescu, Costin N.

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding to its receptor (EGFR) activates several signaling intermediates, including Akt, leading to control of cell survival and metabolism. Concomitantly, ligand-bound EGFR is incorporated into clathrin-coated pits—membrane structures containing clathrin and other proteins—eventually leading to receptor internalization. Whether clathrin might regulate EGFR signaling at the plasma membrane before vesicle scission is poorly understood. We compared the effect of clathrin perturbation (preventing formation of, or receptor recruitment to, clathrin structures) to that of dynamin2 (allowing formation of clathrin structures but preventing EGFR internalization) under conditions in which EGFR endocytosis is clathrin dependent. Clathrin perturbation by siRNA gene silencing, with the clathrin inhibitor pitstop2, or knocksideways silencing inhibited EGF-simulated Gab1 and Akt phosphorylation in ARPE-19 cells. In contrast, perturbation of dynamin2 with inhibitors or by siRNA gene silencing did not affect EGF-stimulated Gab1 or Akt phosphorylation. EGF stimulation enriched Gab1 and phospho-Gab1 within clathrin structures. ARPE-19 cells have low ErbB2 expression, and overexpression and knockdown experiments revealed that robust ErbB2 expression bypassed the requirement for clathrin for EGF-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Thus clathrin scaffolds may represent unique plasma membrane signaling microdomains required for signaling by certain receptors, a function that can be separated from vesicle formation. PMID:26246598

  13. Imaging receptor-mediated endocytosis with a polymeric nanoparticle-based coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering probe.

    PubMed

    Tong, Ling; Lu, Yanhui; Lee, Robert J; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2007-08-23

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy was used to visualize receptor-mediated endocytosis and intracellular trafficking with the aid of a CARS probe. The probe was made of 200-nm polystyrene particles encapsulated in folate-targeted liposomes. By tuning (omega(p) - omega(s)) to 3045 cm(-1), which corresponds to the aromatic C-H stretching vibration, the polystyrene nanoparticles with a high density of aromatic C-H bonds were detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio, while the epi-detected CARS signal from cellular organelles was cancelled by the destructive interference between the resonant contribution from the aliphatic C-H vibration and the nonresonant contribution. Without any photobleaching, the CARS probe allowed single-particle tracking analysis of intracellular endosome transport. No photodamage to cells was observed under the current experimental conditions. These results show the advantages and potential of using a CARS probe to study cellular processes. PMID:17663581

  14. Altered Cortical GABAA Receptor Composition, Physiology, and Endocytosis in a Mouse Model of a Human Genetic Absence Epilepsy Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengwen; Huang, Zhiling; Ding, Li; Deel, M. Elizabeth; Arain, Fazal M.; Murray, Clark R.; Patel, Ronak S.; Flanagan, Christopher D.; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with generalized epilepsy exhibit cerebral cortical disinhibition. Likewise, mutations in the inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels, GABAA receptors (GABAARs), cause generalized epilepsy syndromes in humans. Recently, we demonstrated that heterozygous knock-out (Hetα1KO) of the human epilepsy gene, the GABAAR α1 subunit, produced absence epilepsy in mice. Here, we determined the effects of Hetα1KO on the expression and physiology of GABAARs in the mouse cortex. We found that Hetα1KO caused modest reductions in the total and surface expression of the β2 subunit but did not alter β1 or β3 subunit expression, results consistent with a small reduction of GABAARs. Cortices partially compensated for Hetα1KO by increasing the fraction of residual α1 subunit on the cell surface and by increasing total and surface expression of α3, but not α2, subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Hetα1KO increased the fraction of α1 subunits, and decreased the fraction of α3 subunits, that associated in hybrid α1α3βγ receptors. Patch clamp electrophysiology studies showed that Hetα1KO layer VI cortical neurons exhibited reduced inhibitory postsynaptic current peak amplitudes, prolonged current rise and decay times, and altered responses to benzodiazepine agonists. Finally, application of inhibitors of dynamin-mediated endocytosis revealed that Hetα1KO reduced base-line GABAAR endocytosis, an effect that probably contributes to the observed changes in GABAAR expression. These findings demonstrate that Hetα1KO exerts two principle disinhibitory effects on cortical GABAAR-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission: 1) a modest reduction of GABAAR number and 2) a partial compensation with GABAAR isoforms that possess physiological properties different from those of the otherwise predominant α1βγ GABAARs. PMID:23744069

  15. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis of Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials Undergoes Flat Vesiculation and Occurs by Revolution and Self-Rotation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Chen, Pengyu; Liang, Junshi; Guo, Ruohai; Yan, Li-Tang

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene and transitional metal dichalcogenide nanosheets, are promising materials for the development of antimicrobial surfaces and the nanocarriers for intracellular therapy. Understanding cell interaction with these emerging materials is an urgently important issue to promoting their wide applications. Experimental studies suggest that two-dimensional nanomaterials enter cells mainly through receptor-mediated endocytosis. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms and kinetic pathways of such processes remain unknown. Here, we combine computer simulations and theoretical derivation of the energy within the system to show that the receptor-mediated transport of two-dimensional nanomaterials, such as graphene nanosheet across model lipid membrane, experiences a flat vesiculation event governed by the receptor density and membrane tension. The graphene nanosheet is found to undergo revolution relative to the membrane and, particularly, unique self-rotation around its normal during membrane wrapping. We derive explicit expressions for the formation of the flat vesiculation, which reveals that the flat vesiculation event can be fundamentally dominated by a dimensionless parameter and a defined relationship determined by complicated energy contributions. The mechanism offers an essential understanding on the cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of the emerging two-dimensional nanomaterials.

  16. Selective knockdown of AT1 receptors by RNA interference inhibits Val5-ANG II endocytosis and NHE-3 expression in immortalized rabbit proximal tubule cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao C.; Zhuo, Jia L.

    2008-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular ANG II has been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of proximal tubule cell (PTC) function. Using immortalized rabbit PTCs as an in vitro cell culture model, we tested the hypothesis that extracellular ANG II is taken up by PTCs through angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1; or AT1a) receptor-mediated endocytosis and that inhibition of ANG II endocytosis using a selective AT1 receptor small-interfering RNA (siRNA; AT1R siRNA) or endocytotic inhibitors exerts a physiological effect on total and apical sodium and hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE-3) protein abundance. Western blots and live cell imaging with FITC-labeled ANG II confirmed that transfection of PTCs with a human specific AT1R siRNA for 48 h selectively knocked down AT1 receptor protein by 76 ± 5% (P < 0.01), whereas transfection with a scrambled siRNA had little effect. In nontransfected PTCs, exposure to extracellular ANG II (1 nM) for 60 min at 37°C increased intracellular ANG II accumulation by 67% (control: 566 ± 55 vs. ANG II: 943 ± 160 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05) and induced mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation (163 ± 15% of control, P < 0.01). AT1R siRNA reduced ANG II endocytosis to a level similar to losartan, which blocks cell surface AT1 receptors (557 ± 37 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05 vs. ANG II), or to colchicine, which disrupts cytoskeleton microtubules (613 ± 12 pg/mg protein, P < 0.05 vs. ANG II). AT1R siRNA, losartan, and colchicine all attenuated ANG II-induced ERK1/2 activation and total cell lysate and apical membrane NHE-3 abundance. The scrambled siRNA had no effect on ANG II endocytosis, ERK1/2 activation, or NHE-3 expression. These results suggest that AT1 receptor-mediated endocytosis of extracellular ANG II may regulate proximal tubule sodium transport by increasing total and apical NHE-3 proteins. PMID:17428839

  17. Pentosan polysulfate regulates scavenger receptor-mediated, but not fluid-phase, endocytosis in immortalized cerebral endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Deli, M A; Abrahám, C S; Takahata, H; Katamine, S; Niwa, M

    2000-12-01

    1. Effects of pentosan polysulfate (PPS) and the structurally related sulfated polyanions dextran sulfate, fucoidan, and heparin on the scavenger receptor-mediated and fluidphase endocytosis in GP8 immortalized rat brain endothelial cells were investigated. 2. Using 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3'-tetramethylindocarboxyamine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-AcLDL), we found a binding site with high affinity and low binding capacity, and another one with low affinity and high binding capacity. Increasing ligand concentrations could not saturate DiI-AcLDL uptake. DiI-AcLDL uptake, but not binding, was sensitive to pretreatment with filipin, an inhibitor of caveola formation. 3. PPS (20-200 microg/ml) significantly reduced the binding of DiI-AcLDL after coincubation for 3 hr, though this effect was less expressed after 18 hr. Among other polyanions, only fucoidan decreased the DiI-AcLDL binding after 3 hr, whereas dextran sulfate significantly increased it after 18 hr. PPS treatment induced an increase in DiI-AcLDL uptake, whereas other polysulfated compounds caused a significant reduction. 4. Fluid-phase endocytosis determined by the accumulation of Lucifer yellow was concentration and time dependent in GP8 cells. Coincubation with PPS or other sulfated polyanions could not significantly alter the rate of Lucifer yellow uptake. 5. In conclusion. PPS decreased the binding and increased the uptake of DiI-AcLDL in cerebral endothelial cells, an effect not mimicked by the other polyanions investigated.

  18. Agonist-dependent endocytosis of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors revealed by a γ2(R43Q) epilepsy mutation.

    PubMed

    Chaumont, Severine; André, Caroline; Perrais, David; Boué-Grabot, Eric; Taly, Antoine; Garret, Maurice

    2013-09-27

    GABA-gated chloride channels (GABAARs) trafficking is involved in the regulation of fast inhibitory transmission. Here, we took advantage of a γ2(R43Q) subunit mutation linked to epilepsy in humans that considerably reduces the number of GABAARs on the cell surface to better understand the trafficking of GABAARs. Using recombinant expression in cultured rat hippocampal neurons and COS-7 cells, we showed that receptors containing γ2(R43Q) were addressed to the cell membrane but underwent clathrin-mediated dynamin-dependent endocytosis. The γ2(R43Q)-dependent endocytosis was reduced by GABAAR antagonists. These data, in addition to a new homology model, suggested that a conformational change in the extracellular domain of γ2(R43Q)-containing GABAARs increased their internalization. This led us to show that endogenous and recombinant wild-type GABAAR endocytosis in both cultured neurons and COS-7 cells can be amplified by their agonists. These findings revealed not only a direct relationship between endocytosis of GABAARs and a genetic neurological disorder but also that trafficking of these receptors can be modulated by their agonist.

  19. High affinity receptor labeling based on basic leucine zipper domain peptides conjugated with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye: Visualization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor endocytosis in living neurons.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ayako; Asanuma, Daisuke; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru; Okabe, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    Techniques to visualize receptor trafficking in living neurons are important, but currently available methods are limited in their labeling efficiency, specificity and reliability. Here we report a method for receptor labeling with a basic leucine zipper domain peptide (ZIP) and a binding cassette specific to ZIP. Receptors are tagged with a ZIP-binding cassette at their extracellular domain. Tagged receptors expressed in cultured cells were labeled with exogenously applied fluorescently labeled ZIP with low background and high affinity. To test if ZIP labeling is useful in monitoring endocytosis and intracellular trafficking, we next conjugated ZIP with a pH-sensitive dye RhP-M (ZIP-RhP-M). ZIP binding to its binding cassette was pH-resistant and RhP-M fluorescence dramatically increased in acidic environment. Thus AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) labeled by ZIP-RhP-M can report receptor endocytosis and subsequent intracellular trafficking. Application of ZIP-RhP-M to cultured hippocampal neurons expressing AMPARs tagged with a ZIP-binding cassette resulted in appearance of fluorescent puncta in PSD-95-positive large spines, suggesting local endocytosis and acidification of AMPARs in individual mature spines. This spine pool of AMPARs in acidic environment was distinct from the early endosomes labeled by transferrin uptake. These results suggest that receptor labeling by ZIP-RhP-M is a useful technique for monitoring endocytosis and intracellular trafficking. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Synaptopathy--from Biology to Therapy'.

  20. micro-Opioid receptor endocytosis prevents adaptations in ventral tegmental area GABA transmission induced during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; He, Li; Stuber, Garret D; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2010-03-01

    Chronic morphine drives adaptations in synaptic transmission thought to underlie opiate dependence. Here we examine the role of micro-opioid receptor (MOR) trafficking in one of these adaptations, specifically, changes in GABA transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). To address this question, we used a knock-in mouse, RMOR (for recycling MOR), in which genetic change in the MOR promotes morphine-induced receptor desensitization and endocytosis in GABA interneurons of the VTA. In wild-type mice (postnatal days 23-28) chronic morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily for 5 d), induced a cAMP-dependent increase in the probability of GABA release onto VTA dopamine neurons. The increased GABA release frequency correlated with physical dependence on morphine measured by counting somatic signs of morphine withdrawal, such as, tremors, jumps, rears, wet-dog shakes, and grooming behavior precipitated by subcutaneous administration of naloxone (NLX) (2 mg/kg). This adaptation in GABA release was prevented in RMOR mice given the same morphine treatment, implicating MOR trafficking in this morphine-induced change in plasticity. Importantly, treatment with the cAMP activity inhibitor rp-cAMPS [(R)-adenosine, cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogenphosphorothioate) triethylammonium] (50 ng/0.5 microl), directly to the VTA, attenuated somatic withdrawal signs to systemic morphine produced by intra-VTA NLX (500 ng/0.5 microl), directly tying enhanced cAMP-driven GABA release to naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in the VTA.

  1. Endocytosis by the asialoglycoprotein receptor is independent of cytoplasmic serine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Geffen, I; Fuhrer, C; Spiess, M

    1991-01-01

    The human asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor, like most other plasma membrane receptors, has previously been shown to be phosphorylated at serine residues within the cytoplasmic domain. Phorbol esters, which activate protein kinase C, cause hyperphosphorylation and down-regulation of the ASGP receptor in HepG2 cells. To test the importance of serine residues for receptor traffic and function, we have mutated all the cytoplasmic serines of the two receptor subunits H1 (at positions 16 and 37) and H2 (at positions 12, 13, and 55) to alanines or glycines. Stable transfected fibroblast cell lines expressing either mutant H1 alone or both mutant subunits together were created and compared to cell lines expressing the respective wild-type proteins. Mutant and wild-type subunits were found to have very similar distributions between the cell surface and intracellular compartments. Constitutive internalization of H1 alone and ligand uptake and degradation by cells expressing both receptor subunits were not affected by the mutations. Cytoplasmic serines and serine phosphorylation are thus not essential for receptor function and intracellular traffic. Analysis of individual serine mutations identified serine-12 of subunit H2 as the major site of phosphorylation in the ASGP receptor. Images PMID:1924301

  2. [INHIBITORS OF MAP-KINASE PATHWAY U0126 AND PD98059 DIFFERENTLY AFFECT ORGANIZATION OF TUBULIN CYTOSKELETON AFTER STIMULATION OF EGF RECEPTOR ENDOCYTOSIS].

    PubMed

    Zlobina, M V; Steblyanko, Yu Yu; Shklyaeva, M A; Kharchenko, V V; Salova, A V; Kornilova, E S

    2015-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis about the involvement of EGF-stimulated MAP-kinase ERK1/2 in the regulation of microtubule (MT) system, the influence of two widely used ERK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, on the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton in interphase HeLa cells during EGF receptor endocytosis has been investigated. We have found that addition of U0126 or PD98059 to not-stimulated with EGF ells for 30 min has no effect on radially organized MT system. However, in the case of U0126 addition before EGF endocytosis stimulation, the number of MT per cell decreased within 15 min after such stimulation and was followed by complete MT depolymerization by 60-90 min. Stimulation of EGF endocytosis in the presence of PD98059 resulted only in insignificant depolymerization of MT and it could be detected mainly from their minus-ends. At the same time, MT regions close to plasma membrane became stabilized, which was proved by increase in tubulin acetylation level. This situation was characteristic for all period of the experiment. It has been also found that the inhibitors affect endocytosis dynamics of EGF-receptor complexes. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the stimulation of endocytosis in the presence of U0126 generated a greater number of endosomes compared to control cells, and their number did not change significantly during the experiment. All these endosomes were localized peripherally. Effect of PD98059 resulted in the formation of lower number of endosomes that in control, but they demonstrated very slow clusterization despite the presence of some intact MT. Both inhibitors decreased EGFR colocolization with early endosomal marker EEA1, which indicated a delay in endosome fusions and maturation. The inhibitors were also shown to affect differently phospho-ERK 1 and 2 forms: U0126 completely inhibited phospho-ERK1 and 2, white, in the presence of PD98059, the two ERK forms demonstrated sharp transient activation in 15 min after stimulation, but only

  3. Ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of NKG2D-DAP10 receptor complexes activates signaling and functions in human NK cells.

    PubMed

    Quatrini, Linda; Molfetta, Rosa; Zitti, Beatrice; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Fionda, Cinzia; Capuano, Cristina; Galandrini, Ricciarda; Cippitelli, Marco; Santoni, Angela; Paolini, Rossella

    2015-10-27

    Cytotoxic lymphocytes share the presence of the activating receptor NK receptor group 2, member D (NKG2D) and the signaling-competent adaptor DNAX-activating protein 10 (DAP10), which together play an important role in antitumor immune surveillance. Ligand stimulation induces the internalization of NKG2D-DAP10 complexes and their delivery to lysosomes for degradation. In experiments with human NK cells and cell lines, we found that the ligand-induced endocytosis of NKG2D-DAP10 depended on the ubiquitylation of DAP10, which was also required for degradation of the internalized complexes. Moreover, through combined biochemical and microscopic analyses, we showed that ubiquitin-dependent receptor endocytosis was required for the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and NK cell functions, such as the secretion of cytotoxic granules and the inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ. These results suggest that NKG2D-DAP10 endocytosis represents a means to decrease cell surface receptor abundance, as well as to control signaling outcome in cytotoxic lymphocytes.

  4. The endocytosis of epidermal growth factor in A431 cells: A pH of microenvironment and the dynamics of receptor complex dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, A.D.; Teslenko, L.V.; Nikolsky, N.N. )

    1988-03-01

    The endocytosis and intracellular fate of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were studied in A431 cells. After 15-20 min of internalization at 37{degree}C, rhodomaine-labeled ({sup 125}-I) EGF (EGR-Rh) accumulated into large juxtanuclear compartment consisting of closely related vesicles. This structure was shown to be localized in the para-Golgi region. Fluorescein-labeled transferrin (Tr-FITC) was observed in the same region when added to the cell simultaneously with EGF-Rh. Using microscopy spectrofluorometer, the authors determined that the Tr-FITC-containing para-Golgi structures have a pH of 6.1{plus minus}0.3 while lysosomes containing dextran-fluorescein have a pH of 5.0{plus minus}0.2. To study the dynamics of EGF-receptor dissociation during endocytosis a mild detergent treatment of living cells was used for extraction of an intracellular receptor-unbound EGF. These results suggest that EGF remains associated with receptors during endocytosis in A431 cells until it is transferred to lysosomes where the pH of the EGF microenvironment is dropped to 5. A prolonged presence of EGF-receptor complexes in the para-Golgi region might be of importance in mitotic signaling.

  5. The Cytoplasmic C-Tail of the Mouse Cytomegalovirus 7 Transmembrane Receptor Homologue, M78, Regulates Endocytosis of the Receptor and Modulates Virus Replication in Different Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Virus homologues of seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMR) are encoded by all beta- and gammaherpesviruses, suggesting important functional roles. M78 of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) is representative of a family of 7TMR conserved in all betaherpesviruses. M78 family members have been found to exhibit cell-type specific effects upon virus replication in tissue culture and to affect virus pathogenesis in vivo. We reported previously that M78, for which no ligands are known, undergoes rapid, constitutive endocytosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of the M78 cytoplasmic C-tail in mediating endocytosis and consequences of C-tail deletion upon replication and pathogenesis. Mutations of M78 (C-tail truncations or point mutations) and CCR5-M78 chimeras identified two distinct regions affecting endocytosis. The first was a classical acidic di-leucine motif (DDxxxLL), located close to the C-terminus. The second region, the activity of which was suppressed by downstream sequences, included the putative 8th helix, located close to the 7th transmembrane domain. A recombinant MCMV expressing an endocytosis-deficient M78, lacking most of the C-tail (M78_CΔ155), had a cell-type specific replication phenotype. M78_CΔ155 had restricted replication in bone marrow macrophages, indistinguishable from an M78-null recombinant. In contrast, M78_CΔ155 replicated normally or with enhanced titres to wild type virus in other tested cell-types, whereas M78-null was attenuated. Distinct phenotypes for M78_CΔ155 and M78-null suggest that the C-tail deletion resulted in M78 dysfunction, rather than complete loss of function; furthermore, they highlight a cell-type specific role of M78 during replication. Infection of mice (intranasal) demonstrated that M78_CΔ155, similar to M78-null, was cleared more rapidly from the lungs than wild type virus and was severely attenuated for replication in salivary glands. It may be speculated that attenuation of both M78_CΔ155 and M78-null

  6. Dynamics of Virus-Receptor Interactions in Virus Binding, Signaling, and Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Boulant, Steeve; Stanifer, Megan; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2015-01-01

    During viral infection the first challenge that viruses have to overcome is gaining access to the intracellular compartment. The infection process starts when the virus contacts the surface of the host cell. A complex series of events ensues, including diffusion at the host cell membrane surface, binding to receptors, signaling, internalization, and delivery of the genetic information. The focus of this review is on the very initial steps of virus entry, from receptor binding to particle uptake into the host cell. We will discuss how viruses find their receptor, move to sub-membranous regions permissive for entry, and how they hijack the receptor-mediated signaling pathway to promote their internalization. PMID:26043381

  7. Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 regulates key signalling molecules involved in FcγRI-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mijeong; Raftery, Mark J.; Thomas, Paul S.; Geczy, Carolyn L.; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2016-01-01

    FcγRI cross-linking on monocytes may trigger clathrin-mediated endocytosis, likely through interaction of multiple intracellular molecules that are controlled by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events. However, the identity of phospho-proteins and their regulation are unknown. We proposed the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) that inhibits FcγRI-mediated cytokine production via Tyr dephosphorylation of multiple kinases, may also regulate endocytosis/phagocytosis through similar mechanisms. FcγRI and/or LILRB4 were antibody-ligated on THP-1 cells, lysates immunoprecipitated using anti-pTyr antibody and peptides sequenced by mass spectrometry. Mascot Search identified 25 Tyr phosphorylated peptides with high confidence. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the most significantly affected pathways were clathrin-mediated endocytosis and Fc-receptor dependent phagocytosis. Tyr phosphorylation of key candidate proteins in these pathways included common γ-chain of the Fc receptors, Syk, clathrin, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase Cbl, hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate, tripartite motif-containing 21 and heat shock protein 70. Importantly, co-ligation of LILRB4 with FcγRI caused significant dephosphorylation of these proteins and was associated with suppression of Fc receptor-dependent uptake of antibody-opsonised bacterial particles, indicating that LILRB4. These results suggest that Tyr phosphorylation may be critical in FcγRI-dependent endocytosis/phagocytosis that may be regulated by LILRB4 by triggering dephosphorylation of key signalling proteins. PMID:27725776

  8. Tiam-Rac signaling mediates trans-endocytosis of ephrin receptor EphB2 and is important for cell repulsion.

    PubMed

    Gaitanos, Thomas N; Koerner, Jorg; Klein, Ruediger

    2016-09-12

    Ephrin receptors interact with membrane-bound ephrin ligands to regulate contact-mediated attraction or repulsion between opposing cells, thereby influencing tissue morphogenesis. Cell repulsion requires bidirectional trans-endocytosis of clustered Eph-ephrin complexes at cell interfaces, but the mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, we identified an actin-regulating pathway allowing ephrinB(+) cells to trans-endocytose EphB receptors from opposing cells. Live imaging revealed Rac-dependent F-actin enrichment at sites of EphB2 internalization, but not during vesicle trafficking. Systematic depletion of Rho family GTPases and their regulatory proteins identified the Rac subfamily and the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam2 as key components of EphB2 trans-endocytosis, a pathway previously implicated in Eph forward signaling, in which ephrins act as in trans ligands of Eph receptors. However, unlike in Eph signaling, this pathway is not required for uptake of soluble ligands in ephrinB(+) cells. We also show that this pathway is required for EphB2-stimulated contact repulsion. These results support the existence of a conserved pathway for EphB trans-endocytosis that removes the physical tether between cells, thereby enabling cell repulsion. PMID:27597758

  9. Role of receptor-mediated endocytosis, endosomal acidification and cathepsin D in cholera toxin cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El Hage, Tatiana; Merlen, Clémence; Fabrega, Sylvie; Authier, François

    2007-05-01

    Using the in situ liver model system, we have recently shown that, after cholera toxin binding to hepatic cells, cholera toxin accumulates in a low-density endosomal compartment, and then undergoes endosomal proteolysis by the aspartic acid protease cathepsin-D [Merlen C, Fayol-Messaoudi D, Fabrega S, El Hage T, Servin A, Authier F (2005) FEBS J272, 4385-4397]. Here, we have used a subcellular fractionation approach to address the in vivo compartmentalization and cytotoxic action of cholera toxin in rat liver parenchyma. Following administration of a saturating dose of cholera toxin to rats, rapid endocytosis of both cholera toxin subunits was observed, coincident with massive internalization of both the 45 kDa and 47 kDa Gsalpha proteins. These events coincided with the endosomal recruitment of ADP-ribosylation factor proteins, especially ADP-ribosylation factor-6, with a time course identical to that of toxin and the A subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha) translocation. After an initial lag phase of 30 min, these constituents were linked to NAD-dependent ADP-ribosylation of endogenous Gsalpha, with maximum accumulation observed at 30-60 min postinjection. Assessment of the subsequent postendosomal fate of internalized Gsalpha revealed sustained endolysosomal transfer of the two Gsalpha isoforms. Concomitantly, cholera toxin increased in vivo endosome acidification rates driven by the ATP-dependent H(+)-ATPase pump and in vitro vacuolar acidification in hepatoma HepG2 cells. The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A partially inhibited, both in vivo and in vitro, the cAMP response to cholera toxin. This cathepsin D-dependent action of cholera toxin under the control of endosomal acidity was confirmed using cellular systems in which modification of the expression levels of cathepsin D, either by transfection of the cathepsin D gene or small interfering RNA, was followed by parallel changes in the cytotoxic

  10. Role of receptor-mediated endocytosis, endosomal acidification and cathepsin D in cholera toxin cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El Hage, Tatiana; Merlen, Clémence; Fabrega, Sylvie; Authier, François

    2007-05-01

    Using the in situ liver model system, we have recently shown that, after cholera toxin binding to hepatic cells, cholera toxin accumulates in a low-density endosomal compartment, and then undergoes endosomal proteolysis by the aspartic acid protease cathepsin-D [Merlen C, Fayol-Messaoudi D, Fabrega S, El Hage T, Servin A, Authier F (2005) FEBS J272, 4385-4397]. Here, we have used a subcellular fractionation approach to address the in vivo compartmentalization and cytotoxic action of cholera toxin in rat liver parenchyma. Following administration of a saturating dose of cholera toxin to rats, rapid endocytosis of both cholera toxin subunits was observed, coincident with massive internalization of both the 45 kDa and 47 kDa Gsalpha proteins. These events coincided with the endosomal recruitment of ADP-ribosylation factor proteins, especially ADP-ribosylation factor-6, with a time course identical to that of toxin and the A subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha) translocation. After an initial lag phase of 30 min, these constituents were linked to NAD-dependent ADP-ribosylation of endogenous Gsalpha, with maximum accumulation observed at 30-60 min postinjection. Assessment of the subsequent postendosomal fate of internalized Gsalpha revealed sustained endolysosomal transfer of the two Gsalpha isoforms. Concomitantly, cholera toxin increased in vivo endosome acidification rates driven by the ATP-dependent H(+)-ATPase pump and in vitro vacuolar acidification in hepatoma HepG2 cells. The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A partially inhibited, both in vivo and in vitro, the cAMP response to cholera toxin. This cathepsin D-dependent action of cholera toxin under the control of endosomal acidity was confirmed using cellular systems in which modification of the expression levels of cathepsin D, either by transfection of the cathepsin D gene or small interfering RNA, was followed by parallel changes in the cytotoxic

  11. Archaeosomes varying in lipid composition differ in receptor-mediated endocytosis and differentially adjuvant immune responses to entrapped antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, G. Dennis; Sad, Subash; Fleming, L. Perry; DiCaire, Chantal J.; Patel, Girishchandra B.; Krishnan, Lakshmi

    2003-01-01

    Archaeosomes prepared from total polar lipids extracted from six archaeal species with divergent lipid compositions had the capacity to deliver antigen for presentation via both MHC class I and class II pathways. Lipid extracts from Halobacterium halobium and from Halococcus morrhuae strains 14039 and 16008 contained archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate and sulfated glycolipids rich in mannose residues, and lacked archaetidylserine, whereas the opposite was found in Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanococcus jannaschii. Annexin V labeling revealed a surface orientation of phosphoserine head groups in M. smithii, M. mazei and M. jannaschii archaeosomes. Uptake of rhodamine-labeled M. smithii or M. jannaschii archaeosomes by murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by unlabeled liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, by the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, and by ATP depletion using azide plus fluoride, but not by H. halobium archaeosomes. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide failed to inhibit uptake of the four other rhodamine-labeled archaeosome types, and azide plus fluoride did not inhibit uptake of H. halobium or H. morrhuae archaeosomes. These results suggest endocytosis ofarchaeosomes rich in surface-exposed phosphoserine head groups via a phosphatidylserine receptor, and energy-independent surface adsorption of certain other archaeosome composition classes. Lipid composition affected not only the endocytic mechanism, but also served to differentially modulate the activation of dendritic cells. The induction of IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells exposed to H. morrhuae 14039 archaeosomes was striking compared with cells exposed to archaeosomes from 16008. Thus, archaeosome types uniquely modulate antigen delivery and dendritic cell activation. PMID:15803661

  12. Low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 mediated endocytosis of β1-integrin influences cell adhesion and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Rabiej, Verena K; Pflanzner, Thorsten; Wagner, Timo; Goetze, Kristina; Storck, Steffen E; Eble, Johannes A; Weggen, Sascha; Mueller-Klieser, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Claus U

    2016-01-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) has been shown to interact with β1-integrin and regulate its surface expression. LRP1 knock-out cells exhibit altered cytoskeleton organization and decreased cell migration. Here we demonstrate coupled endocytosis of LRP1 and β1-integrin and the involvement of the intracellular NPxY2 motif of LRP1 in this process. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts harboring a knock in replacement of the NPxY2 motif of LRP1 by a multiple alanine cassette (AAxA) showed elevated surface expression of β1-integrin and decreased β1-integrin internalization rates. As a consequence, cell spreading was altered and adhesion rates were increased in our cell model. Cells formed more focal adhesion complexes, whereby in vitro cell migration rates were decreased. Similar results could be observed in a corresponding mouse model, the C57Bl6 LRP1 NPxYxxL knock in mice, therefore, the biochemistry of cellular adhesion was altered in primary cortical neurons. In vivo cell migration experiments demonstrated a disturbance of neuroblast cell migration along the rostral migratory stream. In summary, our results indicate that LRP1 interacts with β1-integrin mediating integrin internalization and thus correlates with downstream signaling of β1-integrin such as focal adhesion dynamics. Consequently, the disturbance of this interaction resulted in a dysfunction in in vivo and in vitro cell adhesion and cell migration.

  13. Acute cross-tolerance to opioids in heroin delta-opioid-responding Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Rady, J J; Fujimoto, J M

    2000-01-01

    It is generally thought that the mu receptor actions of metabolites, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6MAM) and morphine, account for the pharmacological actions of heroin. However, upon intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration in Swiss Webster mice, heroin and 6MAM act on delta receptors while morphine acts on mu receptors. Swiss Webster mice made tolerant to subcutaneous (s.c.) morphine by morphine pellet were not cross-tolerant to s.c. heroin (at 20 min in the tail flick test). Now, opioids were given in combination, s.c. (6.5 h) and i.c.v. (3 h) preceding testing the challenging agonist i.c.v. (at 10 min in the tail flick test). The combination (s.c. + i.c.v.) morphine pretreatment induced tolerance to the mu action of morphine but no cross-tolerance to the delta action of heroin, 6MAM and DPDPE and explained why morphine pelleting did not produce cross-tolerance to s.c. heroin above. Heroin plus heroin produced tolerance to delta agonists but not to mu agonists. Surprisingly, all combinations of morphine with the delta agonists produced tolerance to morphine which now acted through delta receptors (inhibited by i.c.v. naltrindole), an unusual change in receptor selectivity for morphine.

  14. Receptor role of the annexin A2 in the mesothelial endocytosis of crocidolite fibers.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kyoko; Nagai, Hirotaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-07-01

    Asbestos-induced mesothelioma is a worldwide problem. Parietal mesothelial cells internalize asbestos fibers that traverse the entire lung parenchyma, an action that is linked to mesothelial carcinogenesis. Thus far, vitronectin purified from serum reportedly enhances the internalization of crocidolite by mesothelial cells via integrin αvβ5. To reveal another mechanism by which mesothelial cells endocytose (phagocytose) asbestos, we first evaluated the effects of serum on asbestos uptake, which proved to be nonessential. Thereafter, we undertook a study to identify proteins on the surface of mesothelial cells (MeT5A) that act as receptors for asbestos uptake based on the assumption that receptors bind to asbestos with physical affinity. To this end, we incubated the membrane fraction of MeT5A cells with crocidolite or chrysotile and evaluated the adsorbed proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel analysis. Next, we extensively identified the proteins using an in-solution or in-gel digestion coupled with mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, annexin A2 (ANXA2) and transferrin receptor protein 1 (TFRC) were distinguished because of their high score and presence at the cell surface. Crocidolite uptake by MeT5A cells was significantly decreased by shRNA (short hairpin RNA)-induced knockdown of ANXA2 and direct blockade of cell surface ANXA2 using anti-ANXA2 antibody. In addition, abundant ANXA2 protein was present on the cell membrane of mesothelial cells, particularly facing the somatic cavity. These findings demonstrate that ANXA2 has a role in the mesothelial phagocytosis of crocidolite and may serve as its receptor.

  15. [Reabsorption of yellow fluorescent protein in the Rana temporaria kidney by receptor-mediated endocytosis].

    PubMed

    Seliverstova, E V; Prutskova, N P

    2014-01-01

    The absorption of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and the expression of the endocytic receptors, megalin and cubilin, were investigated in the renal proximal tubules (PT) in frogs Rana temporaria after parenteral YFP injections. The methods of confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used. The dynamics of YFP absorption was analyzed 2 h after injection. The logarithmic time dependence of the accumulation of YFP-containing endocytic vesicles in PT cells and the completion of absorption process 90-120 min after injection were shown. Unlike substantial megalin and cubilin expression 15-30 min after YFP introduction, immunolabeled endocytic receptors were not detected in PT cells after 2 h. The re-injection of YFP led to the appearance of apical endocytic vesicles containing megalin or cubilin colocalized with YFP. At the same time, the decrease of YFP uptake associated with reduction in the number of receptor-containing vesicles was demonstrated, suggesting a failure of megalin and cubilin expression. The decrease of absorption capacity of PT cells after YFP re-injection was similar to that found previously under conditions of the competitive absorption of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and YFP injected in different sequences. The data are the further demonstration of the proposed mechanism limiting the tubular protein absorption in the frog kidney and suggest the involvement of megalin and cubilin in uptake and vesicular transport of YFP.

  16. Preparation and characterization of folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted-trimethylchitosan for intracellular transport of protein through folate receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Song, Xiangrong; Darby, Michael; Liang, Yufeng; He, Ling; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qiuhong; Bi, Yueqi; Yang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Jiapeng; Li, Yuanbo; Sun, Yiyi; Lee, Robert J; Hou, Shixiang

    2010-01-01

    To develop a receptor-mediated intracellular delivery system that can transport therapeutic proteins to specific tumor cells, folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted-trimethylchitosan (folate-PEG-g-TMC) was synthesized. Nano-scaled spherical polyelectrolyte complexes between the folate-PEG-g-TMC and fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) were prepared under suitable weight ratio of copolymer to FITC-BSA by ionic interaction between the positively charged copolymers and the negatively charged FITC-BSA. Intracellular uptake of FITC-BSA was specifically enhanced in SKOV3 cells (folate receptor over-expressing cell line) through folate receptor-mediated endocytosis compared with A549 cells (folate receptor deficient cell line). Folate-PEG-g-TMC shows promise for intracellular transport of negatively charged therapeutic proteins into folate receptor over-expressing tumor cells.

  17. Insulin and insulin like growth factor II endocytosis and signaling via insulin receptor B

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) act on tetrameric tyrosine kinase receptors controlling essential functions including growth, metabolism, reproduction and longevity. The insulin receptor (IR) binds insulin and IGFs with different affinities triggering different cell responses. Results We showed that IGF-II induces cell proliferation and gene transcription when IR-B is over-expressed. We combined biotinylated ligands with streptavidin conjugated quantum dots and visible fluorescent proteins to visualize the binding of IGF-II and insulin to IR-B and their ensuing internalization. By confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in living cells, we studied the internalization kinetic through the IR-B of both IGF-II, known to elicit proliferative responses, and insulin, a regulator of metabolism. Conclusions IGF-II promotes a faster internalization of IR-B than insulin. We propose that IGF-II differentially activates mitogenic responses through endosomes, while insulin-activated IR-B remains at the plasma membrane. This fact could facilitate the interaction with key effector molecules involved in metabolism regulation. PMID:23497114

  18. Assessment of the delta opioid agonist DADLE in a rat model of lethal hemorrhage treated by emergency preservation and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Drabek, Tomas; Han, Fei; Garman, Robert H; Stezoski, Jason; Tisherman, Samuel A; Stezoski, S William; Morhard, Ryan C; Kochanek, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Emergency preservation and resuscitation (EPR) is a new approach for resuscitation of exsanguination cardiac arrest (CA) victims. EPR uses a cold aortic flush to induce deep hypothermic preservation during no-flow to buy time for transport and damage control surgery, followed by resuscitation with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We reported previously that 20-60 min EPR in rats was associated with intact outcome, while 75 min EPR resulted in high mortality and neurological impairment in survivors. The delta opioid agonist DADLE ([D-Ala(2),D-Leu(5)]-enkephalin) was shown previously to be protective against ischemia-reperfusion injury in multiple organs, including brain. We hypothesized that DADLE could augment neurological outcome after EPR in rats. After rapid lethal hemorrhage, EPR was initiated by perfusion with ice-cold crystalloid to induce hypothermia (15 degrees C). After 75 min EPR, resuscitation was attempted with CPB. After randomization, three groups were studied (n=10 per group): DADLE 0mg/kg (D0), 4 mg/kg (D4) or 10mg/kg (D10) added to the flush and during reperfusion. Survival, overall performance category (OPC; 1=normal, 5=death), neurological deficit score (NDS; 0-10% normal, 100%=max deficit), and histological damage score (HDS) were assessed in survivors on day 3. In D0 group, 2/10 rats survived, while in D4 and D10 groups, 4/10 and 5/10 rats survived, respectively (p=NS). Survival time (h) was 26.7+/-28.2 in D0, 36.3+/-31.9 in D4 and 47.1+/-30.3 in D10 groups, respectively (p=0.3). OPC, NDS and HDS were not significantly different between groups. In conclusion, DADLE failed to confer benefit on functional or histological outcome in our model of prolonged rat EPR.

  19. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, A.S.; Goodman, R.R.

    1984-05-01

    Much work has been done on opioid systems in the rat CNS. Although the mouse is widely used in pharmacological studies of opioid action, little has been done to characterize opioid systems in this species. In the present study the distribution of mu and delta opioid binding sites in the mouse CNS was examined using a quantitative in vitro autoradiography procedure. Tritiated dihydromorphine was used to visualize mu sites and (3H-d-Ala2-d-Leu5)enkephalin with a low concentration of morphine was used to visualize delta sites. Mu and delta site localizations in the mouse are very similar to those previously described in the rat (Goodman, R.R., S.H. Snyder, M.J. Kuhar, and W.S. Young, 3d (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77:6239-6243), with certain exceptions and additions. Mu and delta sites were observed in sensory processing areas, limbic system, extrapyramidal motor system, and cranial parasympathetic system. Differential distributions of mu and delta sites were noted in many areas. Mu sites were prominent in laminae I, IV, and VI of the neocortex, in patches in the striatum, and in the ventral pallidum, nucleus accumbens, medial and midline thalamic nuclei, medial habenular nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and laminae I and II of the spinal cord. In contrast, delta sites were prominent in all laminae of the neocortex, olfactory tubercle, diffusely throughout the striatum, and in the basal, lateral, and cortical nuclei of the amygdala. The determination of the differential distributions of opioid binding sites should prove useful in suggesting anatomical substrates for the actions of opiates and opioids.

  20. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of polypeptide hormones is a regulated process: inhibition of (125I)iodoinsulin internalization in hypoinsulinemic diabetes of rat and man

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, J.L.; Robert, A.; Grunberger, G.; van Obberghen, E.; Freychet, P.; Orci, L.; Gorden, P.

    1986-07-01

    Much data suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis is regulated in states of hormone excess. Thus, in hyperinsulinemic states there is an accelerated loss of cell surface insulin receptors. In the present experiments we addressed this question in hypoinsulinemic states, in which insulin binding to cell surface receptors is generally increased. In hepatocytes obtained from hypoinsulinemic streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, (/sup 125/I)iodoglucagon internalization was increased, while at the same time (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin internalization was decreased. The defect in (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin internalization was corrected by insulin treatment of the animal. In peripheral blood monocytes from patients with type I insulinopenic diabetes, internalization of (/sup 125/I)iodoinsulin was impaired; this defect was not present in insulin-treated patients. These data in the hypoinsulinemic rat and human diabetes suggest that receptor-mediated endocytosis is regulated in states of insulin deficiency as well as insulin excess. Delayed or reduced internalization of the insulin-receptor complex could amplify the muted signal caused by deficient hormone secretion.

  1. Role of benzimidazole (Bid) in the delta-opioid agonist pseudopeptide H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid (UFP-502).

    PubMed

    Salvadori, Severo; Fiorini, Stella; Trapella, Claudio; Porreca, Frank; Davis, Peg; Sasaki, Yusuke; Ambo, Akihiro; Marczak, Ewa D; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Balboni, Gianfranco

    2008-03-15

    H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(2)-Bid (UFP-502) was the first delta-opioid agonist prepared from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore. It showed interesting pharmacological properties, such as stimulation of mRNA BDNF expression and antidepression. To evaluate the importance of 1H-benzimidazol-2-yl (Bid) in the induction of delta-agonism, it was substituted by similar heterocycles: The substitution of NH(1) by O or S transforms the reference delta-agonist into delta-antagonists. Phenyl ring of benzimidazole is not important for delta-agonism; in fact 1H-imidazole-2-yl retains delta-agonist activity.

  2. Invertebrate proenkephalin: delta opioid binding sites in leech ganglia and immunocytes.

    PubMed

    Salzet, M; Stefano, G B

    1997-09-12

    The leech Theromyzon tessulatum and the marine mussel Mytilus edulis immunocytes contain a mammalian-like proenkephalin molecule. The opioid precursor was purified by gel permeation chromatography, anti-Met- and Leu-enkephalin-affinity column separation and then by reversed-phase HPLC. The amino acid sequence analysis, determined by Edman degradation, enzymatic treatments and matrix assisted laser desorption time of flight. The structure of the leech proenkephalin material demonstrates considerable amino acid sequence similarity with amphibian proenkephalin (e.g. 25.4% with Xenopus laevis) but it is smaller, 15 kDa vs. 30 kDa. In contrast, Mytilus proenkephalin is not only larger (26 kDa) but it exhibits a higher sequence identity with guinea pig proenkephalin (50%). Both of the invertebrate materials possess Met-enkephalin and Leu-enkephalin in a ratio of 3:1 for Mytilus and 1:2 in the leech. They also contain Met-enkephalin-Arg-Gly-Leu and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe sequences that are flanked by dibasic amino acid residues, demonstrating cleavage sites. Furthermore, using sequence comparison with bovine proenkephalin A (209-237), enkelytin (FAEPLPSEEEGESYSKEVPEMEKRYGGFM), an antibacterial peptide is found in the proenkephalin of both animals and it exhibits a 98% sequence identity with mammalian material. Finally, opioid binding experiments demonstrate the presence in leech ganglia and immunocytes of delta1 and delta2 opioid receptor subtypes as also found human and Mytilus immune cells. This report constitutes the first complete biochemical characterization of mammalian proenkephalin in invertebrates, demonstrating its origin in simpler animals.

  3. Dynamin-dependent endocytosis of Bone Morphogenetic Protein2 (BMP2) and its receptors is dispensable for the initiation of Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Paarmann, Pia; Dörpholz, Gina; Fiebig, Juliane; Amsalem, Ayelet R; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Henis, Yoav I; Müller, Thomas; Knaus, Petra

    2016-07-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signal transduction via the canonical Smad158 pathway has previously been linked to dynamin-dependent endocytosis, since the application of chemical inhibitors of clathrin or dynamin in functional cell culture based assays negatively affects initiation and propagation of the Smad response. More recent studies, however, demonstrated efficient Smad signaling by non-internalizable BMP2. The role of endocytosis in BMP signal transduction thus remained controversial. In our study we aimed to refine cell biological assays and to apply novel tools, including a new site-directed fluorescently labeled BMP2 ligand, to revisit key steps in BMP Smad signaling. We found that dynamin2 function was required for BMP2 uptake but was dispensable for C-terminal phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of BMP-dependent Smads. Furthermore, we demonstrated a role of dynamin2 in the regulation of steady-state and surface BMP receptor levels, as well as an impact on Smad1 protein level. Thus, dynamin2 allows for modulation of basal and ligand-dependent Smad signaling capacity. High levels of functional dynamin2 enhanced the myogenic differentiation of precursor cells. From our study we conclude that dynamin-dependent endocytosis serves as a regulatory mechanism to fine-tune Smad signaling, but it is not a prerequisite for signal initiation and propagation. Our findings contribute to the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of BMP signaling and thus provide important information for future consideration in the context of therapeutic applications of BMPs. PMID:27113717

  4. Parvovirus infection of cells by using variants of the feline transferrin receptor altering clathrin-mediated endocytosis, membrane domain localization, and capsid-binding domains.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Palermo, Laura M; Parrish, Colin R

    2004-06-01

    The feline and canine transferrin receptors (TfRs) bind canine parvovirus to host cells and mediate rapid capsid uptake and infection. The TfR and its ligand transferrin have well-described pathways of endocytosis and recycling. Here we tested several receptor-dependent steps in infection for their role in virus infection of cells. Deletions of cytoplasmic sequences or mutations of the Tyr-Thr-Arg-Phe internalization motif reduced the rate of receptor uptake from the cell surface, while polar residues introduced into the transmembrane sequence resulted in increased degradation of transferrin. However, the mutant receptors still mediated efficient virus infection. In contrast, replacing the cytoplasmic and transmembrane sequences of the feline TfR with those of the influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) resulted in a receptor that bound and endocytosed the capsid but did not mediate viral infection. This chimeric receptor became localized to detergent-insoluble membrane domains. To test the effect of structural virus receptor interaction on infection, two chimeric receptors were prepared which contained antibody-variable domains that bound the capsid in place of the TfR ectodomain. These chimeric receptors bound CPV capsids and mediated uptake but did not result in cell infection. Adding soluble feline TfR ectodomain to the virus during that uptake did not allow infection.

  5. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I B; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M E; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  6. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  7. The role of endocytosis in the uptake and intracellular trafficking of PepFect14-nucleic acid nanocomplexes via class A scavenger receptors.

    PubMed

    Juks, Carmen; Padari, Kärt; Margus, Helerin; Kriiska, Asko; Etverk, Indrek; Arukuusk, Piret; Koppel, Kaida; Ezzat, Kariem; Langel, Ülo; Pooga, Margus

    2015-12-01

    Cell penetrating peptides are efficient tools to deliver various bioactive cargos into cells, but their exact functioning mechanism is still debated. Recently, we showed that a delivery peptide PepFect14 condenses oligonucleotides (ON) into negatively charged nanocomplexes that are taken up by cells via class A scavenger receptors (SR-As). Here we unraveled the uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PF14-ON nanocomplexes in HeLa cells. Macropinocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis are responsible for the intracellular functionality of nucleic acids packed into nanocomplexes. However, only a negligible fraction of the complexes were trafficked to endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus - the common destinations of caveolar endocytosis. Neither were the PF14-SCO nanocomplexes routed to endo-lysosomal pathway, and they stayed in vesicles with slightly acidic pH, which were not marked with LysoSensor. "Naked" ON, in contrary, was rapidly targeted to acidic vesicles and lysosomes. The transmission electron microscopy analysis of interactions between SR-As and PF14-ON nanocomplexes on ultrastructural level revealed that nanocomplexes localized on the plasma membrane in close proximity to SR-As and their colocalization is retained in cells, suggesting that PF14-ON complexes associate with targeted receptors.

  8. Ethanol-induced impairments in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoorosomucoid in isolated rat hepatocytes: Time course of impairments and recovery after ethanol withdrawal

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.A.; Kragskow, S.L.; Sorrell, M.F.; Tuma, D.J.

    1989-04-01

    Chronic ethanol administration markedly impairs the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) of a representative asialoglycoprotein, asialoorosomucoid (ASOR), by the liver. In this study, we further characterized these impairments by identifying the time of onset for ethanol-induced changes in RME as well as establishing the time course for recovery to normal endocytotic values after ethanol withdrawal. Ethanol administration for 3 days did not alter any aspect of endocytosis examined in this study. After feeding ethanol to rats for 7 days, however, significant decreases in amounts of ligand bound, internalized, and degraded were apparent. These impairments persisted throughout the 5-week feeding study although the effects were somewhat attenuated with more prolonged ethanol feeding. In addition, an accumulation of intracellular receptors was observed in ethanol-fed animals relative to controls after 7 days of ethanol feeding. In all cases, recovery of endocytotic values to control levels was partially completed after 2 to 3 days of refeeding control diet and was fully completed after 7 days of refeeding. These results indicate that ethanol feeding for as little as 7 days profoundly impairs the process of RME by the liver. These impairments can be reversed after refeeding control diet for 7 days.

  9. Tritiation of delta opioid-receptor selective antagonist dipeptide ligands with extraordinary affinity containing 2', 6'dimethyltyrosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, I.; Tóth, G.; Balboni, G.; Guerrini, R.; Salvadori, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a new class of δ opioid antagonists has been discovered by using Tyr-Tic sequence. The substitution of Tyr1 by Dmt resulted in a new analogue (H-Dmt-Tic-OH) with enhanced affinity and selectivity. Because of its excellent property we chose it for labelling with tritium. At the same time peptides containing Tic at position 2 undergo spontaneous diketopiperazine formation in some solvents, and they lose some of their binding ability. To avoid this unwanted side-reaction we synthetized the N-methylated analogue (N,N(Me)2-Dmt-Tic-OH), and it was more stable under storage condition, but δ affinity declined moderately. On the basis of this information we prepared diiodinated analogues of these dipeptides. Catalytic dehalotritiation of precursors resulted in tritiated peptides. High specific radioactivity, 44.67 Ci/mmol with [3H]Dmt-Tic-OH and 59.88 Ci/mmol with N,N(Me)2-[3H]Dmt-Tic-OH were achieved.

  10. Tritiation of delta opioid-receptor selective antagonist dipeptide ligands with extraordinary affinity containing 2‧, 6‧dimethyltyrosine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, I.; Tóth, G.; Balboni, G.; Guerrini, R.; Salvadori, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a new class of δ opioid antagonists has been discovered by using Tyr-Tic sequence. The substitution of Tyr1 by Dmt resulted in a new analogue (H-Dmt-Tic-OH) with enhanced affinity and selectivity. Because of its excellent property we chose it for labelling with tritium. At the same time peptides containing Tic at position 2 undergo spontaneous diketopiperazine formation in some solvents, and they lose some of their binding ability. To avoid this unwanted side-reaction we synthetized the N-methylated analogue (N,N(Me)2-Dmt-Tic-OH), and it was more stable under storage condition, but δ affinity declined moderately. On the basis of this information we prepared diiodinated analogues of these dipeptides. Catalytic dehalotritiation of precursors resulted in tritiated peptides. High specific radioactivity, 44.67 Ci/mmol with [3H]Dmt-Tic-OH and 59.88 Ci/mmol with N,N(Me)2-[3H]Dmt-Tic-OH were achieved.

  11. The Cytosolic Tail Dipeptide Ile-Met of the Pea Receptor BP80 Is Required for Recycling from the Prevacuole and for Endocytosis[W

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Jean, Bruno; Seveno-Carpentier, Emilie; Alcon, Carine; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Paris, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum) BP80 is a vacuolar sorting receptor for soluble proteins and has a cytosolic domain essential for its intracellular trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the prevacuole. Based on mammalian knowledge, we introduced point mutations in the cytosolic region of the receptor and produced chimeras of green fluorescent protein fused to the transmembrane domain of pea BP80 along with the modified cytosolic tails. By analyzing the subcellular location of these chimera, we found that mutating Glu-604, Asp-616, or Glu-620 had mild effects, whereas mutating the Tyr motif partially redistributed the chimera to the plasma membrane. Replacing both Ile-608 and Met-609 by Ala (IMAA) led to a massive redistribution of fluorescence to the vacuole, indicating that recycling is impaired. When the chimera uses the alternative route, the IMAA mutation led to a massive accumulation at the plasma membrane. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a fluorescent reporter with the full-length sequence of At VSR4, we demonstrated that the receptor undergoes brefeldin A–sensitive endocytosis. We conclude that the receptors use two pathways, one leading directly to the lytic vacuole and the other going via the plasma membrane, and that the Ileu-608 Met-609 motif has a role in the retrieval step in both pathways. PMID:20807880

  12. Role of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptor in endocytosis of crocidolite and its effect on intracellular glutathione levels in human lung epithelial (A549) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pande, Priyadarshini; Mosleh, Tariq A.; Aust, Ann E. . E-mail: aaust@cc.usu.edu

    2006-01-15

    Crocidolite, containing 27% iron by weight, is the most carcinogenic form of asbestos. Crocidolite fibers are endocytized by {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} integrin receptors in rabbit pleural mesothelial cells. We show here that crocidolite fibers are endocytized in human lung epithelial (A549) cells and in primary small airway epithelial (SAEC) cells. Presence of the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} blocking antibody, P1F6, significantly reduced the uptake of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells. Thus, the integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is involved in endocytosis of crocidolite fibers in A549 cells as well. Previously, it has been observed that asbestos fibers lead to changes in the intracellular redox environment, i.e. a marked decrease in intracellular glutathione concentrations and an increase in the extracellular glutathione in A549 cells. In addition, the decrease in intracellular glutathione was found to be largely independent of iron present on the surface of the fiber. A549 cells were treated with crocidolite in the presence of endocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D. Our data indicate that, upon preventing endocytosis, we were able to reverse the decrease in total intracellular glutathione. The decrease in total intracellular glutathione could also be prevented in the presence of the monoclonal antibody P1F6. Thus, we observed that endocytosis of crocidolite fibers via integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 5} receptor is linked to the marked decrease in total intracellular glutathione in A549 cells.

  13. A Trypanosoma cruzi Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (TcVps34) Is Involved in Osmoregulation and Receptor-mediated Endocytosis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Schoijet, Alejandra C.; Miranda, Kildare; Girard-Dias, Wendell; de Souza, Wanderley; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Torres, Héctor N.; Docampo, Roberto; Alonso, Guillermo D.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has the ability to respond to a variety of environmental changes during its life cycle both in the insect vector and in the vertebrate host. Because regulation of transcription initiation seems to be nonfunctional in this parasite, it is important to investigate other regulatory mechanisms of adaptation. Regulatory mechanisms at the level of signal transduction pathways involving phosphoinositides are good candidates for this purpose. Here we report the identification of the first phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in T. cruzi, with similarity with its yeast counterpart, Vps34p. TcVps34 specifically phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol to produce phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, thus confirming that it belongs to class III PI3K family. Overexpression of TcVps34 resulted in morphological and functional alterations related to vesicular trafficking. Although inhibition of TcVps34 with specific PI3K inhibitors, such as wortmannin and LY294,000, resulted in reduced regulatory volume decrease after hyposmotic stress, cells overexpressing this enzyme were resistant to these inhibitors. Furthermore, these cells were able to recover their original volume faster than wild type cells when they were submitted to severe hyposmotic stress. In addition, in TcVps34-overexpressing cells, the activities of vacuolar-H+-ATPase and vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase were altered, suggesting defects in the acidification of intracellular compartments. Furthermore, receptor-mediated endocytosis was partially blocked although fluid phase endocytosis was not affected, confirming a function for TcVps34 in membrane trafficking. Taken together, these results strongly support that TcVps34 plays a prominent role in vital processes for T. cruzi survival such as osmoregulation, acidification, and vesicular trafficking. PMID:18801733

  14. The CD20 homologue MS4A4 directs trafficking of KIT toward clathrin-independent endocytosis pathways and thus regulates receptor signaling and recycling

    PubMed Central

    Cruse, Glenn; Beaven, Michael A.; Music, Stephen C.; Bradding, Peter; Gilfillan, Alasdair M.; Metcalfe, Dean D.

    2015-01-01

    MS4A family members differentially regulate the cell cycle, and aberrant, or loss of, expression of MS4A family proteins has been observed in colon and lung cancer. However, the precise functions of MS4A family proteins and their mechanistic interactions remain unsolved. Here we report that MS4A4 facilitates trafficking of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT through endocytic recycling rather than degradation pathways by a mechanism that involves recruitment of KIT to caveolin-1–enriched microdomains. Silencing of MS4A4 in human mast cells altered ligand-induced KIT endocytosis pathways and reduced receptor recycling to the cell surface, thus promoting KIT signaling in the endosomes while reducing that in the plasma membrane, as exemplified by Akt and PLCγ1 phosphorylation, respectively. The altered endocytic trafficking of KIT also resulted in an increase in SCF-induced mast cell proliferation and migration, which may reflect altered signaling in these cells. Our data reveal a novel function for MS4A family proteins in regulating trafficking and signaling, which could have implications in both proliferative and immunological diseases. PMID:25717186

  15. A single lysine of the two-lysine recognition motif of the D3 domain of receptor-associated protein is sufficient to mediate endocytosis by low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein.

    PubMed

    van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Sellink, Erica; Klein Gebbinck, Jacqueline W T M; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2011-03-01

    Ligand binding of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family is mediated by complement-type repeats (CR) each comprising a binding pocket for a single basic amino acid residue. It has been proposed that at least two CRs are required for high-affinity interaction by utilising two spatially distinct lysine residues on the ligand surface. LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) mediates the cellular uptake of a multitude of ligands, some of which bind LRP with a relatively low affinity suggesting a suboptimal positioning of the two critical lysines. We now addressed the role of the two critical lysines not only in LRP binding but also in LRP-dependent endocytosis. Variants of the third domain (D3) of receptor-associated protein (RAP) were created carrying lysine to alanine or arginine replacements at the putative contact residues K253, K256 and K270. Surface plasmon resonance revealed that replacement of K253 did not affect high-affinity LRP binding at all, whereas replacement of either K256 or K270 markedly reduced the affinity by approximately 10-fold. Binding was abolished when both lysines were replaced. Substitution by either alanine or arginine exerted an almost identical effect on LRP binding. This suggests that despite their positive charge, arginine residues do not support receptor binding at all. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry studies surprisingly revealed that the single mutants were still taken up and still competed for the uptake of full length RAP despite their receptor binding defect. We therefore propose that the presence of only one of the two critical lysines is sufficient to drive endocytosis. PMID:21144910

  16. Quantum dots implementation as a label for analysis of early stages of EGF receptor endocytosis: a comparative study on cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    Salova, Anna V.; Belyaeva, Tatiana N.; Leontieva, Ekaterina A.; Zlobina, Maria V.; Kharchenko, Marianna V.; Kornilova, Elena S.

    2016-01-01

    EGF complexed to fluorescent photostable quantum dots by biotin-streptavidin system (bEGF-savQD) is attractive for both the basic research and therapeutic application such as targeted drug delivery in EGF-receptor (EGFR) expressing cancers. However, compared to native EGF, the large size of QD and its quasi-multivalency can have unpredictable effects on EGFR endocytosis changing the internalization portal and/or endosomal processing tightly bound to EGF signaling. We have found that bEGF-savQDs enter HeLa cells via the temperature-dependent clathrin-mediated EGF-receptor-specific pathway characteristic for native EGF. We also found that EGF-to-QD concentration ratios used for the complex preparation and the level of EGF receptor expression affect the number and integral densities of the formed endosomes. So, at EGF-to-QD ratio from 4:1 to 12:1 (at nanomolar bEGF concentrations) on average 100 bright endosomes per HeLa cell were formed 15 min after the complex addition, while 1:1 ratio resulted in formation of very few dim endosomes. However, in A431 cells overexpressing EGFR 1:1 ratio was effective. Using dynamin inhibition and Na-acidic washout we showed that bEGF-savQDs bind surface receptors and enter clathrin-coated pits slower than the same ligands without QD. Yet, the bEGF-savQD demonstrated similar to native EGF and bEGF-savCy3 co-localization dynamics with tethering protein EEA1 and HRS, the key component of sorting ESCRT0 complex. In conclusion, our comparative study reveals that in respect to entrapment into coated pits, endosomal recruitment, endosome fusions, and the initial steps of endosomal maturation, bEGF-savQD behaves like native EGF and QD implementation does not affect these important events. PMID:26716513

  17. Mobility of tethering factor EEA1 on endosomes is decreased upon stimulation of EGF receptor endocytosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Kosheverova, Vera V; Kamentseva, Rimma S; Gonchar, Ilya V; Kharchenko, Marianna V; Kornilova, Elena S

    2016-04-22

    Tethering factor EEA1, mediating homotypic fusion of early endosomes, was shown to be localized in membrane-bound state both in serum-deprived and stimulated for EGF receptor endocytosis cells. However, it is not known whether dynamics behavior of EEA1 is affected by EGF stimulation. We investigated EEA1 cytosol-to-membrane exchange rate in interphase HeLa cells by FRAP analysis. The data obtained fitted two-states binding model, with the bulk of membrane-associated EEA1 protein represented by the mobile fraction both in serum-starved and EGF-stimulated cells. Fast recovery state had similar half-times in the two cases: about 1.6 s and 2.8 s, respectively. However, the recovery half-time of slowly cycled EEA1 fraction significantly increased in EGF-stimulated comparing to serum-starved cells (from 21 to 99 s). We suppose that the retardation of EEA1 fluorescence recovery upon EGF-stimulation may be due to the increase of activated Rab5 on endosomal membranes, the growth of the number of tethering events between EEA1-positive vesicles and their clustering.

  18. Endosidin1 defines a compartment involved in endocytosis of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the auxin transporters PIN2 and AUX1.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stéphanie; Chary, S Narasimha; Drakakaki, Georgia; Li, Shundai; Yang, Zhenbiao; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R

    2008-06-17

    Although it is known that proteins are delivered to and recycled from the plasma membrane (PM) via endosomes, the nature of the compartments and pathways responsible for cargo and vesicle sorting and cellular signaling is poorly understood. To define and dissect specific recycling pathways, chemical effectors of proteins involved in vesicle trafficking, especially through endosomes, would be invaluable. Thus, we identified chemicals affecting essential steps in PM/endosome trafficking, using the intensely localized PM transport at the tips of germinating pollen tubes. The basic mechanisms of this localized growth are likely similar to those of non-tip growing cells in seedlings. The compound endosidin 1 (ES1) interfered selectively with endocytosis in seedlings, providing a unique tool to dissect recycling pathways. ES1 treatment induced the rapid agglomeration of the auxin translocators PIN2 and AUX1 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 into distinct endomembrane compartments termed "endosidin bodies"; however, the markers PIN1, PIN7, and other PM proteins were unaffected. Endosidin bodies were defined by the syntaxin SYP61 and the V-ATPase subunit VHA-a1, two trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosomal proteins. Interestingly, brassinosteroid (BR)-induced gene expression was inhibited by ES1 and treated seedlings displayed a brassinolide (BL)-insensitive phenotype similar to a bri1 loss-of-function mutant. No effect was detected in auxin signaling. Thus, PIN2, AUX1, and BRI1 use interactive pathways involving an early SYP61/VHA-a1 endosomal compartment.

  19. Endocytosis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mellman, Ira; Yarden, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    Endocytosis entails selective packaging of cell-surface proteins, such as receptors for cytokines and adhesion components, in cytoplasmic vesicles (endosomes). The series of sorting events that determines the fate of internalized proteins, either degradation in lysosomes or recycling back to the plasma membrane, relies on intrinsic sequence motifs, posttranslational modifications (e.g., phosphorylation and ubiquitination), and transient assemblies of both Rab GTPases and phosphoinositide-binding proteins. This multicomponent process is enhanced and skewed in cancer cells; we review mechanisms enabling both major drivers of cancer, p53 and Ras, to bias recycling of integrins and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Likewise, cadherins and other junctional proteins of cancer cells are constantly removed from the cell surface, thereby disrupting tissue polarity and instigating motile phenotypes. Mutant forms of RTKs able to evade Cbl-mediated ubiquitination, along with overexpression of the wild-type forms and a variety of defective feedback regulatory loops, are frequently detected in tumors. Finally, we describe pharmacological attempts to harness the peculiar endocytic system of cancer, in favor of effective patient treatment. PMID:24296170

  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the endocytosis and surface expression of GluN3A-containing NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Dhrubajyoti; Marco, Sonia; Brooks, Ian M; Zandueta, Aitor; Rao, Yijian; Haucke, Volker; Wesseling, John F; Tavalin, Steven J; Pérez-Otaño, Isabel

    2013-02-27

    Selective control of receptor trafficking provides a mechanism for remodeling the receptor composition of excitatory synapses, and thus supports synaptic transmission, plasticity, and development. GluN3A (formerly NR3A) is a nonconventional member of the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) subunit family, which endows NMDAR channels with low calcium permeability and reduced magnesium sensitivity compared with NMDARs comprising only GluN1 and GluN2 subunits. Because of these special properties, GluN3A subunits act as a molecular brake to limit the plasticity and maturation of excitatory synapses, pointing toward GluN3A removal as a critical step in the development of neuronal circuitry. However, the molecular signals mediating GluN3A endocytic removal remain unclear. Here we define a novel endocytic motif (YWL), which is located within the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of GluN3A and mediates its binding to the clathrin adaptor AP2. Alanine mutations within the GluN3A endocytic motif inhibited clathrin-dependent internalization and led to accumulation of GluN3A-containing NMDARs at the cell surface, whereas mimicking phosphorylation of the tyrosine residue promoted internalization and reduced cell-surface expression as shown by immunocytochemical and electrophysiological approaches in recombinant systems and rat neurons in primary culture. We further demonstrate that the tyrosine residue is phosphorylated by Src family kinases, and that Src-activation limits surface GluN3A expression in neurons. Together, our results identify a new molecular signal for GluN3A internalization that couples the functional surface expression of GluN3A-containing receptors to the phosphorylation state of GluN3A subunits, and provides a molecular framework for the regulation of NMDAR subunit composition with implications for synaptic plasticity and neurodevelopment. PMID:23447623

  1. The Matricellular Receptor LRP1 Forms an Interface for Signaling and Endocytosis in Modulation of the Extracellular Tumor Environment.

    PubMed

    Van Gool, Bart; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé; Roebroek, Anton J M

    2015-01-01

    The membrane protein low-density lipoprotein receptor related-protein 1 (LRP1) has been attributed a role in cancer. However, its presumably often indirect involvement is far from understood. LRP1 has both endocytic and signaling activities. As a matricellular receptor it is involved in regulation, mostly by clearing, of various extracellular matrix degrading enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases, serine proteases, protease inhibitor complexes, and the endoglycosidase heparanase. Furthermore, by binding extracellular ligands including growth factors and subsequent intracellular interaction with scaffolding and adaptor proteins it is involved in regulation of various signaling cascades. LRP1 expression levels are often downregulated in cancer and some studies consider low LRP1 levels a poor prognostic factor. On the contrary, upregulation in brain cancers has been noted and clinical trials explore the use of LRP1 as cargo receptor to deliver cytotoxic agents. This mini-review focuses on LRP1's role in tumor growth and metastasis especially by modulation of the extracellular tumor environment. In relation to this role its diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential will be discussed. PMID:26617523

  2. The Matricellular Receptor LRP1 Forms an Interface for Signaling and Endocytosis in Modulation of the Extracellular Tumor Environment

    PubMed Central

    Van Gool, Bart; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé; Roebroek, Anton J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The membrane protein low-density lipoprotein receptor related-protein 1 (LRP1) has been attributed a role in cancer. However, its presumably often indirect involvement is far from understood. LRP1 has both endocytic and signaling activities. As a matricellular receptor it is involved in regulation, mostly by clearing, of various extracellular matrix degrading enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases, serine proteases, protease inhibitor complexes, and the endoglycosidase heparanase. Furthermore, by binding extracellular ligands including growth factors and subsequent intracellular interaction with scaffolding and adaptor proteins it is involved in regulation of various signaling cascades. LRP1 expression levels are often downregulated in cancer and some studies consider low LRP1 levels a poor prognostic factor. On the contrary, upregulation in brain cancers has been noted and clinical trials explore the use of LRP1 as cargo receptor to deliver cytotoxic agents. This mini-review focuses on LRP1’s role in tumor growth and metastasis especially by modulation of the extracellular tumor environment. In relation to this role its diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential will be discussed. PMID:26617523

  3. The Matricellular Receptor LRP1 Forms an Interface for Signaling and Endocytosis in Modulation of the Extracellular Tumor Environment.

    PubMed

    Van Gool, Bart; Dedieu, Stéphane; Emonard, Hervé; Roebroek, Anton J M

    2015-01-01

    The membrane protein low-density lipoprotein receptor related-protein 1 (LRP1) has been attributed a role in cancer. However, its presumably often indirect involvement is far from understood. LRP1 has both endocytic and signaling activities. As a matricellular receptor it is involved in regulation, mostly by clearing, of various extracellular matrix degrading enzymes including matrix metalloproteinases, serine proteases, protease inhibitor complexes, and the endoglycosidase heparanase. Furthermore, by binding extracellular ligands including growth factors and subsequent intracellular interaction with scaffolding and adaptor proteins it is involved in regulation of various signaling cascades. LRP1 expression levels are often downregulated in cancer and some studies consider low LRP1 levels a poor prognostic factor. On the contrary, upregulation in brain cancers has been noted and clinical trials explore the use of LRP1 as cargo receptor to deliver cytotoxic agents. This mini-review focuses on LRP1's role in tumor growth and metastasis especially by modulation of the extracellular tumor environment. In relation to this role its diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential will be discussed.

  4. Impaired endocytosis in proximal tubule from subchronic exposure to cadmium involves angiotensin II type 1 and cubilin receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to low cadmium (Cd) levels produces urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins, which is considered the critical effect of Cd exposure. However, the mechanisms involved in Cd-induced proteinuria are not entirely clear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the possible role of megalin and cubilin (important endocytic receptors in proximal tubule cells) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on Cd-induced microalbuminuria. Methods Four groups of female Wistar rats were studied. Control (CT) group, vehicle-treated rats; LOS group, rats treated with losartan (an AT1 antagonist) from weeks 5 to 8 (10 mg/kg/day by gavage); Cd group, rats subchronically exposed to Cd (3 mg/kg/day by gavage) during 8 weeks, and Cd + LOS group, rats treated with Cd for 8 weeks and LOS from weeks 5–8. Kidney Cd content, glomerular function (evaluated by creatinine clearance and plasma creatinine), kidney injury and tubular function (evaluated by Kim-1 expression, urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and glucose, and microalbuminuria), oxidative stress (measured by lipid peroxidation and NAD(P)H oxidase activity), mRNA levels of megalin, expressions of megalin and cubilin (by confocal microscopy) and AT1 receptor (by Western blot), were measured in the different experimental groups. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test using GraphPad Prism 5 software (Version 5.00). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Administration of Cd (Cd and Cd + LOS groups) increased renal Cd content. LOS-treatment decreased Cd-induced microalbuminuria without changes in: plasma creatinine, creatinine clearance, urinary NAG and glucose, oxidative stress, mRNA levels of megalin and cubilin, neither protein expression of megalin nor AT1 receptor, in the different experimental groups studied. However, Cd exposure did induce the expression of the tubular injury marker Kim-1 and decreased

  5. New series of potent delta-opioid antagonists containing the H-Dmt-Tic-NH-hexyl-NH-R motif.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingyou; Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Fujita, Yoshio; Tsuda, Yuko; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio

    2005-12-15

    Heterodimeric compounds H-Dmt-Tic-NH-hexyl-NH-R (R=Dmt, Tic, and Phe) exhibited high affinity to delta- (K(i)delta=0.13-0.89nM) and mu-opioid receptors (K(i)mu=0.38-2.81nM) with extraordinary potent delta antagonism (pA(2)=10.2-10.4). These compounds represent the prototype for a new class of structural homologues lacking mu-opioid receptor-associated agonism (IC(50)=1.6-5.8muM) based on the framework of bis-[H-Dmt-NH]-alkyl (Okada, Y.; Tsuda, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Yokoi, T.; Sasaki, Y.; Ambo, A.; Konishi, R.; Nagata, M.; Salvadori, S.; Jinsmaa, Y.; Bryant, S. D.; Lazarus, L. H. J. Med. Chem.2003, 46, 3201), which exhibited both high mu affinity and bioactivity.

  6. [The increase in receptor-mediated endocytosis of drugs in the composition of nanoparticles with the address fragment].

    PubMed

    Kostryukova, L V; Sanzhakov, M A; Ignatov, D V; Prozorovskyi, V N; Druzhilovskaya, O S; Kasatkina, E S; Medvedeva, N V; Ipatova, O M

    2016-03-01

    It is known that disorders in the cell functioning of the organs/tissues is accompanied by increased expression of certain receptors. A modern approach to improve the specificity of the drug accumulation in the affected area is to construct the delivery nanosystems with the address fragments. Active tagged transport may help to reduce the dose of the drug, minimizing the impact on healthy cells and organs (reduced adverse events). This approach is particularly important in oncology because of the high toxicity of the drugs used. In this work we have obtained and characterized the pharmaceutical composition of doxorubicin and chlorine e6 into colloidal nanoparticles with synthesized previously targeted conjugates based on folic acid and biotin. On the cell culture Hep G2 it was shown an increase in the internalization of drugs when they were introduced in the incubation medium in the form of drug compositions with transport nanosystems and targeted fragments. PMID:27420624

  7. Synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-09-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization.

  8. Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Neurons can sustain high rates of synaptic transmission without exhausting their supply of synaptic vesicles. This property relies on a highly efficient local endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes, which can be reused for hundreds, possibly thousands, of exo-endocytic cycles. Morphological, physiological, molecular, and genetic studies over the last four decades have provided insight into the membrane traffic reactions that govern this recycling and its regulation. These studies have shown that synaptic vesicle endocytosis capitalizes on fundamental and general endocytic mechanisms but also involves neuron-specific adaptations of such mechanisms. Thus, investigations of these processes have advanced not only the field of synaptic transmission but also, more generally, the field of endocytosis. This article summarizes current information on synaptic vesicle endocytosis with an emphasis on the underlying molecular mechanisms and with a special focus on clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the predominant pathway of synaptic vesicle protein internalization. PMID:22763746

  9. Dimerization drives EGFR endocytosis through two sets of compatible endocytic codes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2015-03-01

    We have shown previously that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) endocytosis is controlled by EGFR dimerization. However, it is not clear how the dimerization drives receptor internalization. We propose that EGFR endocytosis is driven by dimerization, bringing two sets of endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor monomer, in close proximity. Here, we tested this hypothesis by generating specific homo- or hetero-dimers of various receptors and their mutants. We show that ErbB2 and ErbB3 homodimers are endocytosis deficient owing to the lack of endocytic codes. Interestingly, EGFR-ErbB2 or EGFR-ErbB3 heterodimers are also endocytosis deficient. Moreover, the heterodimer of EGFR and the endocytosis-deficient mutant EGFRΔ1005-1017 is also impaired in endocytosis. These results indicate that two sets of endocytic codes are required for receptor endocytosis. We found that an EGFR-PDGFRβ heterodimer is endocytosis deficient, although both EGFR and PDGFRβ homodimers are endocytosis-competent, indicating that two compatible sets of endocytic codes are required. Finally, we found that to mediate the endocytosis of the receptor dimer, the two sets of compatible endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor molecule, have to be spatially coordinated.

  10. Effects of the delta-opioid agonist SNC80 on the abuse liability of methadone in rhesus monkeys: a behavioral economic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L.; Roma, Peter G.; Folk, John E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Delta-opioid agonists enhance the antinociceptive efficacy of methadone and other mu-opioid agonists. However, relatively little is known about the degree to which delta agonists might enhance the abuse-related effects of mu agonists. Objective This study used a behavioral economic approach to examine effects of the delta agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[(αR)-α-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxy-benzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] on the reinforcing effects of methadone in a drug self-administration assay. Interactions between SNC80 and cocaine were also examined for comparison. Methods Rhesus monkeys (n=4), surgically implanted with indwelling intravenous catheters, were tested in two phases. In phase 1, drug self-administration dose-effect curves for methadone (0.0032–0.1 mg/kg/injection (inj)) and cocaine (0.0032–0.32 mg/kg/inj) alone were determined under a fixed-ratio 10 (FR 10) schedule of reinforcement. In phase 2, FR values were increased every 3 days (FR 1–FR 1800) during availability of methadone alone (0.032 mg/kg/inj) and in combination with varying proportions of SNC80 (0.1:1, 0.3:1, and 0.9:1 SNC80/methadone) or of cocaine alone (0.032 mg/kg/inj) and in combination with varying proportions of SNC80 (0.33:1, 1:1, and 3:1 SNC80/ cocaine). Demand curves related drug intake to FR price, and measures of reinforcement were derived. Results Methadone and cocaine alone each functioned as a reinforcer. SNC80 did not alter measures of reinforcement for either methadone or cocaine. Conclusions SNC80 at proportions previously shown to enhance methadone-induced antinociception did not enhance the abuse-related effects of methadone. These results support the proposition that delta agonists may selectively enhance mu agonist analgesic effects without enhancing mu agonist abuse liability. PMID:21369752

  11. Endocytosis of Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Gaurav; Alakhova, Daria Y; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2010-01-01

    Novel nanomaterials are being developed to improve diagnosis and therapy of diseases through effective delivery of drugs, biopharmaceutical molecules and imaging agents to target cells in disease sites. Such diagnostic and therapeutic nanomaterials, also termed “nanomedicines”, often require site-specific cellular entry to deliver their payload to subcellular locations hidden beneath cell membranes. Nanomedicines can employ multiple pathways for cellular entry, which are currently insufficiently understood. This review, first, classifies various mechanisms of endocytosis available to nanomedicines including phagocytosis and pinocytosis through clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent pathways. Second, it describes the current experimental tools to study endocytosis of nanomedicines. Third, it provides specific examples from recent literature and our own work on endocytosis of nanomedicines. Finally, these examples are used to ascertain 1) the role of particle size, shape, material composition, surface chemistry and/or charge for utilization of a selected pathway(s); 2) the effect of cell type on the processing of nanomedicines; 3) the effect of nanomaterial-cell interactions on the processes of endocytosis, the fate of the nanomedicines and the resulting cellular responses. This review will be useful to a diverse audience of students and scientists who are interested in understanding endocytosis of nanomedicines. PMID:20226220

  12. Polarised clathrin-mediated endocytosis of EGFR during chemotactic invasion.

    PubMed

    Mutch, Laura Jane; Howden, Jake Davey; Jenner, Emma Poppy Louise; Poulter, Natalie Sarah; Rappoport, Joshua Zachary

    2014-06-01

    Directed cell migration is critical for numerous physiological processes including development and wound healing. However chemotaxis is also exploited during cancer progression. Recent reports have suggested links between vesicle trafficking pathways and directed cell migration. Very little is known about the potential roles of endocytosis pathways during metastasis. Therefore we performed a series of studies employing a previously characterised model for chemotactic invasion of cancer cells to assess specific hypotheses potentially linking endocytosis to directed cell migration. Our results demonstrate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is indispensable for epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed chemotactic invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, caveolar endocytosis is not required in this mode of migration. We further found that chemoattractant receptor (EGFR) trafficking occurs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is polarised towards the front of migrating cells. However, we found no role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis in focal adhesion disassembly in this migration model. Thus, this study has characterised the role of endocytosis during chemotactic invasion and has identified functions mechanistically linking clathrin-mediated endocytosis to directed cell motility.

  13. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Malerød, Lene; Berg, Trond; Kjeken, Rune

    2004-01-01

    The process by which clathrin-coated vesicles are produced involves interactions of multifunctional adaptor proteins with the plasma membrane, as well as with clathrin and several accessory proteins and phosphoinositides. Here we review recent findings highlighting new insights into mechanisms underlying clathrin-dependent endocytosis. PMID:14505490

  14. Rapid agonist-induced loss of sup 125 I-. beta. -endorphin opioid receptor sites in NG108-15, but not SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, R.I.; Lameh, J.; Sadee, W. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors have measured {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites on intact SK-N-SH and NG108-15 neuroblastoma cells, respectively, in culture. Use of {sup 125}I-{beta}-endorphin ({beta}E) as a tracer, together with {beta}E(6-31) to block high-affinity non-opioid binding in both cell lines, permitted the measurement of cell surface {mu} and {delta} opioid receptor sites. Labeling was at {delta} sites in NG108-15 cells and predominantly at {mu} sites in SK-N-SH cells. Pretreatment with the {mu} and {delta} agonist, DADLE, caused a rapid loss of cell surface {delta} receptor sites in NG108-15 cells, but failed to reduce significantly {mu} receptor density in SK-N-SH cells.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Action of an Antimicrobial Model Peptide That Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Do-Wan; Heo, Kang-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Kyu; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Choi, Jae-Wan; Sim, Dae-Won; Cheong, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hong; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, particularly those with amphipathic helical structures, are emerging as target molecules for therapeutic development due to their immunomodulatory properties. Although the antimicrobial activity of AMPs is known to be exerted primarily by permeation of the bacterial membrane, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remains to be elucidated. We report potent anti-inflammatory activity of WALK11.3, an antimicrobial model peptide with an amphipathic helical conformation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This peptide inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-β, and TNF-α. Although WALK11.3 did not exert a major effect on all downstream signaling in the MyD88-dependent pathway, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- mediated pro-inflammatory signals were markedly attenuated in the TRIF-dependent pathway due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of STAT1 by attenuation of IRF3 phosphorylation. WALK11.3 specifically inhibited the endocytosis of TLR4, which is essential for triggering TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophage cells. Hence, we suggest that specific interference with TLR4 endocytosis could be one of the major modes of the anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. Our designed WALK11 peptides, which possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, may be promising molecules for the development of therapies for infectious inflammation. PMID:26017270

  16. Synthetic antigens reveal dynamics of BCR endocytosis during inhibitory signaling.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Adam H; Bennett, Nitasha R; Zwick, Daniel B; Hudon, Jonathan; Kiessling, Laura L

    2014-01-17

    B cells detect foreign antigens through their B cell antigen receptor (BCR). The BCR, when engaged by antigen, initiates a signaling cascade. Concurrent with signaling is endocytosis of the BCR complex, which acts to downregulate signaling and facilitate uptake of antigen for processing and display on the cell surface. The relationship between signaling and BCR endocytosis is poorly defined. Here, we explore the interplay between BCR endocytosis and antigens that either promote or inhibit B cell activation. Specifically, synthetic antigens were generated that engage the BCR alone or both the BCR and the inhibitory co-receptor CD22. The lectin CD22, a member of the Siglec family, binds sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates found on host tissues, inhibiting BCR signaling to prevent erroneous B cell activation. At low concentrations, antigens that can cocluster the BCR and CD22 promote rapid BCR endocytosis; whereas, slower endocytosis occurs with antigens that bind only the BCR. At higher antigen concentrations, rapid BCR endocytosis occurs upon treatment with either stimulatory or inhibitory antigens. Endocytosis of the BCR, in response to synthetic antigens, results in its entry into early endocytic compartments. Although the CD22-binding antigens fail to activate key regulators of antigen presentation (e.g., Syk), they also promote BCR endocytosis, indicating that inhibitory antigens can be internalized. Together, our observations support a functional role for BCR endocytosis in downregulating BCR signaling. The reduction of cell surface BCR levels in the absence of B cell activation should raise the threshold for BCR subsequent activation. The ability of the activating synthetic antigens to trigger both signaling and entry of the BCR into early endosomes suggests strategies for targeted antigen delivery.

  17. Exploiting Endocytosis for Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Akinc, Akin; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we briefly review the endocytic pathways used by cells, pointing out their defining characteristics and highlighting physical limitations that may direct the internalization of nanoparticles to a subset of these pathways. A more detailed description of these pathways is presented in the literature. We then focus on the endocytosis of nanomedicines and present how various nanomaterial parameters impact these endocytic processes. This topic is an area of active research, motivated by the recognition that an improved understanding of how nanomaterials interact at the molecular, cellular, and whole-organism level will lead to the design of better nanomedicines in the future. Next, we briefly review some of the important nanomedicines already on the market or in clinical development that serve to exemplify how endocytosis can be exploited for medical benefit. Finally, we present some key unanswered questions and remaining challenges to be addressed by the field. PMID:24186069

  18. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms. PMID:25330347

  19. Differential effects of exercise on brain opioid receptor binding and activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Arida, Ricardo Mario; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Zavala-Tecuapetla, Cecilia; Brand, Serge; Rocha, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise stimulates the release of endogenous opioid peptides supposed to be responsible for changes in mood, anxiety, and performance. Exercise alters sensitivity to these effects that modify the efficacy at the opioid receptor. Although there is evidence that relates exercise to neuropeptide expression in the brain, the effects of exercise on opioid receptor binding and signal transduction mechanisms downstream of these receptors have not been explored. Here, we characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor or delta opioid receptor in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. As regards short- (acute) or long-term effects (chronic) of exercise, overall, higher opioid receptor binding was observed in acute-exercise animals and the opposite was found in the chronic-exercise animals. The binding of [(35) S]GTPγS under basal conditions (absence of agonists) was elevated in sensorimotor cortex and hippocampus, an effect more evident after chronic exercise. Divergence of findings was observed for mu opioid receptor, kappa opioid receptor, and delta opioid receptor receptor activation in our study. Our results support existing evidence of opioid receptor binding and G protein activation occurring differentially in brain regions in response to diverse exercise stimuli. We characterized the binding and G protein activation of mu, kappa, and delta opioid receptors in several brain regions following acute (7 days) and chronic (30 days) exercise. Higher opioid receptor binding was observed in the acute exercise animal group and opposite findings in the chronic exercise group. Higher G protein activation under basal conditions was noted in rats submitted to chronic exercise, as visible in the depicted pseudo-color autoradiograms.

  20. Activation of G protein by opioid receptors: role of receptor number and G-protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Remmers, A E; Clark, M J; Alt, A; Medzihradsky, F; Woods, J H; Traynor, J R

    2000-05-19

    The collision-coupling model for receptor-G-protein interaction predicts that the rate of G-protein activation is dependent on receptor density, but not G-protein levels. C6 cells expressing mu- or delta-opioid receptors, or SH-SY5Y cells, were treated with beta-funaltrexamine (mu) or naltrindole-5'-isothiocyanate (delta) to decrease receptor number. The time course of full or partial agonist-stimulated ¿35SGTPgammaS binding did not vary in C6 cell membranes containing <1-25 pmol/mg mu-opioid receptor, or 1. 4-4.3 pmol/mg delta-opioid receptor, or in SHSY5Y cells containing 0. 16-0.39 pmol/mg receptor. The association of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding was faster in membranes from C6mu cells than from C6delta cells. A 10-fold reduction in functional G-protein, following pertussis toxin treatment, lowered the maximal level of ¿35SGTPgammaS binding but not the association rate. These data indicate a compartmentalization of opioid receptors and G protein at the cell membrane. PMID:10822058

  1. Myoferlin is critical for endocytosis in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bernatchez, Pascal N.; Sharma, Arpeeta; Kodaman, Pinar

    2009-01-01

    Myoferlin is a member of the ferlin family of proteins that promotes endomembrane fusion with the plasma membrane in muscle cells and endothelial cells. In addition, myoferlin is necessary for the surface expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 through the formation of a protein complex with dynamin-2 (Dyn-2). Since Dyn-2 is necessary for the fission of endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, we tested the hypothesis that myoferlin may regulates aspects of receptor-dependent endocytosis. Here we show that myoferlin gene silencing decreases both clathrin and caveolae/raft-dependent endocytosis, whereas ectopic myoferlin expression in COS-7 cells increases endocytosis by up to 125%. Interestingly, we have observed that inhibition of Dyn-2 activity or caveolin-1 (Cav-1) expression impairs endocytosis as well as membrane resealing after injury, indicating that Dyn-2 and Cav-1 also participate in both membrane fission and fusion processes. Mechanistically, myoferlin partially colocalizes with Dyn-2 and Cav-1 and forms a protein complex with Cav-1 solubilized from tissue extracts. Together, these data describe a new role for myoferlin in receptor-dependent endocytosis and an overlapping role for myoferlin-Dyn-2-Cav-1 protein complexes in membrane fusion and fission events. PMID:19494235

  2. Visualizing the endocytosis of phenylephrine in living cells by quantum dot-based tracking.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Lina; Hou, Zhun; Song, Yao; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To study the intracellular receptor-drug transportation, a fluorescent probe consisting of phenylephrine-polyethylene glycol-quantum dots conjugate was employed to track endocytosis process of phenylephrine in living cells. This type of movement was studied by continuously filming fluorescent images in the same cell. We also calculated the movement parameters, and divided the endocytosis process into 6 stages. Furthermore, the movement parameters of this probe in different organelles were determined by co-localization of the probe fluorescent images and different cellular organelles. After comparing the parameters in cellular organelles with these in 6 stages, the whole endocytosis pathway was demonstrated. These results verified that this probe successfully tracked the whole intracellular dynamic endocytosis process of phenylephrine. Our method realized the visual tracking the whole receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is a new approach on investigating the molecular mechanisms and kinetic properties of intracellular receptor-drug transportation.

  3. Endocytosis of Integrin-Binding Human Picornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Koskinen, Satu; Heikkilä, Outi; Karelehto, Eveliina; Susi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9), echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1) has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses. PMID:23227048

  4. Endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses.

    PubMed

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Koskinen, Satu; Heikkilä, Outi; Karelehto, Eveliina; Susi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9), echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1) has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses.

  5. Cloning and pharmacological characterization of a rat kappa opioid receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Meng, F; Xie, G X; Thompson, R C; Mansour, A; Goldstein, A; Watson, S J; Akil, H

    1993-01-01

    A full-length cDNA was isolated from a rat striatal library by using low-stringency screening with two PCR fragments, one spanning transmembrane domains 3-6 of the mouse delta opioid receptor and the other unidentified but homologous to the mouse delta receptor from rat brain. The novel cDNA had a long open reading frame encoding a protein of 380 residues with 59% identity to the mouse delta receptor and topography consistent with a seven-helix guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor. COS-1 cells transfected with the coding region of this clone showed high-affinity binding to kappa opioid receptor-selective ligands such as dynorphin A and U-50,488 and also nonselective opioid ligands such as bremazocine, ethylketocyclazocine, and naloxone. Not bound at all (or bound with low affinity) were dynorphin A-(2-13), enantiomers of naloxone and levophanol [i.e., (+)-naloxone and dextrorphan], and selective mu and delta opioid receptor ligands. Activation of the expressed receptor by kappa receptor agonists led to inhibition of cAMP. Finally, in situ hybridization revealed a mRNA distribution in rat brain that corresponded well to the distribution of binding sites labeled with kappa-selective ligands. These observations indicate that we have cloned a cDNA encoding a rat kappa receptor of the kappa 1 subtype. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8234341

  6. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  7. The SNARE proteins SNAP25 and synaptobrevin are involved in endocytosis at hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Dongsheng; Sun, Tao; Xu, Jianhua; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Shin, Wonchul; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2013-05-22

    SNAP25, an essential component of the soluble NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex that mediates exocytosis, is not considered to play a role in endocytosis, which couples to exocytosis by retrieving a similar amount of exocytosed vesicles. By knocking down SNAP25 and imaging slow endocytosis at a conventional synapse, the rat cultured hippocampal synapse, we found that SNAP25 is involved in slow, clathrin-dependent endocytosis. With similar techniques, we found that not only SNAP25, but also synaptobrevin is involved in slow endocytosis. These results provide the first evidence showing the dual role of SNAP25 and synaptobrevin in both exocytosis and slow endocytosis at conventional synapses. Such a dual role may contribute to mediate the coupling between exocytosis and clathrin-dependent endocytosis at conventional synapses, a mechanism critical for the maintenance of synaptic transmission and the normal structure of nerve terminals.

  8. Notch1 endocytosis is induced by ligand and is required for signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G; Major, J A; Iyer, K; James, A C; Pursglove, S E; Moreau, J L M; Dunwoodie, S L

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signalling pathway is widely utilised during embryogenesis in situations where cell-cell interactions are important for cell fate specification and differentiation. DSL ligand endocytosis into the ligand-expressing cell is an important aspect of Notch signalling because it is thought to supply the force needed to separate the Notch heterodimer to initiate signal transduction. A functional role for receptor endocytosis during Notch signal transduction is more controversial. Here we have used live-cell imaging to examine trafficking of the Notch1 receptor in response to ligand binding. Contact with cells expressing ligands induced internalisation and intracellular trafficking of Notch1. Notch1 endocytosis was accompanied by transendocytosis of ligand into the Notch1-expressing signal-receiving cell. Ligand caused Notch1 endocytosis into SARA-positive endosomes in a manner dependent on clathrin and dynamin function. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis in the receptor-expressing cell impaired ligand-induced Notch1 signalling. Our findings resolve conflicting observations from mammalian and Drosophila studies by demonstrating that ligand-dependent activation of Notch1 signalling requires receptor endocytosis. Endocytosis of Notch1 may provide a force on the ligand:receptor complex that is important for potent signal transduction.

  9. CD14 Mediates Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Endocytosis and Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) and Interferon Regulatory Transcription Factor 3 (IRF3) Activation in Epithelial Cells and Impairs Neutrophil Infiltration and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Killing in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanhita; Karmakar, Mausita; Pearlman, Eric

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of CD14 in regulating LPS activation of corneal epithelial cells and Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infection. Our findings demonstrate that LPS induces Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) internalization in corneal epithelial cells and that blocking with anti-CD14 selectively inhibits TLR4 endocytosis, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and IRF3 phosphorylation, and production of CCL5/RANTES and IFN-β, but not IL-8. Using a murine model of P. aeruginosa corneal infection, we show that although infected CD14−/− corneas produce less CCL5, they exhibit significantly increased CXC chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment to the corneal stroma, and bacterial clearance than C57BL/6 mice. We conclude that CD14 has a critical role in mediating TLR4 signaling through IRF3 in resident corneal epithelial cells and macrophages and thereby modulates TLR4 cell surface activation of the MyD88/NF-κB/AP-1 pathway and production of CXC chemokines and neutrophil infiltration to infected tissues. PMID:24275652

  10. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  11. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other. PMID:25010412

  12. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of insulin in lower vertebrates: internalization and intracellular processing of 125I-insulin in isolated hepatocytes of lamprey and frog.

    PubMed

    Lappova, Y L; Leibush, B N

    1995-10-01

    The binding of 125I-insulin to cellular insulin receptors and the internalization of insulin-receptor complexes have been studied in isolated hepatocytes of frog and lamprey. Two classes of binding sites (Kd 10(-9) and 10(-8) M) were found in cells of both species. The molecular weight of the insulin receptor alpha-subunit was 130 kDa in both species. Internalization of bound 125I-insulin in both species was found in the temperature range 0 to 20 degrees. Cells "loaded" with 125I-insulin were used to estimate the fate of the internalized ligand. Release of internalized ligand from frog cells increased at temperatures ranging from 0 to 20 degrees. At 0 degrees the degraded 125I-insulin was 5%, at 5 degrees 7%, and at 20 degrees 17% of total radioactivity accumulated in the medium. In lamprey hepatocytes there was neither radioactivity accumulation in the incubation medium nor release from cells at all temperatures studied. The intracellular degradation of internalized 125I-insulin in frog hepatocytes was much lower than that in lamprey cells. In frog hepatocytes the specific binding of 125I-insulin was increased twofold in the presence of the lysosomal inhibitor chloroquine. In contrast no increase was found in lamprey hepatocytes. In conclusion, the processing pathways of internalized insulin in the cells of ectothermal and endothermal vertebrates are generally similar but in ectothermal animals all events take place at lower temperatures and at lower rates. The peculiarities of insulin processing in lamprey hepatocytes most likely result from the transformation of hepatocytes during the nonfeeding prespawning period. PMID:8575649

  13. Quantitative Analysis of HER2-mediated Effects on HER2 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Endocytosis: DISTRIBUTION OF HOMO- AND HETERODIMERS DEPENDS ON RELATIVE HER2 LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriks, Bart S.; Opresko, Lee ); Wiley, H Steven ); Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2003-05-15

    Endocytic trafficking plays an important role in the regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Many cell types express multiple EGFR family members (including EGFR, HER2, HER3 and/or HER4) that interact to form an array of homo- and hetero-dimers. Differential trafficking of these receptors should strongly affect signaling through this system by changing substrate access and heterodimerization efficiency. Because of the complexity of these dynamic processes we used a quantitative, computational model to understand this system. As a test case, parameters characterizing EGFR and HER2 interactions were derived using experimental data obtained from mammary epithelial cells constructed to express different levels of HER2. With this data we were able to estimate receptor-specific internalization rate constants and dimer uncoupling rate constants. These parameters were not otherwise experimentally accessible due to the complex system interplay. Our models indicated that HER2:EGFR heterodimers traffic as single entities. Direct experiments using EGF and anti-HER2 and anti-EGFR antibodies using independently derived cell lines confirmed many of the predictions of the model. Furthermore, our model could predict the relationship between HER2 expression levels and the transient distribution of EGFR homodimers and heterodimers. Our results suggest that the levels of HER2 found on normal cells are barely at the threshold necessary to drive efficient heterodimerization. Thus, altering local HER2 concentrations in membrane microdomains could serve as an effective mechanism for regulating HER2 heterodimerization and could explain why HER2 overexpression found in some cancers have such a profound effect on cell physiology.

  14. Human blood-brain barrier receptors for Alzheimer's amyloid-beta 1- 40. Asymmetrical binding, endocytosis, and transcytosis at the apical side of brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayer.

    PubMed Central

    Mackic, J B; Stins, M; McComb, J G; Calero, M; Ghiso, J; Kim, K S; Yan, S D; Stern, D; Schmidt, A M; Frangione, B; Zlokovic, B V

    1998-01-01

    A soluble monomeric form of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta (1-40) peptide (sAbeta1-40) is present in the circulation and could contribute to neurotoxicity if it crosses the brain capillary endothelium, which comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. This study characterizes endothelial binding and transcytosis of a synthetic peptide homologous to human sAbeta1-40 using an in vitro model of human BBB. 125I-sAbeta1-40 binding to the brain microvascular endothelial cell monolayer was time dependent, polarized to the apical side, and saturable with high- and low-affinity dissociation constants of 7.8+/-1.2 and 52.8+/-6.2 nM, respectively. Binding of 125I-sAbeta1-40 was inhibited by anti-RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) antibody (63%) and by acetylated low density lipoproteins (33%). Consistent with these data, transfected cultured cells overexpressing RAGE or macrophage scavenger receptor (SR), type A, displayed binding and internalization of 125I-sAbeta1-40. The internalized peptide remains intact > 94%. Transcytosis of 125I-sAbeta1-40 was time and temperature dependent, asymmetrical from the apical to basolateral side, saturable with a Michaelis constant of 45+/-9 nM, and partially sensitive to RAGE blockade (36%) but not to SR blockade. We conclude that RAGE and SR mediate binding of sAbeta1-40 at the apical side of human BBB, and that RAGE is also involved in sAbeta1-40 transcytosis. PMID:9710442

  15. Examining the role of mu opioid receptor endocytosis in the beneficial and side-effects of prolonged opioid use: from a symposium on new concepts in mu-opioid pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-03-01

    Opioid drugs remain the gold standard for the treatment of severe pain, both acute/post-surgical and chronic. However, the utility of opioid drugs for the treatment of chronic pain is compromised by the development of analgesic tolerance which, in turn, leads to dose-escalation and increased likelihood of dangerous side effects, including dependence. Consequently, there remains resistance among clinicians and the general population to using opiates for pain management because of risk of "addiction." These fears are not unwarranted. More than 2.5 million people begin abusing opioid painkillers each year, and prescription opioid abuse is now the second most common type of illegal drug use after marijuana. Some abusers become dependent due to recreational use of prescription painkillers. However, many abusers are among the 40 million people suffering from chronic pain, and developed dependence while using the drugs for legitimate purposes. Both of these trends highlight the need to develop opioid therapeutics with a reduced liability to cause tolerance, dependence and addiction. Identifying the ideal properties of opioid drugs that would retain analgesia but reduce these side-effects has been a goal of my laboratory for more than a decade. During this time, we have proposed the novel hypothesis that opioid drugs that promote desensitization, endocytosis and recycling of the mu-opioid-receptor (MOR) will retain analgesic efficacy, but will have a reduced liability to cause tolerance, dependence and addiction. We have generated substantial data, both pharmacological and genetic to suggest that our hypothesis is a valid one. These data are summarized in this review.

  16. Examining the role of mu opioid receptor endocytosis in the beneficial and side-effects of prolonged opioid use: from a symposium on new concepts in mu-opioid pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-03-01

    Opioid drugs remain the gold standard for the treatment of severe pain, both acute/post-surgical and chronic. However, the utility of opioid drugs for the treatment of chronic pain is compromised by the development of analgesic tolerance which, in turn, leads to dose-escalation and increased likelihood of dangerous side effects, including dependence. Consequently, there remains resistance among clinicians and the general population to using opiates for pain management because of risk of "addiction." These fears are not unwarranted. More than 2.5 million people begin abusing opioid painkillers each year, and prescription opioid abuse is now the second most common type of illegal drug use after marijuana. Some abusers become dependent due to recreational use of prescription painkillers. However, many abusers are among the 40 million people suffering from chronic pain, and developed dependence while using the drugs for legitimate purposes. Both of these trends highlight the need to develop opioid therapeutics with a reduced liability to cause tolerance, dependence and addiction. Identifying the ideal properties of opioid drugs that would retain analgesia but reduce these side-effects has been a goal of my laboratory for more than a decade. During this time, we have proposed the novel hypothesis that opioid drugs that promote desensitization, endocytosis and recycling of the mu-opioid-receptor (MOR) will retain analgesic efficacy, but will have a reduced liability to cause tolerance, dependence and addiction. We have generated substantial data, both pharmacological and genetic to suggest that our hypothesis is a valid one. These data are summarized in this review. PMID:22226706

  17. Inhibition of the development of morphine tolerance by a potent dual mu-delta-opioid antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-Lys-NH-CH2-Ph.

    PubMed

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa D; Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2008-10-01

    Three analogues of the dual mu-/delta-antagonist, H-Dmt-Tic-R-NH-CH2-Ph (R = 1, Lys-Z; 2, Lys-Ac; 3, Lys) were examined in vivo: 1 and 2 exhibited weak bioactivity, while 3 injected intracerebroventricularly was a potent dual antagonist for morphine- and deltorphin C-induced antinociception comparable to naltrindole (delta-antagonist), but 93% as effective as naloxone (nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist) and 4% as active as CTOP, a mu antagonist. Subcutaneous or oral administration of 3 antagonized morphine-induced antinociception indicating passage across epithelial and blood-brain barriers. Mice pretreated with 3 before morphine did not develop morphine tolerance indicative of a potential clinical role to inhibit development of drug tolerance.

  18. Cell adhesion defines the topology of endocytosis and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Grossier, Jean-Philippe; Xouri, Georgia; Goud, Bruno; Schauer, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Preferred sites of endocytosis have been observed in various cell types, but whether they occur randomly or are linked to cellular cues is debated. Here, we quantified the sites of endocytosis of transferrin (Tfn) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cells whose adhesion geometry was defined by micropatterns. 3D probabilistic density maps revealed that Tfn was enriched in adhesive sites during uptake, whereas EGF endocytosis was restricted to the dorsal cellular surface. This spatial separation was not due to distributions of corresponding receptors but was regulated by uptake mechanisms. Asymmetric uptake of Tfn resulted from the enrichment of clathrin and adaptor protein 2 at adhesive areas. Asymmetry in EGF uptake was strongly dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and led to asymmetry in EGF receptor activation. Mild alteration of actin dynamics abolished asymmetry in EGF uptake and decreased EGF-induced downstream signaling, suggesting that cellular adhesion cues influence signal propagation. We propose that restriction of endocytosis at distinct sites allows cells to sense their environment in an “outside-in” mechanism. PMID:24366944

  19. Arf6 arbitrates fibrinogen endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Matthew T; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Blood, in a departure from studies of classic platelet function, Huang et al turn their attention to endocytosis and show that adenosine 5′-diphosphate-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) plays a key role in fibrinogen engulfment. Although platelets are known to bind, absorb, and load their granules with plasma proteins, this report is one of the first to explore mechanisms that control endocytosis in this anucleate cell. Huang et al demonstrate that Arf6-dependent endocytosis is restricted to fibrinogen, implying that Arf6 also modulates trafficking of αIIbβ3 integrins in platelets. Consistent with this notion, deletion of Arf6 in platelets enhances spreading on fibrinogen and accelerates clot retraction (see figure). However, activation of surface αIIbβ3 is unaffected, and Arf6 deficiency does not alter thrombosis in vivo. These incongruous results point toward the complexity of anucleate platelets and the need for more detailed studies to understand intracellular trafficking, recycling, and endocytosis in platelets and their precurs

  20. The mother of all endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Massive endocytosis is initiated by a series of steps that involve a sudden influx of calcium ions, changes in mitochondria, and modification of surface proteins by lipids. A better understanding of this process could lead to new approaches to reducing the tissue damage that is caused by heart attacks. PMID:24282238

  1. The mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis: A new molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    He, Lu; Chen, Linxi; Li, Lanfang

    2016-05-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor APJ elicits cellular response to diverse extracellular stimulus. Accumulating evidence reveals that APJ receptor plays a prominent role in the cardiomyocyte adapting to hypertrophic stimulation. At present, it remains obscure that the regulatory mechanism of APJ receptor in myocardial hypertrophy. The natural endogenous ligands apelin and Elabela as well as agonists maintain high affinity for the APJ receptor and drive its internalization. Ligand-activated receptor internalization is mainly performed by clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway. Simultaneously, clathrin-mediated endocytosis takes participate in the occurrence and development of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we hypothesize that natural ligands and agonists induce the mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. APJ internalization may contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The mechanosensitive APJ internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis may be a new molecular mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27063076

  2. Clathrin- and Dynamin-Independent Endocytosis of FGFR3 – Implications for Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Haugsten, Ellen Margrethe; Zakrzewska, Malgorzata; Brech, Andreas; Pust, Sascha; Olsnes, Sjur; Sandvig, Kirsten; Wesche, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Endocytosis of tyrosine kinase receptors can influence both the duration and the specificity of the signal emitted. We have investigated the mechanisms of internalization of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and compared it to that of FGFR1 which is internalized predominantly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, we observed that FGFR3 was internalized at a slower rate than FGFR1 indicating that it may use a different endocytic mechanism than FGFR1. Indeed, after depletion of cells for clathrin, internalization of FGFR3 was only partly inhibited while endocytosis of FGFR1 was almost completely abolished. Similarly, expression of dominant negative mutants of dynamin resulted in partial inhibition of the endocytosis of FGFR3 whereas internalization of FGFR1 was blocked. Interfering with proposed regulators of clathrin-independent endocytosis such as Arf6, flotillin 1 and 2 and Cdc42 did not affect the endocytosis of FGFR1 or FGFR3. Furthermore, depletion of clathrin decreased the degradation of FGFR1 resulting in sustained signalling. In the case of FGFR3, both the degradation and the signalling were only slightly affected by clathrin depletion. The data indicate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is required for efficient internalization and downregulation of FGFR1 while FGFR3, however, is internalized by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent mechanisms. PMID:21779335

  3. ALG-2 interacting protein-X (Alix) is essential for clathrin-independent endocytosis and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Vincent; Laporte, Marine H.; Destaing, Olivier; Blot, Béatrice; Blouin, Cédric M.; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Chatellard, Christine; Saoudi, Yasmina; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Lamaze, Christophe; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Petiot, Anne; Sadoul, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and the biological functions of clathrin independent endocytosis (CIE) remain largely elusive. Alix (ALG-2 interacting protein X), has been assigned roles in membrane deformation and fission both in endosomes and at the plasma membrane. Using Alix ko cells, we show for the first time that Alix regulates fluid phase endocytosis and internalization of cargoes entering cells via CIE, but has no apparent effect on clathrin mediated endocytosis or downstream endosomal trafficking. We show that Alix acts with endophilin-A to promote CIE of cholera toxin and to regulate cell migration. We also found that Alix is required for fast endocytosis and downstream signaling of the interleukin-2 receptor giving a first indication that CIE is necessary for activation of at least some surface receptors. In addition to characterizing a new function for Alix, our results highlight Alix ko cells as a unique tool to unravel the biological consequences of CIE. PMID:27244115

  4. ALG-2 interacting protein-X (Alix) is essential for clathrin-independent endocytosis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Vincent; Laporte, Marine H; Destaing, Olivier; Blot, Béatrice; Blouin, Cédric M; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Chatellard, Christine; Saoudi, Yasmina; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Lamaze, Christophe; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Petiot, Anne; Sadoul, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and the biological functions of clathrin independent endocytosis (CIE) remain largely elusive. Alix (ALG-2 interacting protein X), has been assigned roles in membrane deformation and fission both in endosomes and at the plasma membrane. Using Alix ko cells, we show for the first time that Alix regulates fluid phase endocytosis and internalization of cargoes entering cells via CIE, but has no apparent effect on clathrin mediated endocytosis or downstream endosomal trafficking. We show that Alix acts with endophilin-A to promote CIE of cholera toxin and to regulate cell migration. We also found that Alix is required for fast endocytosis and downstream signaling of the interleukin-2 receptor giving a first indication that CIE is necessary for activation of at least some surface receptors. In addition to characterizing a new function for Alix, our results highlight Alix ko cells as a unique tool to unravel the biological consequences of CIE. PMID:27244115

  5. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Promotes the Endocytosis of Transferrin in the African Trypanosome.

    PubMed

    Guyett, Paul J; Xia, Shuangluo; Swinney, David C; Pollastri, Michael P; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo

    2016-07-01

    Human parasite Trypanosoma brucei proliferates in the blood of its host, where it takes up iron via receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin (Tf). Mechanisms of Tf endocytosis in the trypanosome are not fully understood. Small molecule lapatinib inhibits Tf endocytosis in T. brucei and associates with protein kinase GSK3β (TbGSK3β). Therefore, we hypothesized that Tf endocytosis may be regulated by TbGSK3β, and we used three approaches (both genetic and small molecule) to test this possibility. First, the RNAi knock-down of TbGSK3β reduced Tf endocytosis selectively, without affecting the uptake of haptaglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). Second, the overexpression of TbGSK3β increased the Tf uptake. Third, small-molecule inhibitors of TbGSK3β, TWS119 (IC50 = 600 nM), and GW8510 (IC50 = 8 nM) reduced Tf endocytosis. Furthermore, TWS119, but not GW8510, selectively blocked Tf uptake. Thus, TWS119 phenocopies the selective endocytosis effects of a TbGSK3β knockdown. Two new inhibitors of TbGSK3β, LY2784544 (IC50 = 0.6 μM) and sorafenib (IC50 = 1.7 μM), were discovered in a focused screen: at low micromolar concentrations, they prevented Tf endocytosis as well as trypanosome proliferation (GI50's were 1.0 and 3.1 μM, respectively). These studies show that (a) TbGSK3β regulates Tf endocytosis, (b) TWS119 is a small-molecule tool for investigating the endocytosis of Tf, PMID:27626104

  6. Human podocytes perform polarized, caveolae-dependent albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Okamura, Kayo; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Doctor, R Brian; Blaine, Judith

    2014-05-01

    The renal glomerulus forms a selective filtration barrier that allows the passage of water, ions, and small solutes into the urinary space while restricting the passage of cells and macromolecules. The three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier include the vascular endothelium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and podocyte epithelium. Podocytes are capable of internalizing albumin and are hypothesized to clear proteins that traverse the GBM. The present study followed the fate of FITC-labeled albumin to establish the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis and processing by podocytes. Confocal imaging and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of immortalized human podocytes showed FITC-albumin endocytosis occurred preferentially across the basal membrane. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis demonstrated that the majority of FITC-albumin entered podocytes through caveolae. Once internalized, FITC-albumin colocalized with EEA1 and LAMP1, endocytic markers, and with the neonatal Fc receptor, a marker for transcytosis. After preloading podocytes with FITC-albumin, the majority of loaded FITC-albumin was lost over the subsequent 60 min of incubation. A portion of the loss of albumin occurred via lysosomal degradation as pretreatment with leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, partially inhibited the loss of FITC-albumin. Consistent with transcytosis of albumin, preloaded podocytes also progressively released FITC-albumin into the extracellular media. These studies confirm the ability of podocytes to endocytose albumin and provide mechanistic insight into cellular mechanisms and fates of albumin handling in podocytes.

  7. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi; Antonescu, Costin N

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted

  8. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted

  9. Entry of aminoglycosides into renal tubular epithelial cells via endocytosis-dependent and endocytosis-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Junya; Takano, Mikihisa

    2014-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin and amikacin are well recognized as a clinically important antibiotic class because of their reliable efficacy and low cost. However, the clinical use of aminoglycosides is limited by their nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Nephrotoxicity is induced mainly due to high accumulation of the antibiotics in renal proximal tubular cells. Therefore, a lot of studies on characterization of the renal transport system for aminoglycosides so far reported involved various in-vivo and in-vitro techniques. Early studies revealed that aminoglycosides are taken up through adsorptive endocytosis in renal epithelial cells. Subsequently, it was found that megalin, a multiligand endocytic receptor abundantly expressed on the apical side of renal proximal tubular cells, can bind aminoglycosides and that megalin-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in renal accumulation of aminoglycosides. Therefore, megalin has been suggested to be a promising molecular target for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity. On the other hand, recently, some reports have indicated that aminoglycosides are transported via a pathway that does not require endocytosis, such as non-selective cation channel-mediated entry, in cultured renal tubular cells as well as cochlear outer hair cells. In this commentary article, we review the cellular transport of aminoglycosides in renal epithelial cells, focusing on endocytosis-dependent and -independent pathways.

  10. Potent Dmt-Tic pharmacophoric delta- and mu-opioid receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Li, Tingyou; Fujita, Yoshio; Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Tsuda, Yuko; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa; Bryant, Sharon D; Salvadori, Severo; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio

    2005-12-15

    A series of dimeric Dmt-Tic (2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid) analogues (8-14, 18-22) were covalently linked through diaminoalkane and symmetric or asymmetric 3,6-diaminoalkyl-2(1H)-pyrazinone moieties. All the compounds exhibited high affinity for both delta-opioid receptors [Ki(delta) = 0.06-1.53 nM] and mu-opioid receptors [Ki(mu) = 1.37-5.72 nM], resulting in moderate delta-receptor selectivity [Ki(mu)/Ki(delta) = 3-46]. Regardless of the type of linker between the Dmt-Tic pharmacophores, delta-opioid-mediated antagonism was extraordinarily high in all analogues (pA2 = 10.42-11.28), while in vitro agonism (MVD and GPI bioassays) was essentially absent (ca. 3 to >10 microM). While an unmodified N-terminus (9, 13, 18) revealed weak mu-opioid antagonism (pA2 = 6.78-6.99), N,N'-dimethylation (21, 22), which negatively impacts on mu-opioid-associated agonism (Balboni et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2003, 11, 5435-5441), markedly enhanced mu-opioid antagonism (pA2 = 8.34 and 7.71 for 21 and 22, respectively) without affecting delta-opioid activity. These data are the first evidence that a single dimeric opioid ligand containing the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore exhibits highly potent delta- and mu-opioid antagonist activities.

  11. Endocytosis of Viruses and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cossart, Pascale; Helenius, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Of the many pathogens that infect humans and animals, a large number use cells of the host organism as protected sites for replication. To reach the relevant intracellular compartments, they take advantage of the endocytosis machinery and exploit the network of endocytic organelles for penetration into the cytosol or as sites of replication. In this review, we discuss the endocytic entry processes used by viruses and bacteria and compare the strategies used by these dissimilar classes of pathogens. PMID:25085912

  12. Prolonged adenosine A1 receptor activation in hypoxia and pial vessel disruption focal cortical ischemia facilitates clathrin-mediated AMPA receptor endocytosis and long-lasting synaptic inhibition in rat hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses: differential regulation of GluA2 and GluA1 subunits by p38 MAPK and JNK.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhicheng; Xiong, Cherry; Pancyr, Cassandra; Stockwell, Jocelyn; Walz, Wolfgang; Cayabyab, Francisco S

    2014-07-16

    Activation of presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) causes substantial synaptic depression during hypoxia/cerebral ischemia, but postsynaptic actions of A1Rs are less clear. We found that A1Rs and GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPARs) form stable protein complexes from hippocampal brain homogenates and cultured hippocampal neurons from Sprague Dawley rats. In contrast, adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) did not coprecipitate or colocalize with GluA2-containing AMPARs. Prolonged stimulation of A1Rs with the agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) caused adenosine-induced persistent synaptic depression (APSD) in hippocampal brain slices, and APSD levels were blunted by inhibiting clathrin-mediated endocytosis of GluA2 subunits with the Tat-GluA2-3Y peptide. Using biotinylation and membrane fractionation assays, prolonged CPA incubation showed significant depletion of GluA2/GluA1 surface expression from hippocampal brain slices and cultured neurons. Tat-GluA2-3Y peptide or dynamin inhibitor Dynasore prevented CPA-induced GluA2/GluA1 internalization. Confocal imaging analysis confirmed that functional A1Rs, but not A2ARs, are required for clathrin-mediated AMPAR endocytosis in hippocampal neurons. Pharmacological inhibitors or shRNA knockdown of p38 MAPK and JNK prevented A1R-mediated internalization of GluA2 but not GluA1 subunits. Tat-GluA2-3Y peptide or A1R antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine also prevented hypoxia-mediated GluA2/GluA1 internalization. Finally, in a pial vessel disruption cortical stroke model, a unilateral cortical lesion compared with sham surgery reduced hippocampal GluA2, GluA1, and A1R surface expression and also caused synaptic depression in hippocampal slices that was consistent with AMPAR downregulation and decreased probability of transmitter release. Together, these results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for A1R-induced persistent synaptic depression involving clathrin-mediated GluA2 and GluA1 internalization that

  13. Endocytosis of Seven-Transmembrane RGS Protein Activates G- protein Coupled Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Daisuke; Phan, Nguyen; Jones, Janice C.; Yang, Jing; Huang, Jirong; Grigston, Jeffrey; Taylor, J. Philip; Jones, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction typically begins by ligand-dependent activation of a concomitant partner which is otherwise in its resting state. However, in cases where signal activation is constitutive by default, the mechanism of regulation is unknown. The Arabidopsis thaliana heterotrimeric Gα protein self-activates without accessory proteins, and is kept in its resting state by the negative regulator, AtRGS1 (Regulator of G protein Signaling 1), which is the prototype of a seven transmembrane receptor fused with an RGS domain. Endocytosis of AtRGS1 by ligand-dependent endocytosis physically uncouples the GTPase accelerating activity of AtRGS1 from the Gα protein, permitting sustained activation. Phosphorylation of AtRGS1 by AtWNK8 kinase causes AtRGS1 endocytosis, required both for G protein-mediated sugar signaling and cell proliferation. In animals, receptor endocytosis results in signal desensitization, whereas in plants, endocytosis results in signal activation. These findings reveal how different organisms rearrange a regulatory system to result in opposite outcomes using similar phosphorylation-dependent endocytosis. PMID:22940907

  14. EphA2 signaling following endocytosis: role of Tiam1.

    PubMed

    Boissier, Pomme; Chen, Jin; Huynh-Do, Uyen

    2013-12-01

    Eph receptors and their membrane-bound ligands, the ephrins, represent a complex subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Eph/ephrin binding can lead to various and opposite cellular behaviors such as adhesion versus repulsion, or cell migration versus cell-adhesion. Recently, Eph endocytosis has been identified as one of the critical steps responsible for such diversity. Eph receptors, as many RTKs, are rapidly endocytosed following ligand-mediated activation and traffic through endocytic compartments prior to degradation. However, it is becoming obvious that endocytosis controls signaling in many different manners. Here we showed that activated EphA2 are degraded in the lysosomes and that about 35% of internalized receptors are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Our study is also the first to demonstrate that EphA2 retains the capacity to signal in endosomes. In particular, activated EphA2 interacted with the Rho family GEF Tiam1 in endosomes. This association led to Tiam1 activation, which in turn increased Rac1 activity and facilitated Eph/ephrin endocytosis. Disrupting Tiam1 function with RNA interference impaired both ephrinA1-dependent Rac1 activation and ephrinA1-induced EphA2 endocytosis. In summary, our findings shed new light on the regulation of EphA2 endocytosis, intracellular trafficking and signal termination and establish Tiam1 as an important modulator of EphA2 signaling.

  15. Endocytosis and signalling: a meeting with mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Birtwistle, Marc R.; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Although endocytosis has traditionally been understood as a signal attenuation mechanism, an emerging view considers endocytosis as an integral part of signal propagation and processing. On the short time scale, trafficking of endocytic vesicles contributes to signal propagation from the surface to distant targets, with bi-directional communication between signalling and trafficking. Mathematical modelling helps combine the mechanistic, molecular knowledge with rigorous analysis of the complex output dynamics of endocytosis in time and space. Simulations reveal novel roles for endocytosis, including the control of cell polarity, enhancing the spatial signal propagation, and controlling the signal magnitudes, kinetics, and synchronization with stimulus dynamics. PMID:19596615

  16. Endocytosis and its regulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lusheng; Li, Ruili; Pan, Jianwei; Ding, Zhaojun; Lin, Jinxing

    2015-06-01

    Endocytosis provides a major route of entry for membrane proteins, lipids, and extracellular molecules into the cell. Recent evidence indicates that multiple cellular processes require endocytosis, including nutrient uptake, signaling transduction, and plant-microbe interactions. Also, advanced microscopy, combined with biochemical and genetic approaches, has provided more insights into the molecular machinery and functions of endocytosis in plants. Here we review mechanisms of the clathrin-dependent and membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes in plant cells. In addition, degradation of endocytosed proteins and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated vesicle formation at the endosome are discussed. Finally, we summarize the essential roles of various regulators during plant endocytosis.

  17. Energized endocytosis in human erythrocyte ghosts.

    PubMed Central

    Schriei, S L; Bensch, K G; Johnson, M; Junga, I

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of endocytosis in resealed human erythrocyte ghosts was studied. The energy for endocytosis or micropinocytosis appears to be derived from Mg-ATP, and membrane internalization is preceded by activation of a membrane-associated Ca,Mg-ATPase and by the active efflux of Ca. Endocytosis, Ca,Mg-ATPase activity, and active Ca efflux all require the presence of Mg. Furthermore, these three phenomena, endocytosis, Ca,Mg-ATPase activity, and active Ca extrusion, all have a concentration dependence on Ca such that low concentrations stimulate and higher concentrations inhibit the phenomena. The optimal concentration of Ca is identical for endocytosis, active Ca efflux, and Ca,Mg-ATPase. Morphologic studies indicated that while active Ca efflux and activation of the Ca,Mg-ATPase activity occurred promptly upon onset of incubation, there was a significant time delay before endocytosis occurred, which suggests that endocytosis additionally involved a more slowly functioning mechanicochemical mechanism. Ruthenium red, a specific inhibitor of Ca,Mg-ATPase and Ca transport, inhibited endocytosis in a concentration-related manner. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 had no measurable effect on ghost endocytosis, active Ca efflux, or Ca,Mg-ATPase activity. Images PMID:124748

  18. Akt recruits Dab2 to albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Koral, Kelly; Li, Hui; Ganesh, Nandita; Birnbaum, Morris J; Hallows, Kenneth R; Erkan, Elif

    2014-12-15

    Proximal tubule epithelial cells have a highly sophisticated endocytic machinery to retrieve the albumin in the glomerular filtrate. The megalin-cubilin complex and the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) play a pivotal role in albumin endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that protein kinase B (Akt) regulates albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule through an interaction with Dab2. Here, we examined the nature of Akt-Dab2 interaction. The pleckstrin homology (PH) and catalytic domains (CD) of Akt interacted with the proline-rich domain (PRD) of Dab2 based on yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Pull-down experiments utilizing the truncated constructs of Dab2 demonstrated that the initial 11 amino acids of Dab2-PRD were sufficient to mediate the interaction between Akt and Dab2. Endocytosis experiments utilizing Akt1- and Akt2-silencing RNA revealed that both Akt1 and Akt2 mediate albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells; therefore, Akt1 and Akt2 may play a compensatory role in albumin endocytosis. Furthermore, both Akt isoforms phosphorylated Dab2 at Ser residues 448 and 449. Ser-to-Ala mutations of these Dab2 residues inhibited albumin endocytosis and resulted in a shift in location of Dab2 from the peripheral to the perinuclear area, suggesting the physiological relevance of these phosphorylation sites in albumin endocytosis. We conclude that both Akt1 and Akt2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of Dab2 by Akt induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Further delineation of how Akt affects expression/phosphorylation of endocytic adaptors and receptors will enhance our understanding of the molecular network triggered by albumin overload in the proximal tubule.

  19. Synthetic and Receptor Signaling Explorations of the Mitragyna Alkaloids: Mitragynine as an Atypical Molecular Framework for Opioid Receptor Modulators.

    PubMed

    Kruegel, Andrew C; Gassaway, Madalee M; Kapoor, Abhijeet; Váradi, András; Majumdar, Susruta; Filizola, Marta; Javitch, Jonathan A; Sames, Dalibor

    2016-06-01

    Mu-opioid receptor agonists represent mainstays of pain management. However, the therapeutic use of these agents is associated with serious side effects, including potentially lethal respiratory depression. Accordingly, there is a longstanding interest in the development of new opioid analgesics with improved therapeutic profiles. The alkaloids of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa, represented by the prototypical member mitragynine, are an unusual class of opioid receptor modulators with distinct pharmacological properties. Here we describe the first receptor-level functional characterization of mitragynine and related natural alkaloids at the human mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid receptors. These results show that mitragynine and the oxidized analogue 7-hydroxymitragynine, are partial agonists of the human mu-opioid receptor and competitive antagonists at the kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. We also show that mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are G-protein-biased agonists of the mu-opioid receptor, which do not recruit β-arrestin following receptor activation. Therefore, the Mitragyna alkaloid scaffold represents a novel framework for the development of functionally biased opioid modulators, which may exhibit improved therapeutic profiles. Also presented is an enantioselective total synthesis of both (-)-mitragynine and its unnatural enantiomer, (+)-mitragynine, employing a proline-catalyzed Mannich-Michael reaction sequence as the key transformation. Pharmacological evaluation of (+)-mitragynine revealed its much weaker opioid activity. Likewise, the intermediates and chemical transformations developed in the total synthesis allowed the elucidation of previously unexplored structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the Mitragyna scaffold. Molecular docking studies, in combination with the observed chemical SAR, suggest that Mitragyna alkaloids adopt a binding pose at the mu-opioid receptor that is distinct from that of classical opioids. PMID

  20. Specific analogues uncouple transport, signalling, oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis in the yeast Gap1 amino acid transceptor.

    PubMed

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Schothorst, Joep; Thevelein, Johan M

    2014-07-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transceptor Gap1 functions as receptor for signalling to the PKA pathway and concomitantly undergoes substrate-induced oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis. We have identified specific amino acids and analogues that uncouple to certain extent signalling, transport, oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis. L-lysine, L-histidine and L-tryptophan are transported by Gap1 but do not trigger signalling. Unlike L-histidine, L-lysine triggers Gap1 oligo-ubiquitination without substantial induction of endocytosis. Two transported, non-metabolizable signalling agonists, β-alanine and D-histidine, are strong and weak inducers of Gap1 endocytosis, respectively, but both causing Gap1 oligo-ubiquitination. The non-signalling agonist, non-transported competitive inhibitor of Gap1 transport, L-Asp-γ-L-Phe, induces oligo-ubiquitination but no discernible endocytosis. The Km of L-citrulline transport is much lower than the threshold concentration for signalling and endocytosis. These results show that molecules can be transported without triggering signalling or substantial endocytosis, and that oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis do not require signalling nor metabolism. Oligo-ubiquitination is required, but apparently not sufficient to trigger endocytosis. In addition, we demonstrate intracellular cross-induction of endocytosis of transport-defective Gap1(Y395C) by ubiquitination- and endocytosis-deficient Gap1(K9R,K16R). Our results support the concept that different substrates bind to partially overlapping binding sites in the same general substrate-binding pocket of Gap1, triggering divergent conformations, resulting in different conformation-induced downstream processes.

  1. The Coiled-Coil Domain of EHD2 Mediates Inhibition of LeEix2 Endocytosis and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Maya; Sharfman, Miya; Schuster, Silvia; Avni, Adi

    2009-01-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be crucial for the induction of plant immunity in several cases. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and LeEix2. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD2 that are required for its inhibitory activity on endocytosis remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain of EHD2 is crucial for the ability of EHD2 to inhibit endocytosis in plants, as mutant EHD2 forms lacking the coiled-coil lost the ability to inhibit endocytosis and signaling of LeEix2. The coiled-coil was also required for binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor. It is therefore probable that binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor is required for inhibition of LeEix2 internalization. We also show herein that the P-loop of EHD2 is important for EHD2 to function properly. The EH domain of AtEHD2 does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. Moreover, AtEHD2 influences actin organization and may exert its inhibitory effect on endocytosis through actin re-distribution. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 functions in inhibition of endocytosis, while the EH domain does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. PMID:19936242

  2. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 mediates inhibition of LeEix2 endocytosis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Sharfman, Miya; Schuster, Silvia; Avni, Adi

    2009-01-01

    Endocytosis has been suggested to be crucial for the induction of plant immunity in several cases. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and LeEix2. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the importance of the various domains in EHDs but, to date, the domains of plant EHD2 that are required for its inhibitory activity on endocytosis remained unknown. In this work we demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain of EHD2 is crucial for the ability of EHD2 to inhibit endocytosis in plants, as mutant EHD2 forms lacking the coiled-coil lost the ability to inhibit endocytosis and signaling of LeEix2. The coiled-coil was also required for binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor. It is therefore probable that binding of EHD2 to the LeEix2 receptor is required for inhibition of LeEix2 internalization. We also show herein that the P-loop of EHD2 is important for EHD2 to function properly. The EH domain of AtEHD2 does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. Moreover, AtEHD2 influences actin organization and may exert its inhibitory effect on endocytosis through actin re-distribution. The coiled-coil domain of EHD2 functions in inhibition of endocytosis, while the EH domain does not appear to be involved in inhibition of endocytosis. PMID:19936242

  3. The architectural relationship of components controlling mast cell endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cleyrat, Cédric; Darehshouri, Anza; Anderson, Karen L.; Page, Christopher; Lidke, Diane S.; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Wilson, Bridget S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Eukaryotic cells use multiple routes for receptor internalization. Here, we examine the topographical relationships of clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic structures on the plasma membranes of leukemia-derived mast cells. The high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) utilizes both pathways, whereas transferrin receptor serves as a marker for the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Both receptors were tracked by live-cell imaging in the presence or absence of inhibitors that established their differential dependence on specific endocytic adaptor proteins. The topology of antigen-bound FcεRI, clathrin, dynamin, Arf6 and Eps15-positive structures were analyzed by 2D and 3D immunoelectron microscopy techniques, revealing their remarkable spatial relationships and unique geometry. We conclude that the mast cell plasma membrane has multiple specialized domains for endocytosis. Their close proximity might reflect shared components, such as lipids and adaptor proteins, that facilitate inward membrane curvature. Intersections between these specialized domains might represent sorting stations that direct cargo to specific endocytic pathways. PMID:23986485

  4. Transferrin: Endocytosis and Cell Signaling in Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element on Earth and the most abundant metal in the human body. This element is crucial for life because almost all organisms need iron for several biological activities. This is the case with pathogenic organisms, which are at the vanguard in the battle with the human host for iron. The latest regulates Fe concentration through several iron-containing proteins, such as transferrin. The transferrin receptor transports iron to each cell that needs it and maintains it away from pathogens. Parasites have developed several strategies to obtain iron as the expression of specific transferrin receptors localized on plasma membrane, internalized through endocytosis. Signal transduction pathways related to the activation of the receptor have functional importance in proliferation. The study of transferrin receptors and other proteins with action in the signaling networks is important because these proteins could be used as therapeutic targets due to their specificity or to differences with the human counterpart. In this work, we describe proteins that participate in signal transduction processes, especially those that involve transferrin endocytosis, and we compare these processes with those found in T. brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania spp., and E. histolytica parasites. PMID:26090431

  5. Different contributions of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of vascular endothelial cadherin to lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lianyang; Li, Yang; Sun, Shijin; Tan, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular hyperpermeability induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common pathogenic process in cases of severe trauma and sepsis. Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cad) is a key regulatory molecule involved in this process, although the detailed mechanism through which this molecule acts remains unclear. We assessed the role of clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad in LPS-induced vascular hyperpermeability in the human vascular endothelial cell line CRL-2922 and determined that vascular permeability and VE-cad localization at the plasma membrane were negatively correlated after LPS treatment. Additionally, the loss of VE-cad at the plasma membrane was caused by both clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was dominant early after LPS treatment, and caveolae-mediated endocytosis was dominant hours after LPS treatment. The caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad was activated through the LPS-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-Src signaling pathway. Structural changes in the actin cytoskeleton, specifically from polymerization to depolymerization, were important reasons for the switching of the VE-cad endocytosis pathway from clathrin-mediated to caveolae-mediated. Our findings suggest that clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad contribute to LPS-induced vascular hyperpermeability, although they contribute via different mechanism. The predominant means of endocytosis depends on the time since LPS treatment.

  6. Characterization of opioid receptor types modulating acetylcholine release in septal regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gazyakan, E; Hennegriff, M; Haaf, A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Feuerstein, T J; Jackisch, R

    2000-07-01

    Presynaptic opioid receptors of the delta- and mu-types have been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat striatum and hippocampus, respectively, but it is unknown whether opioid receptors modulate the release of ACh also in the region of origin of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, the septum. To answer this question, slices (350 microm) of the medial septal area and of the diagonal band of Broca, as well as (for comparison) of the hippocampus, were prepared from adult male Wistar rats. The slices were incubated with [3H]choline, superfused in the presence of hemicholinium-3 (10 microM) and stimulated twice (S1, S2) by electrical fields (360 pulses, 3 Hz, 2 ms, 60 mA); opioid receptor agonists were present during S2. The preferential mu-agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited the evoked ACh release by maximally about 40% in hippocampal slices and acted even more strongly in the medial septal area, or the diagonal band of Broca (about 60% or 75% maximal inhibition, respectively). These effects were reduced or abolished by the preferential mu-antagonist naloxone, which showed no effects when given alone. Using naloxone in the presence of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors, no evidence for an endogenous tone of opioid peptides was found in the medial septal area, diagonal band of Broca or the hippocampus. Using the preferential delta-agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and the delta-antagonist naltrindole, a delta-opioid receptor inhibiting evoked ACh release was clearly detectable both in the medial septal area and the diagonal band of Broca, but not in the hippocampus, whereas the preferential kappa-agonist trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclo-hexyl] benzeneacetamide (U50,488H) had only weak or no effects. In addition to the functional experiments, double in-situ hybridization studies were performed, in which cells containing mRNA for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were labeled by an

  7. Nodal-mediated epigenesis requires dynamin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Robin P.; Robertson, Anthony J.; Saunders, Diane; Coffman, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Nodal proteins are diffusible morphogens that drive pattern formation via short-range feedback activation coupled to long-range Lefty-mediated inhibition. In the sea urchin embryo, specification of the secondary (oral-aboral) axis occurs via zygotic expression of nodal, which is localized to the prospective oral ectoderm at early blastula stage. In mid-blastula stage embryos treated with low micromolar nickel or zinc, nodal expression expands progressively beyond the confines of this localized domain to encompass the entire equatorial circumference of the embryo, producing radialized embryos lacking an oral-aboral axis. RNAseq analysis of embryos treated with nickel, zinc or cadmium (which does not radialize embryos) showed that several genes involved in endocytosis were similarly perturbed by nickel and zinc but not cadmium. Inhibiting dynamin, a GTPase required for receptor-mediated endocytosis, phenocopies the effects of nickel and zinc, suggesting that dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required as a sink to limit the range of Nodal signaling. PMID:21337468

  8. RIPping notch apart: a new role for endocytosis in signal transduction?

    PubMed

    Krämer, H

    2000-04-25

    Notch proteins are receptors that are important in mediating several developmental processes. Notch receptors are activated upon binding transmembrane ligands, the DSL proteins. Notch is cleaved at several sites and activation of Notch leads to the cleavage of the intracellular domain, which then is translocated to the nucleus and regulates the transcription of target genes. Krämer discusses how binding of Notch to the DSL ligand, Delta, leads to cleavage and trans-endocytosis of the Notch extracellular domain into the Delta-expressing cell. This trans-endocytosis event contributes to the cleavage and release of the active Notch intracellular domain. The Perspective is accompanied by a movie illustrating the trans-endocytosis of Notch.

  9. Opioid receptors and legal highs: Salvia divinorum and Kratom.

    PubMed

    Babu, Kavita M; McCurdy, Christopher R; Boyer, Edward W

    2008-02-01

    Salvia divinorum and Mitragyna speciosa ("Kratom"), two unscheduled dietary supplements whose active agents are opioid receptor agonists, have discrete psychoactive effects that have contributed to their increasing popularity. Salvia divinorum contains the highly selective kappa- opioid receptor agonist salvinorin A; this compound produces visual hallucinations and synesthesia. Mitragynine, the major alkaloid identified from Kratom, has been reported as a partial opioid agonist producing similar effects to morphine. An interesting minor alkaloid of Kratom, 7-hydroxymitragynine, has been reported to be more potent than morphine. Both Kratom alkaloids are reported to activate supraspinal mu- and delta- opioid receptors, explaining their use by chronic narcotics users to ameliorate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Despite their widespread Internet availability, use of Salvia divinorum and Kratom represents an emerging trend that escapes traditional methods of toxicologic monitoring. The purpose of this article is to familiarize toxicologists and poison control specialists with these emerging psychoactive dietary supplements. PMID:18259963

  10. The function of EHD2 in endocytosis and defense signaling is affected by SUMO.

    PubMed

    Bar, Maya; Schuster, Silvia; Leibman, Meirav; Ezer, Ran; Avni, Adi

    2014-03-01

    Post-translational modification of target proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO) regulates many cellular processes. SUMOylation has been shown to regulate cellular localization and function of a variety of proteins, in some cases affecting nuclear import or export. We have previously characterized two EHDs (EH domain containing proteins) in Arabidospis and showed their involvement in plant endocytosis. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and the leucine rich repeat receptor like protein LeEix2, an effect that requires and intact coiled-coil domain. Inhibition of endocytosis of LeEix2 by EHD2 is effective in inhibiting defense responses mediated by the LeEix2 receptor in response to its ligand EIX. In the present work we demonstrate that SUMOylation of EHD2 appears to be required for EHD2-induced inhibition of LeEix2 endocytosis. Indeed, we found that a mutant form of EHD2, possessing a defective SUMOylation site, has an increased nuclear abundance, can no longer be SUMOylated and is no longer effective in inhibiting LeEix2 endocytosis or defense signaling in response to EIX. PMID:24154852

  11. Biotinylated human. beta. -endorphins as probes for the opioid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hochhaus, G.; Gibson, B.W.; Sadee, W.

    1988-01-05

    The reaction of human ..beta..-endorphin and biotinyl N-hydroxysuccinimide with or without spacer arm, afforded a series of products that were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry of the biotinylated products and their tryptic digests produced abundant protonated molecular ions (MH/sup +/), which specified the number and location of biotinylation. Between 1 and 4 biotinyl residues were incorporated per human ..beta..-endorphin molecule, at Lys-9, -19, -24, -28, and -29, but not at the amino-terminal Try-1. Three HPLC fractions were isolated for receptor binding studies monobiotinylation of Lys-9, Lys-19, and a mixture of Lys-24, Lys-28, and Lys-29 derivatives. IC/sub 50/ values for binding to ..mu.. and delta opioid receptor sites were 3-8 times higher for monobiotinylated derivatives than for the parent human ..beta..-endorphin. Association with avidin decreased opioid receptor affinities for the C/sub 6/ spacer derivative biotinylated at position Lys-9, which is close to the (1-5) enkephalin receptor region. In contrast, avidin did not affect or even increased apparent affinities to ..mu.. and delta sites for derivatives biotinylated at the ..cap alpha..-helical part of the molecule (Lys-19, -24, -28, and -29). Biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphins also bound to low affinity nonopioid binding sites on NG-108-15 cells; however, affinities to these sites were considerably reduced when derivatives were bound to avidin. The ability of biotinylated human ..beta..-endorphin to cross-link the ..mu.. and delta opioid receptors to avidin allows application of the biotin-avidin system as a molecular probe of the opioid receptor.

  12. Clathrin light chains' role in selective endocytosis influences antibody isotype switching.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Majeed, Sophia R; Evans, Timothy M; Camus, Marine D; Wong, Nicole M L; Schollmeier, Yvette; Park, Minjong; Muppidi, Jagan R; Reboldi, Andrea; Parham, Peter; Cyster, Jason G; Brodsky, Frances M

    2016-08-30

    Clathrin, a cytosolic protein composed of heavy and light chain subunits, assembles into a vesicle coat, controlling receptor-mediated endocytosis. To establish clathrin light chain (CLC) function in vivo, we engineered mice lacking CLCa, the major CLC isoform in B lymphocytes, generating animals with CLC-deficient B cells. In CLCa-null mice, the germinal centers have fewer B cells, and they are enriched for IgA-producing cells. This enhanced switch to IgA production in the absence of CLCa was attributable to increased transforming growth factor β receptor 2 (TGFβR2) signaling resulting from defective endocytosis. Internalization of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), but not CXCR5, was affected in CLCa-null B cells, and CLC depletion from cell lines affected endocytosis of the δ-opioid receptor, but not the β2-adrenergic receptor, defining a role for CLCs in the uptake of a subset of signaling receptors. This instance of clathrin subunit deletion in vertebrates demonstrates that CLCs contribute to clathrin's role in vivo by influencing cargo selectivity, a function previously assigned exclusively to adaptor molecules. PMID:27540116

  13. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-15

    A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand-receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts. PMID:25236598

  14. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-15

    A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand-receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts.

  15. Prevention of export of anoxia/reoxygenation injury from ischemic to nonischemic cardiomyocytes via inhibition of endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Khaidakov, Magomed; Mercanti, Federico; Wang, Xianwei; Ding, Zufeng; Dai, Yao; Romeo, Francesco; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2014-06-15

    Myocardial infarct size is determined by the death of nonischemic border zone cardiomyocytes caused by export of injury signals from the infarct zone. The countermeasures to limit infarct size, therefore, should be aimed at nonselective blockade of most, if not all, injury signals from entering nonischemic cells. To test whether inhibition of endocytosis might limit infarct size, HL-1 cardiomyocytes were subjected to anoxia (6 h) and reoxygenation (1 h). Anoxic and reoxygenated cells showed a multifold increase in mitochondrial ROS production accompanied with upregulation of scavenger receptors lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 and CD36 and stimulation of stress signals, including NADPH oxidase subunit p22(phox), SOD2, and beclin-1. Incubation of healthy cardiomyocytes in media from anoxic and reoxygenated cells (conditioned media) resulted in qualitatively similar responses, including increase in the generation of mitochondrial ROS, p22(phox), SOD2, and beclin-1. Anoxia and reoxygenation caused collapse of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and stimulation of macropinocytosis, whereas in cultures exposed to conditioned media, the activity of endocytosis was uniformly higher. Conditioned media also significantly aggravated cytotoxic effects of TNF-α and angiotensin II, and suppression of endocytosis reversed these trends, resulting in an overall increase of metabolic activity. Moreover, inhibition of endocytosis prevented binding of oxidized cellular fragments with greater efficiency than targeted neutralization of the scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1. Many of the observations in HL-1 cardiomyocytes were confirmed in primary cardiomyocyte cultures. Our data suggest that endocytosis is upregulated in border zone cardiomyocytes, and inhibition of endocytosis may be an effective approach to prevent export of injury signals from the infarct zone.

  16. Ultrafast endocytosis at mouse hippocampal synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Rost, Benjamin R.; Camacho-Pérez, Marcial; Davis, M. Wayne; Söhl-Kielczynski, Berit; Rosenmund, Christian; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2013-12-01

    To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles and their associated proteins must be recycled locally at synapses. Synaptic vesicles are thought to be regenerated approximately 20s after fusion by the assembly of clathrin scaffolds or in approximately 1s by the reversal of fusion pores via `kiss-and-run' endocytosis. Here we use optogenetics to stimulate cultured hippocampal neurons with a single stimulus, rapidly freeze them after fixed intervals and examine the ultrastructure using electron microscopy--`flash-and-freeze' electron microscopy. Docked vesicles fuse and collapse into the membrane within 30ms of the stimulus. Compensatory endocytosis occurs within 50 to 100ms at sites flanking the active zone. Invagination is blocked by inhibition of actin polymerization, and scission is blocked by inhibiting dynamin. Because intact synaptic vesicles are not recovered, this form of recycling is not compatible with kiss-and-run endocytosis; moreover, it is 200-fold faster than clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It is likely that `ultrafast endocytosis' is specialized to restore the surface area of the membrane rapidly.

  17. Ultrafast endocytosis at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Liu, Qiang; Davis, M Wayne; Hollopeter, Gunther; Thomas, Nikita; Jorgensen, Nels B; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles can be released at extremely high rates, which places an extraordinary demand on the recycling machinery. Previous ultrastructural studies of vesicle recycling were conducted in dissected preparations using an intense stimulation to maximize the probability of release. Here, a single light stimulus was applied to motor neurons in intact Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes expressing channelrhodopsin, and the animals rapidly frozen. We found that docked vesicles fuse along a broad active zone in response to a single stimulus, and are replenished with a time constant of about 2 s. Endocytosis occurs within 50 ms adjacent to the dense projection and after 1 s adjacent to adherens junctions. These studies suggest that synaptic vesicle endocytosis may occur on a millisecond time scale following a single physiological stimulus in the intact nervous system and is unlikely to conform to current models of endocytosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00723.001 PMID:24015355

  18. Clathrin-Independent Pathways of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Satyajit; Parton, Robert G.; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2014-01-01

    There are many pathways of endocytosis at the cell surface that apparently operate at the same time. With the advent of new molecular genetic and imaging tools, an understanding of the different ways by which a cell may endocytose cargo is increasing by leaps and bounds. In this review we explore pathways of endocytosis that occur in the absence of clathrin. These are referred to as clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here we primarily focus on those pathways that function at the small scale in which some have distinct coats (caveolae) and others function in the absence of specific coated intermediates. We follow the trafficking itineraries of the material endocytosed by these pathways and finally discuss the functional roles that these pathways play in cell and tissue physiology. It is likely that these pathways will play key roles in the regulation of plasma membrane area and tension and also control the availability of membrane during cell migration. PMID:24890511

  19. Tuned-Affinity Bivalent Ligands for the Characterization of Opioid Receptor Heteromers.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Jessica H; Long, Darcie H; England, Pamela M; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2012-08-01

    Opioid receptors, including the mu and delta opioid receptors (MOR and DOR) are important targets for the treatment of pain. Although there is mounting evidence that these receptors form heteromers, the functional role of the MOR/DOR heteromer remains unresolved. We have designed and synthesized bivalent ligands as tools to elucidate the functional role of the MOR/DOR heteromer. Our ligands (L2 and L4) are comprised of a compound with low affinity at the DOR tethered to a compound with high affinity at the MOR, with the goal of producing ligands with "tuned affinity" at MOR/DOR heteromers compared to DOR homomers. Here we show that both L2 and L4 demonstrate enhanced affinity at MOR/DOR heteromers compared to DOR homomers, thereby providing unique pharmacological tools to dissect the role of the MOR/DOR heteromer in pain.

  20. The LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life. PMID:19299327

  1. IGF1R Signaling in Ewing Sarcoma Is Shaped by Clathrin-/Caveolin-Dependent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Sofia; Ordóñez, José Luis; Amaral, Ana Teresa; Prins, Frans; Floris, Giuseppe; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Hogendoorn, Pancras C. W.; de Alava, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Receptor endocytosis is critical for cell signaling. IGF1R mediates an autocrine loop that is de-regulated in Ewing Sarcoma (ES) cells. Here we study the impact of IGF1R internalization, mediated by clathrin and caveolin-1 (CAV1), in ES signaling. We used clathrin and CAV1-siRNA to interfere in clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis. Chlorpromazine (CPMZ) and methyl-beta-cyclo-dextrin (MCD) were also used in order to inhibit clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis, respectively. We analyzed IGF1R internalization and co-localization with clathrin and CAV1 upon ligand binding, as well as the status of the IGF1R pathway, cellular proliferation, and the apoptosis of interfered and inhibited ES cells. We performed a high-throughput tyrosine kinase phosphorylation assay to analyze the effects of combining the IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEW541 (AEW) with CPMZ or MCD on the intracellular phospho-proteome. We observed that IGF1R is internalized upon ligand binding in ES cells and that this process is dependent on clathrin or CAV1. The blockage of receptor internalization inhibited AKT and MAPK phosphorylation, reducing the proliferative rate of ES cells and increasing the levels of apoptosis. Combination of AEW with CPMZ or MCD largely enhanced these effects. CAV1 and clathrin endocytosis controls IGF1R internalization and signaling and has a profound impact on ES IGF1R-promoted survival signaling. We propose the combination of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors with endocytosis inhibitors as a new therapeutic approach to achieve a stronger degree of receptor inhibition in this, or other neoplasms dependent on IGF1R signaling. PMID:21611203

  2. IGF1R signaling in Ewing sarcoma is shaped by clathrin-/caveolin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Ana Sofia; Ordóñez, José Luis; Amaral, Ana Teresa; Prins, Frans; Floris, Giuseppe; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; de Alava, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Receptor endocytosis is critical for cell signaling. IGF1R mediates an autocrine loop that is de-regulated in Ewing Sarcoma (ES) cells. Here we study the impact of IGF1R internalization, mediated by clathrin and caveolin-1 (CAV1), in ES signaling. We used clathrin and CAV1-siRNA to interfere in clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis. Chlorpromazine (CPMZ) and methyl-beta-cyclo-dextrin (MCD) were also used in order to inhibit clathrin- and caveolin-dependent endocytosis, respectively. We analyzed IGF1R internalization and co-localization with clathrin and CAV1 upon ligand binding, as well as the status of the IGF1R pathway, cellular proliferation, and the apoptosis of interfered and inhibited ES cells. We performed a high-throughput tyrosine kinase phosphorylation assay to analyze the effects of combining the IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor AEW541 (AEW) with CPMZ or MCD on the intracellular phospho-proteome. We observed that IGF1R is internalized upon ligand binding in ES cells and that this process is dependent on clathrin or CAV1. The blockage of receptor internalization inhibited AKT and MAPK phosphorylation, reducing the proliferative rate of ES cells and increasing the levels of apoptosis. Combination of AEW with CPMZ or MCD largely enhanced these effects. CAV1 and clathrin endocytosis controls IGF1R internalization and signaling and has a profound impact on ES IGF1R-promoted survival signaling. We propose the combination of tyrosine-kinase inhibitors with endocytosis inhibitors as a new therapeutic approach to achieve a stronger degree of receptor inhibition in this, or other neoplasms dependent on IGF1R signaling.

  3. Activity-dependent acceleration of endocytosis at a central synapse.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jianhua; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2005-12-14

    Accumulated evidence indicates the existence of rapid and slow endocytosis at many synapses. It has been proposed that rapid endocytosis is activated by intense stimulation when vesicle recycling needs to be speeded up to supply vesicles at hippocampal synapses. However, the evidence, as obtained with imaging techniques, which are somewhat indirect in indicating rapid endocytosis, is controversial. Furthermore, a slower time course of endocytosis is often found after more intense nerve activity, casting doubt on the role of rapid endocytosis at synapses. Here, we addressed this issue at a mammalian central synapse, the calyx of Held, using a capacitance measurement technique that provides a higher time resolution than imaging techniques. We found that rapid endocytosis with a time constant of approximately 1-2 s was activated during intense nerve activity. Reducing the presynaptic calcium current or buffering the intracellular calcium with EGTA significantly inhibited rapid endocytosis, suggesting that calcium triggers rapid endocytosis. During intense stimulation, rapid endocytosis retrieved up to approximately eight vesicles per second per active zone, approximately eightfold larger than reported in the hippocampus, and thus played a dominant role during and within 3 s after intense stimulation. Slow endocytosis became dominant 3 s after intense stimulation likely because of the fall of the intracellular calcium level that deactivated rapid endocytosis. These results underscore the importance of calcium-triggered rapid endocytosis, which offers the nerve terminal the plasticity to speed up vesicle cycling during intense nerve activity. PMID:16354926

  4. Ultrafast endocytosis at mouse hippocampal synapses

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Davis, M. Wayne; Söhl-Kielczynski, Berit; Rosenmund, Christian; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    To sustain neurotransmission, synaptic vesicles and their associated proteins must be recycled locally at synapses. Synaptic vesicles are thought to be regenerated ~20 s after fusion by the assembly of clathrin scaffolds or in ~1 s by the reversal of fusion pores via ‘kiss-and-run’ endocytosis. Here we use optogenetics to stimulate cultured hippocampal neurons with a single stimulus, rapidly freeze them after fixed intervals and examine the ultrastructure using electron microscopy – ‘flash-and-freeze’ electron microscopy. Docked vesicles fuse and collapse into the membrane within 30 ms of the stimulus. Compensatory endocytosis occurs with 50-100 ms at sites flanking the active zone. Invagination is blocked by inhibition of actin polymerization, and scission is blocked by inhibiting dynamin. Because intact synaptic vesicles are not recovered, this form of recycling is not compatible with kiss-and-run endocytosis; moreover it is 200-fold faster than clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It is likely that ‘ultrafast endocytosis’ is specialized to rapidly restore the surface area of the membrane. PMID:24305055

  5. On the Modeling of Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Sknepnek, Rastko; Bowick, M.J.; Schwarz, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The cell membrane deforms during endocytosis to surround extracellular material and draw it into the cell. Results of experiments on endocytosis in yeast show general agreement that 1) actin polymerizes into a network of filaments exerting active forces on the membrane to deform it, and 2) the large-scale membrane deformation is tubular in shape. In contrast, there are three competing proposals for precisely how the actin filament network organizes itself to drive the deformation. We use variational approaches and numerical simulations to address this competition by analyzing a meso-scale model of actin-mediated endocytosis in yeast. The meso-scale model breaks up the invagination process into three stages: 1) initiation, where clathrin interacts with the membrane via adaptor proteins; 2) elongation, where the membrane is then further deformed by polymerizing actin filaments; and 3) pinch-off. Our results suggest that the pinch-off mechanism may be assisted by a pearling-like instability. We rule out two of the three competing proposals for the organization of the actin filament network during the elongation stage. These two proposals could be important in the pinch-off stage, however, where additional actin polymerization helps break off the vesicle. Implications and comparisons with earlier modeling of endocytosis in yeast are discussed. PMID:25650919

  6. Hyaluronic acid binding, endocytosis and degradation by sinusoidal liver endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    McGary, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The binding, endocytosis, and degradation of {sup 125}I-hyaluronic acid ({sup 125}I-HA) by liver endothelial cells (LEC) was studied under several conditions. The dissociation of receptor-bound {sup 125}I-HA was rapid, with a half time of {approx}31 min and a K{sub off} of 6.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}/sec. A large reversible increase in {sup 125}I-HA binding to LEC at pH 5.0 was due to an increase in the observed affinity of the binding interaction. Pronase digestion suggested the protein nature of the receptor and the intracellular location of the digitonin exposed binding activity. Binding and endocytosis occur in the presence of 10 mM EGTA indicating that divalent cations are not required for receptor function. To study the degradation of {sup 125}I-HA by LEC, a cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation assay was characterized. The minimum HA length required for precipitation was elucidated. The fate of the LEC HA receptor after endocytosis was examined.

  7. The endocytosis and signaling of the γδ T cell coreceptor WC1 are regulated by a dileucine motif.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Haoting; Baldwin, Cynthia L; Telfer, Janice C

    2015-03-01

    WC1 proteins, which are specifically expressed by bovine γδ T cells from a gene array containing 13 members, are part of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family. WC1 cytoplasmic domains contains multiple tyrosines, one of which is required to be phosphorylated for TCR coreceptor activity, and a dileucine endocytosis motif. Like the TCR coreceptor CD4, WC1 is endocytosed in response to PMA. Because WC1 endocytosis may play a role in the activation of γδ T cells, we examined WC1 endocytosis in the adherent cell 293T and Jurkat T cell lines using a fusion protein of extracellular CD4 and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain of WC1. Individual mutation of the two leucine residues of the endocytic dileucine motif in the WC1 cytoplasmic domain significantly reduced PMA-induced endocytosis in both cell types and enhanced IL-2 production stimulated by cocross-linking of CD3/TCR and CD4/WC1 in Jurkat cells, suggesting that the sustained membrane coligation of CD3/TCR with WC1 caused by a decrease in endocytosis increases T cell activation. Mutation of two serines upstream of the endocytic dileucine motif affected endocytosis only in adherent 293T cells. Although the two upstream serines were not required for WC1 endocytosis in Jurkat cells, the pan-protein kinase C inhibitor Gö6983 blocked endocytosis of CD4/WC1, and mutation of the upstream serines in WC1 inhibited IL-2 production stimulated by cocross-linking of CD3/TCR and CD4/WC1. These studies provide insights into the signaling of WC1 gene arrays that are present in most mammals and play critical roles in γδ T cell responses to bacterial pathogens.

  8. Developmental Function of Nm23/awd - A Mediator of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nallamothu, Gouthami; Dammai, Vincent; Hsu, Tien

    2009-01-01

    The metastasis suppressor gene Nm23 is highly conserved from yeast to human, implicating a critical developmental function. Studies in cultured mammalian cells have identified several potential functions, but many have not been directly verified in vivo. Here we summarize the studies on the Drosophila homologue of the Nm23 gene, named abnormal wing discs (awd), which shares 78% amino acid identity with the human Nm23-H1 and H2 isoforms. These studies confirmed that awd gene encodes a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and provided strong evidence of a role for awd in regulating cell differentiation and motility via regulation of growth factor receptor signaling. The latter function is mainly mediated by control of endocytosis. This review provides a historical account of the discovery and subsequent analyses of the awd gene. We will also discuss the possible molecular function of the Awd protein that underlies the endocytic function. PMID:19373545

  9. Endocytosis and intracellular processing of platelet microparticles by brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Faille, Dorothée; El-Assaad, Fatima; Mitchell, Andrew J; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Chimini, Giovanna; Fusai, Thierry; Grau, Georges E; Combes, Valéry

    2012-08-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PMP) bind and modify the phenotype of many cell types including endothelial cells. Recently, we showed that PMP were internalized by human brain endothelial cells (HBEC). Here we intend to better characterize the internalization mechanisms of PMP and their intracellular fate. Confocal microscopy analysis of PKH67-labelled PMP distribution in HBEC showed PMP in early endosome antigen 1 positive endosomes and in LysoTracker-labelled lysosomes, confirming a role for endocytosis in PMP internalization. No fusion of calcein-loaded PMP with HBEC membranes was observed. Quantification of PMP endocytosis using flow cytometry revealed that it was partially inhibited by trypsin digestion of PMP surface proteins and by extracellular Ca(2+) chelation by EDTA, suggesting a partial role for receptor-mediated endocytosis in PMP uptake. This endocytosis was independent of endothelial receptors such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and was not increased by tumour necrosis factor stimulation of HBEC. Platelet-derived microparticle internalization was dramatically increased in the presence of decomplemented serum, suggesting a role for PMP opsonin-dependent phagocytosis. Platelet-derived microparticle uptake was greatly diminished by treatment of HBEC with cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of microfilament formation required for both phagocytosis and macropinocytosis, with methyl-β-cyclodextrin that depletes membrane cholesterol needed for macropinocytosis and with amiloride that inhibits the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger involved in macropinocytosis. In conclusion, PMP are taken up by active endocytosis in HBEC, involving mechanisms consistent with both phagocytosis and macropinocytosis. These findings identify new processes by which PMP could modify endothelial cell phenotype and functions.

  10. Microtubule Motors Power Plasma Membrane Tubulation in Clathrin-Independent Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Day, Charles A; Baetz, Nicholas W; Copeland, Courtney A; Kraft, Lewis J; Han, Bing; Tiwari, Ajit; Drake, Kimberly R; De Luca, Heidi; Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Davidson, Michael W; Holmes, Randall K; Jobling, Michael G; Schroer, Trina A; Lencer, Wayne I; Kenworthy, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    How the plasma membrane is bent to accommodate clathrin-independent endocytosis remains uncertain. Recent studies suggest Shiga and cholera toxin induce membrane curvature required for their uptake into clathrin-independent carriers by binding and cross-linking multiple copies of their glycosphingolipid receptors on the plasma membrane. But it remains unclear if toxin-induced sphingolipid crosslinking provides sufficient mechanical force for deforming the plasma membrane, or if host cell factors also contribute to this process. To test this, we imaged the uptake of cholera toxin B-subunit into surface-derived tubular invaginations. We found that cholera toxin mutants that bind to only one glycosphingolipid receptor accumulated in tubules, and that toxin binding was entirely dispensable for membrane tubulations to form. Unexpectedly, the driving force for tubule extension was supplied by the combination of microtubules, dynein and dynactin, thus defining a novel mechanism for generating membrane curvature during clathrin-independent endocytosis. PMID:25690058

  11. Asymmetric endocytosis and remodeling of β1-integrin adhesions during growth cone chemorepulsion by MAG

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Jacob H.; Abu-Rub, Mohammad; Henley, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Gradients of chemorepellent factors released from myelin may impair axon pathfinding and neuro-regeneration after injury. Analogous to the process of chemotaxis in invasive tumor cells, we found that axonal growth cones of Xenopus spinal neurons modulate the functional distribution of integrin receptors during chemorepulsion induced by myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). A focal MAG gradient induced polarized endocytosis and concomitant asymmetric loss of β1-integrin and vinculin-containing adhesions on the repellent side during repulsive turning. Loss of symmetrical β1-integrin function was both necessary and sufficient for chemorepulsion, which required internalization by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Induction of repulsive Ca2+ signals was necessary and sufficient for the stimulated rapid endocytosis of β1-integrin. Altogether, these findings identify β1-integrin as an important functional cargo during Ca2+-dependent rapid endocytosis stimulated by a diffusible guidance cue. Such dynamic redistribution allows the growth cone to rapidly adjust adhesiveness across its axis, an essential feature for initiating chemotactic turning. PMID:20512137

  12. An endocytosis pathway initiated through neuropilin-1 and regulated by nutrient availability

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hong-Bo; Braun, Gary B.; Friman, Tomas; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Ruidiaz, Manuel E.; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2014-01-01

    Neuropilins (NRPs) are trans-membrane receptors involved in axon guidance and vascular development. Many growth factors and other signaling molecules bind to NRPs through a C-terminal, basic sequence motif (C-end Rule or CendR motif). Peptides with this motif (CendR peptides) are taken up into cells by endocytosis. Tumor-homing CendR peptides penetrate through tumor tissue and have shown utility in enhancing drug delivery into tumors. Here we show, using RNAi screening and subsequent validation studies, that NRP1-mediated endocytosis of CendR peptides is distinct from known endocytic pathways. Ultrastructurally, CendR endocytosis resembles macropinocytosis, but is mechanistically different. We also show that nutrient-sensing networks such as mTOR signaling regulate CendR endocytosis and subsequent intercellular transport of CendR cargo, both of which are stimulated by nutrient depletion. As CendR is a bulk transport pathway, our results suggest a role for it in nutrient transport; CendR-enhanced drug delivery then makes use of this natural pathway. PMID:25277522

  13. Long-term potentiation decay and memory loss are mediated by AMPAR endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili; Li, Hongjie; Bai, Yanrui; Wang, Wei; Tu, Man; Peng, Yan; Zhou, Limin; He, Wenting; Wu, Xiaobin; Tan, Tao; Liu, Mingjing; Wu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Weihui; Jin, Wuyang; Zhang, Shu; Sacktor, Todd Charlton; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong; Wang, Yu Tian

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength between hippocampal neurons is associated with learning and memory, and LTP dysfunction is thought to underlie memory loss. LTP can be temporally and mechanistically classified into decaying (early-phase) LTP and nondecaying (late-phase) LTP. While the nondecaying nature of LTP is thought to depend on protein synthesis and contribute to memory maintenance, little is known about the mechanisms and roles of decaying LTP. Here, we demonstrated that inhibiting endocytosis of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) prevents LTP decay, thereby converting it into nondecaying LTP. Conversely, restoration of AMPAR endocytosis by inhibiting protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ) converted nondecaying LTP into decaying LTP. Similarly, inhibition of AMPAR endocytosis prolonged memory retention in normal animals and reduced memory loss in a murine model of Alzheimer's disease. These results strongly suggest that an active process that involves AMPAR endocytosis mediates the decay of LTP and that inhibition of this process can prolong the longevity of LTP as well as memory under both physiological and pathological conditions.

  14. Endocytosis of Ubiquitylation-Deficient EGFR Mutants via Clathrin-Coated Pits is Mediated by Ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Fortian, Arola; Dionne, Lai K; Hong, Sun H; Kim, Woong; Gygi, Steven P; Watkins, Simon C; Sorkin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is controlled by endocytosis. However, mechanisms of EGFR endocytosis remain poorly understood. Here, we found that the EGFR mutant lacking known ubiquitylation, acetylation and clathrin adaptor AP-2-binding sites (21KRΔAP2) was internalized at relatively high rates via the clathrin-dependent pathway in human duodenal adenocarcinoma HuTu-80 cells. RNA interference analysis revealed that this residual internalization is strongly inhibited by depletion of Grb2 and the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5b/c, and partially affected by depletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl and ubiquitin-binding adaptors, indicating that an ubiquitylation process is involved. Several new ubiquitin conjugation sites were identified by mass spectrometry in the 21KRΔAP2 mutant, suggesting that cryptic ubiquitylation may mediate endocytosis of this mutant. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging of HuTu-80 cells transfected with labeled ubiquitin adaptor epsin1 demonstrated that the ubiquitylation-deficient EGFR mutant was endocytosed through a limited population of epsin-enriched clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), although with a prolonged CCP lifetime. Native EGFR was recruited with the same efficiency into CCPs containing either AP-2 or epsin1 that were tagged with fluorescent proteins by genome editing of MDA-MD-231 cells. We propose that two redundant mechanisms, ubiquitylation and interaction with AP-2, contribute to EGFR endocytosis via CCPs in a stochastic fashion.

  15. Multiscale perspectives of virus entry via endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways to gain entry into host cells and initiate infections. Understanding of virus entry via endocytosis is critically important for the design of antiviral strategies. Virus entry via endocytosis is a complex process involving hundreds of cellular proteins. The entire process is dictated by events occurring at multiple time and length scales. In this review, we discuss and evaluate the available means to investigate virus endocytic entry, from both experimental and theoretical/numerical modeling fronts, and highlight the importance of multiscale features. The complexity of the process requires investigations at a systems biology level, which involves the combination of different experimental approaches, the collaboration of experimentalists and theorists across different disciplines, and the development of novel multiscale models. PMID:23734580

  16. Exocytosis and endocytosis: modes, functions, and coupling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling-Gang; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle exocytosis releases content to mediate many biological events, including synaptic transmission essential for brain functions. Following exocytosis, endocytosis is initiated to retrieve exocytosed vesicles within seconds to minutes. Decades of studies in secretory cells reveal three exocytosis modes coupled to three endocytosis modes: (a) full-collapse fusion, in which vesicles collapse into the plasma membrane, followed by classical endocytosis involving membrane invagination and vesicle reformation; (b) kiss-and-run, in which the fusion pore opens and closes; and (c) compound exocytosis, which involves exocytosis of giant vesicles formed via vesicle-vesicle fusion, followed by bulk endocytosis that retrieves giant vesicles. Here we review these exo- and endocytosis modes and their roles in regulating quantal size and synaptic strength, generating synaptic plasticity, maintaining exocytosis, and clearing release sites for vesicle replenishment. Furthermore, we highlight recent progress in understanding how vesicle endocytosis is initiated and is thus coupled to exocytosis. The emerging model is that calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channels at the calcium microdomain triggers endocytosis and controls endocytosis rate; calmodulin and synaptotagmin are the calcium sensors; and the exocytosis machinery, including SNARE proteins (synaptobrevin, SNAP25, and syntaxin), is needed to coinitiate endocytosis, likely to control the amount of endocytosis.

  17. The pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase D1 accelerates EGFR endocytosis by increasing the expression of the Rab5 effector, rabaptin-5.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi Hee; Choi, Kang-Yell; Min, Do Sik

    2015-12-18

    Endocytosis is differentially regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and phospholipase D (PLD). However, the relationship between HIF-1α and PLD in endocytosis is unknown. HIF-1α is degraded through the prolyl hydroxylase (PHD)/von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) ubiquitination pathway in an oxygen-dependent manner. Here, we show that PLD1 recovers the decrease in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) endocytosis induced by HIF-1α independent of lipase activity via the Rab5-mediated endosome fusion pathway. EGF-induced interaction of PLD1 with HIF-1α, PHD and VHL may contribute to EGFR endocytosis. The pleckstrin homology domain (PH) of PLD1 itself promotes degradation of HIF-1α, then accelerates EGFR endocytosis via upregulation of rabaptin-5 and suppresses tumor progression. These findings reveal a novel role of the PLD1-PH domain as a positive regulator of endocytosis and provide a link between PLD1 and HIF-1α in the EGFR endocytosis pathway.

  18. The role played by endocytosis in albumin-induced secretion of TGF-beta1 by proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ramaswamy; Pearson, Alex L; Colville-Nash, Paul; Brunskill, Nigel J; Dockrell, Mark E C

    2007-05-01

    Proteinuria predicts the decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease. Reducing albuminuria has been shown to be associated with a reduction in this rate of decline. Proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs), when exposed to albumin produce matrix proteins, proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines like TGF-beta(1). Some of these effects are dependent on endocytosis of albumin by PTECs. However, conditions like diabetic nephropathy, believed to be associated with reduced albumin endocytosis, are associated with interstitial fibrosis. Moreover, megalin, the putative albumin binding receptor in PTECs, has potential signaling motifs in its cytoplasmic domain, suggesting its ability to signal in response to ligand binding from the apical surface of PTECs. Hence, we looked to see whether albumin-induced secretion of TGF-beta(1) by PTECs is dependent on albumin endocytosis or whether it could occur in the absence of albumin endocytosis. We studied the production of TGF-beta(1) in two accepted models of PTECs, opossum kidney cells and human kidney cell clone-8 cells, with widely varying degrees of endocytosis. We then studied the effect of inhibiting albumin endocytosis with various inhibitors on albumin-induced TGF-beta(1) secretion. Our results indicate that albumin-induced TGF-beta(1) secretion by PTECs does not require albumin endocytosis and therefore the mechanism for the induction of some profibrotic responses by albumin may differ from those required for some of the inflammatory responses. Moreover, we found that albumin-induced TGF-beta(1) secretion by PTECs is not dependent on its interaction with megalin. PMID:17213467

  19. Mouse early extra-embryonic lineages activate compensatory endocytosis in response to poor maternal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congshan; Velazquez, Miguel A; Marfy-Smith, Stephanie; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Cox, Andy; Johnston, David A; Smyth, Neil; Fleming, Tom P

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian extra-embryonic lineages perform the crucial role of nutrient provision during gestation to support embryonic and fetal growth. These lineages derive from outer trophectoderm (TE) and internal primitive endoderm (PE) in the blastocyst and subsequently give rise to chorio-allantoic and visceral yolk sac placentae, respectively. We have shown maternal low protein diet exclusively during mouse preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to cause a compensatory increase in fetal and perinatal growth that correlates positively with increased adult-onset cardiovascular, metabolic and behavioural disease. Here, to investigate early mechanisms of compensatory nutrient provision, we assessed the influence of maternal Emb-LPD on endocytosis within extra-embryonic lineages using quantitative imaging and expression of markers and proteins involved. Blastocysts collected from Emb-LPD mothers within standard culture medium displayed enhanced TE endocytosis compared with embryos from control mothers with respect to the number and collective volume per cell of vesicles with endocytosed ligand and fluid and lysosomes, plus protein expression of megalin (Lrp2) LDL-family receptor. Endocytosis was also stimulated using similar criteria in the outer PE-like lineage of embryoid bodies formed from embryonic stem cell lines generated from Emb-LPD blastocysts. Using an in vitro model replicating the depleted amino acid (AA) composition found within the Emb-LPD uterine luminal fluid, we show TE endocytosis response is activated through reduced branched-chain AAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine). Moreover, activation appears mediated through RhoA GTPase signalling. Our data indicate early embryos regulate and stabilise endocytosis as a mechanism to compensate for poor maternal nutrient provision.

  20. Clostridial Glucosylating Toxins Enter Cells via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Genisyuerek, Selda; Guttenberg, Gregor; Aktories, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and C. novyi α-toxin (TcnA) are important pathogenicity factors, which represent the family of the clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs). Toxin A and B are associated with antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembraneous colitis. Lethal toxin is involved in toxic shock syndrome after abortion and α-toxin in gas gangrene development. CGTs enter cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis and require an acidified endosome for translocation of the catalytic domain into the cytosol. Here we studied the endocytic processes that mediate cell internalization of the CGTs. Intoxication of cells was monitored by analyzing cell morphology, status of Rac glucosylation in cell lysates and transepithelial resistance of cell monolayers. We found that the intoxication of cultured cells by CGTs was strongly delayed when cells were preincubated with dynasore, a cell-permeable inhibitor of dynamin, or chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of the clathrin-dependent endocytic pathway. Additional evidence about the role of clathrin in the uptake of the prototypical CGT family member toxin B was achieved by expression of a dominant-negative inhibitor of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Eps15 DN) or by siRNA against the clathrin heavy chain. Accordingly, cells that expressed dominant-negative caveolin-1 were not protected from toxin B-induced cell rounding. In addition, lipid rafts impairment by exogenous depletion of sphingomyelin did not decelerate intoxication of HeLa cells by CGTs. Taken together, our data indicate that the endocytic uptake of the CGTs involves a dynamin-dependent process that is mainly governed by clathrin. PMID:20498856

  1. Iterative endocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Young, S P; Bomford, A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of iron on the exocytosis of transferrin by K562 cells was studied by first allowing the cells to endocytose apotransferrin or diferric transferrin. Subsequent release of the apotransferrin was very rapid with a t 1/2 of 3.01 min, compared with 5.5 min for diferric transferrin. Release of apotransferrin was slowed by the weak base methylamine, t 1/2 8.0 min, but the effect of this agent was substantially greater when iron-transferrin was used, t 1/2 18.65 min, suggesting that methylamine affects both iron removal and receptor recycling. Release of iron-transferrin could be accelerated to a rate comparable with that of apotransferrin by addition of the permeant iron-chelator desferrioxamine. The difference in the rates of release of different forms of the protein could be explained by the re-endocytosis of the iron-rich protein, a process detected by the accelerated release of transferrin when the cells were washed in medium at pH 5.5 containing an iron-chelator or treated with a protease-containing medium to digest transferrin accessible at the cell surface. It appears that in cells incubated under control conditions, re-endocytosis of transferrin, which is incompletely depleted of iron, occurs and that a transferrin molecule may make two passes through the cell before all the iron is removed. This mechanism helps to explain why very little iron-transferrin is released from cells and why the efficiency of the iron uptake process is so high. PMID:8129715

  2. GluA2-dependent AMPA receptor endocytosis and the decay of early and late long-term potentiation: possible mechanisms for forgetting of short- and long-term memories.

    PubMed

    Hardt, Oliver; Nader, Karim; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2014-01-01

    The molecular processes involved in establishing long-term potentiation (LTP) have been characterized well, but the decay of early and late LTP (E-LTP and L-LTP) is poorly understood. We review recent advances in describing the mechanisms involved in maintaining LTP and homeostatic plasticity. We discuss how these phenomena could relate to processes that might underpin the loss of synaptic potentiation over time, and how they might contribute to the forgetting of short-term and long-term memories. We propose that homeostatic downscaling mediates the loss of E-LTP, and that metaplastic parameters determine the decay rate of L-LTP, while both processes require the activity-dependent removal of postsynaptic GluA2-containing AMPA receptors. PMID:24298143

  3. Semaphorin3a Enhances Endocytosis at Sites of Receptor–F-Actin Colocalization during Growth Cone Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Alyson E.; Nakamura, Fumio; Kawamoto, Susumu; Goshima, Yoshio; Kalb, Robert G.; Strittmatter, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    Axonal growth cone collapse is accompanied by a reduction in filopodial F-actin. We demonstrate here that semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) induces a coordinated rearrangement of Sema3A receptors and F-actin during growth cone collapse. Differential interference contrast microscopy reveals that some sites of Sema3A-induced F-actin reorganization correlate with discrete vacuoles, structures involved in endocytosis. Endocytosis of FITC-dextran by the growth cone is enhanced during Sema3A treatment, and sites of dextran accumulation colocalize with actin-rich vacuoles and ridges of membrane. Furthermore, the Sema3A receptor proteins, neuropilin-1 and plexin, and the Sema3A signaling molecule, rac1, also reorganize to vacuoles and membrane ridges after Sema3A treatment. These data support a model whereby Sema3A stimulates endocytosis by focal and coordinated rearrangement of receptor and cytoskeletal elements. Dextran accumulation is also increased in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) growth cones, in response to ephrin A5, and in RGC and DRG growth cones, in response to myelin and phorbol-ester. Therefore, enhanced endocytosis may be a general principle of physiologic growth cone collapse. We suggest that growth cone collapse is mediated by both actin filament rearrangements and alterations in membrane dynamics. PMID:10769032

  4. A dileucine motif is involved in plasma membrane expression and endocytosis of rat sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp).

    PubMed

    Stross, Claudia; Kluge, Stefanie; Weissenberger, Katrin; Winands, Elisabeth; Häussinger, Dieter; Kubitz, Ralf

    2013-11-15

    The sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) is the major uptake transporter for bile salts into liver parenchymal cells, and PKC-mediated endocytosis was shown to regulate the number of Ntcp molecules at the plasma membrane. In this study, mechanisms of Ntcp internalization were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analyses in HepG2 cells. PKC activation induced endocytosis of Ntcp from the plasma membrane by ~30%. Endocytosis of Ntcp was clathrin dependent and was followed by lysosomal degradation. A dileucine motif located in the third intracellular loop of Ntcp was essential for endocytosis but also for processing and plasma membrane targeting, suggesting a dual function of this motif for intracellular trafficking of Ntcp. Mutation of two of five potential phosphorylation sites surrounding the dileucine motif (Thr225 and Ser226) inhibited PKC-mediated endocytosis. In conclusion, we could identify a motif, which is critical for Ntcp plasma membrane localization. Endocytic retrieval protects hepatocytes from elevated bile salt concentrations and is of special interest, because NTCP has been identified as a receptor for the hepatitis B and D virus.

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Semaphorin Induce Neuropilin-1 Endocytosis via Separate Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Salikhova, Anna; Wang, Ling; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Liu, Miaoliang; Simons, Michael; Leenders, William P. J.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Horowitz, Arie

    2009-01-01

    The neuropilin (Nrp)1 receptor is essential for both nervous and vascular system development. Nrp1 is unusually versatile, because it transmits both chemoattractive and repulsive signals in response to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and class 3 semaphorins, respectively. Both Nrp1 and VEGF receptor 2 undergo ligand-dependent endocytosis. We sought to establish the endocytic pathway of Nrp1 and to determine whether uptake is required for its signaling. Whereas Nrp1 underwent clathrin-dependent endocytosis in response to VEGFA165 treatment, semaphorin 3C (sema3C) induced lipid raft–dependent endocytosis. The myosin VI PDZ (postsynaptic density 95, Disk large, Zona occludens-1) adaptor protein synectin was essential for Nrp1 trafficking. Sema3C failed to inhibit migration of synectin−/− endothelial cells, mirroring the lower migratory response of these cells to VEGFA165. These results show that the endocytic pathway of Nrp1 is determined by its ligand and that the trafficking of Nrp1 is essential for its signaling. PMID:18723443

  6. LRP1 mediates Hedgehog-induced endocytosis of the GPC3–Hedgehog complex

    PubMed Central

    Capurro, Mariana I.; Shi, Wen; Filmus, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Summary Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan that is bound to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol link. This glypican regulates embryonic growth by inhibiting the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. GPC3 binds Hh and competes with Patched (Ptc), the Hh receptor, for Hh binding. The interaction of Hh with GPC3 triggers the endocytosis and degradation of the GPC3–Hh complex with the consequent reduction of Hh available for binding to Ptc. Currently, the molecular mechanisms by which the GPC3–Hh complex is internalized remains unknown. Here we show that the low-density-lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) mediates the Hh-induced endocytosis of the GPC3–Hh complex, and that this endocytosis is necessary for the Hh-inhibitory activity of GPC3. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GPC3 binds through its HS chains to LRP1, and that this interaction causes the removal of GPC3 from the lipid rafts domains. PMID:22467855

  7. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mediated Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Endocytosis Regulates the Transition Between Invasive Versus Expansive Growth of Ovarian Carcinoma Cells in Three-Dimensional Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Natalie M.; Liu, Yueying; Johnson, Jeff J.; Debiase, Philip; Jones, Jonathan; Hudson, Laurie G.; Munshi, H.G.; Stack, M. Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in ovarian carcinomas and promotes cellular responses that contribute to ovarian cancer pathobiology. In addition to modulation of mitogenic and motogenic behavior, emerging data identify EGFR activation as a novel mechanism for rapid modification of the cell surface proteome. The transmembrane collagenase membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14) is a major contributor to pericelluar proteolysis in the ovarian carcinoma microenvironment and is subjected to extensive post-translational regulation. In the present study, the contribution of EGFR activation to control of MT1-MMP cell surface dynamics was investigated. Unstimulated ovarian cancer cells display caveolar co-localization of EGFR and MT1-MMP whereas EGFR activation prompts internalization via distinct endocytic pathways. EGF treatment results in phosphorylation of the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic tail and cells expressing a tyrosine mutated form of MT1-MMP (MT1-MMP-Y573F) exhibit defective MT1-MMP internalization. As a result of sustained cell surface MT1-MMP activity, a phenotypic epithelial-mesenchymal transition is observed, characterized by enhanced migration and collagen invasion, whereas growth within three-dimensional collagen gels is inhibited. These data support an EGFR-dependent mechanism for regulation of the transition between invasive and expansive growth of ovarian carcinoma cells via modulation of MT1-MMP cell surface dynamics. PMID:19509114

  8. Shank2 Regulates Renal Albumin Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Lewis, Linda; Doctor, R Brian; Okamura, Kayo; Lee, Min Goo; Altmann, Christopher; Faubel, Sarah; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong and independent predictor of kidney disease progression but the mechanisms of albumin handling by the kidney remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have shown that podocytes endocytose albumin. Here we demonstrate that Shank2, a large scaffolding protein originally identified at the neuronal postsynaptic density, is expressed in podocytes in vivo and in vitro and plays an important role in albumin endocytosis in podocytes. Knockdown of Shank2 in cultured human podocytes decreased albumin uptake, but the decrease was not statistically significant likely due to residual Shank2 still present in the knockdown podocytes. Complete knockout of Shank2 in podocytes significantly diminished albumin uptake in vitro. Shank2 knockout mice develop proteinuria by 8 weeks of age. To examine albumin handling in vivo in wild-type and Shank2 knockout mice we used multiphoton intravital imaging. While FITC-labeled albumin was rapidly seen in the renal tubules of wild-type mice after injection, little albumin was seen in the tubules of Shank2 knockout mice indicating dysregulated renal albumin trafficking in the Shank2 knockouts. We have previously found that caveolin-1 is required for albumin endocytosis in cultured podocytes. Shank2 knockout mice had significantly decreased expression and altered localization of caveolin-1 in podocytes suggesting that disruption of albumin endocytosis in Shank2 knockouts is mediated via caveolin-1. In summary, we have identified Shank2 as another component of the albumin endocytic pathway in podocytes. PMID:26333830

  9. Cell mobility after endocytosis of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirbhai, Massooma; Flores, Thomas; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Rotkin, Slava

    2013-03-01

    Directed cell movement plays a crucial role in cellular behaviors such as neuronal cell division, cell migration, and cell differentiation. There is evidence in preclinical in vivo studies that small fields have successfully been used to enhance regrowth of damages spinal cord axons but with a small success rate. Fortunately, the evolution of functional biomaterials and nanotechnology may provide promising solutions for enhancing the application of electric fields in guiding neuron migration and neurogenesis within the central nervous system. In this work, we studied how endocytosis and subsequent retention of carbon nanotubes affects the mobility of cells under the influence of an electric field, including the directed cell movement.

  10. Exocytosis and endocytosis in juxtaglomerular cells.

    PubMed

    Friis, U G; Jensen, B L; Hansen, P B; Andreasen, D; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    The cellular events related to secretion of renin are not well understood. Here we review some of the evidence that has led to the current understanding of renin secretion as a process that involves exocytosis as the predominant mode of secretion. This is based on the observation of occasional fusion events between secretory granules and cell membrane and measurement of intermittent secretion of renin from single afferent arterioles, with a renin content of each secretion episode that corresponds to the renin content of one secretory granule. More recently it has been demonstrated that the afferent arterioles lose a large number of renin granules after acute stimulation without changing the average granular volume. Current electrophysiological techniques have now permitted direct measurements of cell membrane capacitance in juxtaglomerular (JG) cells as a measure of net addition (exocytosis) or removal (endocytosis) of membrane material. With this technique we have shown that cAMP, which is a vasodilator and stimulates renin secretion, enhances net exocytosis at low concentrations, while at higher concentrations membrane retrieval processes are also stimulated. We suggest that both exocytosis and endocytosis are regulated processes in the JG-cells and both may be important for the long-term control of renin secretion at the single cell level. PMID:10691785

  11. Kinetics of virus entry by endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-04-01

    Entry of virions into the host cells is either endocytotic or fusogenic. In both cases, it occurs via reversible formation of numerous relatively weak bonds resulting in wrapping of a virion by the host membrane with subsequent membrane rupture or scission. The corresponding kinetic models are customarily focused on the formation of bonds and do not pay attention to the energetics of the whole process, which is crucially dependent, especially in the case of endocytosis, on deformation of actin filaments forming the cytoskeleton of the host cell. The kinetic model of endocytosis, proposed by the author, takes this factor into account and shows that the whole process can be divided into a rapid initial transient stage and a long steady-state stage. The entry occurs during the latter stage and can be described as a first-order reaction. Depending on the details of the dependence of the grand canonical potential on the number of bonds, the entry can be limited either by the interplay of bond formation and membrane rupture (or scission) or by reaching a maximum of this potential.

  12. SAMP8 mice have altered hippocampal gene expression in long term potentiation, phosphatidylinositol signaling, and endocytosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Armbrecht, Harvey J; Siddiqui, Akbar M; Green, Michael; Farr, Susan A; Kumar, Vijaya B; Banks, William A; Patrick, Ping; Shah, Gul N; Morley, John E

    2014-01-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) strain exhibits decreased learning and memory and increased amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide accumulation at 12 months. To detect differences in gene expression in SAMP8 mice, we used a control mouse that was a 50% cross between SAMP8 and CD-1 mice and which showed no memory deficits (50% SAMs). We then compared gene expression in the hippocampus of 4- and 12-month-old SAMP8 and control mice using Affymetrix gene arrays. At 12 months, but not at 4 months, pathway analysis revealed significant differences in the long term potentiation (6 genes), phosphatidylinositol signaling (6 genes), and endocytosis (10 genes) pathways. The changes in long term potentiation included mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling (N-ras, cAMP responsive element binding protein [CREB], protein phosphatase inhibitor 1) and Ca-dependent signaling (inositol triphosphate [ITP] receptors 1 and 2 and phospholipase C). Changes in phosphatidylinositol signaling genes suggested altered signaling through phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and Western blotting revealed phosphorylation changes in serine/threonine protein kinase AKT and 70S6K. Changes in the endocytosis pathway involved genes related to clathrin-mediated endocytosis (dynamin and clathrin). Endocytosis is required for receptor recycling, is involved in Aβ metabolism, and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol signaling. In summary, these studies demonstrate altered gene expression in 3 SAMP8 hippocampal pathways associated with memory formation and consolidation. These pathways might provide new therapeutic targets in addition to targeting Aβ metabolism itself.

  13. PLD1 regulates Xenopus convergent extension movements by mediating Frizzled7 endocytosis for Wnt/PCP signal activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeyoon; Lee, Seung Joon; Kim, Gun-Hwa; Yeo, Inchul; Han, Jin-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in the regulation of receptor-associated signaling, cell movement, cell adhesion and endocytosis. However, its physiological role in vertebrate development remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that PLD1 is required for the convergent extension (CE) movements during Xenopus gastrulation by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Xenopus PLD1 protein is specifically enriched in the dorsal region of Xenopus gastrula embryo and loss or gain-of-function of PLD1 induce defects in gastrulation and CE movements. These defective phenotypes are due to impaired regulation of Wnt/PCP signaling pathway. Biochemical and imaging analysis using Xenopus tissues reveal that PLD1 is required for Fz7 receptor endocytosis upon Wnt11 stimulation. Moreover, we show that Fz7 endocytosis depends on dynamin and regulation of GAP activity of dynamin by PLD1 via its PX domain is crucial for this process. Taken together, our results suggest that PLD1 acts as a new positive mediator of Wnt/PCP signaling by promoting Wnt11-induced Fz7 endocytosis for precise regulation of Xenopus CE movements.

  14. Synaptotagmin-11 inhibits clathrin-mediated and bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhe; Wang, Yeshi; Hu, Meiqin; Chai, Zuying; Wu, Qihui; Huang, Rong; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Claire Xi; Zhou, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and efficient endocytosis is essential for vesicle recycling during a sustained neurotransmission. The regulation of endocytosis has been extensively studied, but inhibitors have rarely been found. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-11 (Syt11), a non-Ca(2+)-binding Syt implicated in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and bulk endocytosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The frequency of both types of endocytic event increases in Syt11 knockdown neurons, while the sizes of endocytosed vesicles and the kinetics of individual bulk endocytotic events remain unaffected. Specifically, clathrin-coated pits and bulk endocytosis-like structures increase on the plasma membrane in Syt11-knockdown neurons. Structural-functional analysis reveals distinct domain requirements for Syt11 function in CME and bulk endocytosis. Importantly, Syt11 also inhibits endocytosis in hippocampal neurons, implying a general role of Syt11 in neurons. Taken together, we propose that Syt11 functions to ensure precision in vesicle retrieval, mainly by limiting the sites of membrane invagination at the early stage of endocytosis.

  15. New 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) opioid peptidomimetics based on the Aba-Gly scaffold. Development of unique mu-opioid receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Ballet, Steven; Salvadori, Severo; Trapella, Claudio; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Lattanzi, Roberta; Tourwé, Dirk; Balboni, Gianfranco

    2006-06-29

    The Aba-Gly scaffold, incorporated into Dmt-Tic ligands (H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-CH2-Ph, H-Dmt-Tic-Gly-NH-Ph, H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH2-Bid), exhibited mixed micro/delta or delta opioid receptor activities with micro agonism. Substitution of Tic by Aba-Gly coupled to -NH-CH2-Ph (1), -NH-Ph (2), or -Bid (Bid=1H-benzimidazole-2-yl) (3) shifted affinity (Ki(micro)=0.46, 1.48, and 19.9 nM, respectively), selectivity, and bioactivity to micro-opioid receptors. These compounds represent templates for a new class of lead opioid agonists that are easily synthesized and suitable for therapeutic pain relief.

  16. Characterization and visualization of rat and guinea pig brain. kappa. opioid receptors: Evidence for. kappa. sub 1 and. kappa. sub 2 opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Zukin, R.S.; Eghbali, M.; Olive, D.; Unterwald, E.M.; Tempel, A. )

    1988-06-01

    {kappa} opioid receptors ({kappa} receptors) have been characterized in homogenates of guinea pig and rat brain under in vitro binding conditions. {kappa} receptors were labeled by using the tritiated prototypic {kappa} opioid ethylketocyclazocine under conditions in which {mu} and {delta} opioid binding was suppressed. In the case of guinea pig brain membranes, a single population of high-affinity {kappa} opioid receptor sites was observed. In contrast, in the case of rat brain, two populations of {kappa} sites were observed. To test the hypothesis that the high- and low-affinity {kappa} sites represent two distinct {kappa} receptor subtypes, a series of opioids were tested for their abilities to compete for binding to the two sites. U-69,593 and Cambridge 20 selectively displaced the high-affinity {kappa} site in both guinea pig and rat tissue, but were inactive at the rat-brain low-affinity site. Other {kappa} opioid drugs competed for binding to both sites, but with different rank orders of potency. Quantitative light microscopy in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of {kappa} receptors in rat and guinea pig brain. The distribution patterns of the two {kappa} receptor subtypes of rat brain were clearly different. Collectively, these data provide direct evidence for the presence of two {kappa} receptor subtypes; the U-69,593-sensitive, high-affinity {kappa}{sub 1} site predominates in guinea pig brain, and the U-69,593-insensitive, low-affinity {kappa}{sub 2} site predominates in rat brain.

  17. Role of conserved intracellular motifs in Serrate signalling, cis-inhibition and endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Glittenberg, Marcus; Pitsouli, Chrysoula; Garvey, Clare; Delidakis, Christos; Bray, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Notch is the receptor in a signalling pathway that operates in a diverse spectrum of developmental processes. Its ligands (e.g. Serrate) are transmembrane proteins whose signalling competence is regulated by the endocytosis-promoting E3 ubiquitin ligases, Mindbomb1 and Neuralized. The ligands also inhibit Notch present in the same cell (cis-inhibition). Here, we identify two conserved motifs in the intracellular domain of Serrate that are required for efficient endocytosis. The first, a dileucine motif, is dispensable for trans-activation and cis-inhibition despite the endocytic defect, demonstrating that signalling can be separated from bulk endocytosis. The second, a novel motif, is necessary for interactions with Mindbomb1/Neuralized and is strictly required for Serrate to trans-activate and internalise efficiently but not for it to inhibit Notch signalling. Cis-inhibition is compromised when an ER retention signal is added to Serrate, or when the levels of Neuralized are increased, and together these data indicate that cis-inhibitory interactions occur at the cell surface. The balance of ubiquitinated/unubiquitinated ligand will thus affect the signalling capacity of the cell at several levels. PMID:17006545

  18. DSL ligand endocytosis physically dissociates Notch1 heterodimers before activating proteolysis can occur.

    PubMed

    Nichols, James T; Miyamoto, Alison; Olsen, Samantha L; D'Souza, Brendan; Yao, Christine; Weinmaster, Gerry

    2007-02-12

    Cleavage of Notch by furin is required to generate a mature, cell surface heterodimeric receptor that can be proteolytically activated to release its intracellular domain, which functions in signal transduction. Current models propose that ligand binding to heterodimeric Notch (hNotch) induces a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) proteolytic release of the Notch extracellular domain (NECD), which is subsequently shed and/or endocytosed by DSL ligand cells. We provide evidence for NECD release and internalization by DSL ligand cells, which, surprisingly, did not require ADAM activity. However, losses in either hNotch formation or ligand endocytosis significantly decreased NECD transfer to DSL ligand cells, as well as signaling in Notch cells. Because endocytosis-defective ligands bind hNotch, but do not dissociate it, additional forces beyond those produced through ligand binding must function to disrupt the intramolecular interactions that keep hNotch intact and inactive. Based on our findings, we propose that mechanical forces generated during DSL ligand endocytosis function to physically dissociate hNotch, and that dissociation is a necessary step in Notch activation.

  19. Unconventional EGF-induced ERK1/2-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Mármol, Ramón; Comes, Núria; Styrczewska, Katarzyna; Pérez-Verdaguer, Mireia; Vicente, Rubén; Pujadas, Lluís; Soriano, Eduardo; Sorkin, Alexander; Felipe, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The potassium channel Kv1.3 plays roles in immunity, neuronal development and sensory discrimination. Regulation of Kv1.3 by kinase signaling has been studied. In this context, EGF binds to specific receptors (EGFR) and triggers tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling, which down-regulates Kv1.3 currents. We show that Kv1.3 undergoes EGF-dependent endocytosis. This EGF-mediated mechanism is relevant because is involved in adult neural stem cell fate determination. We demonstrated that changes in Kv1.3 subcellular distribution upon EGFR activation were due to Kv1.3 clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which targets the Kv1.3 channels to the lysosomal degradative pathway. Interestingly, our results further revealed that relevant tyrosines and other interacting motifs, such as PDZ and SH3 domains, were not involved in the EGF-dependent Kv1.3 internalization. However, a new, and yet undescribed mechanism, of ERK1/2-mediated threonine phosphorylation is crucial for the EGF-mediated Kv1.3 endocytosis. Our results demonstrate that EGF triggers the down-regulation of Kv1.3 activity and its expression at the cell surface, which is important for the development and migration of adult neural progenitors.

  20. Regulation of cargo-selective endocytosis by dynamin 2 GTPase-activating protein girdin.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liang; Enomoto, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Asai, Naoya; Morone, Nobuhiro; Jiang, Ping; An, Jian; Kato, Takuya; Kuroda, Keisuke; Watanabe, Takashi; Asai, Masato; Ishida-Takagishi, Maki; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Hideki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Takahashi, Masahide

    2014-09-17

    In clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), specificity and selectivity for cargoes are thought to be tightly regulated by cargo-specific adaptors for distinct cellular functions. Here, we show that the actin-binding protein girdin is a regulator of cargo-selective CME. Girdin interacts with dynamin 2, a GTPase that excises endocytic vesicles from the plasma membrane, and functions as its GTPase-activating protein. Interestingly, girdin depletion leads to the defect in clathrin-coated pit formation in the center of cells. Also, we find that girdin differentially interacts with some cargoes, which competitively prevents girdin from interacting with dynamin 2 and confers the cargo selectivity for CME. Therefore, girdin regulates transferrin and E-cadherin endocytosis in the center of cells and their subsequent polarized intracellular localization, but has no effect on integrin and epidermal growth factor receptor endocytosis that occurs at the cell periphery. Our results reveal that girdin regulates selective CME via a mechanism involving dynamin 2, but not by operating as a cargo-specific adaptor.

  1. Endocytosis of heat-denatured albumin by cultured rat Kupffer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brouwer, A.; Knook, D.L.

    1982-10-01

    Purified Kupffer cells were obtained by centrifugal elutriation of sinusoidal cells isolated by pronase treatment of the rat liver. The endocytosis of radioactively labeled heat-aggregated colloidal albumin (CA /sup 125/I) was investigated in maintenance cultures of the purified Kupffer cells. The endocytic capacity of the cells was studied during 4 days of culture. Maximum uptake was observed after 24 hr of culture, with a gradual decline during the following days. When the uptake was measured after incubation with increasing concentrations of CA /sup 125/I, a saturation effect was observed. This finding and the observed high rate of uptake are strong indications that receptor sites on the cell membrane are involved in the mechanism of endocytosis. The uptake of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was inhibited by the metabolic inhibitors fluoride and antimycin A, indicating that endocytosis of CA /sup 125/I is dependent on energy derived from both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. The mechanism of internalization may also require the action of microfilaments as well as intact microtubules, since both cytochalasin B and colchicine inhibited the uptake of CA /sup 125/I. The intracellular degradation of CA /sup 125/I by Kupffer cells was strongly inhibited by chloroquine but not by colchicine. The degradation of ingested CA /sup 125/I occurred within the Kupffer cell lysosomes.

  2. Endocytosis and intracellular processing of BODIPY-sphingomyelin by murine CATH.a neurons☆

    PubMed Central

    Nusshold, Christoph; Uellen, Andreas; Bernhart, Eva; Hammer, Astrid; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea; Reicher, Helga; Hermetter, Albin; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal sphingolipids (SL) play important roles during axonal extension, neurotrophic receptor signaling and neurotransmitter release. Many of these signaling pathways depend on the presence of specialized membrane microdomains termed lipid rafts. Sphingomyelin (SM), one of the main raft constituents, can be formed de novo or supplied from exogenous sources. The present study aimed to characterize fluorescently-labeled SL turnover in a murine neuronal cell line (CATH.a). Our results demonstrate that at 4 °C exogenously added BODIPY-SM accumulates exclusively at the plasma membrane. Treatment of cells with bacterial sphingomyelinase (SMase) and back-exchange experiments revealed that 55–67% of BODIPY-SM resides in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Endocytosis of BODIPY-SM occurs via caveolae with part of internalized BODIPY-fluorescence ending up in the Golgi and the ER. Following endocytosis BODIPY-SM undergoes hydrolysis, a reaction substantially faster than BODIPY-SM synthesis from BODIPY-ceramide. RNAi demonstrated that both, acid (a)SMase and neutral (n)SMases contribute to BODIPY-SM hydrolysis. Finally, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated BODIPY-SM was efficiently taken up by CATH.a cells. Our findings indicate that endocytosis of exogenous SM occurs almost exclusively via caveolin-dependent pathways, that both, a- and nSMases equally contribute to neuronal SM turnover and that HDL-like particles might represent physiological SM carriers/donors in the brain. PMID:23973266

  3. Visualization of multiple opioid-receptor types in rat striatum after specific mesencephalic lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, M.; Santoro, C.; Paredes, W.; Gardner, E.L.; Zukin, R.S.

    1987-09-01

    In order to gain insight into a possible modulatory role for ..mu.., delta, and kappa opioid receptors of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the authors investigated the topographical organization of the receptors with respect to pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Dopaminergic terminals projecting from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum were destroyed by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the susbstantia nigra. Quantitative receptor assays using highly specific radioligands were used to measure the density of striatal ..mu.., delta, and kappa receptors before and after denervation. Quantitative in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of receptors on lesioned and nonlesioned sides of the brain under the light microscope. Loss of ..mu.. receptors in striatal patches was striking in the ventro-lateral areas of the striatum, whereas the most notable loss of delta receptors was found in the central striatum. Other brain areas did not differ significantly in ..mu.. receptor density between the lesioned and nonlesioned sides, as determined by autoradiography. These findings suggest that a high percentage of ..mu.. and delta receptors in the striatum are located on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals and support the concept of a modulatory role for ..mu.. and delta opioid peptides in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway.

  4. Ouabain uptake by endocytosis in isolated guinea pig atria

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez-Duran, H.; Riboni, L.; Ubaldo, E.; Kabela, E.; Barcenas-Ruiz, L. Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia, Mexico DF )

    1988-10-01

    Mammalian cells specifically internalize some molecular species through receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). The authors have used four different experimental protocols to investigate whether ouabain enters cardiac cells of guinea pig atrium through this pathway. First, by electron microscope morphometry the authors found that ouabain increased endocytic vesicles in atrial cells. Second, by scintillation counting they found that ({sup 3}H)ouabain uptake by the tissue is decreased by three treatments that decrease RME, i.e., NH{sub 4}Cl, trifluoperazine, and 16 mM (K{sup +}){sub 0}. Third, by radioautography at the electron microscope level, they checked that in preceding experiments ({sup 3}H)ouabain was washed out of plasma membrane after 60-min rinse and interiorized into the cardiac cells. Fourth, isometric tension recordings showed that the positive inotropic effect of ouabain was diminished in the presence of inhibitors, whereas that of a hydrophobic analogue, ouabagenin, was not affected. These results suggest that ouabain enters cardiac cells through RME and also that an intracellular site may, at least in part, be responsible for its inotropic effect.

  5. Physical Principles of Nanoparticle Cellular Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sulin; Gao, Huajian; Bao, Gang

    2015-09-22

    This review article focuses on the physiochemical mechanisms underlying nanoparticle uptake into cells. When nanoparticles are in close vicinity to a cell, the interactions between the nanoparticles and the cell membrane generate forces from different origins. This leads to the membrane wrapping of the nanoparticles followed by cellular uptake. This article discusses how the kinetics, energetics, and forces are related to these interactions and dependent on the size, shape, and stiffness of nanoparticles, the biomechanical properties of the cell membrane, as well as the local environment of the cells. The discussed fundamental principles of the physiochemical causes for nanoparticle-cell interaction may guide new studies of nanoparticle endocytosis and lead to better strategies to design nanoparticle-based approaches for biomedical applications.

  6. Cholesterol Is Required for Endocytosis and Endosomal Escape of Adenovirus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Imelli, Nicola; Meier, Oliver; Boucke, Karin; Hemmi, Silvio; Greber, Urs F.

    2004-01-01

    The species C adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) and Ad5 bind the coxsackievirus B Ad receptor and αv integrin coreceptors and enter epithelial cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This pathway is rapid and efficient. It leads to cell activation and the cholesterol-dependent formation of macropinosomes. Macropinosomes are triggered to release their contents when incoming Ad2 escapes from endosomes. Here, we show that cholesterol extraction of epithelial cells by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) treatment reduced Ad5-mediated luciferase expression ∼4-fold. The addition of cholesterol to normal cells increased gene expression in a dose-dependent manner up to threefold, but it did not restore gene expression in mβCD-treated cells. mβCD had no effect in the presence of excess cholesterol, indicating that the inhibition of gene expression was due specifically to cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol depletion inhibited rapid Ad2 endocytosis, endosomal escape, and nuclear targeting, consistent with the notion that clathrin-dependent endocytosis of Ad2 is cholesterol dependent. In cholesterol-reduced cells, Ad2 internalized at a low rate, suggestive of an alternative, clathrin-independent, low-capacity entry pathway. While exogenous cholesterol completely restored rapid Ad2 endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and macropinosome disruption, it did not, surprisingly, restore viral escape from endosomes. Our results indicate that macropinosome disruption and endosomal escape of Ad2 are independent events in cells depleted of and then refilled with cholesterol, suggesting that viral escape from endosomes requires lipid-controlled membrane homeostasis, trafficking, or signaling. PMID:14990728

  7. Transforming growth factor-β1 reduces megalin- and cubilin-mediated endocytosis of albumin in proximal-tubule-derived opossum kidney cells

    PubMed Central

    Gekle, Michael; Knaus, Petra; Nielsen, Rikke; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Freudinger, Ruth; Wohlfarth, Verena; Sauvant, Christoph; Christensen, Erik I

    2003-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a member of a superfamily of multifunctional cytokines involved in several pathological processes of the kidney, including fibrogenesis, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These events lead to tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis. Less is known about TGF-β1-induced alterations of cell function. An important function of proximal tubular cells is reabsorption of filtered proteins, including albumin, via megalin-cubilin-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis. In this study we used a well established cell culture model (proximal-tubule-derived opossum kidney (OK) cells) in order to test the hypothesis that TGF-β1 reduces megalin-cubilin-mediated endocytosis. Previously we have shown that albumin endocytosis in OK cells is mediated by megalin/cubulin. TGF-β1 led to a time- and dose-dependent downregulation of megalin-cubilin-mediated endocytosis without affecting two other transport systems tested. Binding, internalization and intracellular trafficking of the ligand albumin were affected. Decreased binding resulted from reduced cubilin and megalin expression in the 200 000 g membrane fraction. The underlying mechanism of TGF-β1 action does not involve mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C or A, or reactive oxygen species. In contrast, TGF-β1-induced downregulation of megalin-cubilin-mediated endocytosis was sensitive to inhibition of translation and transcription and was preceded by Smad2 and 3 phosphorylation. Dominant negative Smad2/3 constructs prevented the effect of TGF-β1. In conclusion our data indicate that enhanced levels of TGF-β1 occurring in various nephropathies can lead to downregulation of megalin-cubilin-dependent endocytosis. Probably, TGF-β1 leads to Smad2- and Smad3-dependent expression of negative regulators of receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:14561830

  8. Role of endocytosis and cathepsin-mediated activation in Nipah virus entry

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, Sandra; Thiel, Lena; Maisner, Andrea

    2008-06-05

    The recent discovery that the Nipah virus (NiV) fusion protein (F) is activated by endosomal cathepsin L raised the question if NiV utilize pH- and protease-dependent mechanisms of entry. We show here that the NiV receptor ephrin B2, virus-like particles and infectious NiV are internalized from the cell surface. However, endocytosis, acidic pH and cathepsin-mediated cleavage are not necessary for the initiation of infection of new host cells. Our data clearly demonstrate that proteolytic activation of the NiV F protein is required before incorporation into budding virions but not after virus entry.

  9. Clathrin is Important for Normal Actin Dynamics and Progression of Sla2p-Containing Patches During Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Newpher, Thomas M.; Lemmon, Sandra K.

    2010-01-01

    Clathrin is a major vesicle coat protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. In yeast and higher eukaryotes, clathrin is recruited to the plasma membrane during the early stage of endocytosis along with clathrin-associated adaptors. As coated pits undergo maturation, a burst of actin polymerization accompanies and helps drive vesicle internalization. Here, we investigate the dynamics of clathrin relative to the early endocytic patch protein Sla2p. We find that clathrin is recruited to the cortex prior to Sla2p. In the absence of clathrin, normal numbers of Sla2p patches form, but many do not internalize or are dramatically delayed in completion of endocytosis. Patches that do internalize receive Sla1p late, which is followed by Abp1, which appears near the end of Sla2p lifetime. In addition, clathrin mutants develop actin comet tails, suggesting an important function in actin patch organization/dynamics. Similar to its mammalian counterparts, the light chain (LC) subunit of yeast clathrin interacts directly with the coiled-coil domain of Sla2p. A mutant of Sla2p that no longer interacts with LC (sla2Δ376-573) results in delayed progression of endocytic patches and aberrant actin dynamics. These data demonstrate an important role for clathrin in organization and progression of early endocytic patches to the late stages of endocytosis. PMID:16643280

  10. Synucleins regulate the kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Karina J; Makani, Sachin; Davis, Taylor; Westphal, Christopher H; Castillo, Pablo E; Chandra, Sreeganga S

    2014-07-01

    Genetic and pathological studies link α-synuclein to the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the normal function of this presynaptic protein remains unknown. α-Synuclein, an acidic lipid binding protein, shares high sequence identity with β- and γ-synuclein. Previous studies have implicated synucleins in synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking, although the precise site of synuclein action continues to be unclear. Here we show, using optical imaging, electron microscopy, and slice electrophysiology, that synucleins are required for the fast kinetics of SV endocytosis. Slowed endocytosis observed in synuclein null cultures can be rescued by individually expressing mouse α-, β-, or γ-synuclein, indicating they are functionally redundant. Through comparisons to dynamin knock-out synapses and biochemical experiments, we suggest that synucleins act at early steps of SV endocytosis. Our results categorize α-synuclein with other familial PD genes known to regulate SV endocytosis, implicating this pathway in PD.

  11. Endocytic Accessory Factors and Regulation of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Christien J.; Kaksonen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Up to 60 different proteins are recruited to the site of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in an ordered sequence. These accessory proteins have roles during all the different stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. First, they participate in the initiation of the endocytic event, thereby determining when and where endocytic vesicles are made; later they are involved in the maturation of the clathrin coat, recruitment of specific cargo molecules, bending of the membrane, and finally in scission and uncoating of the nascent vesicle. In addition, many of the accessory components are involved in regulating and coupling the actin cytoskeleton to the endocytic membrane. We will discuss the different accessory components and their various roles. Most of the data comes from studies performed with cultured mammalian cells or yeast cells. The process of endocytosis is well conserved between these different organisms, but there are also many interesting differences that may shed light on the mechanistic principles of endocytosis. PMID:25280766

  12. Calcium-independent calmodulin requirement for endocytosis in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Kübler, E; Schimmöller, F; Riezman, H

    1994-01-01

    We have recently shown that actin and fimbrin are required for the internalization step of endocytosis in yeast. Using a yeast strain with a temperature-sensitive allele of CMD1, encoding calmodulin, we demonstrate that this protein is also required for this process. Calmodulin mutants that have lost their high-affinity calcium binding sites are, however, able to carry out endocytosis normally. A mutation in Myo2p, an unconventional myosin that is a possible target of calmodulin, did not inhibit endocytosis. The function of calmodulin in endocytosis seems to be specific among membrane trafficking events, because the calmodulin mutants are not defective for biogenesis of soluble vacuolar hydrolases nor invertase secretion. Calmodulin does not seem to play a major role in the post-internalization steps of the endocytic pathway in yeast. Images PMID:7988551

  13. Comparison of the butyrate effects on neurotransmitter receptors in neurohybrids NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X.Z.; Chuang, D.M.

    1987-08-31

    The authors previous study demonstrated that long term treatment of NCB-20 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in a marked increase in the density of delta-opioid receptors with a much lesser effect on muscarinic cholinergic and no effect on alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors. In the present study the authors investigated the effect of sodium butyrate on these three types of receptors in NG108-15 cells whose neuroblastoma parent is the same as that of NCB-20 cells. Long term treatment of NG108-15 cells with sodium butyrate (0.5 mM) induced a 2-fold increase in the density of the specific binding of /sup 3/H-clonidine. A comparable increase in the number of binding sites was detected when /sup 3/H-yohimbine was used as the receptor ligand. The butyrate-induced increase in the alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptor binding could be totally abolished by treatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that synthesis of receptor protein is involved. The same butyrate treatment had no significant effect on opioid and muscarinic cholinergic receptor bindings. Thus, butyrate effects on the expression of these three types of receptors in NG108-15 and NCB-20 cells are dramatically different. These data suggest that induction by butyrate of neurotransmitter receptors requires concerted action of genetic factors of both parents of the neurohybrids. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Visualization of the binding, endocytosis, and transcytosis of low- density lipoprotein in the arterial endothelium in situ

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    We investigated the interaction and transport of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through the arterial endothelium in rat aorta and coronary artery, by perfusing in situ native, untagged human, and rat LDL. The latter was rendered electron-opaque after it interacted with the endothelial cell and was subsequently fixed within tissue. We achieved LDL electron-opacity by an improved fixation procedure using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine, and mordanting with tannic acid. The unequivocal identification of LDL was implemented by reacting immunocytochemically the perfused LDL with anti LDL-horseradish peroxidase conjugate. Results indicate that LDL is taken up and internalized through two parallel compartmented routes. (a) A relatively small amount of LDL is taken up by endocytosis via: (i) a receptor-mediated process (adsorptive endocytosis) that involved coated pits/vesicles, and endosomes, and, probably, (ii) a receptor-independent process (fluid endocytosis) carried out by a fraction of plasmalemmal vesicles. Both mechanisms bringing LDL to lysosomes supply cholesterol to the endothelial cell itself. (b) Most circulating LDL is transported across the endothelial cell by transcytosis via plasmalemmal vesicles which deliver LDL to the other cells of the vessel wall. Endocytosis is not enhanced by increasing LDL concentration, but the receptor-mediated internalization decreases at low temperature. Transcytosis is less modified by low temperature but is remarkably augmented at high concentration of LDL. While the endocytosis of homologous (rat) LDL is markedly more pronounced than that of heterologous (human) LDL, both types of LDL are similarly transported by transcytosis. These results indicate that the arterial endothelium possesses a dual mechanism for handling circulating LDL: by a high affinity process, endocytosis secures the endothelial cells' need for cholesterol; by a low-affinity nonsaturable uptake process, transcytosis supplies cholesterol to the other cells of the

  15. Endocytosis of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from sections of mucolipidosis-II and-III fibroblasts by non-parenchymal rat liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, K; von Figura, K

    1979-01-01

    beta-N-Acetylglucosaminidase isolated from the secretions of fibroblasts of mucolipidosis-II and -III patients is internalized by cultured non-parenchymal rat liver cells. The rate of endocytosis compared with that of beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from control fibroblasts was 11 and 19% for the enzyme from mucolipidosis-II and -III patients respectively. The inhibition of endocytosis by mannan indicates that the beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase from mucolipidosis-II and -III patients is recognized by cell-surface receptors specific for mannose. PMID:496912

  16. Blocking GSK3β-mediated dynamin1 phosphorylation enhances BDNF-dependent TrkB endocytosis and the protective effects of BDNF in neuronal and mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-Hua; Geng, Zhao; Yan, Jing; Li, Ting; Chen, Qun; Zhang, Qun-Ye; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Endocytosis of tropomyosin related kinase B (TrkB) receptors has critical roles in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediated signal transduction and biological function, however the mechanism that is governing TrkB endocytosis is still not completely understood. In this study, we showed that GSK3β, a key kinase in neuronal development and survival, could regulate TrkB endocytosis through phosphorylating dynamin1 (Dyn1) but not dynamin2 (Dyn2). Moreover, we found that beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomer exposure could impair BDNF-dependent TrkB endocytosis and Akt activation through enhancing GSK3β activity in cultured hippocampal neurons, which suggested that BDNF-induced TrkB endocytosis and the subsequent signaling were impaired in neuronal model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Notably, we found that inhibiting GSK3β phosphorylating Dyn1 by using TAT-Dyn1SpS could rescue the impaired TrkB endocytosis and Akt activation upon BDNF stimuli under Aβ exposure. Finally, TAT-Dyn1SpS could facilitate BDNF-mediated neuronal survival and cognitive enhancement in mouse models of AD. These results clarified a role of GSK3β in BDNF-dependent TrkB endocytosis and the subsequent signaling, and provided a potential new strategy by inhibiting GSK3β-induced Dyn1 phosphorylation for AD treatment.

  17. CD14 dependence of TLR4 endocytosis and TRIF signaling displays ligand specificity and is dissociable in endotoxin tolerance.

    PubMed

    Rajaiah, Rajesh; Perkins, Darren J; Ireland, Derek D C; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2015-07-01

    Dimerization of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD2) heterodimers is critical for both MyD88- and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β (TRIF)-mediated signaling pathways. Recently, Zanoni et al. [(2011) Cell 147(4):868-880] reported that cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is required for LPS-/Escherichia coli- induced TLR4 internalization into endosomes and activation of TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophages. We confirmed their findings with LPS but report here that CD14 is not required for receptor endocytosis and downstream signaling mediated by TLR4/MD2 agonistic antibody (UT12) and synthetic small-molecule TLR4 ligands (1Z105) in murine macrophages. CD14 deficiency completely ablated the LPS-induced TBK1/IRF3 signaling axis that mediates production of IFN-β in murine macrophages without affecting MyD88-mediated signaling, including NF-κB, MAPK activation, and TNF-α and IL-6 production. However, neither the MyD88- nor TRIF-signaling pathways and their associated cytokine profiles were altered in the absence of CD14 in UT12- or 1Z105-treated murine macrophages. Eritoran (E5564), a lipid A antagonist that binds the MD2 "pocket," completely blocked LPS- and 1Z105-driven, but not UT12-induced, TLR4 dimerization and endocytosis. Furthermore, TLR4 endocytosis is induced in macrophages tolerized by exposure to either LPS or UT12 and is independent of CD14. These data indicate that TLR4 receptor endocytosis and the TRIF-signaling pathway are dissociable and that TLR4 internalization in macrophages can be induced by UT12, 1Z105, and during endotoxin tolerance in the absence of CD14.

  18. Exocyst Sec10 protects renal tubule cells from injury by EGFR/MAPK activation and effects on endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Buonato, Janine M; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F; Palmyre, Aurélien; Polgar, Noemi; Drummond, Iain; Park, Kwon Moo; Lazzara, Matthew J; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2014-12-15

    Acute kidney injury is common and has a high mortality rate, and no effective treatment exists other than supportive care. Using cell culture models, we previously demonstrated that exocyst Sec10 overexpression reduced damage to renal tubule cells and speeded recovery and that the protective effect was mediated by higher basal levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex, is known for regulating protein trafficking. Here we show that the exocyst biochemically interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream of MAPK, and Sec10-overexpressing cells express greater levels of phosphorylated (active) ERK, the final step in the MAPK pathway, in response to EGF stimulation. EGFR endocytosis, which has been linked to activation of the MAPK pathway, increases in Sec10-overexpressing cells, and gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, and Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, both reduce EGFR endocytosis. In turn, inhibition of the MAPK pathway reduces ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis, suggesting a potential feedback of elevated ERK activity on EGFR endocytosis. Gefitinib also decreases MAPK signaling in Sec10-overexpressing cells to levels seen in control cells and, demonstrating a causal role for EGFR, reverses the protective effect of Sec10 overexpression following cell injury in vitro. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model of acute kidney injury, morpholino-induced knockdown of sec10 increases renal tubule cell susceptibility to injury. Taken together, these results suggest that the exocyst, acting through EGFR, endocytosis, and the MAPK pathway is a candidate therapeutic target for acute kidney injury.

  19. Exocyst Sec10 protects renal tubule cells from injury by EGFR/MAPK activation and effects on endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Fogelgren, Ben; Zuo, Xiaofeng; Buonato, Janine M.; Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Baek, Jeong-In; Choi, Soo Young; Chacon-Heszele, Maria F.; Palmyre, Aurélien; Polgar, Noemi; Drummond, Iain; Park, Kwon Moo; Lazzara, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury is common and has a high mortality rate, and no effective treatment exists other than supportive care. Using cell culture models, we previously demonstrated that exocyst Sec10 overexpression reduced damage to renal tubule cells and speeded recovery and that the protective effect was mediated by higher basal levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The exocyst, a highly-conserved eight-protein complex, is known for regulating protein trafficking. Here we show that the exocyst biochemically interacts with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is upstream of MAPK, and Sec10-overexpressing cells express greater levels of phosphorylated (active) ERK, the final step in the MAPK pathway, in response to EGF stimulation. EGFR endocytosis, which has been linked to activation of the MAPK pathway, increases in Sec10-overexpressing cells, and gefitinib, a specific EGFR inhibitor, and Dynasore, a dynamin inhibitor, both reduce EGFR endocytosis. In turn, inhibition of the MAPK pathway reduces ligand-mediated EGFR endocytosis, suggesting a potential feedback of elevated ERK activity on EGFR endocytosis. Gefitinib also decreases MAPK signaling in Sec10-overexpressing cells to levels seen in control cells and, demonstrating a causal role for EGFR, reverses the protective effect of Sec10 overexpression following cell injury in vitro. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model of acute kidney injury, morpholino-induced knockdown of sec10 increases renal tubule cell susceptibility to injury. Taken together, these results suggest that the exocyst, acting through EGFR, endocytosis, and the MAPK pathway is a candidate therapeutic target for acute kidney injury. PMID:25298525

  20. Inhibition of endocytosis exacerbates TNF-α-induced endothelial dysfunction via enhanced JNK and p38 activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyehun; Nguyen, Hong N; Lamb, Fred S

    2014-04-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that causes endothelial dysfunction. Endocytosis of TNF-α receptors (TNFR) precedes endosomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which is required for NF-κB activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is unknown how endocytosis of TNFRs impacts signaling in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that TNF-α-induced endothelial dysfunction is induced by both endosomal and cell surface events, including NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, and endocytosis of the TNFR modifies signaling. Mesenteric artery segments from C57BL/6 mice were treated with TNF-α (10 ng/ml) for 22 h in tissue culture, with or without signaling inhibitors (dynasore for endocytosis, SP600125 for JNK, SB203580 for p38, U0126 for ERK), and vascular function was assessed. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was impaired by TNF-α, and dynasore exacerbated this, whereas JNK or p38 inhibition prevented these effects. In cultured endothelial cells from murine mesenteric arteries, dynasore potentiated JNK and p38 but not ERK phosphorylation and promoted cell death. NF-κB activation by TNF-α was decreased by dynasore. JNK inhibition dramatically increased both the magnitude and duration of TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and potentiated intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) activation. Dynasore still inhibited NF-κB activation in the presence of SP600125. Thus TNF-α-induced endothelial dysfunction is both JNK and p38 dependent. Endocytosis modulates the balance of NF-κB and MAPK signaling, and inhibition of NF-κB activation by JNK limits this pro-proliferative signal, which may contribute to endothelial cell death in response to TNF-α.

  1. Trafficking properties of the D5 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dawn; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-05-01

    Dopamine receptors are important for diverse biological functions and are important pharmacological targets in human medicine. Signal transduction from the dopamine receptors is controlled at many levels, including by the process of receptor trafficking. Little is known regarding the endocytic and postendocytic trafficking properties of the D5 dopamine receptor. Here, we show that endocytosis of the D5 receptor can be achieved both homologously, through direct receptor activation by agonist, and also heterologously, due to independent activation of protein kinase C (PKC). In contrast, the D1 receptor is endocytosed only in response to agonist but not PKC activation. We have identified the residue in the third intracellular loop of the D5 receptor that is both necessary for PKC-mediated endocytosis of the D5 receptor and sufficient to induce PKC-mediated endocytosis when introduced to the D1 receptor. In addition, we show that endocytosis of D5 through both pathways is dependent on clathrin and dynamin but that only agonist-induced endocytosis engages β-arrestin 2. Together, these data show that the D5 receptor shows a trafficking profile distinct from that of any of the other dopamine receptors.

  2. Does the kappa opioid receptor system contribute to pain aversion?

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Catherine M.; Taylor, Anna M. W.; Cook, Christopher; Ong, Edmund; Morón, Jose A.; Evans, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The kappa opioid receptor (KOR) and the endogenous peptide-ligand dynorphin have received significant attention due the involvement in mediating a variety of behavioral and neurophysiological responses, including opposing the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse including opioids. Accumulating evidence indicates this system is involved in regulating states of motivation and emotion. Acute activation of the KOR produces an increase in motivational behavior to escape a threat, however, KOR activation associated with chronic stress leads to the expression of symptoms indicative of mood disorders. It is well accepted that KOR can produce analgesia and is engaged in chronic pain states including neuropathic pain. Spinal studies have revealed KOR-induced analgesia in reversing pain hypersensitivities associated with peripheral nerve injury. While systemic administration of KOR agonists attenuates nociceptive sensory transmission, this effect appears to be a stress-induced effect as anxiolytic agents, including delta opioid receptor agonists, mitigate KOR agonist-induced analgesia. Additionally, while the role of KOR and dynorphin in driving the dysphoric and aversive components of stress and drug withdrawal has been well characterized, how this system mediates the negative emotional states associated with chronic pain is relatively unexplored. This review provides evidence that dynorphin and the KOR system contribute to the negative affective component of pain and that this receptor system likely contributes to the high comorbidity of mood disorders associated with chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25452729

  3. Activity profiles of dalargin and its analogues in mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor selective bioassays.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, N; Pospisek, J; Hauzerova, L; Barth, T; Milanov, P

    1999-10-01

    1. To elucidate the structural features ensuring action of [D-Ala2, Leu5]-enkephalyl-Arg (dalargin), a series of dalargin analogues were tested for their effectiveness in depressing electrically-evoked contractions of the guinea-pig myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle preparations (mu- and kappa-opioid receptors) and the vasa deferentia of the hamster (delta-opioid receptors), mouse (mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors), rat (similar to mu-opioid receptors) and rabbit (kappa-opioid receptors). The naloxone KB values in the myenteric plexus were also obtained. 2. [L-Ala2]-dalargin was 19 times less potent than dalargin, and its pharmacological activity was peptidase-sensitive. The ratio of delta-activity to mu-activity for [L-Ala2]-dalargin was 6.78, and KB was 7.9 nM. This emphasizes the role that D-configuration of Ala2 plays in determining the active folding of dalargin molecule as well as in conferring resistance to peptidases. 3. [Met5]-dalargin was equipotent to dalargin in the myenteric plexus, but was more potent in the vasa deferentia of hamster and mouse (KB=5.5 nM). Leu5 and the interdependence of Leu5 and D-Ala2 are of importance for the selectivity of dalargin for mu-opioid receptors. 4. Dalarginamide was more potent and selective for mu-opioid receptors than dalargin, whilst dalarginethylamide, though equipotent to dalarginamide in the myenteric plexus, was more potent at delta-opioid receptors (KB=5.0 nM). [D-Phe4]-dalarginamide and N-Me-[D-Phe4]-dalarginamide were inactive indicating the contribution of L-configuration of Phe4 to the pharmacological potency of dalargin. 5. N-Me-[L-Phe4]-dalarginamide possessed the highest potency and selectivity for mu-opioid receptors (the ratio of delta-activity to mu-activity was 0.00053; KB=2.6 nM). The CONH2 terminus combined with the N-methylation of L-Phe4 increased the potency and selectivity of dalargin for mu-opioid receptors.

  4. (/sup 3/H)Ethylketocyclazocine binding to mouse brain membranes: evidence for a kappa opioid receptor type

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Lee, N.M.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of the putative kappa agonist ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) to synaptosomal membranes of mouse brain was studied. This benzomorphan was able to bind to different opioid receptors. A portion of this binding was not inhibited by the agonist naloxone, even at high concentrations (10 microM). This population of receptors, to which opioate alkaloids and opiod peptides display very low affinity, is probably the sigma receptor. Another class of binding sites was identified by the simultaneous addition of the selective agonists Sandoz FK-33824 and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin, which blocked the access of EKC to mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively, leaving a portion of naloxone-displaceable benzomorphan binding still detectable. Analysis of this remaining binding revealed a small population of receptors of high affinity, the kappa receptor. Therefore, EKC binds to the mu, delta, kappa and sigma receptors in the mouse brain, with similar affinities for the mu and kappa (0.22 and 0.15 nM). These results confirm the existence of a kappa opioid receptor type in the mouse brain.

  5. SNARE proteins synaptobrevin, SNAP-25, and syntaxin are involved in rapid and slow endocytosis at synapses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianhua; Luo, Fujun; Zhang, Zhen; Xue, Lei; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Shin, Wonchul; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2013-05-30

    Rapid endocytosis, which takes only a few seconds, is widely observed in secretory cells. Although it is more efficient in recycling vesicles than in slow clathrin-mediated endocytosis, its underlying mechanism, thought to be clathrin independent, is largely unclear. Here, we report that cleavage of three SNARE proteins essential for exocytosis, including synaptobrevin, SNAP-25, and syntaxin, inhibited rapid endocytosis at the calyx of Held nerve terminal, suggesting the involvement of the three SNARE proteins in rapid endocytosis. These SNARE proteins were also involved in slow endocytosis. In addition, SNAP-25 and syntaxin facilitated vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool, most likely via their roles in endocytosis and/or exocytosis. We conclude that both rapid and slow endocytosis share the involvement of SNARE proteins. The dual role of three SNARE proteins in exo- and endocytosis suggests that SNARE proteins may be molecular substrates contributing to the exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, which maintains exocytosis in secretory cells.

  6. High-Resolution Fractionation of Signaling Endosomes Containing Different Receptors

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Gretchen; Welker, Jonathan; Scott, Jessica; van Der Salm, Louise; Grimes, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Receptor endocytosis is regulated by ligand binding, and receptors may signal after endocytosis in signaling endosomes. We hypothesized that signaling endosomes containing different types of receptors may be distinct from one another and have different physical characteristics. To test this hypothesis, we developed a high-resolution organelle fractionation method based on mass and density, optimized to resolve endosomes from other organelles. Three different types of receptors undergoing ligand-induced endocytosis were localized predominately in endosomes that were resolved from one another using this method. Endosomes containing activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), TrkA and EGFR, were similar to one another. Endosomes containing p75NTR (in the tumor necrosis receptor superfamily) and PAC1 (a G-protein-coupled receptor) were distinct from each other and from RTK endosomes. Receptor-specific endosomes may direct the intracellular location and duration of signal transduction pathways to dictate response to signals and determine cell fate. PMID:19416476

  7. Rspo3 binds syndecan 4 and induces Wnt/PCP signaling via clathrin-mediated endocytosis to promote morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ohkawara, Bisei; Glinka, Andrei; Niehrs, Christof

    2011-03-15

    The R-Spondin (Rspo) family of secreted Wnt modulators is involved in development and disease and holds therapeutic promise as stem cell growth factors. Despite growing biological importance, their mechanism of action is poorly understood. Here, we show that Rspo3 binds syndecan 4 (Sdc4) and that together they activate Wnt/PCP signaling. In Xenopus embryos, Sdc4 and Rspo3 are essential for two Wnt/PCP-driven processes-gastrulation movements and head cartilage morphogenesis. Rspo3/PCP signaling during gastrulation requires Wnt5a and is transduced via Fz7, Dvl, and JNK. Rspo3 functions by inducing Sdc4-dependent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We show that this internalization is essential for PCP signal transduction, suggesting that endocytosis of Wnt-receptor complexes is a key mechanism by which R-spondins promote Wnt signaling.

  8. Agonist-induced functional desensitization of the mu-opioid receptor is mediated by loss of membrane receptors rather than uncoupling from G protein.

    PubMed

    Pak, Y; Kouvelas, A; Scheideler, M A; Rasmussen, J; O'Dowd, B F; George, S R

    1996-11-01

    The effects of acute exposure of the opioid peptide [D-Ala2,N-MePhe4, Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) on the mu-opioid receptor were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K-1 and baby hamster kidney stable transfectants. In the CHO cell line, acute 1-hr treatment with DAMGO decreased the density of receptors without affecting the affinity or proportion of agonist-detected sites and attenuated the ability of the agonist to inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. In contrast, similar 1-hr treatment of baby hamster kidney cells did not affect receptor density or agonist ability to inhibit cAMP accumulation, but longer duration of agonist exposure resulted in a reduction in membrane receptor, identical to the CHO cells. These results suggested that for the mu-opioid receptor, alteration in receptor density was the major determinant for the observed agonist-induced desensitization. Consistent with this notion, the ratio of the DAMGO concentration yielding half-maximal occupation of the mu receptor to that yielding half-maximal functional response was < 1. This suggests the necessity for a high mu receptor occupancy rate for maximal functional response, so that any loss of cell surface opioid-binding sites was a critical determinant in reducing the maximal response. This hypothesis was further supported by the observation that irreversible inactivation of fixed proportions of opioid-binding sites with beta-chlorn-altrexamine demonstrated that there were few spare receptors, which is in contrast to what has been reported for other G protein-coupled receptors, including the delta-opioid receptor. Taken together, these data suggest that the opioid agonist DAMGO has a high affinity for the mu receptor but must occupy > 70% of the available receptors to generate the maximal second messenger-linked response.

  9. Distinct Functions of Endophilin Isoforms in Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jifeng; Tan, Minghui; Yin, Yichen; Ren, Bingyu; Jiang, Nannan; Guo, Guoqing; Chen, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Endophilin isoforms perform distinct characteristics in their interactions with N-type Ca(2+) channels and dynamin. However, precise functional differences for the endophilin isoforms on synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis remain unknown. By coupling RNA interference and electrophysiological recording techniques in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we investigated the functional differences of three isoforms of endophilin in SV endocytosis. The results showed that the amplitude of normalized evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents in endophilin1 knockdown neurons decreased significantly for both single train and multiple train stimulations. Similar results were found using endophilin2 knockdown neurons, whereas endophilin3 siRNA exhibited no change compared with control neurons. Endophilin1 and endophilin2 affected SV endocytosis, but the effect of endophilin1 and endophilin2 double knockdown was not different from that of either knockdown alone. This result suggested that endophilin1 and endophilin2 functioned together but not independently during SV endocytosis. Taken together, our results indicate that SV endocytosis is sustained by endophilin1 and endophilin2 isoforms, but not by endophilin3, in primary cultured hippocampal neurons.

  10. Ankyrin-G Inhibits Endocytosis of Cadherin Dimers.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Chantel M; Jenkins, Paul M; Bennett, Vann; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of endothelial cell adhesion is central to vascular development and maintenance. Furthermore, altered endothelial adhesion is implicated in numerous diseases. Therefore, normal vascular patterning and maintenance require tight regulation of endothelial cell adhesion dynamics. However, the mechanisms that control junctional plasticity are not fully understood. Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) is an adhesive protein found in adherens junctions of endothelial cells. VE-cadherin mediates adhesion through trans interactions formed by its extracellular domain. Trans binding is followed by cis interactions that laterally cluster the cadherin in junctions. VE-cadherin is linked to the actin cytoskeleton through cytoplasmic interactions with β- and α-catenin, which serve to increase adhesive strength. Furthermore, p120-catenin binds to the cytoplasmic tail of cadherin and stabilizes it at the plasma membrane. Here we report that induced cis dimerization of VE-cadherin inhibits endocytosis independent of both p120 binding and trans interactions. However, we find that ankyrin-G, a protein that links membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton, associates with VE-cadherin and inhibits its endocytosis. Ankyrin-G inhibits VE-cadherin endocytosis independent of p120 binding. We propose a model in which ankyrin-G associates with and inhibits the endocytosis of VE-cadherin cis dimers. Our findings support a novel mechanism for regulation of VE-cadherin endocytosis through ankyrin association with cadherin engaged in lateral interactions.

  11. Pharmacological attenuation of Paramecium fluid-phase endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wiejak, Jolanta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wyroba, Elzbieta

    2007-01-01

    Spectrophotometric quantification of fluid phase endocytosis in the presence of different pharmacological compounds was performed in the model unicellular eukaryote Paramecium. The kinetics of Lucifer Yellow Carbohydrazide (LY) uptake in cells exposed to forskolin and isoproterenol--known to stimulate phagocytosis in this cell--was analyzed. Reduction in both the rate of endocytosis and total accumulation of fluid phase marker was observed following the treatment. Forskolin diminished total LY accumulation by 11% and 21% after 5 min and 25 min of incubation, respectively, whereas the rate of uptake was lowered by 21% in comparison to control cells. The inhibitory effect ofisoproterenol was less pronounced than that of forskolin. The total accumulation of LY was decreased by 11% in 5 min as compared to the untreated cells and this effect was persistent upon further exposition to this reagent up to 25 min. To better understand these observations, the effect of inhibitors of PKA and cAMP phosphodiesterase on fluid phase uptake was tested. 3-isobutyl-1-methyl xanthine (IBMX) caused 12% decrease in LY accumulation after 5 min of incubation. In combination with isoproterenol or forskolin, IBMX enhanced their inhibitory effect on fluid endocytosis, which was lowered by 25% and 29%, respectively. The strongest inhibitory effect on fluid endocytosis was exerted by the 10 microM PKA inhibitor, which diminished endocytosis by 35% in 5 min. These results suggest that Paramecium fluid phase uptake may be regulated through activation of PKA, although the precise mechanism of this process has not yet been elucidated.

  12. Intracellular Trafficking Network of Protein Nanocapsules: Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinxie; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Gan; Chang, Danfeng; Liang, Xin; Zhu, Xianbing; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane vesicle system is a complex transport system that includes endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. However, the details of the intracellular trafficking pathway of nanoparticles in cells have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathway of protein nanocapsules using more than 30 Rab proteins as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. We observed that FITC-labeled protein nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through Arf6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated micropinocytosis. In addition to this classic pathway: early endosome (EEs)/late endosome (LEs) to lysosome, we identified two novel transport pathways: micropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LEs (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and EEs-liposome (Rab18 positive)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the cells use slow endocytosis recycling pathway (Rab11 and Rab35 positive vesicles) and GLUT4 exocytosis vesicles (Rab8 and Rab10 positive) transport the protein nanocapsules out of the cells. In addition, protein nanoparticles are observed in autophagosomes, which receive protein nanocapsules through multiple endocytosis vesicles. Using autophagy inhibitor to block these transport pathways could prevent the degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes. Using Rab proteins as vesicle markers to investigation the detail intracellular trafficking of the protein nanocapsules, will provide new targets to interfere the cellular behaver of the nanoparticles, and improve the therapeutic effect of nanomedicine.

  13. Intracellular Trafficking Network of Protein Nanocapsules: Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinxie; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Gan; Chang, Danfeng; Liang, Xin; Zhu, Xianbing; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane vesicle system is a complex transport system that includes endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. However, the details of the intracellular trafficking pathway of nanoparticles in cells have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathway of protein nanocapsules using more than 30 Rab proteins as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. We observed that FITC-labeled protein nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through Arf6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated micropinocytosis. In addition to this classic pathway: early endosome (EEs)/late endosome (LEs) to lysosome, we identified two novel transport pathways: micropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LEs (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and EEs-liposome (Rab18 positive)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the cells use slow endocytosis recycling pathway (Rab11 and Rab35 positive vesicles) and GLUT4 exocytosis vesicles (Rab8 and Rab10 positive) transport the protein nanocapsules out of the cells. In addition, protein nanoparticles are observed in autophagosomes, which receive protein nanocapsules through multiple endocytosis vesicles. Using autophagy inhibitor to block these transport pathways could prevent the degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes. Using Rab proteins as vesicle markers to investigation the detail intracellular trafficking of the protein nanocapsules, will provide new targets to interfere the cellular behaver of the nanoparticles, and improve the therapeutic effect of nanomedicine. PMID:27698943

  14. Raft endocytosis of AMF regulates mitochondrial dynamics through Rac1 signaling and the Gp78 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jay; Kojic, Liliana D; St-Pierre, Pascal; Wang, Peter T C; Fu, Min; Joshi, Bharat; Nabi, Ivan R

    2013-08-01

    Gp78 is a cell surface receptor that also functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. The Gp78 ligand, the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI; also called autocrine motility factor, AMF), functions as a cytokine upon secretion by tumor cells. AMF is internalized through a PI3K- and dynamin-dependent raft endocytic pathway to the smooth ER; however, the relationship between AMF and Gp78 ubiquitin ligase activity remains unclear. AMF uptake to the smooth ER is inhibited by the dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, is reduced in Gp78 knockdown cells and induces the dynamin-dependent downregulation of its cell surface receptor. AMF uptake is Rac1-dependent and is inhibited by expression of dominant-negative Rac1 and the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766, and is therefore distinct from Cdc42- and RhoA-dependent raft endocytic pathways. AMF stimulates Rac1 activation, but this is reduced by dynasore treatment and is absent in Gp78-knockdown cells; therefore, AMF activities require Gp78-mediated endocytosis. AMF also prevents Gp78-induced degradation of the mitochondrial fusion proteins, mitofusin 1 and 2 in a dynamin-, Rac1- and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent manner. Gp78 induces mitochondrial clustering and fission in a manner dependent on GP78 ubiquitin ligase activity, and this is also reversed by uptake of AMF. The raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF, therefore, promotes Rac1-PI3K signaling that feeds back to promote AMF endocytosis and also inhibits the ability of Gp78 to target the mitofusins for degradation, thereby preventing Gp78-dependent mitochondrial fission. Through regulation of an ER-localized ubiquitin ligase, the raft-dependent endocytosis of AMF represents an extracellular regulator of mitochondrial fusion and dynamics.

  15. Akt Links Insulin Signaling to Albumin Endocytosis in Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Sam; Costacou, Tina; Orchard, Trevor; Erkan, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an epidemic, causing a significant decline in quality of life of individuals due to its multisystem involvement. Kidney is an important target organ in DM accounting for the majority of patients requiring renal replacement therapy at dialysis units. Microalbuminuria (MA) has been a valuable tool to predict end-organ damage in DM but its low sensitivity has driven research efforts to seek other alternatives. Albumin is taken up by albumin receptors, megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule epithelial cells. We demonstrated that insulin at physiological concentrations induce albumin endocytosis through activation of protein kinase B (Akt) in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Inhibition of Akt by a phosphorylation deficient construct abrogated insulin induced albumin endocytosis suggesting a role for Akt in insulin-induced albumin endocytosis. Furthermore we demonstrated a novel interaction between Akt substrate 160kDa (AS160) and cytoplasmic tail of megalin. Mice with type 1 DM (T1D) displayed decreased Akt, megalin, cubilin and AS160 expression in their kidneys in association with urinary cubilin shedding preceding significant MA. Patients with T1D who have developed MA in the EDC (The Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications) study demonstrated urinary cubilin shedding prior to development of MA. We hypothesize that perturbed insulin-Akt cascade in DM leads to alterations in trafficking of megalin and cubilin, which results in urinary cubilin shedding as a prelude to MA in early diabetic nephropathy. We propose that utilization of urinary cubilin shedding, as a urinary biomarker, will allow us to detect and intervene in diabetic nephropathy (DN) at an earlier stage. PMID:26465605

  16. SUMOylation of Syntaxin1A regulates presynaptic endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Craig, Tim J; Anderson, Dina; Evans, Ashley J; Girach, Fatima; Henley, Jeremy M

    2015-12-04

    Neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminal is under very precise spatial and temporal control. Following neurotransmitter release, synaptic vesicles are recycled by endocytosis and refilled with neurotransmitter. During the exocytosis event leading to release, SNARE proteins provide most of the mechanical force for membrane fusion. Here, we show one of these proteins, Syntaxin1A, is SUMOylated near its C-terminal transmembrane domain in an activity-dependent manner. Preventing SUMOylation of Syntaxin1A reduces its interaction with other SNARE proteins and disrupts the balance of synaptic vesicle endo/exocytosis, resulting in an increase in endocytosis. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates the emerging role of Syntaxin1A in vesicle endocytosis, which in turn, modulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic function.

  17. Imaging the Dynamics of Endocytosis in Live Mammalian Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian cells, endocytosis plays a pivotal role in regulating several basic cellular functions. Up to now, the dynamics and the organization of the endocytic pathways have been primarily investigated in reductionist model systems such as cell and organ cultures. Although these experimental models have been fully successful in unraveling the endocytic machinery at a molecular level, our understanding of the regulation and the role of endocytosis in vivo has been limited. Recently, advancements in intravital microscopy have made it possible to extend imaging in live animals to subcellular structures, thus revealing new aspects of the molecular machineries regulating membrane trafficking that were not previously appreciated in vitro. Here, we focus on the use of intravital microscopy to study endocytosis in vivo, and discuss how this approach will allow addressing two fundamental questions: (1) how endocytic processes are organized in mammalian tissues, and (2) how they contribute to organ physiopathology. PMID:24691962

  18. Endocytosis and exocytosis of nanoparticles in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Nuri; Park, Ji-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoparticles that can be injected into the human body hold tremendous potential to detect and treat complex diseases. Understanding of the endocytosis and exocytosis mechanisms of nanoparticles is essential for safe and efficient therapeutic application. In particular, exocytosis is of significance in the removal of nanoparticles with drugs and contrast agents from the body, while endocytosis is of great importance for the targeting of nanoparticles in disease sites. Here, we review the recent research on the endocytosis and exocytosis of functionalized nanoparticles based on various sizes, shapes, and surface chemistries. We believe that this review contributes to the design of safe nanoparticles that can efficiently enter and leave human cells and tissues. PMID:24872703

  19. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator transiently enhances blood-brain barrier permeability during cerebral ischemia through vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated endothelial endocytosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Nobuo; Yamakawa, Kasumi; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Hokamura, Kazuya; Umemura, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) modulates cerebrovascular permeability and exacerbates brain injury in ischemic stroke, but its mechanisms remain unclear. We studied the involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endocytosis in the increase of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability potentiated by rt-PA after ischemic stroke. The rt-PA treatment at 4 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion induced a transient increase in BBB permeability after ischemic stroke in mice, which was suppressed by antagonists of either low-density lipoprotein receptor families (LDLRs) or VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). In immortalized bEnd.3 endothelial cells, rt-PA treatment upregulated VEGF expression and VEGFR-2 phosphorylation under ischemic conditions in an LDLR-dependent manner. In addition, rt-PA treatment increased endocytosis and transcellular transport in bEnd.3 monolayers under ischemic conditions, which were suppressed by the inhibition of LDLRs, VEGF, or VEGFR-2. The rt-PA treatment also increased the endocytosis of endothelial cells in the ischemic brain region after stroke in mice. These findings indicate that rt-PA increased BBB permeability via induction of VEGF, which at least partially mediates subsequent increase in endothelial endocytosis. Therefore, inhibition of VEGF induction may have beneficial effects after thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA treatment after stroke.

  20. Cdk5 and the mystery of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chan; Bibb, James A

    2003-11-24

    Regulation of endocytosis by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is critical to synaptic vesicle recycling. Two groups have now identified the neuronal kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) as an important regulator of this process. Robinson and coworkers recently demonstrated that Cdk5 is necessary for synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) (Tan et al., 2003), whereas a new report in this issue claims that Cdk5 negatively regulates SVE (Tomizawa et al., 2003). Careful examination of the data reveals a model that helps resolve the apparently contradictory nature of these reports.

  1. Selective integrin endocytosis is driven by interactions between the integrin α-chain and AP2.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, Nicola; Arjonen, Antti; Elkhatib, Nadia; Denessiouk, Konstantin; Wrobel, Antoni G; Wilson, Thomas A; Pouwels, Jeroen; Montagnac, Guillaume; Owen, David J; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion molecules comprising one of 18 possible α-chains and one of eight possible β-chains. They control a range of cell functions in a matrix- and ligand-specific manner. Integrins can be internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) through β subunit-based motifs found in all integrin heterodimers. However, whether specific integrin heterodimers can be selectively endocytosed was unknown. Here, we found that a subset of α subunits contain an evolutionarily conserved and functional YxxΦ motif directing integrins to selective internalization by the most abundant endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We determined the structure of the human integrin α4-tail motif in complex with the AP2 C-μ2 subunit and confirmed the interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry. Mutagenesis of the motif impaired selective heterodimer endocytosis and attenuated integrin-mediated cell migration. We propose that integrins evolved to enable selective integrin-receptor turnover in response to changing matrix conditions.

  2. Kinetics of cellular uptake of viruses and nanoparticles via clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    Several viruses exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis to gain entry into host cells. This process is also used extensively in biomedical applications to deliver nanoparticles (NPs) to diseased cells. The internalization of these nano-objects is controlled by the assembly of a clathrin-containing protein coat on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which drives the invagination of the membrane and the formation of a cargo-containing endocytic vesicle. Current theoretical models of receptor-mediated endocytosis of viruses and NPs do not explicitly take coat assembly into consideration. In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly. We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell. Using a coarse-grained model which maps the stochastic dynamics of coat formation onto a one-dimensional random walk, we derive an analytical formula for this quantity. A study of the dependence of the mean internalization time on NP size shows that there is an upper bound above which this time becomes extremely large, and an optimal size at which it attains a minimum. Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data. We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics. PMID:26871680

  3. Kinetics of cellular uptake of viruses and nanoparticles via clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Anand; Berezhkovskii, Alexander; Nossal, Ralph

    2016-02-01

    Several viruses exploit clathrin-mediated endocytosis to gain entry into host cells. This process is also used extensively in biomedical applications to deliver nanoparticles (NPs) to diseased cells. The internalization of these nano-objects is controlled by the assembly of a clathrin-containing protein coat on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, which drives the invagination of the membrane and the formation of a cargo-containing endocytic vesicle. Current theoretical models of receptor-mediated endocytosis of viruses and NPs do not explicitly take coat assembly into consideration. In this paper we study cellular uptake of viruses and NPs with a focus on coat assembly. We characterize the internalization process by the mean time between the binding of a particle to the membrane and its entry into the cell. Using a coarse-grained model which maps the stochastic dynamics of coat formation onto a one-dimensional random walk, we derive an analytical formula for this quantity. A study of the dependence of the mean internalization time on NP size shows that there is an upper bound above which this time becomes extremely large, and an optimal size at which it attains a minimum. Our estimates of these sizes compare well with experimental data. We also study the sensitivity of the obtained results on coat parameters to identify factors which significantly affect the internalization kinetics.

  4. Dynamin- and Clathrin-Dependent Endocytosis in African Swine Fever Virus Entry▿

    PubMed Central

    Hernaez, Bruno; Alonso, Covadonga

    2010-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus that enters host cells after receptor-mediated endocytosis and depends on acidic cellular compartments for productive infection. The exact cellular mechanism, however, is largely unknown. In order to dissect ASFV entry, we have analyzed the major endocytic routes using specific inhibitors and dominant negative mutants and analyzed the consequences for ASFV entry into host cells. Our results indicate that ASFV entry into host cells takes place by clathrin-mediated endocytosis which requires dynamin GTPase activity. Also, the clathrin-coated pit component Eps15 was identified as a relevant cellular factor during infection. The presence of cholesterol in cellular membranes, but not lipid rafts or caveolae, was found to be essential for a productive ASFV infection. In contrast, inhibitors of the Na+/H+ ion channels and actin polymerization inhibition did not significantly modify ASFV infection, suggesting that macropinocytosis does not represent the main entry route for ASFV. These results suggest a dynamin-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway of ASFV entry for the cell types and viral strains analyzed. PMID:19939916

  5. Dynamin- and clathrin-dependent endocytosis in African swine fever virus entry.

    PubMed

    Hernaez, Bruno; Alonso, Covadonga

    2010-02-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large DNA virus that enters host cells after receptor-mediated endocytosis and depends on acidic cellular compartments for productive infection. The exact cellular mechanism, however, is largely unknown. In order to dissect ASFV entry, we have analyzed the major endocytic routes using specific inhibitors and dominant negative mutants and analyzed the consequences for ASFV entry into host cells. Our results indicate that ASFV entry into host cells takes place by clathrin-mediated endocytosis which requires dynamin GTPase activity. Also, the clathrin-coated pit component Eps15 was identified as a relevant cellular factor during infection. The presence of cholesterol in cellular membranes, but not lipid rafts or caveolae, was found to be essential for a productive ASFV infection. In contrast, inhibitors of the Na(+)/H(+) ion channels and actin polymerization inhibition did not significantly modify ASFV infection, suggesting that macropinocytosis does not represent the main entry route for ASFV. These results suggest a dynamin-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway of ASFV entry for the cell types and viral strains analyzed.

  6. kappa-Opioid receptor in humans: cDNA and genomic cloning, chromosomal assignment, functional expression, pharmacology, and expression pattern in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Simonin, F; Gavériaux-Ruff, C; Befort, K; Matthes, H; Lannes, B; Micheletti, G; Mattéi, M G; Charron, G; Bloch, B; Kieffer, B

    1995-01-01

    Using the mouse delta-opioid receptor cDNA as a probe, we have isolated genomic clones encoding the human mu- and kappa-opioid receptor genes. Their organization appears similar to that of the human delta receptor gene, with exon-intron boundaries located after putative transmembrane domains 1 and 4. The kappa gene was mapped at position q11-12 in human chromosome 8. A full-length cDNA encoding the human kappa-opioid receptor has been isolated. The cloned receptor expressed in COS cells presents a typical kappa 1 pharmacological profile and is negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase. The expression of kappa-opioid receptor mRNA in human brain, as estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, is consistent with the involvement of kappa-opioid receptors in pain perception, neuroendocrine physiology, affective behavior, and cognition. In situ hybridization studies performed on human fetal spinal cord demonstrate the presence of the transcript specifically in lamina II of the dorsal horn. Some divergences in structural, pharmacological, and anatomical properties are noted between the cloned human and rodent receptors. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7624359

  7. Caveolae-mediated endocytosis of the glucosaminoglycan-interacting adipokine tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5a in adipocyte progenitor lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Patlaka, Christina; Norgård, Maria; Paulie, Staffan; Nordvall-Bodell, Annica; Lång, Pernilla; Andersson, Göran

    2014-03-01

    Adipogenesis depends on growth factors controlling proliferation/differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Membrane binding and endocytosis of growth factors are often coupled to receptor activation and downstream signaling leading to specific cellular responses. The novel adipokine tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5a exhibits a growth factor-like effect on MSCs and pre-adipocytes and induces hyperplastic obesity in vivo. However its molecular interaction with pre-adipocytes remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate membrane interaction of TRAP and its endocytosis routes in pre-adipocytes. Confocal and/or electron microscopy were used to detect TRAP in untreated or TRAP 5a/b treated pre-adipocytes under conditions that allow or inhibit endocytosis in combination with co-staining of endocytotic vesicles. TRAP interaction with heparin/heparan sulfate was verified by gel filtration. It could be shown that TRAP 5a, but not 5b, binds to the membrane of pre-adipocytes where it co-localizes with heparin-sulfate proteoglycan glypican-4. Also in vitro, TRAP 5a exhibited affinity for both heparin and heparan sulfate with heparin inhibiting its enzyme activity. Upon caveolae-mediated endocytosis of saturating levels of TRAP 5a, TRAP 5a co-localized intracellularly with glypican-4 and late endosomal marker Rab-7 positive vesicles. The protein was also located in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) but did not co-localize with lysosomal marker LAMP-1. TRAP 5a endocytosis was also detectable in pre-osteoblasts, but not fibroblasts, embryonic MSCs or mature adipocytes. These results indicate that TRAP 5a exhibits binding to cell surface, endocytosis and affinity to glucosaminoglycans (GAGs) in pre-adipocyte and pre-osteoblast lineage cells in a manner similar to other heparin-binding growth factors.

  8. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Link, Christopher D; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the rate of aging can be modulated by diverse interventions. Dietary restriction is the most widely used intervention to promote longevity; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary restriction remain elusive. In a previous study, we identified two novel genes, nlp-7 and cup-4, required for normal longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. nlp-7 is one of a set of neuropeptide-like protein genes; cup-4 encodes an ion-channel involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes. Here, we assess whether nlp-7 and cup-4 mediate longevity increases by dietary restriction. RNAi of nlp-7 or cup-4 significantly reduces the life span of the eat-2 mutant, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but has no effect on the life span of long-lived mutants resulting from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling or dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The life-span extension observed in wild-type N2 worms by dietary restriction using bacterial dilution is prevented significantly in nlp-7 and cup-4 mutants. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding candidate receptors of NLP-7 and genes involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes also specifically shorten the life span of the eat-2 mutant. We conclude that two novel pathways, NLP-7 signaling and endocytosis by coelomocytes, are required for life extension under dietary restriction in C. elegans.

  9. Bladder Uptake of Liposomes after Intravesical Administration Occurs by Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajaganapathy, Bharathi Raja; Chancellor, Michael B.; Nirmal, Jayabalan; Dang, Loan; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery. PMID:25811468

  10. Role of turgor pressure in endocytosis in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Basu, Roshni; Munteanu, Emilia Laura; Chang, Fred

    2014-03-01

    Yeast and other walled cells possess high internal turgor pressure that allows them to grow and survive in the environment. This turgor pressure, however, may oppose the invagination of the plasma membrane needed for endocytosis. Here we study the effects of turgor pressure on endocytosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by time-lapse imaging of individual endocytic sites. Decreasing effective turgor pressure by addition of sorbitol to the media significantly accelerates early steps in the endocytic process before actin assembly and membrane ingression but does not affect the velocity or depth of ingression of the endocytic pit in wild-type cells. Sorbitol also rescues endocytic ingression defects of certain endocytic mutants and of cells treated with a low dose of the actin inhibitor latrunculin A. Endocytosis proceeds after removal of the cell wall, suggesting that the cell wall does not contribute mechanically to this process. These studies suggest that endocytosis is governed by a mechanical balance between local actin-dependent inward forces and opposing forces from high internal turgor pressure on the plasma membrane.

  11. Antimalarial quinolines and artemisinin inhibit endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Heinrich C; van Schalkwyk, Donelly A; Wiehart, Ursula I M; Meredith, Sandra A; Egan, Joanne; Weber, Brandon W

    2004-07-01

    Endocytosis is a fundamental process of eukaryotic cells and fulfills numerous functions, most notably, that of macromolecular nutrient uptake. Malaria parasites invade red blood cells and during their intracellular development endocytose large amounts of host cytoplasm for digestion in a specialized lysosomal compartment, the food vacuole. In the present study we have examined the effects of artemisinin and the quinoline drugs chloroquine and mefloquine on endocytosis in Plasmodium falciparum. By using novel assays we found that mefloquine and artemisinin inhibit endocytosis of macromolecular tracers by up to 85%, while the latter drug also leads to an accumulation of undigested hemoglobin in the parasite. During 5-h incubations, chloroquine inhibited hemoglobin digestion but had no other significant effect on the endocytic pathway of the parasite, as assessed by electron microscopy, the immunofluorescence localization of hemoglobin, and the distribution of fluorescent and biotinylated dextran tracers. By contrast, when chloroquine was added to late ring stage parasites, followed by a 12-h incubation, macromolecule endocytosis was inhibited by more than 40%. Moreover, there is an accumulation of transport vesicles in the parasite cytosol, possibly due to a disruption in vacuole-vesicle fusion. This fusion block is not observed with mefloquine, artemisinin, quinine, or primaquine but is mimicked by the vacuole alkalinizing agents ammonium chloride and monensin. These results are discussed in the light of present theories regarding the mechanisms of action of the antimalarials and highlight the potential use of drugs in manipulating and studying the endocytic pathway of malaria parasites.

  12. Dynasore enhances the formation of mitochondrial antiviral signalling aggregates and endocytosis-independent NF-ĸB activation

    PubMed Central

    Ailenberg, M; Di Ciano-Oliveira, C; Szaszi, K; Dan, Q; Rozycki, M; Kapus, A; Rotstein, O D

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dynasore has been used extensively as an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. While studying the role of endocytosis in LPS-induced signalling events, we discovered that dynasore itself induced activation of NF-κB, independently of its effects on endocytosis and without involving the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathways. The purpose of this study was to characterize this novel effect and to explore the underlying mechanism of action. Experimental Approach We utilized gel electrophoresis, microscopy, gene knockdown and luciferase-based promoter activity to evaluate the effect of dynasore on cell signalling pathways and to delineate the mechanisms involved in its effects, Key Results Dynasore activated the NF-κB and IFN-β pathways by activating mitochondrial antiviral signalling protein (MAVS). We showed that MAVS is activated by NOX/Rac and forms high molecular weight aggregates, similar to that observed in response to viral infection. We also demonstrated that dynasore-induced activation of JNK occurs downstream of MAVS and is required for activation of NF-κB and IFN-β. Conclusion and Implications These findings demonstrate a novel effect of dynasore on cell signalling. We describe a novel Rac1-, ROS- and MAVS-mediated signalling cascade through which dynasore dramatically activates NF-κB, mimicking the viral induction of this key inflammatory signalling pathway. Our results call attention to the need for a broader interpretation of results when dynasore is used in its traditional fashion as an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results suggest the intriguing possibility that dynasore or one of its analogues might be of value as an antiviral therapeutic strategy or vaccine adjuvant. PMID:25850711

  13. Fast Subplasma Membrane Ca2+ Transients Control Exo-Endocytosis of Synaptic-Like Microvesicles in Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Marchaland, Julie; Calì, Corrado; Voglmaier, Susan M.; Li, Haiyan; Regazzi, Romano; Edwards, Robert H.; Bezzi, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell type in the brain. Although not apposite for long-range rapid electrical communication, astrocytes share with neurons the capacity of chemical signaling via Ca2+-dependent transmitter exocytosis. Despite this recent finding, little is known about the specific properties of regulated secretion and vesicle recycling in astrocytes. Important differences may exist with the neuronal exocytosis, starting from the fact that stimulus-secretion coupling in astrocytes is voltage independent, mediated by G-protein-coupled receptors and the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Elucidating the spatiotemporal properties of astrocytic exo-endocytosis is, therefore, of primary importance for understanding the mode of communication of these cells and their role in brain signaling. We here take advantage of fluorescent tools recently developed for studying recycling of glutamatergic vesicles at synapses (Voglmaier et al., 2006; Balaji and Ryan, 2007); we combine epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to investigate with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution, the stimulus-secretion coupling underlying exo-endocytosis of glutamatergic synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) in astrocytes. Our main findings indicate that (1) exo-endocytosis in astrocytes proceeds with a time course on the millisecond time scale (τexocytosis = 0.24 ± 0.017 s; τendocytosis = 0.26 ± 0.03 s) and (2) exocytosis is controlled by local Ca2+ microdomains. We identified submicrometer cytosolic compartments delimited by endoplasmic reticulum tubuli reaching beneath the plasma membrane and containing SLMVs at which fast (time-to-peak, ∼50 ms) Ca2+ events occurred in precise spatial-temporal correlation with exocytic fusion events. Overall, the above characteristics of transmitter exocytosis from astrocytes support a role of this process in fast synaptic modulation. PMID:18784293

  14. Homo- and hetero-oligomeric interactions between G-protein-coupled receptors in living cells monitored by two variants of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET): hetero-oligomers between receptor subtypes form more efficiently than between less closely related sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Douglas; Kellett, Elaine; McVey, Mary; Rees, Stephen; Milligan, Graeme

    2002-01-01

    Homo- and hetero-oligomerization of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were examined in HEK-293 cells using two variants of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). BRET(2) (a variant of BRET) offers greatly improved separation of the emission spectra of the donor and acceptor moieties compared with traditional BRET. Previously recorded homo-oligomerization of the human delta-opioid receptor was confirmed using BRET(2). Homo-oligomerization of the kappa-opioid receptor was observed using both BRET techniques. Both homo- and hetero-oligomers, containing both delta- and kappa-opioid receptors, were unaffected by the presence of receptor ligands. BRET detection of opioid receptor homo- and hetero-oligomers required expression of 50,000-100,000 copies of the receptor energy acceptor construct per cell. The effectiveness of delta-kappa-opioid receptor hetero-oligomer formation was as great as for homomeric interactions. The capacity of the two opioid receptors to form oligomeric complexes with the beta(2)-adrenoceptor was also assessed. Although such interactions were detected, at least 250,000 copies per cell of the energy acceptor were required. Requirement for high levels of receptor expression was equally pronounced in attempts to measure hetero-oligomer formation between the kappa-opioid receptor and the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor-1. These studies indicate that constitutively formed homo- and hetero-oligomers of opioid receptor subtypes can be detected in living cells containing less than 100,000 copies of the receptors. However, although hetero-oligomeric interactions between certain less closely related GPCRs can be detected, they appear to be of lower affinity than homo- or hetero-oligomers containing closely related sequences. Interactions recorded between certain GPCR family members in heterologous expression systems are likely to be artefacts of extreme levels of overexpression. PMID:11971762

  15. Differential endocytosis of CD4 in lymphocytic and nonlymphocytic cells

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The endocytosis of the T cell differentiation antigen CD4 has been investigated in CD4-transfected HeLa cells, the promyelocytic HL-60 cell line, and in a number of leukemia- or lymphoma-derived T cell lines. CD4 internalization was followed using radioiodinated antibodies in an acid-elution endocytosis assay, or by covalently modifying cell surface proteins with biotin and analyzing CD4 distributions by immunoprecipitation; both approaches gave equivalent results. The assays demonstrated that in transfected HeLa cells and in HL-60 cells CD4 was constitutively internalized and recycled in the absence of ligand. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy demonstrated that CD4 enters cells through coated pits. In contrast to the nonlymphocytic cells, T cell lines showed very little endocytosis of CD4. Measurements of fluid phase endocytosis and morphometric analysis of the endosome compartment indicated that the endocytic capacities of HeLa and lymphoid cells are equivalent and suggested that the low level of CD4 uptake in lymphocytic cells is due to exclusion of CD4 from coated pits. This conclusion was supported by experiments using truncated CD4 molecules, lacking the bulk of the cytoplasmic domain, which were internalized equally efficiently in both transfected lymphocytes and HeLa cells. Together, these results indicate that the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 mediates the different interactions with the endocytic apparatus in lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells. We suggest that the CD4- associated lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase p56lck may be involved in preventing CD4 endocytosis in T cells. PMID:1900077

  16. Fluorescent dye conjugates of rabbit arylsulfatase A as a biological tracer for protein endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Waheed, Abdul; Ahmad, Faizan; Van Etten, Robert L

    2013-06-01

    Fluorescent dye conjugates of arylsulfatase A (ASA) from rabbit liver were prepared at pH 9.0 in 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate buffer. The modification of amino or sulphadryl groups by dichlorotriazinylamino-fluorescein or Lucifer yellow fluorescent dyes did not alter the characteristic features of the enzyme molecule such as enzyme activity, dimerization of the protein molecule at pH 4.5 and anomalous kinetics of the native enzyme. The fluorescence intensity of the Lucifer yellow enzyme conjugates were quenched when the pH of the protein solution was changed from pH 7.5 to 4.5. Therefore, the Lucifer yellow enzyme conjugate can be used to study the kinetics of pH-dependent association and dissociation of the ASA. Availability of such fluorescent dyes conjugates of ASA or other lysosomal enzyme may be used as a biological tracer to study the receptor dependent endocytosis of enzyme molecules. PMID:23636651

  17. Myosin light chain kinase accelerates vesicle endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity triggers endocytosis at synaptic terminals to retrieve efficiently the exocytosed vesicle membrane, ensuring the membrane homeostasis of active zones and the continuous supply of releasable vesicles. The kinetics of endocytosis depends on Ca(2+) and calmodulin which, as a versatile signal pathway, can activate a broad spectrum of downstream targets, including myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK is known to regulate vesicle trafficking and synaptic transmission, but whether this kinase regulates vesicle endocytosis at synapses remains elusive. We investigated this issue at the rat calyx of Held synapse, where previous studies using whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement have characterized two common forms of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent endocytosis, i.e., slow clathrin-dependent endocytosis and rapid endocytosis. Acute inhibition of MLCK with pharmacological agents was found to slow down the kinetics of both slow and rapid forms of endocytosis at calyces. Similar impairment of endocytosis occurred when blocking myosin II, a motor protein that can be phosphorylated upon MLCK activation. The inhibition of endocytosis was not accompanied by a change in Ca(2+) channel current. Combined inhibition of MLCK and calmodulin did not induce synergistic inhibition of endocytosis. Together, our results suggest that activation of MLCK accelerates both slow and rapid forms of vesicle endocytosis at nerve terminals, likely by functioning downstream of Ca(2+)/calmodulin.

  18. The yin and yang of calcium effects on synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-02-12

    A large number of studies suggest that calcium triggers and accelerates vesicle endocytosis at many synapses and non-neuronal secretory cells. However, many studies show that prolonging the duration of the stimulation train, which induces more calcium influx, slows down endocytosis; and several studies suggest that instead of triggering endocytosis, calcium actually inhibits endocytosis. Here we addressed this apparent conflict at a large nerve terminal, the calyx of Held in rat brainstem, in which recent studies suggest that transient calcium increase up to tens of micromolar concentration at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis. By dialyzing 0-1 μM calcium into the calyx via a whole-cell pipette, we found that slow endocytosis was inhibited by calcium dialysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, prolonged, small, and global calcium increase inhibits endocytosis, whereas transient and large calcium increase at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis and facilitates endocytosis. This yin and yang effect of calcium may reconcile apparent conflicts regarding whether calcium accelerates or inhibits endocytosis. Whether endocytosis is fast or slow depends on the net outcome between the yin and yang effect of calcium.

  19. Binding and endocytosis of 39 kDa protein by MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Vettenranta, K; Bu, G; Schwartz, A L

    1995-08-01

    A 39 kDa protein copurifies with the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and regulates ligand interactions with LRP. In our recent studies on the clearance of the 39 kDa protein in vivo, we demonstrated that once the liver LRP receptors were saturated, the kidney became the major organ responsible for the 39 kDa protein clearance (Warshawsky et al., 1993, J. Clin. Invest., 92:937-944). The current study was undertaken in order to investigate the potential binding and cellular processing of the 39 kDa protein by kidney-derived MDBK cells. Herein we demonstrate specific, high-affinity, saturable, and Ca(2+)-dependent binding of the 125I-39 kDa protein to MDBK cells (Kd approximately 10-15 nM, 50-70,000 binding sites per cell). Cellular uptake and degradation of the 125I-39 kDa protein by MDBK cells was also demonstrated with kinetics typical of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Using chemical crosslinking we show that LRP in part mediates the binding of 125I-39 kDa protein to the MDBK cell surface. In addition, the presence of functional LRP on the MDBK cell surface was confirmed by the specific binding of activated alpha 2-macroglobulin, another ligand of LRP. Our data thus demonstrate the ability of kidney-derived MDBK cells to specifically bind, endocytose, and degrade the 39 kDa protein.

  20. The use of FM dyes to analyze plant endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Malínská, Kateřina; Jelínková, Adriana; Petrášek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    FM (Fei-Mao) styryl dyes are compounds of amphiphilic character that are used for the fluorescence tracking of endocytosis and related processes, i.e., the internalization of membrane vesicles from the plasma membrane (PM) and dynamics of endomembranes. Staining with FM dyes and subsequent microscopical observations could be performed both on the tissue and cellular level. Here, we describe simple procedures for the effective FM dye staining and de-staining in root epidermal cells of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings and suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progression of FM dye uptake, reflected by an increased amount of the dye in the endosomal compartments, is monitored under the fluorescence microscope in a time-lapse manner. The data obtained can be used for the characterization of the rate of endocytosis and the function of components of endosomal recycling machinery.

  1. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms. PMID:25114214

  2. Rare earth elements activate endocytosis in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Li, Jigang; Zhou, Qing; Yang, Guangmei; Ding, Xiao Lan; Li, Xiaodong; Cai, Chen Xin; Zhang, Zhao; Wei, Hai Yan; Lu, Tian Hong; Deng, Xing Wang; Huang, Xiao Hua

    2014-09-01

    It has long been observed that rare earth elements (REEs) regulate multiple facets of plant growth and development. However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, using electron microscopic autoradiography, we show the life cycle of a light REE (lanthanum) and a heavy REE (terbium) in horseradish leaf cells. Our data indicate that REEs were first anchored on the plasma membrane in the form of nanoscale particles, and then entered the cells by endocytosis. Consistently, REEs activated endocytosis in plant cells, which may be the cellular basis of REE actions in plants. Moreover, we discovered that a portion of REEs was successively released into the cytoplasm, self-assembled to form nanoscale clusters, and finally deposited in horseradish leaf cells. Taken together, our data reveal the life cycle of REEs and their cellular behaviors in plant cells, which shed light on the cellular mechanisms of REE actions in living organisms.

  3. Systems biology and physical biology of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Vyas; Agrawal, Neeraj J; Liu, Jin; Engles, Sean; Toy, Randall; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2011-08-01

    In this review, we describe the application of experimental data and modeling of intracellular endocytic trafficking mechanisms with a focus on the process of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A detailed parts-list for the protein-protein interactions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis has been available for some time. However, recent experimental, theoretical, and computational tools have proved to be critical in establishing a sequence of events, cooperative dynamics, and energetics of the intracellular process. On the experimental front, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, photo-activated localization microscopy, and spinning-disk confocal microscopy have focused on assembly and patterning of endocytic proteins at the membrane, while on the theory front, minimal theoretical models for clathrin nucleation, biophysical models for membrane curvature and bending elasticity, as well as methods from computational structural and systems biology, have proved insightful in describing membrane topologies, curvature mechanisms, and energetics.

  4. Statin-sensitive endocytosis of albumin by glomerular podocytes.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Jeanette; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Grubb, Blair D; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Brunskill, Nigel J; Christensen, Erik I; Topham, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    Glomerular podocytes are critical regulators of glomerular permeability via the slit diaphragm and may play a role in cleaning the glomerular filter. Whether podocytes are able to endocytose proteins is uncertain. We studied protein endocytosis in conditionally immortalized mouse and human podocytes using FITC-albumin by direct quantitative assay and by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy in mouse podocytes. Furthermore, in vivo uptake was studied in human, rat, and mouse podocytes. Both mouse and human podocytes displayed specific one-site binding for FITC-albumin with K(d) of 0.91 or 0.44 mg/ml and B(max) of 3.15 or 0.81 microg/mg cell protein, respectively. In addition, they showed avid endocytosis of FITC-albumin with K(m) of 9.48 or 4.5 mg/ml and V(max) of 474.3 or 97.4 microg.mg cell protein(-1).h(-1), respectively. Immunoglobulin and transferrin were inefficient competitors of this process, indicating some specificity for albumin. Accumulation of endocytosed albumin could be demonstrated in intracellular vesicles by fluorescence confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Endocytosis was sensitive to pretreatment with simvastatin. In vivo accumulation of albumin was found in all three species but was most pronounced in the rat. We conclude that podocytes are able to endocytose protein in a statin-sensitive manner. This function is likely to be highly significant in health and disease. In addition, protein endocytosis by podocytes may represent a useful, measurable phenotypic characteristic against which potentially injurious or beneficial interventions can be assessed. PMID:17032937

  5. Phospholipase D in Endocytosis and Endosomal Recycling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Julie G.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery that Arf GTPases, mediators of membrane traffic, activate phospholipase D (PLD) raised the possibility that Arfs could facilitate membrane traffic by altering membrane lipid composition. PLD hydrolyzes phosphatidylcholine to generate phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid that favors membranes with negative curvature and thus can facilitate both membrane fission and fusion. This review examines studies that have reported a role for PLD in endocytosis and membrane recycling from endocytic pathways. PMID:19540357

  6. Architectural remodeling of the tonoplast during fluid-phase endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2013-07-01

    During fluid phase endocytosis (FPE) in plant storage cells, the vacuole receives a considerable amount of membrane and fluid contents. If allowed to accumulate over a period of time, the enlarging tonoplast and increase in fluids would invariably disrupt the structural equilibrium of the mature cells. Therefore, a membrane retrieval process must exist that will guarantee membrane homeostasis in light of tonoplast expansion by membrane addition during FPE. We examined the morphological changes to the vacuolar structure during endocytosis in red beet hypocotyl tissue using scanning laser confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The heavily pigmented storage vacuole allowed us to visualize all architectural transformations during treatment. When red beet tissue was incubated in 200 mM sucrose, a portion of the sucrose accumulated entered the cell by means of FPE. The accumulation process was accompanied by the development of vacuole-derived vesicles which transiently counterbalanced the addition of surplus endocytic membrane during rapid rates of endocytosis. Topographic fluorescent confocal micrographs showed an ensuing reduction in the size of the vacuole-derived vesicles and further suggest their reincorporation into the vacuole to maintain vacuolar unity and solute concentration. PMID:23656870

  7. Signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Tatiana A.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Linden, Rafael . E-mail: rlinden@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-06-29

    The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrP{sup C}), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrP{sup C} and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrP{sup C} by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases.

  8. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of gold nanoparticles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cheng Teng; Tang, Florence Mei Ai; Li, Jasmine Jia'en; Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lanry Lin Yue; Bay, Boon Huat

    2015-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have potential biomedical and scientific applications. In this study, we evaluated the uptake and internalization of FBS-coated 20 nm AuNPs into lung fibroblasts and liver cells by different microscopy techniques. AuNP aggregates were observed inside MRC5 lung fibroblasts and Chang liver cells under light microscopy, especially after enhancement with automegallography. Clusters of AuNPs were observed to be adsorbed on the cell surface by scanning electron microscopy. Ultrathin sections showed that AuNPs were mainly enclosed within cytoplasmic vesicles when viewed under transmission electron microscopy. We also investigated the mechanism of uptake for AuNPs, using endocytosis inhibitors and quantification of Au with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cells treated with concanavalin A and chlorpromazine showed significant decrease of Au uptake in MRC5 lung fibroblasts and Chang liver cells, respectively, implying that the uptake of AuNPs was facilitated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It would therefore appear that uptake of 20 nm AuNPs in both cell types with different tissues of origin, was dependent upon clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  9. Translocation and Endocytosis for Cell-penetrating Peptide Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Chen-Yu; Delaroche, Diane; Burlina, Fabienne; Alves, Isabel D.; Chassaing, Gérard; Sagan, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) share the property of cellular internalization. The question of how these peptides reach the cytoplasm of cells is still widely debated. Herein, we have used a mass spectrometry-based method that enables quantification of internalized and membrane-bound peptides. Internalization of the most used CPP was studied at 37 °C (endocytosis and translocation) and 4 °C (translocation) in wild type and proteoglycan-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. Both translocation and endocytosis are internalization pathways used by CPP. The choice of one pathway versus the other depends on the peptide sequence (not the number of positive changes), the extracellular peptide concentration, and the membrane components. There is no relationship between the high affinity of these peptides for the cell membrane and their internalization efficacy. Translocation occurs at low extracellular peptide concentration, whereas endocytosis, a saturable and cooperative phenomenon, is activated at higher concentrations. Translocation operates in a narrow time window, which implies a specific lipid/peptide co-import in cells. PMID:19833724

  10. Cholesterol regulates multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at a mammalian central synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-07-01

    Endocytosis in synapses sustains neurotransmission by recycling vesicle membrane and maintaining the homeostasis of synaptic membrane. A role of membrane cholesterol in synaptic endocytosis remains controversial because of conflicting observations, technical limitations in previous studies, and potential interference from non-specific effects after cholesterol manipulation. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether cholesterol participates in distinct forms of endocytosis that function under different activity levels. In this study, applying the whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement to monitor endocytosis in real time at the rat calyx of Held terminals, we found that disrupting cholesterol with dialysis of cholesterol oxidase or methyl-β-cyclodextrin impaired three different forms of endocytosis, including slow endocytosis, rapid endocytosis, and endocytosis of the retrievable membrane that exists at the surface before stimulation. The effects were observed when disruption of cholesterol was mild enough not to change Ca(2+) channel current or vesicle exocytosis, indicative of stringent cholesterol requirement in synaptic endocytosis. Extracting cholesterol with high concentrations of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced exocytosis, mainly by decreasing the readily releasable pool and the vesicle replenishment after readily releasable pool depletion. Our study suggests that cholesterol is an important, universal regulator in multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at mammalian central synapses.

  11. Cholesterol Regulates Multiple Forms of Vesicle Endocytosis at a Mammalian Central Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis in synapses sustains neurotransmission by recycling vesicle membrane and maintaining the homeostasis of synaptic membrane. A role of membrane cholesterol in synaptic endocytosis remains controversial because of conflicting observations, technical limitations in previous studies, and potential interference from nonspecific effects after cholesterol manipulation. Furthermore, it is unclear whether cholesterol participates in distinct forms of endocytosis that function under different activity levels. In this study, applying the whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement to monitor endocytosis in real time at the rat calyx of Held terminals, we found that disrupting cholesterol with dialysis of cholesterol oxidase (COase) or methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD) impaired three different forms of endocytosis, i.e., slow endocytosis, rapid endocytosis, and endocytosis of the retrievable membrane that exists at the surface before stimulation. The effects were observed when disruption of cholesterol was mild enough not to change Ca2+ channel current or vesicle exocytosis, indicative of stringent cholesterol requirement in synaptic endocytosis. Extracting cholesterol with high concentrations of MCD reduced exocytosis, mainly by decreasing the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the vesicle replenishment after RRP depletion. Our study suggests that cholesterol is an important, universal regulator in multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at mammalian central synapses. PMID:25893258

  12. Quantum dots induced interferon beta expression via TRIF-dependent signaling pathways by promoting endocytosis of TLR4.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia-Chi; Luo, Yueh-Hsia; Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Lin, Pinpin

    2016-02-17

    Quantum dots (QDs) are nano-sized semiconductors. Previously, intratracheal instillation of QD705s induces persistent inflammation and remodeling in the mouse lung. Expression of interferon beta (IFN-β), involved in tissue remodeling, was induced in the mouse lung. The objective of this study was to understand the mechanism of QD705 induced interferon beta (IFN-β) expression. QD705-COOH and QD705-PEG increased IFN-β and IP-10 mRNA levels during day 1 to 90 post-exposure in mouse lungs. QD705-COOH increased IFN-β expression via Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adapter protein (TRIF) dependent Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways in macrophages RAW264.7. Silencing TRIF expression with siRNA or co-treatment with a TRIF inhibitor tremendously abolished QD705s-induced IFN-β expression. Co-treatment with a TLR4 inhibitor completely prevented IFN-β induction by QD705-COOH. QD705-COOH readily entered cells, and co-treatment with either inhibitors of endocytosis or intracellular TLRs prevented IFN-β induction. Thus, activation of the TRIF dependent TLRs pathway by promoting endocytosis of TLR4 is one of the mechanisms for immunomodulatory effects of nanoparticles.

  13. β-Arrestin-mediated Angiotensin II Signaling Controls the Activation of ARF6 Protein and Endocytosis in Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Charles, Ricardo; Namkung, Yoon; Cotton, Mathieu; Laporte, Stéphane A; Claing, Audrey

    2016-02-19

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasopressive hormone but is also a potent activator of cellular migration. We have previously shown that it can promote the activation of the GTPase ARF6 in a heterologous overexpressing system. The molecular mechanisms by which receptors control the activation of this small G protein remain, however, largely unknown. Furthermore, how ARF6 coordinates the activation of complex cellular responses needs to be further elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that Ang II receptors engage β-arrestin, but not Gq, to mediate ARF6 activation in HEK 293 cells. To further confirm the key role of β-arrestin proteins, we overexpressed β-arrestin2-(1-320), a dominant negative mutant known to block receptor endocytosis. We show that expression of this truncated construct does not support the activation of the GTPase nor cell migration. Interestingly, β-arrestin2 can interact with the ARF guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARNO, although the C-terminally lacking mutant does not. We finally examined whether receptor endocytosis controlled ARF6 activation and cell migration. Although the clathrin inhibitor PitStop2 did not impact the ability of Ang II to activate ARF6, cell migration was markedly impaired. To further show that ARF activation regulates key signaling events leading to migration, we also examined MAPK activation. We demonstrate that this signaling axis is relevant in smooth muscle cells of the vasculature. Altogether, our findings show for the first time that Ang II receptor signaling to β-arrestin regulates ARF6 activation. These proteins together control receptor endocytosis and ultimately cell migration.

  14. Specific activation of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) by endomorphin 1 and endomorphin 2.

    PubMed

    Monory, K; Bourin, M C; Spetea, M; Tömböly, C; Tóth, G; Matthes, H W; Kieffer, B L; Hanoune, J; Borsodi, A

    2000-02-01

    The recently discovered endomorphin 1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin 2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) were investigated with respect to their direct receptor-binding properties, and to their ability to activate G proteins and to inhibit adenylyl cyclase in both cellular and animal models. Both tetrapeptides activated G proteins and inhibited adenylyl cyclase activity in membrane preparations from cells stably expressing the mu opioid receptor, an effect reversed by the mu receptor antagonist CTAP (D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2), but they had no influence on cells stably expressing the delta opioid receptor. To further establish the selectivity of these peptides for the mu opioid receptor, brain preparations of mice lacking the mu opioid receptor gene were used to study their binding and signalling properties. Endomorphin 2, tritiated by a dehalotritiation method resulting in a specific radioactivity of 1.98 TBq/mmol (53.4 Ci/mmol), labelled the brain membranes of wild-type mice with a Kd value of 1.77 nM and a Bmax of 63.33 fmol/mg protein. In membranes of mice lacking the mu receptor gene, no binding was observed, and both endomorphins failed to stimulate [35S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding and to inhibit adenylyl cyclase. These data show that endomorphins are capable of activating G proteins and inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity, and all these effects are mediated by the mu opioid receptors.

  15. Calcineurin is universally involved in vesicle endocytosis at neuronal and nonneuronal secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Luo, Fujun; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-05-22

    Calcium influx triggers and accelerates endocytosis in nerve terminals and nonneuronal secretory cells. Whether calcium/calmodulin-activated calcineurin, which dephosphorylates endocytic proteins, mediates this process is highly controversial for different cell types, developmental stages, and endocytic forms. Using three preparations that previously produced discrepant results (i.e., large calyx-type synapses, conventional cerebellar synapses, and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells containing large dense-core vesicles), we found that calcineurin gene knockout consistently slowed down endocytosis, regardless of cell type, developmental stage, or endocytic form (rapid or slow). In contrast, calcineurin and calmodulin blockers slowed down endocytosis at a relatively small calcium influx, but did not inhibit endocytosis at a large calcium influx, resulting in false-negative results. These results suggest that calcineurin is universally involved in endocytosis. They may also help explain the discrepancies among previous pharmacological studies. We therefore suggest that calcineurin should be included as a key player in mediating calcium-triggered and -accelerated vesicle endocytosis.

  16. Transferrin Receptor Controls AMPA Receptor Trafficking Efficiency and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lei, Run; Li, Qiong; Wang, Xin-Xin; Wu, Qian; An, Peng; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhu, Minyan; Xu, Zhiheng; Hong, Yang; Wang, Fudi; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) is an important iron transporter regulating iron homeostasis and has long been used as a marker for clathrin mediated endocytosis. However, little is known about its additional function other than iron transport in the development of central nervous system (CNS). Here we demonstrate that TFR functions as a regulator to control AMPA receptor trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. The conditional knockout (KO) of TFR in neural progenitor cells causes mice to develop progressive epileptic seizure, and dramatically reduces basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). We further demonstrate that TFR KO remarkably reduces the binding efficiency of GluR2 to AP2 and subsequently decreases AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Thus, our study reveals that TFR functions as a novel regulator to control AMPA trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26880306

  17. Regulation by intracellular Ca sup 2+ and cyclic AMP of the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Yoshihiko Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science ); Nishida, Eisuke; Sakai, Hikoichi ); Koyasu, Shigeo; Yahara, Ichiro )

    1989-04-01

    Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce formation of ruffling membranes and stimulate the fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. An increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by treatment with A23187, a calcium ionophore, or an increase in intracellular cAMP level by treatment with dibutyryl cAMP or forskolin almost completely inhibited the insulin-, IGF-I-, or EGF-induced formation of ruffling membranes. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} or cAMP concentration also inhibited almost completely the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis elicited by these growth factors. These results suggest that the growth factor-induced ruffling membrane formation and the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis have a common regulatory mechanism involving intracellular concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} and cAMP. {sup 125}I-EGF binding assays and immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody revealed that treatment of KB cells with A23187, dibutyryl cAMP, or forskolin did not inhibit the EGF binding to the cells nor subsequent tyrosine autophosphorylation of its receptors. These results indicate that Ca{sup 2+}- and/or cAMP-sensitive intracellular reactions exist downstream from the receptor kinase activation in the process of these early cellular responses.

  18. Abolished thermal and mechanical antinociception but retained visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol in mu-opioid receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Ide, Soichiro; Minami, Masabumi; Ishihara, Kumatoshi; Uhl, George R; Satoh, Masamichi; Sora, Ichiro; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2008-06-01

    Butorphanol is hypothesized to induce analgesia via opioid pathways, although the precise mechanisms for its effects remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the mu-opioid receptor (MOP) in thermal, mechanical, and visceral chemical antinociception induced by butorphanol using MOP knockout (KO) mice. Butorphanol-induced thermal antinociception, assessed by the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, was significantly reduced in heterozygous and abolished in homozygous MOP-KO mice compared with wildtype mice. The results obtained from our butorphanol-induced mechanical antinociception experiments, assessed by the Randall-Selitto test, were similar to the results obtained from the thermal antinociception experiments in these mice. Interestingly, however, butorphanol retained its ability to induce significant visceral chemical antinociception, assessed by the writhing test, in homozygous MOP-KO mice. The butorphanol-induced visceral chemical antinociception that was retained in homozygous MOP-KO mice was completely blocked by pretreatment with nor-binaltorphimine, a kappa-opioid receptor (KOP) antagonist. In vitro binding and cyclic adenosine monophosphate assays also showed that butorphanol possessed higher affinity for KOPs and MOPs than for delta-opioid receptors. These results molecular pharmacologically confirmed previous studies implicating MOPs, and partially KOPs, in mediating butorphanol-induced analgesia. PMID:18417173

  19. Rapid kinetics of endocytosis at rod photoreceptor synapses depends upon endocytic load and calcium.

    PubMed

    Cork, Karlene M; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2014-05-01

    Release from rods is triggered by the opening of L-type Ca2+ channels that lie beneath synaptic ribbons. After exocytosis, vesicles are retrieved by compensatory endocytosis. Previous work showed that endocytosis is dynamin-dependent in rods but dynamin-independent in cones. We hypothesized that fast endocytosis in rods may also differ from cones in its dependence upon the amount of Ca2+ influx and/or endocytic load. We measured exocytosis and endocytosis from membrane capacitance (C m) changes evoked by depolarizing steps in voltage clamped rods from tiger salamander retinal slices. Similar to cones, the time constant for endocytosis in rods was quite fast, averaging <200 ms. We manipulated Ca2+ influx and the amount of vesicle release by altering the duration and voltage of depolarizing steps. Unlike cones, endocytosis kinetics in rods slowed after increasing Ca2+ channel activation with longer step durations or more strongly depolarized voltage steps. Endocytosis kinetics also slowed as Ca2+ buffering was decreased by replacing BAPTA (10 or 1 mM) with the slower Ca2+ buffer EGTA (5 or 0.5 mM) in the pipette solution. These data provide further evidence that endocytosis mechanisms differ in rods and cones and suggest that endocytosis in rods is regulated by both endocytic load and local Ca2+ levels.

  20. Protein Corona Modulates Uptake and Toxicity of Nanoceria via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Mazzolini, Julie; Weber, Ralf J M; Chen, Hsueh-Shih; Khan, Abdullah; Guggenheim, Emily; Shaw, Robert K; Chipman, James K; Viant, Mark R; Rappoport, Joshua Z

    2016-08-01

    Particles present in diesel exhaust have been proposed as a significant contributor to the development of acute and chronic lung diseases, including respiratory infection and allergic asthma. Nanoceria (CeO2 nanoparticles) are used to increase fuel efficiency in internal combustion engines, are present in exhaust fumes, and could affect cells of the airway. Components from the environment such as biologically derived proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids can form a dynamic layer, commonly referred to as the "protein corona" which alters cellular nanoparticle interactions and internalization. Using confocal reflectance microscopy, we quantified nanoceria uptake by lung-derived cells in the presence and absence of a serum-derived protein corona. Employing mass spectrometry, we identified components of the protein corona, and demonstrated that the interaction between transferrin in the protein corona and the transferrin receptor is involved in mediating the cellular entry of nanoceria via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, under these conditions nanoceria does not affect cell growth, viability, or metabolism, even at high concentration. Alternatively, despite the antioxidant capacity of nanoceria, in serum-free conditions these nanoparticles induce plasma membrane disruption and cause changes in cellular metabolism. Thus, our results identify a specific receptor-mediated mechanism for nanoceria entry, and provide significant insight into the potential for nanoparticle-dependent toxicity.

  1. Crosstalk between Akt/GSK3β signaling and dynamin-1 regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Carlos R; Chen, Ping-Hung; Srinivasan, Saipraveen; Aguet, François; Mettlen, Marcel; Schmid, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) regulates signaling from the plasma membrane. Analysis of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) dynamics led us to propose the existence of a rate-limiting, regulatory step(s) that monitor the fidelity of early stages in CCP maturation. Here we show that nascent endocytic vesicles formed in mutant cells displaying rapid, dysregulated CME are defective in early endosomal trafficking, maturation and acidification, confirming the importance of this “checkpoint.” Dysregulated CME also alters EGF receptor signaling and leads to constitutive activation of the protein kinase Akt. Dynamin-1, which was thought to be neuron specific, is activated by the Akt/GSK3β signaling cascade in non-neuronal cells to trigger rapid, dysregulated CME. Acute activation of dynamin-1 in RPE cells by inhibition of GSK3β accelerates CME, alters CCP dynamics and, unexpectedly, increases the rate of CCP initiation. CRISPR-Cas9n-mediated knockout and reconstitution studies establish that dynamin-1 is activated by Akt/GSK3β signaling in H1299 non-small lung cancer cells. These findings provide direct evidence for an isoform-specific role for dynamin in regulating CME and reveal a feed-forward pathway that could link signaling from cell surface receptors to the regulation of CME. PMID:26139537

  2. Protein Corona Modulates Uptake and Toxicity of Nanoceria via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Mazzolini, Julie; Weber, Ralf J M; Chen, Hsueh-Shih; Khan, Abdullah; Guggenheim, Emily; Shaw, Robert K; Chipman, James K; Viant, Mark R; Rappoport, Joshua Z

    2016-08-01

    Particles present in diesel exhaust have been proposed as a significant contributor to the development of acute and chronic lung diseases, including respiratory infection and allergic asthma. Nanoceria (CeO2 nanoparticles) are used to increase fuel efficiency in internal combustion engines, are present in exhaust fumes, and could affect cells of the airway. Components from the environment such as biologically derived proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids can form a dynamic layer, commonly referred to as the "protein corona" which alters cellular nanoparticle interactions and internalization. Using confocal reflectance microscopy, we quantified nanoceria uptake by lung-derived cells in the presence and absence of a serum-derived protein corona. Employing mass spectrometry, we identified components of the protein corona, and demonstrated that the interaction between transferrin in the protein corona and the transferrin receptor is involved in mediating the cellular entry of nanoceria via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, under these conditions nanoceria does not affect cell growth, viability, or metabolism, even at high concentration. Alternatively, despite the antioxidant capacity of nanoceria, in serum-free conditions these nanoparticles induce plasma membrane disruption and cause changes in cellular metabolism. Thus, our results identify a specific receptor-mediated mechanism for nanoceria entry, and provide significant insight into the potential for nanoparticle-dependent toxicity. PMID:27638694

  3. Crosstalk between Akt/GSK3β signaling and dynamin-1 regulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Carlos R; Chen, Ping-Hung; Srinivasan, Saipraveen; Aguet, François; Mettlen, Marcel; Schmid, Sandra L

    2015-08-13

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) regulates signaling from the plasma membrane. Analysis of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) dynamics led us to propose the existence of a rate-limiting, regulatory step(s) that monitor the fidelity of early stages in CCP maturation. Here we show that nascent endocytic vesicles formed in mutant cells displaying rapid, dysregulated CME are defective in early endosomal trafficking, maturation and acidification, confirming the importance of this "checkpoint." Dysregulated CME also alters EGF receptor signaling and leads to constitutive activation of the protein kinase Akt. Dynamin-1, which was thought to be neuron specific, is activated by the Akt/GSK3β signaling cascade in non-neuronal cells to trigger rapid, dysregulated CME. Acute activation of dynamin-1 in RPE cells by inhibition of GSK3β accelerates CME, alters CCP dynamics and, unexpectedly, increases the rate of CCP initiation. CRISPR-Cas9n-mediated knockout and reconstitution studies establish that dynamin-1 is activated by Akt/GSK3β signaling in H1299 non-small lung cancer cells. These findings provide direct evidence for an isoform-specific role for dynamin in regulating CME and reveal a feed-forward pathway that could link signaling from cell surface receptors to the regulation of CME.

  4. TRIM72 modulates caveolar endocytosis in repair of lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nagre, Nagaraja; Wang, Shaohua; Kellett, Thomas; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Deng, Jing; Nishi, Miyuki; Shilo, Konstantin; Oeckler, Richard A; Yalowich, Jack C; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Christman, John; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell injury is a major feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, in particular when in conjunction with ventilation therapies. Previously we showed [Kim SC, Kellett T, Wang S, Nishi M, Nagre N, Zhou B, Flodby P, Shilo K, Ghadiali SN, Takeshima H, Hubmayr RD, Zhao X. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 307: L449-L459, 2014.] that tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) is essential for amending alveolar epithelial cell injury. Here, we posit that TRIM72 improves cellular integrity through its interaction with caveolin 1 (Cav1). Our data show that, in primary type I alveolar epithelial cells, lack of TRIM72 led to significant reduction of Cav1 at the plasma membrane, accompanied by marked attenuation of caveolar endocytosis. Meanwhile, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TRIM72 selectively increases caveolar endocytosis in rat lung epithelial cells, suggesting a functional association between these two. Further coimmunoprecipitation assays show that deletion of either functional domain of TRIM72, i.e., RING, B-box, coiled-coil, or PRY-SPRY, abolishes the physical interaction between TRIM72 and Cav1, suggesting that all theoretical domains of TRIM72 are required to forge a strong interaction between these two molecules. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that injurious ventilation-induced lung cell death was significantly increased in knockout (KO) TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) lungs compared with wild-type controls and was particularly pronounced in double KO mutants. Apoptosis was accompanied by accentuation of gross lung injury manifestations in the TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) mice. Our data show that TRIM72 directly and indirectly modulates caveolar endocytosis, an essential process involved in repair of lung epithelial cells through removal of plasma membrane wounds. Given TRIM72's role in endomembrane trafficking and cell repair, we consider this molecule an attractive therapeutic target for patients with injured lungs.

  5. Stretch-regulated Exocytosis/Endocytosis in Bladder Umbrella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Truschel, Steven T.; Wang, Edward; Ruiz, Wily G.; Leung, Som-Ming; Rojas, Raul; Lavelle, John; Zeidel, Mark; Stoffer, David; Apodaca, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    The epithelium of the urinary bladder must maintain a highly impermeable barrier despite large variations in urine volume during bladder filling and voiding. To study how the epithelium accommodates these volume changes, we mounted bladder tissue in modified Ussing chambers and subjected the tissue to mechanical stretch. Stretching the tissue for 5 h resulted in a 50% increase in lumenal surface area (from ∼2900 to 4300 μm2), exocytosis of a population of discoidal vesicles located in the apical cytoplasm of the superficial umbrella cells, and release of secretory proteins. Surprisingly, stretch also induced endocytosis of apical membrane and 100% of biotin-labeled membrane was internalized within 5 min after stretch. The endocytosed membrane was delivered to lysosomes and degraded by a leupeptin-sensitive pathway. Last, we show that the exocytic events were mediated, in part, by a cyclic adenosine monophosphate, protein kinase A-dependent process. Our results indicate that stretch modulates mucosal surface area by coordinating both exocytosis and endocytosis at the apical membrane of umbrella cells and provide insight into the mechanism of how mechanical forces regulate membrane traffic in nonexcitable cells. PMID:11907265

  6. Lysosomal Trafficking of TGFBIp via Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-il; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-im; Lee, Yangsin; Kim, Yong-Sun; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues and cell lines. Progressive accumulation of mutant TGFBIp is directly involved in the pathogenesis of TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. Recent studies reported that mutant TGFBIp accumulates in cells; however, the trafficking of TGFBIp is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated TGFBIp trafficking to determine the route of its internalization and secretion and to elucidate its roles in the pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Our data indicate that newly synthesized TGFBIp was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway, and this secretion was delayed in the corneal fibroblasts of patients with GCD2. We also found that TGFBIp was internalized by caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the internalized TGFBIp accumulated after treatment with bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of lysosomal degradation. In addition, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits the endocytosis of TGFBIp. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that TGFBIp interacted with integrin αVβ3. Moreover, treatment with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide suppressed the internalization of TGFBIp. These insights on TGFBIp trafficking could lead to the identification of novel targets and the development of new therapies for TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. PMID:25853243

  7. Arrestin-mediated endocytosis of yeast plasma membrane transporters.

    PubMed

    Nikko, Elina; Pelham, Hugh R B

    2009-12-01

    Many plasma membrane transporters in yeast are endocytosed in response to excess substrate or certain stresses and degraded in the vacuole. Endocytosis invariably requires ubiquitination by the HECT domain ligase Rsp5. In the cases of the manganese transporter Smf1 and the amino acid transporters Can1, Lyp1 and Mup1 it has been shown that ubiquitination is mediated by arrestin-like adaptor proteins that bind to Rsp5 and recognize specific transporters. As yeast contains a large family of arrestins, this has been suggested as a general model for transporter regulation; however, analysis is complicated by redundancy amongst the arrestins. We have tested this model by removing all the arrestins and examining the requirements for endocytosis of four more transporters, Itr1 (inositol), Hxt6 (glucose), Fur4 (uracil) and Tat2 (tryptophan). This reveals functions for the arrestins Art5/Ygr068c and Art4/Rod1, and additional roles for Art1/Ldb19, Art2/Ecm21 and Art8/Csr2. It also reveals functional redundancy between arrestins and the arrestin-like adaptors Bul1 and Bul2. In addition, we show that delivery to the vacuole often requires multiple additional ubiquitin ligases or adaptors, including the RING domain ligase Pib1, and the adaptors Bsd2, Ear1 and Ssh4, some acting redundantly. We discuss the similarities and differences in the requirements for regulation of different transporters.

  8. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao . E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-05-12

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

  9. Planar Cell Polarity Pathway Regulates Nephrin Endocytosis in Developing Podocytes

    PubMed Central

    Babayeva, Sima; Rocque, Brittany; Aoudjit, Lamine; Zilber, Yulia; Li, Jane; Baldwin, Cindy; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Takano, Tomoko; Torban, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway controls a variety of cell behaviors such as polarized protrusive cell activity, directional cell movement, and oriented cell division and is crucial for the normal development of many tissues. Mutations in the PCP genes cause malformation in multiple organs. Recently, the PCP pathway was shown to control endocytosis of PCP and non-PCP proteins necessary for cell shape remodeling and formation of specific junctional protein complexes. During formation of the renal glomerulus, the glomerular capillary becomes enveloped by highly specialized epithelial cells, podocytes, that display unique architecture and are connected via specialized cell-cell junctions (slit diaphragms) that restrict passage of protein into the urine; podocyte differentiation requires active remodeling of cytoskeleton and junctional protein complexes. We report here that in cultured human podocytes, activation of the PCP pathway significantly stimulates endocytosis of the core slit diaphragm protein, nephrin, via a clathrin/β-arrestin-dependent endocytic route. In contrast, depletion of the PCP protein Vangl2 leads to an increase of nephrin at the cell surface; loss of Vangl2 functions in Looptail mice results in disturbed glomerular maturation. We propose that the PCP pathway contributes to podocyte development by regulating nephrin turnover during junctional remodeling as the cells differentiate. PMID:23824190

  10. Rapid endocytosis is triggered upon imbibition in Arabidopsis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, Luciana; Burbach, Christian; Baluška, František; de la Canal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    During seed imbibition and embryo activation, rapid change from a metabolically resting state to the activation of diverse extracellular and/or membrane bound molecules is essential and, hence, endocytosis could be activated too. In fact, we have documented endocytic internalization of the membrane impermeable endocytic tracer FM4–64 already upon 30 min of imbibition of Arabidopsis seeds. This finding suggest that endocytosis is activated early during seed imbibition in Arabidopsis. Immunolocalization of rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) complexed with boron showed that whereas this pectin is localized only in the cell walls of dry seed embryos, it starts to be intracellular once the imbibition started. Brefeldin A (BFA) exposure resulted in recruitment of the intracellular RG-II pectin complexes into the endocytic BFA-induced compartments, confirming the endocytic origin of the RG-II signal detected intracellularly. Finally, germination was significantly delayed when Arabidopsis seeds were germinated in the presence of inhibitors of endocytic pathways, suggesting that trafficking of extracellular molecules might play an important role in the overcome of germination. This work constitutes the first demonstration of endocytic processes during germination and opens new perspectives about the role of the extracellular matrix and membrane components in seed germination. PMID:22476454

  11. Membrane Mechanics of Endocytosis in Cells with Turgor.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2015-10-01

    Endocytosis is an essential process by which cells internalize a piece of plasma membrane and material from the outside. In cells with turgor, pressure opposes membrane deformations, and increases the amount of force that has to be generated by the endocytic machinery. To determine this force, and calculate the shape of the membrane, we used physical theory to model an elastic surface under pressure. Accurate fits of experimental profiles are obtained assuming that the coated membrane is highly rigid and preferentially curved at the endocytic site. The forces required from the actin machinery peaks at the onset of deformation, indicating that once invagination has been initiated, endocytosis is unlikely to stall before completion. Coat proteins do not lower the initiation force but may affect the process by the curvature they induce. In the presence of isotropic curvature inducers, pulling the tip of the invagination can trigger the formation of a neck at the base of the invagination. Hence direct neck constriction by actin may not be required, while its pulling role is essential. Finally, the theory shows that anisotropic curvature effectors stabilize membrane invaginations, and the loss of crescent-shaped BAR domain proteins such as Rvs167 could therefore trigger membrane scission.

  12. Differential Use of the C-Type Lectins L-SIGN and DC-SIGN for Phlebovirus Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Léger, Psylvia; Tetard, Marilou; Youness, Berthe; Cordes, Nicole; Rouxel, Ronan N; Flamand, Marie; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2016-06-01

    Bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to humans and livestock globally. The receptors, cellular factors and endocytic pathways used by these emerging pathogens to infect cells remain largely unidentified and poorly characterized. DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin highly expressed on dermal dendritic cells that has been found to act as an authentic entry receptor for many phleboviruses (Bunyaviridae), including Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Toscana virus (TOSV) and Uukuniemi virus (UUKV). We found that these phleboviruses can exploit another C-type lectin, L-SIGN, for infection. L-SIGN shares 77% sequence homology with DC-SIGN and is expressed on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. L-SIGN is required for UUKV binding but not for virus internalization. An endocytosis-defective mutant of L-SIGN was still able to mediate virus uptake and infection, indicating that L-SIGN acts as an attachment receptor for phleboviruses rather than an endocytic receptor. Our results point out a fundamental difference in the use of the C-type lectins L-SIGN and DC-SIGN by UUKV to enter cells, although both proteins are closely related in terms of molecular structure and biological function. This study sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms by which phleboviruses target the liver and also highlights the added complexity in virus-receptor interactions beyond attachment. PMID:26990254

  13. Design, Syntheses, and Pharmacological Characterization of 17-Cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-(isoquinoline-3′-carboxamido)morphinan Analogues as Opioid Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yunyun; Zaidi, Saheem A.; Stevens, David L.; Scoggins, Krista L.; Mosier, Philip D.; Kellogg, Glen E.; Dewey, William L.; Selley, Dana E.; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A series of 17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihydroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-(isoquinoline-3′-carboxamido)morphinan (NAQ) analogues were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized to study their structure-activity relationship at the mu opioid receptor (MOR). The competition binding assay showed two-atom spacer and aromatic side chain were optimal for MOR selectivity. Meanwhile, substitutions at the 1′- and/or 4′-position of the isoquinoline ring retained or improved MOR selectivity over the kappa opioid receptor while still possessing above 20-fold MOR selectivity over the delta opioid receptor. In contrast, substitutions at the 6′-and/or 7′-position of the isoquinoline ring reduced MOR selectivity as well as MOR efficacy. Among this series of ligands, compound 11 acted as an antagonist when challenged with morphine in warm-water tail immersion assay and produced less significant withdrawal symptoms compared to naltrexone in morphine-pelleted mice. Compound 11 also antagonized the intracellular Ca2+ increase induced by DAMGO. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of 11 in three opioid receptors indicated orientation of the 6’-nitro group varied significantly in the different “address” domains of the receptors and played a crucial role in the observed binding affinities and selectivity. Collectively, the current findings provide valuable insights for future development of NAQ-based MOR selective ligands. PMID:25783191

  14. Actin-Mediated Endocytosis Limits Intracellular Cr Accumulation and Cr Toxicity during Chromate Stress

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Sara L.; Avery, Simon V.

    2009-01-01

    Chromate toxicity is well documented, but the underlying toxic mechanism(s) has yet to be fully elucidated. Following a Cr toxicity screen against > 6000 heterozygous yeast mutants, here we show that Cr resistance requires normal function of the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, Cr-stressed yeast cells exhibited an increased number of actin patches, the sites of endocytosis. This was coincident with a marked stimulation of endocytosis following Cr exposure. Genetic dissection of actin nucleation from endocytosis revealed that endocytosis, specifically, was required for Cr resistance. A series of further endocytosis mutants (sac6Δ, chc1Δ, end3Δ) exhibited elevated Cr sensitivity. These mutants also showed markedly elevated cellular Cr accumulation, explaining their sensitivities. In wild-type cells, an initial endocytosis-independent phase of Cr uptake was followed by an endocytosis-dependent decline in Cr accumulation. The results indicate that actin-mediated endocytosis is required to limit Cr accumulation and toxicity. It is proposed that this involves ubiquitin-dependent endocytic inactivation of a plasma membrane Cr transporter(s). We showed that such an action was not dependent on the transporters that have been characterized to date, the sulfate (and chromate) permeases Sul1p and Sul2p. PMID:19628586

  15. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-05-01

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly. PMID:25864702

  16. Standardizing Scavenger Receptor Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    PrabhuDas, Mercy; Bowdish, Dawn; Drickamer, Kurt; Febbraio, Maria; Herz, Joachim; Kobzik, Lester; Krieger, Monty; Loike, John; Means, Terry K.; Moestrup, Soren K.; Post, Steven; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Silverstein, Samuel; Wang, Xiang-Yang; El Khoury, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community. PMID:24563502

  17. The NFL-TBS.40-63 anti-glioblastoma peptide enters selectively in glioma cells by endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lépinoux-Chambaud, Claire; Eyer, Joël

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma are the most frequent and aggressive tumour of the nervous system despite surgical resection associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, we showed that the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide corresponding to the sequence of a tubulin-binding site of neurofilaments, enters selectively in glioblastoma cells where it blocks microtubule polymerization, inhibits their proliferation, and reduces tumour development in rats bearing glioblastoma (Bocquet et al., 2009; Berges et al., 2012a). Here, we characterized the molecular mechanism responsible for the uptake of NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide by glioblastoma cells. Unlike other cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), which use a balance between endocytosis and direct translocation, the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide is unable to translocate directly through the membrane when incubated with giant plasma membrane vesicles. Then, using a panel of markers and inhibitors, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy investigations showed that the uptake occurs mainly through endocytosis. Moreover, glycosaminoglycans and αVβ3 integrins are not involved in the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide recognition and internalization by glioblastoma cells. Finally, the signalling of tyrosine kinase receptors is involved in the peptide uptake, especially via EGFR overexpressed in tumour cells, indicating that the uptake of NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide by glioblastoma cells is related to their abnormally high proliferative activity.

  18. Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Controls AMPAR Endocytosis through a Direct Interaction with Clathrin-Adaptor Protein 2.

    PubMed

    DaSilva, Luis L P; Wall, Mark J; P de Almeida, Luciana; Wauters, Sandrine C; Januário, Yunan C; Müller, Jürgen; Corrêa, Sonia A L

    2016-01-01

    The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein controls synaptic strength by facilitating AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that Arc targets AMPAR to be internalized through a direct interaction with the clathrin-adaptor protein 2 (AP-2). We show that Arc overexpression in dissociated hippocampal neurons obtained from C57BL/6 mouse reduces the density of AMPAR GluA1 subunits at the cell surface and reduces the amplitude and rectification of AMPAR-mediated miniature-EPSCs (mEPSCs). Mutations of Arc, that prevent the AP-2 interaction reduce Arc-mediated endocytosis of GluA1 and abolish the reduction in AMPAR-mediated mEPSC amplitude and rectification. Depletion of the AP-2 subunit µ2 blocks the Arc-mediated reduction in mEPSC amplitude, an effect that is restored by reintroducing µ2. The Arc-AP-2 interaction plays an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling as the Arc-dependent decrease in mEPSC amplitude, induced by a chronic increase in neuronal activity, is inhibited by AP-2 depletion. These data provide a mechanism to explain how activity-dependent expression of Arc decisively controls the fate of AMPAR at the cell surface and modulates synaptic strength, via the direct interaction with the endocytic clathrin adaptor AP-2. PMID:27257628

  19. Expression of mammalian protein kinase C in Schizosaccharomyces pombe: isotype-specific induction of growth arrest, vesicle formation, and endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Goode, N T; Hajibagheri, M A; Warren, G; Parker, P J

    1994-01-01

    Mammalian protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes elicit a number of effects on expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A small decrease in growth rate results from PKC-gamma expression, and treatment of these cells with phorbol esters leads to marked growth inhibition and vesicle formation. PKC-delta and -eta expression causes growth inhibition and vesiculation, and the magnitude of both of these effects is increased by phorbol esters. In contrast, PKC-epsilon expression produces growth inhibition but no vesicle accumulation, and this effect is not responsive to phorbol ester. Finally, PKC-zeta has no observable effect. Thus, isotype-specific biological effects are observed. The accumulation of vesicles correlates with phorbol ester-dependent growth inhibition and occurs only with expression of those isotypes that down-regulate in response to phorbol esters in these cells. Antibodies against mammalian clathrin light chain 1a identified clathrin-coated vesicles and up-regulation of clathrin expression in those cells where vesicles accumulate; the increased vesicular traffic includes an element of endocytosis. Thus expression of specific mammalian PKC isotypes up-regulates endocytosis in S. pombe, providing a likely explanation for PKC-mediated receptor internalization in higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:7803858

  20. Activity-Regulated Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Controls AMPAR Endocytosis through a Direct Interaction with Clathrin-Adaptor Protein 2123

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark J.; P. de Almeida, Luciana; Wauters, Sandrine C.; Januário, Yunan C.; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated (Arc) protein controls synaptic strength by facilitating AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Here we demonstrate that Arc targets AMPAR to be internalized through a direct interaction with the clathrin-adaptor protein 2 (AP-2). We show that Arc overexpression in dissociated hippocampal neurons obtained from C57BL/6 mouse reduces the density of AMPAR GluA1 subunits at the cell surface and reduces the amplitude and rectification of AMPAR-mediated miniature-EPSCs (mEPSCs). Mutations of Arc, that prevent the AP-2 interaction reduce Arc-mediated endocytosis of GluA1 and abolish the reduction in AMPAR-mediated mEPSC amplitude and rectification. Depletion of the AP-2 subunit µ2 blocks the Arc-mediated reduction in mEPSC amplitude, an effect that is restored by reintroducing µ2. The Arc–AP-2 interaction plays an important role in homeostatic synaptic scaling as the Arc-dependent decrease in mEPSC amplitude, induced by a chronic increase in neuronal activity, is inhibited by AP-2 depletion. These data provide a mechanism to explain how activity-dependent expression of Arc decisively controls the fate of AMPAR at the cell surface and modulates synaptic strength, via the direct interaction with the endocytic clathrin adaptor AP-2. PMID:27257628

  1. The NFL-TBS.40-63 anti-glioblastoma peptide enters selectively in glioma cells by endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lépinoux-Chambaud, Claire; Eyer, Joël

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma are the most frequent and aggressive tumour of the nervous system despite surgical resection associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, we showed that the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide corresponding to the sequence of a tubulin-binding site of neurofilaments, enters selectively in glioblastoma cells where it blocks microtubule polymerization, inhibits their proliferation, and reduces tumour development in rats bearing glioblastoma (Bocquet et al., 2009; Berges et al., 2012a). Here, we characterized the molecular mechanism responsible for the uptake of NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide by glioblastoma cells. Unlike other cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), which use a balance between endocytosis and direct translocation, the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide is unable to translocate directly through the membrane when incubated with giant plasma membrane vesicles. Then, using a panel of markers and inhibitors, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy investigations showed that the uptake occurs mainly through endocytosis. Moreover, glycosaminoglycans and αVβ3 integrins are not involved in the NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide recognition and internalization by glioblastoma cells. Finally, the signalling of tyrosine kinase receptors is involved in the peptide uptake, especially via EGFR overexpressed in tumour cells, indicating that the uptake of NFL-TBS.40-63 peptide by glioblastoma cells is related to their abnormally high proliferative activity. PMID:23603097

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Protein GRP-78 Mediates Endocytosis of Dentin Matrix Protein 1*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram; Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Eapen, Asha Sarah; Hao, Jianjun; Ramachandran, Amsaveni; Blond, Sylvie; George, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), a phosphorylated protein present in the mineral phase of both vertebrates and invertebrates, is a key regulatory protein during biogenic formation of mineral deposits. Previously we showed that DMP1 is localized in the nuclear compartment of preosteoblasts and preodontoblasts. In the nucleus DMP1 might play an important role in the regulation of genes that control osteoblast or odontoblast differentiation. Here, we show that cellular uptake of DMP1 occurs through endocytosis. Interestingly, this process is initiated by DMP1 binding to the glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP-78) localized on the plasma membrane of preodontoblast cells. Binding of DMP1 to GRP-78 receptor was determined to be specific and saturable with a binding dissociation constant KD = 85 nm. We further depict a road map for the endocytosed DMP1 and demonstrate that the internalization is mediated primarily by caveolae and that the vesicles containing DMP1 are routed to the nucleus along microtubules. Immunohistochemical analysis and binding studies performed with biotin-labeled DMP1 confirm spatial co-localization of DMP1 and GRP-78 in the preodontoblasts of a developing mouse molar. Co-localization of DMP1 with GRP-78 was also observed in T4-4 preodontoblast cells, dental pulp stem cells, and primary preodontoblasts. By small interfering RNA techniques, we demonstrate that the receptor for DMP1 is GRP-78. Therefore, binding of DMP1 with GRP-78 receptor might be an important mechanism by which DMP1 is internalized and transported to the nucleus during bone and tooth development. PMID:18757373

  3. Notch Ligand Endocytosis Generates Mechanical Pulling Force Dependent on Dynamin, Epsins and Actin

    PubMed Central

    Meloty-Kapella, Laurence; Shergill, Bhupinder; Kuon, Jane; Botvinick, Elliot; Weinmaster, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Notch signaling induced by cell surface ligands is critical to development and maintenance of many eukaryotic organisms. Notch and its ligands are integral membrane proteins that facilitate direct cell-cell interactions to activate Notch proteolysis and release the intracellular domain that directs Notch-specific cellular responses. Genetic studies suggest Notch ligands require endocytosis, ubiquitylation and epsin endocytic adaptors to activate signaling, yet the exact role ligand endocytosis serves remains unresolved. Here we characterize a molecularly distinct mode of clathrin-mediated endocytosis requiring ligand ubiquitylation, epsins and actin for ligand cells to activate signaling in Notch cells. Using a cell-bead optical tweezers system, we obtained evidence for cell-mediated mechanical force dependent on this distinct mode of ligand endocytosis. We propose mechanical pulling force produced by endocytosis of Notch-bound ligand drives conformational changes in Notch that permit activating proteolysis. PMID:22658936

  4. Chronic Morphine Reduces Surface Expression of δ-Opioid Receptors in Subregions of Rostral Striatum.

    PubMed

    Leah, Paul M; Heath, Emily M L; Balleine, Bernard W; Christie, Macdonald J

    2016-03-01

    The delta opioid receptor (DOPr), whilst not the primary target of clinically used opioids, is involved in development of opioid tolerance and addiction. There is growing evidence that DOPr trafficking is involved in drug addiction, e.g., a range of studies have shown increased plasma membrane DOPr insertion during chronic treatment with opioids. The present study used a transgenic mouse model in which the C-terminal of the DOPr is tagged with enhanced-green fluorescence protein to examine the effects of chronic morphine treatment on surface membrane expression in striatal cholinergic interneurons that are implicated in motivated learning following both chronic morphine and morphine sensitization treatment schedules in male mice. A sex difference was noted throughout the anterior striatum, which was most prominent in the nucleus accumbens core region. Incontrast with previous studies in other neurons, chronic exposure to a high dose of morphine for 6 days had no effect, or slightly decreased (anterior dorsolateral striatum) surface DOPr expression. A morphine sensitization schedule produced similar results with a significant decrease in surface DOPr expression in nucleus accumbens shell. These results suggest that chronic morphine and morphine sensitisation treatment may have effects on instrumental reward-seeking behaviours and learning processes related to drug addiction, via effects on striatal DOPr function.

  5. Heteromerization of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors produces ligand-biased antagonism and alters μ-receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Milan-Lobo, Laura; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2011-06-01

    Heteromerization of opioid receptors has been shown to alter opioid receptor pharmacology. However, how receptor heteromerization affects the processes of endocytosis and postendocytic sorting has not been closely examined. This question is of particular relevance for heteromers of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and δ-opioid receptor (DOR), because the MOR is recycled primarily after endocytosis and the DOR is degraded in the lysosome. Here, we examined the endocytic and postendocytic fate of MORs, DORs, and DOR/MOR heteromers in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing each receptor alone or coexpressing both receptors. We found that the clinically relevant MOR agonist methadone promotes endocytosis of MOR but also the DOR/MOR heteromer. Furthermore, we show that DOR/MOR heteromers that are endocytosed in response to methadone are targeted for degradation, whereas MORs in the same cell are significantly more stable. It is noteworthy that we found that the DOR-selective antagonist naltriben mesylate could block both methadone- and [D-Ala2,NMe-Phe4,Gly-ol5]-enkephalin-induced endocytosis of the DOR/MOR heteromers but did not block signaling from this heteromer. Together, our results suggest that the MOR adopts novel trafficking properties in the context of the DOR/MOR heteromer. In addition, they suggest that the heteromer shows "biased antagonism," whereby DOR antagonist can inhibit trafficking but not signaling of the DOR/MOR heteromer.

  6. Interaction between small GTPase Rab7 and PI3KC3 links autophagy and endocytosis: A new Rab7 effector protein sheds light on membrane trafficking pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mary Grace; Zhong, Qing

    2011-03-01

    Endocytosis and autophagy are both membrane trafficking pathways vital for cell survival. Endocytosis, the primary means by which cells internalize material such as cell-surface receptors and their protein ligands, is essential for proper cell growth and communication. Autophagy is a catabolic process that degrades cargo ranging from organelles to protein aggregates to bacteria, and it is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Defects in both endosome and autophagosome maturation lead to an array of human diseases, including cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying endosome and autophagosome maturation are not well characterized. In the case of endocytosis, small GTPases, key players in membrane organization, are required for endosome maturation. Specifically, activation of the small GTPase Rab7 is required for the initiation of the early-to-late endosome transition, although how this is regulated is largely unknown. Now recent findings from our laboratory show that Rubicon, a component of the PI3KC3 complex, inhibits endosome maturation by preventing activation of Rab7. Not only do our results clarify the molecular link between PI3KC3 and Rab7 function in endosome maturation, they lead us to propose new models for PI3KC3 involvement in membrane trafficking, particularly at the convergence between the endosome and autophagosome pathways.

  7. Down-regulation of insulin receptors is related to insulin internalization

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, D.; Carpentier, J.L.; Gorden, P.; Orci, L. )

    1989-11-01

    In the present study, we have tested the influence of inhibition of endocytosis by hypertonic medium on the regulation of cell surface insulin receptors. We show that active internalization of {sup 125}I-insulin is markedly inhibited by hypertonic media and that, in parallel, cell surface invaginations are significantly diminished. These two events are accompanied by a marked inhibition of cell surface insulin receptor down-regulation. These data provide further strong evidence that receptor-mediated endocytosis is the major mechanism by which insulin receptors are regulated at the surface of target cells.

  8. Identification of kappa opioid receptors in the immune system by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, D M; el-Hamouly, W; Archer, S; Leary, J F; Bidlack, J M

    1995-01-01

    A method to visualize the kappa opioid receptor is described that uses a high-affinity fluorescein-conjugated opioid ligand and indirect immunofluorescence with the phycoerythrin fluorophore to amplify the signal. The mouse thymoma cell line R1E/TL8x.1.G1.OUAr.1 (R1EGO), which expresses the kappa 1 but not mu or delta opioid receptors, was used as a positive control for fluorescence labeling. A fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated arylacetamide (FITC-AA) compound displaying high affinity for the kappa opioid receptor was synthesized. R1EGO cells were incubated with FITC-AA, in the absence or presence of the kappa-selective opioid antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) as a competitor. By using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, incubation of R1EGO cells with FITC-AA alone was not sufficient for the detection of specific staining of the kappa opioid receptor. To amplify the FITC-AA fluorescence, the fluorescein served as a hapten for subsequent antibody detection. R1EGO cells were incubated with FITC-AA, followed by biotinylated rabbit anti-fluorescein IgG and extravidin-conjugated R-phycoerythrin. By using this approach, R1EGO cells were stained with phycoerythrin-amplified FITC-AA, and the staining was displaced with nor-BNI. Flow cytometry showed that titrations of both FITC-AA and nor-BNI produced saturable concentration-dependent changes in the median phycoerythrin fluorescence intensity, with optimal staining at 30 microM FITC-AA. Up to 80% of the fluorescence above background was inhibited by nor-BNI. Freshly isolated thymocytes from C57BL/6ByJ mice also showed nor-BNI-sensitive staining with the FITC-AA amplification. This sensitive method of indirect phycoerythrin immunofluorescence can be used to amplify any fluorescein-conjugated opioid ligand for the detection of opioid receptors. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7862634

  9. GUCY2C lysosomotropic endocytosis delivers immunotoxin therapy to metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marszalowicz, Glen P.; Snook, Adam E.; Magee, Michael S.; Merlino, Dante; Lisa, D. Berman-Booty; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of targeted cancer therapy has been limited by the paucity of determinants which are tumor-specific and generally associated with disease, and have cell dynamics which effectively deploy cytotoxic payloads. Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) may be ideal for targeting because it is normally expressed only in insulated barrier compartments, including intestine and brain, but over-expressed by systemic metastatic colorectal tumors. Here, we reveal that GUCY2C rapidly internalizes from the cell surface to lysosomes in intestinal and colorectal cancer cells. Endocytosis is independent of ligand binding and receptor activation, and is mediated by clathrin. This mechanism suggests a design for immunotoxins comprising a GUCY2C-directed monoclonal antibody conjugated through a reducible disulfide linkage to ricin A chain, which is activated to a potent cytotoxin in lysosomes. Indeed, this immunotoxin specifically killed GUCY2C-expressing colorectal cancer cells in a lysosomal- and clathrin-dependent fashion. Moreover, this immunotoxin reduced pulmonary tumors >80% (p<0.001), and improved survival 25% (p<0.001), in mice with established colorectal cancer metastases. Further, therapeutic efficacy was achieved without histologic evidence of toxicity in normal tissues. These observations support GUCY2C-targeted immunotoxins as novel therapeutics for metastatic tumors originating in the GI tract, including colorectum, stomach, esophagus, and pancreas. PMID:25294806

  10. Hotspots organize clathrin-mediated endocytosis by efficient recruitment and retention of nucleating resources

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Daniel; Antonescu, Costin; Mettlen, Marcel; Liu, Allen; Schmid, Sandra L.; Loerke, Dinah; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2011-01-01

    The formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the plasma membrane has been reported to sometimes occur repeatedly at predefined sites. However, defining such CCP `hotspots' structurally and mechanistically has been difficult due to the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of CCPs. Here we explore the molecular requirements for hotspots using a global assay of CCP dynamics. Our data confirmed that a subset of CCPs is nucleated at spatially distinct sites. The degree of clustering of nucleation events at these sites is dependent on the integrity of cortical actin, and the availability of certain resources, including the adaptor protein AP-2 and the phospholipid PI(4,5)P2. We observe that modulation in the expression of FCHo1 and 2, which have been reported to initiate CCPs, affect only the number of nucleations. Modulation in the expression levels of other accessory proteins, such as SNX9, affects the spatial clustering of CCPs but not the number of nucleations. Based on these findings we distinguish two classes of accessory proteins in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME): nucleation factors and nucleation organizers. Finally, we observe that clustering of transferrin receptors spatially randomizes pit nucleation and thus reduces the role of hotspots. Based on these data, we propose that hotspots are specialized cortical actin patches that organize CCP nucleations from within the cell by more efficient recruitment and/or retention of resources required for CCP nucleation partially due to the action of nucleation organizers. PMID:21883765

  11. UBE3A Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Learning and Memory by Controlling SK2 Channel Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiandong; Zhu, Guoqi; Liu, Yan; Standley, Steve; Ji, Angela; Tunuguntla, Rashmi; Wang, Yubin; Claus, Chad; Luo, Yun; Baudry, Michel; Bi, Xiaoning

    2015-07-21

    Gated solely by activity-induced changes in intracellular calcium, small-conductance potassium channels (SKs) are critical for a variety of functions in the CNS, from learning and memory to rhythmic activity and sleep. While there is a wealth of information on SK2 gating, kinetics, and Ca(2+) sensitivity, little is known regarding the regulation of SK2 subcellular localization. We report here that synaptic SK2 levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBE3A, whose deficiency results in Angelman syndrome and overexpression in increased risk of autistic spectrum disorder. UBE3A directly ubiquitinates SK2 in the C-terminal domain, which facilitates endocytosis. In UBE3A-deficient mice, increased postsynaptic SK2 levels result in decreased NMDA receptor activation, thereby impairing hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity. Impairments in both synaptic plasticity and fear conditioning memory in UBE3A-deficient mice are significantly ameliorated by blocking SK2. These results elucidate a mechanism by which UBE3A directly influences cognitive function. PMID:26166566

  12. Evolutionary Changes on the Way to Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Dergai, Mykola; Iershov, Anton; Novokhatska, Olga; Pankivskyi, Serhii; Rynditch, Alla

    2016-01-01

    Endocytic pathways constitute an evolutionarily ancient system that significantly contributed to the eukaryotic cell architecture and to the diversity of cell type–specific functions and signaling cascades, in particular of metazoans. Here we used comparative proteomic studies to analyze the universal internalization route in eukaryotes, clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), to address the issues of how this system evolved and what are its specific features. Among 35 proteins crucially required for animal CME, we identified a subset of 22 proteins common to major eukaryotic branches and 13 gradually acquired during evolution. Based on exploration of structure–function relationship between conserved homologs in sister, distantly related and early diverged branches, we identified novel features acquired during evolution of endocytic proteins on the way to animals: Elaborated way of cargo recruitment by multiple sorting proteins, structural changes in the core endocytic complex AP2, the emergence of the Fer/Cip4 homology domain-only protein/epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15/intersectin functional complex as an additional interaction hub and activator of AP2, as well as changes in late endocytic stages due to recruitment of dynamin/sorting nexin 9 complex and involvement of the actin polymerization machinery. The evolutionary reconstruction showed the basis of the CME process and its subsequent step-by-step development. Documented changes imply more precise regulation of the pathway, as well as CME specialization for the uptake of specific cargoes and cell type-specific functions. PMID:26872775

  13. Endocytosis of simian virus 40 into the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kartenbeck, J.; Stukenbrok, H.; Helenius, A. )

    1989-12-01

    The endocytosis of SV-40 into CV-1 cells we studied using biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. The half-time of binding of ({sup 35}S)methionine-radiolabeled SV-40 to CV-1 cells was 25 min. Most of the incoming virus particles remained undegraded for several hours. Electron microscopy showed that some virus entered the endosomal/lysosomal pathway via coated vesicles, while the majority were endocytosed via small uncoated vesicles. After infection at high multiplicity, one third of total cell-associated virus was observed to enter the ER, starting 1-2 h after virus application. The viruses were present in large, tubular, smooth membrane networks generated as extentions of the ER. The results describe a novel and unique membrane transport pathway that allows endocytosed viral particles to be targeted from the plasma membrane to the ER.

  14. Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Cell Entry Is Dependent on CD163 and Uses a Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis-Like Pathway

    PubMed Central

    McCluskey, Adam; Robinson, Phillip J.; Haucke, Volker; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Bailey, Adam L.; Lauck, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas C.; Goldberg, Tony L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes a severe and almost uniformly fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in Asian macaques but is thought to be nonpathogenic for humans. To date, the SHFV life cycle is almost completely uncharacterized on the molecular level. Here, we describe the first steps of the SHFV life cycle. Our experiments indicate that SHFV enters target cells by low-pH-dependent endocytosis. Dynamin inhibitors, chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, chloroquine, and concanamycin A dramatically reduced SHFV entry efficiency, whereas the macropinocytosis inhibitors EIPA, blebbistatin, and wortmannin and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors nystatin and filipin III had no effect. Furthermore, overexpression and knockout study and electron microscopy results indicate that SHFV entry occurs by a dynamin-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis-like pathway. Experiments utilizing latrunculin B, cytochalasin B, and cytochalasin D indicate that SHFV does not hijack the actin polymerization pathway. Treatment of target cells with proteases (proteinase K, papain, α-chymotrypsin, and trypsin) abrogated entry, indicating that the SHFV cell surface receptor is a protein. Phospholipases A2 and D had no effect on SHFV entry. Finally, treatment of cells with antibodies targeting CD163, a cell surface molecule identified as an entry factor for the SHFV-related porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, diminished SHFV replication, identifying CD163 as an important SHFV entry component. IMPORTANCE Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes highly lethal disease in Asian macaques resembling human illness caused by Ebola or Lassa virus. However, little is known about SHFV's ecology and molecular biology and the mechanism by which it causes disease. The results of this study shed light on how SHFV enters its target cells. Using electron microscopy and inhibitors for various cellular pathways, we demonstrate that SHFV invades cells by low

  15. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1

    PubMed Central

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M.; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion. PMID:24743596

  16. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1.

    PubMed

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-06-15

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion.

  17. Endocytosis of VAMP is facilitated by a synaptic vesicle targeting signal

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    After synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents, vesicle membrane proteins recycle by endocytosis and are targeted to newly formed synaptic vesicles. The membrane traffic of an epitope-tagged form of VAMP-2 (VAMP-TAg) was observed in transfected cells to identify sequence requirements for recycling of a synaptic vesicle membrane protein. In the neuroendocrine PC12 cell line VAMP-TAg is found not only in synaptic vesicles, but also in endosomes and on the plasma membrane. Endocytosis of VAMP-TAg is a rapid and saturable process. At high expression levels VAMP-TAg accumulates at the cell surface. Rapid endocytosis of VAMP-TAg also occurs in transfected CHO cells and is therefore independent of other synaptic proteins. The majority of the measured endocytosis is not directly into synaptic vesicles since mutations in VAMP-TAg that enhance synaptic vesicle targeting did not affect endocytosis. Nonetheless, mutations that inhibited synaptic vesicle targeting, in particular replacement of methionine-46 by alanine, inhibited endocytosis by 85% in PC12 cells and by 35% in CHO cells. These results demonstrate that the synaptic vesicle targeting signal is also used for endocytosis and can be recognized in cells lacking synaptic vesicles. PMID:8647886

  18. Ezetimibe-sensitive cholesterol uptake by NPC1L1 protein does not require endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tory A.; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Human NPC1L1 protein mediates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and liver and is the target of the drug ezetimibe, which is used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Previous studies concluded that NPC1L1-GFP protein trafficking is regulated by cholesterol binding and that ezetimibe blocks NPC1L1-GFP function by inhibiting its endocytosis. We used cell surface biotinylation to monitor NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis and show that ezetimibe does not alter the rate of NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis in cultured rat hepatocytes grown under normal growth conditions. As expected, NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis depends in part on C-terminal, cytoplasmically oriented sequences, but endocytosis does not require cholesterol binding to NPC1L1’s N-terminal domain. In addition, two small- molecule inhibitors of general (and NPC1L1-GFP) endocytosis failed to inhibit the ezetimibe-sensitive uptake of [3H]cholesterol from taurocholate micelles. These experiments demonstrate that cholesterol uptake by NPC1L1 does not require endocytosis; moreover, ezetimibe interferes with NPC1L1’s cholesterol adsorption activity without blocking NPC1L1 internalization in RH7777 cells. PMID:27075173

  19. Analysis of receptor tyrosine kinase internalization using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hill, Kristen S; Elferink, Lisa A

    2008-01-01

    The internalization of activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) by endocytosis and their subsequent down regulation in lysosomes plays a critical role in regulating the duration and intensity of downstream signaling events. Uncoupling of the RTK cMet from ligand-induced degradation was recently shown to correlate with sustained receptor signaling and increased cell tumorigenicity, suggesting that the corruption of these endocytic mechanisms could contribute to increased cMet signaling in metastatic cancers. To understand how cMet signaling for normal cell growth is controlled by endocytosis and how these mechanisms are dysregulated in metastatic cancers, we developed flow cytometry-based assays to examine cMet internalization.

  20. Developmental changes in Ca2+ channel subtypes regulating endocytosis at the calyx of Held.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Mitsuharu; Okamoto, Yuji; Sakaba, Takeshi

    2014-08-15

    At the mammalian central synapse, Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+) channels triggers neurotransmitter release by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, which fuse with the presynaptic membrane and are subsequently retrieved by endocytosis. At the calyx of Held terminal, P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels mainly mediate exocytosis, while N- and R-type channels have a minor role in young terminals (postnatal days 8-11). The role of each Ca(2+) channel subtype in endocytosis remains to be elucidated; therefore, we examined the role of each type of Ca(2+) channel in endocytosis, by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in conjunction with capacitance measurement techniques. We found that at the young calyx terminal, when R-type Ca(2+) channels were blocked, the slow mode of endocytosis was further slowed, while blocking of either P/Q- or N-type Ca(2+) channels had no major effect. In more mature terminals (postnatal days 14-17), the slow mode of endocytosis was mainly triggered by P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, suggesting developmental changes in the regulation of the slow mode of endocytosis by different Ca(2+) channel subtypes. In contrast, a fast mode of endocytosis was observed after strong stimulation in young terminals that was mediated mainly by P/Q-type, but not R- or N-type Ca(2+) channels. These results suggest that different types of Ca(2+) channels regulate the two different modes of endocytosis. The results may also suggest that exo- and endocytosis are regulated independently at different sites in young animals but are more tightly coupled in older animals, allowing more efficient synaptic vesicle cycling adapted for fast signalling.

  1. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-04-12

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially. PMID:26967251

  2. The antinociceptive effects of ferulic acid on neuropathic pain: involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ying; Lin, Dan; Yu, Xuefeng; Xie, Xupei; Wang, Liqun; Lian, Lejing; Fei, Ning; Chen, Jie; Zhu, Naping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Xianfeng; Pan, Jianchun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain can be considered as a form of chronic stress that may share common neuropathological mechanism between pain and stress-related depression and respond to similar treatment. Ferulic acid (FA) is a major active component of angelica sinensis and has been reported to exert antidepressant-like effects; however, it remains unknown whether FA ameliorate chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain and the involvement of descending monoaminergic system and opioid receptors. Chronic treatment with FA (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) ameliorated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in von Frey hair and hot plate tasks, accompanied by increasing spinal noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Subsequent study suggested that treatment of CCI animals with 40 and 80 mg/kg FA also inhibited spinal MAO-A levels. FA's effects on mechanical allodynia or thermal hyperalgesiawas blocked by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) via pharmacological depletion of spinal noradrenaline or serotonin. Moreover, the anti-allodynic action of FA on mechanical stimuli was prevented by pre-treatment with beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 118,551, or by the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole. While the anti-hyperalgesia on thermal stimuli induced by FA was blocked by pre-treatment with 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635, or with the irreversible mu-opioid receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. These results suggest that the effect of FA on neuropathic pain is potentially mediated via amelioration of the descending monoaminergic system that coupled with spinal beta2- and 5-HT1A receptors and the downstream delta- and mu-opioid receptors differentially. PMID:26967251

  3. Phosphorylation of threonine 156 of the mu2 subunit of the AP2 complex is essential for endocytosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, O; Andrews, P D; Swedlow, J R; Smythe, E

    2001-06-01

    The clathrin-coated pit is the major port of entry for many receptors and pathogens and is the paradigm for membrane-based sorting events in higher cells [1]. Recently, it has been possible to reconstitute in vitro the events leading to assembly, invagination, and budding off of clathrin-coated vesicles, allowing dissection of the machinery required for sequestration of receptors into these structures [2-6]. The AP2 adaptor complex is a key element of this machinery linking receptors to the coat lattice, and it has previously been reported that AP2 can be phosphorylated both in vitro and in vivo [7-10]. However, the physiological significance of this has never been established. Here, we show that phosphorylation of a single threonine residue (Thr156) of the mu2 subunit of the AP2 complex is essential for efficient endocytosis of transferrin both in an in vitro coated-pit budding assay and in living cells. PMID:11516654

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of aryl-naloxamide opiate analgesics targeting truncated exon 11-associated mu opioid receptor (MOR-1) splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Susruta; Subrath, Joan; Le Rouzic, Valerie; Polikar, Lisa; Burgman, Maxim; Nagakura, Kuni; Ocampo, Julie; Haselton, Nathan; Pasternak, Anna R.; Grinnell, Steven; Pan, Ying-Xian; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2012-01-01

    3-Iodobenzoylnaltrexamide 1 (IBNtxA) is a potent analgesic acting through a novel receptor target that lack many side-effects of traditional opiates composed, in part, of exon 11-associated truncated six transmembrane domain MOR-1 (6TM/E11) splice variants. To better understand the SAR of this drug target, a number of 4,5-epoxymorphinan analogs were synthesized. Results show the importance of a free 3-phenolic group, a phenyl ring at the 6 position, an iodine at the 3′ or 4′ position of the phenyl ring and an N-allyl or c-propylmethyl group to maintain high 6TM/E11 affinity and activity. 3-Iodobenzoylnaloxamide 15 (IBNalA) with a N-allyl group displayed lower delta opioid receptor affinity than its naltrexamine analog, was 10-fold more potent an analgesic than morphine, elicited no respiratory depression or physical dependence and only limited inhibition of gastrointestinal transit. Thus, the aryl-naloxamide scaffold can generate a potent analgesic acting through the 6TM/E11 sites with advantageous side-effect profile and greater selectivity. PMID:22734622

  5. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-04-01

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly.We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental procedures and the results of the control experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01020a

  6. VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Smillie, Karen J; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode under these conditions; however, it is currently unknown how ADBE mediates cargo retrieval. We examined the retrieval of different SV cargo molecules during intense stimulation using a series of genetically encoded pH-sensitive reporters in neuronal cultures. The retrieval of only one reporter, VAMP4-pHluorin, was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE. This selective recovery was confirmed by the enrichment of endogenous VAMP4 in purified bulk endosomes formed by ADBE. VAMP4 was also essential for ADBE, with a cytoplasmic di-leucine motif being critical for this role. Therefore, VAMP4 is the first identified ADBE cargo and is essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed.

  7. Sensing the delivery and endocytosis of nanoparticles using magneto-photo-acoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qu, M.; Mehrmohammadi, M.; Emelianov, S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedical applications necessitate a targeted intracellular delivery of the nanomaterial to specific cells. Therefore, a non-invasive and reliable imaging tool is required to detect both the delivery and cellular endocytosis of the nanoparticles. Herein, we demonstrate that magneto-photo-acoustic (MPA) imaging can be used to monitor the delivery and to identify endocytosis of magnetic and optically absorbing nanoparticles. The relationship between photoacoustic (PA) and magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) signals from the in vitro samples were analyzed to identify the delivery and endocytosis of nanoparticles. The results indicated that during the delivery of nanoparticles to the vicinity of the cells, both PA and MMUS signals are almost linearly proportional. However, accumulation of nanoparticles within the cells leads to nonlinear MMUS-PA relationship, due to non-linear MMUS signal amplification. Therefore, through longitudinal MPA imaging, it is possible to monitor the delivery of nanoparticles and identify the endocytosis of the nanoparticles by living cells. PMID:26640773

  8. Actin-Based Feedback Circuits in Cell Migration and Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinxin

    In this thesis, we study the switch and pulse functions of actin during two important cellular processes, cell migration and endocytosis. Actin is an abundant protein that can polymerize to form a dendritic network. The actin network can exert force to push or bend the cell membrane. During cell migration, the actin network behaves like a switch, assembling mostly at one end or at the other end. The end with the majority of the actin network is the leading edge, following which the cell can persistently move in the same direction. The other end, with the minority of the actin network, is the trailing edge, which is dragged by the cell as it moves forward. When subjected to large fluctuations or external stimuli, the leading edge and the trailing edge can interchange and change the direction of motion, like a motion switch. Our model of the actin network in a cell reveals that mechanical force is crucial for forming the motion switch. We find a transition from single state symmetric behavior to switch behavior, when tuning parameters such as the force. The model is studied by both stochastic simulations, and a set of rate equations that are consistent with the simulations. Endocytosis is a process by which cells engulf extracellular substances and recycle the cell membrane. In yeast cells, the actin network is transiently needed to overcome the pressure difference across the cell membrane caused by turgor pressure. The actin network behaves like a pulse, which assembles and then disassembles within about 30 seconds. Using a stochastic model, we reproduce the pulse behaviors of the actin network and one of its regulatory proteins, Las17. The model matches green fluorescence protein (GFP) experiments for wild-type cells. The model also predicts some phenotypes that modify or diminish the pulse behavior. The phenotypes are verified with both experiments performed at Washington University and with other groups' experiments. We find that several feedback mechanisms are

  9. Different dynamin blockers interfere with distinct phases of synaptic endocytosis during stimulation in motoneurones

    PubMed Central

    Linares-Clemente, Pedro; Rozas, José L; Mircheski, Josif; García-Junco-Clemente, Pablo; Martínez-López, José A; Nieto-González, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Pintado, C Oscar; Fernández-Chacón, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Key points Neurotransmitter release requires a tight coupling between synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis with dynamin being a key protein in that process. We used imaging techniques to examine the time course of endocytosis at mouse motor nerve terminals expressing synaptopHluorin, a genetically encoded reporter of the synaptic vesicle cycle. We separated two sequential phases of endocytosis taking place during the stimulation train: early and late endocytosis. Freshly released synaptic vesicle proteins are preferentially retrieved during the early phase, which is very sensitive to dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin GTPase activity. Synaptic vesicle proteins pre-existing at the plasma membrane before the stimulation are preferentially retrieved during the late phase, which is very sensitive to myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (MitMAB), an inhibitor of the dynamin–phospholipid interaction. Abstract Synaptic endocytosis is essential at nerve terminals to maintain neurotransmitter release by exocytosis. Here, at the neuromuscular junction of synaptopHluorin (spH) transgenic mice, we have used imaging to study exo- and endocytosis occurring simultaneously during nerve stimulation. We observed two endocytosis components, which occur sequentially during stimulation. The early component of endocytosis apparently internalizes spH molecules freshly exocytosed. This component was sensitive to dynasore, a blocker of dynamin 1 GTPase activity. In contrast, this early component was resistant to myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (MiTMAB), a competitive agent that blocks dynamin binding to phospholipid membranes. The late component of endocytosis is likely to internalize spH molecules that pre-exist at the plasma membrane before stimulation starts. This component was blocked by MiTMAB, perhaps by impairing the binding of dynamin or other key endocytic proteins to phospholipid membranes. Our study suggests the co-existence of two sequential synaptic endocytosis

  10. Berberine Improves Intestinal Motility and Visceral Pain in the Mouse Models Mimicking Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS-D) Symptoms in an Opioid-Receptor Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qiuhui; Fichna, Jakub; Zheng, Lijun; Wang, Kesheng; Yu, Zhen; Li, Yongyu; Li, Kun; Song, Aihong; Liu, Zhongchen; Song, Zhenshun; Kreis, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Berberine and its derivatives display potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. Here we aimed at characterizing the mechanism of action of berberine in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and cortical neurons using animal models and in vitro tests. Methods The effect of berberine was characterized in murine models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) symptoms. Then the opioidantagonists were used to identify the receptors involved. Furthermore, the effect of berberineon opioid receptors expression was established in the mouse intestine and rat fetal cortical neurons. Results In mouse models, berberine prolonged GI transit and time to diarrhea in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly reduced visceral pain. In physiological conditions the effects of berberine were mediated by mu- (MOR) and delta- (DOR) opioidreceptors; hypermotility, excessive secretion and nociception were reversed by berberine through MOR and DOR-dependent action. We also found that berberine increased the expression of MOR and DOR in the mouse bowel and rat fetal cortical neurons. Conclusion Berberine significantly improved IBS-D symptoms in animal models, possibly through mu- and delta- opioid receptors. Berberine may become a new drug candidate for the successful treatment of IBS-D in clinical conditions. PMID:26700862

  11. Actin- and Dynamin-Dependent Maturation of Bulk Endocytosis Restores Neurotransmission following Synaptic Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tam H.; Maucort, Guillaume; Sullivan, Robert K. P.; Schenning, Mitja; Lavidis, Nickolas A.; McCluskey, Adam; Robinson, Phillip J.; Meunier, Frederic A.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk endocytosis contributes to the maintenance of neurotransmission at the amphibian neuromuscular junction by regenerating synaptic vesicles. How nerve terminals internalize adequate portions of the presynaptic membrane when bulk endocytosis is initiated before the end of a sustained stimulation is unknown. A maturation process, occurring at the end of the stimulation, is hypothesised to precisely restore the pools of synaptic vesicles. Using confocal time-lapse microscopy of FM1-43-labeled nerve terminals at the amphibian neuromuscular junction, we confirm that bulk endocytosis is initiated during a sustained tetanic stimulation and reveal that shortly after the end of the stimulation, nerve terminals undergo a maturation process. This includes a transient bulging of the plasma membrane, followed by the development of large intraterminal FM1-43-positive donut-like structures comprising large bulk membrane cisternae surrounded by recycling vesicles. The degree of bulging increased with stimulation frequency and the plasmalemma surface retrieved following the transient bulging correlated with the surface membrane internalized in bulk cisternae and recycling vesicles. Dyngo-4a, a potent dynamin inhibitor, did not block the initiation, but prevented the maturation of bulk endocytosis. In contrast, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, hindered both the initiation and maturation processes. Both inhibitors hampered the functional recovery of neurotransmission after synaptic depletion. Our data confirm that initiation of bulk endocytosis occurs during stimulation and demonstrates that a delayed maturation process controlled by actin and dynamin underpins the coupling between exocytosis and bulk endocytosis. PMID:22629340

  12. Inhibitor of endocytosis impairs gene electrotransfer to mouse muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Markelc, Bostjan; Skvarca, Eva; Dolinsek, Tanja; Kloboves, Veronika Prevodnik; Coer, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor; Cemazar, Maja

    2015-06-01

    Application of electric pulses (electroporation/electropermeabilization) is an effective method for gene transfer (i.e. gene electrotransfer (GET)) in vitro and in vivo. Currently, the mechanisms by which the DNA enters the cell are not yet fully understood. Experimental evidence is building up that endocytosis is the main mechanism by which the DNA, which is later expressed, enters the cell. Therefore the aim of our study was to elucidate whether inhibitors of endocytosis, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), Concanavalin A (ConA) and Dynasore, can impair the transfection efficacy of GET in vitro in B16F1 murine melanoma and in vivo in m. tibialis cranialis in mice. We show that MβCD--general inhibitor of endocytosis--can almost prevent GET of EGFP-N1 plasmid in vitro, that ConA--inhibitor of clathrin mediated endocytosis--also abrogates GET but to a lesser extent, and when using Dynasore--reversible inhibitor of dynamin--there is no effect on GET efficacy, if endocytosis is blocked for only 5 min after GET. Moreover, MβCD also reduced GET efficacy in vivo in m. tibialis cranialis and this effect was long lasting. The results of this study show that endocytosis is probably the main mechanism of entrance of DNA after GET in vitro and also in vivo.

  13. Quantification of endocytosis using a folate functionalized silica hollow nanoshell platform.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Sergio; Mendez, Natalie; Alfaro, Jesus G; Yang, Jian; Aschemeyer, Sharraya; Liberman, Alex; Trogler, William C; Kummel, Andrew C

    2015-08-01

    A quantification method to measure endocytosis was designed to assess cellular uptake and specificity of a targeting nanoparticle platform. A simple N -hydroxysuccinimide ester conjugation technique to functionalize 100-nm hollow silica nanoshell particles with fluorescent reporter fluorescein isothiocyanate and folate or polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed. Functionalized nanoshells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the maximum amount of folate functionalized on nanoshell surfaces was quantified with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The extent of endocytosis by HeLa cervical cancer cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF-1) cells was investigated in vitro using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. A simple fluorescence ratio analysis was developed to quantify endocytosis versus surface adhesion. Nanoshells functionalized with folate showed enhanced endocytosis by cancer cells when compared to PEG functionalized nanoshells. Fluorescence ratio analyses showed that 95% of folate functionalized silica nanoshells which adhered to cancer cells were endocytosed, while only 27% of PEG functionalized nanoshells adhered to the cell surface and underwent endocytosis when functionalized with 200 and 900  μg , respectively. Additionally, the endocytosis of folate functionalized nanoshells proved to be cancer cell selective while sparing normal cells. The developed fluorescence ratio analysis is a simple and rapid verification/validation method to quantify cellular uptake between datasets by using an internal control for normalization.

  14. Quantification of endocytosis using a folate functionalized silica hollow nanoshell platform.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Sergio; Mendez, Natalie; Alfaro, Jesus G; Yang, Jian; Aschemeyer, Sharraya; Liberman, Alex; Trogler, William C; Kummel, Andrew C

    2015-08-01

    A quantification method to measure endocytosis was designed to assess cellular uptake and specificity of a targeting nanoparticle platform. A simple N -hydroxysuccinimide ester conjugation technique to functionalize 100-nm hollow silica nanoshell particles with fluorescent reporter fluorescein isothiocyanate and folate or polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed. Functionalized nanoshells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the maximum amount of folate functionalized on nanoshell surfaces was quantified with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The extent of endocytosis by HeLa cervical cancer cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF-1) cells was investigated in vitro using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. A simple fluorescence ratio analysis was developed to quantify endocytosis versus surface adhesion. Nanoshells functionalized with folate showed enhanced endocytosis by cancer cells when compared to PEG functionalized nanoshells. Fluorescence ratio analyses showed that 95% of folate functionalized silica nanoshells which adhered to cancer cells were endocytosed, while only 27% of PEG functionalized nanoshells adhered to the cell surface and underwent endocytosis when functionalized with 200 and 900  μg , respectively. Additionally, the endocytosis of folate functionalized nanoshells proved to be cancer cell selective while sparing normal cells. The developed fluorescence ratio analysis is a simple and rapid verification/validation method to quantify cellular uptake between datasets by using an internal control for normalization. PMID:26315280

  15. Evidence for a Clathrin-independent mode of endocytosis at a continuously active sensory synapse.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Michaela; Brandstätter, Johann Helmut; Regus-Leidig, Hanna