Science.gov

Sample records for demain quels roles

  1. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  2. ONU Geneve: quel avenir pour le francais? Silence, on coule! (ONU Geneva: What Future for French? Quiet, We're Sinking!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Jean-Michel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two articles address change and conflict concerning the French language. One discusses the comparative roles of English and French at the United Nations office in Geneva; the other is in response to the opinions of Philippe de Saint Robert on the need to protect French from change. (MSE)

  3. Challenging Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younker, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A veteran teacher with over 35 years experience, the author reflects on the events of September 11, 2001, and how the events of that day demonstrated that teachers fulfill many shifting roles in their students' lives. Here, he shares his own feelings of profound sadness for all the victims on that day, and discusses how the roles of teachers often…

  4. Quels touristes sommes-nous? (Which Tourists Are We?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arruda, Milton; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A game using student observational skills to match tourist "types" with comments, postcards, hotel and travel advertisements, souvenirs, guidebooks and sources of travel information, photos, travel styles, and tourist attractions is outlined and illustrated. (MSE)

  5. Education, developpment et ecole de demain en Mediterranee (Education, Development and Schools of the Future in the Mediterranean).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Ronald G.

    2002-01-01

    Offers an analysis of the condition of education in developing countries such as Morocco, where, according to the author, educational improvements will not occur as a result of adopting European educational models. Argues that educational progress in developing regions should embrace humanistic values and be founded upon the concepts of the right…

  6. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  7. Operator roles in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, J.; Madni, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The authors suggest that operator roles in robotics can be classified under the categories of monitor, manager, and maintainer. With increasingly sophisticated applications of machine intelligence, however, these roles will require explicit and continuing reassessment. 5 references.

  8. Role Discovery in Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-14

    RolX takes the features from Re-FeX or any other feature matrix as input and outputs role assignments (clusters). The output of RolX is a csv file containing the node-role memberships and a csv file containing the role-feature definitions.

  9. Public Roles, Private Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    The role of a presidential spouse is very complex. Indeed, expectations vary among college governing boards and campus constituencies of what a presidential spouse's responsibilities should be. In this article, the author discusses the role of presidential spouses and how they balance their public roles with their private life.

  10. University Programs in Home Economics: Past, Present and Future = Les programmes universitaires d'economie familiale: hier, aujourd'hui et demain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Ruth E.

    2000-01-01

    Follows the history of home economics programs in Canada at the postsecondary level from 1902 to the present restructuring that is taking place in many universities. Suggests that the present position of the field is precarious and young scholars must be encouraged to enter it and become successful teachers and researchers. (JOW)

  11. Tomorrow's Families: Triumph of the Individual or Sharing the Caring? (Les familles de demain: Triomphe de l'individu ou partage des soins a donner?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue of the Canadian newsletter "Transitions" in both English and French explores the question of the future of families in a period of broken marriages, difficult times, and an obsession with individual success and materialism. "Families of the Future: New Ways to Do the Same Old Things," summarizes the findings of Canada's…

  12. Influences on role expansion.

    PubMed

    Bullough, B

    1976-09-01

    Several factors are influencing role expansion for registered nurses, among them the shortage of primary care physicians, the federal government, the physician's assistant movement, the growing complexity of acute hospital care, educational reform, and the women's liberation movement. As state licensure statutes are revised to allow for role expansion, the changing laws themselves become a factor supporting the movement.

  13. Role Playing and Skits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letwin, Robert, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…

  14. Reconceptualizing Evaluator Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary J.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Burr, Erin Mehalic

    2009-01-01

    The current evaluation literature tends to conceptualize evaluator roles as a single, overarching orientation toward an evaluation, an orientation largely driven by evaluation methods, models, or stakeholder orientations. Roles identified range from a social transformer or a neutral social scientist to that of an educator or even a power merchant.…

  15. Expanded Roles for HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanded roles for human resource development (HRD). "The Roles of Consultants in Gainsharing Firms: Empirical Results" (Eunsang Cho, Gary N. McLean) reports findings that consultants are moderately involved at the separation, preparation, evaluation, and design stages and have low…

  16. Role relationships: lesbian perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J M; Reilly, M E

    This questionnaire study of 140 lesbians, 70 couples who have lived together for one or more years, explores equality and role relationships. We predicted that lesbians would achieve partnerships characterized by equality and freedom from traditional butch-femme role playing. Financial sharing and decision-making were found to be characterized by high degrees of equality. Household responsibilities tended to be performed individually, but no role-playing was evident. Sexual intimacy items indicated less perceived equality than other areas. And overall, some partners were viewed as unequal. The variables of age, income, education, occupation, assets, and years living together did not explain the inequality observed.

  17. Roles within the Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. ...

  18. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and ... you can be when the time comes. Successful nursing depends on a host of factors, many of ...

  19. Role-Playing Mitosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Nursing Reclaims its Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diers, Donna

    1982-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the nurses' role: what the nurse is, what the nurse does, how the nurse is viewed by society, why nurses suffer burnout, nursing costs, and health care system reform. (CT)

  1. Sex Role and Pupil Role in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Patrick C.; Kedar, Gita

    This article analyzes the interaction between sex role and "pupil role" in the early childhood education setting. It postulates that teachers and schools have a demonstrated investment in socializing children to a passive, docile, and dependent role, beginning at the preschool level. This role, called "pupil role," corresponds closely to the…

  2. Role and Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    This paper discusses Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which is a structuralist-formalist theory of grammar. RRG grew out of an attempt to answer two fundamental questions: (1) what would linguistic theory look like if it were based on the analysis of Lakhota, Tagalog, and Dyirbal, rather than on the analysis of English?; and (2) how can the…

  3. Adults Role in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…

  4. Teachers' Interpersonal Role Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…

  5. The Role of Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Jane M.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the role that mathematical definitions can play in the middle grades mathematics classroom and focuses on the concept of angle as it was introduced to 6th grade students. Describes a traditional approach and an alternative approach to teaching the concept of angle. Illustrates students' concept images of angle. (KHR)

  6. QUELS FUTURS TRAITEMENTS POUR LA DEPENDANCE AU TABAC ET AU CANNABIS?

    PubMed Central

    LE FOLL, Bernard; JUSTINOVA, Zuzana; TANDA, Gianlugi; GOLDBERG, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    RESUME Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques jouent un rôle central dans les effets renforçants des drogues, d’autres systèmes sont impliqués. Nous présentons ici des résultats récents obtenus avec des antagonistes des récepteurs cannabinoides CB1, des récepteurs D3 de la dopamine et des récepteurs opioïdes. Ces antagonistes qui modulent de façon directe ou indirecte la transmission dopaminergique cérébrale représentent des approches prometteuses pour le traitement du tabagisme ou de la dépendance au cannabis. Ces approches sont à valider dans des essais cliniques. PMID:18663981

  7. Leishmaniose viscerale et leucemie aigüe lymphoblastique B: quel est le rapport?

    PubMed Central

    El Youssi, Hind; Touaoussa, Aziz; Bergui, Imane; Bougrine, Nawal; Amrani, Moncef Hassani

    2015-01-01

    L'association leishmaniose viscérale et leucémie aigue a été rarement rapportée dans la littérature, cependant le diagnostic concomitant de ces deux entités n'a jamais été rapporté au Maroc. Le lien entre ces deux pathologies n'a pas encore été établi et le traitement n'a pas encore été codifié. Nous rapportons le cas d'un garçon de 12 ans chez qui une leishmaniose viscérale et une leucémie aigue lymphoblastique type B ont été diagnostiquées simultanément. Malgré l'administration d'un traitement antiparasitaire associé à une chimiothérapie l’évolution était marquée par le décès du patient. PMID:26090011

  8. Enseigner quel francais du tourisme (Which French to Teach for Tourism).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bjorn

    1992-01-01

    Development of a course in French for tourism and the hotel industry in Sweden is chronicled, focusing on the process of functional analysis used to determine appropriate language content. A general functional outline of touristic French and an outline of language functions specific to a restaurant situation are presented. (MSE)

  9. Extending a Role Graph for Role-Based Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakura, Yoshiharu; Nakamoto, Yukikazu

    Role-based access control (RBAC) is widely used as an access control mechanism in various computer systems. Since an organization's lines of authority influence the authorized privileges of jobs, roles also form a hierarchical structure. A role graph is a model that represents role hierarchies and is suitable for the runtime phase of RBAC deployment. Since a role graph cannot take various forms for given roles and cannot handle abstraction of roles well, however, it is not suitable for the design phase of RBAC deployment. Hence, an extended role graph, which can take a more flexible form than that of a role graph, is proposed. The extended role graph improves diversity and clarifies abstraction of roles, making it suitable for the design phase. An equivalent transformation algorithm (ETA), for transforming an extended role graph into an equivalent role graph, is also proposed. Using the ETA, system administrators can deploy efficiently RBAC by using an extended role graph in the design phase and a standard role graph in the runtime phase.

  10. Tribbles role in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Basatvat, Shaghayegh; Carter, Deborah Angela Louise; Kiss-Toth, Endre; Fazeli, Alireza

    2015-10-01

    Tribbles (TRIB) proteins, a family of evolutionary conserved psuedokinase proteins, modulate various signalling pathways within the cell. The regulatory roles of TRIB make them an important part of a number of biological processes ranging from cell proliferation to metabolism, immunity, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Innate immune system plays a pivotal role during the regulation of reproductive processes that allows successful creation of an offspring. Its involvement initiates from fertilization of the oocyte by spermatozoon and lasts throughout early embryonic development, pregnancy and labour. Therefore, there is a close cooperation between the reproductive system and the innate immune system. Evidence from our lab has demonstrated that improper activation of the innate immune system can reduce embryo implantation, thus leading to infertility. Therefore, control mechanisms regulating the innate immune system function can be critical for successful reproductive events.

  11. Roles and Role Conflict of Women in Infertile Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Janet R.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the experience of role conflict for women in infertile couples. Findings lead to an understanding of infertility as part of an interactional system for dealing with potentially intolerable sources of role conflict. (Author)

  12. The Virgil role.

    PubMed

    Sobel, R

    1996-01-01

    The referral of a patient for subspecialty consultation and examination is but one facet of the primary care physician's involvement with his patient. Using examples from my practice, I argue that the term "gatekeeper" is an inadequate term for describing what the primary care physician does, or should do, for his patient. "Virgil Role" is offered as an alternative expression based on a proposed parallel between Dante's passage through the Inferno accompanied by his mentor-guide, Virgil, and a sick person's journey through his personal Hell of illness and the labyrinthine medical care system, guided by his physician.

  13. Neuroendocrine Role for VGF

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jo E.; Brameld, John M.; Jethwa, Preeti H.

    2015-01-01

    The vgf gene (non-acronymic) is highly conserved and was identified on the basis of its rapid induction in vitro by nerve growth factor, although can also be induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial-derived growth factor. The VGF gene gives rise to a 68 kDa precursor polypeptide, which is induced robustly, relatively selectively and is synthesized exclusively in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Post-translational processing by neuroendocrine specific prohormone convertases in these cells results in the production of a number of smaller peptides. The VGF gene and peptides are widely expressed throughout the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, in peripheral tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, and the pancreas, and in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells. VGF peptides have been associated with a number of neuroendocrine roles, and in this review, we aim to describe these roles to highlight the importance of VGF as therapeutic target for a number of disorders, particularly those associated with energy metabolism, pain, reproduction, and cognition. PMID:25699015

  14. Dose refinement. ARAC's role

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate

  15. Semantic Roles and Grammatical Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Valin, Robert D., Jr.

    The nature of semantic roles and grammatical relations are explored from the perspective of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). It is proposed that unraveling the relational aspects of grammar involves the recognition that semantic roles fall into two types, thematic relations and macroroles, and that grammatical relations are not universal and are…

  16. Organizational Roles of University Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Walter C.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of relationships found empirically to hold among 20 organizational characteristics of university committees, two patterns are derived of the organizational roles which university committees play: the deliberative, collective decision-making role of member-dominated committees and the one-person advisory role of chairperson-dominated…

  17. The Many Roles of Fatherhood

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of fathers to children's development is increasing. Fathers play many roles: supporting the mother-infant relationship, nurturing, acting as mother surrogate, encouraging separation and individuation setting up care sexual identify and developing sex role, and encouraging the development of conscience. A fuller understanding of the role of fatherhood can help family physicians offering medical and preventive treatment.

  18. The Division of Family Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Julia A.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes the marital role division between couples, in the Philadelphia area, concentrating on the division of household tasks, child care, and paid employment. Data support a marital power model with husband's income negatively related and wife's education positively related to shared roles. Blacks are more likely to share roles. (Author)

  19. The role of bracing.

    PubMed

    Briem, Kristin; Ramsey, Daniel K

    2013-03-01

    Regular exercise and weight reduction are not only important for maintaining general health, they are also strongly recommended conservative modalities for managing knee osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this paper is to discuss the mechanics of knee joint loading and to review the most recent literature with respect to the functionality and efficacy of unloader braces for managing knee OA, specifically from the perspective of the middle-aged athlete. Evidence suggests valgus braces for medial compartment knee OA significantly reduce knee adduction angle measures and improve measures relating to medial knee joint loading, as well as gait symmetry and speed. Benefits were demonstrated during walking and during more demanding functional measures such as running and negotiating stairs. No studies have investigated the efficacy of bracing for relatively young athletic OA patients and, thus, the role of bracing for this population during sports remains unclear. PMID:23314263

  20. Climate's Role in Terroir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. V.

    2012-12-01

    The marriage between a given winegrape cultivar planted in its ideal climate, over favorable topography and physical soil characteristics, combine to create the potential to produce fine wine. The French term terroir embodies this potential as a holistic concept that relates to both environmental and cultural factors that together influence the grape growing to wine production continuum. While the landscape, geology, soil, and climate strongly interact to influence the vine's balance of nutrients and water, climate is clearly of prevailing importance in that it limits where grapes can be grown at both the global and site scale. This talk will review the nature of climate's role in terroir through a discussion of the structure of climate in wine regions globally and how this structure influences cultivar suitability. Furthermore, the talk will use two of the most commonly planted red wine cultivars as examples - Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon - providing details on the historic, current, and future climate structure of wine regions growing these cultivars. In general the examination reveals that cool climate cultivars tend to have a narrower climate niche for high quality wine production, than do warmer climate cultivars, with less range of adaptation. Furthermore, the range of the climate suitability of these two cultivars shows that potentially new terroirs for each are waiting to be found.

  1. Models and role models.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers. PMID:25871413

  2. Transitions in nursing leadership roles.

    PubMed

    Jobes, M; Steinbinder, A

    1996-01-01

    Today's turbulent, chaotic health care environment necessitates dramatic changes in the roles of nurse executives. These role changes are rapidly being cast upon individuals who are pressured to react, accept, and adapt quickly. Previously successful leadership styles no longer serve nurse executives as they assume nonoperational roles without line authority and power. No prescriptive strategies will be effective to assist nurse leaders in their new roles. One nurse executive's story of her own journey will be shared to illustrate how she is creating a successful transition.

  3. Role Model, Hero or Champion? Children's Views Concerning Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricheno, Patricia; Thornton, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Background: Claims that male role models can improve the behaviour and achievement of boys are familiar and persistent. However, research has not confirmed such a link; recent UK studies indicate that peers and relatives may be far more important to boys than their teachers. Given the seemingly relentless reference to male teachers as role models…

  4. Mediators of Stress and Role Satisfaction in Multiple Role Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Laura A.

    Women involved in multiple life roles comprise a large segment of society, yet little is known about how stressful and satisfying they find this lifestyle, or about what characteristics are related to feeling stressed or satisfied. The purpose of this study was to examine role and life satisfaction and stress in women involved in multiple life…

  5. Sex Role Attitudes and Sex Role Stereotyping: Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography profiles 17 publications examining sex role attitudes/sex role stereotyping from the perspectives of ethnicity, gender, and age. Cited in the section on ethnicity are studies of work satisfaction/family functioning among working-class Mexican-American women and cultural variations in sex typing by students in the United…

  6. Balancing Caregiving and Work: Role Conflict and Role Strain Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Judith R.; Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Murphy, Wendy Marcinkus; Rose, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Positing role conflict as a bidirectional construct in which work interferes with caregiving (WIC) and caregiving interferes with work (CIW), this study investigated its antecedents (demands and support of caregiving and work) and consequences (role strain). A national sample of 583 women between the ages of 50 and 64 years identified using…

  7. Promoting Flexibility in Male Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Charles D., Comp.; Linn, Eleanor, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    In this publication issues are discussed which pertain to male roles and fatherhood. "From the Desk of the Director" (Charles D. Moody, Sr.) discusses the need for increased role flexibility for men in general and black men in particular. The lead article, "Equity: A Question in Balance" (D. Groves Dugger), delves into the causes and consequences…

  8. Classroom Roles and School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2004-01-01

    The peer group is an important developmental context for children. In this paper we present a method to operationalize a child's integration into the classroom by their informal social classroom roles, which we obtained using a blockmodel analysis based on role equivalence. This method differs in several respects from the common socio-metric…

  9. ROLE TRANSITION IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOMENT, DAVID

    ROLE TRANSITIONS IN ADULT CAREER DEVELOPMENT IS PRESENTED IN TERMS OF THE TECHNICAL, SOCIAL, AND DIRECTIVE ROLE ELEMENTS FOUND IN TWO STUDIES OF MANAGERIAL BEHAVIOR AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT. THE INDIVIDUAL'S LIFE SPACE IS THE BASIC FORMULATION OF THIS IDEA. THAT IS, MAJOR CHANGES IN THE CONFIGURATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL'S INTERPERSONAL NETWORK…

  10. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…

  11. Women's Role in Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Leslie

    1996-01-01

    Given women's impact on resource management and consumption, we must improve our understanding of women's role in sustainable development. Women must be involved in sustainable development planning. This article examines the role of women as land stewards, and the effects of education of women on population growth in developing nations. Includes…

  12. Understanding medical practice team roles.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team. PMID:26062328

  13. The Nephrology Clinical Research Nurse Role: Potential Role Conflicts.

    PubMed

    Micklos, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Clinical research nursing is becoming more visible to nephrology professionals. As more nephrology practices and units are participating in clinical trials, clinical research nursing is gaining interest as a career niche among nephrology nurses. This unique specialty requires that nephrology clinical nurse nurses (CRNs) reconcile the roles of nurse as caregiver and nurse as researcher, which may result in a role conflict. Nephrology nurses should be aware that they may experience this role conflict when transitioning from patient care to a position as a clinical research nurse. These nurses can rely on the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics for Nurses and the Oncology Nursing Society's Oncology Clinical Trials Nurse Competencies to help reconcile the potential role conflict. PMID:27501633

  14. Technology's Role in NASA's Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun talks to NASA managers about the vital role technology research and development will play in NASA's future. Braun discusses how NASA will use new technologies to...

  15. Women's Role in Future Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Work, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Providing an overview of women's role in national and economic development, particularly in Africa and Asia, the article touches upon women's participation in employment, vocational training and education, agriculture, and other aspects of progress in developing nations. (MW)

  16. The Changing Role of Logarithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    With the advent of computers and electronic calculators, the role of logarithms in the curriculum is changing. An intuitive approach to logarithms, stressing the notion of isomorphism, is discussed. (SD)

  17. [The changing role of physicians].

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J

    2012-09-01

    Despite a very successful process of professionalisation during the past 150 years, today's physicians face several challenges urging them to adapt their traditional professional role and the patient-physician relationship inherent in this role. Among these challenges, a growing economic influence on physicians' practices, new demands from particular groups of patients (consumerism, role of the Internet etc.), and increasing inter-professional competition deserve special attention. New evidence of an association between a stressful work environment and physician's increased health risks provides additional support in favour of this notion. This contribution suggests potential directions of change of the physician's role by pointing to (a) a growing 'feminisation' of medicine, (b) an even stronger emphasis on patient needs and (c) extended teamwork and inter-professional cooperation.

  18. Objective assessment of gender roles: Gender Roles Test (GRT-36).

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Angeles; del Olmo, Isabel; Aróztegui, Javier; Martín, Arantxa

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A "D" score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.

  19. Transformative Learning in Managerial Role Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of learning in work role transitions from specialist roles to managerial roles in a context of a large international technology organisation. Prior theorisation of learning in role transitions has been based on quantitative, psychologically-oriented studies prescribing different role and…

  20. Bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Silva Ramos, Eduardo; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Mourier, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria are bioenergetic hotspots, producing the bulk of ATP by the oxidative phosphorylation process. Mitochondria are also structurally dynamic and undergo coordinated fusion and fission to maintain their function. Recent studies of the mitochondrial fusion machinery have provided new evidence in detailing their role in mitochondrial metabolism. Remarkably, mitofusin 2, in addition to its role in fusion, is important for maintaining coenzyme Q levels and may be an integral player in the mevalonate synthesis pathway. Here, we review the bioenergetic roles of mitochondrial dynamics and emphasize the importance of the in vitro growth conditions when evaluating mitochondrial respiration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016,' edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:27060252

  1. Antiviral Roles of Plant ARGONAUTES

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Alberto; Carrington, James C.

    2015-01-01

    ARGONAUTES (AGOs) are the effector proteins functioning in eukaryotic RNA silencing pathways. AGOs associate with small RNAs and are programmed to target complementary RNA or DNA. Plant viruses induce a potent and specific antiviral RNA silencing host response in which AGOs play a central role. Antiviral AGOs associate with virus-derived small RNAs to repress complementary viral RNAs or DNAs, or with endogenous small RNAs to regulate host gene expression and promote antiviral defense. Here, we review recent progress towards understanding the roles of plant AGOs in antiviral defense. We also discuss the strategies that viruses have evolved to modulate, attenuate or suppress AGO antiviral functions. PMID:26190744

  2. Perceived roles of oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance. PMID:26897865

  3. ISO 9000: The Librarian's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Chris; Ernst, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Describes the special library's role in implementing ISO 9000 (i.e., a series of international quality-assurance standards developed by the International Organization of Standards). Topics discussed include document and data control, keeping the standards current, documentation of procedures, the ISO 9000 audit, and benefits for the library. (MES)

  4. Physiological Roles of Pneumococcal Peptidases

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mary K.

    1974-01-01

    A methionyl-specific dipeptidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae has been described. This enzyme and the pneumococcal tripeptidase have been shown to be intracellular, soluble, and constitutive. In addition to their function in cleavage of peptide nutrients, these peptidases may play a role in protein synthesis and turnover. PMID:4212242

  5. Sex Roles: Symposium V B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lua, Sokhong; And Others

    Reported is an exploratory investigation of attitudes toward child-rearing practices in Malaysia, including an attempt to investigate and analyze the nature and extent of involvement of Malaysian fathers in child care. There is also an abstract of a study of the influence of child-rearing practices on marital role expectations in Bengali,…

  6. Role models face class expulsion.

    PubMed

    Sprinks, Jennifer

    There are plans to drop Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale from the curriculum taught in schools, according to leaked reports. Here, nurse leaders protest that this would rob young people of valuable role models and undermine the image of the profession. It is also suggested that a person's contribution to society is more important than their personality. PMID:23427681

  7. Nonverbal Portrayal of Interpersonal Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Michael W.; And Others

    A study (one of a series) sought to identify interpersonal events related to implicit communication. Implicit communication is defined as nonverbal behavior which serves to transmit "subintended" information. The study explored whether interpersonal roles which account for part of the process of nonverbal communication (and which were identified…

  8. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  9. Role of Bacteria in Oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Alicia H.; Parsonnet, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Although scientific knowledge in viral oncology has exploded in the 20th century, the role of bacteria as mediators of oncogenesis has been less well elucidated. Understanding bacterial carcinogenesis has become increasingly important as a possible means of cancer prevention. This review summarizes clinical, epidemiological, and experimental evidence as well as possible mechanisms of bacterial induction of or protection from malignancy. PMID:20930075

  10. The Role of the Unconscious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    1995-01-01

    The role of the unconscious in educating students is considered, along with historical trends in educational philosophy and psychoanalysis at Roeper School (Michigan) for gifted students. The unconscious and creative drive of gifted students is seen as the bridge for explaining what would otherwise be incomprehensible reactions, behavior,…

  11. Ombudsman Roles for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, James E.

    1972-01-01

    In Scandinavia the ombudsman has long been respected as a mediator who protects the rights of individual citizens and works to assure governmental agencies' fairness in dealing with them. This article examines the concept and considers various ombudsman roles for social workers in the United States. (Author)

  12. The Multiple Roles of Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sabrina R.; Roegman, Rachel; Goodwin, A. Lin

    2016-01-01

    Teaching Residents at Teachers College (TR@TC) is an 18-month program that prepares teachers for high-needs schools in New York City in two areas: teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching students with disabilities. Student teachers, called residents, spend a year working with a mentor teacher. Mentors play three roles:…

  13. Exploring Unique Roles for Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mohiuddin; Boisvert, Charles M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents comments on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow highlighted unique roles that psychologists can play in mental health service delivery by providing psychological treatments--treatments that psychologists would be uniquely qualified to design and deliver. In support of Barlow's position, the authors draw from…

  14. The Faculty Role in Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    1984-01-01

    Specific roles faculty members can play in their institution's budget processes are discussed, and the general ends served by budgets are identified. Each of the dimensions of institutional character (e.g., size, mission) determines the ways in which participants in budgeting will interact. For example, broader faculty participation in budgeting…

  15. The Role of the Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halladay, D. W.; And Others

    Participation in some areas of university governance is recommended in these 4 statements as an acceptable student role. The first statement describes "legitimate student demands" as those concerned with the quality of the educational experience as they relate to the stated objectives, purposes, and resources of the institution. In the solution of…

  16. Gender Stereotypes and Social Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.

    The reason that people think women and men differ in their general qualities may be that the two sexes tend to be observed in different social roles. To explore the sources of stereotypes about men and women several experiments were conducted. Most of the studies involved randomly selected college students who were presented with a description of…

  17. Divorce Mediator: A New Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, John M.

    1978-01-01

    In response to soaring divorce rates and liberalized divorce laws, the author proposes a new role for social workers--divorce mediator. Social work skills can be used to lessen the pain couples who are dissolving marriage at the same time that husband and wife are helped to face the future. (Author)

  18. Bureaucratic Control and Principal Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezdek, Robert; And Others

    The purposes of this study were to determine the manner in which the imposition of increased bureaucratic control over principals influenced their allocation of time to tasks and to investigate principals' perceptions of the changes in their roles brought about by this increased control. The specific bureaucratic control system whose effects were…

  19. Pharmacists' Role in Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maronde, Robert F.

    1977-01-01

    Pharmacists' contribution to the health care of the future in the future in the U.S. may have to be in the context of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of health-care delivery. It is from the area of drug therapy, now poorly administered, that the pharmacist will have to justify his role in a cost-effective manner. (Author/LBH)

  20. The dynamics of role interaction.

    PubMed

    Barnett, E M

    1996-02-01

    Success in our respective business environments is not totally dependent on technical expertise; we must be able to also effectively interact with people. The necessity of successful leadership is assumed; however, we often fail to recognize the value of strategically subordinating ourselves to others. Both roles must be emphasized with the knowledge that preferred individual styles are valid.

  1. Transitioning between Work and Family Roles as a Function of Boundary Flexibility and Role Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…

  2. The Effect of Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on Performance of Vice Principals: The Mediating Role of Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Kazim

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Role ambiguity and role conflict are considered issues that affect performance and lead to burnout. While numerous studies have analyzed role ambiguity or role conflict in relation to burnout or performance, few studies have studied all of these issues together. Since vice principals are expected to carry out a variety of…

  3. A Constructivist Look at Life Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brott, Pamelia E.

    2005-01-01

    The author reviews the literature related to life roles and describes a variety of techniques that can be used from a constructivist career counseling perspective. Seven counseling techniques are included: life space map, life line, life-space genogram, life roles circles, life roles assessment, life role analysis, and goal map. Framed from the…

  4. Sex-Roles: Why, What, and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    The teaching of sex-role stereotyping issues in an educational psychology course for student teachers is discussed. Issues presented include influences on the learner, the teaching of sex roles and stereotypes in the elementary grades, the presence of role models at home and school, contributions of curriculum to sex-role stereotyping and the…

  5. Approches interlinguistiques de la complementation verbale: Quels savoirs pour l'enseignant? Quels savoirs pour l'eleve? (Interlinguistic Approaches to Object-Verb Complementation: What the Teacher Needs To Know? What the Student Needs To Know?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beguelin, Marie-Jose, Ed.; de Pietro, Jean-Francois, Ed.; Naf, Anton, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue deals with verb-object complementation, a complex and controversial but important topic, in particular in connection with the teaching and learning of a second language. The articles are a response to a long debate about the harmonization of grammatical terminology used in schools and the simplification of grammar for students. The…

  6. Role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Dvorakova, Magdalena Chottova; Kruzliak, Peter; Rabkin, Simon W

    2014-11-01

    The role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathy-associated heart failure has been garnering more attention. Several neuropeptides--Neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and their receptors have been studied in the various types of cardiomyopathies. The data indicate associations with the strength of the association varying depending on the kind of neuropeptide and the nature of the cardiomyopathy--diabetic, ischemic, inflammatory, stress-induced or restrictive cardiomyopathy. Several neuropeptides appear to alter regulation of genes involved in heart failure. Demonstration of an association is an essential first step in proving causality or establishing a role for a factor in a disease. Understanding the complexity of neuropeptide function should be helpful in establishing new or optimal therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure in cardiomyopathies.

  7. Science role in countering terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Geoscience expertise figures as a component of a new report on harnessing the U.S. science and technology community in the fight against terrorism.The National Research Council report, "Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism," proposes research agendas in a number of areas perceived to be vulnerable to terrorism. These areas include nuclear and radiological threats, toxic chemicals and explosive materials, information technology, energy systems, and cities and fixed infrastructure.

  8. Science role in countering terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Geoscience expertise figures as a component of a new report on harnessing the U.S. science and technology community in the fight against terrorism.The National Research Council report, “Making the Nation Safer: The Role of Science and Technology in Countering Terrorism,” proposes research agendas in a number of areas perceived to be vulnerable to terrorism. These areas include nuclear and radiological threats, toxic chemicals and explosive materials, information technology, energy systems, and cities and fixed infrastructure.

  9. Teaching leadership with role theory.

    PubMed

    Holle, M L; Blatchley, M E

    1989-01-01

    A model based on Mintzberg's use of role theory to describe managerial functions was applied to nursing education. The model builds on interpersonal, informational, and decisional activities of managers (Mintzberg, 1978), and identifies nine subroles that are frequently carried out by managers in nursing. Organization of material using this structure has been well-accepted both by baccalaureate nursing students and by practicing nurses whose educational background in management concepts is limited.

  10. Mitigating earthquakes; the federal role

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Press, F.

    1977-01-01

    With rapid approach of a capability to make reliable earthquake forecasts, it essential that the Federal Government play a strong, positive role in formulating and implementing plans to reduce earthquake hazards. Many steps are being taken in this direction, with the President looking to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in his Executive Office to provide leadership in establishing and coordinating Federal activities. 

  11. The developmental roles of FMRP.

    PubMed

    Till, Sally M

    2010-04-01

    FXS (Fragile X syndrome) is the most common genetically inherited form of cognitive impairment. The predominant cause of the syndrome is the loss of a single protein, FMRP (Fragile X mental retardation protein). Many of the cognitive and behavioural features found in Fragile X individuals emerge during childhood and are associated with abnormal organization of cortical connections. However, although FMRP is expressed as early as embryogenesis, relatively little is known about its roles during development or how this may influence FXS phenotypes in adulthood. The present review focuses specifically on the evidence for the functions of FMRP during embryonic and early postnatal development. The current knowledge of the role of FMRP in FXS will be briefly summarized before addressing how alterations in the formation and refinement of neuronal connections and synaptic function that result from the loss of FMRP may in turn influence behaviours that are expressed during the first few postnatal weeks. I will then briefly highlight some outstanding questions about the developmental roles of FMRP and their possible relationship to symptoms found in adults with FXS.

  12. Expanding roles for lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Welte, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid droplets are the intracellular sites for neutral lipid storage. They are critical for lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis, and their dysfunction has been linked to many diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that the roles lipid droplets play in biology are significantly broader than previously anticipated. Lipid droplets are the source of molecules important in the nucleus: they can sequester transcription factors and chromatin components and generate the lipid ligands for certain nuclear receptors. Lipid droplets have also emerged as important nodes for fatty acid trafficking, both inside the cell and between cells. In immunity, new roles for droplets, not directly linked to lipid metabolism, have been uncovered, as assembly platforms for specific viruses and as reservoirs for proteins that fight intracellular pathogens. Until recently, knowledge about droplets in the nervous system has been minimal, but now there are multiple links between lipid droplets and neurodegeneration: Many candidate genes for Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia also have central roles in lipid-droplet formation and maintenance, and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons can lead to transient accumulating of lipid droplets in neighboring glial cells, an event that may, in turn, contribute to neuronal damage. As the cell biology and biochemistry of lipid droplets are increasingly well understood, the next few years should yield many new mechanistic insights into these novel functions of lipid droplets. PMID:26035793

  13. About sleep's role in memory.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Björn; Born, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of "sleep and memory" research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems.

  14. About Sleep's Role in Memory

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831

  15. [The biological role of sulfatides].

    PubMed

    Suchański, Jarosław; Ugorski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Sulfatides (3-O-sulfogalactosylceramides, sulfated galactocerebrosides, SM4) are esters of sulfuric acid with galactosylceramides. These acidic glycosphingolipids, present at the external leaflet of the plasma membrane, are synthesized by a variety of mammalian cells. They are especially abundant in the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Studies using cerebroside galactosyltransferase-deficient mice revealed that sulfatides are responsible for proper structure and functioning of myelin. Large amounts of sulfatides are also found in the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, islets of Langerhans, and membranes of erythrocytes, thrombocytes and granulocytes. They are ligands for numerous proteins, but in most cases the biological role of such interactions is poorly understood. A notable exception is their binding by P- and L-selectins. Platelet sulfatides are major ligands for P-selectin, and this interaction is critical for the formation of stable platelet aggregates. Sulfatides also bind to chemokines, and seem to play a role in regulation of cytokine expression in human lymphocytes and monocytes. Aberrant metabolism of sulfatides, could cause several important human diseases. In this article, we describe the changes in sulfatide expression associated with such nervous disorders as metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and several types of cancer, e.g. colon cancer, kidney cancer, and ovarian cancer. We also discuss the involvement of sulfatides in cancer progression, diabetes and autoimmune and immune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. This acidic glycosphingolipids seem to play an important role in pathogenesis of infectious diseases, serving as receptors for binding various bacteria and viruses. PMID:27180966

  16. Macrophage Roles Following Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Jessica M.; Lopez, Elizabeth F.; Lindsey, Merry L.

    2010-01-01

    Following myocardial infarction (MI), circulating blood monocytes respond to chemotactic factors, migrate into the infarcted myocardium, and differentiate into macrophages. At the injury site, macrophages remove necrotic cardiac myocytes and apoptotic neutrophils; secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors; and modulate phases of the angiogenic response. As such, the macrophage is a primary responder cell type that is involved in the regulation of post-MI wound healing at multiple levels. This review summarizes what is currently known about macrophage functions post-MI and borrows literature from other injury and inflammatory models to speculate on additional roles. Basic science and clinical avenues that remain to be explored are also discussed. PMID:18656272

  17. The role of the university.

    PubMed

    Starck, P L

    1987-01-01

    The role of the university, and particularly the health sciences university, in promoting positive health for women is twofold. First, the dissemination of existing knowledge raises awareness of special health needs and identifies gaps in the present research and literature base. Second, universities must project future needs of women in a rapidly changing society where such things as space travel may become commonplace. Reduction of the risk of debilitating disease and promotion of positive attitudes will enhance the quality of life for women. A logotherapeutic approach to choosing one's own attitudes toward life's challenges promotes successful coping in a dynamic society.

  18. The role of the university.

    PubMed Central

    Starck, P L

    1987-01-01

    The role of the university, and particularly the health sciences university, in promoting positive health for women is twofold. First, the dissemination of existing knowledge raises awareness of special health needs and identifies gaps in the present research and literature base. Second, universities must project future needs of women in a rapidly changing society where such things as space travel may become commonplace. Reduction of the risk of debilitating disease and promotion of positive attitudes will enhance the quality of life for women. A logotherapeutic approach to choosing one's own attitudes toward life's challenges promotes successful coping in a dynamic society. PMID:3120225

  19. Type A personality as a moderator of the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity and role overload on individual strain.

    PubMed

    Orpen, C

    1982-06-01

    The relations between three types of role stress (role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload) and three measures of individual strain were examined in a sample of 91 middle managers. Separate measures of psychological strain (anxiety, resentment, depression), physical strain (headaches, dizziness, shortage of breath, nausea, fatigue) were developed. In addition, the heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate of each subject was assessed. The relations between role conflict and physical strain and between role conflict and psychological strain were significantly positive and higher among Type A personalities than among Type B personalities. The relations between role stress and heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate were negligible and were not moderated by personality (Type A or Type B). The results highlight the important role of personality factors in determining how people react to different kinds of stress.

  20. Role of leptin in reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mantzoros, C S

    2000-01-01

    Leptin is a 16-kDa adipocyte-secreted protein the serum levels of which reflect mainly the amount of energy stores but are also influenced by short-term energy imbalance as well as several cytokines and hormones. Leptin, by binding to specific receptors, alters the expression of several hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate neuroendocrine function as well as energy intake and expenditure. More specifically, accumulating evidence suggests that this hormone may serve to signal to the brain information on the critical amount of fat stores that are necessary for LHRH secretion and activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rising leptin levels have been associated with initiation of puberty in animals and humans and normal leptin levels are needed for maintenance of menstrual cycles and normal reproductive function. Moreover, circadian and ultradian variations of leptin levels are associated with minute to minute variations of LH and estradiol in normal women. Falling leptin levels in response to starvation result in decreased estradiol levels and amenorrhea in subjects with anorexia nervosa or strenuously exercising athletes. In addition, leptin has a potentially important role during pregnancy and in the physiology of the neonate. Finally, recent evidence suggests that leptin may influence ovarian steroidogenesis directly, but the exact role of intraovarian leptin action in the physiology and pathophysiology of the human reproductive system needs to be further elucidated.

  1. [Patients' increasing role in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Cinzia

    2016-03-01

    Since the late '90s citizens have been increasingly involved in healthcare, thanks to a shift in access to healthcare information, greater patients' and citizens' awareness about their rights and needs, and a change in physicians' attitudes and behavior. At the same time, to ensure the sustainability of the national health services, patients' needs are increasingly being examined in relation to the services and interventions needed, and to foster informed demand by patients and citizens, and appropriate prescriptions by physicians. Nowadays, patients already have a section in an authoritative medical journal. Working with clinicians, they set research priorities and the outcomes to be studied. Especially in UK and USA, they are invited to participate in the design and development of trials and in deciding which trials should be funded. The situation varies widely in different countries, though involving citizens in healthcare decisions is a common mantra. Even when they consult a clinician, the patients' role has evolved. People ask for information more often and want an active part in decisions about their health. Physicians start to pay more attention to the person and the social context, feelings and emotions, and person-centered care has become a reference in the doctor-patient relationship. This article offers an overview of the changing roles of patients and citizens in healthcare.

  2. Role models for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichardt, J.; White, D. R.

    2007-11-01

    We present a framework for automatically decomposing (“block-modeling”) the functional classes of agents within a complex network. These classes are represented by the nodes of an image graph (“block model”) depicting the main patterns of connectivity and thus functional roles in the network. Using a first principles approach, we derive a measure for the fit of a network to any given image graph allowing objective hypothesis testing. From the properties of an optimal fit, we derive how to find the best fitting image graph directly from the network and present a criterion to avoid overfitting. The method can handle both two-mode and one-mode data, directed and undirected as well as weighted networks and allows for different types of links to be dealt with simultaneously. It is non-parametric and computationally efficient. The concepts of structural equivalence and modularity are found as special cases of our approach. We apply our method to the world trade network and analyze the roles individual countries play in the global economy.

  3. I am my (high-power) role: power and role identification.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J

    2013-07-01

    Research indicates that power liberates the self, but findings also show that the powerful are susceptible to situational influences. The present article examines whether enacting roles that afford power leads people to identify with the roles or, instead, liberates them from role expectations altogether. The results of three experiments support the hypothesis that power enhances role identification. Experiment 1 showed that enacting a particular role resulted in greater implicit and explicit role identification when the role contained power. In Experiment 2, infusing a role with power resulted in greater role identification and role-congruent behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrated that power resulted in greater role-congruent self-construal, such that having power in a close relationship caused participants to define themselves relationally, whereas having power in a group situation caused participants to embrace a collective self-construal. Implications for research on power, roles, and the self are discussed.

  4. I am my (high-power) role: power and role identification.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J

    2013-07-01

    Research indicates that power liberates the self, but findings also show that the powerful are susceptible to situational influences. The present article examines whether enacting roles that afford power leads people to identify with the roles or, instead, liberates them from role expectations altogether. The results of three experiments support the hypothesis that power enhances role identification. Experiment 1 showed that enacting a particular role resulted in greater implicit and explicit role identification when the role contained power. In Experiment 2, infusing a role with power resulted in greater role identification and role-congruent behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrated that power resulted in greater role-congruent self-construal, such that having power in a close relationship caused participants to define themselves relationally, whereas having power in a group situation caused participants to embrace a collective self-construal. Implications for research on power, roles, and the self are discussed. PMID:23613123

  5. The Teacher and Sex Role Stereotyping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1974-01-01

    In this article, selected research findings are presented on sex role learning, sex role stereotyping, in general and in the school setting, the effect of such stereotyping on the student, and some suggestions for the teacher. (Author/JA)

  6. Young Children's Conception of Status and Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses young children's conceptions of status and role based on sociolinguistic analyses of spontaneous role play. Links developmental features of social knowledge to contextual features of children's interactive experiences. (Author/CK)

  7. Role Models and Sports: A Youthful Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Safety, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Research and numerous model programs suggest that sports play an important social role. Particularly among youth, sports and professional athlete role models help deter juvenile delinquency. Several athlete organizations have been established to aid youth. (SI)

  8. Utilizing Peer Mentor Roles in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi

    2015-01-01

    For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.

  9. Current Perspectives on Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Brownson, Chris

    1998-01-01

    The process of reproducing gender through discourses can inhibit role sharing and multiple roles for women. Two discourses influence the psyches of men and women to reproduce ideal types: women and men as equals and men as incompetent caregivers. (SK)

  10. Perspectives on role socialization of nurses.

    PubMed

    Christman, L

    1991-01-01

    Individuals enact roles according to their personal knowledge of the role and the expectations of others interacting with the role. This is especially evident in patient care, where depths of knowledge are crucial to outcomes. The pecking order of health care professionals is directly related to the knowledge levels of the role enactors. Nurses tend to be the proverbial low man on the totem pole.

  11. Changing Instructor's Roles in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Zane L.

    2008-01-01

    Berge's Instructor's Roles Model categorized the instructor's roles as pedagogical, social, managerial, and technical. Developed more than a decade ago, this model described changing roles for instructors as they transitioned from in-person classrooms to teaching online. Today, as virtual worlds emerge and are being used as educational platforms,…

  12. Role Playing as a Group Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabral, Rebecca J.

    1987-01-01

    Supports role playing as an effective intervention technique that has been broadly adapted for academic research and applied settings. Presents a classification scheme for organizing these diverse role-playing uses, in terms of intraindividual and intact group change. Suggests that research and implementation of role playing would be best served…

  13. Role Interaction: The Salt in the Soup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbane-Flash, Marian T.

    This case study illustrates and expands upon the principle that innovation efforts involve both role change and change in role interrelationships, changes that (ideally) will be supportive of the innovation effort, but which may--if duplication, gaps among roles, or tension arise--weaken or destroy the effort. A planning effort in the Cleveland…

  14. Identifying Role Diffusion in School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astramovich, Randall L.; Hoskins, Wendy J.; Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Bartlett, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    Role ambiguity in professional school counseling is an ongoing concern despite recent advances with comprehensive school counseling models. The study outlined in this article examined role diffusion as a possible factor contributing to ongoing role ambiguity in school counseling. Participants included 109 graduate students enrolled in a…

  15. Educators' Perceptions of the School Nurse's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, E. Dianne

    Objectives of a study of the role of the school nurse were (1) to clarify the role of the school nurse within a particular setting, (2) to identify perceptions of key school personnel concerning the nurse's role, and (3) to identify and compare areas of perceptual congruity-incongruity between school personnel and school nurses. The instrument…

  16. Thematic Role Properties of Subjects and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kako, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests two claims about the thematic roles Agent and Patient: first, that they can be decomposed into more primitive features, as laid out in Dowty's (1991) Proto-Roles Hypothesis; and second, that these properties can be inferred directly from the grammatical roles subject and object. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated the…

  17. Restaurant Role-Play in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borya, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…

  18. Appraising Gender Role Portrayals in TV Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolbe, Richard H.; Langefeld, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines gender role orientations of characters in prime time television advertisements through the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) completed by 426 college students (43.2% females). Results confirm the appropriateness of the scale for self- and person-perception ratings. Uses of the BSRI in gender role research are discussed. (SLD)

  19. Roles of Variables in Three Programming Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, J.; Ben-Ari, M.; Byckling, P.; Gerdt, P.; Kulikova, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Roles can be assigned to occurrences of variables in programs according to a small number of stereotypical patterns of use. Studies on explicitly teaching roles to novices learning programming have shown that roles are an excellent pedagogical tool for clarifying the structure and meaning of programs and that their use improves students'…

  20. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  1. Conservation of Social Roles in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Valerie Barnes

    The development of children's understanding of the permanence of various social roles was examined in 16 four- and 16 five-year-old children. A social role conservation battery consisting of 12 items on the permanence of self-identity, gender, child and sibling roles was given under three temporal conditions: the past (i.e., when you were a baby,…

  2. Role of Astrocytes in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Douglas A.; Steinhäuser, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes express ion channels, transmitter receptors, and transporters and, thus, are endowed with the machinery to sense and respond to neuronal activity. Recent studies have implicated that astrocytes play important roles in physiology, but these cells also emerge as crucial actors in epilepsy. Astrocytes are abundantly coupled through gap junctions allowing them to redistribute elevated K+ and transmitter concentrations from sites of enhanced neuronal activity. Investigation of specimens from patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy and epilepsy models revealed alterations in expression, localization, and function of astroglial K+ and water channels. In addition, malfunction of glutamate transporters and the astrocytic glutamate-converting enzyme, glutamine synthetase, has been observed in epileptic tissue. These findings suggest that dysfunctional astrocytes are crucial players in epilepsy and should be considered as promising targets for new therapeutic strategies. PMID:25732035

  3. Nanotechnology: role in dental biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Sonia B; Mehta, Manjula; Gauba, K

    2009-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-adherent populations of microorganisms consisting of cells, water and extracellular matrix material Nanotechnology is promising field of science which can guide our understanding of the role of interspecies interaction in the development of biofilm. Streptococcus mutans with other species of bacteria has been known to form dental biofilm. The correlation between genetically modified bacteria Streptococcus mutans and nanoscale morphology has been assessed using AFMi.e atomic force microscopy. Nanotechnology application includes 16O/18O reverse proteolytic labeling,use of quantum dots for labeling of bacterial cells, selective removal of cariogenic bacteria while preserving the normal oral flora and silver antimicrobial nanotechnology against pathogens associated with biofilms. The future comprises a mouthwash full of smart nanomachines which can allow the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem.

  4. The Role of Coherent Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    Many interesting astronomical objects, such as galaxies, molecular clouds, PDRs, star - forming regions, protostars, evolved stars, planets, and comets, have rich submillimeter spectra. In order to avoid line blending, and to be able to resolve the line shape, it is often necessary to measure these spectra at high resolution. This paper discusses the relative advantages and limitations of coherent and direct detection for high resolution spectroscopy in the submillimeter and far - infrared. In principle, direct detection has a fundamental sensitivity advantage. In practice, it is di.cult to realize this advantage given the sensitivities of existing detectors and reasonable constraints on the instrument volume. Thus, coherent detection can be expected to play an important role in submillimeter and far - infrared astrophysics well into the future.

  5. Syntexis and its petrogenetic role

    SciTech Connect

    Dobretsov, G.L.; Marin, Yu.B.

    1986-08-01

    The reality of syntexis or mixing of magmas is accepted by most petrologists at the present time. However, this process is mostly commonly ascribed an extremely limited role in the overall balance of magmatic petrogenesis, although earlier, at the turn of the century, the syntexis mechanism was assigned major petrogenetic significance. In recent years this petrological mechanism has again been invoked to explain a greater and greater number of magmatic formations. The present authors consider it necessary in addition to important aspects of the problem of syntexis: (1) not only the reality, but also the global petrogenetic significance of the process; and (2) the wide petrological possibilities of the mechanism of syntexis and its application in explaining the origin not only of rocks of the calcalkaline series, but also of alkaline-salic magmatic rocks with their associated metallogeny. 34 references.

  6. THE ROLE OF THE SCAPULA

    PubMed Central

    Voight, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, the scapular musculature was often neglected in designing a rehabilitation protocol for the shoulder. In the past two decades a significant amount of research has been performed in order to help identify the role of the scapula in upper extremity function. Weakness of the scapular stabilizers and resultant altered biomechanics could result in: 1) abnormal stresses to the anterior capsular structures of the shoulder, 2) increased possibility of rotator cuff compression, and 3) decreased shoulder complex neuromuscular performance. This clinical commentary presents facts about the anatomy and biomechanics of the scapula and surrounding musculature, and describes the pathomechanics of scapular dysfunction. The focus is upon the assessment of dysfunction and retraining of the scapular musculature. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175141

  7. [Role of RAS in prehypertension].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Shinji; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension has long been recognized as a major risk factor of several cardiovascular diseases. It is well known that the renin-angiotensin system(RAS) is involved in the pathogenesis of both hypertension and hypertensive end-organ damage. Untreated hypertension is self-accelerating condition through RAS stimulation. Activation of RAS contributes to the transition from borderline hypertension to established hypertension. Recently, "the Seventh Report of Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7)" proposed a new classification of borderline blood pressure levels, as "prehypertension". The therapeutic focus has begun to shift from the therapy of established hypertension to the prevention of hypertension. This review addressed the relationship between hypertension, prehypertension and the role of RAS. PMID:18700549

  8. Nurse managers: perceptions of their role.

    PubMed

    Coulson, M K; Cragg, C E

    1995-01-01

    A qualitative study on the role of the nurse manager was conducted based on interviews with nurse managers in an acute care teaching hospital. Role descriptions revealed many similarities to Mintzberg's (1973) model of management roles, but additional roles, related to the nurse manager's professional responsibilities were identified. Conflicts within and among roles and a strong need for support were themes that were identified throughout the interviews. Suggestions for improving the quality of worklife of the nurse manager and for further research are included.

  9. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:25589035

  10. Psychiatrists' Perceptions of Role-Playing Games.

    PubMed

    Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard

    2015-09-01

    The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  11. Roles and Relationships in Student Teaching: A Role-Play Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Jeewa R.

    This role-play activity is designed for use by teacher educators in a general or content area methods class to help education majors become knowledgeable of role expectations in the student teaching experience and build good interpersonal role relationships. Students conduct library research and interviews concerning role expectations, use the…

  12. Reference Group Interaction and Sex Role Orientation: A Comparative Analysis by Sex and Mother's Achieved Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeh, Aida K.; Vasko, Catherine

    This paper examines the role of parents and friends (reference groups) in forming college students' sex-role orientations. Emphasis is placed on the mother's domestic, parental, and achieved (professional/occupational) role and on the mother's modeling transmission effect on her daughter's and son's sex-role attitudes. The hypothesis is that…

  13. From "Mentor" to "Role Model": Scaling the Involvement of STEM Professionals through Role Model Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Jennifer; Stein, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Mentors and role models can play a significant role in high school students' motivation to pursue specific careers later in life. Although the use of role models in the classroom is an important research topic, little research has been conducted on scaling up STEM role models reach through the use of video vignettes. This essay outlines a series…

  14. Role of carnitine in disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient that plays a vital role in energy production and fatty acid metabolism. Vegetarians possess a greater bioavailability than meat eaters. Distinct deficiencies arise either from genetic mutation of carnitine transporters or in association with other disorders such as liver or kidney disease. Carnitine deficiency occurs in aberrations of carnitine regulation in disorders such as diabetes, sepsis, cardiomyopathy, malnutrition, cirrhosis, endocrine disorders and with aging. Nutritional supplementation of L-carnitine, the biologically active form of carnitine, is ameliorative for uremic patients, and can improve nerve conduction, neuropathic pain and immune function in diabetes patients while it is life-saving for patients suffering primary carnitine deficiency. Clinical application of carnitine holds much promise in a range of neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, hepatic encephalopathy and other painful neuropathies. Topical application in dry eye offers osmoprotection and modulates immune and inflammatory responses. Carnitine has been recognized as a nutritional supplement in cardiovascular disease and there is increasing evidence that carnitine supplementation may be beneficial in treating obesity, improving glucose intolerance and total energy expenditure. PMID:20398344

  15. Role of LCAT in Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Simonelli, Sara; Vitali, Cecilia; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is the only enzyme capable of esterifying cholesterol in plasma, thus determining the maturation of high-density lipoproteins. Because it maintains an unesterified cholesterol gradient between peripheral cells and extracellular acceptors, for a long time, LCAT has been considered as a key enzyme in reverse cholesterol transport. However, despite the fact that it has been more than 50 years since the identification of LCAT, the role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still debated. A number of studies have been conducted in different animal models, with contradictory results. Studies in humans, in particular in the general population, in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, and in carriers of genetic LCAT deficiency in an excellent model to evaluate the correlation between the reduction of LCAT activity and atherosclerosis also gave conflicting results. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the controversial findings obtained in animals and humans, strengthening the necessity of further investigation to establish how LCAT could be regulated in a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:26607351

  16. Differential Roles of PML Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Nisole, Sébastien; Maroui, Mohamed Ali; Mascle, Xavier H.; Aubry, Muriel; Chelbi-Alix, Mounira K.

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is fused to the retinoic acid receptor alpha in patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Treatment of APL patients with arsenic trioxide (As2O3) reverses the disease phenotype by a process involving the degradation of the fusion protein via its PML moiety. Several PML isoforms are generated from a single PML gene by alternative splicing. They share the same N-terminal region containing the RBCC/tripartite motif but differ in their C-terminal sequences. Recent studies of all the PML isoforms reveal the specific functions of each. Here, we review the nomenclature and structural organization of the PML isoforms in order to clarify the various designations and classifications found in different databases. The functions of the PML isoforms and their differential roles in antiviral defense also are reviewed. Finally, the key players involved in the degradation of the PML isoforms in response to As2O3 or other inducers are discussed. PMID:23734343

  17. Roles of Lipids in Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koichi; Endo, Kaichiro; Wada, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Thylakoid membranes in cyanobacterial cells and chloroplasts of algae and higher plants are the sites of oxygenic photosynthesis. The lipid composition of the thylakoid membrane is unique and highly conserved among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Major lipids in thylakoid membranes are glycolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, and the phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol. The identification of almost all genes involved in the biosynthesis of each lipid class over the past decade has allowed the generation and isolation of mutants of various photosynthetic organisms incapable of synthesizing specific lipids. Numerous studies using such mutants have revealed that these lipids play important roles not only in the formation of the lipid bilayers of thylakoid membranes but also in the folding and assembly of the protein subunits in photosynthetic complexes. In addition to the studies with the mutants, recent X-ray crystallography studies of photosynthetic complexes in thylakoid membranes have also provided critical information on the association of lipids with photosynthetic complexes and their activities. In this chapter, we summarize our current understanding about the structural and functional involvement of thylakoid lipids in oxygenic photosynthesis.

  18. Atom-Role-Based Access Control Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Weihong; Huang, Richeng; Hou, Xiaoli; Wei, Gang; Xiao, Shui; Chen, Yindong

    Role-based access control (RBAC) model has been widely recognized as an efficient access control model and becomes a hot research topic of information security at present. However, in the large-scale enterprise application environments, the traditional RBAC model based on the role hierarchy has the following deficiencies: Firstly, it is unable to reflect the role relationships in complicated cases effectively, which does not accord with practical applications. Secondly, the senior role unconditionally inherits all permissions of the junior role, thus if a user is under the supervisor role, he may accumulate all permissions, and this easily causes the abuse of permission and violates the least privilege principle, which is one of the main security principles. To deal with these problems, we, after analyzing permission types and role relationships, proposed the concept of atom role and built an atom-role-based access control model, called ATRBAC, by dividing the permission set of each regular role based on inheritance path relationships. Through the application-specific analysis, this model can well meet the access control requirements.

  19. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty.

    PubMed

    Specht, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience.

  20. The neuromodulative role of earthing.

    PubMed

    Sokal, Paweł; Sokal, Karol

    2011-11-01

    Neuromodulation is a process of inhibition, stimulation, modification and regulation or therapeutic alteration of activity, electrically and chemically in the peripheral, central or autonomic nervous systems. Direct electric current or electric field alternates the function of nervous system. Coupling the human organism with the Earth directly or via a wire conductor changes the electric potential not only on the surface of the body but also inside it, changing the potential of electric environment of the human organism. Earthing refers to a direct contact with the Earth with bare feet or contact with the Earth with the use of conductive wire attached to the human body during sleeping, or daily activities. During earthing this electric potential equals to electric potential of the Earth and the value of it depends on location, time, atmospheric conditions, moisture of the surface of the Earth. The earthing which changes the density of negative charge in electric environment of the human body influences physiological processes. Our medical hypothesis states that contact with the Earth (earthing) directly or via a conductive wire plays role as a neuromodulative factor, probably primary, which enables the nervous system to be better adapted to the demands of organism and ambient environment. It helps to restore natural, electrical status of the electrical environment of the organism and thus the nervous system. Earthing generates immediate changes in electroencephalography (EEG), surface electromyography (SEMG), and somato-sensory evoked potentials (SSEPs). We hypothesize that earthing through its complex action on bioelectrical environment of human organism and alternations in electrolyte concentrations regulates correct functioning of the nervous system. Earthing significantly influences on the electrical activity of the brain.

  1. Project organization, roles and functions.

    PubMed

    1986-06-01

    This discussion of the roles and functions in the integrated project which provides services in maternal and child health, family planning; nutrition, environmental sanitation, and income-generating projects in the Philippines covers the functions of the National Coordinating Committee, the Provincial Coordinating Committee, the Municipal Coordinating Committee, implementing units, the teams of development workers (TDWs), and coordinating/monitoring units. The National Coordinating Committee provides general directions and guidelines for the implementation of the project through the POPCOM/JICA central staff based at the POPCOM central office in Metro Manila. Functions of the Provincial Coordinating Committee include: resolve problems arising from issues of coordination involving members of the TDWs; ensure participation of provincial units of the various participating ministries; provide guidelines on the delivery of integrated services by TDWs; monitor the activities of TDWs, the municipal coordinating committee, and its various units; and review and endorse the city/provincial integrated project work plan to the regional office. The Municipal Coordinating Committee recommends policies to the national coordinating committee through the provincial coordinating committee to strenthen project implementation in the municipalities. Its functions include: resolve problems arising from issues involving the members of the TDWs; regularly monitor the activities of the TDWs; and provide assistance to the TDWs in the implementation of guidelines. Actual implementation of the project is carried out by the local government, represented by the barangay captain. He is assisted by the TDWs which come from various participating ministries of the government. The TDWs are in effect the task force of the municipal mayor who assist the barangay captain in the delivery of services and the conduct of information, education, and communication campaigns. 3 units assist the various

  2. Great Expectations: How Role Expectations and Role Experiences Relate to Perceptions of Group Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory

    2016-04-01

    Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.

  3. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.

  4. Contemplating a role for titanium in organisms.

    PubMed

    Zierden, Mark R; Valentine, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and some organisms sequester it avidly, though no essential biological role has yet been recognized. This Minireview addresses how the properties of titanium, especially in an oxic aqueous environment, might make a biological role difficult to recognize. It further considers how new -omic technologies might overcome the limitations of the past and help to reveal a specific role for this metal. While studies with well established model organisms have their rightful place, organisms that are known avid binders or sequesterers of titanium should be promising places to investigate a biological role.

  5. Instructional or Managerial Leadership: The Principal Role!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jazzar, Michael

    2004-01-01

    "Instructional Or Managerial Leadership: The Principal Role" is a case study written to challenge the beliefs of graduate students preparing for educational leadership roles and educational leaders already in these positions as to the importance of the principal as an instructional leader. This case explores communication between superintendents…

  6. Sex Roles among Married and Unmarried Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotkin, Mark

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of sex roles among married and cohabitating couples showed: (1) that male career success, male career precedence, the decision to marry, and conventional allocation of household tasks are all concomitant and (2) that marriage crystallizes sex roles and behaviorally solidifies male career precedence, facilitating the husband's…

  7. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  8. Male Acceptance of Female Career Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollender, John; Schafer, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two White, male university students rated five written female role statements matched with videotaped females on an 11-point probability of marriage scale. Preference was given to family-oriented women with some career involvement. Results also indicated interaction among work roles, female physical attractiveness, and male self-esteem. (JCD)

  9. The role of language in science

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, A.; Peat, F.D. )

    1988-12-01

    It is argued that language plays an active role in the development of scientific thought. A research project is outlined which will investigate this hypothesis and, in addition, focus on such questions as the role of mathematics in science and the status of the genetic code.

  10. The Changing Roles of Arts Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushlow, Bonnie B., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The role and expectations of the arts supervisor and administrator have expanded beyond managing personnel and programmatic activities to informing policy decisions. Legislation such as The No Child Left Behind Act, signed by President Bush in 2002, exacerbated this paradigm shift. Thus, the role of arts supervisors and administrators as leaders…

  11. Leisure Role of Public Libraries: User Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Emma; Morris, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This is the second of two articles examining the leisure role of public libraries. The first article examined the leisure role of public libraries in the UK from a historical perspective. This examines the value of the public library service in providing leisure opportunities from a user point of view. The results demonstrate that public libraries…

  12. The Research Role of a National Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The functional role of a national center for vocational education depends on the people doing the work; consequently, the center sets its own agenda when it makes personal decisions. A center's role should include two elements: in setting its own research agenda, a center should take a broad perspective on vocational education; and a center should…

  13. Role-Playing in Counselor Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra; Costas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how role-plays impacted 27 counseling students' overall skills as measured by instructor ratings and self-ratings during practice triads in a microskills course. A Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test revealed no significant difference for scripted versus personal concerns role-plays. Students indicated a strong belief that…

  14. Roles for vitamin K beyond coagulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...

  15. Equality by Default: Women in Dual Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ena

    1978-01-01

    The struggle for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the American Constitution is one of the most controversial issues of this era. Discusses the changing role of women amidst a fast-changing society, the styles of those opposing the women's revolution, the debate over women as persons, women in dual roles, and the implications of ERA for the world…

  16. Preterm labor: role of the nurse practitioner.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jennifer; Silber, Angela

    2015-03-12

    The nurse practitioner may play a pivotal role in diagnosing preterm labor through risk assessment and physical exam. While treatment and management of preterm labor are usually beyond the nurse practitioner's scope of practice, they can play an important role in preventing preterm birth through assessment, action, or advocacy.

  17. Trends Affecting the Roles of Reference Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Alma; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    1996-01-01

    Reviews societal and general library trends and their effect on roles of library reference staff. Topics include demographic changes; economic trends; technological developments; shifting paradigms; contextual perceptions; technological competence; human dimensions, including the librarian's role as intermediary; and creativity and innovation.…

  18. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  19. Sex Role Sterotypes and Justice for Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Clarice

    1979-01-01

    Sexual sterotyping affects the incarceration of women, their treatment in prisons and jails, and their reception in the community following release. While women's organizations play a major role in improving conditions facing incarcerated women, they have perpetuated the sterotypes. Because of sex role sterotyping, we have denied justice to women.…

  20. Work and Family Roles and Psychological Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voydnaoff, Patricia; Donnelly, Brenda W.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed through analysis of telephone interviews (N=630) extent to which women's higher levels of psychological distress can be explained by work and family role configurations, satisfactions, and strains. Found that, although a relationship existed between work and family roles and psychological distress, factoring in these variables did not…

  1. The Smallpox Threat: The School Nurse's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…

  2. Sex Role Stereotypes Are Alive and Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Sara E.

    Two studies, in late 1988 and early 1990, examined sex-role stereotypes held by northeastern liberal arts college students (N=719) and southern state university college students (N=145). The first study used the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and compared ratings of men and women with the traditional sex-roles represented by the PAQ in…

  3. Making a role for nurses in CCGs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2016-07-13

    What do nurses in clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) do? The answer is lots, but their role and influence varies greatly between CCGs. In May, a report from NHS Clinical Commissioners (NHSCC) - the membership organisation of CCGs - highlighted the key responsibilities of nurses and the important contribution they make in what are often pressured and demanding roles (see tinyurl.com/CCG-nurses ).

  4. Higher Education Leadership Roles in Knowledge Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffery S.; Marion, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the critical roles of leadership in higher education and to define how such roles enable an environment that embraces the demands of a knowledge-based organization. Design/methodology/approach: Through interviews with executive leadership in several higher education institutions, the ontology of knowledge management was…

  5. Roles in Literacy Learning: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovey, Duane R., Ed.; Kerber, James E., Ed.

    Refining and better understanding the roles parents, teachers, administrators, and researchers play in helping children learn to process written language is the focus of this book. Part 1 considers the role of the parents and includes the following articles: "Learning to Read: It Starts in the Home" (David B. Doake): "Let's Read Another One"…

  6. Sex Role Socialization in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    This paper reviews the theory and research related to the sex role socialization of young children, specifically addressing a range of theoretical and practical issues related to the implementation of the Women's Educational Equity Act. Section I examines the influence of the family on children's sex role development, focusing on differentiated…

  7. Role Strain in University Research Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boardman, Craig; Bozeman, Barry

    2007-01-01

    One way in which university faculty members' professional lives have become more complex with the advent of contemporary university research centers is that many faculty have taken on additional roles. The authors' concern in this article is to determine the extent to which role strain is experienced by university faculty members who are…

  8. Probation's role in offender mental health.

    PubMed

    Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy.

  9. Role-Playing Methods in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, Mark; Fox, Robert

    This book, one of three Teacher Resource Booklets on Classroom Social Relations and Learning developed at the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge at the University of Michigan, discusses the theoretical background of role playing and gives a step-by-step discussion of how to use role playing in the classroom. There are…

  10. Technological Dependency, Role Stress, and Strain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Robert D.; Jones, Kenneth W.

    This study grew out of interest in how occupational role stress, moderated by personality, affects health--particularly in the area of coronary heart disease. People in organizations are now asking how occupational role demands and technological developments affect employee health. This study examined the effects of an impending shutdown of the…

  11. Adopting the Caregiver Role: A Family Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Kathleen W.; Chapman, Jeffery G.

    2001-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to investigate how adult children become caregivers to older parents with functional impairments and what roles their own children adopt in their family's care arrangement. Interviews revealed five influences on children and grandchildren's adoption of caregiver roles: expectations; family rules; religious training;…

  12. A Role Change Strategy: Decentralized Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Gilbert A.

    The debate over new counseling roles rages as some counselors are already adopting them. This paper describes alternative counseling-consulting interventions possible with teachers. It suggests a strategy for speeding the process of role change and encouraging counselor-teacher interaction. The strategy is that of decentralizing counseling offices…

  13. Students' Roles during Peer Response Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sandra Sim Phek; Samuel, Moses

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the types of roles played by students during peer response sessions and investigated how the students' roles facilitated learning. This qualitative case study involved six Grade 10 mixed-proficiency level students from a secondary school in Malaysia. Data were collected through multiple sources. The findings indicated that the…

  14. Communication Roles in a Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohland, Grace J.

    A three-phase study spanned five areas of interest: (1) the school as organization and social system, (2) roles and role behavior in organizations, (3) communication structure in organizations, (4) network analysis concepts, and (5) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). In phase one of the study, staff members listed…

  15. Probation's role in offender mental health.

    PubMed

    Sirdifield, Coral; Owen, Sara

    2016-09-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders' perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them. Design/methodology/approach Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method. Findings Both staff and offenders defined probation's role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders' engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms. Originality/value This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation's role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy. PMID:27548020

  16. The Changing Role of the Information Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Toni Carbo

    1984-01-01

    Addresses seven changes in role of the information professional--role as part of information transfer chain, need to harness technology and management tools, shift to individual-oriented information services, need for new directions in education, changing image of information professional, ethical commitment, increased international awareness.…

  17. Opening Trade Barriers: Sex Role Awareness Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Rikki

    This manual consists of exercises to explore sex-role stereotyping as it affects work roles. They are intended to make young people aware of career opportunities in nontraditional fields. The 10 exercises include the following: values clarification; true-false quiz about sex characteristics and occupational requirements; character traits…

  18. Modelling Focused Learning in Role Assignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matessa, Michael; Anderson, John R.

    2000-01-01

    ACT-R is a theory of cognition that is capable of learning the relative usefulness of alternative rules. A model using this implicit procedural learning mechanism is described that explains results from a concept formation task created by McDonald and MacWhinney (1991), a role assignment created by Blackwell (1995), and a new role assignment…

  19. The Online School Librarian: Roles and Responsibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Children across the United States of America are maturing in a media-saturated society. Unfortunately, this often results in poor content choices and evaluative skills. North American schools have attempted to address this problem through information literacy skills. One role key to teaching these skills is the role of the school librarian.…

  20. [Role of innate immunity in tolerance induction].

    PubMed

    Dolgikh, M S

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the role of innate immunity in mechanisms of transplant tolerance and rejection, analyse the role of innate immunity cells (dendritic cells-DC, NK, must and other cells) in these processes, and the pathes of creation of tolerogenic DC for transplant rejection therapy and tolerance.

  1. Licensed Practical Nurses' Sex Role Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallston, Barbara Strudler; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether sex-role stereotypes would affect nurses' (N=32) attitudes toward simulations of male and female patients. Emotional style and patients' diagnosis were manipulated. Results showed significant sex-role differences and stereotypical attitudes. Male patients were rated more positively, and were more likely to possess traditional male…

  2. Development of Mentor Teacher Role Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Ebru Melek

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and investigate the validity and reliability of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory (MTRI). A total of 1843 student teachers in the Distance English Teacher Training Program participated in the study. The 58 items of the Mentor Teacher Role Inventory underwent principal factor analysis, which revealed nine factors…

  3. Making a role for nurses in CCGs.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alison

    2016-07-13

    What do nurses in clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) do? The answer is lots, but their role and influence varies greatly between CCGs. In May, a report from NHS Clinical Commissioners (NHSCC) - the membership organisation of CCGs - highlighted the key responsibilities of nurses and the important contribution they make in what are often pressured and demanding roles (see tinyurl.com/CCG-nurses ). PMID:27406497

  4. Counseling Roles in the Public Employment System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jesse E.

    One answer to the question of what should be the role of the counselor is to be found in an interpretation of the kinds of roles counselors have developed out of their experience in making adjustments and adaptations to the realities of their work and to the problems that they have encountered. There are five interconnected functions in counseling…

  5. The Changing Role of the Graduate Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Kenneth L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Three graduate deans at large state supported universities (University of Oklahoma, University of Washington, and University of Louisville, Kentucky) who are heavily involved in both graduate education and research administration examine trends in higher education as applied to their roles. Areas in which the role of the graduate dean has changed…

  6. Health Educators: Role Modeling and Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Andrew J. J.; Galli, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Examined cigarette smoking among health educators, their views about the effects of this behavior upon their audiences and beliefs about smoking in light of their professional role. Smokers and nonsmokers were significantly less included than former smokers to feel the role of health education is to convince people not to smoke. (Author/ABL)

  7. UNESCO's Role in Global Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comparative Education Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a two-round discussion that centered around the question: "How well has UNESCO framed its own proposed role in meeting Education for All objectives as well as the roles of other UN organizations, national governments, and civil society actors?" The participants reviewed the most recent draft of UNESCO's "Global Action Plan"…

  8. The Changing Role of OD Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, D. D.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the organization development (OD) practitioner is evaluated based on their activities in the area of management. Changes in the OD role are suggested: (1) a more results-oriented approach, (2) "I'm OK--You're OK" methods, (3) program start-up improvements, and (4) improved followup planning. (EC)

  9. Five Roles I Play in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Scot

    2005-01-01

    Scot Headley outlines five roles that online instructors can use to increase the sense of community and depth of learning in their courses; they are space planner, pacesetter, host, connector, and mirror. These roles underscore the importance of strong relationships between teacher and student, particularly in an online setting. Headley provides…

  10. Adult Children of Dysfunctional Families: Childhood Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used retrospective accounts to compare adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), adults who experienced stressful events in childhood not involving parental alcoholism (A-D+), and adults with no reported dysfunction in family of origin (A-D-) with regard to dysfunctional roles adopted as children. Dysfunctional role adoption was more frequent in ACOA…

  11. Sex-roles in Reading Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobban, Glenys

    1974-01-01

    Author contended that no broad-ranging study of the way sex-roles are presented in British reading schemes exists. In this article he described a preliminary study on sex-role content in readers in order to remedy this lack of information. (Author/RK)

  12. Personality Characteristics and Evaluation of Women's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Mary C.; Hawker, James

    The relationships between several commonly utilized women's role questionnaires and several personality inventories was investigated. Undergraduates students (120 females, 80 males) completed several personality and sex-role questionnaires including the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI); Rotter's Locus of Control Scale (I-E), MAFERR Forms A, B,…

  13. URBAN DECISION-MAKING, THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, STEPHEN K.

    THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE VARIOUS WAYS IN WHICH THE UNIVERSITY CAN AND SHOULD INFLUENCE URBAN DECISION MAKING. THE CENTRAL UNIVERSITY ROLE IS SENSITIZING THE DECISION MAKERS AND THE CITIZENS TO HUMAN MISERY, SUCH AS BIGOTRY, SQUALOR, DISEASE, UGLINESS, POVERTY, AND IGNORANCE. LONG-RANGE ROLES ARE PINPOINTING THE PROBLEMS URBAN DECISION MAKERS SHOULD…

  14. The Federal Role in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Virginia A.

    The federal role in postsecondary education since 1787 is traced. Attention is directed to the types of indirect federal support toward postsecondary education until the first Higher Education Act of 1965, and the kinds of national priorities served by the current federal role in postsecondary education. Future projections and the implications of…

  15. Marketing the Changing Role of the SLMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freels, Judy; Kruse, Claire; Richards, David; Sophiea, Laura

    2001-01-01

    School library media specialists (SLMSs) in the Rochester (Michigan) Community Schools decided it was crucial to come to a consensus about key roles of SLMSs in successful school library media programs. They identified the following roles: information specialist, instructional partner, and program administrator. To educate administrators, staff…

  16. Shifting Roles, Shifting Contexts, Maintaining Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Renee Tipton

    2011-01-01

    This self-study describes the ways in which a move to a different state, university, and academic role has shaped my sense of self as a scholar, teacher educator, and college administrator. I draw from role theory and from conceptions of habitus and field to provide a conceptual lens for interpreting the data and my experiences. I then address two…

  17. The Role of SENCOs as Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tissot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The year 2014 marks an important milestone for the SENCo role. It is the 20-year anniversary of the requirement for schools to have a named person as lead for special educational needs. This article, by Catherine Tissot from the University of Reading, explores the vision of the role as seen in Government guidance and documents and compares this…

  18. The Role of the Primary School Head.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Lester

    1987-01-01

    This study uses Henry Mintzberg's structural observation method to examine British primary school head teachers' work patterns and determine the nature of their role. Head teachers' days were characterized by brevity, variety, and fragmentation similar to those discussed in findings of other empirical managerial studies. Leadership roles stressed…

  19. Sex Role Ideology, Marital Status, and Happiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueptow, Lloyd B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Analyzed General Social Survey data to determine if women's sex role ideology may be negatively related to marital happiness and stability. Found women with nontraditional gender values less happy and more likely to be separated or divorced. Results suggest that modern sex role ideology is negatively related to marital success for women.…

  20. Sex Roles and Communication: Instructional Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Sonja K.

    Sources specifically designed for use in teaching a course on sex roles and communication have been compiled to provide suggested materials, class exercises, and assignments for units on awareness, assessment, and action. The awareness exercises are designed to give students insights into the ways in which sex-role identity affects self-concepts,…

  1. Role-Play in Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raz, Hana

    1985-01-01

    Describes practical conclusion of a study carried out in Israel which investigated the potential effects of role play on communicative competence, motivation and underachieving foreign language learners. The discussion focuses on a suggested procedure, prerequisites and limitations, the positive effects of role play, and its educational value and…

  2. Role of mitochondria in toxic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fariss, Marc W; Chan, Catherine B; Patel, Manisha; Van Houten, Bennett; Orrenius, Sten

    2005-04-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial oxidative damage have been implicated in the etiology of numerous common diseases. The critical mitochondrial events responsible for oxidative stress-mediated cell death (toxic oxidative stress), however, have yet to be defined. Several oxidative events implicated in toxic oxidative stress include alterations in mitochondrial lipids (e.g., cardiolipin), mitochondrial DNA, and mitochondrial proteins (eg. aconitase and uncoupling protein 2). Furthermore, recent findings indicate the enrichment of mitochondrial membranes with vitamin E protects cells against the toxic effects of oxidative stress. This review briefly summarizes the role of these mitochondrial events in toxic oxidative stress, including: 1) the protective role of mitochondrial vitamin E in toxic oxidative stress, 2) the role of mitochondrial DNA in toxic oxidative stress, 3) the interaction between cardiolipin and cytochrome c in mitochondrial regulation of apoptosis, 4) the role of mitochondrial aconitase in oxidative neurodegeneration, and 5) the role of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. PMID:15821158

  3. Family Role Structure and Food-Related Roles in Mexican-American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yetley, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The cultural, behavioral, and sociopsychological dimensions of role structures were examined in this study of food-related roles of Mexican-American families (N=141 females interviewed) living in South Texas border communities. (DS)

  4. Is a Principal Still a Teacher? Us Women Administrators' Accounts of Role Conflict and Role Discontinuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder, Tondra L.; Spillane, James P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined 16 US women school administrators' experiences with role conflict and role discontinuity within their first one to five years of transitioning from teaching to administration. Findings from this theory-building, qualitative study indicate that this transition triggered role conflicts that emerged from the participants'…

  5. Perceived Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity, and Burnout among Special Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Stephen J.; Iwanicki, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of role conflict and role ambiguity to teacher burnout among 443 urban special education teachers. Role conflict and ambiguity explained a significant amount of variance in feelings of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. While perceived burnout among teachers was moderate, the level varied significantly…

  6. Transsexual parenthood and new role assumptions.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Elena; Bordin, Elena; Cipolletta, Sabrina

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the parental role of transsexuals and compares this to common assumptions about transsexuality and parentage. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 male-to-female transsexuals and 14 men, half parents and half non-parents, in order to explore four thematic areas: self-representation of the parental role, the description of the transsexual as a parent, the common representations of transsexuals as a parent, and male and female parental stereotypes. We conducted thematic and lexical analyses of the interviews using Taltac2 software. The results indicate that social representations of transsexuality and parenthood have a strong influence on processes of self-representation. Transsexual parents accurately understood conventional male and female parental prototypes and saw themselves as competent, responsible parents. They constructed their role based on affection toward the child rather than on the complementary role of their wives. In contrast, men's descriptions of transsexual parental roles were simpler and the descriptions of their parental role coincided with their personal experiences. These results suggest that the transsexual journey toward parenthood involves a high degree of re-adjustment, because their parental role does not coincide with a conventional one.

  7. Roles of sucrose in guard cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Daloso, Danilo M; Dos Anjos, Leticia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-08-01

    The control of stomatal aperture involves reversible changes in the concentration of osmolytes in guard cells. Sucrose has long been proposed to have an osmolytic role in guard cells. However, direct evidence for such a role is lacking. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that sucrose may perform additional roles in guard cells. Here, we provide an update covering the multiple roles of sucrose in guard cell regulation, highlighting the knowledge accumulated regarding spatiotemporal differences in the synthesis, accumulation, and degradation of sucrose as well as reviewing the role of sucrose as a metabolic connector between mesophyll and guard cells. Analysis of transcriptomic data from previous studies reveals that several genes encoding sucrose and hexose transporters and genes involved in gluconeogenesis, sucrose and trehalose metabolism are highly expressed in guard cells compared with mesophyll cells. Interestingly, this analysis also showed that guard cells have considerably higher expression of C4 -marker genes than mesophyll cells. We discuss the possible roles of these genes in guard cell function and the role of sucrose in stomatal opening and closure. Finally, we provide a perspective for future experiments which are required to fill gaps in our understanding of both guard cell metabolism and stomatal regulation.

  8. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  9. Aggression toward gay men as gender role enforcement: effects of male role norms, sexual prejudice, and masculine gender role stress.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J

    2009-08-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  10. Aggression toward gay men as gender role enforcement: effects of male role norms, sexual prejudice, and masculine gender role stress.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J

    2009-08-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between 2 gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement.

  11. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  12. Patient advocacy: the role of the nurse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Pin Pin

    2015-06-10

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is well recognised by healthcare professionals, yet the processes and practices involved in patient advocacy are not clearly understood. A suboptimal level of advocacy is often apparent in the literature, encompassing paternalistic concepts of protecting patients from harm. This article examines the concept of patient advocacy and its relevance to nursing, associated goals and outcomes of advocacy and the processes and practices involved. It provides insights into how nurses practise patient advocacy in healthcare settings and how they may develop this role further, through formal education, workplace learning, role modelling by expert nurses and promoting an organisational culture conducive to patient advocacy.

  13. Role of Sodium Channels in Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, David I; Isom, Lori L; Petrou, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are fundamentally important for the generation and coordinated transmission of action potentials throughout the nervous system. It is, therefore, unsurprising that they have been shown to play a central role in the genesis and alleviation of epilepsy. Genetic studies on patients with epilepsy have identified more than 700 mutations among the genes that encode for VGSCs attesting to their role in pathogenesis. Further, many common antiepileptic drugs act on VGSCs to suppress seizure activity. Here, we present an account of the role of VGSCs in epilepsy, both through their pathogenic dysfunction and as targets for pharmacotherapy.

  14. Patient advocacy: the role of the nurse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Pin Pin

    2015-06-10

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is well recognised by healthcare professionals, yet the processes and practices involved in patient advocacy are not clearly understood. A suboptimal level of advocacy is often apparent in the literature, encompassing paternalistic concepts of protecting patients from harm. This article examines the concept of patient advocacy and its relevance to nursing, associated goals and outcomes of advocacy and the processes and practices involved. It provides insights into how nurses practise patient advocacy in healthcare settings and how they may develop this role further, through formal education, workplace learning, role modelling by expert nurses and promoting an organisational culture conducive to patient advocacy. PMID:26058653

  15. Redesigning management roles. The executive challenge.

    PubMed

    Flarey, D L

    1991-02-01

    The revolutionary changes that have occurred in healthcare during the past decade challenge nurse executives to analyze and redesign managerial roles. To confront future change and developments in nursing and management practice, the role of the first-line nurse manager must take on new dimensions to facilitate quality outcomes in patient care and empowerment of nurses at all levels of practice. The author presents a model of job redesign for nurse managers with emphasis on the motivational approach. Role outcomes for nurse managers are also detailed.

  16. Relationship of role conflict and role ambiguity to selected job dimensions among joint appointees.

    PubMed

    Acorn, S

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by nurse faculty in joint academic-clinical appointments and non-joint-appointed faculty (traditional faculty), and to examine the relationships of these two constructs with social support, job satisfaction, and propensity to leave the joint appointment. Scholarly productivity of the two groups was also examined. Five hypotheses were proposed. The sample (N = 113) was drawn from the five Canadian university nursing faculties with the largest proportion of joint academic-clinical appointees. Findings indicate that assuming a joint appointment does not necessarily lead to an increase in role conflict and role ambiguity, and that joint appointees do not differ from traditional faculty in levels of role conflict and role ambiguity, scholarly productivity levels, or job satisfaction. Within the joint-appointee group (N = 33), role conflict was significantly higher than role ambiguity, both role conflict and role ambiguity had an adverse effect on job satisfaction and are determinants of intent to leave the joint appointment. In addition, social support was found to have a buffering effect on role conflict. PMID:1894842

  17. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kiah L; Millsteed, Jeannine; Richmond, Janet E; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Girdler, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working 'sandwich' generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working 'sandwich' generation women.

  18. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kiah L; Millsteed, Jeannine; Richmond, Janet E; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Girdler, Sonya J

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working 'sandwich' generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working 'sandwich' generation women. PMID:27305074

  19. Working Sandwich Generation Women Utilize Strategies within and between Roles to Achieve Role Balance

    PubMed Central

    Girdler, Sonya J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074

  20. Role-based Administration of User-role Assignment and Its Oracle Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lilong; Liu, Qingtan; Yang, Zongkai

    In role-based access control (RBAC) permissions are associated with roles, and users are made members of appropriate roles thereby acquiring the roles' permissions. The principal motivation behind RBAC is to simplify administration. An appealing possibility is to use RBAC itself to manage RBAC, to further provide administrative convenience. In this paper we investigate one aspect of RBAC administration concerning assignment of users to roles. We define a role-based administrative model, called URA (User-Role Assignment), for this purpose and describe its implementation in the Oracle database management system. Although our model is quite different from that built into Oracle, we demonstrate how to use Oracle stored procedures to implement it.

  1. Climate hazards, adaptation and "resilience" of societies (early Little Ice Age, west of France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athimon, Emmanuelle; Maanan, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    exports of wine or salt to finance the restoration of the bridges. So it appears that these societies have been able to adapt through a collective memory, a lifestyle, a significant perception of risks, a territory management, the construction of infrastructures, etc. Key words : Little Ice Age, West of France, climate hazards, resilience, adaptation. This work was supported by grants from the Fondation de France through the research program « Quels littoraux pour demain? ».

  2. Ethics of caring and professional roles.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Jens Erik

    2011-03-01

    Normative discussions about modern health care often revolve around principles stating what must not be done or how to ration scarce resources in the name of justice. These are important discussions. However, in order to have an impact on clinical roles, ethical reflection must be able to describe and address the complexities and challenges of modern nursing and doctoring, and maybe even the patient role. A multi-principled approach, such as the one suggested by Beauchamp and Childress, can obviously address almost any such issue, but a great deal of translation is often required in order to address role-related issues. I shall here argue that an ethics of caring is better suited to grasping the big picture when the question is how to create value-informed clinical roles in an era of rapid development.

  3. NASA's Role in Understanding Climate Change

    NASA Video Gallery

    Earth's climate is changing because of human activity. Learn about NASA's role in understanding climate and climate change with Gilberto Colón, special assistant to the deputy director of NASA's Go...

  4. Mental Health Effects of Women's Multiple Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Angela Barron

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the problems and benefits associated with women juggling the multiple roles demanded by work and family. Discusses the need for research that considers the physiological pathways involved in responses to stressful environmental and psychological conditions. (Author/JS)

  5. Role of succinic acid in chemical evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1982-01-01

    Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.

  6. Justice, citizenship, and role definition effects.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Lockhart, D; Hoobler, J

    2001-08-01

    A limitation of the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) literature is that theory and empirical evidence suggest that some employees define OCBs as part of their job. A theoretical framework that addresses this problem is tested in this article. The framework focuses on 2 effects: a role enlargement effect (i.e., employees with more favorable attitudes define OCB as inrole behavior, which, in turn, results in greater citizenship) and a role discretion effect (i.e., the relationship between employees' attitudes and their citizenship will be stronger among employees who define OCB as extrarole behavior). In tests of this framework with 2 independent samples of supervisor-subordinate dyads, role definitions were found to moderate several relationships between procedural justice and OCB, providing support for the role discretion effect. Implications for OCB theory and research are discussed.

  7. Knowledge Management in Role Based Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz

    In multi-agent system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to provide an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of agents and to shape relationships of the agents in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the agent's identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, agents are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the agent. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-agent system development framework.

  8. The Syllable's Role in Speech Segmentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehler, Jacques; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes two experiments designed to explore the role of the syllable in perceptual segmentation of words. Results suggest the subjects' detection response probably precedes lexical access and is based on the prelexical code. (Author/BK)

  9. Fish Peroxiredoxins and Their Role in Immunity.

    PubMed

    Valero, Yulema; Martínez-Morcillo, Francisco J; Esteban, M Ángeles; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Cuesta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage. In addition, Prxs may act as modulators of inflammation, protect against cell death and tumour progression, and facilitate tissue repair after damage. The most studied roles of Prx1 and Prx2 are immunological. Here we present a review on the effects of some immunostimulant treatments and bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections on the expression of fish Prxs at the gene and/or protein level, and point to their important role in immunity. The Prxs show antioxidant activity as well as a protective effect against infection. Some preliminary data are presented about the role of fish Prx1 and Prx2 in virus resistance although further studies are needed before the role of fish Prx in immunity can be definitively defined. PMID:26633533

  10. The Role of Screen Translation: A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Eithne

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of screen translation in minority language broadcasting. The article is a response to a roundtable discussion on minority language broadcasting and language maintenance. (Author/VWL)

  11. Role of inflammation in the aging bones.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Samir M; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F

    2015-02-15

    Chronic inflammation in aging is characterized by increased inflammatory cytokines, bone loss, decreased adaptation, and defective tissue repair in response to injury. Aging leads to inherent changes in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, resulting in impaired osteoblastogenesis. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines increase with aging, leading to enhanced myelopoiesis and osteoclastogenesis. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) play pivotal roles in osteoblast differentiation, the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and subsequent bone repair. However, during aging, little is known about the role of macrophages in the differentiation and function of MSC and HSC. Aged mammals have higher circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines than young adults, supporting the hypothesis of increased inflammation with aging. This review will aid in the understanding of the potential role(s) of pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages in differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in relation to aging.

  12. Switching Roles: When Teachers Become Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motz, Annabelle B.; Hollander, Elaine K.

    1973-01-01

    Impressions of what teachers experience when they are registered in a graduate level course as students and the ways in which they accommodate to their new role are analyzed by the research method of participation-observation. (Author/KM)

  13. Perspectives on Role Socialization of Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Luther

    1991-01-01

    The low status of nursing is traced from the days of Florence Nightingale, and concepts of role socialization are applied to nurses. A highly automated, democratized workplace is envisioned that will change socialization practices. (SK)

  14. Fish Peroxiredoxins and Their Role in Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Yulema; Martínez-Morcillo, Francisco J.; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Cuesta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage. In addition, Prxs may act as modulators of inflammation, protect against cell death and tumour progression, and facilitate tissue repair after damage. The most studied roles of Prx1 and Prx2 are immunological. Here we present a review on the effects of some immunostimulant treatments and bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections on the expression of fish Prxs at the gene and/or protein level, and point to their important role in immunity. The Prxs show antioxidant activity as well as a protective effect against infection. Some preliminary data are presented about the role of fish Prx1 and Prx2 in virus resistance although further studies are needed before the role of fish Prx in immunity can be definitively defined. PMID:26633533

  15. Role of laparoscopy in hepatobiliary malignancies.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Prabhu; Balarajah, Vickna; Watt, Jennifer; Abraham, Ajit T; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Kocher, Hemant M

    2016-04-01

    The many benefits of laparoscopy, including smaller incision, reduced length of hospital stay and more rapid return to normal function, have seen its popularity grow in recent years. With concurrent improvements in non-surgical cancer management the importance of accurate staging is becoming increasingly important. There are two main applications of laparoscopic surgery in managing hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) malignancy: accurate staging of disease and resection. We aim to summarize the use of laparoscopy in these contexts. The role of staging laparoscopy has become routine in certain cancers, in particular T[2] staged, locally advanced gastric cancer, hilar cholangiocarcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For other cancers, in particular colorectal, laparoscopy has now become the gold standard management for resection such that there is no role for stand-alone staging laparoscopy. In HPB cancers, although staging laparoscopy may play a role, with ever improving radiology, its role remains controversial. PMID:27377496

  16. The role of human papillomaviruses in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mighty, Kristen K; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical and other anogenital as well as oral cancers. Approximately fifty percent of virally induced cancers in the USA are associated with HPV infections. HPVs infect stratified epithelia and link productive replication with differentiation. The viral oncoproteins, E6, E7, and E5, play important roles in regulating viral functions during the viral life cycle and also contribute to the development of cancers. p53 and Rb are two major targets of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but additional cellular proteins also play important roles. E5 plays an auxiliary role in contributing to the development of cancers. This review will discuss the various targets of these viral proteins and what roles they play in viral pathogenesis.

  17. Planning and Role Setting: Alone or Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the recent American Library Association publication, "Planning and Role Setting for Public Libraries: A Manual of Options and Procedures," noting omissions in its approach. Several reasons for including the larger library community in the planning process are discussed. (MES)

  18. Hepcidin and Its Role in Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Kwapisz, Justyna; Slomka, Artur

    2009-01-01

    Hepcidin, a small peptide secreted mainly by the liver, plays a central role in iron status regulation. The experiments on hepcidin seemed very promising and gave new life to understanding iron metabolism. Many authors suggest that hepcidin measurement can be used as a clinical tool for the diagnosis and management of a wide range of iron-related disorders. The current review presents data concerning hepcidin, especially its biology, mechanism of action and its role in pathomechanism of many diseases.

  19. Role Models for Pregnancy, Birth, and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses how the media provide role models—good and bad—for pregnancy, birth, and breastfeeding. There is a critical need for more positive role models that promote natural, safe, and healthy pregnancy and birth. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth. PMID:22379353

  20. Disability guideline, role conflicts, and treatment records.

    PubMed

    Edwards, H Berryman

    2009-01-01

    The AAPL Practice Guidelines for the Forensic Evaluation of Psychiatric Disability reminds treating psychiatrists as well as forensic examiners of the potential for role conflicts and of numerous factors related to handling of treatment records. This commentary suggests ways of more completely avoiding role conflicts, including those related to payment, and elaborates on implementation of requirements of the HIPAA Privacy Rules applicable to independent examination by third parties.

  1. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available. PMID:25954093

  2. Role of vitamins in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I

    2015-05-01

    A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available.

  3. Roles of social impact assessment practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung

    2015-01-15

    The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.

  4. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content.

  5. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. PMID:25133722

  6. Advanced nursing roles: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jokiniemi, Krista; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kylmä, Jari; Haatainen, Kaisa

    2012-09-01

    In this systematic literature review, we analyzed and synthesized the literature on one specialized advance practice nursing role in three countries for the purpose of describing and comparing these roles, as well as discussing whether an international consensus of the advance practice nursing definition is possible. A systematic search on CINAHL and PubMed Medline was conducted in 2011 to search the literature on the nurse consultant in the UK, the clinical nurse specialist in the USA, and the clinical nurse consultant in Australia. The studies (n = 42) were analyzed and combined using qualitative content analysis method. The roles of the nurse consultant, clinical nurse specialist, and clinical nurse consultant were similar. The variation in the roles appears to derive from organizational or individual choices, not the country in question. The study process comprised a synthesized representation of one specialized advance practice nursing role. More work is needed to further define the concept of the advance practice nursing, as well as its implementation on other cultures beyond this review. Based on this review, an international consensus regarding the definition of advance practice nursing and its subroles is possible. PMID:22950621

  7. Gender-role attitudes among Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mensch, Barbara S; Ibrahim, Barbara L; Lee, Susan M; el-Gibaly, Omaima

    2003-03-01

    Using nationally representative survey data, this study explores gender-role attitudes among unmarried adolescents aged 16-19 in Egypt, a society characterized by distinct and often segregated roles for men and women. Adolescents' views about desirable qualities in a spouse as well as more direct indicators of gender-role attitudes are examined, including opinions about whether wives should defer to their husbands, share in household decision making, and have the responsibility for performing domestic tasks. The findings regarding spousal characteristics reflect strong gender differentiation. Girls and boys provide divergent profiles of an ideal spouse, profiles that reflect traditional gender roles. Girls are significantly less likely than boys to favor educational inequality between spouses, however. Neither boys nor girls have egalitarian gender-role attitudes, although girls are significantly more likely to express less traditional attitudes. Multivariate analyses indicate that girls' and boys' attitudes do not vary consistently and significantly by socioeconomic background; in particular, increased schooling does not always promote egalitarian attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Multifaceted Role of Sialylation in Prion Diseases.

    PubMed

    Baskakov, Ilia V; Katorcha, Elizaveta

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian prion or PrP(Sc) is a proteinaceous infectious agent that consists of a misfolded, self-replicating state of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein, or PrP(C). Sialylation of the prion protein N-linked glycans was discovered more than 30 years ago, yet the role of sialylation in prion pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent years have witnessed extraordinary growth in interest in sialylation and established a critical role for sialic acids in host invasion and host-pathogen interactions. This review article summarizes current knowledge on the role of sialylation of the prion protein in prion diseases. First, we discuss the correlation between sialylation of PrP(Sc) glycans and prion infectivity and describe the factors that control sialylation of PrP(Sc). Second, we explain how glycan sialylation contributes to the prion replication barrier, defines strain-specific glycoform ratios, and imposes constraints for PrP(Sc) structure. Third, several topics, including a possible role for sialylation in animal-to-human prion transmission, prion lymphotropism, toxicity, strain interference, and normal function of PrP(C), are critically reviewed. Finally, a metabolic hypothesis on the role of sialylation in the etiology of sporadic prion diseases is proposed. PMID:27551257

  9. Roles of genetic counselors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié; Krause, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Genetic counseling is a growing health profession in South Africa. Training (set up in 1988) and registration are in place, but job creation remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles played by genetic counselors in the provision of genetic services, in South Africa. A questionnaire comprising items on the types of roles they performed was constructed and counselors were asked to make the log-books, in which they recorded their daily counseling activities, available. A check list was drawn up so that relevant information could be collected systematically from these log-books. Then departmental statistics were accessed from the two universities providing genetic services and genetic counselor training. Structured interviews were conducted with the genetic counselors (16 of 23 participated), and data were collected from their completed questionnaires, log-books and the departmental statistics, for the years 2007 and 2008. These data were analyzed and the findings showed that the counselors counseled about one third (39 %) of all the cases seen at genetic clinics per annum, and the total numbers were increasing. They counseled for 57 different genetic disorders, and their clients represented the range of local ethnic groups. They also had educational, research, marketing and administrative roles. They expected to expand these roles and advance the profession in future. Genetic counselors are versatile, playing several significant roles. As these become better recognized, demand for their services should increase, jobs should be created and the service expanded. PMID:23723047

  10. Multifaceted Role of Sialylation in Prion Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Baskakov, Ilia V.; Katorcha, Elizaveta

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian prion or PrPSc is a proteinaceous infectious agent that consists of a misfolded, self-replicating state of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein, or PrPC. Sialylation of the prion protein N-linked glycans was discovered more than 30 years ago, yet the role of sialylation in prion pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent years have witnessed extraordinary growth in interest in sialylation and established a critical role for sialic acids in host invasion and host-pathogen interactions. This review article summarizes current knowledge on the role of sialylation of the prion protein in prion diseases. First, we discuss the correlation between sialylation of PrPSc glycans and prion infectivity and describe the factors that control sialylation of PrPSc. Second, we explain how glycan sialylation contributes to the prion replication barrier, defines strain-specific glycoform ratios, and imposes constraints for PrPSc structure. Third, several topics, including a possible role for sialylation in animal-to-human prion transmission, prion lymphotropism, toxicity, strain interference, and normal function of PrPC, are critically reviewed. Finally, a metabolic hypothesis on the role of sialylation in the etiology of sporadic prion diseases is proposed. PMID:27551257

  11. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    PubMed Central

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  12. Role of Osteopontin in Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yankai; Jeong, Seogsong; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein, is involved in numerous pathological conditions including inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in various tissues. Extensive studies have elucidated the critical role of OPN in cell signaling such as regulation of cell proliferation, migration, inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. In the liver, OPN interacts with integrins, CD44, vimentin and MyD88 signaling, thereby induces infiltration, migration, invasion and metastasis of cells. OPN is highlighted as a chemoattractant for macrophages and neutrophils during injury in inflammatory liver diseases. OPN activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to exert an enhancer in fibrogenesis. The role of OPN in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has also generated significant interests, especially with regards to its role as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. Interestingly, OPN acts an opposing role in liver repair under different pathological conditions. This review summarizes the current understanding of OPN in liver diseases. Further understanding of the pathophysiological role of OPN in cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms associated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and cancer may contribute to the development of novel strategies for clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapy of liver diseases. PMID:27570486

  13. Bitter taste receptors: Extraoral roles in pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Feroz Ahmed; Singh, Nisha; Arakawa, Makoto; Duan, Kangmin; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Chelikani, Prashen

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade tremendous progress has been made in understanding the functional role of bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) and bitter taste perception. This review will cover the recent advances made in identifying the role of T2Rs in pathophysiological states. T2Rs are widely expressed in various parts of human anatomy and have been shown to be involved in physiology of respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system. Empirical evidence has shown T2Rs to be an integral component of antimicrobial immune responses in upper respiratory tract infections. The studies on human airway smooth muscle cells have shown that a potent bitter tastant induced bronchodilatory effects mediated by bitter taste receptors. Clinical data suggests a role for T2R38 polymorphism in predisposition of individuals to chronic rhinosinusitis. The role of genetic variation in T2Rs and its impact on disease susceptibility have been investigated in various other disease risk factors such as alcohol dependence, head and neck cancers. Preliminary reports have demonstrated differential expression of functional T2Rs in breast cancer cell lines. Studies on the role of T2Rs in pathophysiology of diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, and cancer have been promising. However, research in this field is in its nascent stages, and more confirmatory studies on animal models and in clinical settings are required. PMID:27032752

  14. Perceived Role-Taking Behavior and Role-Taking Test Performance in Fraternity and Sorority College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Rosemarie Scolaro

    Generally, role-taking research has focused on the development and correlates of role taking in children. To explore role taking in the relatively overlooked population of young adults, a sociometric instrument, the Peer Role-Taking Questionnaire (PRTQ), was developed and used to measure perceived role-taking behaviors. The results were compared…

  15. Role of STAT3 in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Pranabananda; Sabri, Nafiseh; Li, Jinghong; Li, Willis X

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer remains a challenging disease. It is responsible for the high cancer mortality rates in the US and worldwide. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms operative in lung cancer is an important first step in developing effective therapies. Accumulating evidence over the last 2 decades suggests a critical role for Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) as a point of convergence for various signaling pathways that are dysregulated in the disease. In this review, we discuss possible molecular mechanisms involving STAT3 in lung tumorigenesis based on recent literature. We consider possible roles of STAT3 in cancer cell proliferation and survival, in the tumor immune environment, and in epigenetic regulation and interaction of STAT3 with other transcription factors. We also discuss the potential role of STAT3 in tumor suppression, which complicates strategies of targeting STAT3 in cancer therapy. PMID:26413424

  16. Alcoholic Liver Disease: Role of Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; Maor, Yaakov; Nanau, Radu M; Melzer, Ehud; Mell, Haim; Opris, Mihai; Cohen, Lawrence; Malnick, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical and translational research. It focuses on the role of the immune system and the signaling pathways of cytokines in the pathogenesis of ALD. An additional factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which plays a central role in the induction of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. LPS derived from the intestinal microbiota enters the portal circulation, and is recognized by macrophages (Kupffer cells) and hepatocytes. In individuals with ALD, excessive levels of LPS in the liver affect immune, parenchymal, and non-immune cells, which in turn release various inflammatory cytokines and recruit neutrophils and other inflammatory cells. In this review, we elucidate the mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the activation of Kupffer cells and the inflammatory cascade. The role of the stellate cells in fibrogenesis is also discussed. PMID:26343741

  17. Role of dental expert in forensic odontology

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709

  18. Role of copper transporters in platinum resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Deepak; Guancial, Elizabeth; Kim, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Platinum (Pt)-based antitumor agents are effective in the treatment of many solid malignancies. However, their efficacy is limited by toxicity and drug resistance. Reduced intracellular Pt accumulation has been consistently shown to correlate with resistance in tumors. Proteins involved in copper homeostasis have been identified as Pt transporters. In particular, copper transporter receptor 1 (CTR1), the major copper influx transporter, has been shown to play a significant role in Pt resistance. Clinical studies demonstrated that expression of CTR1 correlated with intratumoral Pt concentration and outcomes following Pt-based therapy. Other CTRs such as CTR2, ATP7A and ATP7B, may also play a role in Pt resistance. Recent clinical studies attempting to modulate CTR1 to overcome Pt resistance may provide novel strategies. This review discusses the role of CTR1 as a potential predictive biomarker of Pt sensitivity and a therapeutic target for overcoming Pt resistance. PMID:26862494

  19. The role of pleiotrophin in bone repair.

    PubMed

    Lamprou, Margarita; Kaspiris, Angelos; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Giannoudis, Peter V; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2014-12-01

    Bone has an enormous capacity for growth, regeneration, and remodelling, largely due to induction of osteoblasts that are recruited to the site of bone formation. Although the pathways involved have not been fully elucidated, it is well accepted that the immediate environment of the cells is likely to play a role via cell–matrix interactions, mediated by several growth factors. Formation of new blood vessels is also significant and interdependent to bone formation, suggesting that enhancement of angiogenesis could be beneficial during the process of bone repair. Pleiotrophin (PTN), also called osteoblast-specific factor 1, is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor, with a well-defined and significant role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. In this review we summarise the existing evidence on the role of PTN in bone repair.

  20. Role of microRNAs in chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Peter; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of cancer patients. Resistance can develop after prolonged cycles of chemotherapy or can be present intrinsically in the patient. There is an emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in resistance to cancer treatments. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that are evolutionarily conserved and also involved as regulators of gene expression through the silencing of mRNA targets. They are involved in many different cancer types and a plethora of mechanisms have been postulated for the roles that miRNAs play in the development of drug resistance. Hence, miRNA-based gene therapy may provide a novel approach for the future of cancer therapy. This review focuses on an overview of recent findings on the role of miRNAs in the resistance to chemotherapy in different tumours. PMID:26734642

  1. [The immunomodulatory role of Vitamin D].

    PubMed

    Myszka, Marta; Klinger, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system plays a crucial role in regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Over the past two decades of research, there is a growing appreciation for the immunoregulatory role of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with numerous diseases characterized by inflammation, including malignancies, autoimmune disorders and chronic infections. Vitamin D suppresses parathyroid hormone secretion, adaptive immune response, cell proliferation, and at the same time promotes insulin secretion, innate immune response and stimulates cell differentiation. The review discusses present state of knowledge of a basic role of vitamin D in modulating different immunological properties, including lymphocyte activation and proliferation, differentiation of Th lymphocytes, production of specific antibodies and regulation of the immune response. Finally, clinical potential of vitamin D metabolites for modulating tissue-specific immune responses and for preventing and treating inflammatory disease and immune system disorders has been reported.

  2. Cardiac arrhythmias in space. Role of vagotonia.

    PubMed

    Leguay, G; Seigneuric, A

    1981-07-01

    Rhythm disorders observed in space have always been minor but they are not unfrequent. They include: ventricular or supra-ventricular extrasystoles, nodal arrhythmias, auriculo-ventricular conduction disorders. There are several etiopathogenetic hypotheses: a strict selection must permit its elimination of an underlying heart disease; the potassium deficiency is often advanced but its role is not certain; the role of catecholamines is also discussed; the role of hypervagotony is extensively analysed as great clinical and electro-cardiographic evidence speaks for it. It can induce disorders which are more serious than those observed so far, particularly fibrillation or intermittent atrial flutter; weightlessness itself could partly condition the vagotonic state; and the effects of fluid shifts are also discussed from this point of view. The possible therapies for various atrial, nodal, ventricular disorders are reviewed, with greater detail for vagal atrial arrhythmias. PMID:11542963

  3. Role of exercise on the brain

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been extensively investigated during the past decade. Numerous studies have shown that adult neurogenesis may play an important role in the hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. This study evaluated the influence of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis, neural plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and cognition. Areas of research focused on enhancing effect of exercise for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and protective role of exercise against brain diseases. The present study suggests that exercise improves brain functions and prevents decline of cognition across the lifespan. Understanding of neurobiological mechanisms of exercise on brain functions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27807514

  4. The Role of Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC. PMID:26561802

  5. Psychology's role in mathematics and science education.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Nora S; Ambady, Nalini; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gomez, Louis; Klahr, David; Linn, Marcia; Miller, Kevin; Mix, Kelly

    2009-09-01

    Improving mathematics and science education in the United States has been a matter of national concern for over half a century. Psychology has a vital role to play in this enterprise. In this article, the authors review the kinds of contributions that psychology can make in four areas: (a) early understanding of mathematics, (b) understanding of science, (c) social and motivational aspects of involvement in mathematics and science, and (d) assessment of learning in mathematics and science. They also examine challenges to psychology's playing a central and constructive role and make recommendations for overcoming those challenges.

  6. The Role of Mitochondria in Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxin; Youle, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play key roles in activating apoptosis in mammalian cells. Bcl-2 family members regulate the release of proteins from the space between the mitochondrial inner and outer membrane that, once in the cytosol, activate caspase proteases that dismantle cells and signal efficient phagocytosis of cell corpses. Here we review the extensive literature on proteins released from the intermembrane space and consider genetic evidence for and against their roles in apoptosis activation. We also compare and contrast apoptosis pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammals that indicate major mysteries remaining to be solved. PMID:19659442

  7. Psychodrama: group psychotherapy through role playing.

    PubMed

    Kipper, D A

    1992-10-01

    The theory and the therapeutic procedure of classical psychodrama are described along with brief illustrations. Classical psychodrama and sociodrama stemmed from role theory, enactments, "tele," the reciprocity of choices, and the theory of spontaneity-robopathy and creativity. The discussion focuses on key concepts such as the therapeutic team, the structure of the session, transference and reality, countertransference, the here-and-now and the encounter, the group-as-a-whole, resistance and difficult clients, and affect and cognition. Also described are the neoclassical approaches of psychodrama, action methods, and clinical role playing, and the significance of the concept of behavioral simulation in group psychotherapy.

  8. Space station: The role of software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.

    1985-01-01

    Software will play a critical role throughout the Space Station Program. This presentation sets the stage and prompts participant interaction at the Software Issues Forum. The presentation is structured into three major topics: (1) an overview of the concept and status of the Space Station Program; (2) several charts designed to lay out the scope and role of software; and (3) information addressing the four specific areas selected for focus at the forum, specifically: software management, the software development environment, languages, and standards. NASA's current thinking is highlighted and some of the relevant critical issues are raised.

  9. Role of acetylcholinesterase in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Hui-Jun; Wu, Ren-Pei; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ling-Juan; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a key role in catalytic hydrolysis of cholinergic neurotransmitters. Intensive research has proven the involvement of this protein in novel functions, such as cell adhesion, differentiation, and proliferation. In addition, several recent studies have indicated that acetylcholinesterase is potentially a marker and regulator of apoptosis. Importantly, AChE is also a promising tumor suppressor. In this review, we briefly summarize the involvement of AChE in apoptosis and cancer, focusing on the role of AChE in lung cancer, as well as the therapeutic consideration of AChE for cancer therapy. PMID:26273392

  10. Role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Kolte, Dhaval; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Khera, Sahil; Sica, Domenic A; Frishman, William H

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium, the fourth most abundant cation in the human body, is involved in several essential physiological, biochemical, and cellular processes regulating cardiovascular function. It plays a critical role in modulating vascular smooth muscle tone, endothelial cell function, and myocardial excitability and is thus central to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses the vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-ischemic, and antiarrhythmic properties of magnesium and its current role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders.

  11. The role of platelets in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mark R; Storey, Robert F

    2015-08-31

    There is growing recognition of the critical role of platelets in inflammation and immune responses. Recent studies have indicated that antiplatelet medications may reduce mortality from infections and sepsis, which suggests possible clinical relevance of modifying platelet responses to inflammation. Platelets release numerous inflammatory mediators that have no known role in haemostasis. Many of these mediators modify leukocyte and endothelial responses to a range of different inflammatory stimuli. Additionally, platelets form aggregates with leukocytes and form bridges between leukocytes and endothelium, largely mediated by platelet P-selectin. Through their interactions with monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes and the endothelium, platelets are therefore important coordinators of inflammation and both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  12. The role of language in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Alan; Peat, F. David

    1988-12-01

    It is argued that language plays an active role in the development of scientific thought. A research project is outlined which will investigate this hypothesis and, in addition, focus on such questions as the role of mathematics in science and the status of the genetic code. “Nothing is more usual than for philosophers to encroach on the province of grammarians, and to engage in disputes of words, while they imagine they are handling controversies of the deepest importance and concern.”—David Hume.

  13. The Role of Autophagy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC. PMID:26561802

  14. Sex Role Attitudes and Fear of Success as Correlates of Sex Role Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dana; King, Michael

    1976-01-01

    Relationships of sex role attitudes and fear of success with college women's grade point average, academic major, and future career and marriage plans are examined. Sex role attitudes were related to major, career and marriage plans. Fear of success was not related to grade point average, major, career or marriage plans. (Author)

  15. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  16. Explaining Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Via Individual and Interpersonal Variables in Different Job Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, W. Alan; Posner, Barry Z.

    1981-01-01

    Examined relationships between experiencing role conflict and ambiguity and four individual and interpersonal variables. Results suggest that the underlying equations regarding the influence of individual and interpersonal variables on role perceptions vary in different job categories. Task characteristics are offered as plausible reasons for…

  17. The Impact of Changing Teaching Jobs on Music Teacher Identity, Role, and Perceptions of Role Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Lori F.

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized symbolic interaction as a framework to examine the impact of mobility on four veteran elementary general music teachers' identities, roles, and perceptions of role support. Previous research has focused on teacher identity formation among preservice and novice teachers; veteran teachers are less frequently represented in the…

  18. What Screens Do: The Role(s) of the Screen in Academic Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    This article reports of an ethnographic study conducted in two academic research centers. The article is centrally directed at the role of digital technologies and devices in contemporary academic work, and more particularly at the role of the screen in the daily composition of this work. Three central questions are raised. First, which positional…

  19. Role Resources and Work-Family Enrichment: The Role of Work Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Oi-ling; Lu, Jia-fang; Brough, Paula; Lu, Chang-qin; Bakker, Arnold B.; Kalliath, Thomas; O'Driscoll, Michael; Phillips, David R.; Chen, Wei-qing; Lo, Danny; Sit, Cindy; Shi, Kan

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical model of work-family enrichment and tests the mediating role of work engagement. The inclusion of work engagement extends prior research on work-family interface, and allows for examination of the effects of role resources (job resources, family support) on work-family enrichment. A two-wave survey was conducted…

  20. The Potential Role(s) of Writing in Second Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Writing is often seen as having a minor role in second language learning. This article explores recent research that suggests that writing can have a facilitative role in language development. In particular, it focuses on three features of writing: (1) its slower pace, and (2) the enduring record that it leaves, both of which can encourage…

  1. The Effects of Role Congruence and Role Conflict on Work, Marital, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Webb, L. Kay; Blalock, Rachel H.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of role congruence and role conflict on work, marital, and life satisfaction was studied using Super's life-span, life-space theory. A conceptual model of relationships between these variables was proposed, and gender differences were examined. Participants were 35 male and 60 female college graduates who completed surveys by mail.…

  2. The Role of Work-Related Skills and Career Role Models in Adolescent Career Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Using data for 2,722 British adolescents explores whether work-related skills and career role models are associated with career maturity when sociodemographic characteristics, family support, and personal characteristics are controlled. Having work-related skills and having a career role model were positively associated with career maturity.…

  3. Drama and Role Playing in Teaching Practice: The Role of Group Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara

    2012-01-01

    The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…

  4. The Consequences of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity among Junior High School Administrators in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Paul; Chang, Derray

    Findings from a study that investigated the consequences of role conflict, role ambiguity, and demographic and organizational factors on work satisfaction and somatic complaints are presented in this paper. Data were derived from a survey administered to 225 Taipei (Taiwan) junior high school administrators, which elicited 211 responses (a 93…

  5. Care giving as an occupational role in the dying process.

    PubMed

    Reid, C L; Reid, J K

    2000-01-01

    Being involved in the death and dying process as a professional, family member, friend, or patient means taking on an occupational role that will impact one's life. Types of occupational roles associated with death and dying, and how these roles influence the participants, are explored in relation to concepts presented in the Model of Human Occupation. Also addressed is the potential for a care-giving role to bring on distress in the form of role imbalance or role changes, or because of inability to adequately fulfill the role. Suggestions for seeking relative balance within and among roles are presented. PMID:23951991

  6. Managerial roles in contemporary hospital departments.

    PubMed

    Longest, B B

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of managed care and more integrated healthcare delivery systems brings new challenges to managers in hospital departments. Managers can effectively respond to these challenges by assuming three roles--those of strategist, designer, and leader--described in the following article.

  7. The role of cytokines in cancer.

    PubMed

    Oppenheim, J; Fujiwara, H

    1996-10-01

    The role of cytokines was intensively discussed over the course of a two and a half day meeting sponsored by the US-JAPAN Cancer Cooperative Research Program of the Office of International Affairs, National Cancer Institute and held at The National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland on 15-17 January 1996. Most of the first day was devoted to a discussion of the role of cytokines in modulating angiogenesis and the consequent effect of this on tumor growth and metastases. This was followed by sessions on the effect of various cytokines in enhancing or suppressing immunological responses to tumors. Several presentations focused on the direct inhibitory or growth promoting effects of cytokines on tumor growth. The final session consisted of a comparison of the efficacy of different approaches to tumor vaccination including gene therapy, enhanced antigen presentation, use of polymeric carriers or of DNA vectors. For background information the reader is referred to appropriate chapters on the role of cytokines in neoplastic diseases (Oppenheim JJ, Rossio JL, Gearing AJH, eds. In Clinical Application of Cytokines: Role of Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapy. Oxford University Press, New York, 1993 [1]).

  8. CTE's Role in Energy and Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2009-01-01

    ACTE Issue Briefs are designed to highlight the role of career and technical education (CTE) in a broader issue of national interest. Each Brief is designed to strengthen the voice of CTE related to the specific issue and to draw more attention to CTE activities and best practices around the country. The Briefs provide background information,…

  9. The Family's Role in Primary Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Ruth P.

    1982-01-01

    Defines primary prevention for mental health and explores how the therapeutic process can be patterned after the family developmental life cycle. Examines the family's role in primary prevention and describes anticipatory guidance, support provision, education, and emphasis on strengths as ways of coping. (Author/MJL)

  10. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  11. Educational Choice: New Roles for Board Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Ruth E.

    1990-01-01

    School board members' new leadership roles in planning and implementing school choice programs are described in this article, which draws on the experience of a former Minnesota Commissioner of Education. The first task of the board is to set high expectations in the district and to establish specific policies. Despite the extent of…

  12. Art Works... The Artist's Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the view society has taken in regard to the status and role of the artist has evolved over the centuries, and in different countries and cultures. In general, the public has sometimes lacked understanding and has not accepted some of the more avant-garde artworks, while some artists have achieved…

  13. College Presidents' Role Performance and Faculty Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Dan R.; Thomas, Darwin L.

    1977-01-01

    Data gathered from 896 faculty members from two technical colleges, three community colleges, two private universities, and three public universities revealed three dimensions of the presidential role: personal-public image, faculty and student interaction with presidents, and absence of autocratic leadership style. (Author/LBH)

  14. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  15. Role-Based Design: Design Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Charles; Hokanson, Brad; Doering, Aaron; Brandt, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This is the fourth and final installment in a series of articles presenting a new outlook on the methods of instructional design. These articles examine the nature of the process of instructional design and are meant to stimulate discussion about the roles of designers in the fields of instructional design, the learning sciences, and interaction…

  16. The Role of Emotion in Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    The way in which emotion interacts with cognition has been of great interest to researchers for hundreds of years. Emotion has been shown to play an important role in attention, learning and memory. However, the way in which emotion influences the basic process of word learning in infancy has largely been ignored. In the current paper, the…

  17. CTE's Role in Worker Retraining. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Career and Technical Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This Issue Brief will explore the essential role that career and technical education programs play in addressing many of the issues faced by unemployed and underemployed workers. These programs target the adult learner through short-term and accelerated courses; utilize flexible learning approaches to account for students' other responsibilities;…

  18. Student Fitness: The Physical Educator's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; Staub, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    The physical educator has an important role to play in developing student fitness. A "blueprint" for success in physical education suggests that instructors: offer a highly active program; provide quality testing; promote fitness education; and provide for individualized record keeping and analysis. (DF)

  19. Thyroid Cancer: Role of RET and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Carlomagno, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Specific thyroid cancer histotypes, such as papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma, display genetic rearrangements or point mutations of the RET gene, resulting in its oncogenic conversion. The molecular mechanisms mediating RET rearrangement with other genes and the role of partner genes in tumorigenesis have been described. In addition, the RET protein has become a molecular target for medullary thyroid carcinoma treatment. PMID:24782993

  20. Role for Reelin in neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Sabine; Hack, Iris; Kowalski, Janina; Brunne, Bianka; Jarowyj, Joel; Unger, Andreas; Bock, Hans H; Junghans, Dirk; Frotscher, Michael

    2011-02-16

    The extracellular matrix molecule Reelin is known to control neuronal migration during development. Recent evidence suggests that it also plays a role in the maturation of postsynaptic dendrites and spines as well as in synaptic plasticity. Here, we aimed to address the question whether Reelin plays a role in presynaptic structural organization and function. Quantitative electron microscopic analysis of the number of presynaptic boutons in the stratum radiatum of hippocampal region CA1 did not reveal differences between wild-type animals and Reelin-deficient reeler mutant mice. However, additional detailed analysis showed that the number of presynaptic vesicles was significantly increased in CA1 synapses of reeler mutants. To test the hypothesis that vesicle fusion is altered in reeler, we studied proteins known to control transmitter release. SNAP25, a protein of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex, was found to be significantly reduced in reeler mutants, whereas other SNARE complex proteins remained unaltered. Addition of recombinant Reelin to organotypic slice cultures of reeler hippocampi substantially rescued not only SNAP25 protein expression levels but also the number of vesicles per bouton area indicating a role for Reelin in presynaptic functions. Next, we analyzed paired-pulse facilitation, a presynaptic mechanism associated with transmitter release, and observed a significant decrease at CA1 synapses of reeler mutants when compared with wild-type animals. Together, these novel findings suggest a role for Reelin in modulating presynaptic release mechanisms.

  1. The Wider Pedagogical Role of Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Rob; Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope; Martin, Clare; Russell, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Teaching assistants (TAs) comprise a quarter of the school workforce in England and Wales. There has been controversy over TAs' deployment and appropriate role regarding supporting learning and these debates have been transformed by findings from the largest study of school support staff (the DISS project), which show that TA support has a…

  2. APA's Role in Fostering Good Testing Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camara, Wayne J.

    Psychological testing has played a major role in the American Psychological Association (APA) because testing and assessment are important aspects of what psychologists do; tests assist psychologists in diagnosis and treatment. From its earliest years, APA has had one or more committees concerned with testing. The present Committee on…

  3. Defining the Role of Academics in Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Khawas, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    The policy debate on accountability in higher education has been vigorous in many countries, but it has focused primarily on broad objectives or approaches. Limited attention has been paid to the mechanisms by which universities would implement accountability objectives and to the critical role of academics in developing ways to assess learning…

  4. The Role of Prelinguistic Vocalizations in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Craig T.

    This paper deals with three areas concerning early vocal development: (1) review and critique of existing experimental evidence suggesting that early vocal behavior has the properties of an operant response, (2) speculations concerning the role of non-verbal vocal behavior in early psychological development, and (3) suggestions for future…

  5. The human role in space (THURIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbers, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the human role in space station activities is presented. Associated factors such as performance cost, and risk are discussed. Benefits gained from previous successful manned space missions are highlighted. Human qualifications and capabilities associated with man machine systems are explored. Candidate procedures to be carried out by extravehicular activity spacecrews are described.

  6. Emerging Professional Roles for Teacher Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massanari, Karl; And Others

    Emerging professional roles for teacher educators are examined by three educators from three different viewpoints, and a critique of the positions developed is undertaken by a spokesman for the teacher organization viewpoint of professional development. Karl Massanari examines the changes currently affecting the education of teachers--social,…

  7. Principals: What Are Their Roles and Responsibilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisler, Amanda; Bruce, Mary Alice

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between school counselors and principals is increasingly important in this accountability era. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role of principal as perceived by professional school counselors and principals, both in training and practicing. While similarities were found in two categories: Managing School…

  8. The Role of Testing and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Eric; And Others

    A group of seven conference papers, all dealing with the role of testing and evaluation in the schools, is presented in this document. The papers are as follows: (1) "Framework for Effective Schools" (Eric Cooper), which identifies indicators of efficacy, quality, and equity; (2) "Quality Indicators for Monitoring Equity" (Ramsay Selden), which…

  9. The State Role in School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogin, Bert

    This study was designed to examine the role of State Educational Agencies (SEAs) in desegregation activity. It examines the nature of SEA activity and identifies common elements important to effective programs. It also assesses whether these activities and elements could serve as models for other states, and determines the need and desire of the…

  10. From Semantic Roles to Temporal Information Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorens, Hector; Navarro, Borja; Saquete, Estela

    The automatic treatment of temporal elements of natural language has become a very important issue among NLP community. Recently, TimeML annotation scheme has been adopted as standard for temporal information representation by a large number of researchers. There are few TimeML resources for languages other than English whereas there exist semantic roles annotated corpora and automatic labeling tools for several languages. The objective of this paper is to study if semantic roles resources can be exploited to generate TimeML corpora. An analysis of the similarities and differences between the temporal semantic role and TimeML elements has been carried out, focusing on temporal expressions (TIMEX3). Using this analysis, an approach consisting of a set of transformation rules between semantic roles and TIMEX3 has been implemented. It has been evaluated in TIMEX3 identification for English and Spanish obtaining same quality results (76.85% F β= 1 AVG), which suggests that it could be also valid for other languages.

  11. Role of Mining in Space Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, N. N.; Nagovitsyn, O. V.

    1999-01-01

    Human expansion in Space is inconceivable without the creation of a comfortable habitat. The occupation of Space bodies can be similar to colonization of uninhabited regions of the Earth, but it will be significantly different. On the Earth, humans can use products from living things, in Space mineral resources are the only resource. This fact predetermines a crucial role of mining in Space.

  12. Collaboration using roles. [in computer network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Matt

    1990-01-01

    Segregation of roles into alternative accounts is a model which provides not only the ability to collaborate but also enables accurate accounting of resources consumed by collaborative projects, protects the resources and objects of such a project, and does not introduce new security vulnerabilities. The implementation presented here does not require users to remember additional passwords and provides a very simple consistent interface.

  13. Sport Nutritionist: A New Sport Education Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…

  14. Role of Bcl-3 in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bcl-3 is an established oncogene in hematologic malignancies, such as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that it also participates in progression of diverse solid tumors. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of Bcl3 role in solid tumors progression, including some new insights in its possible molecular mechanisms of action. PMID:22195643

  15. Anthropology's "Spoiler Role" and "New" Multicultural Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    1981-01-01

    Publishers' requests to review educators' manuscripts on the pedagogy of pluralism have prompted the author to write this paper in which he takes on the anthropological "spoiler role," contradicting generalizations in the texts by providing exceptions from ethnographic research. Admitting to some personal biases about education texts in general…

  16. Defining Role in the New Classroom Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with four teachers, one parent, one assistant, and two ancillary helpers found that classroom teams possess little structure with minimal role definition. Participants erect defenses against the lack of definition and use a process termed "fraternity" to get along with one another and camouflage uncertainties and tensions. (SK)

  17. Role of Teacher as Classroom Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen

    2009-01-01

    Proper classroom management and discipline ensure the success of learning process. Classroom management is the linchpin that makes teaching and learning achievable in the teaching learning process. It is the teacher who plays the main role in planning, organizing procedures and resources, arranging the environment to maximize efficiency,…

  18. Measuring Role Entrapment of People Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Rodney M.; Blood, Gordon W.; Tellis, Glen M.; Althouse, Matthew T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether people who stutter experience role entrapment in the form of vocational stereotyping. To accomplish this, 385 university students reported their perceptions of appropriate career choices for people who stutter. Direct survey procedures, utilizing the newly developed Vocational Advice Scale (VAS),…

  19. The Community College's Role in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, George B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the "citizenship role" of community colleges, which causes them to devote time and resources to activities that have little to do with higher education: Is it a legitimate one for community colleges, or does it siphon off resources and energy that should be devoted to the primary educational mission? He draws…

  20. On the Role of Nuclear Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsegian, V. Lawrence

    1974-01-01

    The author elaborates on the thesis that much of the confusion and argument about the role of nuclear energy in meeting the energy needs of the nation and the world is caused by failure to place the known facts in perspective with respect to time, to hazards that accompany the use of energy in any form, to economics, and to ultimate limitations in…

  1. Role Conflict and Conformity in Dress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasper, Cynthia R.; Roach-Higgins, Mary Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Examined conflict regarding what form of dress is appropriate for Roman Catholic priest. Data from 5,475 American Catholic priests revealed that priests who conformed to church regulations regarding dress differed from nonconformists in beliefs about their roles as priests and in their opinions of church reform, commitment to the priesthood,…

  2. Sex Roles as an Androcentric Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Naomi

    The notion that women internalize personality characteristics that render them psychologically, socially and intellectually crippled is a denial of experience. The study of sex roles cuts across several disciplines, as well as being the major focus of women's liberation, thus creating the possibility for reappraisal of the field and its…

  3. Redesigning Our Role While Redesigning Our Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradburn, Frances Bryant

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a process one librarian discovered and implemented as she observed the changing role of the librarian and the library. Frustration was growing due to the gradual erosion of school libraries as they struggled to remain, with electronic books, video streaming, and databases supplanting many of the physical resources in the…

  4. The Role of Statistics in Kosovo Enterprises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjonbalaj, Muje; Dema, Marjan; Miftari, Iliriana

    2009-01-01

    Considering science as the main contributor to contemporary developments has encouraged us to raise a scientific discussion regarding the role of statistics in business decision-making and economic development. Statistics, as an applicative science, is growing and being widely applied in different fields and professions. Statistical thinking is…

  5. Division Heads and Role Strain Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, William M.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on a study of the extent to which ambiguous and conflicting circumstances contribute to role strain perceptions among community college division heads. Clarifies how working conditions and personal attributes affect job expectations. Finds experience, age, outlook, and job satisfaction to be strong influential factors. (DMM)

  6. Incidental Learning of Sex Role Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsell-Rainey, Lynn W.

    The content and process of incidental learning of sex role related characteristics through play behavior was explored in a study of more than 6000 toys sold by Sears, Roebuck & Company between 1900 and 1970, as represented in their mail order catalogs. Sixty percent of all toys were sex typed by Sears. The nature of the play behavior associated…

  7. The Crucial Role of Recess in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramstetter, Catherine L.; Murray, Robert; Garner, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recess is at the heart of a vigorous debate over the role of schools in promoting optimal child development and well-being. Reallocating time to accentuate academic concerns is a growing trend and has put recess at risk. Conversely, pressure to increase activity in school has come from efforts to combat childhood obesity. The purpose…

  8. The Role of Narrative in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Myrna Elyse

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive case study investigated the role of narrative in multimedia learning and teaching and observed how teachers applied their understanding of narrative, and new constructivist technologies, to design multimedia presentations for instruction. The study looked specifically at the cognitive strategies, visual narrative concepts, and…

  9. Adult Attitudes about School Counselor Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yockey, Karen S.

    In a time of financial difficulties for schools, few counselors use accountability practices--practices which are necessary in order to justify the expense of school counseling and guidance programs. This descriptive study examines opinions of adults about school counselors. Following a review of literature concerning the role of the counselor, a…

  10. Role of proline under changing environments

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Hayat, Qaiser; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wani, Arif Shafi; Pichtel, John; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    When exposed to stressful conditions, plants accumulate an array of metabolites, particularly amino acids. Amino acids have traditionally been considered as precursors to and constituents of proteins, and play an important role in plant metabolism and development. A large body of data suggests a positive correlation between proline accumulation and plant stress. Proline, an amino acid, plays a highly beneficial role in plants exposed to various stress conditions. Besides acting as an excellent osmolyte, proline plays three major roles during stress, i.e., as a metal chelator, an antioxidative defense molecule and a signaling molecule. Review of the literature indicates that a stressful environment results in an overproduction of proline in plants which in turn imparts stress tolerance by maintaining cell turgor or osmotic balance; stabilizing membranes thereby preventing electrolyte leakage; and bringing concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within normal ranges, thus preventing oxidative burst in plants. Reports indicate enhanced stress tolerance when proline is supplied exogenously at low concentrations. However, some reports indicate toxic effects of proline when supplied exogenously at higher concentrations. In this article, we review and discuss the effects of exogenous proline on plants exposed to various abiotic stresses. Numerous examples of successful application of exogenous proline to improve stress tolerance are presented. The roles played by exogenous proline under varying environments have been critically examined and reviewed. PMID:22951402

  11. Transendothelial Transport and Its Role in Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant

    2014-01-01

    Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. More specifically, permeability functions of BBB in transendothelial transport of various substances such as metabolic fuels, ethanol, amino acids, proteins, peptides, lipids, vitamins, neurotransmitters, monocarbxylic acids, gases, water, and minerals in the peripheral circulation and into the brain have been widely explained. In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. Present review paper aims to emphasize role of important transport systems with their recent advancements in CNS protection mainly for providing a rapid clinical aid to patients. This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. PMID:27355037

  12. The Role of the Principal in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konzen, Joel M.

    Principals have an essential role in school development that includes an institution's effort to reach its goals and objectives. The main responsibility for development lies in the principal's knowledge, team building, involvement, and volunteer gathering. Setting the stage for development means establishing quality as a comprehensive goal,…

  13. The Changing Role of the CTO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The role of a district's technology leader, known by a variety of titles including "chief technology officer" (CTO), "chief information officer" (CIO), "director of technology" and others, is changing rapidly in school systems around the country. These administrators principally have managed the nuts and bolts of hardware and software but now are…

  14. Occupational Sex Roles and Occupational Prestige.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simerly, D. Emily; Ruback, R. Barry

    Past studies on the sex-typing of occupations have used a single bipolar scale, ranging from masculinity to femininity. An empirical examination of both occupational sex roles and occupational prestige was conducted using two unipolar scales to assess masculinity and femininity. College students (N=183) rated 94 occupations, which were then…

  15. The Role of Technology in SLA Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Dorothy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this review article for the 20th Anniversary Issue, I look back at research from the last two decades on the role of computer technology in understanding and facilitating second language acquisition (SLA) and forward to what future research might investigate. To be discussed are both how technology has been used to conduct research on SLA…

  16. Child Participant Roles in Applied Linguistics Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinter, Annamaria

    2014-01-01

    Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…

  17. Beginning Teachers' Views of Their Collaborative Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Johnston-Rodriguez, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) made significant changes in the roles of general and special educators, especially related to inclusion and collaboration. This pilot study examined the perceptions of beginning elementary and secondary school special and general education teachers in a midwestern state in the…

  18. Roles of Naturalistic Observation in Comparative Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David B.

    1977-01-01

    "Five roles are considered by which systematic, quantified field research can augment controlled laboratory experimentation in terms of increasing the validity of laboratory studies." Advocates that comparative psychologists should "take more initiative in designing, executing, and interpreting our experiments with regard to the natural history of…

  19. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  20. The Educational Role of the Symphony Orchestra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Phillip

    1973-01-01

    Author stressed the role of the symphony orchestra in the development of youth programs for young people and suggested that the development and enrichment of the creative process, which takes place between audience and creator, should be a basic goal of education. (Author/RK)

  1. [Role of Radionuclide Technologies in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A P; Belousov, A V; Varzar, S M; Borchegovskaya, P Y; Nikolaeva, A A; Krusanov, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the role of radionuclide technologies among the nuclear-physical methods used in medicine. The condition and prospects of the development of nuclear technology with use of radionuclides in medicine, and in particular, the method of brachytherapy are analyzed. The analysis of the current state of applying radionuclide facilities in medicine is provided.

  2. The State Role in Education Policy Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.

    During the 1970s the states greatly increased their role in educational policy innovation at the expense of local school districts. Previously, the states had varied widely along the spectrum of centrist versus localist control; they had been strongest only in such traditional areas as attendance, accreditation, and school facilities regulation.…

  3. Simulating Intercultural Communication through Role-Playing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Edward C.; And Others

    This report describes the design and development of training to increase cultural awareness. Significant aspects of intercultural interaction were simulated in a series of role playing exercises. Typical American values and assumptions were demonstrably elicited from a trainee as he interacted with a "foreign" auxiliary. The auxiliary was trained…

  4. Hold the salt: vasopressor role for BDNF.

    PubMed

    Marosi, Krisztina; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-04-01

    In a recent publication in Neuron, Choe et al. (2015) demonstrate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling mediates salt-induced blood pressure elevation by increasing the excitability of hypothalamic vasopressin-secreting neurons. These findings suggest complex roles for BDNF in adaptive cardiovascular responses to physiological challenges and in the pathogenesis of hypertension. PMID:25863241

  5. Role Perception Study of School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Deborah Kay

    This study was designed to identify any differences in the perceptions of administrators, counselors, and teachers regarding the role of secondary school counselors. A literature review found that different groups had varying expectations of school counselors. The null hypothesis for the study is: There is no significant difference in the…

  6. The Chancellor's Role in a Presidential Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, James R.; Dorsey, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Successful transitions involving a formal role for the former president, such as chancellor, are rare enough that the authors think theirs is an exceptional experience and is worth sharing, especially given the bulge of presidential retirements anticipated over the next decade. The authors believe that this model of transition can be successful,…

  7. The Role of Meditation in Addiction Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…

  8. Sex-Role Orientations in Late Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Jerome

    A 13-part television series called "Freestyle" was designed to see if stereotypes about women and work could be changed and was targeted at fourth- through sixth-graders. "Freestyle's" effects were evaluated among more than 7,000 children in 7 cities who completed identical pre- and post-measures assessing sex-role beliefs, attitudes, and…

  9. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.

  10. The Role and Function of Presidential Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Linda

    This paper identifies various elements of presidential libraries. The advantages and disadvantages of the libraries' centralization or decentralization are discussed, and some common misconceptions held by the public as to the role and function of presidential libraries are identified. Criticism and debate from the professional community about…

  11. Essential Role of Culture in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joan G.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.

  12. The Role of Women in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulhati, Kaval

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the role of women in the day-to-day progress of health care, the institution of better education, and the improvement of the means of livelihood in developing nations. Points out that because women hold key positions in these developing communities, programs designed to help women benefit others as well. (KO)

  13. Congress Takes Activist Role in Science Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinger, Madeleine

    1972-01-01

    Second of three articles that probe the nature of federal involvement in science. The role of Congress in formulating and implementing science policy is changing to a more activist one. Congress is seetting up mechanisms to interpret the flood of information used in making policy decisions. (Author/TS)

  14. The role of the community psychiatric nurse.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, P; Hawksworth, J; Hobbs, R; Jackson, D

    1990-06-01

    The community psychiatric nurse is an essential element in a comprehensive mental health service. At present each nurse is expected to be a trained counsellor and psychotherapist, a skilled behaviour therapist and an expert assessor of clinical status. This superhuman role is unrealistic; a more appropriate one is outlined.

  15. Special and Compensatory Programs: The Administrator's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boschee, Floyd; Beyer, Bonnie M.; Engelking, Jeri L.; Boschee, Marlys Ann

    This textbook provides a comprehensive look at the vast knowledge base supporting special and compensatory education. Each chapter begins with a context and concludes with a section on the school administrator's role in promoting and leading others in each of the special and compensatory programs. Chapters include: (1) "Special Education," which…

  16. The role of microvesicles in tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Stefania; Fonsato, Valentina; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Camussi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are released by almost all cells in resting and activated conditions. First described several years ago, it is only recently that their mechanisms of action are being elucidated, and their potential role in health and disease is drawing increasing attention. The main function of MVs is signaling through specific interactions with target cells and the transferring of gene products. Gaining further insights into the molecular specificity of MVs has allowed identification of the cellular source and may provide new diagnostic tools in the future. Indeed, an increasing body of evidence indicates that MVs are capable of mediating tissue repair in models of acute kidney and liver injury. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms through which MVs from stem cells may act on target cells and may modify the response to injury. Furthermore, MVs from inflammatory cells are suspected to be involved in various diseases, such as cardiovascular and renal diseases, pathological pregnancy, tumors and sepsis. MVs are no doubt also involved in modulating immunity, and future studies will clarify their functional role in negatively modulating the cell response. Their role in physiological and pathological processes is increasingly appreciated. Depending on the cell source and the condition, MVs may be either beneficial or detrimental to the host. The recognition of their pathogenetic role may suggest new approaches to future therapies. PMID:21572253

  17. The role of CRAC channel in asthma.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manminder; Birrell, Mark A; Dekkak, Bilel; Reynolds, Sophie; Wong, Sissie; De Alba, Jorge; Raemdonck, Kristof; Hall, Simon; Simpson, Karen; Begg, Malcolm; Belvisi, Maria G; Singh, Dave

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is increasing globally and current treatments only manage a proportion of patients. There is an urgent need to develop new therapies. Lymphocytes are thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma through the production of inflammatory mediators. This is thought to be via the transcription factor NFAT which in turn can be activated through Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of CRAC in clinical and pre-clinical models of allergic asthma. Initial data demonstrated that the NFAT pathway is increased in stimulated lymphocytes from asthmatics. To confirm a role for the channel we showed that a selective inhibitor, Synta 66, blocked mediator production from lymphocytes. Synta 66 inhibited CD2/3/28 induced IL-2, IL-7, IL-13 & IFNΥ in a concentration-dependent manner in healthy and severe asthma donors, with over 60% inhibition observed for all cytokines. NFAT pathway was also increased in a pre-clinical asthma model. In this model we have demonstrated that CRAC played a central role in the airway inflammation and late asthmatic response (LAR). In conclusion, our data provides evidence that suggests targeting CRAC channels could be of therapeutic benefit for asthma sufferers.

  18. Reinvigorating the role of science in democracy.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Andrew A; Halpern, Michael; Shulman, Seth; Wexler, Celia; Phartiyal, Pallavi

    2013-01-01

    Private and political interests routinely conspire to sideline and misrepresent science and evidence in the public policy process. The Center for Science and Democracy, a new initiative at the Union of Concerned Scientists, endeavors to change this dynamic to strengthen the role of science in decision making.

  19. Exploring Sex Roles in African Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David R.

    A method for incorporating an examination of sex roles and position of women into an undergraduate course on geography of Africa is discussed. It is a regional geography course with a cultural emphasis. Five percent of the total instruction is devoted to the examination of women. This is justified because geographical concepts such as spatial…

  20. My Role as an EPA Scientist

    EPA Science Inventory

    I will first describe my role as a Research Ecologist with the EPA’s Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, in Corvallis, Oregon, an example of a government agency conducting research in E...

  1. Role Playing: Rehearsal for Language Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lee

    1970-01-01

    Argues that in teaching standard English to groups which, like Eskimos and speakers of Hawaiian Pidgin, are quite removed from mainstream American culture, role playing, as natural human behavior, can provide the bridge between classroom drill and real-life utilization of new language patterns. (FB)

  2. Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, E; Holmström, S J M

    2014-01-01

    Siderophores are organic compounds with low molecular masses that are produced by microorganisms and plants growing under low iron conditions. The primary function of these compounds is to chelate the ferric iron [Fe(III)] from different terrestrial and aquatic habitats and thereby make it available for microbial and plant cells. Siderophores have received much attention in recent years because of their potential roles and applications in various areas of environmental research. Their significance in these applications is because siderophores have the ability to bind a variety of metals in addition to iron, and they have a wide range of chemical structures and specific properties. For instance, siderophores function as biocontrols, biosensors, and bioremediation and chelation agents, in addition to their important role in weathering soil minerals and enhancing plant growth. The aim of this literature review is to outline and discuss the important roles and functions of siderophores in different environmental habitats and emphasize the significant roles that these small organic molecules could play in applied environmental processes. PMID:24576157

  3. Role of Teacher in Personal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaikh, Zaffar Ahmed; Khoja, Shakeel Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the changing roles and competencies of a teacher in context of prevailing developments accomplished by the vast availability of social software, which have made easy the development of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs). This has been accomplished by an in-depth review of the literature on teacher's socially situated…

  4. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  5. Rethinking Education--Emerging Roles for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, Fatima Rehan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out how teachers role modeled and taught empathetic and pro-social skills at the primary level. The study was qualitative in nature and followed a case study approach. Observations of regular English language classes were done from Grades 1-5 to see if class lessons incorporated the said themes and whether…

  6. Beneficial role of exercise on scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Zelijko; Valic, Zoran; Brubakk, Alf O

    2008-01-01

    Exercising before, during, or after diving is proscribed because of the assumption that it would increase incidence of decompression sickness. Our findings show that exercise performed in a timely fashion before diving or during decompression will reduce the number of venous gas bubbles formed. Exercise after diving did not increase the number of bubbles. Nitric oxide seems to play a protective role.

  7. Role-Play in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.; Scheuermann, Amy M.; Haney, Jodi J.

    2009-01-01

    The activity shared here is an animal role-playing lesson developed, field-tested, and refined for "Nature's Neighborhood", a newly designed children's education facility at the Toledo Zoo. The activity is targeted at students in kindergarten through second grade, but it can be adapted for use in grades three and four as well. Through students'…

  8. A Role-Play Rorschach Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricklin, Barry

    1975-01-01

    Three subjects were used in a role playing study based on the subject's own Rorschach responses. The results proved to be valuable as an aspect of therapeutic involvement. Results also help to expand and clarify the psychological meaning of Rorschach images. (Author/DEP)

  9. A Manual for Trustees: Role, Responsibilities, Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Helen B.

    This manual provides information on trustees' roles, responsibilities, and relationships with other agencies in the state. Following a foreword and introduction, a historical overview is provided of the North Carolina Community College System, including a description of the system's guiding philosophy of total education, mission statement,…

  10. The Educational Role of Health Sciences Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jocelyn A.; Sayre, Jean Williams

    1993-01-01

    Considers the expanding educational role of health sciences librarians in both academic centers and in hospitals resulting from influences of new educational models and new technology. Topics addressed include undergraduate health sciences education; continuing education; new technology and medical informatics; library educational programs;…

  11. The role of CRAC channel in asthma.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manminder; Birrell, Mark A; Dekkak, Bilel; Reynolds, Sophie; Wong, Sissie; De Alba, Jorge; Raemdonck, Kristof; Hall, Simon; Simpson, Karen; Begg, Malcolm; Belvisi, Maria G; Singh, Dave

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is increasing globally and current treatments only manage a proportion of patients. There is an urgent need to develop new therapies. Lymphocytes are thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma through the production of inflammatory mediators. This is thought to be via the transcription factor NFAT which in turn can be activated through Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of CRAC in clinical and pre-clinical models of allergic asthma. Initial data demonstrated that the NFAT pathway is increased in stimulated lymphocytes from asthmatics. To confirm a role for the channel we showed that a selective inhibitor, Synta 66, blocked mediator production from lymphocytes. Synta 66 inhibited CD2/3/28 induced IL-2, IL-7, IL-13 & IFNΥ in a concentration-dependent manner in healthy and severe asthma donors, with over 60% inhibition observed for all cytokines. NFAT pathway was also increased in a pre-clinical asthma model. In this model we have demonstrated that CRAC played a central role in the airway inflammation and late asthmatic response (LAR). In conclusion, our data provides evidence that suggests targeting CRAC channels could be of therapeutic benefit for asthma sufferers. PMID:26344428

  12. Role of Physics in Saudi Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role and importance of physics in the engineering curriculum, considering the need for physics knowledge in technology transfer and in preventing architectural disasters. Also discusses preuniversity physics preparation in Saudi Arabia and an optimum engineering physics curriculum, outlining a proposed four-semester physics course.…

  13. Narcissism, Sex Roles, and Self-Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, P. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gender, sex role, and narcissism. Data indicated that males and masculine individuals were not higher in their levels of maladaptive narcissism, that an adjusted narcissism was more obvious in males and in masculine subjects, and that femininity appeared to inhibit the display of an unhealthy exploitative…

  14. Thematic Roles, Markedness Alignment and Processing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the…

  15. Academic Library Directors: A Managerial Role Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Terrence F.

    1990-01-01

    This examination of the managerial profiles of 354 academic library directors indicates that directors are active primarily in management roles within their libraries, although significant variations exist among directors at doctoral, comprehensive, baccalaureate, and two-year institutions. Work contacts and the importance of human, conceptual,…

  16. The Managerial Roles of Chief Academic Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Terrence

    1997-01-01

    Examined the managerial roles emphasized by chief academic officers (CAOs) at 349 colleges and universities classified by the Carnegie Foundation as Comprehensive I institutions. What emerged was a picture of the CAO as an internally focused senior-level team manager in a collegial organization trying to develop and maintain a smooth-running…

  17. "A Vital Role in Uncertain Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    The adult learning and skills sector is a diverse world, encompassing adult and community learning, apprenticeships, Train to Gain, and contracted employment programmes. The learning and skills sector plays a vital role in uncertain times by giving greater opportunities for social mobility, for example by supporting progression to further and…

  18. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  19. The Mediator Role in Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Ruth J.

    1991-01-01

    Notes that mediation as problem-solving intervention in social work became widely used in child custody and divorce cases, child-parent conflicts, and family disputes. Argues that mediator role is inherent in social work, and examines context for and assumptions underlying it. Discusses nature of conflicts, issue of neutrality within social work…

  20. The Role of Macronutrients in Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Christopher M.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the role of macronutrients in exercise, examining research pertaining to exercise intensity, exercise duration, macronutrient intake, and mode of exercise as they pertain to both athletes and recreational exercisers. The paper explains that coaches and trainers must interpret and apply research findings to individual exercisers,…

  1. The Role of Gesture in Meaning Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Melissa; Radinsky, Joshua; Goldman, Susan R.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the role of gesture in the shared meaning-making processes of 6th-grade students studying plate tectonics using a data visualization tool; specifically, a geographic information system. Students' verbal and gestural characterizations of key concepts of plate motions (i.e., "subduction", "rift", and "buckling") were…

  2. Communication Theory's Role in the Reference Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glogoff, Stuart

    1983-01-01

    Notes the applicability of communication science theory to the reference process, particularly in areas involving human behavior, and discusses the roles of both verbal and nonverbal communication (body language, paralanguage, proxemics, and environmental factors) in the reference interview. Forty-one references are provided. (EJS)

  3. Role Orientation of Community College Occupational Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Nancy S.

    A study was conducted at a multicampus community college in Michigan to determine the role orientation of full- and part-time occupational faculty. In addition to collecting demographic data, the study sought to determine whether faculty were locals, characterized by a high level of loyalty to the organization and a low commitment to specialized…

  4. Oxytocin's role in anxiety: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Kai; Feifel, David

    2014-09-11

    A growing literature suggests that the oxytocin (OT) system may play a role in human anxiety states, anxiety-related traits, and moreover, that this system may be a target for the development of novel anxiolytic treatments. However, studies of OT's acute and chronic effects on various aspects of anxiety have produced mixed results. In this forward-looking review, we discuss the myriad phenomena to which the term "anxiety" is applied in the OT literature and the problem this presents developing a coherent picture of OT's role in anxiety. We then survey several different fields of research that support the role of the OT system in human anxiety, including evolutionary perspectives, translational and neuroimaging research, genetic studies, and clinical trials of intranasal OT. As an outgrowth of this data, we propose a "bowtie" model of OT's role at the interface of social attachment and anxiety. We next direct attention to understudied brain regions and neural circuits which may be important to study in OT experiments in humans anxiety disorders. Finally, we conclude by proposing questions and priorities for studying both the clinical potential of OT in anxiety, as well as mechanisms that may underlie this potential. Crucially, these priorities include targeted proof-of-concept clinical trials of IN OT in certain anxiety disorders, including investigations of individual moderators of OT's anxiolytic effects (i.e. sex, genetic factors, and early experience). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav.

  5. A Role for Imagery in Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Examples of imagery and visualization in medicine, sports, and preservice teaching explore the potential of these techniques in mentoring relationships. They help proteges develop a positive self-image in a new role, make mentors' experience more explicit, and depict possible selves toward which proteges can work. (SK)

  6. Role Play and Foreign Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Christina

    Classroom use of role-playing in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction in Japan is described. The purpose is to improve students' verbal and nonverbal communication skills and to link and use previously built schema, in both structured and improvised situations. Units designed around a short listening passage, a short reading passage, and…

  7. Elementary Principals' Role in Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patricia; Dunlap, Karen; Brown, Kristen; Davison, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the role elementary school principals play in science education. Specifically, the study employed an online survey of 16 elementary school principals at high-performing campuses in North Texas to explore their perceptions of how they influenced science education on their campuses. The survey used a combination of Likert-type…

  8. THE ROLE OF APOPTOSIS IN NEUROTOXICOLOGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of apoptosis in neurodegeneration in developing animals and in adults has become increasingly apparent in the past ten years. Normal apoptosis occurs in the CNS from the embryonic stage through senescence, with different cells in each region of the nervous system having ...

  9. Higher Education's Role in "Education for Sustainability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes some of the drivers for "education for sustainability" that exist in universities and also explores some of the rationales that underpin higher education's reluctance to engage more formally in education for sustainability. It attempts to provide a balanced commentary on the role and capability of higher education in promoting…

  10. The Changing Role of the School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2014-01-01

    The role of the school principal has changed much in the recent intervening years. He/she was formerly thought of as a manager and management of the local school. Today the principal is seen as the leader of curriculum improvement. School principals must believe in pupils being able to achieve optimally in school and in life. Principals must…

  11. Linguistic Relativity: The Role of the Bilingual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, George A.

    The role of linguistic relativity was examined through the use of multidimensional scaling (MDS). Direct pair comparisons of the similarity among a set of translated equivalent lexical items dealing with the mass media were made by subjects monolingual in English or French or bilingual using either of the languages. Using MDS as a measure of…

  12. The Role of Trust in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovey, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of trust in the collaborative learning processes that underpin innovation as a competitive strategy in organizations. Design/methodology/approach: As a conceptual paper, the argument is framed by academic perspectives, drawn from the academic literature on the topic and by professional and…

  13. Creating Civil Societies: The University's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daxner, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The president emeritus of Carl von Ossietzky University in Germany describes a research project examining the university's role in creating a democratic citizenship, prompted by the European Union's need to create societies in which citizens can participate actively in determining their own future. (EV)

  14. The Federal Role in Library Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This paper examines library network activity in the United States and the past, present, and future roles of the federal government in nationwide library networking. The first chapter describes the history and development of library networks and defines terms used in the report. An examination of the current status of networks in the second…

  15. [Role of estrogen in male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi-Qing; Xu, Chen

    2005-11-01

    Estrogen plays an essential role in male reproduction. In human and other mammalians, a number of tissues express aromatase and hence synthesize estrogen. ERs and aromatase are present at all developmental stages of the male reproductive organs in many mammalian species. Estrogen is important in different aspects in male reproductive physiology, including its effects on germ cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and epididymal functions.

  16. Role Taking in Childhood: Some Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Kenneth H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the convergent and discriminant validity of six widely used measures of role-taking skill. The Borke; Rothenberg; Miller, Kessel, and Flavell; Chandler; DeVries; and Glucksberg and Krauss tasks were administered to children in preschool and grades 1, 3, and 5. (Author/JMB)

  17. The Role of Consultants in Institutional Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, John

    2008-01-01

    Institutional research (IR) is a multifaceted function, occurring at many levels and in many types of settings, addressing numerous audiences, and embracing an almost infinite array of topics. The IR community is well served by understanding the role that consultants play in the panoply of postsecondary education. With the growing complexity and…

  18. The Role of the School Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunanan, Esmeralda S.; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn

    1994-01-01

    The School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 emphasizes counselor involvement in improving the academic, career, and occupational opportunities of all students. This paper focuses on the problem of defining the role of the school counselor and provides a review of the literature in three areas: (1) student counselees and their needs; (2) the…

  19. The Role of Computers in Writing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusoy, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the role of computers in writing process was investigated. Last 25 years of journals were searched to find related articles. Articles and books were classified under prewriting, composing, and revising and editing headings. The review results showed that computers can make writers' job easy in the writing process. In addition,…

  20. Eating Disorders: The School Counselor's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Sharon A.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses role of school counselor in providing assistance to students who may be at risk for developing anorexia nervosa and bulimia and students who already display behaviors and physical symptoms of either of these illnesses. Addresses specific concerns regarding intervention strategies used by the school counselor in the student's recovery…

  1. Changing Roles of Mental Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garai, Josef E.

    The roles that mental health professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mental health professionals must re-examine the meaning of mental health in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…

  2. Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…

  3. [The role of endothelial lipase in atherogenesis].

    PubMed

    Pierart Z, Camila; Serrano L, Valentina

    2012-03-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is synthetized by endothelial cells and its main substrates are lipoprotein phospholipids. Over expression of EL reduces high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and phospholipids, in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of the enzyme achieves the opposite effects. The synthesis of the enzyme is regulated by interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor a. These inflammatory cytokines play a role in diabetes and vascular disease. An increase in vascular mechanical forces, that play a role in atherogenesis, also increase the synthesis of EL. There is expression of EL in endothelial cells, macrophages and muscle cells of atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries of humans. This evidence leads to the suspicion that EL plays a role in atherogenesis. There are also higher plasma levels of EL in subjects with type 2 diabetes, who are especially susceptible to the development of vascular lesions. Therefore the inhibition of EL could play an important role in HDL metabolism and could be a new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:22689120

  4. Sport and Sex-Role Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, A. Craig

    Psychosexual personality is not exclusively a postnatal and learned phenomenon. Three biologically-based sex differences can be cited as having promoted status differentiation between males and females. These are (a) greater physical strength of males, (b) greater aggressiveness of males, and (c) child-rearing and nursing roles of females. The…

  5. The Principal's Role in Reporting Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Beth

    1991-01-01

    The role of the principal in identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect is discussed in this bulletin. Although all 50 states and the District of Columbia have laws that require educators to report cases in which they have knowledge or reasonable cause to suspect child abuse, passage of legislation does not always lead to compliance.…

  6. The Principal's Role in Urban School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Philip M.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the principal's role in school reform. Attaching express legitimate power to the principal and ensuring that its effective and collaborative use is the most immediate route to reform. An autonomous, accountable, and achieving principal can function in a school reform setting like that of Chicago (Illinois). (SLD)

  7. Educating Democracy: The Role of Systemic Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Gary M.; Slater, Robert O.

    This monograph explores the notion of viewing leadership as a single, interconnecting system at work in the internal and external school environment, rather than as a collection of individual roles. The document explores what the new leadership paradigm--a decentralized, collaborative model--means to schools. Leadership is viewed as an…

  8. Antibodies: Protective, destructive and regulatory role

    SciTech Connect

    Milgrom, F.; Abeyounis, C.J.; Albini, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers under 10 subject headings. The headings are: Production and Function of Antibodies, Protective Role of Antibodies, Antibodies to Foreign and Neoplastic Cells, Autoantibodies, Regulatory Mechanisms, Allergy, Immune Complexes, Antibodies in Pregnancy and Aging, Administration of Antibodies for Prevention and Therapy, and Abstracts of Poster Presentations.

  9. The Role of the National Agricultural Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Joseph H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the role, users, collections and services of the National Agricultural Library. Some of the services discussed include a machine readable bibliographic database, an international interlibrary loan system, programs to develop library networks and cooperative cataloging, and the development and use of information technologies such as laser…

  10. The Role of Schools in Area Regeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Colleen; Dyson, Alan

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence in recent Government policy in England of the emergence of a wider role for schools in relation to the neighbourhoods they serve. In particular, the National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal in England sets the work of schools within the context of an overarching regeneration strategy. The study reported here, sponsored by the…

  11. The Mass Media Role in Terrorist Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.

    Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…

  12. The Role of Jealousy in Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringle, Robert G.; And Others

    Questionnaires were completed by 131 married couples to determine the role of dispositional jealousy on marital success. The total jealousy in the marriage was found to be negatively related to several indices of marital success. Further analyses indicated that marital outcomes were negatively associated with the husband's perception of the wife's…

  13. Integrating Technology: The Principals' Role and Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…

  14. The Literacy Educator's Role in Suicide Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Suicide, the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, is preventable. Nearly 80% of individuals who commit suicide have demonstrated signs well in advance. Adolescent suicide prevention efforts require collaboration with teachers--individuals who know students well. Literacy educators have a role in suicide…

  15. Dealing with Victims and Perpetrators: Role Confusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the issue of role confusion for medical professionals who must deal with both parent and child in cases of incest. Pediatricians generally act as child advocates and tend to believe the child's story if there is conflicting information, yet are expected to render a neutral expert opinion. Family physicians may become enmeshed in denial…

  16. Michigan Life Role Competencies. Special Education Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    This competency listing presents the 42 employability and occupational, personal and family management, civic and social responsibility, and aesthetic and humanistic appreciation skills that are needed by secondary special education students, as they were determined during the Michigan Life Role Competencies (MLRC) Project. (The MRLC Project was…

  17. The Counselor's Role: A Cooperative Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warthen, Mary Ann; Carson, W. E.

    The basic format of the conference incorporated orientation to student needs and to the proper utilization of professional talent, visual simulations of counselor roles, and exercise in group consensus, and a reaction panel. To present a picture of what the counselor should be doing from the viewpoint of student needs, Dr. Walter Busby spoke on…

  18. The Role of Conversation in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates recent literature in the area of classroom conversation and dialogue with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the role that classroom conversation and dialogue plays in learning. It also investigates literature on the constructivist, collaborative nature of technology education and suggests that to enhance our…

  19. The School Counselor's Role with Mainstreamed Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruyere, Donna

    The expanded role of the school counselor as "mainstreaming facilitator" is discussed in the context of the needs and characteristics of mainstreamed handicapped students. Topics addressed include the following: (1) counselor attitudes toward handicapped students and their parents; (2) the learning problems and behavioral characteristics of…

  20. North Carolina School Law: The Principal's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellinger, Anne M.

    This book outlines the legal aspects of the principal's role in North Carolina and is intended to be used as an instructive and advisory aid when formulating school policy. The principal's legal status, including a definition of authority and employment rights, is discussed. The author delineates the principal's responsibilities for student…

  1. Process Consultation: Its Role in Organization Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schein, Edgar H.

    This volume focuses on the process by which the consultant builds readiness for organizational development (OD) programs, actually conducts training, and works with the key individuals of an organization as part of an OD program. Part I describes in some detail the human processes in organizations--communication, functional roles of group members,…

  2. The Role of New Hire Orientation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Steven; Jasinski, Dale

    2009-01-01

    A vital component of a firm's human resource management is its new hire orientation (NHO) program. The authors' review of extant literature suggests that NHO programs can be organized based on a reconceptualization of human capital. Using their typology, a firm can organize the role and scope of its NHO program, assign responsibility for the…

  3. Survey Finds Administrators, Trustees Differ on Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Richard J.; Ritter, Sandra L.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on a 1982 survey of Michigan community college presidents and trustees conducted to determine their perceptions of their roles in evaluation, budget preparation, and bargaining and of board/president relationships. Though the majority of the presidents and trustees seemed to have good working relationships, minority responses showed…

  4. Psychology's Role in Mathematics and Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora S.; Ambady, Nalini; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gomez, Louis; Klahr, David; Linn, Marcia; Miller, Kevin; Mix, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Improving mathematics and science education in the United States has been a matter of national concern for over half a century. Psychology has a vital role to play in this enterprise. In this article, the authors review the kinds of contributions that psychology can make in four areas: (a) early understanding of mathematics, (b) understanding of…

  5. Dividing Fractions: What Is the Divisor's Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    Dividing by fractions is considered by many to be one of the most complicated procedures in elementary mathematics. The computations are not only complicated but also challenging to explain in the context of a word problem. In this article, the author discusses the role of the divisor in the concept of division by fractions. She examines three…

  6. Gender role biases on Indian television.

    PubMed

    Behera, S K

    1989-01-01

    Gender role biases in Indian television have served to reinforce and even enhance the degradation of women in the broader society. A content analysis of 20 news programs, 20 fictionalized serials, and 100 commercials conducted over a 3-week period in 1988 indicated that women are portrayed as victims, caretakers, and sex objects while men are presented as masters, doers, and intellectuals. Of the 400 hours of news programs studied, men newsmakers accounted for 71% of the content while women were featured in only 10% of the segments. Even then, women's portrayal in the news tended to center on their roles as beneficiaries of welfare schemes, victims of accidents, or as the wives of male dignitaries. Fictionalized dramas reinforced the sex role stereotypes of men as decisive, assertive, dominant, and career- oriented, and of women as emotionally dependent, eager to please, sentimental, and primarily concerned with family relationships. Female characters in these series were most often housewives, secretaries, teachers, or nurses. Women were featured more often (56% of content) than men in Indian commercials, yet were shown performing stereotyped female activities such as shopping, preparing meals, and dressing to obtain the sexual approval of men. This sex role stereotyping in the media is seriously impeding the struggles of women in India to achieve economic and political autonomy. To promote more positive role modeling and change women's self-image, Indian television must move immediately to portray women achieving self-realization through their careers and social participation and to depict cooperation between men and women in performing household chores.

  7. Provider Role Attitudes, Marital Satisfaction, Role Overload, and Housework: A Dyadic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Heather M.; Walls, Jill K.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Treating the marital dyad as the unit of analysis, this study examined the within-couple patterning of 272 dual-earner spouses’ provider role attitudes and their longitudinal associations with marital satisfaction, role overload, and the division of housework. Based on the congruence of husbands’ and wives’ provider role attitudes, couples were classified into one of four types: (1) main-secondary, (2) coprovider, (3) ambivalent coprovider, and (4) mismatched couples. Nearly half of all spouses differed in their attitudes about breadwinning. A series of mixed model ANCOVAs revealed significant between- and within-couple differences in human capital characteristics, spouses’ perceptions of marital satisfaction and role overload, and the division of housework across 3 years of measurement. Coprovider couples reported higher levels of marital satisfaction and a more equitable division of housework than the other couple groups. Wives in the ambivalent coprovider couples’ group reported higher levels of role overload than their husbands to a greater extent than was found in the other couple groups. As the first study to adopt a dyadic approach that considers the meanings that both spouses in dual-earner couples ascribe to paid employment, these findings advance understanding of how dual-earner spouses’ provider role attitudes serve as contexts for marital quality, behavior, and role-related stress. PMID:20954767

  8. Linking perceptions of role stress and incivility to workplace aggression: the moderating role of personality.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Shannon G; Kluemper, Donald H

    2012-07-01

    Although research on workplace aggression has long recognized job stressors as antecedents, little is known about the process through which employee responses to stressful workplace demands escalate from relatively mild interactions into more intense behaviors. This study investigates the influence that employees' perceptions of role stress (ambiguity, conflict, overload) have on their aggressive behavior by affecting their perceptions of incivility, and whether these downstream effects depend on personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness). Results supported moderated mediation, such that the indirect effects of perceived role ambiguity and role conflict on enacted aggression through experienced incivility varied according to individual differences in personality.

  9. Sex-role identification and violent victimization: gender differences in the role of masculinity.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Leah E; Mummert, Sadie J

    2014-01-01

    Although sex-role identification has been found to be associated with crime and delinquency, the link between sex-role identification and violent victimization has remained largely unexplored. Using the Add Health data, this study examines sex-role identification and its relationship to violent victimization. The findings suggest that masculinity increases the risk of violent victimization for males, but does not for females. Other differences in risk factors across gender were also found. These findings indicate that masculinity is an important construct in understanding the complexity of why some persons are violently victimized and others are not.

  10. Androgens in pregnancy: roles in parturition

    PubMed Central

    Makieva, Sofia; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Norman, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the physiology of pregnancy enables effective management of pregnancy complications that could otherwise be life threatening for both mother and fetus. A functional uterus (i) retains the fetus in utero during pregnancy without initiating stretch-induced contractions and (ii) is able to dilate the cervix and contract the myometrium at term to deliver the fetus. The onset of labour is associated with successful cervical remodelling and contraction of myometrium, arising from concomitant activation of uterine immune and endocrine systems. A large body of evidence suggests that actions of local steroid hormones may drive changes occurring in the uterine microenvironment at term. Although there have been a number of studies considering the potential role(s) played by progesterone and estrogen at the time of parturition, the bio-availability and effects of androgens during pregnancy have received less scrutiny. The aim of this review is to highlight potential roles of androgens in the biology of pregnancy and parturition. METHODS A review of published literature was performed to address (i) androgen concentrations, including biosynthesis and clearance, in maternal and fetal compartments throughout gestation, (ii) associations of androgen concentrations with adverse pregnancy outcomes, (iii) the role of androgens in the physiology of cervical remodelling and finally (iv) the role of androgens in the physiology of myometrial function including any impact on contractility. RESULTS Some, but not all, androgens increase throughout gestation in maternal circulation. The effects of this increase are not fully understood; however, evidence suggests that increased androgens might regulate key processes during pregnancy and parturition. For example, androgens are believed to be critical for cervical remodelling at term, in particular cervical ripening, via regulation of cervical collagen fibril organization. Additionally, a number of studies highlight

  11. Parents or Pop Culture? Children's Heroes and Role Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin J.; Cavallaro, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of mass media on children's choices of heroes and role models. Addresses questions of which cultural messages children attend to, whether role models vary according to ethnicity and gender, and the role played by educators in exposing children to previously unconsidered role models. (DLH)

  12. Towards a Typology for Conceptualizing the Roles of Teaching Assistants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerry, Trevor

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the role of Teaching Assistant (TA) in particular since Estelle Morris's seminal speech in 2001. It argues that, while the TA role is only one among many support staff roles in schools, it suffers from lack of precise definition. The paper uses research and literature to create a typology of TA roles with a…

  13. Role Management Strategies of Beginning Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2005-01-01

    Beginning teachers encounter new challenges as the role system in contemporary society has become more and more demanding. By means of the life history method, role management strategies of four Hong Kong beginning teachers employed to cope with role demands and intra-role conflicts were located in their biographical, workplace and wider…

  14. The Managerial Roles of Community College Chief Academic Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Philip Wayne

    This study utilized Mintzberg's taxonomy of managerial roles to examine the roles performed by community college chief academic officers (CAOs). Mintzberg's taxonomy defines managerial roles as a set of behaviors and identifies 10 distinct roles: (1) figurehead; (2) leader; (3) liaison; (4) monitor; (5) disseminator; (6) spokesperson; (7)…

  15. Reality and Second-Language Role-Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, David; Piper, Terry

    1983-01-01

    Although role playing is a well-established and useful method of second language instruction, its success is often undermined by assignment of roles alien to the students' needs and experience. Redefinition of role playing to include the roles an individual assumes in everyday life will help the teacher plan more appropriate activities. (MSE)

  16. Instructional Coach Job Satisfaction: An Exploration of Role Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debacker, Jeffrey Paul

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods dissertation examines the relationships between role conflict and job satisfaction, role ambiguity and job satisfaction, and role conflict and job satisfaction within a convenience sample of American instructional coaches (n = 46). Theoretically, this analysis is formed by Merton's idea of role-sets and how instructional…

  17. Emergence of system roles in normative neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shi; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Medaglia, John D; Yang, Muzhi; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-11-01

    Adult human cognition is supported by systems of brain regions, or modules, that are functionally coherent at rest and collectively activated by distinct task requirements. However, an understanding of how the formation of these modules supports evolving cognitive capabilities has not been delineated. Here, we quantify the formation of network modules in a sample of 780 youth (aged 8-22 y) who were studied as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. We demonstrate that the brain's functional network organization changes in youth through a process of modular evolution that is governed by the specific cognitive roles of each system, as defined by the balance of within- vs. between-module connectivity. Moreover, individual variability in these roles is correlated with cognitive performance. Collectively, these results suggest that dynamic maturation of network modules in youth may be a critical driver for the development of cognition. PMID:26483477

  18. Emergence of system roles in normative neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shi; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Medaglia, John D; Yang, Muzhi; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Bassett, Danielle S

    2015-11-01

    Adult human cognition is supported by systems of brain regions, or modules, that are functionally coherent at rest and collectively activated by distinct task requirements. However, an understanding of how the formation of these modules supports evolving cognitive capabilities has not been delineated. Here, we quantify the formation of network modules in a sample of 780 youth (aged 8-22 y) who were studied as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. We demonstrate that the brain's functional network organization changes in youth through a process of modular evolution that is governed by the specific cognitive roles of each system, as defined by the balance of within- vs. between-module connectivity. Moreover, individual variability in these roles is correlated with cognitive performance. Collectively, these results suggest that dynamic maturation of network modules in youth may be a critical driver for the development of cognition.

  19. Wikipedia : its reliability and social role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Kyuhachi

    This article discusses Japanese Wikipedia's reliability and its social role as a free, collaborative, multilingual Internet encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Japanese Wikipedia's reliability is explained from several surveys. The central concern is how the nature of encyclopedia and Wikipedia affects the quality of Wikipedia's articles. Wikipedia's core content policies such as verifiability, no original research and a neutral point of view will make articles better. But incomplete or poorly written first drafts exist because Wikipedia is a work in progress. The article also argues that social role of online encyclopedia which provides knowledge for all. Knowledge-based society or/and advanced information society require public understanding of science and other expertise. Online encyclopedia attributed to a reliable, published source using an inline citation will guide anyone to specialized knowledge.

  20. The mediating role of facebook fan pages.

    PubMed

    Chih, Wen-Hai; Hsu, Li-Chun; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Using the dual mediation hypothesis, this study investigates the role of interestingness (the power of attracting or holding one's attention) attitude towards the news, in the formation of Facebook Fan Page users' electronic word-of-mouth intentions. A total of 599 Facebook fan page users in Taiwan were recruited and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results show that both perceived news entertainment and informativeness positively influence interestingness attitude towards the news. Interestingness attitude towards the news subsequently influences hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes towards the Fan Page, which then influence eWOM intentions. Interestingness attitude towards the news plays a more important role than hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes in generating electronic word-of-mouth intentions. Based on the findings, the implications and future research suggestions are provided. PMID:24875695

  1. Role of saliva in oral food perception.

    PubMed

    Neyraud, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is the first fluid that comes into contact with food during oral processing. Because saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors, is the fluid through which taste and aroma compounds are released into the oral cavity and is mixed continuously with food during bolus formation, it is an essential actor in oral chemosensory perception. The complexity of saliva composition, with compounds originating from different salivary glands, from gingival crevicular fluid, from micro-organisms and from food debris, together with its variable nature increases the possibilities for interactions with food compounds and for different roles in perception. These factors are increasingly being taken into account in current research on food perception. The aim of this paper is to review the principal roles of saliva in oral perception, with particular focus on chemosensory perception. These include the protection of taste buds, the effects of flow rates, salivary hormones, electrolytes and organic compounds, and finally the impact of perception on salivary secretions.

  2. Unraveling the role of Mg(++) in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiang; Yue, Jiaji; Yang, Chunxi

    2016-02-15

    Mg(++) is widely involved in human physiological processes that may play key roles in the generation and progression of diseases. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex joint disorder characterized by articular cartilage degradation, abnormal mineralization and inflammation. Magnesium deficiency is considered to be a major risk factor for OA development and progression. Magnesium deficiency is active in several pathways that have been implicated in OA, including increased inflammatory mediators, cartilage damage, defective chondrocyte biosynthesis, aberrant calcification and a weakened effect of analgesics. Abundant in vitro and in vivo evidence in animal models now suggests that the nutritional supplementation or local infiltration of Mg(++) represent effective therapies for OA. The goal of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the role of Mg(++) in OA with particular emphasis on the related molecular mechanisms involved in OA progression. PMID:26800786

  3. The Roles of Acidosis in Osteoclast Biology

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Feng-Lai; Xu, Ming-Hui; Li, Xia; Xinlong, He; Fang, Wei; Dong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The adverse effect of acidosis on the skeletal system has been recognized for almost a century. Although the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated, it appears that acidosis acts as a general stimulator of osteoclasts derived from bone marrow precursors cells and enhances osteoclastic resorption. Prior work suggests that acidosis plays a significant role in osteoclasts formation and activation via up-regulating various genes responsible for its adhesion, migration, survival and bone matrix degradation. Understanding the role of acidosis in osteoclast biology may lead to development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of diseases related to low bone mass. In this review, we aim to discuss the recent investigations into the effects of acidosis in osteoclast biology and the acid-sensing molecular mechanism. PMID:27445831

  4. Roles of Hydrogen in Space Explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Robert C.

    2006-05-01

    The various roles of hydrogen in space technology are identified and discussed. The preeminent position of hydrogen as rocket fuel in launch vehicles is explained and illustrated for the NASA Space Shuttle. The history of hydrogen in launching space vehicles is also briefly summarized. The cryogenic aspects of hydrogen for cooling instruments during flight missions are covered for several past and current systems. The technology of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries is covered. The storage of cryogenic hydrogen to operate fuel cells and to provide potable water is described for the NASA Apollo and Shuttle Missions. Other less well-known applications of hydrogen and metal hydrides such as gas gap heat switches, fueling hypersonic scramjet flights to Mach 10 speeds, in-situ resource utilization on lunar or Martian surfaces, and providing ultrapure reference hydrogen to scientific instruments are also described. Finally, some possible future roles for hydrogen in space exploration are identified.

  5. Euthanasia: American attitudes toward the physician's role.

    PubMed

    Caddell, D P; Newton, R R

    1995-06-01

    This is a study of American public opinion toward euthanasia and the physician's role in performing it. The authors examine how these attributes are affected by religious affiliation, religious self-perception, political self-perception and education. The data include 8384 American respondents from years 1977, 1978, 1982, 1985 and 1988 of the General Social Survey conducted by the National Opinion Research Center. The findings suggest that highly educated, politically liberal respondents with a less religious self-perception are most likely to accept active euthanasia or suicide in the case of terminally ill patient. The data also show that Americans tend to draw a distinction between the suicide of a terminally ill patient and active euthanasia under the care of a physician, preferring to have the physician perform this role in the dying process. The tendency to see a distinction between active euthanasia and suicide was clearly affected by religious affiliation and education.

  6. The roles of macrophage autophagy in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Bo-zong; Han, Bin-ze; Zeng, Yan-xia; Su, Ding-feng; Liu, Chong

    2016-01-01

    Although various types of drugs and therapies are available to treat atherosclerosis, it remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Macrophages are the major source of foam cells, which are hallmarks of atherosclerotic lesions. Consequently, the roles of macrophages in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis are increasingly investigated. Autophagy is a self-protecting cellular catabolic pathway. Since its discovery, autophagy has been found to be associated with a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, malignant tumors, neurodegenerative diseases, and immune system disorders. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays an important role in inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis, and in promoting efferocytosis and cholesterol efflux. These facts suggest the induction of autophagy may be exploited as a potential strategy for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review we mainly discuss the relationship between macrophage autophagy and atherosclerosis and the molecular mechanisms, as well as the recent advances in targeting the process of autophagy to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:26750103

  7. The role of estrophilin in estrogen action.

    PubMed

    Jensen, E V; Mohla, S; Gorell, T A; De Sombre, E R

    1974-01-01

    The role of estrophilin in estrogen action was reviewed. The interaction of uterine cells with estradiol involves the association of estradiol with estrophilin followed by temperature-dependent translocation of the resulting complex to the nucleus. The steroid binding unit of estrophilin undergoes an alteration (receptor transformation) that is recognized by an increase in its sedimentation rate and by its ability to bind to isolated uterine nuclei or chromatin and to alleviate a tissue specific deficiency in the ribonuclei acid (RNA) synthesizing capacity. The estrophilin complex influence on RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei shows the same quantitative, qualitative and tissue specificity characteristics as evoked by the administration of estradiol in vivo. It was concluded that receptor transformation is an important step in estrogen action and that a major role of the hormone is to induce conversion of the native estrophilin to a biochemically functional form.

  8. A role for Separase in telomere protection.

    PubMed

    Cipressa, Francesca; Morciano, Patrizia; Bosso, Giuseppe; Mannini, Linda; Galati, Alessandra; Raffa, Grazia Daniela; Cacchione, Stefano; Musio, Antonio; Cenci, Giovanni

    2016-01-18

    Drosophila telomeres are elongated by transposition of specialized retroelements rather than telomerase activity and are assembled independently of the sequence. Fly telomeres are protected by the terminin complex that localizes and functions exclusively at telomeres and by non-terminin proteins that do not serve telomere-specific functions. We show that mutations in the Drosophila Separase encoding gene Sse lead not only to endoreduplication but also telomeric fusions (TFs), suggesting a role for Sse in telomere capping. We demonstrate that Separase binds terminin proteins and HP1, and that it is enriched at telomeres. Furthermore, we show that loss of Sse strongly reduces HP1 levels, and that HP1 overexpression in Sse mutants suppresses TFs, suggesting that TFs are caused by a HP1 diminution. Finally, we find that siRNA-induced depletion of ESPL1, the Sse human orthologue, causes telomere dysfunction and HP1 level reduction in primary fibroblasts, highlighting a conserved role of Separase in telomere protection.

  9. Stepparent role strain and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Espinar Fellmann, Isabel; Carrasco Galán, Ma José; Hernández Lloreda, Ma José

    2008-11-01

    In the last few decades, Spain has witnessed a slow but progressive change in predominant family models. The purpose of this work is to advance in our knowledge of stepfamilies through the perspectives and experiences of two of their members, the stepfather and the stepmother. The theoretical model examined in this investigation proposes that stepparents' role strain could have negative effects on their psychological wellbeing. It also proposes that a satisfactory couple relation could mediate in the relation between role strain and psychological wellbeing. In this study, participants were 116 stepparents who had been living for at least one year with their partner. The most relevant results showed the adequacy of the proposed model and the higher vulnerability of stepmothers in these family structures.

  10. Physiological Roles of Aquaporin-4 in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nagelhus, Erlend A.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the most abundant molecules in the brain and is particularly prevalent in astrocytic membranes at the blood-brain and brain-liquor interfaces. While AQP4 has been implicated in a number of pathophysiological processes, its role in brain physiology has remained elusive. Only recently has evidence accumulated to suggest that AQP4 is involved in such diverse functions as regulation of extracellular space volume, potassium buffering, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, interstitial fluid resorption, waste clearance, neuroinflammation, osmosensation, cell migration, and Ca2+ signaling. AQP4 is also required for normal function of the retina, inner ear, and olfactory system. A review will be provided of the physiological roles of AQP4 in brain and of the growing list of data that emphasize the polarized nature of astrocytes. PMID:24137016

  11. Defining the psychiatric role in spastic dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, B I; Wallack, J J; Srain, J J; Biller, H F

    1988-03-01

    The authors evaluated 11 surgically-treated patients with spastic dysphonia, a phonation disorder of unclear etiology. The results indicate that the illness does not appear to be a somatoform disorder, but that stress may play a role in its expression, and that there may be secondary depression and anxiety. The experience of spastic dysphonics suggests that psychiatric treatments may be inappropriately applied to an illness without clear organic etiology, whereas, conversely, a proper psychiatric role may be rejected when effective medical or surgical treatment is available. The authors recommend that psychiatrists evaluating patients with illnesses of unclear etiology should be cautious in making a primary psychiatric diagnosis unless DSM-III criteria are met.

  12. Role of transcranial Doppler in cerebrovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Amit A; Sharma, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is the only noninvasive modality for the assessment of real-time cerebral blood flow. It complements various anatomic imaging modalities by providing physiological-flow related information. It is relatively cheap, easily available, and can be performed at the bedside. It has been suggested as an essential component of a comprehensive stroke centre. In addition to its importance in acute cerebrovascular ischemia, its role is expanding in the evaluation of cerebral hemodynamics in various disorders of the brain. The "established" clinical indications for the use of TCD include cerebral ischemia, sickle cell disease, detection of right-to-left shunts, subarachnoid hemorrhage, periprocedural or surgical monitoring, and brain death. We present the role of TCD in acute cerebrovascular ischemia, sonothrombolysis, and intracranial stenosis. PMID:27625245

  13. Extracellular Matrix Revisited: Roles in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a heterogeneous, connective network composed of fibrous glycoproteins that coordinate in vivo to provide the physical scaffolding, mechanical stability, and biochemical cues necessary for tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. This review highlights some of the recently raised aspects of the roles of the ECM as related to the fields of biophysics and biomedical engineering. Fundamental aspects of focus include the role of the ECM as a basic cellular structure, for novel spontaneous network formation, as an ideal scaffold in tissue engineering, and its essential contribution to cell sheet technology. As these technologies move from the laboratory to clinical practice, they are bound to shape the vast field of tissue engineering for medical transplantations. PMID:27230457

  14. Role of sebaceous glands in inflammatory dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Vivian Y; Leo, Michael; Hassoun, Lauren; Chahal, Dev S; Maibach, Howard I; Sivamani, Raja K

    2015-11-01

    Skin is an important interface between the host and its environment. Inflammatory dermatoses often have disrupted skin barrier function, rendering patients more susceptible to allergenic triggers leading to an exaggerated immune response. The skin surface lipid film, an important component of the skin barrier, comprises a mixture of keratinocyte and sebaceous gland-derived lipids. Recent evidence demonstrated that defective keratinocyte lipid synthesis predisposes for the development of atopic dermatitis. However, the important role of sebaceous gland-derived lipids in skin inflammatory diseases may be underrecognized. This overview focuses on the importance of the contribution of sebaceous glands to barrier function. Sebaceous gland alteration may play a role in the pathogenesis of common skin diseases including acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:26386632

  15. Expanding the role of the oncology nurse

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, A

    2008-01-01

    Oncology nursing continues to evolve in response to advances in cancer treatment, information and biotechnology. As new scientific and technological discoveries are integrated into cancer care, oncology nurses need to play a key role in the management of this patient population. The role of the oncology nurse has expanded significantly and can differ greatly across cultures. Sophisticated treatments and the growth of targeted therapies will create the challenge of ensuring that all nurses working in this arena are well-educated, independent thinkers. Thus the future success of oncology nurses will focus on enhancement of nursing practice through advanced education. The increased globalisation of healthcare offers exciting opportunities to accomplish this goal by allowing for collaborative relationships among oncology nurses across the globe. PMID:21611002

  16. The role of serendipity in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Serendipity is one of the many factors that may contribute to drug discovery. It has played a role in the discovery of prototype psychotropic drugs that led to modern pharmacological treatment in psychiatry. It has also played a role in the discovery of several drugs that have had an impact on the development of psychiatry, “Serendipity” in drug discovery implies the finding of one thing while looking for something else. This was the case in six of the twelve serendipitous discoveries reviewed in this paper, ie, aniline purple, penicillin, lysergic acid diethylamide, meprobamate, chlorpromazine, and imipramine, in the case of three drugs, ie, potassium bromide, chloral hydrate, and lithium, the discovery was serendipitous because an utterly false rationale led to correct empirical results; and in case of two others, ie, iproniazid and sildenafil, because valuable indications were found for these drugs which were not initially those sought. The discovery of one of the twelve drugs, chlordiazepoxide, was sheer luck. PMID:17117615

  17. Role of tautomerism in RNA biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vipender; Fedeles, Bogdan I; Essigmann, John M

    2015-01-01

    Heterocyclic nucleic acid bases and their analogs can adopt multiple tautomeric forms due to the presence of multiple solvent-exchangeable protons. In DNA, spontaneous formation of minor tautomers has been speculated to contribute to mutagenic mispairings during DNA replication, whereas in RNA, minor tautomeric forms have been proposed to enhance the structural and functional diversity of RNA enzymes and aptamers. This review summarizes the role of tautomerism in RNA biochemistry, specifically focusing on the role of tautomerism in catalysis of small self-cleaving ribozymes and recognition of ligand analogs by riboswitches. Considering that the presence of multiple tautomers of nucleic acid bases is a rare occurrence, and that tautomers typically interconvert on a fast time scale, methods for studying rapid tautomerism in the context of nucleic acids under biologically relevant aqueous conditions are also discussed.

  18. The microbial role in hot spring silicification.

    PubMed

    Konhauser, Kurt O; Jones, Brian; Phoenix, Vernon R; Ferris, Grant; Renaut, Robin W

    2004-12-01

    Recent experimental studies indicate that microorganisms play a passive role in silicification. The organic functional groups that comprise the outer cell surfaces simply serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the adsorption of polymeric and/or colloidal silica, and because different microorganisms have different cell ultrastructural chemistry, species-specific patterns of silicification arise. Despite their templating role, they do not appear to increase the kinetics of silicification, and at the very most, they contribute only marginally to the magnitude of silicification. Instead, silicification is due to the polymerization of silica-supersaturated hydrothermal fluids upon discharge at the surface of the hot spring. Microorganisms do, however, impart an influence on the fabric of the siliceous sinters that form around hot spring vents. Different microorganisms have different growth patterns, that in turn, affect the style of laminations, the primary porosity of the sinter and the distribution of later-stage diagenetic cementation.

  19. Physics And Its Roles In Economic Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Physics plays a variety of roles in economic development. These are explored and ways of increasing the importance of physics to world economies are discussed. Surveys by the Institute of Physics have shown that over 40% of employment in manufacturing in the UK is based on physics, and that this sector continues to expand. Physics provides techniques and equipment for advances in the life sciences. An education in physics gives an ability to tackle a diverse range of subjects from first principles and to find innovative solutions to problems where conventional approaches fail. Physicists in many countries readily find employment in a wide range of areas. However, because of the range of opportunities available, there is a reluctance of physics graduates to enter teaching and prepare the next generation of physicists. Sharing experience between countries is vital. The World Year of Physics has played an important role in this.

  20. A role for water in cell structure.

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, J G

    1987-01-01

    The question of a role for water in biochemical and cellular events is ignored by most workers (apart from its obvious role in hydrolysis reactions, which is not under discussion here). But much recent research has pointed to the importance of physical, as well as biochemical, processes of the cell, which focus attention on such straightforward elementary questions as position and relationship in space of cell components. In this communication these questions are examined in terms of a new model of water structure. A radically new feature of this model is that water clusters have long-term rather than flickering existence and are as large as the macromolecular components of the cell. These properties allow the clusters and other components to pack together spatially so giving rise to integrated, large-scale, subcellular structures. PMID:3435470

  1. The role of epigenetics in tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Kathirvel, Maruthai; Mahadevan, Subramanian

    2016-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are pivotal in regulating gene expression during cellular response to extracellular stimuli. Bacterial infections have a profound effect on the host epigenome, which triggers susceptibility to diseases. Recent studies suggest that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can alter the host epigenome to modulate the transcriptional machinery and plays a major role in immunomodulation of the host immune response. However, the mechanism of epigenetic alterations during Mtb infection has not yet been fully understood. Thus, Mtb-induced epigenetic changes may affect the host cell by either activation or suppression of key immune genes involved in immune response or pathogen persistence. In this review, we discuss the principles of epigenetics, recent advances in Mtb-induced alterations in the host epigenetic landscape and their role in the host immune response. PMID:27035266

  2. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic.

    PubMed

    Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621

  3. Emerging role of thyroid hormone metabolites.

    PubMed

    Gnocchi, D; Steffensen, K R; Bruscalupi, G; Parini, P

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the regulation of development and metabolism in key organs. THs produce biological effects both by directly affecting gene expression through the interaction with nuclear receptors (genomic effects) and by activating protein kinases and/or ion channels (short-term effects). Such activations can be either direct, in the case of ion channels, or mediated by membrane or cytoplasmic receptors. Short-term-activated signalling pathways often play a role in the regulation of genomic effects. Several TH intermediate metabolites, which were previously considered without biological activity, have now been associated with a broad range of actions, mostly attributable to short-term effects. Here, we give an overview of the physiological roles and mechanisms of action of THs, focusing on the emerging position that TH metabolites are acquiring as important regulators of physiology and metabolism.

  4. Multiple Roles of Peroxiredoxins in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Knoops, Bernard; Argyropoulou, Vasiliki; Becker, Sarah; Ferté, Laura; Kuznetsova, Oksana

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a pathophysiological response to infection or tissue damage during which high levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced by phagocytes to kill microorganisms. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species serve also in the complex regulation of inflammatory processes. Recently, it has been proposed that peroxiredoxins may play key roles in innate immunity and inflammation. Indeed, peroxiredoxins are evolutionarily conserved peroxidases able to reduce, with high rate constants, hydrogen peroxide, alkyl hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite which are generated during inflammation. In this minireview, we point out different possible roles of peroxiredoxins during inflammatory processes such as cytoprotective enzymes against oxidative stress, modulators of redox signaling, and extracellular pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns. A better understanding of peroxiredoxin functions in inflammation could lead to the discovery of new therapeutic targets. PMID:26813661

  5. The role of vitamin D in malaria.

    PubMed

    Lương, Khanh Vinh Quốc; Nguyễn, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2015-01-15

    An abnormal calcium-parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D axis has been reported in patients with malaria infection. A role for vitamin D in malaria has been suggested by many studies. Genetic studies have identified numerous factors that link vitamin D to malaria, including human leukocyte antigen genes, toll-like receptors, heme oxygenase-1, angiopoietin-2, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, and Bcl-2. Vitamin D has also been implicated in malaria via its effects on the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, prostaglandins, reactive oxidative species, and nitric oxide synthase. Vitamin D may be important in malaria; therefore, additional research on its role in malaria is needed.

  6. The Role of Cardiolipin in Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zheni; Ye, Cunqi; McCain, Keanna; Greenberg, Miriam L.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, is crucial for both mitochondrial function and cellular processes outside of the mitochondria. The importance of CL in cardiovascular health is underscored by the life-threatening genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS), which manifests clinically as cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and growth retardation. BTHS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding tafazzin, the transacylase that carries out the second CL remodeling step. In addition to BTHS, CL is linked to other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, heart failure, and Tangier disease. The link between CL and CVD may possibly be explained by the physiological roles of CL in pathways that are cardioprotective, including mitochondrial bioenergetics, autophagy/mitophagy, and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In this review, we focus on the role of CL in the pathogenesis of CVD as well as the molecular mechanisms that may link CL functions to cardiovascular health. PMID:26301254

  7. Role of glycosaminoglycans in infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis.

  8. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  9. Multiple roles of graphene in heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaobin; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao

    2015-05-21

    Scientific interest in graphene as a catalyst and as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalytic reactions has grown dramatically over the past several years. The present critical review summarizes the multiple roles of graphene in heterogeneous catalysis and highlights the influence of defects, heteroatom-containing functionalities, and graphene's two-dimensional structure on catalytic performance. We first discuss the role and advantages of graphene as a catalyst support, with emphasis on its interactions with the catalytic phases and the influence of mass transfer processes. We then clarify the origin of the intrinsic catalytic activity of graphene in heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Finally we suggest challenges and potential practical applications for graphene in industrial processes. PMID:25777748

  10. Expanding the role of the oncology nurse.

    PubMed

    Quinn, A

    2008-07-01

    Oncology nursing continues to evolve in response to advances in cancer treatment, information and biotechnology. As new scientific and technological discoveries are integrated into cancer care, oncology nurses need to play a key role in the management of this patient population. The role of the oncology nurse has expanded significantly and can differ greatly across cultures. Sophisticated treatments and the growth of targeted therapies will create the challenge of ensuring that all nurses working in this arena are well-educated, independent thinkers. Thus the future success of oncology nurses will focus on enhancement of nursing practice through advanced education. The increased globalisation of healthcare offers exciting opportunities to accomplish this goal by allowing for collaborative relationships among oncology nurses across the globe.

  11. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621

  12. The role of chemokines in glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takashi; Matsushima, Kouji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2008-05-01

    Leukocyte infiltration to glomeruli plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of glomerulonephritis. Pathophysiological roles of chemokines and their cognate receptors have shed light on the detailed molecular mechanisms of leukocyte trafficking and activation both in clinical and experimental settings of glomerulonephritis. Infiltrating leukocytes and glomerular resident cells interact to promote and exacerbate glomerular injury, eventually leading to glomerulosclerosis. Further, recent studies on chemokines have expanded their universe beyond leukocyte migration to glomeruli, to include homeostasis, development and protection of resident cells in glomeruli. New insights into proteinuria have been uncovered by the regulation of chemokine system. The intervention of chemokines and their cognate receptors may have therapeutic potential to slow the progression of glomerulonephritis.

  13. The Greening Role of Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  14. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem. PMID:26253501

  15. Factors influencing player preferences for heroic roles in role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Kao, Ching-Han; Wu, Muh-Cherng

    2007-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate whether player personality or social cognition influence preferences for heroic roles in role-playing games (RPG). In Study 1, 149 teenager subjects were categorized into five groups according to the Guilford Personality Inventory. Heroes were clustered into three types based on their attributes. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicated that each personality group did not display distinctive preference for any particular heroic type. However, of the three heroic types teenagers most strongly preferred, Justice Warrior was followed, in order of preference, by Visionary Leader and Saint. In Study 2, the influence of three player social cognition factors (similarity, proximity, and familiarity) on player preference for heroic roles was studied. Multiple regression analysis results indicated that similarity and familiarity predicted player preferences for heroic roles.

  16. Role Preparation of Associate Degree Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Lillian G.

    The role of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs has changed dramatically in their 30 years of existence. The number of ADN graduates increased from 260 in 1954 to 36,434 in 1980, and 47.8% of all nursing graduates in 1980 came from ADN programs, as compared to 0.9% in 1954. These graduates have the best record of employment five years after…

  17. The role of precise time in IFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    The application of precise time to the identification of friend or foe (IFF) problem is discussed. The simple concept of knowing when to expect each signal is exploited in a variety of ways to achieve an IFF system which is hard to detect, minimally exploitable and difficult to jam. Precise clocks are the backbone of the concept and the various candidates for this role are discussed. The compact rubidium-controlled oscillator is the only practical candidate.

  18. [Role of antithrombin iii in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Muedra, V; Barettino, D; D'Ocón, P

    2013-11-01

    Coagulation of blood is of multidisciplinary interest. Cardiac surgery produces major changes in the delicate balance between pro-and anti-coagulant serum factors. The role of antithrombin iii has been analysed after finding evidence that associated decreased levels of protein activity to postoperative morbidity and mortality. Supplementing exogenous antithrombin is considered with the aim of optimising outcomes. Its intrinsic anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties have stimulated a growing interest, and suggests new lines of research. PMID:23228672

  19. Aviation's role in earth resources surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syvertson, C. A.; Mulholland, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The role of satellites designed to make a wide variety of earth observations is discussed along with the renewed interest in the use of aircraft as platforms for similar and complementary earth resources surveys. Surveys covering the areas of forestry, agriculture, hydrology, oceanography, geology, and geography are included. Aerials surveys equipped for nonphotographic remote sensing and aircraft flights synchronized with satellite observations to provide correlated data are discussed. Photographs are shown to illustrate preliminary results from several of the test sites.

  20. The role of the infection control doctor.

    PubMed

    Daschner, F D

    1988-02-01

    The ideal infection control doctor would be a combination of an infectious disease specialist, microbiologist, epidemiologist, social worker, psychologist, teacher, researcher, antibiotic therapy specialist, policeman, priest, supervisor for housekeeping, architect, partner for the infection control nurse, and who should combine the qualities of Mary Poppins, Sherlock Holmes, Francis von Assisi and Margaret Thatcher. A new role is that of a specialist in environmental pollution by detergents, disinfectants and certain disposables.

  1. The role of IL-37 in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Vivi A; Zhu, Ziwen; Xiao, Huaping; Wakefield, Mark R; Bai, Qian; Fang, Yujiang

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin 37 (IL-37) is a new member of the IL-1 family which all have a similar β-barrel structure. Since its discovery, IL-37 has been studied extensively in immunological field. It has been established that IL-37 possesses anti-inflammatory characteristics both in innate immune response as well as in acquired immune responses by downregulating pro-inflammatory molecules. This review will discuss the role of IL-37 in immunological processes and neoplastic pathogenesis. PMID:27251377

  2. [Role of antithrombin iii in cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    Muedra, V; Barettino, D; D'Ocón, P

    2013-11-01

    Coagulation of blood is of multidisciplinary interest. Cardiac surgery produces major changes in the delicate balance between pro-and anti-coagulant serum factors. The role of antithrombin iii has been analysed after finding evidence that associated decreased levels of protein activity to postoperative morbidity and mortality. Supplementing exogenous antithrombin is considered with the aim of optimising outcomes. Its intrinsic anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties have stimulated a growing interest, and suggests new lines of research.

  3. The Role of Variation in Infant Categorization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Emily W.; And Others

    The role of variation as a determinant of infant categorical responding was investigated in three studies of infants 7 to 7 1/2 months of age. Sixty-three infants, divided into groups of 21 each, were habituated to color slide poses of either one, two, or six different adult female faces. Their responses to a novel pose of a familiar face and a…

  4. [Nurses' role in cases of total pain].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Castilla, M José; Calderón Carrasco, Justo

    2009-06-01

    Health professional daily confront the pain and suffering persons who need our help undergo. From a nurse's methodology this article describes a new perspective about nurses' role regarding total pain, employing as a tool to deal with this topic the AREA holistic pain model, a model which centers on the person and his/her family permanently seeking results derived from a plan which joins together all treatments and based on the creation of a reasoning network that will provide prioritized nursing diagnoses.

  5. Enhancing the role of the dairy vet.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    More than 3000 veterinarians, researchers and industry representatives gathered in Dublin in July for the 29th congress of the World Association for Buiatrics. With the theme of 'Cattle health - tomorrow's thinking today', the programme for the five-day meeting was wide-ranging, exploring issues such as animal health systems, animal welfare initiatives, zoonoses, mastitis control and infectious disease control. Here, Kristy Ebanks focuses on two keynote addresses which considered the evolving role of the dairy vet. PMID:27585891

  6. Aboriginal reconciliation: a role for psychiatrists?

    PubMed

    McKendrick, J H

    1997-10-01

    Australian Aboriginal people are marginalised, severely disadvantaged and subject to discrimination. The Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families has focused international attention on their plight. However, the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation and the High Court Mabo decision provide avenues for change. This paper asks: is there a role for psychiatrists in the reconciliation process?

  7. ROLE OF MERCURY IN SVARNA VANGA PREPARATION

    PubMed Central

    Sharma; Gyaneshwar; Joshi, d.; Pandey, V.B.; Aryya, N.C.

    1985-01-01

    Svarna Vanga, an important Ayurvedic tin preparation having mercury as one of its ingredients, is mainly indicated in the treatment of Pramehas (genitourinary disorders). What role does mercury play in its preparation is not known. Hence present study has been planned with a view to prepare SvarnaVanga using mercury in different amounts. It was observed that the amount of mercury atleast in half proportion to in tin Kajjali, is considered necessary in making the standard Svarna-Vanga preparation. PMID:22557478

  8. Primary care role in expanded newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    Hayeems, Robin Z.; Miller, Fiona A.; Carroll, June C.; Little, Julian; Allanson, Judith; Bytautas, Jessica P.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the role of primary care providers in informing and supporting families who receive positive screening results. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians, pediatricians, and midwives involved in newborn care. Main outcome measures Beliefs, practices, and barriers related to providing information to families who receive positive screening results for their newborns. Results A total of 819 providers participated (adjusted response rate of 60.9%). Of the respondents, 67.4% to 81.0% agreed that it was their responsibility to provide care to families of newborns who received positive screening results, and 64.2% to 84.8% agreed they should provide brochures or engage in general discussions about the identified conditions. Of the pediatricians, 67.3% endorsed having detailed discussions with families, but only 24.1% of family physicians and 27.6% of midwives endorsed this practice. All provider groups reported less involvement in information provision than they believed they should have. This discrepancy was most evident for family physicians: most stated that they should provide brochures (64.2%) or engage in general discussions (73.5%), but only a minority did so (15.3% and 27.7%, respectively). Family physicians reported insufficient time (42.2%), compensation (52.2%), and training (72.3%) to play this role, and only a minority agreed they were up to date (18.5%) or confident (16.5%) regarding newborn screening. Conclusion Providers of primary newborn care see an information-provision role for themselves in caring for families who receive positive newborn screening results. Efforts to further define the scope of this role combined with efforts to mitigate existing barriers are warranted. PMID:23946032

  9. Department of Justice Role in Countering WMD

    SciTech Connect

    Prosnitz, D

    2004-01-12

    Stopping terrorist is most likely to be accomplished by state, local and federal law enforcement. With the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, the specific roles and responsibilities of the Department of Justice (DOJ) in preventing and responding to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) terrorist attacks are under reversion, but unquestionably the DOJ, as the chief federal law enforcement agency, will continue to have major responsibilities.

  10. The role of hyaluronic acid in biomineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhen-Hua; Ren, Xiu-Li; Zhou, Hui-Hui; Li, Xu-Dong

    2012-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid has been extensively investigated due to intrinsic properties of natural origin and strong ability to bind ions in water. Hyaluronic acid is an excellent crystal modifier because its abundant negatively charged carboxyl groups can bind the cations protruding from the crystal lattice. In this review, we mainly present the latest work focus on the role of hyaluronic acid in controlling the crystallization, breaking the symmetry of crystal, and the surface funtionalization of nanocrystals.

  11. Role of impurities in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tokar, M. Z.

    2008-10-15

    The role of impurity at the plasma edge of fusion devices is considered by analysing the influence on radiation losses and anomalous transport of particle and energy. The conditions critical for the development of radiative instabilities leading to the formation of detachment and MARFE and those necessary for the creation of a stable radiating edge, protecting the wall elements from intensive heat loads, are analyzed. Mechanisms responsible for anomalous transport suppression with impurity seeding are elucidated.

  12. Role of Deubiquitinating Enzymes in DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Both proteolytic and nonproteolytic functions of ubiquitination are essential regulatory mechanisms for promoting DNA repair and the DNA damage response in mammalian cells. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) have emerged as key players in the maintenance of genome stability. In this minireview, we discuss the recent findings on human DUBs that participate in genome maintenance, with a focus on the role of DUBs in the modulation of DNA repair and DNA damage signaling. PMID:26644404

  13. Role of inflammation in developmental odontogenic pathosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep S; Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Nainani, P

    2016-01-01

    Periapical infection in the primary tooth may lead to periapical abscess, granuloma, radicular cyst and even osteomyelitis. The infection in primary teeth can also affect the developing successor teeth leading to hypomineralization, hypoplasia, arrest of tooth development, regional odontodysplasia, delayed eruption etc. The purpose of this article is to report a case of malformed permanent tooth in relation to overlying infected deciduous teeth. The probable role of inflammation in pathogenesis of the present condition is also being discussed. PMID:27194886

  14. Social Media's New Role in Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ethan Huffman; Sara Prentice

    2008-03-01

    As technology continues to evolve, emergency management organizations must adapt to new ways of responding to the media and public. This paper examines a brief overview of social media's new role in emergency management. This includes definitions of social media, the benefits of utilizing social media, examples of social media being used and finally a discussion of how agencies, such as Department of Energy national laboratories, can begin including social media in their emergency management plans.

  15. The role of aviation in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahey, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Aviation emissions contribute to the radiative forcing (RF) of climate. Of importance are emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), aerosols and their precursors (soot and sulphate), and increased cloudiness in the form of persistent linear contrails and induced-cirrus cloudiness. Aviation operations have grown strongly over the past years and further growth is expected. This presentation will provide an updated perspective on new research and understanding of the role of aviation in climate and where uncertainties and gaps remain.

  16. The Evolving Role of Midwives as Laborists.

    PubMed

    DeJoy, Susan A; Sankey, Heather Z; Dickerson, Anissa E; Psaltis, Audrey; Galli, Amy; Burkman, Ronald T

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the history and present state of the midwife as laborist. The role of the midwife and obstetrician laborist/hospitalist is rapidly evolving due to the need to improve patient safety and provide direct care due to reduced resident work hours, as well as practice demands experienced by community providers and other factors. Models under development are customized to meet the needs of different communities and hospitals. Midwives are playing a prominent role in many laborist/hospitalist practices as the first-line hospital provider or as part of a team with physicians. Some models incorporate certified nurse-midwives/certified midwives as faculty to residents and medical students. The midwifery laborist/hospitalist practices at Baystate Medical Center in Springfield, Massachusetts, are presented as an example of how midwives are functioning as laborists. Essential components of a successful midwife laborist program include interdisciplinary planning, delineation of problems the model should solve, establishment of program metrics, clear practice guidelines and role definitions, and a plan for sustained funding. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. PMID:26619374

  17. The role of endoglin in kidney fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Felix, Jose M; Oujo, Barbara; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M

    2014-12-02

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, are a major feature of end stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), characterised by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) is a cytokine with an important role in many steps of renal fibrosis such as myofibroblast activation and proliferation, ECM protein synthesis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Endoglin is a TGF-β co-receptor that modulates TGF-β responses in different cell types. In numerous cells types, such as mesangial cells or myoblasts, endoglin regulates negatively TGF-β-induced ECM protein expression. However, recently it has been demonstrated that 'in vivo' endoglin promotes fibrotic responses. Furthermore, several studies have demonstrated an increase of endoglin expression in experimental models of renal fibrosis in the kidney and other tissues. Nevertheless, the role of endoglin in renal fibrosis development is unclear and a question arises: Does endoglin protect against renal fibrosis or promotes its development? The purpose of this review is to critically analyse the recent knowledge relating to endoglin and renal fibrosis. Knowledge of endoglin role in this pathology is necessary to consider endoglin as a possible therapeutic target against renal fibrosis.

  18. Role of proprioception and vision in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Chakarov, Vihren; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Huethe, Frank; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2009-08-14

    The objective of this study is to better understand the role of proprioception in handwriting and test earlier conclusions stating that the automated shaping of letters was not impaired by the removal of visual control in deafferentation. To this aim we compared the performance of the deafferented patient GL, who suffers from a complete loss of cutaneous and proprioceptive sensation, with that of eight healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. The word "Parallele", written within a short sentence with and without visual control, was quantified using a digital writing tablet. Three of the 13 analyzed parameters were strikingly different in patient GL compared to healthy subjects, both with and without vision: increase of number of pen touches, increase in number of inversions in velocity, and decrease of mean stroke frequency. The changes in these three parameters indicate a strong impairment in automated behaviour in the absence of proprioception and touch. This impairment is also supported by the significantly longer movement duration, which is also significantly increased by the removal of visual control. The present study provides for the first time a quantification of handwriting in a completely deafferented patient and reveals the central role of proprioception for the storage, updating, and maintenance of skilled motor programs. The fact that the deficits are already present with visual feedback suggests that the role of vision in handwriting is only secondary.

  19. The role of autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Li, Lanfang; Xu, Jin; He, Lu; Peng, Lijun; Zhong, Qiaoqing; Chen, Linxi; Jiang, Zhisheng

    2016-06-01

    Autophagy is conserved in nature from lower eukaryotes to mammals and is an important self-cannibalizing, degradative process that contributes to the elimination of superfluous materials. Cardiac hypertrophy is primarily characterized by excess protein synthesis, increased cardiomyocyte size, and thickened ventricular walls and is a major risk factor that promotes arrhythmia and heart failure. In recent years, cardiomyocyte autophagy has been considered to play a role in controlling the hypertrophic response. However, the beneficial or aggravating role of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy remains controversial. The exact mechanism of cardiomyocyte autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy requires further study. In this review, we summarize the controversies associated with autophagy in cardiac hypertrophy and provide insights into the role of autophagy in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that future studies should emphasize the relationship between autophagy and the different stages of cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the autophagic flux and selective autophagy. Autophagy will be a potential therapeutic target for cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27084518

  20. Role of target geometry in phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Julie A.; Mitragotri, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a principal component of the body’s innate immunity in which macrophages internalize targets in an actin-dependent manner. Targets vary widely in shape and size and include particles such as pathogens and senescent cells. Despite considerable progress in understanding this complicated process, the role of target geometry in phagocytosis has remained elusive. Previous studies on phagocytosis have been performed using spherical targets, thereby overlooking the role of particle shape. Using polystyrene particles of various sizes and shapes, we studied phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. We report a surprising finding that particle shape, not size, plays a dominant role in phagocytosis. All shapes were capable of initiating phagocytosis in at least one orientation. However, the local particle shape, measured by tangent angles, at the point of initial contact dictates whether macrophages initiate phagocytosis or simply spread on particles. The local shape determines the complexity of the actin structure that must be created to initiate phagocytosis and allow the membrane to move over the particle. Failure to create the required actin structure results in simple spreading and not internalization. Particle size primarily impacts the completion of phagocytosis in cases where particle volume exceeds the cell volume. PMID:16549762