Science.gov

Sample records for demain quels roles

  1. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  2. Alleviatory effect of spent Pleurotus eryngii Quel substrate on replant problem of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Li, Xuanzhen; Zhang, Liuji; Gu, Li; Feng, Fajie; Li, Ming-Jie; Wang, Fengji; Lin, Wenxiong; Zhang, Zhong-Yi

    2017-06-13

    Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. is a medicinal plant cultivated at a commercial scale in China. However, replanting problems result in a severe decline in both the biomass and quality of its roots which are of greatest medicinal value. This study attempted to remediate the replant soil using spent Pleurotus eryngii Quel substrate for alleviating this issue, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that R. glutinosa grew successfully in fresh soil and remedial replant soil, while no roots were harvested in the unremedied replant soil. Overall, the nutritional status in the remedial soil was higher than that of the unremedied and fresh soil, while the concentration of allelopathic phenolic acids was lower. When planted in unremedied soil, the growth of five plant pathogens was induced and one beneficial fungus was suppressed. When planted in remedied soil, four out of the five pathogens were suppressed while two beneficial fungi were identified in the remedial soil. This study suggests that the spent P. eryngii substrate significantly alleviate the replant problem of R. glutinosa, and that the alleviatory function reflects a synergetic effect, including the supplement of soil nutrition, the degradation of allelochemicals, and the remediation of unbalanced microbial community.

  3. ONU Geneve: quel avenir pour le francais? Silence, on coule! (ONU Geneva: What Future for French? Quiet, We're Sinking!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Jean-Michel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two articles address change and conflict concerning the French language. One discusses the comparative roles of English and French at the United Nations office in Geneva; the other is in response to the opinions of Philippe de Saint Robert on the need to protect French from change. (MSE)

  4. Quel commerce du bois dans le monde?

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2014-01-01

    In today’s global economy, French forest product manufacturers are in direct competition with manufacturers of other countries. Which countries are dominant in international trade in forest products? What are the implications of global price changes on French trade in forest products? This chapter describes the place of France in global markets and how the country’s...

  5. Quels touristes sommes-nous? (Which Tourists Are We?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arruda, Milton; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A game using student observational skills to match tourist "types" with comments, postcards, hotel and travel advertisements, souvenirs, guidebooks and sources of travel information, photos, travel styles, and tourist attractions is outlined and illustrated. (MSE)

  6. Quels touristes sommes-nous? (Which Tourists Are We?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arruda, Milton; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A game using student observational skills to match tourist "types" with comments, postcards, hotel and travel advertisements, souvenirs, guidebooks and sources of travel information, photos, travel styles, and tourist attractions is outlined and illustrated. (MSE)

  7. Quel Eclectisme en grammaire? (What Eclecticism in Grammar?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacco, Jean-Claude

    1987-01-01

    The teaching of grammar provides more options for teacher strategies than almost any other area of language teaching, but because of the nature of grammar and classroom language instruction, using a variety of approaches is a more appropriate strategy. (MSE)

  8. Quels types de textes? (What Kinds of Text?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Jean-Michel

    1985-01-01

    Discourse competence is made up of both communicative competence and textual competence. Since each literary genre has its own typological and textual style, the study of each will help to build diverse competencies in students. (MSE)

  9. Challenging Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younker, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A veteran teacher with over 35 years experience, the author reflects on the events of September 11, 2001, and how the events of that day demonstrated that teachers fulfill many shifting roles in their students' lives. Here, he shares his own feelings of profound sadness for all the victims on that day, and discusses how the roles of teachers often…

  10. Challenging Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younker, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A veteran teacher with over 35 years experience, the author reflects on the events of September 11, 2001, and how the events of that day demonstrated that teachers fulfill many shifting roles in their students' lives. Here, he shares his own feelings of profound sadness for all the victims on that day, and discusses how the roles of teachers often…

  11. Parent Education in Canada: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow = L'education parentale au Caanda: Hier, aujourd'hui et demain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrypnek, Berna J.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the history of parent education in Canada, describes the current scene, and identifies directions for future development of parent education policy and programming. (Contains 40 references.) (JOW)

  12. Education, developpment et ecole de demain en Mediterranee (Education, Development and Schools of the Future in the Mediterranean).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2002-01-01

    Offers an analysis of the condition of education in developing countries such as Morocco, where, according to the author, educational improvements will not occur as a result of adopting European educational models. Argues that educational progress in developing regions should embrace humanistic values and be founded upon the concepts of the right…

  13. Education, developpment et ecole de demain en Mediterranee (Education, Development and Schools of the Future in the Mediterranean).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2002-01-01

    Offers an analysis of the condition of education in developing countries such as Morocco, where, according to the author, educational improvements will not occur as a result of adopting European educational models. Argues that educational progress in developing regions should embrace humanistic values and be founded upon the concepts of the right…

  14. Gribov's Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisovich, Vladimir V.

    Time puts things in their places, and as time passes, Volodya's role as a universal physicist with an exceptional intuition becomes more and more significant. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  15. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  16. Elaborating Public Relations Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichty, Greg; Springston, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the structure of public relations roles. Factor analyzes G. Broom and G. Smith's role questionnaire in conjunction with items used in organizational boundary spanning. Extracts eight activity factors. Identifies four primary practitioner roles and one minor role. Refines previous public relations roles concepts. Shows by validation…

  17. The Use of Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Betty Jane

    This paper reveals ways in which teachers can use roles and role playing to facilitate children's understanding and expression, by giving an example of a drama in which the teacher assumed a role. In this dramatic situation, a group of eight-year-olds and nine-year-olds was asked to assume the roles of American Indians whose valley was threatened…

  18. University Programs in Home Economics: Past, Present and Future = Les programmes universitaires d'economie familiale: hier, aujourd'hui et demain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E.

    2000-01-01

    Follows the history of home economics programs in Canada at the postsecondary level from 1902 to the present restructuring that is taking place in many universities. Suggests that the present position of the field is precarious and young scholars must be encouraged to enter it and become successful teachers and researchers. (JOW)

  19. University Programs in Home Economics: Past, Present and Future = Les programmes universitaires d'economie familiale: hier, aujourd'hui et demain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E.

    2000-01-01

    Follows the history of home economics programs in Canada at the postsecondary level from 1902 to the present restructuring that is taking place in many universities. Suggests that the present position of the field is precarious and young scholars must be encouraged to enter it and become successful teachers and researchers. (JOW)

  20. Tomorrow's Families: Triumph of the Individual or Sharing the Caring? (Les familles de demain: Triomphe de l'individu ou partage des soins a donner?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue of the Canadian newsletter "Transitions" in both English and French explores the question of the future of families in a period of broken marriages, difficult times, and an obsession with individual success and materialism. "Families of the Future: New Ways to Do the Same Old Things," summarizes the findings of…

  1. Operator roles in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.; Madni, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors suggest that operator roles in robotics can be classified under the categories of monitor, manager, and maintainer. With increasingly sophisticated applications of machine intelligence, however, these roles will require explicit and continuing reassessment. 5 references.

  2. Three Myths about Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    multi - agent systems , roles provide an apriori decomposi- tion of the task based on the interactions of the agents. Roles are instantiated by the agents...of strategy, highlight the key issues. Introduction Roles have emerged as a powerful computational abstrac- tion for the coordination of multi - agent systems . Roles...is also an excellent platform for multi - agent systems . This paper is organized as follows. We first introduce the practical contexts for multi - agent

  3. Role Discovery in Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-14

    RolX takes the features from Re-FeX or any other feature matrix as input and outputs role assignments (clusters). The output of RolX is a csv file containing the node-role memberships and a csv file containing the role-feature definitions.

  4. Changing Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worell, Judith

    This article reviews literature on sex role change in children and points to areas which need further research. Competing ideologies which support or reject sex typing of role behaviors are briefly discussed in the introduction. The sources of sex role change are divided into two categories: (1) planned direct intervention programs and (2) natural…

  5. Changing Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worell, Judith

    This article reviews literature on sex role change in children and points to areas which need further research. Competing ideologies which support or reject sex typing of role behaviors are briefly discussed in the introduction. The sources of sex role change are divided into two categories: (1) planned direct intervention programs and (2) natural…

  6. Enseigner quel francais du tourisme (Which French to Teach for Tourism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bjorn

    1992-01-01

    Development of a course in French for tourism and the hotel industry in Sweden is chronicled, focusing on the process of functional analysis used to determine appropriate language content. A general functional outline of touristic French and an outline of language functions specific to a restaurant situation are presented. (MSE)

  7. Quel diagnostic devant une éruption fébrile?

    PubMed Central

    Fihmi, Nadia; Alouani, Imane; Elmrahi, Abdelhafid; Zizi, Nada; Dikhaye, Siham

    2017-01-01

    Le patient avec exanthème fébrile pose au médecin de premier recours un véritable défi diagnostic. Nous rapportons un cas original d'exanthème maculeux fébrile que nous avons pu rattacher à un sepsis secondaire à une pelvipéritonite et cholécystite aigue. L'anamnèse, l'examen clinique de qualité, les examens paracliniques et l'évolution favorable nous a permis de retenir l'origine infectieuse de l'exanthème, sans avoir de confirmation microbiologique dans notre observation. La peau est un excellent marqueur de l'infection. Les signes cutanés figurent en effet parmi les symptômes le plus souvent observés à la phase initiale d'une état septique. La lesion la plus fréquente est l'exanthème, éruption cutanée liée aux effets systémiques d'une micro-organisme sur la peau. Le diagnostic précoce peut prévenir les complications d'une infection inapparente.

  8. QUELS FUTURS TRAITEMENTS POUR LA DEPENDANCE AU TABAC ET AU CANNABIS?

    PubMed Central

    LE FOLL, Bernard; JUSTINOVA, Zuzana; TANDA, Gianlugi; GOLDBERG, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    RESUME Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques jouent un rôle central dans les effets renforçants des drogues, d’autres systèmes sont impliqués. Nous présentons ici des résultats récents obtenus avec des antagonistes des récepteurs cannabinoides CB1, des récepteurs D3 de la dopamine et des récepteurs opioïdes. Ces antagonistes qui modulent de façon directe ou indirecte la transmission dopaminergique cérébrale représentent des approches prometteuses pour le traitement du tabagisme ou de la dépendance au cannabis. Ces approches sont à valider dans des essais cliniques. PMID:18663981

  9. Enseigner quel francais du tourisme (Which French to Teach for Tourism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bjorn

    1992-01-01

    Development of a course in French for tourism and the hotel industry in Sweden is chronicled, focusing on the process of functional analysis used to determine appropriate language content. A general functional outline of touristic French and an outline of language functions specific to a restaurant situation are presented. (MSE)

  10. Leishmaniose viscerale et leucemie aigüe lymphoblastique B: quel est le rapport?

    PubMed Central

    El Youssi, Hind; Touaoussa, Aziz; Bergui, Imane; Bougrine, Nawal; Amrani, Moncef Hassani

    2015-01-01

    L'association leishmaniose viscérale et leucémie aigue a été rarement rapportée dans la littérature, cependant le diagnostic concomitant de ces deux entités n'a jamais été rapporté au Maroc. Le lien entre ces deux pathologies n'a pas encore été établi et le traitement n'a pas encore été codifié. Nous rapportons le cas d'un garçon de 12 ans chez qui une leishmaniose viscérale et une leucémie aigue lymphoblastique type B ont été diagnostiquées simultanément. Malgré l'administration d'un traitement antiparasitaire associé à une chimiothérapie l’évolution était marquée par le décès du patient. PMID:26090011

  11. Reconceptualizing Evaluator Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary J.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Burr, Erin Mehalic

    2009-01-01

    The current evaluation literature tends to conceptualize evaluator roles as a single, overarching orientation toward an evaluation, an orientation largely driven by evaluation methods, models, or stakeholder orientations. Roles identified range from a social transformer or a neutral social scientist to that of an educator or even a power merchant.…

  12. Reconceptualizing Evaluator Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary J.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Burr, Erin Mehalic

    2009-01-01

    The current evaluation literature tends to conceptualize evaluator roles as a single, overarching orientation toward an evaluation, an orientation largely driven by evaluation methods, models, or stakeholder orientations. Roles identified range from a social transformer or a neutral social scientist to that of an educator or even a power merchant.…

  13. Gender Roles and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…

  14. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  15. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  16. Expanded Roles for HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanded roles for human resource development (HRD). "The Roles of Consultants in Gainsharing Firms: Empirical Results" (Eunsang Cho, Gary N. McLean) reports findings that consultants are moderately involved at the separation, preparation, evaluation, and design stages and have low…

  17. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and ... you can be when the time comes. Successful nursing depends on a host of factors, many of ...

  18. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  19. Nursing Reclaims its Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diers, Donna

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the nurses' role: what the nurse is, what the nurse does, how the nurse is viewed by society, why nurses suffer burnout, nursing costs, and health care system reform. (CT)

  20. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Reviewing Roles and Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Howard; Robertson, John

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the roles of the following groups in creating and maintaining a quality school art program: superintendents and boards of education, principals, parent teacher organizations, state art supervisors, classroom teachers, local art supervisors, and certified art specialists. (SJL)

  2. Role Salience and Multiple Roles: A Gender Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1994-01-01

    Describes Super's construct of role salience and recent literature on gender issues in multiple roles that supports wisdom of his basic ideas. Notes that gender influences how individuals perceive various roles, role priorities and involvement over time, and role juggling during adulthood. Reminds counselors to explore clients' own life meanings…

  3. Role Salience and Multiple Roles: A Gender Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1994-01-01

    Describes Super's construct of role salience and recent literature on gender issues in multiple roles that supports wisdom of his basic ideas. Notes that gender influences how individuals perceive various roles, role priorities and involvement over time, and role juggling during adulthood. Reminds counselors to explore clients' own life meanings…

  4. Social Roles in Marketing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallendorf, Melanie

    1978-01-01

    Examines the use of social role theory in the study of marketing, addresses the question of whether buyer-seller is a role relationship, and discusses consumption as a function inherent in many roles. (Author)

  5. Parents' Role as Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakku-Sihvonen, Ritva

    1979-01-01

    Today, parents and society share responsibility for educating children to be workers and transmitters of the cultural heritage. Attitudes toward the primacy of the mother's role in child development have changed; now both fathers and mothers need to know more about child rearing. This need should be fulfilled by adult education programs. (SK)

  6. What Role Virtue?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spigelman, Candace

    2001-01-01

    Explores the inescapable, irreconcilable role of virtue in rhetoric and writing instruction and the (im)possibilities of ethical response to student writing. Considers the place of values instruction in contemporary education by examining its historical precedents in classical rhetoric and its relationship to the liberatory, multicultural mission…

  7. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  8. [Role of cancer registries].

    PubMed

    Schaffer, P

    1995-05-01

    The first Cancer Registries were created in 1975 in France. Their ulterior development and their scientific production have been furthered by the apparition from 1986 under the aegis of the Health Ministry and of the INSERM, of a National Population Registry Committee. Cancer Registries have seriously contributed to a better knowledge of the cancer problem in our country and to describe the french specificities, in particular the importance of the mouth and pharynx cancers. They insure both a monitoring and an alert role; they also contribute to the medical supervision of the Chernobyl accident effects. French registries play a very active role concerning clinical research. They participate to many European studies of health care evaluation. In other respects, many etiological studies have been realized about professional risks of cancer, risks linked with nutritional habits, and on the etiologic role of the Tamoxifen. Finally, certain registries have created DNA banks. If nowadays their role in health planning remains modest, they very actively contribute in evaluating screening actions of breast, cervix and large bowel cancers. They also attracted the attention of Health Authorities on the cervix cancer screening's incoherencies. They evaluate the pilot project of the breast cancer and the registry of the Côte d'Or country evaluates the efficacity of a randomized colo rectal mass screening study. The main difficulties met by the registries are linked with the development of laws protecting more and more the individual freedoms, making it harder and harder the registration exhaustive character.

  9. Memory's Role in Catechesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert Bryan

    The aim of this dissertation is to explicate memory's role in catechesis. Catechesis is a term that early Christians chose to describe their "...work of teaching the gospel and...to mean 'instruction given by word of mouth.'" A brief historical overview confirms the continuity between catechesis and memory from apostolic to present…

  10. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  11. Comparison of Nursing Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonough, Georgia P.

    2001-01-01

    This 1972 paper presents 12 comparisons of the nurse's role in the school versus in the hospital. For example, in the hospital, patients know they are ill and want to get well, while in school patients may not recognize that they need help. In the hospital, the nurse's workload is determined for her, while in school, it is self-determined. (SM)

  12. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  13. Role Expectations and Role Conflicts of Catholic College Chaplains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert E.; Ennis, Joseph G.

    1981-01-01

    Investigates the role expections and possibility of role conflict of Catholic college chaplains. On questionnaires both chaplains and students report major differences between ideal role and the real work of chaplains. All chaplains perceived counseling as a major role but it was not their major source of student contact. (JAC)

  14. Roles of Unmanned Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    UCAV-N, Dragon-Eye) – UGV (Gladiator, Dragon Runner, Army & OSD projects) – UUV (LMRS, RMS, REMUS, SAHRV, SEAHORSE ) – USV (Spartan, Owl, Roboski...Although they were briefed and discussed, the NRAC saw little evidence of any efforts being made to counter small boat swarm attacks . Never-the-less, it...boat swarm attacks , USVs potentially can play a significant role. More work needs to be 31 done in these areas, and it should be integrated

  15. The role of intuition.

    PubMed

    Wilder, R L

    1967-05-05

    "Intuition," as used by the modern mathematician, means an accumulation of attitudes (including beliefs and opinions) derived from experience, both individual and cultural. It is closely associated with mathematical knowledge, which forms the basis of intuition. This knowledge contributes to the growth of intuition and is in turn increased by new conceptual materials suggested by intuition. The major role of intuition is to provide a conceptual foundation that suggests the directions which new research should take. The opinion of the individual mathematician regarding existence of mathematical concepts (number, geometric notions, and the like) are provided by this intuition; these opinions are frequently so firmly held as to merit the appellation "Platonic." The role of intuition in research is to provide the "educated guess," which may prove to be true or false; but in either case, progress cannot be made without it and even a false guess may lead to progress. Thus intuition also plays a major role in the evolution of mathematical concepts. The advance of mathematical knowledge periodically reveals flaws in cultural intuition; these result in "crises," the solution of which result in a more mature intuition. The ultimate basis of modern mathematics is thus mathematical intuition. and it is in this sense that the Intuitionistic doctrine of Brouwer and his followers is correct. Modern instructional methods recognize this role of intuition by replacing the "do this, do that" mode of teaching by a "what should be done next?" attitude which appeals to the intuitive background already developed. It is in this way that understanding and appreciation of new mathematical knowledge may be properly instilled in the student.

  16. Sex Role Identity, Androgyny, and Sex Role Transcendence: A Sex Role Strain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnets, Linda; Pleck, Joseph H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper first reviews three different theoretical constructs concerning the psychological significance of sex-role-related characteristics in personality functioning: sex role identity, androgyny, and sex role transcendence. A new conceptual analysis concerning sex-typing, sex role strain analysis, is presented. Implications of this analysis…

  17. Role conflict, role ambiguity, and job satisfaction in nurse executives.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Theresa; Sabo, Carolyn E

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a cross-sectional correlational survey design of nurse executives' (NEs') views on role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, and depression. A total of 380 surveys were returned from 1000 randomly selected participants. Four instruments were utilized, 1 for demographic data and 3 established instruments. Results indicated that the respondents had low to moderate amounts of role ambiguity, high levels of job satisfaction, low levels of depression, a negative relationship between role conflict and role ambiguity and job satisfaction, and a positive relationship between role conflict and depression. Furthermore, although levels of role conflict are decreasing, levels of role ambiguity are increasing. Neither educational level nor age was related to the dependent variables. Role conflict and role ambiguity are both forms of role stress. This study indicates that stress levels are not overwhelming to the NE and may be encouraging development of required skills. Healthcare organizations will continue to evolve and increase in complexity putting pressure on NEs in their many roles. Although this study did not consider strategies for coping with stress, this important avenue needs to be considered as NEs move forward with more extensive roles in the leadership of our healthcare system.

  18. Roles and Role Conflict of Women in Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Janet R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the experience of role conflict for women in infertile couples. Findings lead to an understanding of infertility as part of an interactional system for dealing with potentially intolerable sources of role conflict. (Author)

  19. Roles and Role Conflict of Women in Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Janet R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the experience of role conflict for women in infertile couples. Findings lead to an understanding of infertility as part of an interactional system for dealing with potentially intolerable sources of role conflict. (Author)

  20. The Virgil role.

    PubMed

    Sobel, R

    1996-01-01

    The referral of a patient for subspecialty consultation and examination is but one facet of the primary care physician's involvement with his patient. Using examples from my practice, I argue that the term "gatekeeper" is an inadequate term for describing what the primary care physician does, or should do, for his patient. "Virgil Role" is offered as an alternative expression based on a proposed parallel between Dante's passage through the Inferno accompanied by his mentor-guide, Virgil, and a sick person's journey through his personal Hell of illness and the labyrinthine medical care system, guided by his physician.

  1. Role of autoantibody testing.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Amita

    2014-12-01

    Autoantibodies are the serological hallmark of autoimmune disease. Though their pathogenic role is debatable, they play an important role in the management of a patient with rheumatic disease. However, due to their presence in the general population as well as in multiple autoimmune diseases, the presence of an autoantibody alone does not make a diagnosis; the result has to be interpreted along with clinical findings. Similarly, the absence of autoantibody does not exclude a disease. The common autoantibodies used in clinical practice include rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP antibodies, antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-phospholipid antibodies. Once an autoantibody to a broad antigen is detected in a patient, sub-specificity analysis can improve the utility of the antibody. Autoantibodies are detected in the serum using different assays and results of which can vary; thus, it is important for a clinician to know the method used, its sensitivity and specificity to help in the proper interpretation of the laboratory results. This review will address these issues.

  2. Neuroendocrine Role for VGF

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jo E.; Brameld, John M.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2015-01-01

    The vgf gene (non-acronymic) is highly conserved and was identified on the basis of its rapid induction in vitro by nerve growth factor, although can also be induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial-derived growth factor. The VGF gene gives rise to a 68 kDa precursor polypeptide, which is induced robustly, relatively selectively and is synthesized exclusively in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Post-translational processing by neuroendocrine specific prohormone convertases in these cells results in the production of a number of smaller peptides. The VGF gene and peptides are widely expressed throughout the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, in peripheral tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, and the pancreas, and in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells. VGF peptides have been associated with a number of neuroendocrine roles, and in this review, we aim to describe these roles to highlight the importance of VGF as therapeutic target for a number of disorders, particularly those associated with energy metabolism, pain, reproduction, and cognition. PMID:25699015

  3. Role exchange in medical interpretation.

    PubMed

    White, Kari; Laws, M Barton

    2009-12-01

    Prior research has documented that medical interpreters engage in non-conduit roles during medical visits. However, agreement on the appropriateness of these roles and their impact on the medical encounter have not yet been achieved. The purpose of this study was to identify non-conduit behavior (role exchange), elucidate the various forms it takes among different types of interpreters, and assess its potential to affect clinical encounters. Using audiotapes from 13 pediatric outpatient visits, we found that "chance" and uncertified hospital interpreters engaged in role exchange by assuming the provider's role; the patient's role; and taking other non-interpretive roles such as socializing with mothers or acting in one's alternate professional role. These behaviors occurred frequently among both types of interpreters while the provider was actively engaged in conducting the medical visit. In most instances, the interpreter did not make his or her behavior transparent to either the provider or the mother. Implications for interpreter and provider training are discussed.

  4. Dose refinement. ARAC's role

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate

  5. Role Conceptualization and Empirical Complexities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ward S.; Gross, Meal

    Certain problems arose in an attempt to develop a research design for studying the social role of the school executive. The study was to examine the degree of consensus on behavioral expectations for the occupants of this occupational role, the degree of potential or actual role conflict in this social position, and the manner in which an…

  6. The Many Roles of Fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of fathers to children's development is increasing. Fathers play many roles: supporting the mother-infant relationship, nurturing, acting as mother surrogate, encouraging separation and individuation setting up care sexual identify and developing sex role, and encouraging the development of conscience. A fuller understanding of the role of fatherhood can help family physicians offering medical and preventive treatment.

  7. The role of bracing.

    PubMed

    Briem, Kristin; Ramsey, Daniel K

    2013-03-01

    Regular exercise and weight reduction are not only important for maintaining general health, they are also strongly recommended conservative modalities for managing knee osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this paper is to discuss the mechanics of knee joint loading and to review the most recent literature with respect to the functionality and efficacy of unloader braces for managing knee OA, specifically from the perspective of the middle-aged athlete. Evidence suggests valgus braces for medial compartment knee OA significantly reduce knee adduction angle measures and improve measures relating to medial knee joint loading, as well as gait symmetry and speed. Benefits were demonstrated during walking and during more demanding functional measures such as running and negotiating stairs. No studies have investigated the efficacy of bracing for relatively young athletic OA patients and, thus, the role of bracing for this population during sports remains unclear.

  8. Nutritional role of folate.

    PubMed

    Ebara, Shuhei

    2017-09-01

    Folate functions as a coenzyme to transfer one-carbon units that are necessary for deoxythymidylate synthesis, purine synthesis, and various methylation reactions. Ingested folate becomes a functional molecule through intestinal absorption, circulation, transport to cells, and various modifications to its structure. Associations between nutritional folate status and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction have been reported. It has also been reported that maternal folate nutritional status is related to the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. It has also been recommended that folate be consumed in the diet to promote the maintenance of good health. To reduce the risk of NTDs, supplementation with folic acid (a synthetic form of folate) during the periconceptional period has also been recommended. This paper describes the basic features and nutritional role of folate. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  9. Climate's Role in Terroir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. V.

    2012-12-01

    The marriage between a given winegrape cultivar planted in its ideal climate, over favorable topography and physical soil characteristics, combine to create the potential to produce fine wine. The French term terroir embodies this potential as a holistic concept that relates to both environmental and cultural factors that together influence the grape growing to wine production continuum. While the landscape, geology, soil, and climate strongly interact to influence the vine's balance of nutrients and water, climate is clearly of prevailing importance in that it limits where grapes can be grown at both the global and site scale. This talk will review the nature of climate's role in terroir through a discussion of the structure of climate in wine regions globally and how this structure influences cultivar suitability. Furthermore, the talk will use two of the most commonly planted red wine cultivars as examples - Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon - providing details on the historic, current, and future climate structure of wine regions growing these cultivars. In general the examination reveals that cool climate cultivars tend to have a narrower climate niche for high quality wine production, than do warmer climate cultivars, with less range of adaptation. Furthermore, the range of the climate suitability of these two cultivars shows that potentially new terroirs for each are waiting to be found.

  10. Models and role models.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers.

  11. Novel roles of gastrin.

    PubMed

    Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    The existence of the hormone gastrin in the distal stomach (antrum) has been known for almost 110 years, and the physiological function of this amidated peptide in regulating gastric acid secretion via the CCK2 receptor is now well established. In this brief review we consider important additional roles of gastrin, including regulation of genes encoding proteins such as plasminogen activator inhibitors and matrix metalloproteinases that have important actions on extracellular matrix remodelling. These actions are, at least in part, effected by paracrine signalling pathways and make important contributions to maintaining functional integrity of the gastric epithelium. Recent studies also provide support for the idea that gastrin, in concert with other hormones, could potentially contribute a post-prandial incretin effect. We also review recent developments in the biology of other gastrin gene products, including the precursor progastrin, which causes proliferation of the colonic epithelium and in certain circumstances may induce cancer formation. Glycine-extended biosynthetic processing intermediates also have proliferative effects in colonic mucosa and in some oesophageal cancer cell lines. Whether these additional gene products exert their effects through the CCK2 receptor or a separate entity is currently a matter of debate.

  12. Shifting roles in nursing--does role extension require role abdication?

    PubMed

    Pearcey, Patricia

    2008-05-01

    To discuss findings relating to role extension and loss of nursing care to auxiliary nurses. There is ongoing discussion in the literature about what nurses' roles may be and how the extension of role affects patient care. Various models have been devised to measure outcomes and the value of nursing to patients. However, there are limited data on the views of nurses themselves in terms of what they perceive their role to be and what they feel about role change. A qualitative approach was used with the help of the elements of grounded theory. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method with core categories identified. The study described in this paper was the final of three. The first two studies involved student nurses and through theoretical sampling, the third sample was chosen to expand the data gained from the students. The findings from the student studies indicated concern that the nursing role was being undertaken by auxiliary nurses. The results of the final study, as discussed in this paper, confirmed this. However, one main difference was that qualified nurses were not necessarily unhappy about auxiliary nurses' role expansion but were concerned that the role of the nurse was moving away from the bedside. The data suggest that nurses' roles may be hard to define. An abdication of role, as opposed to delegation of role, seems to be occurring. Critical thinking is needed to ensure this is a decision advocated by clinical nurses. Nurses need to be explicit about what their clinical roles are. This study provides data expressing the views of clinical nurses about role expansion and role abdication and corresponding feelings about it.

  13. Role of the Physician Anesthesiologist

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the Physician Anesthesiologist Role of the Physician Anesthesiologist When preparing for surgery, many patients think of the physician anesthesiologist as just the person behind the mask who ...

  14. Role Model, Hero or Champion? Children's Views Concerning Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricheno, Patricia; Thornton, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Claims that male role models can improve the behaviour and achievement of boys are familiar and persistent. However, research has not confirmed such a link; recent UK studies indicate that peers and relatives may be far more important to boys than their teachers. Given the seemingly relentless reference to male teachers as role models…

  15. Role Model, Hero or Champion? Children's Views Concerning Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricheno, Patricia; Thornton, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Claims that male role models can improve the behaviour and achievement of boys are familiar and persistent. However, research has not confirmed such a link; recent UK studies indicate that peers and relatives may be far more important to boys than their teachers. Given the seemingly relentless reference to male teachers as role models…

  16. Mediators of Stress and Role Satisfaction in Multiple Role Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Laura A.

    Women involved in multiple life roles comprise a large segment of society, yet little is known about how stressful and satisfying they find this lifestyle, or about what characteristics are related to feeling stressed or satisfied. The purpose of this study was to examine role and life satisfaction and stress in women involved in multiple life…

  17. Balancing Caregiving and Work: Role Conflict and Role Strain Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Judith R.; Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Murphy, Wendy Marcinkus; Rose, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Positing role conflict as a bidirectional construct in which work interferes with caregiving (WIC) and caregiving interferes with work (CIW), this study investigated its antecedents (demands and support of caregiving and work) and consequences (role strain). A national sample of 583 women between the ages of 50 and 64 years identified using…

  18. Balancing Caregiving and Work: Role Conflict and Role Strain Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Judith R.; Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Murphy, Wendy Marcinkus; Rose, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Positing role conflict as a bidirectional construct in which work interferes with caregiving (WIC) and caregiving interferes with work (CIW), this study investigated its antecedents (demands and support of caregiving and work) and consequences (role strain). A national sample of 583 women between the ages of 50 and 64 years identified using…

  19. Sex Role Attitudes and Sex Role Stereotyping: Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography profiles 17 publications examining sex role attitudes/sex role stereotyping from the perspectives of ethnicity, gender, and age. Cited in the section on ethnicity are studies of work satisfaction/family functioning among working-class Mexican-American women and cultural variations in sex typing by students in the United…

  20. Experimental observations of flow instabilities and rapid mixing of two dissimilar viscoelastic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Hiong Yap; Lam, Yee Cheong

    2012-12-01

    Viscoelastically induced flow instabilities, via a simple planar microchannel, were previously used to produce rapid mixing of two dissimilar polymeric liquids (i.e. at least a hundredfold different in shear viscosity) even at a small Reynolds number. The unique advantage of this mixing technology is that viscoelastic liquids are readily found in chemical and biological samples like organic and polymeric liquids, blood and crowded proteins samples; their viscoelastic properties could be exploited. As such, an understanding of the underlying interactions will be important especially in rapid microfluidic mixing involving multiple-stream flow of complex (viscoelastic) fluids in biological assays. Here, we use the same planar device to experimentally show that the elasticity ratio (i.e. the ratio of stored elastic energy to be relaxed) between two liquids indeed plays a crucial role in the entire flow kinematics and the enhanced mixing. We demonstrate here that the polymer stretching dynamics generated in the upstream converging flow and the polymer relaxation events occurring in the downstream channel are not exclusively responsible for the transverse flow mixing, but the elasticity ratio is also equally important. The role of elasticity ratio for transverse flow instability and the associated enhanced mixing were illustrated based on experimental observations. A new parameter Deratio = Deside / Demain (i.e. the ratio of the Deborah number (De) of the sidestream to the mainstream liquids) is introduced to correlate the magnitude of energy discontinuity between the two liquids. A new Deratio-Demain operating space diagram was constructed to present the observation of the effects of both elasticity and energy discontinuity in a compact manner, and for a general classification of the states of flow development.

  1. The role of incentives in nurses' aspirations to management roles.

    PubMed

    Wong, Carol A; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Cziraki, Karen

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to describe findings from a study examining nurses' perceptions of incentives for pursuing management roles. Upcoming retirements of nurse managers and a reported lack of interest in manager roles signal concerns about a leadership shortage. However, there is limited research on nurses' career aspirations and specifically the effect of perceived incentives for pursuing manager roles. Data from a national, cross-sectional survey of Canadian nurses were analyzed (n = 1241) using multiple regression to measure the effect of incentives on nurses' career aspirations. Twenty-four percent of nurses expressed interest in pursuing management roles. Age, education, and incentives explained 43% of the variance in career aspirations. Intrinsically oriented incentives such as new challenges, autonomy, and the opportunity to influence others were the strongest predictors of aspirations to management roles. Ensuring an adequate supply of nurse managers will require proactive investment in the identification, recruitment, and development of nurses with leadership potential.

  2. Roles of Communication Problems and Communication Strategies on Resident-Related Role Demand and Role Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Savundranayagam, Marie Y; Lee, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the impact of dementia-related communication difficulties and communication strategies used by staff on resident-related indicators of role demand and role satisfaction. Formal/paid long-term care staff caregivers (N = 109) of residents with dementia completed questionnaires on dementia-related communication difficulties, communication strategies, role demand (ie, residents make unreasonable demands), and role satisfaction (measured by relationship closeness and influence over residents). Three types of communication strategies were included: (a) effective repair strategies, (b) completing actions by oneself, and (c) tuning out or ignoring the resident. Analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that communication problems were positively linked with role demand. Repair strategies were positively linked with relationship closeness and influence over residents. Completing actions by oneself was positively linked to role demand and influence over residents, whereas tuning out was negatively linked with influence over residents. The findings underscore that effective caregiver communication skills are essential in enhancing staff-resident relationships.

  3. [Gender role and anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Behar, R

    1992-06-01

    The gender role is defined; its physiognomy, adopted by women since the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution, and the intricate status that characterizes the present feminine role are described. Finally, a psychosocial approach of anorexia nervosa is made. This disorder is considered as a paradigm of the present ambiguity of the femininity concept likely to become a transactional phenomenon between sexual identities.

  4. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…

  5. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team.

  6. Classroom Roles and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2004-01-01

    The peer group is an important developmental context for children. In this paper we present a method to operationalize a child's integration into the classroom by their informal social classroom roles, which we obtained using a blockmodel analysis based on role equivalence. This method differs in several respects from the common socio-metric…

  7. Parental Role in Teenage Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusser, David F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the role of parents in students' early driving experiences and travel as passengers and its effects on students' crash and injury rates. Over 50,000 high school students responded to a questionnaire covering obtaining a license, learning to drive, vehicle access, parental rules, and student attitudes on parental role. (BS)

  8. Current Research on Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, Lucy W., Comp.

    Focusing on women, this annotated bibliography reviews recent research-oriented literature that investigates sex roles. The main concern is the role and place of women in present-day United States society. The literature areas which the bibliography covers are bibliographies and sources, action organizations, media, women's movement, affirmative…

  9. The Federal Role in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the federal role in education, which raises fundamental questions about how federal programs affect the schools. He suggests principles for a new federal role and shows how government policies have made schools more formal and complex; engineered political pressures that distorted schools' operations and…

  10. ROLE CONFLICTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ISOLATE THE ROLE CONFLICTS TO WHICH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS ARE EXPOSED, THE METHODS USED TO RESOLVE THEM, AND THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH THEY OCCUR. THE SOCIAL MATRIX OF ROLE CONFLICT IS BASED ON DIFFERING EXPECTATIONS OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERPRETATIONS. THUS, WHEN PARENTS, STUDENTS, TEACHERS, OTHER ADMINISTRATORS, AND…

  11. Librarians in Evolving Corporate Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipperer, Lorri

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how librarians can advocate their strong transferable abilities to management when coping with staffing shifts and shortages. Highlights include entrepreneurship and a move beyond traditional roles; application of skills; professional achievement in a new environment; examples of information roles and skills that function beyond the…

  12. Facilitator's Role in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Burton R.

    Since the role of the adult educator has become so widely accepted as that of facilitator of learning rather than of content-transmitter, educators of adults should enhance their facilitating skills. An important concept for adult education then is self-directed learning, in which the learner plays the central role. The need for self-directed…

  13. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…

  14. Sex Role and Depressive Mood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Arnold; And Others

    Research has suggested that an association exists between sex role identity and typing and affective states. The relationship of sex role type and depressive mood was explored through the direct manipulation of affect in a mood induction procedure. Female (N=208) and male (N=131) subjects, classified as either androgynous, masculine, feminine, or…

  15. Changing Societal Roles and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    This handbook for home economics teachers as well as those teaching social studies and consumer education is designed to provide content and numerous student activities that explore the nature and effects of changing roles in society, particularly sex-related roles. The handbook begins with a brief section containing ten short single paragraph…

  16. School Counselor Roles and Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trolley, Barbara C.

    2011-01-01

    Two fundamental questions are posed in this article, that of "What are the present day roles and tasks of school counselors?", and "What are academic preparation considerations with respect school counselor trainees?" A review of the literature pertaining to the role and preparation of school counselors is shared, as well as…

  17. The human role in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, S. B.; Vontiesenhausen, G.; Johnson, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements for the future human role in space are considered. Human tasks were divided into normal scheduled activities, unscheduled activities, and contingency activities. A strawman mission model was developed. Projections were made of crew size, mission duration, pressurized spacecraft volume, and power requirements. Trends of human roles were likewise projected.

  18. University Faculty Gender Roles Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Sue; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed 400 college faculty men and women to determine gender role preferences and perceptions. Perceptions of the ideal woman, ideal man, most women, most men, and self were measured. Results from the Sex Role Trait Inventory show that both men and women faculty preferences and perceptions were generally very similar. Implications are discussed.…

  19. Role Transitions in Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Richard L.; Levine, John M.

    This paper analyzes role transitions in small groups within the context of a more general model of group socialization that is based on the psychological processes of evaluation, commitment, and decision making. The major advantage of such an approach is that it specifies why role transitions in small groups occur. According to the model, groups…

  20. Role of Atmospheric Transport on the Arctic Amplification: Adjusting Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KUG, J.; Yim, B.; Jin, F.

    2013-12-01

    It is controversial whether the atmospheric transport plays a role in arctic amplification. Recently, Hwang et al. (2011) showed that the magnitude of the arctic amplification is negatively correlated with anomalous poleward atmospheric transport. That is, when the arctic amplification is strong (weak), the atmospheric transport plays a negative (positive) role in the arctic amplification. In this study, it is discussed what is a physical mechanism to determine the role of atmospheric transport and relation with the arctic amplification. Here, we suggest adjusting roles of atmospheric transport. The strength of local feedback over the Arctic determines zonal wind changes. The zonal wind changes are determined by two factors. The first one is polar cap cooling, and second is surface warming. They play opposite roles. So, there will be two different zonal wind responses in high-latitude to the greenhouse warming. Depending on the zonal wind response, the atmospheric transport can play a different role because the zonal wind changes can organize synoptic eddy feedbacks including heat flux, which largely contributes to poleward energy transport. We show here that when polar cap cooling is strong, and surface warming over Arctic is relatively weak, the Jet stream tends to be shifted poleward, so it leads to poleward atmospheric transport. On the other hand, when the surface warming is too strong, it lead to southward shift of Jet stream and equatorward atmospheric transport, which paly a negative role in the Arctic amplification.

  1. Role clarity and role conflict among Swedish diabetes specialist nurses.

    PubMed

    Boström, Eva; Hörnsten, Asa; Lundman, Berit; Stenlund, Hans; Isaksson, Ulf

    2013-10-01

    To explore diabetes specialist nurses (DSNs)' perceptions of their role in terms of clarity, conflict and other psychosocial work aspects. A cross-sectional study was conducted among DSNs in a county in northern Sweden. The DSNs answered the Nordic Questionnaire of Psychological and Social Factors at Work (QPS Nordic) about psychosocial aspects of their work. Statistical analysis compared DSNs with a reference group of different health professionals. Correlations between role clarity, role conflict, and other variables were analysed. The DSNs perceived more, and higher, job demands, including quantitative, decision-making and learning demands, but also more positive challenges at work compared with the reference group. Role clarity correlated with experiences of health promotion, perception of mastery, co-worker support, and empowering leadership, while role conflict correlated with quantitative and learning demands. The DSNs perceived high demands but also positive challenges in their work. Their role expectations correlated with several psychosocial work aspects. It is important that DSNs should be presented with positive challenges as meaningful incentives for further role development and enhanced mastery of their work. Copyright © 2013 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Approches interlinguistiques de la complementation verbale: Quels savoirs pour l'enseignant? Quels savoirs pour l'eleve? (Interlinguistic Approaches to Object-Verb Complementation: What the Teacher Needs To Know? What the Student Needs To Know?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beguelin, Marie-Jose, Ed.; de Pietro, Jean-Francois, Ed.; Naf, Anton, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue deals with verb-object complementation, a complex and controversial but important topic, in particular in connection with the teaching and learning of a second language. The articles are a response to a long debate about the harmonization of grammatical terminology used in schools and the simplification of grammar for students. The…

  3. The future roles of nurses.

    PubMed

    Perla, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare delivery in the United States is changing because of managed care and capitation. The future of hospital nursing is being reshaped because of the economic pressures of managed care and market-led health reforms. A variety of new healthcare job opportunities for nurses will now present themselves. Nurse leader roles will evolve to complement the new managed healthcare structure. Because of the organizational redesign of managed care, nurses will need to develop additional skills and education for these roles. This article discusses potential new roles nurses will occupy in a managed care environment.

  4. Roles of galectins in infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    Galectins, which were first characterized in the mid-1970s, were assigned a role in the recognition of endogenous (‘self) carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis, development and immune regulation. Recently, however, galectins have been shown to bind glycans on the surface of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, and function as recognition and effector factors in innate immunity. Some parasites subvert the recognition roles of the vector or host galectins to ensure successful attachment or invasion. This Review discusses the role of galectins in microbial infection, with particular emphasis on adaptations of pathogens to evasion or subversion of host galectin-mediated immune responses. PMID:19444247

  5. [The changing role of physicians].

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J

    2012-09-01

    Despite a very successful process of professionalisation during the past 150 years, today's physicians face several challenges urging them to adapt their traditional professional role and the patient-physician relationship inherent in this role. Among these challenges, a growing economic influence on physicians' practices, new demands from particular groups of patients (consumerism, role of the Internet etc.), and increasing inter-professional competition deserve special attention. New evidence of an association between a stressful work environment and physician's increased health risks provides additional support in favour of this notion. This contribution suggests potential directions of change of the physician's role by pointing to (a) a growing 'feminisation' of medicine, (b) an even stronger emphasis on patient needs and (c) extended teamwork and inter-professional cooperation.

  6. Role ambiguity and athlete satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Eys, Mark A; Carron, Albert V; Bray, Steven R; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between athletes' perceptions of role ambiguity and satisfaction. The relationship between these multidimensional constructs was investigated at the beginning and at the end of the season, as well as from early season to end of season. Consistent with the a prioi hypothesis, concurrent analyses revealed lower perceived role ambiguity was associated with higher athlete satisfaction. Specifically, role ambiguity, as represented by the dimension Scope of Responsibilities on offence, was significantly related to the leadership facets of athlete satisfaction (i.e. ability utilization, strategy, and training/instruction) both at the beginning and at the end of the season. However, contrary to expectations, role ambiguity at the beginning of the season was not predictive of athlete satisfaction at the end of the season. The implications of the results are discussed and future research is suggested.

  7. Technology's Role in NASA's Future

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun talks to NASA managers about the vital role technology research and development will play in NASA's future. Braun discusses how NASA will use new technologies to...

  8. Role Models in Aquatic Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mabel C.

    1982-01-01

    Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)

  9. Interaction of Aqueous Extract of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quel-Champ. with Glyburide in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Naimesh M.; Thakurdesai, Prasad A.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2008-01-01

    Mushrooms are low calorie food with very little fat and are highly suitable for obese persons. With no starch and very low sugars, they are the ‘delight of the diabetics’. Combination of herbal drugs (or isolated phytochemicals) is found to be beneficial in certain diseases when given along with conventional drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Lentinaceae) (called as PP-aqu) and its interaction with glyburide in alloxan induced diabetic mice. The diabetic mice treated were with PP-aqu (500 mg/kg, p.o.) alone or combination with glyburide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days. Blood samples were collected by orbital sinus puncture using heparinized capillary glass tubes and were analyzed for serum glucose on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Body weights and mortality were noted during the study period. In oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose (2.5 g/kg, p.o.) was administered with either vehicle, PP-aqu alone or in combination with glyburide and serum glucose level analyzed at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration. Administration of PP-aqu (500 mg/kg) and its combination with glyburide (10 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) decreased serum glucose level in diabetic mice. In OGTT, glyburide or PP-aqu treatment alone or their combination produced significant (P < 0.001) increase in glucose threshold. Thus we suggest that P. pulmonarius showed potent and synergistic antihyperglycemic effect in combination with glyburide. PMID:18604261

  10. Polar fractionation affects the antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from species of genus Phellinus quel. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando; Perez-Carlon, Julio Jesumar; Esqueda, Martin; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Moctezuma, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts from species of genus Phellinus: Ph. fastuosus, Ph. grenadensis, Ph. Merrillii, and Ph. Badius, in their respective polar fractions (aqueous) and nonpolar extracts (ethyl acetate), through tests of free-radical inactivation and hemolysis inhibition. The fungus species that gave the extract with the highest phenol content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity [DPPH·, Trolox equivalents antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and hemolysis inhibition] was Ph. Merrillii, followed by Ph. fastuosus, Ph. Grenadensis, and Ph. Badius. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts, in descending order, were as follows: Ph. Merrillii (nonpolar), Ph. Fastuosus (nonpolar), Ph. Grenadensis (nonpolar), Ph. Fastuosus (polar), Ph. Merrillii (polar), Ph. Grenadensis (polar), Ph. Badius (nonpolar), and Ph. Badius (polar). Antioxidant capacity in the above Phellinus fungi species had EC50 values for DPPH inhibition of 0.45, 0.88, 1.31, 1.89, 2.14, 2.22, 3.42, and 6.00 mg/mL, respectively; TEAC values of 10400.29, 7635.53, 4855.05, 4415.39, 4041.68, 2989.2, 1937.7, and 842.42 µmol TE/g, respectively; and hemolysis inhibition values of 72.83, 66.95, 50.87, 50.28, 48.5, 42.82, 42.37, and 37.91%, respectively. In general, the fungus extract with the highest antioxidant capacity was the nonpolar fraction of Ph. Merrillii. The Phellinus species studied represent potential natural sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

  11. Role of Melanin in Oncogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    1-0066 TITLE: Role of Melanin in Oncogenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Vashisht Gopal Yennu-Nanda CONTRACTING...28-FEB-2011 2. REPORT TYPE FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Feb 2010 – 31 January 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Melanin in...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Increased solar radiation and other unknown factors induce excess melanin production in melanocytes accumulated in localized

  12. Role of Glucomannans in Immunology.

    PubMed

    Tester, Richard; Al-Ghazzewi, Farage H

    2017-01-01

    Glucomannans play a much broader role in human health then providing dietary fibre. They are biologically active molecules and can when added to the body imitate innate molecules found in different organs including surface carbohydrates on cells. This review considers the immunological role of exogenous glucomannans within animals and man. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  13. Multimedia Fusion Era Editorial Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinglei, Nie

    With digital technology, the rapid development of new technology, digital media era has arrived, a variety of media have emerged a new trend of convergence. Then, edit the Multimedia Fusion should be the role of? The thesis that edit roles should highlight three areas: one is the more prominent editorial guidance function; the second is more focused on editorial planning function; the third is the more prominent editing creativity.

  14. Objective assessment of gender roles: Gender Roles Test (GRT-36).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Angeles; del Olmo, Isabel; Aróztegui, Javier; Martín, Arantxa

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A "D" score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.

  15. Réflexions sur lʼavenir de lʼénergie nucléaire, de la France dʼaujourdʼhui au monde de demain : IIe à IVe générations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dautray, Robert; Friedel, Jacques; Bréchet, Yves

    2012-06-01

    The recent events at the Fukushima power plants (PP) have brought to light key issues which have to be discussed concerning the position of nuclear energy in the energy mix, in the context of global warming, of waning petroleum resources, of an increasing world population, and of its industrial development. These questions are addressed here from the viewpoint of physical facts; and, without proposing definite choices, this article aims to provide information on the equipment required to benefit from the fission chain reaction, while explaining the possible incidents and accidents, and the possible hidden military misuse of nuclear matter. Specific issues, such as risk assessment and risk management, will be considered, under the constraints of dealing with international non-proliferation safeguards and France energy resources independence. A special emphasis will be given on the fuel cycle, on the variety of time scales involved, and on the requirements of developing the next generation of nuclear power plants, and more specifically the fast breeder option. The lessons to be drawn from the Fukushima accident, resulting mainly from the residual power of used fuel and the loss of cooling source, are outlined, and the consequences to be drawn about the various relevant time scales are emphasized.

  16. Fathers and Sex-role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, David B.

    1976-01-01

    Sex-role characteristics have been differentiated into sex-role orientation, sex-role preference, and sex-role adoption. These sex-role characteristics must, in turn, be distinguished from one's similarity to a parent. A literature review found fathers generally more concerned than mothers with sex-typing their children, particularly their boys.…

  17. Transformative Learning in Managerial Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of learning in work role transitions from specialist roles to managerial roles in a context of a large international technology organisation. Prior theorisation of learning in role transitions has been based on quantitative, psychologically-oriented studies prescribing different role and…

  18. [The role in verbal communication].

    PubMed

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The content of the thought is expressed by words articulated correctly according to grammar and syntax. The meanings are conveyed through words but also through the way they are used, the manner of communication. The real reason of communication is the intention, the purpose, often implicit, which determines the source of a speech. It is possible to identify a direct aim (the purpose of communicating) and an indirect objective (the role intention), understood as keeping a role between the speaker and the listener. The role is also indicated by the non-verbal or paraverbal component of the message, that is the tone of voice, the emphasis and the posture of the communicator. In the multitude of possible relationship (affective, social, business, political, religious), frequently bounded together, we can recognize three categories of relations: symmetrical, reciprocal and complementary.

  19. Glutaredoxins: roles in iron homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rouhier, Nicolas; Couturier, Jeremy; Johnson, Michael K.; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Glutaredoxins, proteins traditionally involved in redox reactions, are also required for iron–sulphur cluster assembly and haem biosynthesis. These new roles are likely related to the ability of some glutaredoxins to bind labile [2Fe–2S] clusters and to transfer them rapidly and efficiently to acceptor proteins. Recent results point to putative roles for glutaredoxins in the sensing of cellular iron and in iron–sulphur cluster biogenesis, either as scaffold proteins for the de novo synthesis of iron–sulphur clusters or as carrier proteins for the transfer of preformed iron–sulphur clusters. Based on prokaryote genome analysis and in vivo studies of iron regulation in yeast, we propose putative new roles and binding partners for glutaredoxins in the assembly of metalloproteins. PMID:19811920

  20. Interactional Structure: The Role of Role. Melanges Pedagogiques, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gremmo, M. J.; And Others

    The concept of communicative competence, which has recently become so influential in language teaching, has resulted in a new emphasis on the nature of interaction. Questions concerning the communicative needs of language learners are raised with regard to the types of interaction they will participate in, the roles they will have, and the…

  1. Role of the school physician.

    PubMed

    Devore, Cynthia DiLaura; Wheeler, Lani S M

    2013-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the important role physicians play in promoting the optimal biopsychosocial well-being of children in the school setting. Although the concept of a school physician has existed for more than a century, uniformity among states and school districts regarding physicians in schools and the laws governing it are lacking. By understanding the roles and contributions physicians can make to schools, pediatricians can support and promote school physicians in their communities and improve health and safety for children.

  2. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  3. Expanding Role of the Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Jack R.

    The role of the secondary school administrator can be viewed in two ways: From a defensive point of view with the administrator marshaling the forces of organization, stimulating effort, capturing the imagination, inspiring teachers, coordinating efforts, and serving as a model of sustained effort; or from an alternative point of view with the…

  4. Exploring Unique Roles for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mohiuddin; Boisvert, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow highlighted unique roles that psychologists can play in mental health service delivery by providing psychological treatments--treatments that psychologists would be uniquely qualified to design and deliver. In support of Barlow's position, the authors draw from…

  5. New Roles for Occupational Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dale F.

    Changes in the future role of occupational instructors which will be brought about by advances in educational technology are illustrated by the description of the Advanced Instructional System (AIS), a complex approach to occupational training which permits large-scale application of individualized instruction through the use of computer-assisted…

  6. Pharmacists' Role in Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maronde, Robert F.

    1977-01-01

    Pharmacists' contribution to the health care of the future in the future in the U.S. may have to be in the context of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of health-care delivery. It is from the area of drug therapy, now poorly administered, that the pharmacist will have to justify his role in a cost-effective manner. (Author/LBH)

  7. Sex Roles: Symposium V B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lua, Sokhong; And Others

    Reported is an exploratory investigation of attitudes toward child-rearing practices in Malaysia, including an attempt to investigate and analyze the nature and extent of involvement of Malaysian fathers in child care. There is also an abstract of a study of the influence of child-rearing practices on marital role expectations in Bengali,…

  8. Principals and SRO's: Defining Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Many principals have recently acquired school resource officers, police officers who are stationed in schools and report to local sheriffs or police chiefs. Working effectively with a resource officer requires that principals and officers understand each other's role and express partnership details in a memorandum of understanding. (MLH)

  9. The Economic Role of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Statistical information pertaining to one of the most important changes in the American economy in this century--the increase in the number of women who work outside the home--is presented as an introduction to the broader range of topics which will be considered by the Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women. Job-related aspects of…

  10. Role of Bacteria in Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alicia H.; Parsonnet, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Although scientific knowledge in viral oncology has exploded in the 20th century, the role of bacteria as mediators of oncogenesis has been less well elucidated. Understanding bacterial carcinogenesis has become increasingly important as a possible means of cancer prevention. This review summarizes clinical, epidemiological, and experimental evidence as well as possible mechanisms of bacterial induction of or protection from malignancy. PMID:20930075

  11. Divorce Mediator: A New Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, John M.

    1978-01-01

    In response to soaring divorce rates and liberalized divorce laws, the author proposes a new role for social workers--divorce mediator. Social work skills can be used to lessen the pain couples who are dissolving marriage at the same time that husband and wife are helped to face the future. (Author)

  12. Role Conflict in Student Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Manfred

    A student teacher is often liable to be placed in a conflictive situation between faculty consultants and cooperating teachers who have widely differing conceptions of the role of the ideal teacher. None of the possible responses of a student teacher are conducive to effective learning, especially the decision to "get by." This conflict can be…

  13. The Faculty Role in Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1984-01-01

    Specific roles faculty members can play in their institution's budget processes are discussed, and the general ends served by budgets are identified. Each of the dimensions of institutional character (e.g., size, mission) determines the ways in which participants in budgeting will interact. For example, broader faculty participation in budgeting…

  14. Exploring Unique Roles for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mohiuddin; Boisvert, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow highlighted unique roles that psychologists can play in mental health service delivery by providing psychological treatments--treatments that psychologists would be uniquely qualified to design and deliver. In support of Barlow's position, the authors draw from…

  15. ISO 9000: The Librarian's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Chris; Ernst, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes the special library's role in implementing ISO 9000 (i.e., a series of international quality-assurance standards developed by the International Organization of Standards). Topics discussed include document and data control, keeping the standards current, documentation of procedures, the ISO 9000 audit, and benefits for the library. (MES)

  16. Maximizing Potential: The Parents' Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Shirley Poindexter

    The mother of a 16-year-old daughter with autism offers a parental perspective on coping with a child's disability. The paper emphasizes that through direct interaction with the child and the child's teacher and through taking an active role in the child's activities and achievements, the child's potential can be discovered and the child can be…

  17. New Roles in Team Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Harlan R.

    1990-01-01

    Defines self-managed work teams as small groups of co-workers who share tasks and responsibilities of a well-defined segment of work. Discusses internal and external leadership, the role of the administrator, the coach, and the advisor, and organizational considerations. (JOW)

  18. Ombudsman Roles for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, James E.

    1972-01-01

    In Scandinavia the ombudsman has long been respected as a mediator who protects the rights of individual citizens and works to assure governmental agencies' fairness in dealing with them. This article examines the concept and considers various ombudsman roles for social workers in the United States. (Author)

  19. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  20. Sex Roles: Symposium V B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lua, Sokhong; And Others

    Reported is an exploratory investigation of attitudes toward child-rearing practices in Malaysia, including an attempt to investigate and analyze the nature and extent of involvement of Malaysian fathers in child care. There is also an abstract of a study of the influence of child-rearing practices on marital role expectations in Bengali,…

  1. Persona; Social Role and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Helen Harris

    These essays examine ways in which people, during the major part of adulthood, know and experience their identity through the roles they assume in work, marriage, and parenthood. Referring to Freud's definition of maturity as the ability to love and to work, the author discusses such concerns as adulthood and personal change, common problems of…

  2. Sex Role and Dating Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Collins, J. K.

    1979-01-01

    Male and female subjects from three age groups completed questionnaires on sex roles and dating orientations. Males approached dating from both a psychoaffectional and psychobiological orientation, while females approached it from a psychoaffectional orientation. Significant differences were found in dating attitudes between male and female…

  3. ISO 9000: The Librarian's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Chris; Ernst, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes the special library's role in implementing ISO 9000 (i.e., a series of international quality-assurance standards developed by the International Organization of Standards). Topics discussed include document and data control, keeping the standards current, documentation of procedures, the ISO 9000 audit, and benefits for the library. (MES)

  4. The Role of the Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halladay, D. W.; And Others

    Participation in some areas of university governance is recommended in these 4 statements as an acceptable student role. The first statement describes "legitimate student demands" as those concerned with the quality of the educational experience as they relate to the stated objectives, purposes, and resources of the institution. In the solution of…

  5. Perceived roles of oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance.

  6. The Multiple Roles of Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sabrina R.; Roegman, Rachel; Goodwin, A. Lin

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Residents at Teachers College (TR@TC) is an 18-month program that prepares teachers for high-needs schools in New York City in two areas: teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching students with disabilities. Student teachers, called residents, spend a year working with a mentor teacher. Mentors play three roles:…

  7. Transitioning between Work and Family Roles as a Function of Boundary Flexibility and Role Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…

  8. Transitioning between Work and Family Roles as a Function of Boundary Flexibility and Role Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…

  9. A brief overview of Social Role Valorization.

    PubMed

    Wolfensberger, W

    2000-04-01

    Social roles dominate people's lives, and people largely perceive themselves and each other in terms of their roles. The value people attribute to various social roles tends to decisively shape their behavior toward persons whom they see in valued or devalued roles. Those in valued roles tend to be treated well and those in devalued roles, ill. The most current and recently revised version of the Social Role Valorization (SRV) schema is presented in condensed form, showing how social role theory can be recruited for designing very powerful practical measures to pursue valued roles for mentally retarded and other persons or classes at risk of social or even societal devaluation, to upgrade the perceived value of the roles such persons already occupy, and/or to extricate such persons from devalued roles.

  10. The Effect of Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on Performance of Vice Principals: The Mediating Role of Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Kazim

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Role ambiguity and role conflict are considered issues that affect performance and lead to burnout. While numerous studies have analyzed role ambiguity or role conflict in relation to burnout or performance, few studies have studied all of these issues together. Since vice principals are expected to carry out a variety of…

  11. The Information and Communication Technology User Role: Implications for the Work Role and Inter-Role Spillover

    PubMed Central

    Piszczek, Matthew M.; Pichler, Shaun; Turel, Ofir; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees’ work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance. To this end, we first conceptualize the ICTU role and its associations with work and family roles. We then apply identity theory and boundary management theory to advance our understanding of how the ICTU role is related to criteria that are important to individuals and to organizations, namely self-selection into certain types of work roles and positive and negative inter-role spillover. The implications of this role for theory, research, and practice in management and organizations are discussed. PMID:28082936

  12. The Information and Communication Technology User Role: Implications for the Work Role and Inter-Role Spillover.

    PubMed

    Piszczek, Matthew M; Pichler, Shaun; Turel, Ofir; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees' work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance. To this end, we first conceptualize the ICTU role and its associations with work and family roles. We then apply identity theory and boundary management theory to advance our understanding of how the ICTU role is related to criteria that are important to individuals and to organizations, namely self-selection into certain types of work roles and positive and negative inter-role spillover. The implications of this role for theory, research, and practice in management and organizations are discussed.

  13. Putting Role 1 first: the Role 1 capability review.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, T J; Findlay, S

    2012-09-01

    To quantify the risk for delivering care at Role 1 in the Land Environment (point of wounding to hospital care) on current operations and set the conditions for systematic change to enhance future capability. UK, US and Danish Army Role 1 Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) (1) Questionnaire study ofUK SMEs to determine capability gaps; (2) Questionnaire study of US and Danish SMEs to benchmark UK capability; (3) Semi-structured interviews of UK SMEs; (4) In-theatre evaluation of deployed Role 1. Thirty two SMEs completed the questionnaire (68% response rate), comprising 25 medical officers (20 in clinical appointments; five in command and staff appointments), six nurses and one medical support officer. Results of the entire review were collated as a cross-Defence Lines of Development analysis, separating the specific experience of 1 Medical Regiment's Hybrid Foundation Training (HFT), Mission Specific Training (MST) and deployment cycle from the analysis gained from questionnaire studies, SME consultation and documentary evidence. The review generated 77 recommendations and 38 sub-recommendations. The top six messages of the review were (1) To balance the expressed desire to increase the ratio of trained Team Medics with the reality of generating credible instructors with clinical experience; (2) To recognise that inadequate experience for Combat Medical Technicians in Primary Healthcare in the Firm Base undermines their operational preparedness; (3) To recognise that Current Regimental Aid Post (RAP) at contingency without power lacks the rudimentary infrastructure of a modern Medical Treatment Facility; (4) To recognise that inappropriate deployment of personnel with chronic disease or acutely limiting conditions is a consistent trend for 20 years that highlights continuing system weaknesses in applying protective medical grading; (5) To accept that General Practitioner manning requires re-evaluating as an Operational Pinch Point, reviewing all options to maintain

  14. Adolescent pregnancy and sex roles.

    PubMed

    Ireson, C J

    1984-08-01

    This study seeks to link adolescent pregnancy with several aspects of sex-role traditionality and other variables that may be related to sex roles. It is hypothesized that orientation to traditional sex roles is related to the occurrence of pregnancy among sexually active teenagers. For the study sample of teenage females receiving birth control or pregnancy testing services, it is hypothesized that the pregnant teenagers will be more likely than other teenagers to be oriented toward traditional sex roles. The sample consisted of 161 young women, ranging in age from 13-18, with an average age of 16.5 years. Data were collected at selected health related agencies in a city in the Pacific Northwest by staff members who were blind to the hypotheses of the study. The respondents usually completed a brief questionnaire while they waited for a desired service. Of the total sample, 43 were pregnant; 34 had positive pregnancy tests and 9 others already knew they were pregnant when they filled out the questionnaire. 82 obtained birth control information or services and 36 experienced negative pregnancy tests. These groups are referred to as the pregnant group, the birth control group, and the negative pregnancy test group. Sex role values were determined by asking the respondent to indicate degree of agreement or disagreement with a series of opinion statements. The results provide some support for the main hypothesis. Pregnant teenagers were more likely than others to be oriented toward traditional sex roles. Pregnant teenagers, when compared with the birth control seeking group, showed more traditional sex-typing of activities, lower educational expectations and occupational aspirations, lower grades, and were more likely to have dropped out of school. There was only 1 significant difference between the pregnant adolescents and those in the negative pregnant test group. The pregnant teens had lower educational expectations. When all the independent and control variables

  15. Correlates of Sex Roles of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.

    1982-01-01

    Community-dwelling older adults (N=364) described their own sex roles using the Bem Sex Role Inventory and were tested with additional measures of mental and physical health and current life situation. Most elderly persons described androgynous roles. Perceived sex roles related to several dimensions of life situation and well-being. (Author)

  16. Perception of Parental Roles in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Wanda K.; Mell, Margaret Bailey

    1981-01-01

    A Perception of Parents Pictorial Interview was administered and results analyzed using two-way analyses of variance of (1) caretaking roles, (2) companionship roles, and (3) the total, reflecting both roles. Professional class children, particularly boys, are more apt to perceive both parents fulfilling parental roles rather than either one…

  17. Resident Role Modeling: "It Just Happens".

    PubMed

    Sternszus, Robert; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Steinert, Yvonne

    2016-03-01

    Role modeling by staff physicians is a significant component of the clinical teaching of students and residents. However, the importance of resident role modeling has only recently emerged, and residents' understanding of themselves as role models has yet to be explored. This study sought to understand residents' perceptions of themselves as role models, describe how residents learn about role modeling, and identify ways to improve resident role modeling. Fourteen semistructured interviews were conducted with residents in internal medicine, general surgery, and pediatrics at the McGill University Faculty of Medicine between April and September 2013. Interviews were audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed for analysis; iterative analysis followed principles of qualitative description. Four primary themes were identified through data analysis: residents perceived role modeling as the demonstration of "good" behaviors in the clinical context; residents believed that learning from their role modeling "just happens" as long as learners are "watching"; residents did not equate role modeling with being a role model; and residents learned about role modeling from watching their positive and negative role models. While residents were aware that students and junior colleagues learned from their modeling, they were often not aware of role modeling as it was occurring; they also believed that learning from role modeling "just happens" and did not always see themselves as role models. Helping residents view effective role modeling as a deliberate process rather than something that "just happens" may improve clinical teaching across the continuum of medical education.

  18. Sex-Roles: Why, What, and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    The teaching of sex-role stereotyping issues in an educational psychology course for student teachers is discussed. Issues presented include influences on the learner, the teaching of sex roles and stereotypes in the elementary grades, the presence of role models at home and school, contributions of curriculum to sex-role stereotyping and the…

  19. Group Roles and the Gifted Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willings, David

    1983-01-01

    Gifted students can perform a variety of roles in groups, and it is important for career choice and satisfaction that the role chosen be a natural one. Gifted students may function best and contribute most in the role of exemplar or eccentric rather than in more traditionally conceived leadership roles. (CL)

  20. Neuroprotective role for carbonyl reductase?

    PubMed

    Maser, Edmund

    2006-02-24

    Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Reactive oxygen species seem to play a significant role in neuronal cell death in that they generate reactive aldehydes from membrane lipid peroxidation. Several neuronal diseases are associated with increased accumulation of abnormal protein adducts of reactive aldehydes, which mediate oxidative stress-linked pathological events, including cellular growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. Combining findings on neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in Drosophila with studies on the metabolic characteristics of the human enzyme carbonyl reductase (CR), it is clear now that CR has a potential physiological role for neuroprotection in humans. Several lines of evidence suggest that CR represents a significant pathway for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and that CR in humans is essential for neuronal cell survival and to confer protection against oxidative stress-induced brain degeneration.

  1. Role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Dvorakova, Magdalena Chottova; Kruzliak, Peter; Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-11-01

    The role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathy-associated heart failure has been garnering more attention. Several neuropeptides--Neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and their receptors have been studied in the various types of cardiomyopathies. The data indicate associations with the strength of the association varying depending on the kind of neuropeptide and the nature of the cardiomyopathy--diabetic, ischemic, inflammatory, stress-induced or restrictive cardiomyopathy. Several neuropeptides appear to alter regulation of genes involved in heart failure. Demonstration of an association is an essential first step in proving causality or establishing a role for a factor in a disease. Understanding the complexity of neuropeptide function should be helpful in establishing new or optimal therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure in cardiomyopathies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Researcher Role in Aviation Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-31

    That use-inspired research would be a good path towards accelerating the process of putting basic knowledge to practical use will be revisited in...14-D-6501-0009 Researcher Role in Aviation Operations 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) Air Force Materiel Command Air Force Research Laboratory 711 Human Performance Wing Airman Systems

  3. Science role in countering terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Geoscience expertise figures as a component of a new report on harnessing the U.S. science and technology community in the fight against terrorism.The National Research Council report, "Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism," proposes research agendas in a number of areas perceived to be vulnerable to terrorism. These areas include nuclear and radiological threats, toxic chemicals and explosive materials, information technology, energy systems, and cities and fixed infrastructure.

  4. Science role in countering terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Geoscience expertise figures as a component of a new report on harnessing the U.S. science and technology community in the fight against terrorism.The National Research Council report, “Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism,” proposes research agendas in a number of areas perceived to be vulnerable to terrorism. These areas include nuclear and radiological threats, toxic chemicals and explosive materials, information technology, energy systems, and cities and fixed infrastructure.

  5. Oceanic role in terrestrial climate

    SciTech Connect

    Ellsaesser, H.W.

    1984-11-01

    A review is given of the role of the oceans in terrestrial climatogenesis. The review leads to development of a criterion for recognizing areas of potential climatogenesis through atmosphere-oceanic interaction and to speculations as to the causes of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation events, the Medieval Little Optimum, Little Ice Age and 20th Century Arctic Warming of the North Atlantic and the glacial-interglacial cycles. 29 references, 6 figures.

  6. Mitigating earthquakes; the federal role

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Press, F.

    1977-01-01

    With rapid approach of a capability to make reliable earthquake forecasts, it essential that the Federal Government play a strong, positive role in formulating and implementing plans to reduce earthquake hazards. Many steps are being taken in this direction, with the President looking to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in his Executive Office to provide leadership in establishing and coordinating Federal activities. 

  7. Role of Melanin in Oncogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0066 TITLE: Role of Melanin in Oncogenesis... Melanin in Oncogenesis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0066 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Vashisht Gopal Yennu...excess melanin production in melanocytes accumulated in localized areas of the skin, leading to formation of benign nevi and infrequently

  8. The role of big laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, R.-D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  9. Role of prostaglandins in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Colina-Chourio, J A; Godoy-Godoy, N; Avila-Hernández, R M

    2000-04-01

    The role of prostaglandins (PGs) in hypertension (HT) is reviewed, emphasising their biochemical characteristics, physiological effects and functions, especially in the cardiovascular area, and the current evidence of their participation in the antihypertensive activity of a balanced mechanism to maintain normal blood pressure. Also, the clinical use of PGs and the future of such autacoids in the treatment of HT and other diseases or conditions is mentioned.

  10. Authorising engineer's 'pivotal role' explained.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Graeme; Sandford, Ian; Black, Alex

    2011-04-01

    Graeme Dunn, engineer, Design and Engineering at Atkins, who serves as an Authorising Engineer (MGPS) for both NHS clients and healthcare providers throughout the UK, Ian Sandford, a medical gas consultant (associate) at Hulley Specialist Gas Services, a specialist division of consulting engineers Hulley and Kirkwood, and Alex Black, an experienced technical consultant and AE (MGPS), of Alex Black and Associates, examine how the AE (MGPS) role developed, and highlight what they describe as its "pivotal importance" today.

  11. Women in Active Combat Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-20

    good hygiene .”6 Counter-Argument An argument may be presented that women must deal with their menstrual cycle while training. By the very nature...handle combat due to perceived physical fitness shortcomings or extra hygiene necessities 4 can be solved. Additionally they prove that any cohesion...be in combat MOSs. Hygiene Considerations Another area that is a consideration for allowing women to participate in an active combat role is

  12. Role ambiguity, employee gender, and workplace friendship.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2012-06-01

    The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships.

  13. Expanding roles for lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Welte, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid droplets are the intracellular sites for neutral lipid storage. They are critical for lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis, and their dysfunction has been linked to many diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that the roles lipid droplets play in biology are significantly broader than previously anticipated. Lipid droplets are the source of molecules important in the nucleus: they can sequester transcription factors and chromatin components and generate the lipid ligands for certain nuclear receptors. Lipid droplets have also emerged as important nodes for fatty acid trafficking, both inside the cell and between cells. In immunity, new roles for droplets, not directly linked to lipid metabolism, have been uncovered, as assembly platforms for specific viruses and as reservoirs for proteins that fight intracellular pathogens. Until recently, knowledge about droplets in the nervous system has been minimal, but now there are multiple links between lipid droplets and neurodegeneration: Many candidate genes for Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia also have central roles in lipid-droplet formation and maintenance, and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons can lead to transient accumulating of lipid droplets in neighboring glial cells, an event that may, in turn, contribute to neuronal damage. As the cell biology and biochemistry of lipid droplets are increasingly well understood, the next few years should yield many new mechanistic insights into these novel functions of lipid droplets. PMID:26035793

  14. The developmental roles of FMRP.

    PubMed

    Till, Sally M

    2010-04-01

    FXS (Fragile X syndrome) is the most common genetically inherited form of cognitive impairment. The predominant cause of the syndrome is the loss of a single protein, FMRP (Fragile X mental retardation protein). Many of the cognitive and behavioural features found in Fragile X individuals emerge during childhood and are associated with abnormal organization of cortical connections. However, although FMRP is expressed as early as embryogenesis, relatively little is known about its roles during development or how this may influence FXS phenotypes in adulthood. The present review focuses specifically on the evidence for the functions of FMRP during embryonic and early postnatal development. The current knowledge of the role of FMRP in FXS will be briefly summarized before addressing how alterations in the formation and refinement of neuronal connections and synaptic function that result from the loss of FMRP may in turn influence behaviours that are expressed during the first few postnatal weeks. I will then briefly highlight some outstanding questions about the developmental roles of FMRP and their possible relationship to symptoms found in adults with FXS.

  15. Sex role ideology among physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Leichner, P.; Harper, D.

    1982-01-01

    Physicians have been accused by some feminist writers of having traditional views on sex roles that make them part of society's oppressive power structure and therefore responsible in part for the high incidence of psychologic problems and drug dependency among women. To assess whether physicians' attitudes towards women are indeed polarized in a traditional fashion, a sex role ideology questionnaire was given to all practising physicians belonging to the Manitoba Medical Association. Overall the physicians were found to be more feminist than male college students and a group of women with traditional beliefs. Psychiatrists, who had the highest adjusted group mean score on a sex role ideology scale (high indicating feminist beliefs), were found to be significantly more feminist than family practitioners, surgeons, and obstetricians and gynecologists, although not more so than internists, radiologists, pediatricians and anesthesiologists. These findings do not support the assumption that physicians have traditional views that reflect those of society. However, the significant differences between specialties emphasize the need for educating physicians and medical students in the behaviour of women. PMID:7104916

  16. Grandparenting Roles and Volunteer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jendrek, Margaret Platt

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We examine whether grandparenting roles are related to formal volunteering among older adults. Method. Logistic regression is used to examine the likelihood of volunteering based on grandchild care using data from the 2004 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (n = 13,785). Longitudinal analyses utilize treatment effects models to examine changes in volunteering for grandparents who begin nonresidential grandchild care between the 2004 and 2008 waves (n = 10,811). Results. Results show that grandparents raising coresidential grandchildren have lower odds of volunteering than grandparents providing no regular grandchild care. However, grandparents who provide nonresidential grandchild care are more likely to volunteer than grandparents not providing grandchild care and those raising a coresidential grandchild. Grandparents who provide nonresidential care for grandchildren engage in more volunteering before assuming grandchild care, and their volunteerism increases after becoming a caregiver for a grandchild. Discussion. Consistent with resource theory and the accumulation of roles, providing nonresidential grandchild care may draw grandparents into formal volunteer activity. The lower human capital resources evidenced by grandparents raising coresidential grandchildren may play a role in their lower likelihood of formal volunteering. PMID:24721748

  17. Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Role Strain in United States Air Force Chief Nurse Administrators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    scores and three groups representing general levels of role stress. It was concluded that the conceptual framework was appropriate for this study...Recommendations were made to replicate this study using a larger nationwide randomized sample with a longitudinal design. Utilization of the conceptual ... framework in other studies as well as to study the eustress portion of the framework in relation to strain outcomes, were also suggested. Another

  18. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  19. About sleep's role in memory.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  20. Clinical role of bisphosphonate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Geeta; Fogelman, Ignac

    2012-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are synthetic analogues of pyrophosphate. They inhibit bone resorption and are therefore widely used in disorders where there are increases or disruptions in bone resorption. This includes postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-related bone loss. To best understand the clinical application of BPs, an understanding of their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is important. This review describes the structure, pharmacology and mode of action of BPs, focusing on their role in clinical practice. Controversies and side effects surrounding their use will also be discussed. PMID:23071416

  1. School performance: the pediatrician's role.

    PubMed

    Bravender, Terrill

    2008-07-01

    When children begin having difficulties in school, the first stop for parents is often the pediatrician's office. Although school performance problems may seem outside the realm of routine primary health care, there are many important roles that the primary care provider may play. These include identifying medical issues that may impact performance, helping the family form an intervention team, and acting as the child's advocate when interacting with the school. In addition, it is important for pediatricians to be familiar with cognitive, emotional, and developmental problems that affect school performance and to assist parents in becoming active participants in their children's education.

  2. The role of the university.

    PubMed Central

    Starck, P L

    1987-01-01

    The role of the university, and particularly the health sciences university, in promoting positive health for women is twofold. First, the dissemination of existing knowledge raises awareness of special health needs and identifies gaps in the present research and literature base. Second, universities must project future needs of women in a rapidly changing society where such things as space travel may become commonplace. Reduction of the risk of debilitating disease and promotion of positive attitudes will enhance the quality of life for women. A logotherapeutic approach to choosing one's own attitudes toward life's challenges promotes successful coping in a dynamic society. PMID:3120225

  3. Role models for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, J.; White, D. R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a framework for automatically decomposing (“block-modeling”) the functional classes of agents within a complex network. These classes are represented by the nodes of an image graph (“block model”) depicting the main patterns of connectivity and thus functional roles in the network. Using a first principles approach, we derive a measure for the fit of a network to any given image graph allowing objective hypothesis testing. From the properties of an optimal fit, we derive how to find the best fitting image graph directly from the network and present a criterion to avoid overfitting. The method can handle both two-mode and one-mode data, directed and undirected as well as weighted networks and allows for different types of links to be dealt with simultaneously. It is non-parametric and computationally efficient. The concepts of structural equivalence and modularity are found as special cases of our approach. We apply our method to the world trade network and analyze the roles individual countries play in the global economy.

  4. Role of complement in xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Fiane, A E

    2002-01-01

    The xenotransplantation research is driven by the increasing gap between the number of patients with end-stage organ failure on waiting lists for transplantation and the supply of allografts. The lack of success in developing suitable artificial organs for permanent treatment of organ failure has further strengthened the need for xenotransplantation research. Pigs are now generally accepted to be the source animal of choice. Transplantation of pig organs to humans faces several barriers which have to be overcome before it comes to clinical application: (1) anatomical and physiological conditions; (2) immunological rejection mechanisms; (3) molecular compatibility between signal molecules of the two species; (4) risk of transmission of microorganisms, particularly pig endogenous retroviruses; and (5) legal and ethical aspects both with respect to the animal and the recipient. Here we will focus on the role of the complement system in the rejection of immediately vascularized pig-to-primate xenografts. The hyperacute rejection occurring within minutes after transplantation is mediated by binding of natural antibodies to the Galalpha(l-3)Gal epitope on the endothelial cells with subsequent complement activation. Whereas inhibition of complement activation protects against hyperacute rejection, the role of complement in the later rejection phases is less clarified.

  5. I am my (high-power) role: power and role identification.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J

    2013-07-01

    Research indicates that power liberates the self, but findings also show that the powerful are susceptible to situational influences. The present article examines whether enacting roles that afford power leads people to identify with the roles or, instead, liberates them from role expectations altogether. The results of three experiments support the hypothesis that power enhances role identification. Experiment 1 showed that enacting a particular role resulted in greater implicit and explicit role identification when the role contained power. In Experiment 2, infusing a role with power resulted in greater role identification and role-congruent behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrated that power resulted in greater role-congruent self-construal, such that having power in a close relationship caused participants to define themselves relationally, whereas having power in a group situation caused participants to embrace a collective self-construal. Implications for research on power, roles, and the self are discussed.

  6. Current Perspectives on Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Brownson, Chris

    1998-01-01

    The process of reproducing gender through discourses can inhibit role sharing and multiple roles for women. Two discourses influence the psyches of men and women to reproduce ideal types: women and men as equals and men as incompetent caregivers. (SK)

  7. A Framework for Sex Role Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1985-01-01

    The androgyny model of masculinity and femininity serves as the basis for a framework for sex role counseling applicable to both sexes. Examples of sex role problems, counseling goals, and interventions are described. (Author/BL)

  8. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  9. Young Children's Conception of Status and Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses young children's conceptions of status and role based on sociolinguistic analyses of spontaneous role play. Links developmental features of social knowledge to contextual features of children's interactive experiences. (Author/CK)

  10. A Framework for Sex Role Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1985-01-01

    The androgyny model of masculinity and femininity serves as the basis for a framework for sex role counseling applicable to both sexes. Examples of sex role problems, counseling goals, and interventions are described. (Author/BL)

  11. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  12. Employability Development Teams: Team Member Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Mary L.; Lewis, Meharry H.

    1972-01-01

    The authors point out that team roles are designed to be complementary, but much of the frustration that develops among team members is due to lack of role definition and too much overlapping of responsibility. (Author)

  13. Current Perspectives on Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Brownson, Chris

    1998-01-01

    The process of reproducing gender through discourses can inhibit role sharing and multiple roles for women. Two discourses influence the psyches of men and women to reproduce ideal types: women and men as equals and men as incompetent caregivers. (SK)

  14. Role of Akirin in Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhiqing; Wang, Huan; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Guo, Xiulan; Tang, Renyong; Long, Dingbiao

    2013-01-01

    Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis. PMID:23396110

  15. Psychological Consequences of Multiple Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietromonaco, Paula R; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored consequences of having mulitiple roles. Questioned 500 employed women about self-esteem; satisfaction with careers, partners, and children; perceptions of life stress and pleasure; and number of roles held. Higher self-esteem and greater job satisfaction were associated with holding more roles. Marital and parental satisfaction were not…

  16. Who Is Your Successful Aging Role Model?

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela S; Jung, Seojung; Damarin, Amanda K; Mirpuri, Sheena; Spini, Dario

    2017-03-01

    Having a role model of successful aging may contribute to views on aging. This article investigated the nature and correlates of young, middle-aged, and older adults' successful aging role models. One hundred and fifty-one individuals aged 18-99 were asked whether they had a role model of successful aging and if so, the reasons for their choice. Open-ended answers were coded for recurring themes. Views on aging and attitudes toward own aging were assessed with questionnaires. Eighty-five percent of participants indicated at least one role model. Most mentioned role models from their family, including parents and grandparents. Role models were gender matched. Most frequent reasons for model choices were health, activities, and social resources. Participants with family role models had less negative views on aging. Mediation analyses confirmed that family role models were associated with more reasons for role model choice, which in turn was associated with less negative views on aging. Furthermore, the effect of reasons on attitudes toward own aging was mediated by negative views on aging. Young, middle-aged, and older adults have role models for successful aging. Links between role model features and views on aging suggest that role models may be useful in promoting successful aging.

  17. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  18. Gender, Gender Role, and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.; And Others

    This study examined the importance of gender and gender role in understanding self-perceptions of body image. Male and female college students (N=166) who differed in gender role as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, a new measure of body image containing 140 items which fit a 3 x 3 matrix that…

  19. Sexual Stratification and Sex-Role Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanFossen, Beth Ensiminger

    1977-01-01

    Data on sex-role values of a sample of college women are examined to ascertain the effect of family structure, social class, and religion on sex-role values, and to support a structural theory of sex-role socialization. (Author)

  20. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  1. Identifying Role Diffusion in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astramovich, Randall L.; Hoskins, Wendy J.; Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Bartlett, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    Role ambiguity in professional school counseling is an ongoing concern despite recent advances with comprehensive school counseling models. The study outlined in this article examined role diffusion as a possible factor contributing to ongoing role ambiguity in school counseling. Participants included 109 graduate students enrolled in a…

  2. The efficacy of midwifery role models.

    PubMed

    Bluff, Rosalind; Holloway, Immy

    2008-09-01

    to explore the influence of midwifery role models on the role that student midwives learn. a qualitative approach using specifically grounded theory, was adopted. Data were collected by means of unstructured tape-recorded interviews, and analysed using the constant comparative method. South of England. 20 student midwives undertaking either an 18-month pre-registration shortened programme or a 3-4-year long programme were included in the study, along with 17 midwives practising in a variety of settings. students learn the role of midwife in a changing culture, in which some midwives practise autonomously and others continue to rely on doctors to make their decisions. Students emulate the role of the midwife with whom they work. This suggests that all midwives are effective role models. Midwives who demonstrate the role of handmaiden to the doctor are inappropriate role models. They perpetuate a culture of midwifery that neither meets professional expectations nor the needs of women. Because they have power, students emulate these role models when in their presence. Midwives who practise autonomously are appropriate and influential role models. From these role models, students learn how to become autonomous practitioners. They emulate the practice of these role models because they want to, and intimate that they will continue to do so when their name is entered on the Nursing and Midwifery Council Professional Register. if learning inappropriate behaviours are to be avoided, attention needs to be paid to role modelling.

  3. Family Roles, Alcoholism, and Family Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Karola M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines family roles in college undergraduates (N=748). Comparing role identification found no differences between children of alcoholics (ACOA) and non-ACOAs. Differences were found in participants from dysfunctional families. Results suggest a need for clinicians to re-think the use of role conceptualization in therapeutic work with ACOAs, with…

  4. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  5. Male Roles in Mid-Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jessica Field

    1979-01-01

    A review of research literature in the area of male roles and middle age suggests that adherence to the traditional male role may be deleterious to readjustment during middle-age transitions. Traditional roles require men to have characteristics that are questioned during the middle years. (Author)

  6. The Counselor and Student Discipline: Suggested Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickel, Frank; O'Neill, Maude

    1979-01-01

    Provides summary and analysis of literature on the counselor's role in school discipline. Roles are grouped into six categories: mediator, ombudsman, consultant, psychological educator, special program developer, and counselor. Counselors may find roles that satisfy the needs of their students and are appropriate to their own personalities and…

  7. Relating to Children: Gays as Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Dorothy I.

    1978-01-01

    A review of the literature on role modeling leads to the conclusions that children internalize particular traits from a variety of role models and that gays are more likely to serve as nontraditional sex-role models than as determiners of same-sex sexual preference. (Author/WI)

  8. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  9. Role Interaction: The Salt in the Soup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbane-Flash, Marian T.

    This case study illustrates and expands upon the principle that innovation efforts involve both role change and change in role interrelationships, changes that (ideally) will be supportive of the innovation effort, but which may--if duplication, gaps among roles, or tension arise--weaken or destroy the effort. A planning effort in the Cleveland…

  10. Role-Performance and Language-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1975-01-01

    Role playing in language teaching uses language as a means of communication, treats language as part of a larger behavioral unit and places language in a situational context. Levels of role performance include functional, actional, acquired, and ascribed; levels of role adoption are imitation and internalization. (CHK)

  11. Roles of Variables in Three Programming Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, J.; Ben-Ari, M.; Byckling, P.; Gerdt, P.; Kulikova, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Roles can be assigned to occurrences of variables in programs according to a small number of stereotypical patterns of use. Studies on explicitly teaching roles to novices learning programming have shown that roles are an excellent pedagogical tool for clarifying the structure and meaning of programs and that their use improves students'…

  12. The Changing Role of the Secondary Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Rebecca H.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Childress, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the current role of the principal, how the role has changed, and how it should change. It also suggests that the principal shortage is an unintended consequence of these changes. In a national study, practitioners identified 45 descriptors of the principal's role. The analysis of the descriptors revealed four themes: role…

  13. Cumulus role in tropical circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the effects of cumulus clouds upon their surroundings, and the interaction of the cumulus scale of motion with the larger scales of motion in the tropics. Charney and Eliassen (1964) have conducted a study of the growth of the hurricane depression and proposed the CISK (Conditional Instability of the Second Kind) mechanism. The CISK concept was used in several of the pioneering models of hurricanes and tropical disturbances. Since the 1960's, the CISK concept has been generalized and extended. However, the feedback between convection and the large-scale flow is still positive. In the present investigation the philosophy is extended to a negative feedback which contributes to the stability (mainly in direction) of the trade winds. Attention is given to the classical Ekman layer and early CISK, cumulus momentum transports, the role of cumuli in the trade-wind moisture and heat budgets, the trade wind model, and the equatorial trough and hot tower hypothesis.

  14. Role of Inflammation in Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo-Garcia, J. L.; Asencio-Duran, M.; Pastora-Salvador, N.; Vinciguerra, P.; Romano, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation originating from infection of the vitreous cavity is called endophthalmitis. Attention has been focused on the epidemiologic, microbiologic reports, and treatment options; unfortunately, the role of the host immune reaction in the visual function damage is still not well understood. Endophthalmitis occurs most frequently after cataract surgery. In this paper we review the published literature regarding inflammatory mediators and apoptosis during the course of endophthalmitis. Toll-like receptors, cytokines, high-mobility group box 1 proteins, aB-crystallin and apoptosis have been studied during clinical and experimental cases of endophthalmitis. Further understanding of the host-immune reaction to vitreous infection is essential for the development of new therapies. The use of intravitreal antibiotics and corticosteroids, vitrectomy and systemic antibiotics for the preservation of visual function is still discouraging. PMID:22973073

  15. The Role of Coherent Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    Many interesting astronomical objects, such as galaxies, molecular clouds, PDRs, star - forming regions, protostars, evolved stars, planets, and comets, have rich submillimeter spectra. In order to avoid line blending, and to be able to resolve the line shape, it is often necessary to measure these spectra at high resolution. This paper discusses the relative advantages and limitations of coherent and direct detection for high resolution spectroscopy in the submillimeter and far - infrared. In principle, direct detection has a fundamental sensitivity advantage. In practice, it is di.cult to realize this advantage given the sensitivities of existing detectors and reasonable constraints on the instrument volume. Thus, coherent detection can be expected to play an important role in submillimeter and far - infrared astrophysics well into the future.

  16. Roles of the Team Physician.

    PubMed

    Kinderknecht, James

    2016-07-01

    The roles of the team physician are much more than providing medical coverage at a sport's event. The team physician has numerous administrative and medical responsibilities. The development of an emergency action plan is an essential administrative task as an example. The implementation of the components of this plan requires the team physician to have the necessary medical knowledge and skill. An expertise in returning an athlete to play after an injury or other medical condition is a unique attribute of the trained team physician. The athlete's return to participation needs to start with the athlete's safety and best medical interests but not inappropriately restrict the individual from play. The ability to communicate on numerous levels needs to be a characteristic of the team physician. There are several potential ethical conflicts the team physician needs to control. These conflicts can create unique medicolegal issues. The true emphasis of the team physician is to focus on what is best for the athlete.

  17. Role of proteins in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Chvapli, M; Eckmayer, Z

    1985-04-01

    Synopsis The review critically evaluates the safety and effectiveness of proteins or peptides in cosmetic formulations designed for skin and hair care. Special attention is paid to soluble collagen and the use of this fibrillar protein in combination with detergents. The authors indicate various misconceptions on the mechanism of the effect of collagen and possible risks if the formulations containing collagen are not used on intact skin. Besides the moisturizing effect of collagen on the stratum corneum, the formation of a protective layer on the surface of the skin or hair, and the formation of complexes with detergents and the mechanisms of the effectiveness of this protein are considered. Le role des proteines dans les cosmetiques.

  18. Managing pipeline systems: key roles.

    PubMed

    Dillow, Geoff

    2013-04-01

    While the UK has an enviable safety record in the management of medical gas systems, it is only via strict adherence to the four tenets - 'continuity, adequacy, identity, and quality' - embodied within Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: 2006 - 'Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' (MGPS) that we can be certain that patients will not be harmed by these systems. So says Geoff Dillow, a former training head at the forerunner to today's Eastwood Park, the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, and co-author of the HTM, who has over 35 years' professional experience in assessing medical gas systems for compliance. In the first of four HEJ guidance articles on 'Managing Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' planned for coming months, he examines the critical role of the MGPS Permit to Work System (PTWS), and describes the parts played by those involved in its implementation and day-to-day management.

  19. [Role of malnutrition on immunity].

    PubMed

    Nezu, R; Nakahara, K

    1994-02-01

    Although the relationship between starvation and reduced resistance to infection has been suggested by historical accounts of famines and pestilence and by recent epidemiologic studies, the concept of nutritional deficiency causing impairment of immunocompetence is relatively recent. In PEM (protein-energy malnutrition), most of the host defence mechanisms are breached, especially manifested in reduced cell-mediated immunity. One plausible reason is the reduction in mature fully differentiated T lymphocytes. Recent immunological methods made it possible to analyze its precise mechanism and process in detail. Naturally occurring states of malnutrition are difficult to interpret largely because deficiencies usually involve multiple dietary factors. It is obvious that single nutrients can only be analyzed in defined and controlled animal experiments. Role of micronutrients such as zinc, iron, and vitamins, specific amino acids such as arginine, glutamine, and fat on immunological responses have been paid attention on their specific actions and some of them have been investigated in humans as well.

  20. The evolutionary role of gravity.

    PubMed

    Dubinin, N P; Vaulina, E N

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the part played by gravity in development in the organic world shows that this factor has had an impact on evolution. All terrestrial organisms, including man, have adapted themselves to gravity by developing a number of important features of their composition and functions. Variations of gravitational field in any direction bring about numerous changes in organisms, ranging from metabolism to changes in more conservative systems which also include hereditary structures. Gravitational forces determine the form and the size of organisms, the development of skeletal supporting organs, and energetics. The study of the role of gravity in the variability of the organic world will be of great importance for long-term systems of life support and for work on space orbital stations or at bases on the moon and planets where gravitational forces may differ greatly those from on the earth.

  1. Cumulus role in tropical circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the effects of cumulus clouds upon their surroundings, and the interaction of the cumulus scale of motion with the larger scales of motion in the tropics. Charney and Eliassen (1964) have conducted a study of the growth of the hurricane depression and proposed the CISK (Conditional Instability of the Second Kind) mechanism. The CISK concept was used in several of the pioneering models of hurricanes and tropical disturbances. Since the 1960's, the CISK concept has been generalized and extended. However, the feedback between convection and the large-scale flow is still positive. In the present investigation the philosophy is extended to a negative feedback which contributes to the stability (mainly in direction) of the trade winds. Attention is given to the classical Ekman layer and early CISK, cumulus momentum transports, the role of cumuli in the trade-wind moisture and heat budgets, the trade wind model, and the equatorial trough and hot tower hypothesis.

  2. Interoperability and the Federal Role

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, Dan; Irwin, Chris; Widergren, Steven E.

    2010-07-25

    A smart grid is capable of integrating a broad array of generation resources and enables the participation of demand side resources in reliable system operation. To cost effectively realize this flexibility, the associated devices and systems need to connect and interact simply and reliably. Interoperability is the important ingredient to make this happen. Because the electric system transcends organizational boundaries between generators, electricity delivery companies, end-users, and other service providers, advancing interoperability between these organizations can be difficult to justify by individual organizations. But given the importance of a smart electric system to meet national economic, societal, and environmental objectives, a federal role is taking shape in the United States to improve the integration of automation elements and thus make smart grid a reality

  3. Patient advocacy: the technologist's role.

    PubMed

    Church, Elizabeth J

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the various ways in which imaging professionals can demonstrate patient advocacy on a day-to-day basis and throughout their careers. Advocacy encompasses a wide range of attitudes and activities, and implementing its principles can bring new enthusiasm to the workplace and increase job satisfaction. After completing this article, readers will: Describe the fundamental aspects of advocacy. Know how to handle conflict and explain why conflict is necessary. Understand the challenges to advocacy. Apply patient advocacy in the context of diagnostic imaging. Recognize the radiologic technologist's important role in ensuring patient safety. Identify how professional codes and standards, as well as federal and state laws, encourage advocacy efforts.

  4. Caregiver role strain of older workers.

    PubMed

    Beitman, Candace L; Johnson, Jennifer L; Clark, Adrienne L; Highsmith, Sharon R; Burgess, Amy L; Minor, Megan C; Stir, Aimee L

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure role strain in older adult workers who were also caregivers of frail elders according to Komarovsky's role strain theory, and to determine whether different patterns of role strain exist for male worker-caregivers than females. Researchers developed the Job-Caregiver Role Strain Scale Survey, which was adapted from a survey that measured role strain in working parents and spouses. Surveys were distributed to 11 male and 34 female older workers who were also caregivers. A factor analysis was completed, which isolated four factors of role strain. Researchers named the factors time management and arrangements, health and competing role demands, low rewards, and reactions to perceptions. Role strain in older adult worker-caregivers is complex and involves multiple variables. A discriminant function analysis predicted differences in the way older male and female worker-caregivers perceived role strain. Use of role strain theory can assist employers and occupational therapists in developing and maintaining work environments that support not only the older employee's work performance, but participation in the role of elder caregiver as well.

  5. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  6. Curriculum change: the importance of team role.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, D; Bligh, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment.

  7. Gender Role Conflict, Professional Role Confidence, and Intentional Persistence in Engineering Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…

  8. From "Mentor" to "Role Model": Scaling the Involvement of STEM Professionals through Role Model Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Jennifer; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Mentors and role models can play a significant role in high school students' motivation to pursue specific careers later in life. Although the use of role models in the classroom is an important research topic, little research has been conducted on scaling up STEM role models reach through the use of video vignettes. This essay outlines a series…

  9. Gender Role Conflict, Professional Role Confidence, and Intentional Persistence in Engineering Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…

  10. Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction among Physical Education Teachers in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Nicholas; Goulimaris, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This study examines role conflict, role ambiguity, and job satisfaction among Greek physical education teachers, and the extent to which role conflict and role ambiguity predict job satisfaction. All members of the sample of 61 physical education teachers were employed in Greek "Sport for all" programs. The standard multiple regression…

  11. The On-Site Mentor of Counseling Interns: Perceptions of Ideal Role and Actual Role Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazovsky, Rivka; Shimoni, Aviva

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of the ideal on-site mentor and the actual mentor's role performance, as perceived by 158 mentor counselors and 171 school counseling interns. Results indicated that the ideal mentor's professional traits were given priority by both groups and that the teacher role was the most salient among role domains. In the actual…

  12. Reference Group Interaction and Sex Role Orientation: A Comparative Analysis by Sex and Mother's Achieved Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeh, Aida K.; Vasko, Catherine

    This paper examines the role of parents and friends (reference groups) in forming college students' sex-role orientations. Emphasis is placed on the mother's domestic, parental, and achieved (professional/occupational) role and on the mother's modeling transmission effect on her daughter's and son's sex-role attitudes. The hypothesis is that…

  13. Role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout in nurses and physicians at a university hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Tulin; Kutanis, Rana Ozen

    2009-12-01

    In many countries currently, health-care professionals experience burnout in their professional life. This study explored the relationship between burnout, and role conflict and role ambiguity in nurses and physicians at a university hospital in Turkey. The data were collected by questionnaires that included sociodemographic variables, Maslach's Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Rizzo's Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scales. Two hundred and fifty one health-care professionals (170 physicians and 81 nurses) responded to the survey. There was a strong positive correlation between the MBI and Rizzo's Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scales. The nurses showed significantly higher levels of role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout compared to the physicians. A multiple regression analysis showed that role conflict and role ambiguity might help to explain the higher level of burnout experienced by the nurses compared to the physicians. Future research is needed to develop preventive measures for the burnout of health-care professionals.

  14. Ritual's role in profound change.

    PubMed

    1995-03-01

    In today's healthcare environment, characterized by downsizing, restructuring, mergers, and acquisitions, organizational cultures and employees are experiencing rapid--and often tense--changes. Ritual can facilitate change by acknowledging it and allowing the grieving process to take its course. The success of an organizational culture change can depend on whether the organization and its members have been given an opportunity to grieve. Until they grieve their losses, people cannot embrace the new. Organizational leaders who have survived downsizing must come to grips with their own survivor status first and then lead others in the organization through the current painful but irrevocable shift in their relationship to the organization. The use of ritual helps organizational survivors see the connection between the grieving process and their survivor symptoms of denial, anger, depression, guilt, fear, insecurity, anxiety, and uncertainty. A good ritual should allow those present to rise above barriers that separate, worries that overburden, and blindness that limits and to gather as one with God. As a rule, a good ritual is participative and recognizes the audience's diversity. The ritual should not just address those present but invite them to act, pray, or sing. Ritual is an important way to provide a structure that allows people to express their emotions. For leaders, it can be a visible way to acknowledge grief and show support for organizational members. For ritual to have any meaning, key leaders need to be present and perhaps have a role in the creation and enactment of the ritual.

  15. Osteoporosis: the role of micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2005-05-01

    Osteoporosis and low bone mass are currently estimated to be a major public health threat. Adequate nutrition plays a major role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis; the micronutrients of greatest importance are calcium and vitamin D. Calcium has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone mass at all ages, although the results are not always consistent. Higher doses than the current US recommendation (600 IU) of vitamin D in the elderly (age > or = 65 y) may actually be required for optimal bone health (800-1000 IU/d). The elderly can clearly benefit from increased vitamin D intakes; however, the potential importance of vitamin D in peak bone mass is just being investigated. Vitamin D has been related to falls, with supplementation reducing the number of falls. There are clear fracture benefits demonstrated in randomized clinical trials of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. The other micronutrient needs for optimizing bone health can be easily met by a healthy diet that is high in fruits and vegetables to ensure adequate intakes for magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin K, and other potentially important nutrients. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the importance of adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (easily monitored by serum 25(OH)D) for optimal bone health, as well as the prevention of falls and fractures. In addition, a healthy diet that includes 5 servings a day of fruits and vegetables should optimize the intake of micronutrients required for bone health.

  16. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  17. Neuroprotective Role of Natural Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Spagnuolo, Carmela; Napolitano, Marianna; Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Milito, Alfonsina; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases cause a progressive functional alteration of neuronal systems, resulting in a state of dementia which is considered one of the most common psychiatric disorders of the elderly. Dementia implies an irreversible impairment of intellect that increases with age causing alteration of memory, language and behavioral problems. The most common form, which occurs in more than half of all cases, is Alzheimer's disease, characterized by accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stresses have been considered as a hallmark of Alzheimer disease, playing a crucial role in neurotoxicity. For this reason, an adequate antioxidant strategy may improve the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. Several studies support the neuroprotective abilities of polyphenolic compounds resulting in neuronal protection against injury induced by neurotoxins, ability to suppress neuroinflammation and the potential to promote memory, learning and cognitive functions. We critically reviewed here the therapeutic potential of pure herbal compounds (e.g., green tea polyphenol (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, curcumin, quercetin and others) and extracts enriched in polyphenols showing the most promising neuroprotective effects. We are also presenting data on the ability of an extract derived from elderberry, Sambucus nigra, possessing elevated polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity to protect neuronal cells against oxidizing agents.

  18. Roles of Lipids in Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Endo, Kaichiro; Wada, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes in cyanobacterial cells and chloroplasts of algae and higher plants are the sites of oxygenic photosynthesis. The lipid composition of the thylakoid membrane is unique and highly conserved among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Major lipids in thylakoid membranes are glycolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, and the phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol. The identification of almost all genes involved in the biosynthesis of each lipid class over the past decade has allowed the generation and isolation of mutants of various photosynthetic organisms incapable of synthesizing specific lipids. Numerous studies using such mutants have revealed that these lipids play important roles not only in the formation of the lipid bilayers of thylakoid membranes but also in the folding and assembly of the protein subunits in photosynthetic complexes. In addition to the studies with the mutants, recent X-ray crystallography studies of photosynthetic complexes in thylakoid membranes have also provided critical information on the association of lipids with photosynthetic complexes and their activities. In this chapter, we summarize our current understanding about the structural and functional involvement of thylakoid lipids in oxygenic photosynthesis.

  19. Role of carnitine in disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient that plays a vital role in energy production and fatty acid metabolism. Vegetarians possess a greater bioavailability than meat eaters. Distinct deficiencies arise either from genetic mutation of carnitine transporters or in association with other disorders such as liver or kidney disease. Carnitine deficiency occurs in aberrations of carnitine regulation in disorders such as diabetes, sepsis, cardiomyopathy, malnutrition, cirrhosis, endocrine disorders and with aging. Nutritional supplementation of L-carnitine, the biologically active form of carnitine, is ameliorative for uremic patients, and can improve nerve conduction, neuropathic pain and immune function in diabetes patients while it is life-saving for patients suffering primary carnitine deficiency. Clinical application of carnitine holds much promise in a range of neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, hepatic encephalopathy and other painful neuropathies. Topical application in dry eye offers osmoprotection and modulates immune and inflammatory responses. Carnitine has been recognized as a nutritional supplement in cardiovascular disease and there is increasing evidence that carnitine supplementation may be beneficial in treating obesity, improving glucose intolerance and total energy expenditure. PMID:20398344

  20. [Acne vulgaris. Role of diet].

    PubMed

    Melnik, B

    2010-02-01

    The epidemic-like high prevalence of acne of more than 85% of adolescents exposed to westernized life style points to the role of nutritional factors. Insulinotropic foods, especially milk, dairy products and carbohydrates with high glycemic index and smoking lead to pathological exaggeration of already physiologically increased growth factor signaling of puberty. Food-derived growth factors activate the oncogenic phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, which increases androgen receptor transcriptional activity and de-represses FoxO1-suppressed target genes of follicular keratinocyte proliferation and sebaceous lipogenesis. Thus, acne is the visible metabolic syndrome of skin exaggerated by growth factor signaling of westernized malnutrition. These insights allow a new classification of western life style acne as acne alimentaris and provide the rationale for dietary intervention. All efforts should be undertaken to eliminate the insulinotropic effector mechanism of milk in order to reduce the prevalence of acne and even more serious civilization diseases associated with malnutrition-dependent oncogenic signal transduction.

  1. The expanding role of immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Martin-Liberal, Juan; Ochoa de Olza, María; Hierro, Cinta; Gros, Alena; Rodon, Jordi; Tabernero, Josep

    2017-02-11

    The use of agents able to modulate the immune system to induce or potentiate its anti-tumour activity is not a new strategy in oncology. However, the development of new agents such as immune checkpoint inhibitors has achieved unprecedented efficacy results in a wide variety of tumours, dramatically changing the landscape of cancer treatment in recent years. Ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab or atezolizumab are now standard of care options in several malignancies and new indications are being approved on a regular basis in different tumours. Moreover, there are many other novel immunotherapy strategies that are currently being assessed in clinical trials. Agonists of co-stimulatory signals, adoptive cell therapies, vaccines, virotherapy and others have raised interest as therapeutic options against cancer. In addition, many of these novel approaches are being developed both in monotherapy and as part of combinatory regimes in order to synergize their activity. The results from those studies will help to define the expanding role of immunotherapy in cancer treatment in a forthcoming future.

  2. Role of sulphate in development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul Anthony

    2013-09-01

    Sulphate contributes to numerous processes in mammalian physiology, particularly during development. Sulphotransferases mediate the sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of numerous compounds, including steroids, glycosaminoglycans, proteins, neurotransmitters and xenobiotics, transforming their biological activities. Importantly, the ratio of sulphonated to unconjugated molecules plays a significant physiological role in many of the molecular events that regulate mammalian growth and development. In humans, the fetus is unable to generate its own sulphate and therefore relies on sulphate being supplied from maternal circulation via the placenta. To meet the gestational needs of the growing fetus, maternal blood sulphate concentrations double from mid-gestation. Maternal hyposulphataemia has been linked to fetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational fetal loss in mice. Disorders of sulphonation have also been linked to a number of developmental disorders in humans, including skeletal dysplasias and premature adrenarche. While recognised as an important nutrient in mammalian physiology, sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. In part, this may be due to technical challenges in measuring sulphate with standard pathology equipment and hence the limited findings of perturbed sulphate homoeostasis affecting human health. This review article is aimed at highlighting the importance of sulphate in mammalian development, with basic science research being translated through animal models and linkage to human disorders.

  3. The role of hydrogen sulfide in burns.

    PubMed

    Akter, Farhana

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a novel gasotransmitter that has been shown to play a major role in regulating vascular tone. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide in inflammation, sepsis and burns has only recently been studied. In animal studies, hydrogen sulfide has been shown to play a role in both promoting and inhibiting inflammation. Understanding the role of H2S in sepsis and shock is particularly important due to the high mortality associated with both conditions. In animal sepsis models, hydrogen sulfide appears to increase survival. Severe burns are associated with an inflammatory response that causes increased permeability and edema. Currently, there are few studies that have examined the exact role of hydrogen sulfide in burns. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide in inflammation enables us to hypothesize its role in burns. This review highlights the role of hydrogen sulfide in the mechanisms of action underlying inflammation, wound healing and sepsis as well as examining the potential role of hydrogen sulfide in burns. The authors of this article hope that this review will stimulate research to discover the exact role of this fascinating molecule in burns.

  4. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty.

    PubMed

    Specht, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience. © 2013.

  5. Climate hazards, adaptation and "resilience" of societies (early Little Ice Age, west of France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athimon, Emmanuelle; Maanan, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    exports of wine or salt to finance the restoration of the bridges. So it appears that these societies have been able to adapt through a collective memory, a lifestyle, a significant perception of risks, a territory management, the construction of infrastructures, etc. Key words : Little Ice Age, West of France, climate hazards, resilience, adaptation. This work was supported by grants from the Fondation de France through the research program « Quels littoraux pour demain? ».

  6. Recent marine deposits reconstruction of two depositional environments of the French Atlantic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouzet, Pierre; Maanan, Mohamed; Schmidt, Sabine; Athimon, Emmanuelle; Robin, Marc

    2017-04-01

    wave of 1924 and iii) at 65 cm, the presence of another coarse pebble layer is attributed to a series of severe storms associated with coastal flooding episodes between 1910 and 1913. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge Isabelle Billy (EPOC, University of Bordeaux 1) for XRF spectrometric core scanner analysis. This work was supported by grants from the Fondation de France through the research program « Quels littoraux pour demain? » and OR2C PDL regional framework.

  7. The neuromodulative role of earthing.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Paweł; Sokal, Karol

    2011-11-01

    Neuromodulation is a process of inhibition, stimulation, modification and regulation or therapeutic alteration of activity, electrically and chemically in the peripheral, central or autonomic nervous systems. Direct electric current or electric field alternates the function of nervous system. Coupling the human organism with the Earth directly or via a wire conductor changes the electric potential not only on the surface of the body but also inside it, changing the potential of electric environment of the human organism. Earthing refers to a direct contact with the Earth with bare feet or contact with the Earth with the use of conductive wire attached to the human body during sleeping, or daily activities. During earthing this electric potential equals to electric potential of the Earth and the value of it depends on location, time, atmospheric conditions, moisture of the surface of the Earth. The earthing which changes the density of negative charge in electric environment of the human body influences physiological processes. Our medical hypothesis states that contact with the Earth (earthing) directly or via a conductive wire plays role as a neuromodulative factor, probably primary, which enables the nervous system to be better adapted to the demands of organism and ambient environment. It helps to restore natural, electrical status of the electrical environment of the organism and thus the nervous system. Earthing generates immediate changes in electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (SEMG), and somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEPs). We hypothesize that earthing through its complex action on bioelectrical environment of human organism and alternations in electrolyte concentrations regulates correct functioning of the nervous system. Earthing significantly influences on the electrical activity of the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Life's role in environmental regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kump, L. R.

    2016-12-01

    The fusion of geological and biological perspectives on the operation of the Earth system is revolutionizing the way we think about the interactions of life and environment. No longer does life simply adapt to environmental change; those adaptations in turn modify the environment. Emerging from these interactions is the possibility of environmental regulation, the essence of Lovelock's Gaia Hypothesis. The long-term carbon cycle, for example, reflects a balance between the sources and sinks of carbon including volcanism, weathering of rocks exposed subaerially or on the seafloor, carbonate mineral formation, and the burial of organic carbon. The traditional view of these processes limits biological influences to the production and remineralization of organic matter and the formation of mineral skeletons. With the geobiological revolution we now also recognize the important role biological activity plays in accelerating weathering processes. Weathering rates depend on a variety of factors that we represent in numerical models with rate laws we adapt from inorganic chemistry. These can be characterized as zero-order (independent), first-order (linear), etc. and these functions are all monotonic. Yet one of the hallmark features of life is that it responds to changes in its environment parabolically: rates of physiological processes exhibit minima, optima, and maxima with respect to environment variables (temperature, pH, salinity, pO2, pCO2, . . .). Incorporation of physiological-style rate laws, and in general the explicit representation of life in models of Earth surface processes, demonstrates how the biota influence environmental stability on geologic time scales.

  9. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  10. The Role of Physicists in Policy Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    Since World War II, physicists have been involved in various aspects of national life. The roles played have included: 1) Pure or applied researcher, 2) Advisor to policy makers, and 3) Congressman. Today there are many challenges and questions that the United States faces and scientists, physicists included, are often asked on how these challenges should be addressed. In addressing these concerns what is the ``proper'' role that scientists should play? Do scientists even know what the possible roles are? This talk will briefly address the possible roles that scientists play and what other avenues of input go into the making of policy.

  11. Key questions for conducting role delineation research.

    PubMed

    Taub, Alyson; Gilmore, Gary D; Olsen, Larry K; Connell, Dave

    2011-06-01

    Role delineation research for the verification of professional competencies is essential in many professions to promote quality assurance and support capacity building and workforce development. In this article, guidance is provided about key aspects of role delineation research. The information contained in this article focuses on 13 key questions within three selected research phases when attempting to identify and verify the roles that are inherent within any given profession. The major sections in the paper include planning the research, collecting and analyzing the data, interpreting findings, and considering the future. Recommendations and examples related to each of the important questions are provided to assist others undertaking role delineation research.

  12. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.

  13. Role ambiguity and role conflict in nurse case managers: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amy C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to critically examine the relationship between the transition from a direct caregiver to a nurse case manager role and the perceived levels of role ambiguity and role conflict. Nurse case managers in acute care, postacute care, and managed care settings. Nurses can expect to experience substantial role ambiguity and role conflict as they take on the case manager role, primarily because of inadequate role definition, unexpected ethical challenges, and lack of prior insight into the case manager role. Role ambiguity and role conflict may impact nurse case managers' job satisfaction and job performance. Well-designed broad-scale descriptive studies are needed to further explicate the relationship between transition from direct caregiver to nurse case manager roles and the experience of role ambiguity and role conflict. Nurses transitioning from direct caregiver to nurse case manager roles should be systematically prepared to identify and manage specific ethical challenges commonly encountered by case managers. Further development of a nursing theoretical foundation for case management would be very useful in helping caregivers understand that as case managers, they remain practicing nurses with all the inherent rights and responsibilities of professional nursing.

  14. Valuing the person or valuing the role? Critique of social role valorization theory.

    PubMed

    Elks, M A

    1994-08-01

    The view was presented that social role valorization is not an adequate reformulation and replacement for the principle of normalization due to (a) inconsistencies in application of a distinction between valuing the person and valuing the person's social role, (b) the fact that valued social roles do not automatically lead to culturally valued lives and identities, (c) social role valorization not being substantially less "trans-empirical" than normalization, and (d) the inadequacy of valued social roles in providing defense against the dynamics of social devaluation. The term social valorization, in which the person and role are valued, is offered as a possibly more coherent replacement for the term normalization.

  15. The perspective of medical students regarding the roles and characteristics of a clinical role model.

    PubMed

    Bahmanbijari, Bahareh; Beigzadeh, Amin; Etminan, Abbas; Najarkolai, Atena Rahmati; Khodaei, Marzieh; Askari, Seyed Mostafa Seyed

    2017-04-01

    As medical students spend most of their time with their clinical teachers and imitate their roles and characteristics during the school year, it is important to identify the roles and characteristics that they find essential in their role models. These traits play a part in their future professions as doctors. The aim of this study was to determine the perspective of students, interns, and residents regarding the roles and characteristics of a clinical role model. In an analytical cross-sectional study, a structured and self-developed questionnaire was completed by 185 medical students at educational hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences during April and May 2015. Participants were selected using convenience sampling method. For data analysis, we used descriptive and inferential statistics. SPSS software version 16 was used as needed. In total, 90 medical students (48.7%), 65 interns (35.1%), and 30 residents (16.2%) participated in this study. Male respondents (n=75) comprised 40.5% and female respondents (n=110) 59.5% of the study sample. The three most important roles of a clinical teacher were organizer role (99.7), teacher role (101.7), and supporter role (109.5) for students, interns, and residents respectively. On the other hand, supporter role (85.4), communicator role (86.4) and organizer role (83.4) were ranked as the least important for students, interns, and residents respectively. There was no significant association among the three batches and the roles of a clinical teacher (p>0.05). Conversely, Females rated the roles of a clinical teacher significantly higher than males (p<0.05). As teachers are frequently perceived by students as role models in medical schools, great attention should be given to their roles. Teachers must be aware that their roles have an impact on students' professional development and performance.

  16. Higher Education Leadership Roles in Knowledge Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffery S.; Marion, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the critical roles of leadership in higher education and to define how such roles enable an environment that embraces the demands of a knowledge-based organization. Design/methodology/approach: Through interviews with executive leadership in several higher education institutions, the ontology of knowledge management was…

  17. Roles in Literacy Learning: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovey, Duane R., Ed.; Kerber, James E., Ed.

    Refining and better understanding the roles parents, teachers, administrators, and researchers play in helping children learn to process written language is the focus of this book. Part 1 considers the role of the parents and includes the following articles: "Learning to Read: It Starts in the Home" (David B. Doake): "Let's Read…

  18. Reserve Roles in Joint Medical Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-04-01

    for alert, or for training when not deployed. As a wartime mission, there is potential for an AC/RC mix of personnel fulfilling rapid response team ... roles , should this be developed as a Navy role. 18 Evacuation Transport The diversity of operating locations and the rapid operational tempo military

  19. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  20. Faculty Role Categories: A Dean's Management Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Michael G.; Sigerstad, Thomas; Kuffel, Thomas S.; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Keaton, Paul N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors' goal was to examine faculty roles from a role-theoretic perspective based on a typology of faculty categories. Based on an assessment of specific faculty needs within each category, the authors proposed a differentiated management model for academic deans to address specific segments of the faculty work environment.…

  1. Veterinary Science Departments: Their Role in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Terrence M.

    1977-01-01

    The roles played by veterinary science departments are creditable and important, says this head of a department of veterinary science. Those roles will reflect an absolute increase in participation with veterinary schools on a regional and national basis, and a relative increase in direct involvement in veterinary education. (LBH)

  2. Prioritizing Reading Consultants' Roles in Central Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard A.

    What reading consultants do varies considerably from person to person as there is variability in the role each reading consultant perceives as his or her responsibility. To assist reading consultants in prioritizing their roles to meet their constituents' needs, 113 elementary teachers enrolled in graduate reading classes at the University of…

  3. Students' Roles during Peer Response Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sandra Sim Phek; Samuel, Moses

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the types of roles played by students during peer response sessions and investigated how the students' roles facilitated learning. This qualitative case study involved six Grade 10 mixed-proficiency level students from a secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected through multiple sources. The findings indicated that the…

  4. The Changing Role of the Graduate Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Kenneth L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Three graduate deans at large state supported universities (University of Oklahoma, University of Washington, and University of Louisville, Kentucky) who are heavily involved in both graduate education and research administration examine trends in higher education as applied to their roles. Areas in which the role of the graduate dean has changed…

  5. The Role of Congress in Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, William J.

    An examiniation of past and recent federal legislation affecting American Indians reveals the important role of Congress in developing policy for Indian affairs. The role of Congress inititally seemed directed toward providing a legal means of taking Indian land and other resources for the benefit of non-Indians. Subsequent policy has varied…

  6. URBAN DECISION-MAKING, THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, STEPHEN K.

    THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE VARIOUS WAYS IN WHICH THE UNIVERSITY CAN AND SHOULD INFLUENCE URBAN DECISION MAKING. THE CENTRAL UNIVERSITY ROLE IS SENSITIZING THE DECISION MAKERS AND THE CITIZENS TO HUMAN MISERY, SUCH AS BIGOTRY, SQUALOR, DISEASE, UGLINESS, POVERTY, AND IGNORANCE. LONG-RANGE ROLES ARE PINPOINTING THE PROBLEMS URBAN DECISION MAKERS SHOULD…

  7. The surgical aspects of Role 2 Afloat.

    PubMed

    Tye, S; Carnie, R; Chambers, R; Doran, C M; Matthews, J J

    2013-01-01

    The current configuration of the surgical component of the Role 2 Afloat team is described, including an outline of the equipment available. The lessons learned from a recent exercise, where a Role 2 Afloat team was deployed on RFA CARDIGAN BAY are outlined and expanded, emphasising the difficulties of providing damage control surgery in the maritime environment.

  8. The Role of Congress in Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, William J.

    An examiniation of past and recent federal legislation affecting American Indians reveals the important role of Congress in developing policy for Indian affairs. The role of Congress inititally seemed directed toward providing a legal means of taking Indian land and other resources for the benefit of non-Indians. Subsequent policy has varied…

  9. CTE's Role in Workforce Readiness Credentialing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2008-01-01

    The career and technical education (CTE) programs play critical roles in the growth of workforce readiness credentials. This article presents an ACTE issue brief that highlighting the need for workforce readiness credentials, and the role CTE plays in helping students acquire them. CTE is at the forefront of preparing students at all levels for…

  10. The Role of the Adult Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harries-Jenkins, Gwyn

    1982-01-01

    A sociological analysis of the concept of "role" is applied to adult students. The disparity between adult students and teachers' subjective expectations of them is examined. A framework for analyzing student role from social, personal, occupational, and institutional perspectives is presented. (Availability: Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe,…

  11. Multifaceted Role of Calcium in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Patil, Shankargouda

    2017-01-01

    Role of calcium in bone remodeling and tooth remineral-ization is well known. However, calcium also plays a very imperative role in many biochemical reactions, which are essential for normal functioning of cells. The calcium associated tissue homeostasis encompasses activities like proliferation, cell death, cell motility, oxygen, and nutrient supply.

  12. Adding a user and changing user roles

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Webmasters can add users to a web area, and assign or change roles, which define the actions a user is able to take in the web area. Non-webmasters must use a request form to add users and change roles.

  13. Male Acceptance of Female Career Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollender, John; Schafer, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two White, male university students rated five written female role statements matched with videotaped females on an 11-point probability of marriage scale. Preference was given to family-oriented women with some career involvement. Results also indicated interaction among work roles, female physical attractiveness, and male self-esteem. (JCD)

  14. Role Strain in University Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Craig; Bozeman, Barry

    2007-01-01

    One way in which university faculty members' professional lives have become more complex with the advent of contemporary university research centers is that many faculty have taken on additional roles. The authors' concern in this article is to determine the extent to which role strain is experienced by university faculty members who are…

  15. The Online School Librarian: Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Children across the United States of America are maturing in a media-saturated society. Unfortunately, this often results in poor content choices and evaluative skills. North American schools have attempted to address this problem through information literacy skills. One role key to teaching these skills is the role of the school librarian.…

  16. Communication Roles in a Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohland, Grace J.

    A three-phase study spanned five areas of interest: (1) the school as organization and social system, (2) roles and role behavior in organizations, (3) communication structure in organizations, (4) network analysis concepts, and (5) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). In phase one of the study, staff members listed…

  17. The Research Role of a National Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The functional role of a national center for vocational education depends on the people doing the work; consequently, the center sets its own agenda when it makes personal decisions. A center's role should include two elements: in setting its own research agenda, a center should take a broad perspective on vocational education; and a center should…

  18. UNESCO's Role in Global Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comparative Education Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a two-round discussion that centered around the question: "How well has UNESCO framed its own proposed role in meeting Education for All objectives as well as the roles of other UN organizations, national governments, and civil society actors?" The participants reviewed the most recent draft of UNESCO's "Global Action Plan"…

  19. The changing role of the nurse teacher.

    PubMed

    MacCormick, M

    The training of nurses has changed significantly in recent years, as have the role and expectations of nurse teachers and lecturers. In this article, the author suggests the development of a new role which could satisfy the requirements of educators, clinicians and students.

  20. Clarifying the Role of Classroom Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, P. Lynn

    1993-01-01

    The role of educational interpreters for deaf students mainstreamed in regular classes was examined through interviews with 35 educational interpreters. Among concerns were (1) defining their professional role, (2) the variety of sign systems used in schools, (3) their relationships with the students they serve, and (4) professional development.…

  1. The Role of SENCOs as Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tissot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The year 2014 marks an important milestone for the SENCo role. It is the 20-year anniversary of the requirement for schools to have a named person as lead for special educational needs. This article, by Catherine Tissot from the University of Reading, explores the vision of the role as seen in Government guidance and documents and compares this…

  2. Ordinal Position in Role Play Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sharon E.; Cabianca, William A.

    Although the effectiveness of role play and its vicarious learning experiences for counselor training is well documented, little research has focused on the impact of the order of playing the roles on skill development. To investigate the effect of ordinal position, 36 beginning counseling students, 24 female and 12 male, with a median age of 30,…

  3. Invisible Roles of Doctoral Program Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Eva Burns; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of doctoral program specialists in Big Ten universities. Face-to-face interviews with 20 doctoral program specialists employed in institutions in the Big Ten were conducted. Participants were asked to describe their roles within their work place. The doctoral program specialists reported their…

  4. MOTIVATIONAL STRUCTURE AND PERCEIVED ROLE DISPARITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BENNETT, WILLIAM S., JR.

    THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CLASSES OF COGNITIVE PHENOMENA WAS INVESTIGATED, I.E., THE MOTIVATIONAL STRUCTURE AND THE DEGREE OF PERCEIVED ROLE DISPARITY OF TEACHERS. ONE ELEMENT OF MOTIVATION, CALLED "ORIENTATION FOR CHANGE," WAS RELATED TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROLE DISPARITY, INCLUDING "OPTIMISM" OR THE EXTENT IN WHICH THE…

  5. Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families: Childhood Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used retrospective accounts to compare adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), adults who experienced stressful events in childhood not involving parental alcoholism (A-D+), and adults with no reported dysfunction in family of origin (A-D-) with regard to dysfunctional roles adopted as children. Dysfunctional role adoption was more frequent in ACOA…

  6. THE ROLE BEHAVIOR OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS OF THREE ROLE BEHAVIOR ASPECTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS WERE STUDIED, AS FOLLOWS--(1) CLOSENESS OF TEACHER SUPERVISION, (2) SUPPORT OF INNOVATION, AND (3) INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS IN SCHOOL AFFAIRS. SPECIFICALLY, THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS TO BE EXAMINED WERE THE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTS OF ROLE BEHAVIOR IN TERMS OF TEACHER…

  7. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  8. Advertising and Women's Changing Work Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutz, Linda Robinson

    A study was conducted to determine how well the advertising industry portrays the changing work roles of women. Four advertising executives were interviewed to find out their feelings about the changes in women's work roles and what action they were taking to adapt advertising to these changes, while 11 women were interviewed with similar…

  9. Sex-Role Differentiation in Contemporary Communes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minturn, Leigh

    1984-01-01

    Commune residents and university students were asked to compare present and past social interactions in terms of 13 questions derived from differences between nuclear and extended families. Findings confirmed the hypothesis that communal social roles evolve to become similar to those in extended families, with the exception of work roles.…

  10. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  11. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  12. The Role of SENCOs as Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tissot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The year 2014 marks an important milestone for the SENCo role. It is the 20-year anniversary of the requirement for schools to have a named person as lead for special educational needs. This article, by Catherine Tissot from the University of Reading, explores the vision of the role as seen in Government guidance and documents and compares this…

  13. Shifting Roles, Shifting Contexts, Maintaining Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Renee Tipton

    2011-01-01

    This self-study describes the ways in which a move to a different state, university, and academic role has shaped my sense of self as a scholar, teacher educator, and college administrator. I draw from role theory and from conceptions of habitus and field to provide a conceptual lens for interpreting the data and my experiences. I then address two…

  14. Role-Playing in Counselor Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra; Costas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how role-plays impacted 27 counseling students' overall skills as measured by instructor ratings and self-ratings during practice triads in a microskills course. A Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test revealed no significant difference for scripted versus personal concerns role-plays. Students indicated a strong belief that…

  15. Equality by Default: Women in Dual Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ena

    1978-01-01

    The struggle for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the American Constitution is one of the most controversial issues of this era. Discusses the changing role of women amidst a fast-changing society, the styles of those opposing the women's revolution, the debate over women as persons, women in dual roles, and the implications of ERA for the world…

  16. Military Intelligence: Its Role in Counterinsurgency,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-20

    Classification) Military Intellignece : Its Role In Counterinsurgency (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) LTC (P) Julian M. Campbell, Jr, USA 13a. TYPE OF...combat elements. 1MW operations, in a more visible role, serve as a tangible furce muiltiplier which the theater commander can use in the business of

  17. Technological Dependency, Role Stress, and Strain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Robert D.; Jones, Kenneth W.

    This study grew out of interest in how occupational role stress, moderated by personality, affects health--particularly in the area of coronary heart disease. People in organizations are now asking how occupational role demands and technological developments affect employee health. This study examined the effects of an impending shutdown of the…

  18. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  19. The Online School Librarian: Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Children across the United States of America are maturing in a media-saturated society. Unfortunately, this often results in poor content choices and evaluative skills. North American schools have attempted to address this problem through information literacy skills. One role key to teaching these skills is the role of the school librarian.…

  20. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  1. The Federal Role in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Virginia A.

    The federal role in postsecondary education since 1787 is traced. Attention is directed to the types of indirect federal support toward postsecondary education until the first Higher Education Act of 1965, and the kinds of national priorities served by the current federal role in postsecondary education. Future projections and the implications of…

  2. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  3. UNESCO's Role in Global Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comparative Education Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a two-round discussion that centered around the question: "How well has UNESCO framed its own proposed role in meeting Education for All objectives as well as the roles of other UN organizations, national governments, and civil society actors?" The participants reviewed the most recent draft of UNESCO's "Global Action Plan"…

  4. Sex Role Identity and Adjustment during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massad, Christopher M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between sex role identity and two measures of adjustment--self-acceptance and peer acceptance--among adolescents. Sex differences were discovered regarding factors positively associated with self-acceptance. Findings suggest that a model of sex role differentiation during adolescence must recognize differential pressures…

  5. Parental Gender Role Nontraditionalism and Offspring Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Used data from longitudinal study of 471 parents and their adult offspring to examine whether nontraditional gender roles/attitudes among parents were associated with later life outcomes of children. Found very little evidence that mother's participation in labor force, father's participation in household tasks, and parents' gender role attitudes…

  6. The Research Role of a National Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The functional role of a national center for vocational education depends on the people doing the work; consequently, the center sets its own agenda when it makes personal decisions. A center's role should include two elements: in setting its own research agenda, a center should take a broad perspective on vocational education; and a center should…

  7. Role-Playing in Counselor Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra; Costas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how role-plays impacted 27 counseling students' overall skills as measured by instructor ratings and self-ratings during practice triads in a microskills course. A Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test revealed no significant difference for scripted versus personal concerns role-plays. Students indicated a strong belief that…

  8. The Changing Roles of Arts Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushlow, Bonnie B., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The role and expectations of the arts supervisor and administrator have expanded beyond managing personnel and programmatic activities to informing policy decisions. Legislation such as The No Child Left Behind Act, signed by President Bush in 2002, exacerbated this paradigm shift. Thus, the role of arts supervisors and administrators as leaders…

  9. The Changing Roles of Arts Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushlow, Bonnie B., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The role and expectations of the arts supervisor and administrator have expanded beyond managing personnel and programmatic activities to informing policy decisions. Legislation such as The No Child Left Behind Act, signed by President Bush in 2002, exacerbated this paradigm shift. Thus, the role of arts supervisors and administrators as leaders…

  10. University-Based Planning: Faculty Advocacy Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William M.; Thagard, Aubrey

    2001-01-01

    Supports the involvement of university planning faculty in advocacy roles as change agents in urban inner city communities, discussing several roles for urban design professionals in the academic context as advocates or contractors (i.e., planner advocacy in community development, in environmental affairs, and in urban design). (SM)

  11. Government's Role in the National Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulf, William

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the National Research and Education Network (NREN) and the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET), and the role that interagency cooperation and government-industry cooperation have played in their formation. The role of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) and future plans are also…

  12. Role-Playing Methods in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, Mark; Fox, Robert

    This book, one of three Teacher Resource Booklets on Classroom Social Relations and Learning developed at the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge at the University of Michigan, discusses the theoretical background of role playing and gives a step-by-step discussion of how to use role playing in the classroom. There are…

  13. Sociocognitive Roles in Science Group Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Examines students' roles during a long-term collaborative task that required mastering complex sets of cognitive, regulatory, and social skills needed for building knowledge largely from their own and their peers' ideas and observations. Describes the eight prominent sociocognitive roles that emerged from the study. Contains 61 references.…

  14. The Role of Platelets in Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Montoro-García, Silvia; Schindewolf, Marc; Stanford, Sophia; Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Thiele, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Multiple factors contribute to the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Platelets have attracted much interest in arterial cardiovascular disease, whereas their role in VTE has received much less attention. Recent evidence suggests that platelets may play a more important role in VTE than previously anticipated. This review discusses the mechanisms that link platelets with venous thrombotic disease and their potential applications as novel risk factors for VTE. In addition, animal studies and randomized clinical trials that highlight the potential effect of antiplatelet therapy in venous thrombosis are evaluated to assess the role of platelets in VTE. The clinical significance of platelets for VTE risk assessment in specific patient cohorts and their role as a suitable therapeutic target for VTE prevention is acknowledged. The role of platelets in VTE is a promising field for future research.

  15. The team role test: development and validation of a team role knowledge situational judgment test.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Troy V; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Morgeson, Frederick P; Campion, Michael A

    2008-03-01

    The main objectives in this research were to introduce the concept of team role knowledge and to investigate its potential usefulness for team member selection. In Study 1, the authors developed a situational judgment test, called the Team Role Test, to measure knowledge of 10 roles relevant to the team context. The criterion-related validity of this measure was examined in 2 additional studies. In a sample of academic project teams (N = 93), team role knowledge predicted team member role performance (r = .34). Role knowledge also provided incremental validity beyond mental ability and the Big Five personality factors in the prediction of role performance. The results of Study 2 revealed that the predictive validity of role knowledge generalizes to team members in a work setting (N = 82, r = .30). The implications of the results for selection in team environments are discussed. Copyright 2008 APA

  16. Consensus in work role requirements: the influence of discrete occupational context on role expectations.

    PubMed

    Dierdorff, Erich C; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-09-01

    Although role theory has long described how expectations shape role behavior, little empirical research has examined differences among work role requirements and how features of the discrete occupational context may influence the extent to which role expectations are shared among role holders. The authors examined consensus in work role requirements from a sample of over 20,000 incumbents across 98 occupations. They found that consensus systematically decreased as work role requirements ranged from molecular tasks to responsibilities to molar traits. In addition, they found that consensus in these work role requirements was significantly influenced by the amount of interdependence, autonomy, and routinization present in the surrounding task and social contexts. (c) 2007 APA.

  17. Social roles among recruits in Switzerland: Do social roles relate to alcohol use and does role change have an impact?

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Astudillo, Mariana; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Young men are likely to report high levels of alcohol use. Previous studies found a reduction in alcohol use when adopting adult social roles. This study examines the frequency of parenthood, partnership and stable employment among young men in Switzerland. It tests whether the alcohol use of those with adult social roles differs from those without and whether changes in social roles relate to changes in alcohol use. Data was available from 5025 men (20.0 years) at baseline (August 2010 to November 2011) and 15 months later. Changes in social roles and their impact on alcohol use were examined in multiple regression models. At baseline, 15.8% had a job and 4.9% a stable partner, and 1.5% had a child or were expecting one (30.5%, 6.1% and 2.2% at follow-up). Having a partner was associated with a significant decrease in annual frequency of drinking and weekly risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) at follow-up. A higher number of social roles at follow-up was associated with a significant decrease in weekly RSOD. Apart from a significant decrease in weekly RSOD among those remaining in a stable partnership, role development was not found to have significant effects on alcohol use between baseline and follow-up. In Switzerland, an early engagement in permanent social roles is uncommon. Nevertheless, holding single or multiple social roles was commonly associated with reduced alcohol use, although not always significantly so. In western European countries, the engagement in adult social roles is postponed to later ages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The Relationship between Race and Students' Identified Career Role Models and Perceived Role Model Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…

  19. Organizational Success and the Planning Role(s) and Perspectives of a Superintendent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry J.; Kaufman, Roger

    1983-01-01

    Roles, perspectives, and skills of superintendents and their fit to the Organizational Elements Model (OEM) are examined by defining the elements in the model and providing examples of applications, analyzing superintendents' roles in the planning process, and discussing a method of determining the roles of superintendents in different situations.…

  20. The Role of Gender and Gender Role Similarity in Readers' Identification with Story Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.

    1989-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that adult readers would identify with story characters who display a similar gender role orientation to themselves. Findings indicate an interaction between reader's gender role and character's gender role behavior. Davis's (1983) Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Empathic Concern subscale) significantly predicted…

  1. Woman High School Principals: Perspectives on Role Conflict, Role Commitment, and Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative/qualitative study of female public high school principals in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin regarding their experiences with role conflict, role commitment, and job satisfaction. Describes personal and professional characteristics of female high school principals. Finds that role conflict negatively impacts job satisfaction and…

  2. Perceived Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Burnout among Special Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Stephen J.; Iwanicki, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of role conflict and role ambiguity to teacher burnout among 443 urban special education teachers. Role conflict and ambiguity explained a significant amount of variance in feelings of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. While perceived burnout among teachers was moderate, the level varied significantly…

  3. Is a Principal Still a Teacher? Us Women Administrators' Accounts of Role Conflict and Role Discontinuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Tondra L.; Spillane, James P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined 16 US women school administrators' experiences with role conflict and role discontinuity within their first one to five years of transitioning from teaching to administration. Findings from this theory-building, qualitative study indicate that this transition triggered role conflicts that emerged from the participants'…

  4. Nurse Practitioner Role Transition: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    A concept analysis of nurse practitioner (NP) role transition. The Affordable Care Act is expected to provide 32 million Americans with health insurance, and NPs are gaining attention in addressing this increasing demand for healthcare providers. However, there is limited analysis of the transition from registered nurse to NP. Oftentimes, during this transition, there is a shift from an experienced, expert status to an inexperienced, novice status, with a subsequent loss of confidence in one's ability and competence. This can hinder successful role development and affect employment continuity within the first year of practice. NP role transition was examined using Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis. Electronic databases were searched using the terms role transition and nurse practitioner. Thirty articles from nursing, psychology, and business were included. The four defining attributes of NP role transition are absorption of the role, the shift from provider of care to prescriber of care, straddling two identities, and mixed emotions. Personal and environmental antecedents and consequences of the concept are identified. The development of empirical knowledge on NP role transition through further research is important in order for new-to-practice NPs to become high-quality, full-functioning providers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Online role-playing for faculty development.

    PubMed

    Ladhani, Zahra; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Vyas, Rashmi; Iqbal, Mobeen; Tan, Christina; Diserens, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    There has been a rapid growth of online teaching in the past few years, yet the implementation of role-play for formal educational activities in an online setting is growing more slowly. The use of online role-playing for the development of health professions educators is virtually un-documented in the literature. In the project reported here we use role-playing as a method to motivate and increase active participation in an online web-based discussion on community-based medical education (CBME). The Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education & Research (FAIMER(®) ) Institute hosts virtual group discussions for fellows as part of its fellowship programmes, in order to deepen their knowledge base in health professions education and research. In June 2008, a group of seven FAIMER(®) fellows and faculty members moderated an online discussion on CBME using an online role-play exercise with other fellows and faculty members. Out of a total of 102 fellows, 36 (35.3%) participated actively, which exceeded the typical percentage of list server participation. In addition, a rich discussion resulted in a comprehensive report on the goals, challenges, logistical components, role of Health Ministry policy and the possible ethical mandate of CBME in developing countries. Online role-play encouraged distributed participation among a highly diverse international group of participants, supporting the conclusion that role-playing can be used effectively with mid-career health professional faculty members in the online environment. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  6. Transsexual parenthood and new role assumptions.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Elena; Bordin, Elena; Cipolletta, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the parental role of transsexuals and compares this to common assumptions about transsexuality and parentage. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 male-to-female transsexuals and 14 men, half parents and half non-parents, in order to explore four thematic areas: self-representation of the parental role, the description of the transsexual as a parent, the common representations of transsexuals as a parent, and male and female parental stereotypes. We conducted thematic and lexical analyses of the interviews using Taltac2 software. The results indicate that social representations of transsexuality and parenthood have a strong influence on processes of self-representation. Transsexual parents accurately understood conventional male and female parental prototypes and saw themselves as competent, responsible parents. They constructed their role based on affection toward the child rather than on the complementary role of their wives. In contrast, men's descriptions of transsexual parental roles were simpler and the descriptions of their parental role coincided with their personal experiences. These results suggest that the transsexual journey toward parenthood involves a high degree of re-adjustment, because their parental role does not coincide with a conventional one.

  7. Role expansion on interprofessional primary care teams: Barriers of role self-efficacy among clinical associates.

    PubMed

    Giannitrapani, Karleen F; Soban, Lynn; Hamilton, Alison B; Rodriguez, Hector; Huynh, Alexis; Stockdale, Susan; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V

    2016-12-01

    Interprofessional team-based models of primary care that expand the role of clinical associates (CAs) are increasingly adopted in primary care practices. In this study we query team members of a newly implemented patient centered medical home (PCMH) to identify facilitators and barriers of occupational role self-efficacy, a belief of possessing the capacity to execute their new team based role effectively. 79 key informants, members of primary care teams at six Veterans Health Administration (VA) clinics, were interviewed to assess their experiences with implementing expanded roles for CAs. All sites had implemented Patient Aligned Care Teams, the VA's version of PCMH. Three themes that produced the self-efficacy necessary for successful role expansion of CAs were identified: (1) role training (2) time and resources for roles and (3) cross-disciplinary role agreement. Sub-themes emerged around role challenges. Training sub themes included incomplete or limited training, inconsistencies in trainings within a site, and not receiving training with team members. Insufficient resources sub-themes included limited time for expanded tasks, inadequate space, low staffing, and poor task mix. Cross-disciplinary agreement failed to occur specifically when there was insufficient coordination between medicine and nursing leadership about staff roles, poor primary care provider (PCPs) knowledge of the boundaries of staff roles, and lack of synchronicity between staff roles and what PCPs would like staff roles to include. These identified themes have implications for healthcare professionals working in interprofessional teams in a variety of settings and indicate the need for interdisciplinary leadership based solutions. Clarifying the factors that impact self-efficacy for the role expansion of PACT staff can inform strategies for role transformation for enhanced primary care delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  9. Mexican American Adolescents’ Gender Role Attitude Development: The Role of Adolescents’ Gender and Nativity and Parents’ Gender Role Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  10. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  11. The Many Roles of Glutamate in Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    The amino acid glutamate is a major metabolic hub in many organisms and as such is involved in diverse processes in addition to its role in protein synthesis. Nitrogen assimilation, nucleoside, amino acid, and cofactor biosynthesis, as well as secondary natural product formation all utilize glutamate in some manner. Glutamate also plays a role in the catabolism of certain amines. Understanding glutamate's role in these various processes can aid in genome mining for novel metabolic pathways or the engineering of pathways for bioremediation or chemical production of valuable compounds. PMID:26323613

  12. Nurse practitioner roles in Australian healthcare settings.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Grainne; Plummer, Virginia; Boyd, Leanne

    2013-05-01

    There is evidence of support for nurse practitioner (NP) roles in national and international literature. However, despite this, and numerous Australian government feasibility and evaluation studies, barriers to implementing NP roles in mainstream health care and developing them to their full potential remain. A study was undertaken to explore nurse practitioners', managers' and nurse policymakers' perceptions of the roles in general, and this article reports on the findings from the initial survey phase. The article also discusses barriers to full integration and development of NPs.

  13. The Role of Social Media in Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way: an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR ...The Role of Social Media in Crisis Agenda • Contributors List • Definitions • Lessons From Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way...an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR + Platform and Services • Conclusions Best Paper Award Paper

  14. Nursing's role and staffing in accountable care.

    PubMed

    Mensik, Jennifer S

    2013-01-01

    Nurse staffing in a world of health care reform and accountable care is uncertain and creates fear not only for the nurse leaders, but all RNs. As health care reform transforms the environment, so must the role and staffing of nurses. There is still not one right answer or agreed upon manner to nurse staffing of inpatient units. This leaves nurses free to imagine roles and staffing possibilities for the future across the continuum. Including all RNs in conversations, visioning, and problem solving for the future will best prepare the profession for our role in caring for our patients.

  15. The emerging role of educational informatics.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Elizabeth E; Trangenstein, Patricia A

    2009-01-01

    Initial growth in the field of nursing informatics has centered primarily on the clinical setting. Much has been written about the systems developed and evaluated and possible new roles that one can play in the clinical environment. The educational arena has not fared as well. Early attention has been focused on the integration of educational technology or on competency-based skills in informatics according to program levels of students. This paper will focus on the emerging role of educational informatics. Examples will provide nurses with a better understanding of the roles played by the educational informaticist in crafting the science of nursing informatics to produce better nursing education outcomes.

  16. Role stress and role ambiguity in new nursing graduates in Australia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Esther; Hancock, Karen

    2003-06-01

    The first few months of nursing have the potential to be the most challenging and stressful for new nursing graduates. The purpose of the present study was to examine sources of, and changes in, role stress 2-3 months after employment, and 11-12 months later in new graduate nurses. This study also investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and role stress. A factor analysis demonstrated that role ambiguity was the most salient feature of role stress in the first few months, while 10 months later, role overload was the most important factor explaining variance in role stress scores. There was no significant change in role stress scores over time. For the first survey, job satisfaction was significantly negatively correlated with role ambiguity and role stress. In the second survey there was still a significant negative correlation between role ambiguity and job satisfaction, but no significant correlation between role overload and job satisfaction. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for nursing education, practice and future research.

  17. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kiah L; Millsteed, Jeannine; Richmond, Janet E; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Girdler, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working 'sandwich' generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working 'sandwich' generation women.

  18. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance

    PubMed Central

    Girdler, Sonya J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074

  19. Exploring the role of modern day fatherhood.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Spencer; Croninger, Bill; Croninger, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The case is the personal perspective and reflection of a father and his daughter, each individually addressing five key aspects of the role of father, revealing a unique and fundamental family perspective.

  20. The role of the food industry.

    PubMed

    Mettler, A E

    1986-01-01

    The role of the manufacturing food industry in relation to provision of foods for the weanling encompasses 4 main objectives viz. customer satisfaction, safety, providing product information and the maintenance of commercial viability. The effectiveness of the manufacturing food industry to fulfil these roles is judged by the customer wishing to buy for quality and convenience reasons, by the law of the land in meeting legal requirements for safety and labelling and by its generation of profit in terms of commercial viability. Whereas it is commonly expected that industry should fulfil a role in nutrition education this is seen as a primary role of health professionals whilst industry needs to provide full and detailed product information. The industry is highly creative in both its technological innovation and adaptation and works hard at trying to satisfy the requirements of consumers, the industry, health professionals and its critics.

  1. The Role of Social Isolation in Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trout, Deborah L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the literature which relates to the role of social isolation in suicide. Major areas reviewed include theories on suicide and social isolation, measures of social isolation, and empirical studies which concern the relationship of social isolation to suicide. (Author)

  2. Role of succinic acid in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1982-01-01

    Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.

  3. An expanded role for river networks

    Treesearch

    Jonathan P. Benstead; David S. Leigh

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of stream and river area have relied on observations at coarse resolution. Consideration of the smallest and most dynamic streams could reveal a greater role for river networks in global biogeochemical cycling than previously thought.

  4. The Role of the Evaluation Research Broker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doty, Pamela

    1982-01-01

    In its role as a broker between the scientific community and the Congress, the Office of Technology Assessment evaluates the soundness of scientific conclusions for policy makers and ensures that research findings are included in formative policy analysis. (Author)

  5. Ethics of caring and professional roles.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Jens Erik

    2011-03-01

    Normative discussions about modern health care often revolve around principles stating what must not be done or how to ration scarce resources in the name of justice. These are important discussions. However, in order to have an impact on clinical roles, ethical reflection must be able to describe and address the complexities and challenges of modern nursing and doctoring, and maybe even the patient role. A multi-principled approach, such as the one suggested by Beauchamp and Childress, can obviously address almost any such issue, but a great deal of translation is often required in order to address role-related issues. I shall here argue that an ethics of caring is better suited to grasping the big picture when the question is how to create value-informed clinical roles in an era of rapid development.

  6. Development of administrative roles for medical technologists.

    PubMed

    Vittetoe, M C

    1982-09-01

    Highlights in the development of administrative roles for medical technologists have been reviewed. The profession of medical technology advanced through successive increments of education, responsibility, and authority. At the national level the active participation on Boards and agencies led to recognition and respect for the profession. Early in their history, medical technologists were given responsibility for teaching, then for educational administration. Not until the 1940s were medical technologists given roles as laboratory supervisors. After World War II, technology burgeoned, and in the 1950s and 60s articles indicated the extent to which medical technologists were delegated administrative roles at all levels. In the 1960s bachelor's degree and advanced degree programs recognized the need to prepare graduates for roles in management. This preparation in turn set the stage for greater participation in administrative activities.

  7. Role of inflammation in the aging bones.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Samir M; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2015-02-15

    Chronic inflammation in aging is characterized by increased inflammatory cytokines, bone loss, decreased adaptation, and defective tissue repair in response to injury. Aging leads to inherent changes in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, resulting in impaired osteoblastogenesis. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines increase with aging, leading to enhanced myelopoiesis and osteoclastogenesis. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) play pivotal roles in osteoblast differentiation, the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and subsequent bone repair. However, during aging, little is known about the role of macrophages in the differentiation and function of MSC and HSC. Aged mammals have higher circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines than young adults, supporting the hypothesis of increased inflammation with aging. This review will aid in the understanding of the potential role(s) of pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages in differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in relation to aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Screen Translation: A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Eithne

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of screen translation in minority language broadcasting. The article is a response to a roundtable discussion on minority language broadcasting and language maintenance. (Author/VWL)

  9. Switching Roles: When Teachers Become Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motz, Annabelle B.; Hollander, Elaine K.

    1973-01-01

    Impressions of what teachers experience when they are registered in a graduate level course as students and the ways in which they accommodate to their new role are analyzed by the research method of participation-observation. (Author/KM)

  10. Role of laparoscopy in hepatobiliary malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Balarajah, Vickna; Watt, Jennifer; Abraham, Ajit T.; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Kocher, Hemant M.

    2016-01-01

    The many benefits of laparoscopy, including smaller incision, reduced length of hospital stay and more rapid return to normal function, have seen its popularity grow in recent years. With concurrent improvements in non-surgical cancer management the importance of accurate staging is becoming increasingly important. There are two main applications of laparoscopic surgery in managing hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) malignancy: accurate staging of disease and resection. We aim to summarize the use of laparoscopy in these contexts. The role of staging laparoscopy has become routine in certain cancers, in particular T2 staged, locally advanced gastric cancer, hilar cholangiocarcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For other cancers, in particular colorectal, laparoscopy has now become the gold standard management for resection such that there is no role for stand-alone staging laparoscopy. In HPB cancers, although staging laparoscopy may play a role, with ever improving radiology, its role remains controversial. PMID:27377496

  11. New Roles: A Librarian by Any Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Linda W.

    2002-01-01

    Considers the new roles of librarians that have evolved from changes in technology. Discusses new job titles for librarians; changes in bibliographic instruction; training the trainers; virtual branch libraries; teamwork and collaboration; changes in organizational structures; and outsourcing options. (LRW)

  12. Anxiety Correlates of Sex-Role Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biaggio, Mary Kay; Nielsen, Elwin C.

    1976-01-01

    Examines some possible relationships between sex-role identity and other factors, specifically, openness vs. closedness, liberalism vs. conservatism, and other cross-sex vs. same-sex parent identification. (Author/RK)

  13. Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Complex Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, John R.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Study describes the development and testing of questionnaire measures of role conflict and ambiguity. Analyses of responses of managers show these two constructs to be factorially identifiable and independent. (Author/KJ)

  14. Changing Roles and Requirements of Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, E. W.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed public relations managers to estimate the amount of time they devoted to technical versus planning/managing tasks. Found that the planner/manager role is becoming more dominant in public relations practice. (PD)

  15. Perspectives on Role Socialization of Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Luther

    1991-01-01

    The low status of nursing is traced from the days of Florence Nightingale, and concepts of role socialization are applied to nurses. A highly automated, democratized workplace is envisioned that will change socialization practices. (SK)

  16. Studying Student Teachers' Acceptance of Role Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael D.; Davis, Concetta M.

    1980-01-01

    There is variance in the way in which student teachers accept responsibility for the teaching act. This study explains why some variables may affect student teachers' acceptance of role responsibilities. (CM)

  17. Solving the Plagiary Puzzle with Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises and role plays designed to help English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students enrolled in or bound for American universities understand plagiarism and the need to properly document essays and term papers. (five references) (MDM)

  18. Fish Peroxiredoxins and Their Role in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Yulema; Martínez-Morcillo, Francisco J.; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Cuesta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage. In addition, Prxs may act as modulators of inflammation, protect against cell death and tumour progression, and facilitate tissue repair after damage. The most studied roles of Prx1 and Prx2 are immunological. Here we present a review on the effects of some immunostimulant treatments and bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections on the expression of fish Prxs at the gene and/or protein level, and point to their important role in immunity. The Prxs show antioxidant activity as well as a protective effect against infection. Some preliminary data are presented about the role of fish Prx1 and Prx2 in virus resistance although further studies are needed before the role of fish Prx in immunity can be definitively defined. PMID:26633533

  19. The government's role in health care delivery.

    PubMed

    Baker, Linda Reneé

    2002-01-01

    As Secretary of Illinois' largest agency, the Department of Human Services, Secretary Baker provides a thorough overview of the role her agency plays in the ongoing health and welfare of the citizens of Illinois. Her contention that government should play a critical role in health care delivery is buttressed by the DHS' role as a funding agent, its contributions of staff and systems, and the direct role it plays in the pursuit of truly public health care. Secretary Baker effectively demonstrates the complexities and disparities that still exist in health care by discussing an inter-generational study of one poor family documented in Chicago. She concludes, however, that while such disparities and injustices in health care delivery do exist, they can be overcome by the effective use and cooperation of state governmental agencies that are committed to that goal.

  20. NASA's Role in Understanding Climate Change

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Earth's climate is changing because of human activity. Learn about NASA's role in understanding climate and climate change with Gilberto Colón, special assistant to the deputy director of NASA's Go...

  1. Role of succinic acid in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1982-01-01

    Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.

  2. New Roles: A Librarian by Any Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Linda W.

    2002-01-01

    Considers the new roles of librarians that have evolved from changes in technology. Discusses new job titles for librarians; changes in bibliographic instruction; training the trainers; virtual branch libraries; teamwork and collaboration; changes in organizational structures; and outsourcing options. (LRW)

  3. Roles of Galectin-7 in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Tarnjeet; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2016-01-01

    Galectins are β-galactoside binding lectins that contain one or more carbohydrate recognition domains. As a consequence of sugar-binding properties, galectins exhibit a variety of interactions with glycoproteins, thus playing important roles in various pathological processes. A number of studies have shown roles of galectins in cancer. Galectin-7 is a prototype member of the galectin family implicated in epithelial stratification and cell migration. It can act as a potent dual regulator in different types of cancer. Galectin-7 may contribute either to neoplastic transformation and tumour progression through regulation of cell growth, cell cycle, angiogenesis, apoptosis and cell migration or may have a protective effect in cancer depending on the tissue type. A perusal of the literature indicates particular roles of galectin-7 in carcinomas and melanomas, while contributions await greater exploration in other types of cancers including sarcomas and leukemia. This review collectively summarizes available literature on expression and roles of galectin-7 in different cancers.

  4. Reintegration: The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-2-0195 TITLE: Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0195 Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind 5b. GRANT NUMBER PT074804 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...build coping skills, improve access to services for veteran and family, and serve as a source of shared support. The study will enroll 60 OEF/OIF

  5. Reintegration: The Role Of Spouse Telephone BATTLEMIND

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-2-0195 TITLE: Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone BATTLEMIND PRINCIPAL Linda Nichols, Ph.D...NUMBER Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0195 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Linda Nichols... veteran and family, and serve as a source of shared support. The study enrolled 60 OEF/OIF spouses from the general population of spouses. In addition, per

  6. Role of Grainyhead in Kidney Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    AD______________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0428 TITLE: Role of Grainyhead in Kidney Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven Frisch CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE Role of Grainyhead in Kidney Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0428 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven...metastatic gene expression in RCC. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Grainyhead-like-2/ kidney /collecting ducts/proximal tubules/distal tubules/clear cell renal

  7. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-05-07

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available.

  8. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  9. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available. PMID:25954093

  10. Relationships between roles and mental states and role functional QOL in breast cancer outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Naoko; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the degrees of role accomplishment, the importance of and satisfaction with roles, and to assess their relationships with mental states and role functional quality of life, in breast cancer patients receiving treatment on an outpatient basis. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study. Thirty patients with primary breast cancer were evaluated using the Self-Rating Frenchay Activities Index, the Role Checklist, the Profile of Mood States and the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to analyze the relationships between each role-related item and each Profile of Mood States and Short-Form 36 subscale. A higher number of roles played was positively associated with the score for Vigor but was negatively associated with the score for physical quality of life. A higher degree of the importance of roles was negatively correlated with the score for Confusion and positively correlated with the score for mental quality of life. A higher degree of satisfaction with roles was negatively correlated with depression, tension-anxiety, confusion and the total mood disturbances score, and was positively correlated with both the physical and negative quality of life scores. No significant correlations were apparent between the degrees of role accomplishment (Self-Rating Frenchay Activities Index scores) and the Profile of Mood States and Short-Form 36 scores. The results indicated that qualitative and subjective factors (i.e. the degrees of importance of and satisfaction with roles) are associated more closely with emotional states and role functional quality of life in breast cancer outpatients than quantitative and objective factors (i.e. degree of role accomplishment and the number of roles).

  11. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Influence of ownership type on role orientation, role affinity, and role conflict among community pharmacy managers and owners in Canada.

    PubMed

    Perepelkin, Jason; Dobson, Roy Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Ownership of community pharmacies is increasingly being controlled by a relatively small number of corporate entities. The influence of this ownership type should not be ignored, because ownership has the ability to impact pharmacy practice. To examine the relationship between ownership type and community pharmacy managers with regard to role orientation, role affinity, and role conflict. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacy managers in Canada by means of a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to a stratified sample of community pharmacies. Statistical analysis consisted of exploratory factor analysis with reliability testing on identified constructs. Frequencies, 1-way analyses of variance, and Scheffe post hoc tests were used to determine significant differences among groups, including ownership structure, on each of the constructs. A total of 646 completed questionnaires were received (32.9% response rate). Most of the respondents were males (60.8%), with slightly less than half of the respondents identifying their practice type as an independent pharmacy (44.6%). There were 5 multi-item scale constructs (professional orientation, business orientation, professional affinity, business affinity, and role conflict) arising from the data, which were analyzed against the pharmacy ownership structure (independent, franchise, corporate) independent variable. Analysis revealed significant differences for 3 of the 5 constructs; however, no differences were seen regarding the 2 professionally focused constructs. Community pharmacy managers/owners are generally oriented to their professional role; however, those working in a corporate pharmacy environment are less oriented to their business role when compared with those working in an independent or franchise pharmacy environment. Further research is needed to identify different practice cultures that may exist in various practice settings and the extent to which these cultures

  13. Semantic role labeling for protein transport predicates.

    PubMed

    Bethard, Steven; Lu, Zhiyong; Martin, James H; Hunter, Lawrence

    2008-06-11

    Automatic semantic role labeling (SRL) is a natural language processing (NLP) technique that maps sentences to semantic representations. This technique has been widely studied in the recent years, but mostly with data in newswire domains. Here, we report on a SRL model for identifying the semantic roles of biomedical predicates describing protein transport in GeneRIFs - manually curated sentences focusing on gene functions. To avoid the computational cost of syntactic parsing, and because the boundaries of our protein transport roles often did not match up with syntactic phrase boundaries, we approached this problem with a word-chunking paradigm and trained support vector machine classifiers to classify words as being at the beginning, inside or outside of a protein transport role. We collected a set of 837 GeneRIFs describing movements of proteins between cellular components, whose predicates were annotated for the semantic roles AGENT, PATIENT, ORIGIN and DESTINATION. We trained these models with the features of previous word-chunking models, features adapted from phrase-chunking models, and features derived from an analysis of our data. Our models were able to label protein transport semantic roles with 87.6% precision and 79.0% recall when using manually annotated protein boundaries, and 87.0% precision and 74.5% recall when using automatically identified ones. We successfully adapted the word-chunking classification paradigm to semantic role labeling, applying it to a new domain with predicates completely absent from any previous studies. By combining the traditional word and phrasal role labeling features with biomedical features like protein boundaries and MEDPOST part of speech tags, we were able to address the challenges posed by the new domain data and subsequently build robust models that achieved F-measures as high as 83.1. This system for extracting protein transport information from GeneRIFs performs well even with proteins identified automatically

  14. Role of Osteopontin in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yankai; Jeong, Seogsong; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein, is involved in numerous pathological conditions including inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in various tissues. Extensive studies have elucidated the critical role of OPN in cell signaling such as regulation of cell proliferation, migration, inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. In the liver, OPN interacts with integrins, CD44, vimentin and MyD88 signaling, thereby induces infiltration, migration, invasion and metastasis of cells. OPN is highlighted as a chemoattractant for macrophages and neutrophils during injury in inflammatory liver diseases. OPN activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to exert an enhancer in fibrogenesis. The role of OPN in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has also generated significant interests, especially with regards to its role as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. Interestingly, OPN acts an opposing role in liver repair under different pathological conditions. This review summarizes the current understanding of OPN in liver diseases. Further understanding of the pathophysiological role of OPN in cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms associated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and cancer may contribute to the development of novel strategies for clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapy of liver diseases. PMID:27570486

  15. Multifaceted Role of Sialylation in Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baskakov, Ilia V.; Katorcha, Elizaveta

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian prion or PrPSc is a proteinaceous infectious agent that consists of a misfolded, self-replicating state of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein, or PrPC. Sialylation of the prion protein N-linked glycans was discovered more than 30 years ago, yet the role of sialylation in prion pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent years have witnessed extraordinary growth in interest in sialylation and established a critical role for sialic acids in host invasion and host-pathogen interactions. This review article summarizes current knowledge on the role of sialylation of the prion protein in prion diseases. First, we discuss the correlation between sialylation of PrPSc glycans and prion infectivity and describe the factors that control sialylation of PrPSc. Second, we explain how glycan sialylation contributes to the prion replication barrier, defines strain-specific glycoform ratios, and imposes constraints for PrPSc structure. Third, several topics, including a possible role for sialylation in animal-to-human prion transmission, prion lymphotropism, toxicity, strain interference, and normal function of PrPC, are critically reviewed. Finally, a metabolic hypothesis on the role of sialylation in the etiology of sporadic prion diseases is proposed. PMID:27551257

  16. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  17. Functional roles of today's public health nutritionist.

    PubMed

    Haughton, B; Shaw, J

    1992-10-01

    This study found that functional roles of public health nutritionists in eight southeastern states differed significantly on the basis of education, dietetic registration status, years of experience, and type and level of service. Subjects (n = 992) were mailed a 95-item questionnaire with three parts: demographic, professional practice, and grant-writing experience. Results based on a 59% response rate indicated that most of the 14 functional roles studied were practiced in accordance with guidelines presented in Personnel in Public Health Nutrition for the 1980's. Only two roles, counselor and educator, were performed somewhat inconsistently. Personnel with bachelor's degrees did have more counseling responsibilities than those with more advanced degrees. However, nonregistered dietitians also had more counseling responsibilities than did registered dietitians. Direct care providers had fewer educator responsibilities than did personnel with administration/management job responsibilities. All personnel reported research responsibilities that increased with advanced education, training, years of experience, and type and level of service. We found that beyond-entry-level personnel had more administrative and policy-setting responsibilities, which is consistent with The American Dietetic Association's Role Delineation for Registered Dietitians and Entry-Level Dietetic Technicians (1990). We conclude that, with the exceptions of the counselor and educator roles, public health nutrition practice is consistent with personnel guidelines.

  18. ROLE OF THE GUT IN LIPID HOMEOSTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Abumrad, Nada A.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal lipid transport plays a central role in fat homeostasis. Here we review the pathways regulating intestinal absorption and delivery of dietary and biliary lipid substrates, principally long-chain fatty acid, cholesterol, and other sterols. We discuss the regulation and functions of CD36 in fatty acid absorption, NPC1L1 in cholesterol absorption, as well as other lipid transporters including FATP4 and SRB1. We discuss the pathways of intestinal sterol efflux via ABCG5/G8 and ABCA1 as well as the role of the small intestine in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis and reverse cholesterol transport. We review the pathways and genetic regulation of chylomicron assembly, the role of dominant restriction points such as microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apolipoprotein B, and the role of CD36, L-FABP, and other proteins in formation of the prechylomicron complex. We will summarize current concepts of regulated lipoprotein secretion (including HDL and chylomicron pathways) and include lessons learned from families with genetic mutations in dominant pathways (i.e., abetalipoproteinemia, chylomicron retention disease, and familial hypobetalipoproteinemia). Finally, we will provide an integrative view of intestinal lipid homeostasis through recent findings on the role of lipid flux and fatty acid signaling via diverse receptor pathways in regulating absorption and production of satiety factors. PMID:22811425

  19. Researchers' Roles in Patient Safety Improvement.

    PubMed

    Pietikäinen, Elina; Reiman, Teemu; Heikkilä, Jouko; Macchi, Luigi

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore how researchers can contribute to patient safety improvement. We aim to expand the instrumental role researchers have often occupied in relation to patient safety improvement. We reflect on our own improvement model and experiences as patient safety researchers in an ongoing Finnish multi-actor innovation project through self-reflective narration. Our own patient safety improvement model can be described as systemic. Based on the purpose of the innovation project, our improvement model, and the improvement models of the other actors in the project, we have carried out a wide range of activities. Our activities can be summarized in 8 overlapping patient safety improvement roles: modeler, influencer, supplier, producer, ideator, reflector, facilitator, and negotiator. When working side by side with "practice," researchers are offered and engage in several different activities. The way researchers contribute to patient safety improvement and balance between different roles depends on the purpose of the study, as well as on the underlying patient safety improvement models. Different patient safety research paradigms seem to emphasize different improvement roles, and thus, they also face different challenges. Open reflection on the underlying improvement models and roles can help researchers with different backgrounds-as well as other actors involved in patient safety improvement-in structuring their work and collaborating productively.

  20. Evolving role of pediatric nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Aruda, Mary M; Griffin, Valerie J; Schartz, Kathryn; Geist, Melissa

    2016-02-01

    To report and interpret findings from national pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP) job analysis surveys reflecting the changes in the knowledge and skills required for advanced practice. National role delineation studies (RDS) conducted by American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) in 2003, 2008, and 2011. Since the first nurse practitioner (NP) program was established in 1965 to train pediatric nurses for advanced practice, the role of the PNP has continued to develop. The RDS results demonstrate the increased autonomy of PNP's prescription of medication as the top work activity category identified, followed by the reporting of suspected abuse, exploitation, and/or neglect and immunizing based on current recommendations. Analysis of the changes in role or work activities, tied to the knowledge and skills required to perform those activities, can provide content for educators updating curriculum, for clinicians to remain current in their practice and impact healthcare policy. The current PNP role has evolved to meet the workforce demands of providing primary care to the pediatric population with increasing complex social and healthcare needs. Role analysis is important as NPs move forward to practice to the full extent of their education and training. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Defining the doula's role: fostering relational autonomy.

    PubMed

    Meadow, Sandra L

    2015-12-01

    Training organizations as well as academic and popular literature provide ambiguous or ethically contentious characterizations of the role of the birth doula, a non-clinical role assisting women in pregnancy and birth with information and physical and emotional support. Doulas have been criticized for attempting to impose their own agendas on their clients and for interfering with the relationship between women and their medical caregivers. To develop a theoretically grounded model of the birth doula's role to guide constructive practice and refute some training organizations' and doulas' adoption of an active 'advocacy' role with clients that can lead to inappropriate practices. Apply the theoretical framework of relational autonomy to the components of the work that doulas perform with their clients. The conceptual framework of relational autonomy recognizes the social context in which women make choices about their care in pregnancy and birth, instead of assuming that autonomy is exercised in isolation. To support this understanding of autonomy, a relational model emphasizes women's skills development, self-confidence and recognition of the social context for decisions. Highlighting these aspects of exercising autonomy reduces the potential for the doula to seek to influence her client. The doula's role is reframed as one of facilitating patient engagement and shared decision-making. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks - the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success.

  3. Roles of genetic counselors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié; Krause, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Genetic counseling is a growing health profession in South Africa. Training (set up in 1988) and registration are in place, but job creation remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles played by genetic counselors in the provision of genetic services, in South Africa. A questionnaire comprising items on the types of roles they performed was constructed and counselors were asked to make the log-books, in which they recorded their daily counseling activities, available. A check list was drawn up so that relevant information could be collected systematically from these log-books. Then departmental statistics were accessed from the two universities providing genetic services and genetic counselor training. Structured interviews were conducted with the genetic counselors (16 of 23 participated), and data were collected from their completed questionnaires, log-books and the departmental statistics, for the years 2007 and 2008. These data were analyzed and the findings showed that the counselors counseled about one third (39 %) of all the cases seen at genetic clinics per annum, and the total numbers were increasing. They counseled for 57 different genetic disorders, and their clients represented the range of local ethnic groups. They also had educational, research, marketing and administrative roles. They expected to expand these roles and advance the profession in future. Genetic counselors are versatile, playing several significant roles. As these become better recognized, demand for their services should increase, jobs should be created and the service expanded.

  4. Perceived Role-Taking Behavior and Role-Taking Test Performance in Fraternity and Sorority College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro

    Generally, role-taking research has focused on the development and correlates of role taking in children. To explore role taking in the relatively overlooked population of young adults, a sociometric instrument, the Peer Role-Taking Questionnaire (PRTQ), was developed and used to measure perceived role-taking behaviors. The results were compared…

  5. Role of TRP channels in pain sensation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man-Kyo; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae

    2011-01-01

    It is crucial for a living organism to recognize and discern potentially harmful noxious stimuli from innocuous stimuli to avoid hazards in the environment. However, unnecessary or exaggerated nociception is at best unpleasant and often compromises the quality of life. In order to lessen the intensity of nociception or eliminate the pathological pain, it is important to understand the nature of nociception and the mechanisms of hyperalgesia or allodynia. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play central roles in nociception under physiological and pathological conditions including inflammation and neuropathy. In this chapter, we will highlight the enormous progress in understanding the role of TRP channels in nociception. We will mainly focus on two TRP channels (TRPV1 and TRPA1) that have been particularly implicated in transducing signals associated with pain sensation, and briefly discuss the role of TRPM8, TRPV3 and TRPV4. We will stress debatable issues that needed to be resolved and provide perspectives for the future studies.

  6. Role of Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Khandrika, Lakshmipathi; Kumar, Binod; Koul, Sweaty; Maroni, Paul; Koul, Hari K.

    2009-01-01

    As prostate cancer and aberrant changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) become more common with aging, ROS signaling may play an important role in the development and progression of this malignancy. Increased ROS, otherwise known as oxidative stress, is a result of either increased ROS generation or a loss of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Oxidative stress is associated with several pathological conditions including inflammation and infection. ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism and play vital roles in stimulation of signaling pathways in response to changing intra- and extracellular environmental conditions. Chronic increases in ROS over time are known to induce somatic mutations and neoplastic transformation. In this review we summarize the causes for increased ROS generation and its potential role in etiology and progression of prostate cancer. PMID:19185987

  7. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  8. Role of astrocytes in manganese mediated neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are responsible for numerous aspects of metabolic support, nutrition, control of the ion and neurotransmitter environment in central nervous system (CNS). Failure by astrocytes to support essential neuronal metabolic requirements plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of brain injury and the ensuing neuronal death. Astrocyte-neuron interactions play a central role in brain homeostasis, in particular via neurotransmitter recycling functions. Disruption of the glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) -γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) cycle (GGC) between astrocytes and neurons contributes to changes in Glu-ergic and/or GABA-ergic transmission, and is associated with several neuropathological conditions, including manganese (Mn) toxicity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in support of the important roles for astrocytes in normal as well as neuropathological conditions primarily those caused by exposure to Mn. PMID:23594835

  9. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine.

  10. Pharmacy Interns’ Perception of Their Professional Role

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Stense; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Kaae, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy interns' perceptions of the roles of the pharmacist and pharmacy prior to and during the pharmacy internship and to compare their perceptions with those of their supervisors and the pharmacy customers. Methods. Questionnaires were completed and submitted by 395 interns prior to and during their internships. Interns interviewed their supervisors and two to four local customers. Results. Ninety-six supervisors and 285 customers were interviewed. Interns' perceptions were aligned with those of their supervisors in that both groups indicated that a pharmacist's most important role is that of a clinical leader. Furthermore, interns' perception of customers' expectations regarding the pharmacy were well aligned with customers' actual expectations with regard to service. Conclusion. The study illustrates that interns became more aligned in their perceptions due to the pharmacy internship. The study findings imply that the pharmacy internship influences interns' perception of the pharmacy and pharmacist's roles in society through complex individual and social learning processes. PMID:28289300

  11. The physiological roles of primary phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong Ryoul; Follo, Matilde Y; Cocco, Lucio; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2013-09-01

    The roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) have been extensively investigated in diverse cell lines and pathological conditions. Among the PLC isozmes, primary PLCs, PLC-β and PLC-γ, are directly activated by receptor activation, unlike other secondary PLCs (PLC-ɛ, PLC-δ1, and PLC-η1). PLC-β isozymes are activated by G protein couple receptor and PLC-γ isozymes are activated by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Primary PLCs are differentially expressed in different tissues, suggesting their specific roles in diverse tissues and regulate a variety of physiological and pathophysiological functions. Thus, dysregulation of phospholipases contributes to a number of human diseases and primary PLCs have been identified as therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment of diseases. Here we review the roles of primary PLCs in physiology and their impact in pathology.

  12. Role of Regulatory Cells in Oral Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wawrzyniak, Marcin; O'Mahony, Liam

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is continuously exposed to great amounts of different antigens from both food and intestinal microbes. Immune tolerance to these antigens is very important for intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis. Oral tolerance is a specific type of peripheral tolerance induced by exposure to antigen via the oral route. Investigations on the role of intestinal immune system in preventing hypersensitivity reactions to innocuous dietary and microbial antigens have been intensively performed during the last 2 decades. In this review article, we discuss how food allergens are recognized by the intestinal immune system and draw attention to the role of regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells in the establishment of oral tolerance and tolerogenic features of intestinal dendritic cells. We also emphasize the potential role of tonsils in oral tolerance induction because of their anatomical location, cellular composition, and possible usage to develop novel ways of specific immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:28102055

  13. The role of inflammasome in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Chan, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease with clinical characteristics of memory loss, dementia and cognitive impairment. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism is not fully understood, inflammation has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by the activation of glial cells and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that inflammasomes, which cleave precursors of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 to generate their active forms, play an important role in the inflammatory response in the CNS and in AD pathogenesis. Therefore, modulating inflammasome complex assembly and activation could be a potential strategy for suppressing inflammation in the CNS. This review aims to provide insight into the role of inflammasomes in the CNS, with respect to the pathogenesis of AD, and may provide possible clues for devising novel therapeutic strategies.

  14. Situational Awareness of Network System Roles (SANSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Huffer, Kelly M; Reed, Joel W

    2017-01-01

    In a large enterprise it is difficult for cyber security analysts to know what services and roles every machine on the network is performing (e.g., file server, domain name server, email server). Using network flow data, already collected by most enterprises, we developed a proof-of-concept tool that discovers the roles of a system using both clustering and categorization techniques. The tool's role information would allow cyber analysts to detect consequential changes in the network, initiate incident response plans, and optimize their security posture. The results of this proof-of-concept tool proved to be quite accurate on three real data sets. We will present the algorithms used in the tool, describe the results of preliminary testing, provide visualizations of the results, and discuss areas for future work. Without this kind of situational awareness, cyber analysts cannot quickly diagnose an attack or prioritize remedial actions.

  15. Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine.

  16. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; Maor, Yaakov; Nanau, Radu M.; Melzer, Ehud; Mell, Haim; Opris, Mihai; Cohen, Lawrence; Malnick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical and translational research. It focuses on the role of the immune system and the signaling pathways of cytokines in the pathogenesis of ALD. An additional factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which plays a central role in the induction of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. LPS derived from the intestinal microbiota enters the portal circulation, and is recognized by macrophages (Kupffer cells) and hepatocytes. In individuals with ALD, excessive levels of LPS in the liver affect immune, parenchymal, and non-immune cells, which in turn release various inflammatory cytokines and recruit neutrophils and other inflammatory cells. In this review, we elucidate the mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the activation of Kupffer cells and the inflammatory cascade. The role of the stellate cells in fibrogenesis is also discussed. PMID:26343741

  17. The role of pleiotrophin in bone repair.

    PubMed

    Lamprou, Margarita; Kaspiris, Angelos; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Giannoudis, Peter V; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2014-12-01

    Bone has an enormous capacity for growth, regeneration, and remodelling, largely due to induction of osteoblasts that are recruited to the site of bone formation. Although the pathways involved have not been fully elucidated, it is well accepted that the immediate environment of the cells is likely to play a role via cell–matrix interactions, mediated by several growth factors. Formation of new blood vessels is also significant and interdependent to bone formation, suggesting that enhancement of angiogenesis could be beneficial during the process of bone repair. Pleiotrophin (PTN), also called osteoblast-specific factor 1, is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor, with a well-defined and significant role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. In this review we summarise the existing evidence on the role of PTN in bone repair.

  18. Role of honey in modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Asiri, Saleh Ahmad; Mahesar, Abdul Latief; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

    2017-07-01

    Use of honey has a very long history. Honey has been used since ancient time due to its nutritional and therapeutic values. There had been varied ways of consumption honey including its use as a sweetener and flavoring agent. Honey is produced all over the world. The most important nutriment of honey is carbohydrates present in the form of monosaccharides, fructose and glucose. Honey plays an important role as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial agent and augments the adherence of skin grafts and wound healing process. The role of honey has been acknowledged in the scientific literature and there is convincing evidence in support of its antioxidant and antibacterial nature, cough prevention, fertility and wound healing properties. However, its use has been controversially discussed and has not been well accepted in the modern medicine. The aim of this review was explore and highlight the role of honey in modern medicine.

  19. Role of angiogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Letilovic, Tomislav; Vrhovac, Radovan; Verstovsek, Srdan; Jaksic, Branimir; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2006-09-01

    Angiogenesis is a physiologic process of new blood vessels formation mediated by various cytokines called angiogenic and angiostatic factors. Although its potential pathophysiologic role in solid tumors has been extensively studied for more than 3 decades, enhancement of angiogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other malignant hematological disorders has been recognized more recently. An increased level of angiogenesis has been documented by various experimental methods both in bone marrow and lymph nodes of patients with CLL. Although the role of angiogenesis in the pathophysiology of this disease remains to be fully elucidated, experimental data suggest that several angiogenic factors play a role in the disease progression. Biologic markers of angiogenesis were also shown to be of prognostic relevance in CLL. The current findings provide the rationale for investigating antiangiogenic agents in CLL. In the current review angiogenesis in CLL is discussed and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  20. Expanding the role of nurses in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D L; Brush, K; McGonagle, E; Vartanian, M; Levy, K

    2000-01-01

    The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the declaration of Independence by the Republic of Armenia created the need for significant changes in the healthcare delivery system in Armenia. The desire to raise the level of health care presented challenges and opportunities for nurses within the Republic. Members of the departments of nursing at Boston City Hospital/Boston Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts, and the Emergency Scientific Medical Center of Yerevan, Armenia, joined forces through a grant written by Boston University School of Medicine and sponsored by the American International Health Alliance under a cooperative agreement with the United States Agency for International Development to expand the role of nursing. This article describes the assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation of changes to the role of nursing and the development of new roles for nurses within a hospital in the capital city of Yerevan.

  1. NFAT Proteins: Emerging Roles in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Maria; Toker, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Preface The roles of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factors have been extensively studied in the immune system. However, ubiquitous expression of NFAT isoforms in mammalian tissues has been recently observed, as well as an emerging role for these transcription factors in human cancer. Various NFAT isoforms are functional in tumor cells and multiple compartments in the tumor microenvironment including fibroblasts, endothelial cells and infiltrating immune cells. How do NFAT isoforms regulate the complex interplay between these compartments during carcinoma progression? The answers lie with the multiple functions attributed to NFAT including cell growth, survival, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition to sorting out the complex role of NFAT in cancer we face the challenge of targeting this pathway therapeutically. PMID:19851316

  2. Defining the role of laboratory genetic counselor.

    PubMed

    Christian, Susan; Lilley, Margaret; Hume, Stacey; Scott, Patrick; Somerville, Martin

    2012-08-01

    An increasing number of genetic counselors are moving into non-clinical roles, where their primary duties do not involve direct patient contact. According to the National Society of Genetic Counselors Professional Status Survey in 2010, 23% of counselors working in non-clinical roles identified laboratory or genetic testing as their primary area of work. Using a survey, we identified 43 genetic counselors who work predominately in laboratory settings. The two primary tasks performed by participants, include acting as a customer liaison (95%) and calling out test results (88%). Nineteen participants (44.2%) also reported spending a considerable amount of time signing reports. The most prevalent areas of job satisfaction were support from laboratory directors (76.8%), autonomy (76.7%), interactions with clinicians (69.7%) and interaction with other genetics counselors (67.5%). This is the first study specifically looking at the roles of laboratory genetic counselors, which is an expanding area of genetic counseling.

  3. The role of ambulatory hysteroscopy in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lynne L L; Cooper, Natalie A M; Clark, T Justin

    2013-04-01

    Hysteroscopy is a mainstay of modern gynaecologic practice. However, the role of ambulatory hysteroscopy and associated procedures has increased dramatically in recent years. The outpatient setting has associated benefits, both for the patient and economically. The advent of less invasive vaginoscopic techniques means that diagnostic hysteroscopy is achievable safely, comfortably and efficiently in almost all women and avoids the risk of a general anaesthetic. This review aims to summarise first the role for ambulatory hysteroscopy in diagnosis of conditions contributing to reproductive failure. The second section of the review concentrates on the therapeutic interventions that can be performed hysteroscopically in the ambulatory setting such as tubal catheterisation, tubal occlusion and uteroplasty. Lastly, we discuss the role outpatient hysteroscopy plays in established contraceptive techniques such as intrauterine device placement, and the more recent advent of hysteroscopic sterilisation.

  4. The Management Role In Optical Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galat, Edmund J.

    1981-03-01

    Throughout the 1960's and 1970's, numerous optical system programs have been carried from conception to operational status. Industry responsibilities include definition of and resolution of critical technology problems, development of conceptual designs for operational and support hardware, and finally, development and production of the operational hardware. This paper will discuss the role and the contributions of the management team in the evolution of three typical high technology optical programs. The first case study to be discussed is the role of management in a high-risk/high-payoff technology program, exemplified by the DARPA High Altitude Large Optics (HALO) Program. The second case study is based on Itek's involvement in the definition phases of the Space Tele-scope Program. The last case to be examined is the role of management in a major optical program directed at producing operational hardware in a timely, cost-effective manner.

  5. The importance of role sending in the sensemaking of change agent roles.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Danielle A; Hendy, Jane; Barlow, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate what happens when a lack of role-sending results in ambiguous change agent roles during a large scale organisational reconfiguration. The authors consider the role of sensemaking in resolving role ambiguity of middle manager change agents and the consequences of this for organisational restructuring. Data were collected from a case study analysis of significant organisational reconfiguration across a local National Health Service Trust in the UK. Data consists of 82 interviews, complemented by analysis of over 100 documents and field notes from 51 hours of observations collected over five phases covering a three year period before, during and after the reconfiguration. An inductive qualitative analysis revealed the sensemaking processes by which ambiguity in role definition was resolved. The data explains how change agents collectively make sense of a role in their own way, drawing on their own experiences and views as well as cues from other organisational members. The authors also identified the organisational outcomes which resulted from this freedom in sensemaking. This study demonstrates that by leaving too much flexibility in the definition of the role, agents developed their own sensemaking which was subsequently very difficult to manipulate. In creating new roles, management first needs to have a realistic vision of the task and roles that their agents will perform, and second, to communicate these expectations to both those responsible for recruiting these roles and to the agents themselves. Much of the focus in sensemaking research has been on the importance of change agents' sensemaking of the change but there has been little focus on how change agents sensemake their own role in the change.

  6. Professional Women: Job Role Stresses and Psychosocial Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sharon E.; Skarie, Elizabeth K.

    1986-01-01

    A study of 91 professional women revealed that internal locus of control was significantly related to three job role stresses (role ambiguity, nonparticipation in decision making, and role overload) and to fear of success. (Author/ABB)

  7. Teams without Roles: Empowering Teams for Greater Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrimmon, Mitch

    1995-01-01

    Criticizes Belbin's team role theory on the basis that roles are appropriate only in static organizations. Argues that most teams have no set roles and members interchange them. Suggests that all team members be trained to manage teamwork effectively. (SK)

  8. Evolving roles of highly successful mentors.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    This article was written groom mentors, old and new, by identifying the evolving roles that highly successful mentors in order to share wisdom with their protégés. First aspiring mentors need to become subject matter experts in their profession by achieving the relevant benchmarks of mastery in their career fields. Next, they must win the coveted role of respected leader by being trustworthy and putting the development of others first. The mastery of knowledge and earning of respect must also be balanced by genuine humility if the mentor is to be effective in sharing what he or she knows. Highly successful mentors are teachers, plain and simple, and they are most effective in this role when they have a deep passion for teaching. By properly using reflection, adroit mentors look back upon their many adventures and carefully select critical stories to share with their protégés. While outstanding mentors have a lot to say, they need to spend most of their time listening to those they mentor to ensure that they understand their protégés' individualized needs and goals. To help protégés through the setbacks and disappointments that can accompany an Army career, high-speed mentors need to don the role of optimistic cheerleaders, encouraging those they mentor and restoring hope. Once a striving mentor has finally reached the summit of mentoring and is a trusted counselor, he or she must continue to nurture and protect this fragile, but most influential role. Lastly, great mentors need to be consummate students of both their profession and mentoring so that they remain vital and responsive to those they mentor. In closing, it is hoped that by considering and embracing these evolving roles, dedicated students of mentoring will derive a deeper satisfaction and have greater success in this critically important leadership responsibility.

  9. Quel effet de l’euro sur le commerce europeen des produits forestiers? Académie d’Agriculture de France, Notes Académiques

    Treesearch

    Joseph Buongiorno

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the monetary union on the trade of forest products between euro-using countries. A differential gravity model of bilateral trade flows was developed and estimated with data for the bilateral trade between 12 euro countries from 1988 to 2013, for commodity groups HS44 (wood and articles of wood), HS47 (pulp of...

  10. Accumuler le capital humain tout au long de la vie: Quels facteurs prédictifs de la participation à la formation permanente?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudard, Emmanuel; Morlaix, Sophie

    2003-09-01

    This article addresses the main predictors of adult education, using statistical methods different from those generally used by social science researchers. Its aim is twofold. First, it seeks to explain in a simple and comprehensible manner the methodological value of these methods (in relation to the use of structural models); secondly, it demonstrates the concrete usefulness of these methods on the basis of a recent piece of research on the data from the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS).

  11. Quels outils pour l'analyse linguistique ou les prealables d'un enseignement de la grammaire? (What Tools for Linguistic Analysis or Preliminaries for Grammar Instruction?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darot, Mireille

    1983-01-01

    The usefulness of classifications within and comparisons among languages as a means of discovering the commonalities of human language is discussed. Metalinguistics offers not only the potential for analyzing the specifics of each language, but also the tools for teaching across languages. (MSE)

  12. Éthique de la recherche en santé mondiale : la relation Nord-Sud, quel partenariat pour quelle justice sociale ?

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Hunt, Matthew; Moube, Zéphirin

    2014-06-01

    La recherche en santé mondiale s'inscrit dans une volonté de mobiliser des connaissances au service d'interventions et de politiques publiques pour l'atteinte équitable du bien-être commun, notamment en matière de santé. Elle joue un rôle primordial en ce sens, en favorisant l'implication des communautés et leur autonomisation et de nombreuses lignes directrices supportent un tel partenariat. Néanmoins, certains enjeux éthiques sont liés au financement de la recherche, aux environnements de recherche, à la priorisation des problématiques de recherche, aux mécanismes d'évaluation éthique posent souvent un problème de justice sociale au niveau de la redistribution des ressources et de la reconnaissance des différences culturelles. Comment alors déterminer quelle est la façon « idéale » d'agir en tenant compte de la globalité des individus et du pluralisme culturel des sociétés pour « bien faire », pour satisfaire l'exigence de l'équité? Une réflexion et une démarche éthique demeurent essentielles, ainsi qu'un dialogue entre les chercheurs du Nord et du Sud, et leurs autres partenaires que sont les décideurs, les responsables locaux et les communautés. Un tel dialogue, établi dans un continuum du développement de projets de recherche à leur pérennité, peut grandement contribuer à limiter les problèmes de justice sociale et à viser un développement plus égalitaire des savoirs scientifiques. Plusieurs chercheurs se sont déjà engagés dans cette voie, et leurs initiatives devraient être encouragées pour mettre les nouveaux savoirs au service des populations.

  13. The role of the expert witness.

    PubMed

    Jerrold, Laurance

    2007-08-01

    The role of expert witnesses in medical malpractice litigation is often misunderstood. Much maligned, the expert has been the subject of castigation by a range of people, from his professional colleagues to the jurists who preside over his testimony. From an academic perspective, the expert witness is a necessary evil, and his denigration is his own doing; for the expert is a neutral character who creates his own professional persona. This purpose of this article is to serve as a primer for those interested in understanding the role that the expert is supposed to play in litigation, and the factors surrounding his activities.

  14. Role of gravity in preparative electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.; Hinckley, J. O. N.; Smolka, A. J. K.; Binder, M. J.; Coxon, M.; Nee, T. W.; Scully, M. O.; Shih, H. S. T.; Snyder, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Electrophoresis has contributed significantly to the methodology of biological sciences, and shows the potential for large scale fractionation of a wide range of medically important substances, including living cells. Gravity plays an important role in the electrophoretic process, and hence the importance of the NASA effort to develop a zero-gravity separation facility as part of its shuttle program. The current state of art in electrophoresis is reviewed with particular emphasis on the role of gravity and the possible use of istachophoresis. This technique utilizes a discontinuous buffer system, and appears to be the only high resolution electrophoretic technique currently available for separation of living cells.

  15. Chronic disorders of consciousness: role of neuroimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremneva, E.; Sergeev, D.; Zmeykina, E.; Legostaeva, L.; Piradov, M.

    2017-08-01

    Chronic disorders of consciousness are clinically challenging conditions, and advanced methods of imaging for better understanding of diagnosis and prognosis are needed. Recent functional neuroradiological studies utilizing PET and fMRI demonstrated that besides widespread neuronal loss disruption of interconnection between certain cortical networks after the injury may also play the leading role in the development of behaviourally assessed unresponsiveness. Functional and structural connectivity, evaluated by neuroimaging approaches, may correlate with clinical status and may also play prognostic role. Integration of data from various diagnostic modalities is needed for further progress in this area.

  16. The role of language in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alan; Peat, F. David

    1988-12-01

    It is argued that language plays an active role in the development of scientific thought. A research project is outlined which will investigate this hypothesis and, in addition, focus on such questions as the role of mathematics in science and the status of the genetic code. “Nothing is more usual than for philosophers to encroach on the province of grammarians, and to engage in disputes of words, while they imagine they are handling controversies of the deepest importance and concern.”—David Hume.

  17. The lawyer's role in resource recovery permitting

    SciTech Connect

    Chertok, M.A. )

    1988-01-01

    There are a myriad of federal, state and local permits which must be obtained before a resource recovery facility may be built and operated. Invariably, the development of such a facility also entails the preparation of an EIS. While these processes involve extensive technical data and scientific analyses in a variety of areas, the attorney plays an integral role in assuring that such information is properly integrated into the environmental and permitting process, and that the administrative record can withstand judicial scrutiny. This book focuses on the attorney's role.

  18. Role of Achara Rasayana in Chittodvega

    PubMed Central

    Babu, G.; Bhuyan, G.C.; Prasad, G.P.; Anitha, S

    2007-01-01

    Ayuveda “the science of life” deals with various dimensions of human being. In this age old science, psychological factors have been given equal importance as physiological factors in the etiology of various diseases. Though there are so many rejuvenation therapies, Achara Rasayana is mainly advocated for psychosomatic disorders. Chittodvega (anxiety neurosis) is one among those psychological diseases in which, the code of conduct (Achara Rasayana) plays an important role in both etiology as well as treatment. Here an attempt has been taken to clarify the role of Achara Rasayana in the disease Chittodvega. PMID:22557248

  19. Space station: The role of software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.

    1985-01-01

    Software will play a critical role throughout the Space Station Program. This presentation sets the stage and prompts participant interaction at the Software Issues Forum. The presentation is structured into three major topics: (1) an overview of the concept and status of the Space Station Program; (2) several charts designed to lay out the scope and role of software; and (3) information addressing the four specific areas selected for focus at the forum, specifically: software management, the software development environment, languages, and standards. NASA's current thinking is highlighted and some of the relevant critical issues are raised.

  20. [The role of metalloproteinases in psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Flisiak, Iwona; Serwin, Agnieszka; Niczyporuk, Wiaczesław; Chodynicka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    Metalloproteinases play a crucial role in the destruction processes related to inflammation and carcinogenesis as well as in wound healing, morphogenesis and growth. Destruction of extracellular matrix proteins related to these enzymes activity and following damage of basement membranes favour angiogenesis and inflammatory infiltrations in psoriasis. Metalloproteina-ses activity can be controlled on different levels: genetic expression, enzyme activation or its inhibition. In this paper we discuss recently discovered role of metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of skin diseases, including psoriasis. The most interesting seems to be results of research on possible application of metalloproteinases inhibitors in psoriasis treatment and usefulness of these enzymes measurement in the management of this disease.

  1. Nurse education consultancy: a new role.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D A

    1996-12-01

    Market philosophy is transforming nurse education, an arena where alternative values and beliefs have been important. Such philosophy challenges nurse teachers to rethink their roles and consider what they might have to offer the profession either working within an institution or independently. This paper will explore the role of the nurse education consultant, examining what is implied by the term 'consultation' and what this might mean within a consultation process. Consultancy may be used to help colleges to market effectively and ethically, when the benefits of long term investment in education may not otherwise be apparent.

  2. Roles and responsibilities of the nursing scholar.

    PubMed

    Conard, Patricia L; Pape, Tess Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Scholarship is an important facet of the nursing profession. There are many components, virtues, and roles and responsibilities of a nursing scholar practicing in today's ever-changing health care environment. Scholarship was redefined by Boyer to include scholarly activities in addition to research. Boyer's Model of Scholarship includes four interrelated and overlapping domains of discovery, integration, application, and teaching. Each domain is explained with examples for the pediatric nurse scholar, which includes roles in academia as well as in the practice setting. Pediatric nurses are key to scholarship in nursing because they work to improve the care of children.

  3. Nephrologists as Educators: Clarifying Roles, Seizing Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Perazella, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Nephrologists play an important role in providing medical education in a variety of settings, including the medical school classroom, nephrology consult service, outpatient clinic, and dialysis unit. Therefore, nephrologists interact with a variety of learners. In this article the current state of published literature in medical education in nephrology is reviewed. Eight attending roles are identified of the nephrologist as a medical educator in the academic settings: inpatient internal medicine service, nephrology inpatient consult service, inpatient ESRD service, outpatient nephrology clinic, kidney transplantation, dialysis unit, classroom teacher, and research mentor. Defining each of these distinct settings could help to promote positive faculty development and encourage more rigorous education scholarship in nephrology. PMID:26276141

  4. The role of testosterone in social interaction.

    PubMed

    Eisenegger, Christoph; Haushofer, Johannes; Fehr, Ernst

    2011-06-01

    Although animal researchers established the role of testosterone as a 'social hormone' decades ago, the investigation of its causal influence on human social behaviors has only recently begun. Here, we review and discuss recent studies showing the causal effects of testosterone on social interactions in animals and humans, and outline the basic neurobiological mechanisms that might underlie these effects. Based on these recent findings, we argue that the role of testosterone in human social behavior might be best understood in terms of the search for, and maintenance of, social status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of exercise on the brain

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been extensively investigated during the past decade. Numerous studies have shown that adult neurogenesis may play an important role in the hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. This study evaluated the influence of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis, neural plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and cognition. Areas of research focused on enhancing effect of exercise for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and protective role of exercise against brain diseases. The present study suggests that exercise improves brain functions and prevents decline of cognition across the lifespan. Understanding of neurobiological mechanisms of exercise on brain functions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27807514

  6. The role of formins in human disease.

    PubMed

    DeWard, Aaron D; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Matheson, Stephen F; Alberts, Arthur S

    2010-02-01

    Formins are a conserved family of proteins that play key roles in cytoskeletal remodeling. They nucleate and processively elongate non-branched actin filaments and also modulate microtubule dynamics. Despite their significant contributions to cell biology and development, few studies have directly implicated formins in disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the roles of formins in cell division, migration, immunity, and microvesicle formation in the context of human disease. In addition, we discuss the importance of controlling formin activity and protein expression to maintain cell homeostasis.

  7. Role of third molars in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Almpani, Konstantinia; Kolokitha, Olga-Elpis

    2015-01-01

    The role of third molars in the oral cavity has been extensively studied over the years. Literature includes numerous diagnostic and treatment alternatives regarding the third molars. However, an issue that has not been discussed at the same level is their involvement in orthodontic therapy. The aim of this study is to present a review of the contemporary literature regarding the most broadly discussed aspects of the multifactorial role of third molars in orthodontics and which are of general dental interest too. PMID:25685759

  8. The role of psychologists in future spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    The need for psychologists to have a more active role in planning space missions is discussed. It is suggested that it would be beneficial if psychologists conducted research aimed at optimizing the organization, composition, and performance of crews; participated in the selection and training of crews; and monitored the actual performance and adjustment of crews during missions. The areas which require further research and the types of research strategies to be implemented are described. The desirable traits for future space personnel and the role of psychologists in mission control are examined.

  9. The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    WEIDLE, H. ULRICH; BIRZELE, FABIAN; KOLLMORGEN, GWEN; RÜGER, RÜDIGER

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are important contributors to cell−cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes. PMID:28031234

  10. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    PubMed

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  11. The Role of Macrophages in Immunology

    PubMed Central

    Elhelu, Mohamed A.

    1983-01-01

    Macrophages play a significant part in immunity and immune responses. They assume a defensive role exhibited by their ability to carry on phagocytosis of parasites and microbes. They regulate lymphocyte activation and proliferation and they are essential in the activation process of T- and B-lymphocytes by antigens and allogenic cells. Enhanced bactericidal activity of “activated macrophages” is based on immunologically linked mechanisms involving lymphocytes. Macrophages kill ingested microbes but the mechanism by which this is accomplished is not completely understood. This paper discusses the role of macrophages in relation to immunity. PMID:6343621

  12. Can role models boost entrepreneurial attitudes?

    PubMed Central

    Fellnhofer, Katharina; Puumalainen, Kaisu

    2017-01-01

    This multi-country study used role models to boost perceptions of entrepreneurial feasibility and desirability. The results of a structural equation model based on a sample comprising 426 individuals who were primarily from Austria, Finland and Greece revealed a significant positive influence on perceived entrepreneurial desirability and feasibility. These findings support the argument for embedding entrepreneurial role models in entrepreneurship education courses to promote entrepreneurial activities. This direction is not only relevant for the academic community but also essential for nascent entrepreneurs, policymakers and society at large. PMID:28458611

  13. The Multiple Roles of Exosomes in Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwen; Rüger, Rüdiger

    2017-01-02

    Exosomes are important contributors to cell-cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes.

  14. Molecular shredders: how proteasomes fulfill their role.

    PubMed

    Groll, Michael; Clausen, Tim

    2003-12-01

    The 20S proteasome is a large, cylinder-shaped protease that is found in all domains of life and plays a crucial role in cellular protein turnover. It has multiple catalytic centers located within the hollow cavity of a molecular cage. This architecture prevents unwanted degradation of endogenous proteins and promotes processive degradation of substrates by restricting the dissociation of partially digested polypeptides. Although this kind of self-compartmentalization is generally conserved, the proteasomes of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes show many differences in architecture, subunit composition and regulation. The structure of the 20S proteasome and its inherent role in the regulation of proteasome function are gradually being elucidated.

  15. Psychology's role in mathematics and science education.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Nora S; Ambady, Nalini; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gomez, Louis; Klahr, David; Linn, Marcia; Miller, Kevin; Mix, Kelly

    2009-09-01

    Improving mathematics and science education in the United States has been a matter of national concern for over half a century. Psychology has a vital role to play in this enterprise. In this article, the authors review the kinds of contributions that psychology can make in four areas: (a) early understanding of mathematics, (b) understanding of science, (c) social and motivational aspects of involvement in mathematics and science, and (d) assessment of learning in mathematics and science. They also examine challenges to psychology's playing a central and constructive role and make recommendations for overcoming those challenges.

  16. Brain Aromatization: Classical Roles and New Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Charles E.; Liu, Mingyue; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2010-01-01

    Aromatization of testosterone to estradiol by neural tissue has classically been associated with the regulation of sexual differentiation, gonadotropin secretion, and copulatory behavior. However, new data indicate that the capacity for aromatization is not restricted to the endocrine brain and demonstrate roles for locally-formed estrogens in neurogenesis and in responses of brain tissue to injury. This manuscript summaries our current understanding of the distribution and regulation of aromatase in the brain and discusses the classical and novel roles it plays. A better understanding of brain aromatization could shed new light on its physiologic and pathologic functions and someday lead to new centrally acting drug therapies. PMID:19401952

  17. The Role of Mitochondria in Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxin; Youle, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in activating apoptosis in mammalian cells. Bcl-2 family members regulate the release of proteins from the space between the mitochondrial inner and outer membrane that, once in the cytosol, activate caspase proteases that dismantle cells and signal efficient phagocytosis of cell corpses. Here we review the extensive literature on proteins released from the intermembrane space and consider genetic evidence for and against their roles in apoptosis activation. We also compare and contrast apoptosis pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammals that indicate major mysteries remaining to be solved. PMID:19659442

  18. Expanding role of AMPK in endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Kola, Blerina; Boscaro, Marco; Rutter, Guy A; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta

    2006-07-01

    Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a regulator of cellular and systemic energy homeostasis. It mediates some of the effects of peripheral hormones such as leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin, and it is involved in the insulin-sensitizing role of the antidiabetic drug metformin. There is increasing evidence that AMPK has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many other hormones and substances, including the cannabinoids. Recent studies have illustrated the interaction between hormones and AMPK, and highlighted AMPK as a potential target for the development of tissue-specific AMPK modulators in the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  19. [Essential role of mitochondria in tumorigenesis].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cui, Hongjuan

    2013-11-01

    Tumorigenesis is a complex process that is regulated by a variety of network signals. With the continuous development of the process, tumor cells gradually exhibit lots of hallmarks.Tumor cells have the characteristics of unlimited proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, evading immune surveillance, among others. As a unique organelles, mitochondria play an important role in cellular energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species producing and apoptosis process. Particularly, mitochondria have a close relationship with tumor development. In this review, we focus on the essential role of mitochondria in tumor cells development.

  20. The role of marketing in transplantation.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Art

    2007-06-01

    Although marketing has a well-established role in healthcare, few publications on the role of marketing in transplantation exist. In addition, the field of organ transplantation presents some unique marketing challenges because of the limited availability of organs. Marketing is essential to the success of transplantation services. An effective market planning process includes several steps: an assessment of the current program; analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; a competitive analysis; the identification of target audiences; setting of marketing goals, strategies, and tactics; and developing methods for tracking and evaluation. Two often overlooked needs are to assess readiness for marketing and internal marketing.

  1. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  2. What Screens Do: The Role(s) of the Screen in Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports of an ethnographic study conducted in two academic research centers. The article is centrally directed at the role of digital technologies and devices in contemporary academic work, and more particularly at the role of the screen in the daily composition of this work. Three central questions are raised. First, which positional…

  3. The Effects of Role Congruence and Role Conflict on Work, Marital, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Blalock, Rachel H.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of role congruence and role conflict on work, marital, and life satisfaction was studied using Super's life-span, life-space theory. A conceptual model of relationships between these variables was proposed, and gender differences were examined. Participants were 35 male and 60 female college graduates who completed surveys by mail.…

  4. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity: The Challenges of Team Leadership at a Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispeels, Janet H.; Martin, Kathleen J.; Harari, Itamar; Strait, Cheryl C.; Rodarte, Marisol A.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing on video, interview, survey, and observational data, analyzes four major actions by teacher leadership teams to explore the team's role-defining efforts. Using event mapping, open systems, and role theory, highlights complex interactions as teachers and principals implemented reforms challenging hierarchical patterns. Systems thinking is…

  5. Male Therapists' Clinical Bias: Influence of Client Gender Roles and Therapist Gender Role Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisch, Andrew F.; Mahalik, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines male therapists' gender-role conflict, client sexual orientation, and client emotional expression as they interrelate with clinical judgments about male clients. Results indicate that therapist gender-role-conflict factors, in combination with client sexual orientation and emotional expression, were associated with therapists' ratings of…

  6. What Screens Do: The Role(s) of the Screen in Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports of an ethnographic study conducted in two academic research centers. The article is centrally directed at the role of digital technologies and devices in contemporary academic work, and more particularly at the role of the screen in the daily composition of this work. Three central questions are raised. First, which positional…

  7. Teachers' Professional Beliefs about Their Roles and the Pupils' Roles in the School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahonen, Elsi; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, many educational reforms have been implemented that aim to effect a change in teachers' and pupils' roles by promoting meaningful learning. Yet, little is known about how teachers perceive these roles as a part of their professional belief system. In this study, 68 Finnish comprehensive school teachers were interviewed. The data…

  8. Role Resources and Work-Family Enrichment: The Role of Work Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Oi-ling; Lu, Jia-fang; Brough, Paula; Lu, Chang-qin; Bakker, Arnold B.; Kalliath, Thomas; O'Driscoll, Michael; Phillips, David R.; Chen, Wei-qing; Lo, Danny; Sit, Cindy; Shi, Kan

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model of work-family enrichment and tests the mediating role of work engagement. The inclusion of work engagement extends prior research on work-family interface, and allows for examination of the effects of role resources (job resources, family support) on work-family enrichment. A two-wave survey was conducted…

  9. The Potential Role(s) of Writing in Second Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Writing is often seen as having a minor role in second language learning. This article explores recent research that suggests that writing can have a facilitative role in language development. In particular, it focuses on three features of writing: (1) its slower pace, and (2) the enduring record that it leaves, both of which can encourage…

  10. Role Resources and Work-Family Enrichment: The Role of Work Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Oi-ling; Lu, Jia-fang; Brough, Paula; Lu, Chang-qin; Bakker, Arnold B.; Kalliath, Thomas; O'Driscoll, Michael; Phillips, David R.; Chen, Wei-qing; Lo, Danny; Sit, Cindy; Shi, Kan

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model of work-family enrichment and tests the mediating role of work engagement. The inclusion of work engagement extends prior research on work-family interface, and allows for examination of the effects of role resources (job resources, family support) on work-family enrichment. A two-wave survey was conducted…

  11. The Impact of Changing Teaching Jobs on Music Teacher Identity, Role, and Perceptions of Role Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lori F.

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized symbolic interaction as a framework to examine the impact of mobility on four veteran elementary general music teachers' identities, roles, and perceptions of role support. Previous research has focused on teacher identity formation among preservice and novice teachers; veteran teachers are less frequently represented in the…

  12. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  13. The Professional Negotiator: Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Motivation To Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medford, Robert E.; Miskel, Cecil

    The investigation examined the relationship among role conflict, role ambiguity, and motivation to work of teacher-negotiators. The theoretical rationale for the study was formulated from the finding of Walton and McKersie, Deutsch, Vidmar and McGrath, and Blum concerning the negotiator's conflict with his adversary, his dependence on his…

  14. The Role of Clothing in Sex-Role Socialization: Person Perceptions versus Overt Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Susan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Explored the role of clothing in sex-role socialization by comparing stereotypic clothing-play cognitions with overt play behavior relative to dress. A multi-method approach, including observations and interviews, was used to study the behavior and cognitions of 39 preschool girls. (Author/DST)

  15. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  16. Defining the Role of the Pharmacy Technician and Identifying Their Future Role in Medicines Optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Boughen, Melanie; Sutton, Jane; Fenn, Tess

    2017-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, pharmacy technicians have worked alongside pharmacists in community and hospital pharmacy. Changes within pharmacy provide opportunity for role expansion and with no apparent career pathway, there is a need to define the current pharmacy technician role and role in medicines optimisation. Aim: To capture the current roles of pharmacy technicians and identify how their future role will contribute to medicines optimisation. Methods: Following ethical approval and piloting, an online survey to ascertain pharmacy technicians’ views about their roles was undertaken. Recruitment took place in collaboration with the Association of Pharmacy Technicians UK. Data were exported to SPSS, data screened and descriptive statistics produced. Free text responses were analysed and tasks collated into categories reflecting the type of work involved in each task. Results: Responses received were 393 (28%, n = 1380). Results were organised into five groups: i.e., hospital, community, primary care, General Practitioner (GP) practice and other (which included HM Prison Service). Thirty tasks were reported as commonly undertaken in three or more settings and 206 (84.7%, n = 243) pharmacy technicians reported they would like to expand their role. Conclusions: Tasks core to hospital and community pharmacy should be considered for inclusion to initial education standards to reflect current practice. Post qualification, pharmacy technicians indicate a significant desire to expand clinically and managerially allowing pharmacists more time in patient-facing/clinical roles. PMID:28970452

  17. Interprofessional working or role substitution? A discussion of the emerging roles in emergency care.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Rebecca

    2012-08-01

    This article presents a discussion of emerging non-medical roles in emergency care against the current policy context and the issues of role substitution and interprofessional working. Non-medical roles in emergency care have grown internationally in response to an increasing demand for emergency care services and to address the growing importance of the quality healthcare agenda. The blurring of role boundaries between professional groups has become more common. Data sources.  Searches were made of three electronic databases; CINAHL, Medline and EMBASE. The literature relating to interprofessional healthcare roles, and new roles in emergency care was searched from 1980 to 2010 and underpinned the discussion. A theoretical framework that has emerged from the literature is that task, role substitution and interprofessional working lie on a spectrum and evolving non-medical roles can be plotted on the spectrum, usually starting at one end of the spectrum under task substitution and then potentially moving in time towards true interprofessional working. There is still a great deal of progress to be made until non-medical roles in emergency care can truly be encompassed under the umbrella of interprofessional working and that a more robust critical mass of evidence is required to substantiate the theory that interprofessional working within teams contributes to effective, cost-effective care and better patient outcomes. It is essential to understand the underlying motivation, policy context and key drivers for the development of new nursing and non-medical roles. This allows services to be established successfully, by understanding and addressing the key predicable barriers to implementation and change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. General Practitioners' perceptions of their role in cancer care and factors which influence this role.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Burridge, Letitia H; Colquist, Shoni P; Love, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Effective cancer care depends on inter-sectoral and inter-professional communication. General Practitioners (GPs) play a pivotal role in managing the health of most Australians, but their role in cancer care is unclear. This qualitative study explored GPs' views of this role and factors influencing their engagement with cancer care. Twelve metropolitan and non-metropolitan GPs in Queensland, Australia, were recruited between April and May 2008, and three focus groups and one interview were conducted using open-ended questions. The transcripts were analysed thematically. The first theme, GPs' perceptions of their role, comprised subthemes corresponding to four phases of the trajectory. The second theme, Enhancing GPs' involvement in ongoing cancer care, comprised subthemes regarding enhanced communication and clarification of roles and expectations. GPs' role in cancer care fluctuates between active advocacy during diagnosis and palliation, and ambivalent redundancy in between. The role is influenced by socioeconomic, clinical and geographical factors, patients' expectations and GPs' motivation. Not all participants wanted an enhanced role in cancer care, but all valued better specialist-GP communication. Role clarification is needed, together with greater mutual trust between GPs and specialists. Key needs included accessible competency training and mentoring for doctors unfamiliar with the system. Existing system barriers and workforce pressures in general practice must be addressed to improve the sharing of cancer care. Only one metropolitan focus group was conducted, so saturation of themes may not have been reached. The challenges of providing cancer care in busy metropolitan practices are multiplied in non-metropolitan settings with less accessible resources and where distance affects specialist communication. Non-metropolitan GPs learn from experience how to overcome referral and communication challenges. While the GPs identified solutions to their concerns

  19. The Literacy Educator's Role in Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Suicide, the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, is preventable. Nearly 80% of individuals who commit suicide have demonstrated signs well in advance. Adolescent suicide prevention efforts require collaboration with teachers--individuals who know students well. Literacy educators have a role in suicide…

  20. Higher Education's Role in "Education for Sustainability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes some of the drivers for "education for sustainability" that exist in universities and also explores some of the rationales that underpin higher education's reluctance to engage more formally in education for sustainability. It attempts to provide a balanced commentary on the role and capability of higher education in…

  1. CTE's Role in Energy and Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    ACTE Issue Briefs are designed to highlight the role of career and technical education (CTE) in a broader issue of national interest. Each Brief is designed to strengthen the voice of CTE related to the specific issue and to draw more attention to CTE activities and best practices around the country. The Briefs provide background information,…

  2. Homework Practices: Role Conflicts Concerning Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bräu, Karin; Harring, Marius; Weyl, Christin

    2017-01-01

    This article on hand discusses results of an ethnographic study which aims to perform a detailed description of practices of doing homework in a domestic environment. Based on the international state of research, first the question and the methodical approach will be explained, subsequently the role conflicts and stress ratios developed while…

  3. Eating Disorders: The School Counselor's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Sharon A.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses role of school counselor in providing assistance to students who may be at risk for developing anorexia nervosa and bulimia and students who already display behaviors and physical symptoms of either of these illnesses. Addresses specific concerns regarding intervention strategies used by the school counselor in the student's recovery…

  4. The role of interfacial water in ``nano''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luzar, Alenka; Wang, Jihang; Daub, Chris; Bratko, Dusan; Chemisty Department, VCU Team

    2011-03-01

    To understand the role of interfacial water on nanostructred surfaces is important for materials science and biology. The talk will describe some of our recent progress in predicting and understanding the effects of nanopatterning on topologically or chemically heterogeneous surfaces on wetting via in silico experiments.

  5. Incidental Learning of Sex Role Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsell-Rainey, Lynn W.

    The content and process of incidental learning of sex role related characteristics through play behavior was explored in a study of more than 6000 toys sold by Sears, Roebuck & Company between 1900 and 1970, as represented in their mail order catalogs. Sixty percent of all toys were sex typed by Sears. The nature of the play behavior…

  6. Collaboration using roles. [in computer network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-01-01

    Segregation of roles into alternative accounts is a model which provides not only the ability to collaborate but also enables accurate accounting of resources consumed by collaborative projects, protects the resources and objects of such a project, and does not introduce new security vulnerabilities. The implementation presented here does not require users to remember additional passwords and provides a very simple consistent interface.

  7. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  8. Macrophages: Their Emerging Roles in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Sinder, Benjamin P; Pettit, Allison R; McCauley, Laurie K

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are present in nearly all tissues and are critical for development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Resident tissue macrophages of bone, termed osteal macrophages, are recently classified myeloid cells that are distinct from osteoclasts. Osteal macrophages are located immediately adjacent to osteoblasts, regulate bone formation, and play diverse roles in skeletal homeostasis. Genetic or pharmacological modulation of macrophages in vivo results in significant bone phenotypes, and these phenotypes depend on which macrophage subsets are altered. Macrophages are also key mediators of osseous wound healing and fracture repair, with distinct roles at various stages of the repair process. A central function of macrophages is their phagocytic ability. Each day, billions of cells die in the body and efferocytosis (phagocytosis of apoptotic cells) is a critical process in both clearing dead cells and recruitment of replacement progenitor cells to maintain homeostasis. Recent data suggest a role for efferocytosis in bone biology and these new mechanisms are outlined. Finally, although macrophages have an established role in primary tumors, emerging evidence suggests that macrophages in bone support cancers which preferentially metastasize to the skeleton. Collectively, this developing area of osteoimmunology raises new questions and promises to provide novel insights into pathophysiologic conditions as well as therapeutic and regenerative approaches vital for skeletal health. PMID:26531055

  9. Women and multiple roles: myths and reality.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rosalind Chait

    2004-01-01

    Strong beliefs persist about the negative effects of maternal employment on women, their marriages, and their children, in spite of considerable systematic research indicating that, on average, employment has positive effects. The underlying assumption is that the roles of wife and mother are "natural" roles and are therefore performed without undue stress. In contrast, the role of employee is seen as "unnatural" and therefore highly demanding. These beliefs affect clinical practice, fostering a concern among mental health professionals about whether women can handle the demands of multiple roles without serious negative health consequences. It is therefore important to evaluate these beliefs in light of the empirical literature. Such an evaluation is especially critical at this particular time, when demographic trends suggest that the number of employed women with children is increasing, that paid employment will be a central component in most women's life experiences, and that as a society we are highly unlikely to return to the days of the "traditional" family. The need for careful scrutiny is underscored by the current political climate, in which there is much rhetoric implying that maternal employment "causes" many of our social ills--school dropouts, drug abuse, juvenile violence, and divorce.

  10. Roles of Naturalistic Observation in Comparative Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David B.

    1977-01-01

    "Five roles are considered by which systematic, quantified field research can augment controlled laboratory experimentation in terms of increasing the validity of laboratory studies." Advocates that comparative psychologists should "take more initiative in designing, executing, and interpreting our experiments with regard to the natural history of…

  11. Choices: Learning about Changing Sex Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangen, Nancy Register; Wagner, Sherri

    Maintaining that sexism wastes talents by limiting an individual's choices, the document presents activities for elementary school students to increase awareness of sex roles and a set of inservice materials for training school personnel to teach about sexism. Activities are presented on two levels. Activities for primary grades deal with…

  12. Role of proline under changing environments

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Hayat, Qaiser; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wani, Arif Shafi; Pichtel, John; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to stressful conditions, plants accumulate an array of metabolites, particularly amino acids. Amino acids have traditionally been considered as precursors to and constituents of proteins, and play an important role in plant metabolism and development. A large body of data suggests a positive correlation between proline accumulation and plant stress. Proline, an amino acid, plays a highly beneficial role in plants exposed to various stress conditions. Besides acting as an excellent osmolyte, proline plays three major roles during stress, i.e., as a metal chelator, an antioxidative defense molecule and a signaling molecule. Review of the literature indicates that a stressful environment results in an overproduction of proline in plants which in turn imparts stress tolerance by maintaining cell turgor or osmotic balance; stabilizing membranes thereby preventing electrolyte leakage; and bringing concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within normal ranges, thus preventing oxidative burst in plants. Reports indicate enhanced stress tolerance when proline is supplied exogenously at low concentrations. However, some reports indicate toxic effects of proline when supplied exogenously at higher concentrations. In this article, we review and discuss the effects of exogenous proline on plants exposed to various abiotic stresses. Numerous examples of successful application of exogenous proline to improve stress tolerance are presented. The roles played by exogenous proline under varying environments have been critically examined and reviewed. PMID:22951402

  13. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  14. The Role of Emotion in Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    The way in which emotion interacts with cognition has been of great interest to researchers for hundreds of years. Emotion has been shown to play an important role in attention, learning and memory. However, the way in which emotion influences the basic process of word learning in infancy has largely been ignored. In the current paper, the…

  15. The evolving role of the transfusion practitioner.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristy; Akers, Christine; Davis, Amanda K; Wood, Erica; Hennessy, Clare; Bielby, Linley

    2015-04-01

    Much of the recent work in transfusion practice has shifted to focus on the patient, after efforts over previous decades to ensure the quality and safety of blood products. After the commencement of hemovigilance and transfusion practice improvement programs, the introduction of transfusion practitioners (TP) into health care services and blood centers has continued to increase worldwide. Since this relatively new role was introduced, much work of the TP has focused on patient and staff education, adverse events, transfusion governance, and monitoring of transfusion practices within organizations. The complex nature of the transfusion process makes the TP an integral link in the transfusion chain. Together with hospital transfusion teams and committees, the TP works collaboratively to facilitate the transfusion change management programs and initiatives. Recently, the TP role has evolved to include an emphasis on patient blood management and, to some extent, is shaped by national standards and regulations. These established roles of the TP, together with the ever-changing field of transfusion medicine, provide new opportunities and challenges for a role that is continuing to evolve worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Internet Sirens & the Role of Today's Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlihy, Catherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses both the opportunities and challenges to academic librarians of information resources available on the Internet. Notes that, beyond mechanical expertise, there are intellectual problems regarding research skills and critical assessment that have increased with the sheer amount of information available. The academic librarian's role is to…

  17. The Role of Parents and Governors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Melian

    2011-01-01

    Every school community is made up of several key partners, each of whom has a significant role in relation to the children. These are parents--who are their children's first educators, staff--all staff, the local community, the local authority and the governing body which represents all of these and is ultimately responsible for the school. All…

  18. Role-Play in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.; Scheuermann, Amy M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2009-01-01

    The activity shared here is an animal role-playing lesson developed, field-tested, and refined for "Nature's Neighborhood", a newly designed children's education facility at the Toledo Zoo. The activity is targeted at students in kindergarten through second grade, but it can be adapted for use in grades three and four as well. Through…

  19. Reinvigorating the role of science in democracy.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Andrew A; Halpern, Michael; Shulman, Seth; Wexler, Celia; Phartiyal, Pallavi

    2013-01-01

    Private and political interests routinely conspire to sideline and misrepresent science and evidence in the public policy process. The Center for Science and Democracy, a new initiative at the Union of Concerned Scientists, endeavors to change this dynamic to strengthen the role of science in decision making.

  20. The role of cytokines in cancer.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, J; Fujiwara, H

    1996-10-01

    The role of cytokines was intensively discussed over the course of a two and a half day meeting sponsored by the US-JAPAN Cancer Cooperative Research Program of the Office of International Affairs, National Cancer Institute and held at The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland on 15-17 January 1996. Most of the first day was devoted to a discussion of the role of cytokines in modulating angiogenesis and the consequent effect of this on tumor growth and metastases. This was followed by sessions on the effect of various cytokines in enhancing or suppressing immunological responses to tumors. Several presentations focused on the direct inhibitory or growth promoting effects of cytokines on tumor growth. The final session consisted of a comparison of the efficacy of different approaches to tumor vaccination including gene therapy, enhanced antigen presentation, use of polymeric carriers or of DNA vectors. For background information the reader is referred to appropriate chapters on the role of cytokines in neoplastic diseases (Oppenheim JJ, Rossio JL, Gearing AJH, eds. In Clinical Application of Cytokines: Role of Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapy. Oxford University Press, New York, 1993 [1]).

  1. Jealousy, Gender, Sex Roles, and Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Margaret E.; And Others

    One hundred adults ages 18 to 42 completed measures of jealousy and dependency in romantic relationships and of sex role traditionalism. Traditionalism and jealousy were correlated, as predicted, but dependency and jealousy were not. For men, but not for women, traditionalism and jealousy were positively correlated. Dependency and traditionalism…

  2. Role Modelling in MOOC Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecking, Tobias; Chounta, Irene-Angelica; Hoppe, H. Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    To further develop rich and expressive ways of modelling roles of contributors in discussion forums of online courses, particularly in MOOCs, networks of forum users are analyzed based on the relations of information-giving and information-seeking. Specific connection patterns that appear in the information exchange networks of forum users are…

  3. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  4. Communicating the role of genetics in management

    Treesearch

    Mary F. Mahalovich

    1997-01-01

    Three current issues serve as examples to convey the role of genetics in management. (1) Consequences of silvicultural systems on the genetic resource of tree species are limited to one generation of study and isozyme (qualitative) data. Results of simulated data for diameter (quantitative data) over several generations, illustrate the pitfalls of working towards...

  5. Resource List: Sex-Role Stereotyping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendler, Cathy L. W.; And Others

    Contained in this resource listing are materials available on sex role stereotyping. The materials focus on research reports, books, manuals and audiovisual materials relevant to the field. The list is divided into 12 sections for easy access: Audio Visual Materials, Bibliographies, Careers, Teaching, Counseling, Curricular Materials, Language,…

  6. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  7. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  8. [Role of burrow microbiocenosis in plague enzootia].

    PubMed

    Udovikov, A I; Grigor'eva, G V; Tolokonnikova, S I; Iakovlev, S A; Tarasov, M A; Sludskiĭ, A A

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes relationships of the plague bacilli to the representatives of different types of living organisms inhabiting the burrows. The authors give their own data on the qualitative and quantitative composition of indicoles of the burrow of little sousliks (Spermophillus pygmaeus). They assess the role of mutagenic agents in burrow microbiocenoses.

  9. Sex Roles as an Androcentric Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Naomi

    The notion that women internalize personality characteristics that render them psychologically, socially and intellectually crippled is a denial of experience. The study of sex roles cuts across several disciplines, as well as being the major focus of women's liberation, thus creating the possibility for reappraisal of the field and its…

  10. The Role of Narrative in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Myrna Elyse

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive case study investigated the role of narrative in multimedia learning and teaching and observed how teachers applied their understanding of narrative, and new constructivist technologies, to design multimedia presentations for instruction. The study looked specifically at the cognitive strategies, visual narrative concepts, and…

  11. On the Role of Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    The author elaborates on the thesis that much of the confusion and argument about the role of nuclear energy in meeting the energy needs of the nation and the world is caused by failure to place the known facts in perspective with respect to time, to hazards that accompany the use of energy in any form, to economics, and to ultimate limitations in…

  12. Roles and Reality: People in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Bay; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Provides four art portraits from various sources to help students question reality and the roles people play in society. Includes background information on the artists, historical contexts, visual analyses, and vocabulary lists. Outlines art and reading assignments for all age groups. (KM)

  13. The role of symmetry in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-02-01

    The role of discrete symmetries in nuclear physics is briefly reviewed within the context of the algebraic cluster model (ACM). The symmetries D3 (triangle) for 3α and Td (tetrahedron) for 4α are discussed and evidence shown for their occurrence in 12C (D3) and 16O (Td).

  14. Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…

  15. Rethinking Education--Emerging Roles for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Fatima Rehan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out how teachers role modeled and taught empathetic and pro-social skills at the primary level. The study was qualitative in nature and followed a case study approach. Observations of regular English language classes were done from Grades 1-5 to see if class lessons incorporated the said themes and whether…

  16. NEA Wants Role in School Improvement Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Bess

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the role that the National Education Association (NEA) wants in the school improvement agenda. In this article, the author points out how pressure from supporters and critics, as well as the changing education landscape, challenge the union's strategic goals. Both the NEA and its smaller peer, the American Federation of…

  17. Role of Physics in Saudi Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role and importance of physics in the engineering curriculum, considering the need for physics knowledge in technology transfer and in preventing architectural disasters. Also discusses preuniversity physics preparation in Saudi Arabia and an optimum engineering physics curriculum, outlining a proposed four-semester physics course.…

  18. Psychology's Role in Mathematics and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora S.; Ambady, Nalini; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gomez, Louis; Klahr, David; Linn, Marcia; Miller, Kevin; Mix, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Improving mathematics and science education in the United States has been a matter of national concern for over half a century. Psychology has a vital role to play in this enterprise. In this article, the authors review the kinds of contributions that psychology can make in four areas: (a) early understanding of mathematics, (b) understanding of…

  19. Essential Role of Culture in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joan G.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.

  20. "A Vital Role in Uncertain Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    The adult learning and skills sector is a diverse world, encompassing adult and community learning, apprenticeships, Train to Gain, and contracted employment programmes. The learning and skills sector plays a vital role in uncertain times by giving greater opportunities for social mobility, for example by supporting progression to further and…