A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.
A veteran teacher with over 35 years experience, the author reflects on the events of September 11, 2001, and how the events of that day demonstrated that teachers fulfill many shifting roles in their students' lives. Here, he shares his own feelings of profound sadness for all the victims on that day, and discusses how the roles of teachers often…
Anisovich, Vladimir V.
Time puts things in their places, and as time passes, Volodya's role as a universal physicist with an exceptional intuition becomes more and more significant. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.
Arruda, Milton; And Others
A game using student observational skills to match tourist "types" with comments, postcards, hotel and travel advertisements, souvenirs, guidebooks and sources of travel information, photos, travel styles, and tourist attractions is outlined and illustrated. (MSE)
Discourse competence is made up of both communicative competence and textual competence. Since each literary genre has its own typological and textual style, the study of each will help to build diverse competencies in students. (MSE)
Sultana, Ronald G.
Offers an analysis of the condition of education in developing countries such as Morocco, where, according to the author, educational improvements will not occur as a result of adopting European educational models. Argues that educational progress in developing regions should embrace humanistic values and be founded upon the concepts of the right…
Skrypnek, Berna J.
Reviews the history of parent education in Canada, describes the current scene, and identifies directions for future development of parent education policy and programming. (Contains 40 references.) (JOW)
Wagner, Betty Jane
This paper reveals ways in which teachers can use roles and role playing to facilitate children's understanding and expression, by giving an example of a drama in which the teacher assumed a role. In this dramatic situation, a group of eight-year-olds and nine-year-olds was asked to assume the roles of American Indians whose valley was threatened…
Lyman, J.; Madni, A.M.
The authors suggest that operator roles in robotics can be classified under the categories of monitor, manager, and maintainer. With increasingly sophisticated applications of machine intelligence, however, these roles will require explicit and continuing reassessment. 5 references.
multi - agent systems , roles provide an apriori decomposi- tion of the task based on the interactions of the agents. Roles are instantiated by the agents...of strategy, highlight the key issues. Introduction Roles have emerged as a powerful computational abstrac- tion for the coordination of multi - agent systems . Roles...is also an excellent platform for multi - agent systems . This paper is organized as follows. We first introduce the practical contexts for multi - agent
This article reviews literature on sex role change in children and points to areas which need further research. Competing ideologies which support or reject sex typing of role behaviors are briefly discussed in the introduction. The sources of sex role change are divided into two categories: (1) planned direct intervention programs and (2) natural…
RolX takes the features from Re-FeX or any other feature matrix as input and outputs role assignments (clusters). The output of RolX is a csv file containing the node-role memberships and a csv file containing the role-feature definitions.
Skolits, Gary J.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Burr, Erin Mehalic
The current evaluation literature tends to conceptualize evaluator roles as a single, overarching orientation toward an evaluation, an orientation largely driven by evaluation methods, models, or stakeholder orientations. Roles identified range from a social transformer or a neutral social scientist to that of an educator or even a power merchant.…
Letwin, Robert, Ed.
Explores non-scripted role playing, dialogue role playing, sociodrama, and skits as variations of simulation techniques. Provides step-by-step guidelines for conducting such sessions. Successful Meetings, Bill Communications, Inc., 1422 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 19102. Subscription Rates: yearly (US, Canada, Mexico) $14.00; elsewhere,…
Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.
Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…
This document contains three papers from a symposium on expanded roles for human resource development (HRD). "The Roles of Consultants in Gainsharing Firms: Empirical Results" (Eunsang Cho, Gary N. McLean) reports findings that consultants are moderately involved at the separation, preparation, evaluation, and design stages and have low…
Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.
This theme issue of the Canadian newsletter "Transitions" in both English and French explores the question of the future of families in a period of broken marriages, difficult times, and an obsession with individual success and materialism. "Families of the Future: New Ways to Do the Same Old Things," summarizes the findings of…
Berry, Ruth E.
Follows the history of home economics programs in Canada at the postsecondary level from 1902 to the present restructuring that is taking place in many universities. Suggests that the present position of the field is precarious and young scholars must be encouraged to enter it and become successful teachers and researchers. (JOW)
Hull, Howard; Robertson, John
Outlines the roles of the following groups in creating and maintaining a quality school art program: superintendents and boards of education, principals, parent teacher organizations, state art supervisors, classroom teachers, local art supervisors, and certified art specialists. (SJL)
... Text Size Email Print Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and ... you can be when the time comes. Successful nursing depends on a host of factors, many of ...
Wyn, Mark A.; Stegink, Steven J.
Introduces a role playing activity that actively engages students in the learning process of mitosis. Students play either chromosomes carrying information, or cells in the cell membrane. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/YDS)
Cook, Ellen Piel
Describes Super's construct of role salience and recent literature on gender issues in multiple roles that supports wisdom of his basic ideas. Notes that gender influences how individuals perceive various roles, role priorities and involvement over time, and role juggling during adulthood. Reminds counselors to explore clients' own life meanings…
Examines the use of social role theory in the study of marketing, addresses the question of whether buyer-seller is a role relationship, and discusses consumption as a function inherent in many roles. (Author)
The first Cancer Registries were created in 1975 in France. Their ulterior development and their scientific production have been furthered by the apparition from 1986 under the aegis of the Health Ministry and of the INSERM, of a National Population Registry Committee. Cancer Registries have seriously contributed to a better knowledge of the cancer problem in our country and to describe the french specificities, in particular the importance of the mouth and pharynx cancers. They insure both a monitoring and an alert role; they also contribute to the medical supervision of the Chernobyl accident effects. French registries play a very active role concerning clinical research. They participate to many European studies of health care evaluation. In other respects, many etiological studies have been realized about professional risks of cancer, risks linked with nutritional habits, and on the etiologic role of the Tamoxifen. Finally, certain registries have created DNA banks. If nowadays their role in health planning remains modest, they very actively contribute in evaluating screening actions of breast, cervix and large bowel cancers. They also attracted the attention of Health Authorities on the cervix cancer screening's incoherencies. They evaluate the pilot project of the breast cancer and the registry of the Côte d'Or country evaluates the efficacity of a randomized colo rectal mass screening study. The main difficulties met by the registries are linked with the development of laws protecting more and more the individual freedoms, making it harder and harder the registration exhaustive character.
Macdonough, Georgia P.
This 1972 paper presents 12 comparisons of the nurse's role in the school versus in the hospital. For example, in the hospital, patients know they are ill and want to get well, while in school patients may not recognize that they need help. In the hospital, the nurse's workload is determined for her, while in school, it is self-determined. (SM)
van der Want, Anna C.; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Claessens, Luce C. A.; Pennings, Helena J. M.
This article investigates the link between teachers' appraisal of specific interpersonal situations in classrooms and their more general interpersonal identity standard, which together form their interpersonal role identity. Using semi-structured and video-stimulated interviews, data on teachers' appraisals and interpersonal identity standards…
Notar, Charles E.; Padgett, Sharon
Do adults play a role in bullying? Do parents, teachers, school staff, and community adult leaders influence bullying behavior in children and teenagers? This article will focus on research regarding all adults who have almost daily contact with children and teens and their part in how bullying is identified, addressed, and prevented. This article…
LE FOLL, Bernard; JUSTINOVA, Zuzana; TANDA, Gianlugi; GOLDBERG, Steven R.
RESUME Plus de trois millions de morts sont attribués au tabagisme dans le monde par an, et l’usage de tabac est en progression dans les pays en voie de développement. L’usage de tabac est donc une des rares causes de mortalité qui augmente, avec une prévision de plus de 10 millions de morts par an dans 30–40 ans. Le cannabis ou marijuana est la drogue illicite la plus consommée dans le monde et il n’y a actuellement pas de traitement disponible. Bien que les systèmes dopaminergiques jouent un rôle central dans les effets renforçants des drogues, d’autres systèmes sont impliqués. Nous présentons ici des résultats récents obtenus avec des antagonistes des récepteurs cannabinoides CB1, des récepteurs D3 de la dopamine et des récepteurs opioïdes. Ces antagonistes qui modulent de façon directe ou indirecte la transmission dopaminergique cérébrale représentent des approches prometteuses pour le traitement du tabagisme ou de la dépendance au cannabis. Ces approches sont à valider dans des essais cliniques. PMID:18663981
Development of a course in French for tourism and the hotel industry in Sweden is chronicled, focusing on the process of functional analysis used to determine appropriate language content. A general functional outline of touristic French and an outline of language functions specific to a restaurant situation are presented. (MSE)
El Youssi, Hind; Touaoussa, Aziz; Bergui, Imane; Bougrine, Nawal; Amrani, Moncef Hassani
L'association leishmaniose viscérale et leucémie aigue a été rarement rapportée dans la littérature, cependant le diagnostic concomitant de ces deux entités n'a jamais été rapporté au Maroc. Le lien entre ces deux pathologies n'a pas encore été établi et le traitement n'a pas encore été codifié. Nous rapportons le cas d'un garçon de 12 ans chez qui une leishmaniose viscérale et une leucémie aigue lymphoblastique type B ont été diagnostiquées simultanément. Malgré l'administration d'un traitement antiparasitaire associé à une chimiothérapie l’évolution était marquée par le décès du patient. PMID:26090011
Basatvat, Shaghayegh; Carter, Deborah Angela Louise; Kiss-Toth, Endre; Fazeli, Alireza
Tribbles (TRIB) proteins, a family of evolutionary conserved psuedokinase proteins, modulate various signalling pathways within the cell. The regulatory roles of TRIB make them an important part of a number of biological processes ranging from cell proliferation to metabolism, immunity, inflammation and carcinogenesis. Innate immune system plays a pivotal role during the regulation of reproductive processes that allows successful creation of an offspring. Its involvement initiates from fertilization of the oocyte by spermatozoon and lasts throughout early embryonic development, pregnancy and labour. Therefore, there is a close cooperation between the reproductive system and the innate immune system. Evidence from our lab has demonstrated that improper activation of the innate immune system can reduce embryo implantation, thus leading to infertility. Therefore, control mechanisms regulating the innate immune system function can be critical for successful reproductive events.
Wilder, R L
"Intuition," as used by the modern mathematician, means an accumulation of attitudes (including beliefs and opinions) derived from experience, both individual and cultural. It is closely associated with mathematical knowledge, which forms the basis of intuition. This knowledge contributes to the growth of intuition and is in turn increased by new conceptual materials suggested by intuition. The major role of intuition is to provide a conceptual foundation that suggests the directions which new research should take. The opinion of the individual mathematician regarding existence of mathematical concepts (number, geometric notions, and the like) are provided by this intuition; these opinions are frequently so firmly held as to merit the appellation "Platonic." The role of intuition in research is to provide the "educated guess," which may prove to be true or false; but in either case, progress cannot be made without it and even a false guess may lead to progress. Thus intuition also plays a major role in the evolution of mathematical concepts. The advance of mathematical knowledge periodically reveals flaws in cultural intuition; these result in "crises," the solution of which result in a more mature intuition. The ultimate basis of modern mathematics is thus mathematical intuition. and it is in this sense that the Intuitionistic doctrine of Brouwer and his followers is correct. Modern instructional methods recognize this role of intuition by replacing the "do this, do that" mode of teaching by a "what should be done next?" attitude which appeals to the intuitive background already developed. It is in this way that understanding and appreciation of new mathematical knowledge may be properly instilled in the student.
Allison, Janet R.
Explores the experience of role conflict for women in infertile couples. Findings lead to an understanding of infertility as part of an interactional system for dealing with potentially intolerable sources of role conflict. (Author)
The referral of a patient for subspecialty consultation and examination is but one facet of the primary care physician's involvement with his patient. Using examples from my practice, I argue that the term "gatekeeper" is an inadequate term for describing what the primary care physician does, or should do, for his patient. "Virgil Role" is offered as an alternative expression based on a proposed parallel between Dante's passage through the Inferno accompanied by his mentor-guide, Virgil, and a sick person's journey through his personal Hell of illness and the labyrinthine medical care system, guided by his physician.
Lewis, Jo E.; Brameld, John M.; Jethwa, Preeti H.
The vgf gene (non-acronymic) is highly conserved and was identified on the basis of its rapid induction in vitro by nerve growth factor, although can also be induced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glial-derived growth factor. The VGF gene gives rise to a 68 kDa precursor polypeptide, which is induced robustly, relatively selectively and is synthesized exclusively in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. Post-translational processing by neuroendocrine specific prohormone convertases in these cells results in the production of a number of smaller peptides. The VGF gene and peptides are widely expressed throughout the brain, particularly in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, in peripheral tissues including the pituitary gland, the adrenal glands, and the pancreas, and in the gastrointestinal tract in both the myenteric plexus and in endocrine cells. VGF peptides have been associated with a number of neuroendocrine roles, and in this review, we aim to describe these roles to highlight the importance of VGF as therapeutic target for a number of disorders, particularly those associated with energy metabolism, pain, reproduction, and cognition. PMID:25699015
Autoantibodies are the serological hallmark of autoimmune disease. Though their pathogenic role is debatable, they play an important role in the management of a patient with rheumatic disease. However, due to their presence in the general population as well as in multiple autoimmune diseases, the presence of an autoantibody alone does not make a diagnosis; the result has to be interpreted along with clinical findings. Similarly, the absence of autoantibody does not exclude a disease. The common autoantibodies used in clinical practice include rheumatoid factor, anti-CCP antibodies, antinuclear antibodies (ANAs), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-phospholipid antibodies. Once an autoantibody to a broad antigen is detected in a patient, sub-specificity analysis can improve the utility of the antibody. Autoantibodies are detected in the serum using different assays and results of which can vary; thus, it is important for a clinician to know the method used, its sensitivity and specificity to help in the proper interpretation of the laboratory results. This review will address these issues.
White, Kari; Laws, M Barton
Prior research has documented that medical interpreters engage in non-conduit roles during medical visits. However, agreement on the appropriateness of these roles and their impact on the medical encounter have not yet been achieved. The purpose of this study was to identify non-conduit behavior (role exchange), elucidate the various forms it takes among different types of interpreters, and assess its potential to affect clinical encounters. Using audiotapes from 13 pediatric outpatient visits, we found that "chance" and uncertified hospital interpreters engaged in role exchange by assuming the provider's role; the patient's role; and taking other non-interpretive roles such as socializing with mothers or acting in one's alternate professional role. These behaviors occurred frequently among both types of interpreters while the provider was actively engaged in conducting the medical visit. In most instances, the interpreter did not make his or her behavior transparent to either the provider or the mother. Implications for interpreter and provider training are discussed.
Ellis, J. S.; Sullivan, T. J.; Baskett, R. L.
The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, since the late 1970's has been involved in assessing consequences from nuclear and other hazardous material releases into the atmosphere. ARAC's primary role has been emergency response. However, after the emergency phase, there is still a significant role for dispersion modeling. This work usually involves refining the source term and, hence, the dose to the populations affected as additional information becomes available in the form of source term estimates release rates, mix of material, and release geometry and any measurements from passage of the plume and deposition on the ground. Many of the ARAC responses have been documented elsewhere. 1 Some of the more notable radiological releases that ARAC has participated in the post-emergency phase have been the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear power plant (NPP) accident outside Harrisburg, PA, the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident in the Ukraine, and the 1996 Japan Tokai nuclear processing plant explosion. ARAC has also done post-emergency phase analyses for the 1978 Russian satellite COSMOS 954 reentry and subsequent partial burn up of its on board nuclear reactor depositing radioactive materials on the ground in Canada, the 1986 uranium hexafluoride spill in Gore, OK, the 1993 Russian Tomsk-7 nuclear waste tank explosion, and lesser releases of mostly tritium. In addition, ARAC has performed a key role in the contingency planning for possible accidental releases during the launch of spacecraft with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) on board (i.e. Galileo, Ulysses, Mars-Pathfinder, and Cassini), and routinely exercises with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in preparation for offsite consequences of radiological releases from NPPs and nuclear weapon accidents or incidents. Several accident post-emergency phase assessments are discussed in this paper in order to illustrate
Recognition of the importance of fathers to children's development is increasing. Fathers play many roles: supporting the mother-infant relationship, nurturing, acting as mother surrogate, encouraging separation and individuation setting up care sexual identify and developing sex role, and encouraging the development of conscience. A fuller understanding of the role of fatherhood can help family physicians offering medical and preventive treatment.
Mason, Ward S.; Gross, Meal
Certain problems arose in an attempt to develop a research design for studying the social role of the school executive. The study was to examine the degree of consensus on behavioral expectations for the occupants of this occupational role, the degree of potential or actual role conflict in this social position, and the manner in which an…
Jones, G. V.
The marriage between a given winegrape cultivar planted in its ideal climate, over favorable topography and physical soil characteristics, combine to create the potential to produce fine wine. The French term terroir embodies this potential as a holistic concept that relates to both environmental and cultural factors that together influence the grape growing to wine production continuum. While the landscape, geology, soil, and climate strongly interact to influence the vine's balance of nutrients and water, climate is clearly of prevailing importance in that it limits where grapes can be grown at both the global and site scale. This talk will review the nature of climate's role in terroir through a discussion of the structure of climate in wine regions globally and how this structure influences cultivar suitability. Furthermore, the talk will use two of the most commonly planted red wine cultivars as examples - Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon - providing details on the historic, current, and future climate structure of wine regions growing these cultivars. In general the examination reveals that cool climate cultivars tend to have a narrower climate niche for high quality wine production, than do warmer climate cultivars, with less range of adaptation. Furthermore, the range of the climate suitability of these two cultivars shows that potentially new terroirs for each are waiting to be found.
Dimaline, Rod; Varro, Andrea
The existence of the hormone gastrin in the distal stomach (antrum) has been known for almost 110 years, and the physiological function of this amidated peptide in regulating gastric acid secretion via the CCK2 receptor is now well established. In this brief review we consider important additional roles of gastrin, including regulation of genes encoding proteins such as plasminogen activator inhibitors and matrix metalloproteinases that have important actions on extracellular matrix remodelling. These actions are, at least in part, effected by paracrine signalling pathways and make important contributions to maintaining functional integrity of the gastric epithelium. Recent studies also provide support for the idea that gastrin, in concert with other hormones, could potentially contribute a post-prandial incretin effect. We also review recent developments in the biology of other gastrin gene products, including the precursor progastrin, which causes proliferation of the colonic epithelium and in certain circumstances may induce cancer formation. Glycine-extended biosynthetic processing intermediates also have proliferative effects in colonic mucosa and in some oesophageal cancer cell lines. Whether these additional gene products exert their effects through the CCK2 receptor or a separate entity is currently a matter of debate.
ten Cate, Jacob M
Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers.
Gordon, Judith R.; Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Murphy, Wendy Marcinkus; Rose, Miriam
Positing role conflict as a bidirectional construct in which work interferes with caregiving (WIC) and caregiving interferes with work (CIW), this study investigated its antecedents (demands and support of caregiving and work) and consequences (role strain). A national sample of 583 women between the ages of 50 and 64 years identified using…
Bricheno, Patricia; Thornton, Mary
Background: Claims that male role models can improve the behaviour and achievement of boys are familiar and persistent. However, research has not confirmed such a link; recent UK studies indicate that peers and relatives may be far more important to boys than their teachers. Given the seemingly relentless reference to male teachers as role models…
New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996
This annotated bibliography profiles 17 publications examining sex role attitudes/sex role stereotyping from the perspectives of ethnicity, gender, and age. Cited in the section on ethnicity are studies of work satisfaction/family functioning among working-class Mexican-American women and cultural variations in sex typing by students in the United…
Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen
Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…
Hill, Paul T.
In this paper, the author discusses the federal role in education, which raises fundamental questions about how federal programs affect the schools. He suggests principles for a new federal role and shows how government policies have made schools more formal and complex; engineered political pressures that distorted schools' operations and…
Sells, Lucy W., Comp.
Focusing on women, this annotated bibliography reviews recent research-oriented literature that investigates sex roles. The main concern is the role and place of women in present-day United States society. The literature areas which the bibliography covers are bibliographies and sources, action organizations, media, women's movement, affirmative…
Do you believe that the roles your employees play on your medical practice team are identical to their job titles or job descriptions? Do you believe that team roles are determined by personality type? This article suggests that a more effective way to build and manage your medical practice team is to define team roles through employee behaviors. It provides 10 rules of behavioral team roles that can help practice managers to select and build high-performing teams, build more productive team relationships, improve the employee recruitment process, build greater team trust and understanding; and increase their own effectiveness. This article describes in detail Belbin's highly regarded and widely used team role theory and summarizes four additional behavioral team role theories and systems. It offers lessons learned when applying team role theory to practice. Finally, this article offers an easy-to-implement method for assessing current team roles. It provides a simple four-question checklist that will help practice managers balance an imbalanced medical practice team.
Illustrates how librarians can advocate their strong transferable abilities to management when coping with staffing shifts and shortages. Highlights include entrepreneurship and a move beyond traditional roles; application of skills; professional achievement in a new environment; examples of information roles and skills that function beyond the…
The gender role is defined; its physiognomy, adopted by women since the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution, and the intricate status that characterizes the present feminine role are described. Finally, a psychosocial approach of anorexia nervosa is made. This disorder is considered as a paradigm of the present ambiguity of the femininity concept likely to become a transactional phenomenon between sexual identities.
Hall, S. B.; Vontiesenhausen, G.; Johnson, G. W.
Requirements for the future human role in space are considered. Human tasks were divided into normal scheduled activities, unscheduled activities, and contingency activities. A strawman mission model was developed. Projections were made of crew size, mission duration, pressurized spacecraft volume, and power requirements. Trends of human roles were likewise projected.
Moreland, Richard L.; Levine, John M.
This paper analyzes role transitions in small groups within the context of a more general model of group socialization that is based on the psychological processes of evaluation, commitment, and decision making. The major advantage of such an approach is that it specifies why role transitions in small groups occur. According to the model, groups…
KUG, J.; Yim, B.; Jin, F.
It is controversial whether the atmospheric transport plays a role in arctic amplification. Recently, Hwang et al. (2011) showed that the magnitude of the arctic amplification is negatively correlated with anomalous poleward atmospheric transport. That is, when the arctic amplification is strong (weak), the atmospheric transport plays a negative (positive) role in the arctic amplification. In this study, it is discussed what is a physical mechanism to determine the role of atmospheric transport and relation with the arctic amplification. Here, we suggest adjusting roles of atmospheric transport. The strength of local feedback over the Arctic determines zonal wind changes. The zonal wind changes are determined by two factors. The first one is polar cap cooling, and second is surface warming. They play opposite roles. So, there will be two different zonal wind responses in high-latitude to the greenhouse warming. Depending on the zonal wind response, the atmospheric transport can play a different role because the zonal wind changes can organize synoptic eddy feedbacks including heat flux, which largely contributes to poleward energy transport. We show here that when polar cap cooling is strong, and surface warming over Arctic is relatively weak, the Jet stream tends to be shifted poleward, so it leads to poleward atmospheric transport. On the other hand, when the surface warming is too strong, it lead to southward shift of Jet stream and equatorward atmospheric transport, which paly a negative role in the Arctic amplification.
Healthcare delivery in the United States is changing because of managed care and capitation. The future of hospital nursing is being reshaped because of the economic pressures of managed care and market-led health reforms. A variety of new healthcare job opportunities for nurses will now present themselves. Nurse leader roles will evolve to complement the new managed healthcare structure. Because of the organizational redesign of managed care, nurses will need to develop additional skills and education for these roles. This article discusses potential new roles nurses will occupy in a managed care environment.
Vasta, Gerardo R.
Galectins, which were first characterized in the mid-1970s, were assigned a role in the recognition of endogenous (‘self) carbohydrate ligands in embryogenesis, development and immune regulation. Recently, however, galectins have been shown to bind glycans on the surface of potentially pathogenic microorganisms, and function as recognition and effector factors in innate immunity. Some parasites subvert the recognition roles of the vector or host galectins to ensure successful attachment or invasion. This Review discusses the role of galectins in microbial infection, with particular emphasis on adaptations of pathogens to evasion or subversion of host galectin-mediated immune responses. PMID:19444247
NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun talks to NASA managers about the vital role technology research and development will play in NASA's future. Braun discusses how NASA will use new technologies to...
Brown, Mabel C.
Provided for each of 12 minority group role models in aquatic occupations are job responsibilities, educational requirements, comments on a typical day at the job, salary range, and recommendations for students wishing to enter the field described. (JN)
Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a developmental disorder—typically diagnosed around age 3 years— that affects brain functions, specifically those areas that control social behaviors ...
Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Angeles; del Olmo, Isabel; Aróztegui, Javier; Martín, Arantxa
This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A "D" score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.
Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio
The content of the thought is expressed by words articulated correctly according to grammar and syntax. The meanings are conveyed through words but also through the way they are used, the manner of communication. The real reason of communication is the intention, the purpose, often implicit, which determines the source of a speech. It is possible to identify a direct aim (the purpose of communicating) and an indirect objective (the role intention), understood as keeping a role between the speaker and the listener. The role is also indicated by the non-verbal or paraverbal component of the message, that is the tone of voice, the emphasis and the posture of the communicator. In the multitude of possible relationship (affective, social, business, political, religious), frequently bounded together, we can recognize three categories of relations: symmetrical, reciprocal and complementary.
Rouhier, Nicolas; Couturier, Jeremy; Johnson, Michael K.; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre
Glutaredoxins, proteins traditionally involved in redox reactions, are also required for iron–sulphur cluster assembly and haem biosynthesis. These new roles are likely related to the ability of some glutaredoxins to bind labile [2Fe–2S] clusters and to transfer them rapidly and efficiently to acceptor proteins. Recent results point to putative roles for glutaredoxins in the sensing of cellular iron and in iron–sulphur cluster biogenesis, either as scaffold proteins for the de novo synthesis of iron–sulphur clusters or as carrier proteins for the transfer of preformed iron–sulphur clusters. Based on prokaryote genome analysis and in vivo studies of iron regulation in yeast, we propose putative new roles and binding partners for glutaredoxins in the assembly of metalloproteins. PMID:19811920
Devore, Cynthia DiLaura; Wheeler, Lani S M
The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes the important role physicians play in promoting the optimal biopsychosocial well-being of children in the school setting. Although the concept of a school physician has existed for more than a century, uniformity among states and school districts regarding physicians in schools and the laws governing it are lacking. By understanding the roles and contributions physicians can make to schools, pediatricians can support and promote school physicians in their communities and improve health and safety for children.
Ahmed, Mohiuddin; Boisvert, Charles M.
This paper presents comments on "Psychological Treatments" by D. H. Barlow. Barlow highlighted unique roles that psychologists can play in mental health service delivery by providing psychological treatments--treatments that psychologists would be uniquely qualified to design and deliver. In support of Barlow's position, the authors draw from…
Dyer, Shirley Poindexter
The mother of a 16-year-old daughter with autism offers a parental perspective on coping with a child's disability. The paper emphasizes that through direct interaction with the child and the child's teacher and through taking an active role in the child's activities and achievements, the child's potential can be discovered and the child can be…
Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)
Lua, Sokhong; And Others
Reported is an exploratory investigation of attitudes toward child-rearing practices in Malaysia, including an attempt to investigate and analyze the nature and extent of involvement of Malaysian fathers in child care. There is also an abstract of a study of the influence of child-rearing practices on marital role expectations in Bengali,…
Campbell, Dale F.
Changes in the future role of occupational instructors which will be brought about by advances in educational technology are illustrated by the description of the Advanced Instructional System (AIS), a complex approach to occupational training which permits large-scale application of individualized instruction through the use of computer-assisted…
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
Statistical information pertaining to one of the most important changes in the American economy in this century--the increase in the number of women who work outside the home--is presented as an introduction to the broader range of topics which will be considered by the Advisory Committee on the Economic Role of Women. Job-related aspects of…
Maronde, Robert F.
Pharmacists' contribution to the health care of the future in the future in the U.S. may have to be in the context of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of health-care delivery. It is from the area of drug therapy, now poorly administered, that the pharmacist will have to justify his role in a cost-effective manner. (Author/LBH)
Gibb, Jack R.
The role of the secondary school administrator can be viewed in two ways: From a defensive point of view with the administrator marshaling the forces of organization, stimulating effort, capturing the imagination, inspiring teachers, coordinating efforts, and serving as a model of sustained effort; or from an alternative point of view with the…
Dobson, Chris; Ernst, Carolyn
Describes the special library's role in implementing ISO 9000 (i.e., a series of international quality-assurance standards developed by the International Organization of Standards). Topics discussed include document and data control, keeping the standards current, documentation of procedures, the ISO 9000 audit, and benefits for the library. (MES)
Jessup, Harlan R.
Defines self-managed work teams as small groups of co-workers who share tasks and responsibilities of a well-defined segment of work. Discusses internal and external leadership, the role of the administrator, the coach, and the advisor, and organizational considerations. (JOW)
Chang, Alicia H.; Parsonnet, Julie
Summary: Although scientific knowledge in viral oncology has exploded in the 20th century, the role of bacteria as mediators of oncogenesis has been less well elucidated. Understanding bacterial carcinogenesis has become increasingly important as a possible means of cancer prevention. This review summarizes clinical, epidemiological, and experimental evidence as well as possible mechanisms of bacterial induction of or protection from malignancy. PMID:20930075
McCabe, M. P.; Collins, J. K.
Male and female subjects from three age groups completed questionnaires on sex roles and dating orientations. Males approached dating from both a psychoaffectional and psychobiological orientation, while females approached it from a psychoaffectional orientation. Significant differences were found in dating attitudes between male and female…
Perlman, Helen Harris
These essays examine ways in which people, during the major part of adulthood, know and experience their identity through the roles they assume in work, marriage, and parenthood. Referring to Freud's definition of maturity as the ability to love and to work, the author discusses such concerns as adulthood and personal change, common problems of…
Halladay, D. W.; And Others
Participation in some areas of university governance is recommended in these 4 statements as an acceptable student role. The first statement describes "legitimate student demands" as those concerned with the quality of the educational experience as they relate to the stated objectives, purposes, and resources of the institution. In the solution of…
Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh
The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance.
Sanchez, Sabrina R.; Roegman, Rachel; Goodwin, A. Lin
Teaching Residents at Teachers College (TR@TC) is an 18-month program that prepares teachers for high-needs schools in New York City in two areas: teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching students with disabilities. Student teachers, called residents, spend a year working with a mentor teacher. Mentors play three roles:…
Winkel, Doan E.; Clayton, Russell W.
This study investigates the manner in which people separate their work and family roles and how they manage the boundaries of these two important roles. Specifically, we focus on how role flexibility and salience influence transitions between roles. Results indicate that the ability and willingness to flex a role boundary and role salience are…
Problem Statement: Role ambiguity and role conflict are considered issues that affect performance and lead to burnout. While numerous studies have analyzed role ambiguity or role conflict in relation to burnout or performance, few studies have studied all of these issues together. Since vice principals are expected to carry out a variety of…
Piszczek, Matthew M.; Pichler, Shaun; Turel, Ofir; Greenhaus, Jeffrey
Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees’ work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance. To this end, we first conceptualize the ICTU role and its associations with work and family roles. We then apply identity theory and boundary management theory to advance our understanding of how the ICTU role is related to criteria that are important to individuals and to organizations, namely self-selection into certain types of work roles and positive and negative inter-role spillover. The implications of this role for theory, research, and practice in management and organizations are discussed. PMID:28082936
Approches interlinguistiques de la complementation verbale: Quels savoirs pour l'enseignant? Quels savoirs pour l'eleve? (Interlinguistic Approaches to Object-Verb Complementation: What the Teacher Needs To Know? What the Student Needs To Know?).
Beguelin, Marie-Jose, Ed.; de Pietro, Jean-Francois, Ed.; Naf, Anton, Ed.
This issue deals with verb-object complementation, a complex and controversial but important topic, in particular in connection with the teaching and learning of a second language. The articles are a response to a long debate about the harmonization of grammatical terminology used in schools and the simplification of grammar for students. The…
Ireson, C J
This study seeks to link adolescent pregnancy with several aspects of sex-role traditionality and other variables that may be related to sex roles. It is hypothesized that orientation to traditional sex roles is related to the occurrence of pregnancy among sexually active teenagers. For the study sample of teenage females receiving birth control or pregnancy testing services, it is hypothesized that the pregnant teenagers will be more likely than other teenagers to be oriented toward traditional sex roles. The sample consisted of 161 young women, ranging in age from 13-18, with an average age of 16.5 years. Data were collected at selected health related agencies in a city in the Pacific Northwest by staff members who were blind to the hypotheses of the study. The respondents usually completed a brief questionnaire while they waited for a desired service. Of the total sample, 43 were pregnant; 34 had positive pregnancy tests and 9 others already knew they were pregnant when they filled out the questionnaire. 82 obtained birth control information or services and 36 experienced negative pregnancy tests. These groups are referred to as the pregnant group, the birth control group, and the negative pregnancy test group. Sex role values were determined by asking the respondent to indicate degree of agreement or disagreement with a series of opinion statements. The results provide some support for the main hypothesis. Pregnant teenagers were more likely than others to be oriented toward traditional sex roles. Pregnant teenagers, when compared with the birth control seeking group, showed more traditional sex-typing of activities, lower educational expectations and occupational aspirations, lower grades, and were more likely to have dropped out of school. There was only 1 significant difference between the pregnant adolescents and those in the negative pregnant test group. The pregnant teens had lower educational expectations. When all the independent and control variables
Gifted students can perform a variety of roles in groups, and it is important for career choice and satisfaction that the role chosen be a natural one. Gifted students may function best and contribute most in the role of exemplar or eccentric rather than in more traditionally conceived leadership roles. (CL)
Dvorakova, Magdalena Chottova; Kruzliak, Peter; Rabkin, Simon W
The role of neuropeptides in cardiomyopathy-associated heart failure has been garnering more attention. Several neuropeptides--Neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP) and their receptors have been studied in the various types of cardiomyopathies. The data indicate associations with the strength of the association varying depending on the kind of neuropeptide and the nature of the cardiomyopathy--diabetic, ischemic, inflammatory, stress-induced or restrictive cardiomyopathy. Several neuropeptides appear to alter regulation of genes involved in heart failure. Demonstration of an association is an essential first step in proving causality or establishing a role for a factor in a disease. Understanding the complexity of neuropeptide function should be helpful in establishing new or optimal therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heart failure in cardiomyopathies.
Oxidative stress is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, and Creutzfeld-Jakob diseases or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Reactive oxygen species seem to play a significant role in neuronal cell death in that they generate reactive aldehydes from membrane lipid peroxidation. Several neuronal diseases are associated with increased accumulation of abnormal protein adducts of reactive aldehydes, which mediate oxidative stress-linked pathological events, including cellular growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. Combining findings on neurodegeneration and oxidative stress in Drosophila with studies on the metabolic characteristics of the human enzyme carbonyl reductase (CR), it is clear now that CR has a potential physiological role for neuroprotection in humans. Several lines of evidence suggest that CR represents a significant pathway for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes derived from lipid peroxidation and that CR in humans is essential for neuronal cell survival and to confer protection against oxidative stress-induced brain degeneration.
With rapid approach of a capability to make reliable earthquake forecasts, it essential that the Federal Government play a strong, positive role in formulating and implementing plans to reduce earthquake hazards. Many steps are being taken in this direction, with the President looking to the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) in his Executive Office to provide leadership in establishing and coordinating Federal activities.
Colina-Chourio, J A; Godoy-Godoy, N; Avila-Hernández, R M
The role of prostaglandins (PGs) in hypertension (HT) is reviewed, emphasising their biochemical characteristics, physiological effects and functions, especially in the cardiovascular area, and the current evidence of their participation in the antihypertensive activity of a balanced mechanism to maintain normal blood pressure. Also, the clinical use of PGs and the future of such autacoids in the treatment of HT and other diseases or conditions is mentioned.
good hygiene .”6 Counter-Argument An argument may be presented that women must deal with their menstrual cycle while training. By the very nature...handle combat due to perceived physical fitness shortcomings or extra hygiene necessities 4 can be solved. Additionally they prove that any cohesion...be in combat MOSs. Hygiene Considerations Another area that is a consideration for allowing women to participate in an active combat role is
Till, Sally M
FXS (Fragile X syndrome) is the most common genetically inherited form of cognitive impairment. The predominant cause of the syndrome is the loss of a single protein, FMRP (Fragile X mental retardation protein). Many of the cognitive and behavioural features found in Fragile X individuals emerge during childhood and are associated with abnormal organization of cortical connections. However, although FMRP is expressed as early as embryogenesis, relatively little is known about its roles during development or how this may influence FXS phenotypes in adulthood. The present review focuses specifically on the evidence for the functions of FMRP during embryonic and early postnatal development. The current knowledge of the role of FMRP in FXS will be briefly summarized before addressing how alterations in the formation and refinement of neuronal connections and synaptic function that result from the loss of FMRP may in turn influence behaviours that are expressed during the first few postnatal weeks. I will then briefly highlight some outstanding questions about the developmental roles of FMRP and their possible relationship to symptoms found in adults with FXS.
Leichner, P.; Harper, D.
Physicians have been accused by some feminist writers of having traditional views on sex roles that make them part of society's oppressive power structure and therefore responsible in part for the high incidence of psychologic problems and drug dependency among women. To assess whether physicians' attitudes towards women are indeed polarized in a traditional fashion, a sex role ideology questionnaire was given to all practising physicians belonging to the Manitoba Medical Association. Overall the physicians were found to be more feminist than male college students and a group of women with traditional beliefs. Psychiatrists, who had the highest adjusted group mean score on a sex role ideology scale (high indicating feminist beliefs), were found to be significantly more feminist than family practitioners, surgeons, and obstetricians and gynecologists, although not more so than internists, radiologists, pediatricians and anesthesiologists. These findings do not support the assumption that physicians have traditional views that reflect those of society. However, the significant differences between specialties emphasize the need for educating physicians and medical students in the behaviour of women. PMID:7104916
Welte, Michael A.
Summary Lipid droplets are the intracellular sites for neutral lipid storage. They are critical for lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis, and their dysfunction has been linked to many diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that the roles lipid droplets play in biology are significantly broader than previously anticipated. Lipid droplets are the source of molecules important in the nucleus: they can sequester transcription factors and chromatin components and generate the lipid ligands for certain nuclear receptors. Lipid droplets have also emerged as important nodes for fatty acid trafficking, both inside the cell and between cells. In immunity, new roles for droplets, not directly linked to lipid metabolism, have been uncovered, as assembly platforms for specific viruses and as reservoirs for proteins that fight intracellular pathogens. Until recently, knowledge about droplets in the nervous system has been minimal, but now there are multiple links between lipid droplets and neurodegeneration: Many candidate genes for Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia also have central roles in lipid-droplet formation and maintenance, and mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons can lead to transient accumulating of lipid droplets in neighboring glial cells, an event that may, in turn, contribute to neuronal damage. As the cell biology and biochemistry of lipid droplets are increasingly well understood, the next few years should yield many new mechanistic insights into these novel functions of lipid droplets. PMID:26035793
Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien
The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships.
Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando; Perez-Carlon, Julio Jesumar; Esqueda, Martin; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo Adolfo; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Moctezuma, Edgar
The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts from species of genus Phellinus: Ph. fastuosus, Ph. grenadensis, Ph. Merrillii, and Ph. Badius, in their respective polar fractions (aqueous) and nonpolar extracts (ethyl acetate), through tests of free-radical inactivation and hemolysis inhibition. The fungus species that gave the extract with the highest phenol content, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity [DPPH·, Trolox equivalents antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and hemolysis inhibition] was Ph. Merrillii, followed by Ph. fastuosus, Ph. Grenadensis, and Ph. Badius. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts, in descending order, were as follows: Ph. Merrillii (nonpolar), Ph. Fastuosus (nonpolar), Ph. Grenadensis (nonpolar), Ph. Fastuosus (polar), Ph. Merrillii (polar), Ph. Grenadensis (polar), Ph. Badius (nonpolar), and Ph. Badius (polar). Antioxidant capacity in the above Phellinus fungi species had EC50 values for DPPH inhibition of 0.45, 0.88, 1.31, 1.89, 2.14, 2.22, 3.42, and 6.00 mg/mL, respectively; TEAC values of 10400.29, 7635.53, 4855.05, 4415.39, 4041.68, 2989.2, 1937.7, and 842.42 µmol TE/g, respectively; and hemolysis inhibition values of 72.83, 66.95, 50.87, 50.28, 48.5, 42.82, 42.37, and 37.91%, respectively. In general, the fungus extract with the highest antioxidant capacity was the nonpolar fraction of Ph. Merrillii. The Phellinus species studied represent potential natural sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.
Patel, Naimesh M.; Thakurdesai, Prasad A.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.
Mushrooms are low calorie food with very little fat and are highly suitable for obese persons. With no starch and very low sugars, they are the ‘delight of the diabetics’. Combination of herbal drugs (or isolated phytochemicals) is found to be beneficial in certain diseases when given along with conventional drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Lentinaceae) (called as PP-aqu) and its interaction with glyburide in alloxan induced diabetic mice. The diabetic mice treated were with PP-aqu (500 mg/kg, p.o.) alone or combination with glyburide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days. Blood samples were collected by orbital sinus puncture using heparinized capillary glass tubes and were analyzed for serum glucose on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days. Body weights and mortality were noted during the study period. In oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose (2.5 g/kg, p.o.) was administered with either vehicle, PP-aqu alone or in combination with glyburide and serum glucose level analyzed at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration. Administration of PP-aqu (500 mg/kg) and its combination with glyburide (10 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) decreased serum glucose level in diabetic mice. In OGTT, glyburide or PP-aqu treatment alone or their combination produced significant (P < 0.001) increase in glucose threshold. Thus we suggest that P. pulmonarius showed potent and synergistic antihyperglycemic effect in combination with glyburide. PMID:18604261
scores and three groups representing general levels of role stress. It was concluded that the conceptual framework was appropriate for this study...Recommendations were made to replicate this study using a larger nationwide randomized sample with a longitudinal design. Utilization of the conceptual ... framework in other studies as well as to study the eustress portion of the framework in relation to strain outcomes, were also suggested. Another
Over more than a century of research has established the fact that sleep benefits the retention of memory. In this review we aim to comprehensively cover the field of “sleep and memory” research by providing a historical perspective on concepts and a discussion of more recent key findings. Whereas initial theories posed a passive role for sleep enhancing memories by protecting them from interfering stimuli, current theories highlight an active role for sleep in which memories undergo a process of system consolidation during sleep. Whereas older research concentrated on the role of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, recent work has revealed the importance of slow-wave sleep (SWS) for memory consolidation and also enlightened some of the underlying electrophysiological, neurochemical, and genetic mechanisms, as well as developmental aspects in these processes. Specifically, newer findings characterize sleep as a brain state optimizing memory consolidation, in opposition to the waking brain being optimized for encoding of memories. Consolidation originates from reactivation of recently encoded neuronal memory representations, which occur during SWS and transform respective representations for integration into long-term memory. Ensuing REM sleep may stabilize transformed memories. While elaborated with respect to hippocampus-dependent memories, the concept of an active redistribution of memory representations from networks serving as temporary store into long-term stores might hold also for non-hippocampus-dependent memory, and even for nonneuronal, i.e., immunological memories, giving rise to the idea that the offline consolidation of memory during sleep represents a principle of long-term memory formation established in quite different physiological systems. PMID:23589831
Hampson, Geeta; Fogelman, Ignac
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are synthetic analogues of pyrophosphate. They inhibit bone resorption and are therefore widely used in disorders where there are increases or disruptions in bone resorption. This includes postmenopausal osteoporosis, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, and malignancy-related bone loss. To best understand the clinical application of BPs, an understanding of their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is important. This review describes the structure, pharmacology and mode of action of BPs, focusing on their role in clinical practice. Controversies and side effects surrounding their use will also be discussed. PMID:23071416
Starck, P L
The role of the university, and particularly the health sciences university, in promoting positive health for women is twofold. First, the dissemination of existing knowledge raises awareness of special health needs and identifies gaps in the present research and literature base. Second, universities must project future needs of women in a rapidly changing society where such things as space travel may become commonplace. Reduction of the risk of debilitating disease and promotion of positive attitudes will enhance the quality of life for women. A logotherapeutic approach to choosing one's own attitudes toward life's challenges promotes successful coping in a dynamic society. PMID:3120225
Reichardt, J.; White, D. R.
We present a framework for automatically decomposing (“block-modeling”) the functional classes of agents within a complex network. These classes are represented by the nodes of an image graph (“block model”) depicting the main patterns of connectivity and thus functional roles in the network. Using a first principles approach, we derive a measure for the fit of a network to any given image graph allowing objective hypothesis testing. From the properties of an optimal fit, we derive how to find the best fitting image graph directly from the network and present a criterion to avoid overfitting. The method can handle both two-mode and one-mode data, directed and undirected as well as weighted networks and allows for different types of links to be dealt with simultaneously. It is non-parametric and computationally efficient. The concepts of structural equivalence and modularity are found as special cases of our approach. We apply our method to the world trade network and analyze the roles individual countries play in the global economy.
Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Fiane, A E
The xenotransplantation research is driven by the increasing gap between the number of patients with end-stage organ failure on waiting lists for transplantation and the supply of allografts. The lack of success in developing suitable artificial organs for permanent treatment of organ failure has further strengthened the need for xenotransplantation research. Pigs are now generally accepted to be the source animal of choice. Transplantation of pig organs to humans faces several barriers which have to be overcome before it comes to clinical application: (1) anatomical and physiological conditions; (2) immunological rejection mechanisms; (3) molecular compatibility between signal molecules of the two species; (4) risk of transmission of microorganisms, particularly pig endogenous retroviruses; and (5) legal and ethical aspects both with respect to the animal and the recipient. Here we will focus on the role of the complement system in the rejection of immediately vascularized pig-to-primate xenografts. The hyperacute rejection occurring within minutes after transplantation is mediated by binding of natural antibodies to the Galalpha(l-3)Gal epitope on the endothelial cells with subsequent complement activation. Whereas inhibition of complement activation protects against hyperacute rejection, the role of complement in the later rejection phases is less clarified.
Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J
Research indicates that power liberates the self, but findings also show that the powerful are susceptible to situational influences. The present article examines whether enacting roles that afford power leads people to identify with the roles or, instead, liberates them from role expectations altogether. The results of three experiments support the hypothesis that power enhances role identification. Experiment 1 showed that enacting a particular role resulted in greater implicit and explicit role identification when the role contained power. In Experiment 2, infusing a role with power resulted in greater role identification and role-congruent behavior. Experiment 3 demonstrated that power resulted in greater role-congruent self-construal, such that having power in a close relationship caused participants to define themselves relationally, whereas having power in a group situation caused participants to embrace a collective self-construal. Implications for research on power, roles, and the self are discussed.
Rieske, Laura Jo; Benjamin, Mimi
For a number of learning community programs, peer mentors provide an additional layer of staffing support. This chapter highlights peer mentor roles from a sample of programs and suggests important components for the construction of these roles.
Cook, Ellen Piel
The androgyny model of masculinity and femininity serves as the basis for a framework for sex role counseling applicable to both sexes. Examples of sex role problems, counseling goals, and interventions are described. (Author/BL)
Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Brownson, Chris
The process of reproducing gender through discourses can inhibit role sharing and multiple roles for women. Two discourses influence the psyches of men and women to reproduce ideal types: women and men as equals and men as incompetent caregivers. (SK)
Otto, Mary L.; Lewis, Meharry H.
The authors point out that team roles are designed to be complementary, but much of the frustration that develops among team members is due to lack of role definition and too much overlapping of responsibility. (Author)
Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Zhiqing; Wang, Huan; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Guo, Xiulan; Tang, Renyong; Long, Dingbiao
Akirin is a recently discovered nuclear factor that plays an important role in innate immune responses. Beyond its role in innate immune responses, Akirin has recently been shown to play an important role in skeletal myogenesis. In this article, we will briefly review the structure and tissue distribution of Akirin and discuss recent advances in our understanding of its role and signal pathway in skeletal myogenesis. PMID:23396110
Riddle, Dorothy I.
A review of the literature on role modeling leads to the conclusions that children internalize particular traits from a variety of role models and that gays are more likely to serve as nontraditional sex-role models than as determiners of same-sex sexual preference. (Author/WI)
Astramovich, Randall L.; Hoskins, Wendy J.; Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Bartlett, Kerry A.
Role ambiguity in professional school counseling is an ongoing concern despite recent advances with comprehensive school counseling models. The study outlined in this article examined role diffusion as a possible factor contributing to ongoing role ambiguity in school counseling. Participants included 109 graduate students enrolled in a…
VanFossen, Beth Ensiminger
Data on sex-role values of a sample of college women are examined to ascertain the effect of family structure, social class, and religion on sex-role values, and to support a structural theory of sex-role socialization. (Author)
Cohen, Jessica Field
A review of research literature in the area of male roles and middle age suggests that adherence to the traditional male role may be deleterious to readjustment during middle-age transitions. Traditional roles require men to have characteristics that are questioned during the middle years. (Author)
Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne
The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…
Research methods is perceived as a technical and difficult topic by some students. Using role-play to teach it can make it more accessible, meaningful and engaging. Role-playing the familiar roles of customer and waiting staff at a restaurant and discussing the variables that may affect the size of tips can help students to learn some of the key…
Littlewood, William T.
Role playing in language teaching uses language as a means of communication, treats language as part of a larger behavioral unit and places language in a situational context. Levels of role performance include functional, actional, acquired, and ascribed; levels of role adoption are imitation and internalization. (CHK)
Sajaniemi, J.; Ben-Ari, M.; Byckling, P.; Gerdt, P.; Kulikova, Y.
Roles can be assigned to occurrences of variables in programs according to a small number of stereotypical patterns of use. Studies on explicitly teaching roles to novices learning programming have shown that roles are an excellent pedagogical tool for clarifying the structure and meaning of programs and that their use improves students'…
Dubinin, N P; Vaulina, E N
Analysis of the part played by gravity in development in the organic world shows that this factor has had an impact on evolution. All terrestrial organisms, including man, have adapted themselves to gravity by developing a number of important features of their composition and functions. Variations of gravitational field in any direction bring about numerous changes in organisms, ranging from metabolism to changes in more conservative systems which also include hereditary structures. Gravitational forces determine the form and the size of organisms, the development of skeletal supporting organs, and energetics. The study of the role of gravity in the variability of the organic world will be of great importance for long-term systems of life support and for work on space orbital stations or at bases on the moon and planets where gravitational forces may differ greatly those from on the earth.
The roles of the team physician are much more than providing medical coverage at a sport's event. The team physician has numerous administrative and medical responsibilities. The development of an emergency action plan is an essential administrative task as an example. The implementation of the components of this plan requires the team physician to have the necessary medical knowledge and skill. An expertise in returning an athlete to play after an injury or other medical condition is a unique attribute of the trained team physician. The athlete's return to participation needs to start with the athlete's safety and best medical interests but not inappropriately restrict the individual from play. The ability to communicate on numerous levels needs to be a characteristic of the team physician. There are several potential ethical conflicts the team physician needs to control. These conflicts can create unique medicolegal issues. The true emphasis of the team physician is to focus on what is best for the athlete.
Voight, Michael L.
Previously, the scapular musculature was often neglected in designing a rehabilitation protocol for the shoulder. In the past two decades a significant amount of research has been performed in order to help identify the role of the scapula in upper extremity function. Weakness of the scapular stabilizers and resultant altered biomechanics could result in: 1) abnormal stresses to the anterior capsular structures of the shoulder, 2) increased possibility of rotator cuff compression, and 3) decreased shoulder complex neuromuscular performance. This clinical commentary presents facts about the anatomy and biomechanics of the scapula and surrounding musculature, and describes the pathomechanics of scapular dysfunction. The focus is upon the assessment of dysfunction and retraining of the scapular musculature. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175141
Many interesting astronomical objects, such as galaxies, molecular clouds, PDRs, star - forming regions, protostars, evolved stars, planets, and comets, have rich submillimeter spectra. In order to avoid line blending, and to be able to resolve the line shape, it is often necessary to measure these spectra at high resolution. This paper discusses the relative advantages and limitations of coherent and direct detection for high resolution spectroscopy in the submillimeter and far - infrared. In principle, direct detection has a fundamental sensitivity advantage. In practice, it is di.cult to realize this advantage given the sensitivities of existing detectors and reasonable constraints on the instrument volume. Thus, coherent detection can be expected to play an important role in submillimeter and far - infrared astrophysics well into the future.
Church, Elizabeth J
This article provides an overview of the various ways in which imaging professionals can demonstrate patient advocacy on a day-to-day basis and throughout their careers. Advocacy encompasses a wide range of attitudes and activities, and implementing its principles can bring new enthusiasm to the workplace and increase job satisfaction. After completing this article, readers will: Describe the fundamental aspects of advocacy. Know how to handle conflict and explain why conflict is necessary. Understand the challenges to advocacy. Apply patient advocacy in the context of diagnostic imaging. Recognize the radiologic technologist's important role in ensuring patient safety. Identify how professional codes and standards, as well as federal and state laws, encourage advocacy efforts.
Broomfield, D; Bligh, J
This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment.
Lis, Eric; Chiniara, Carl; Biskin, Robert; Montoro, Richard
The literature has seen a surge in research on the mental health impacts of technologies such as Facebook, video games, and massively-multiplayer online role-playing games such as World of Warcraft, but little is known regarding the mental health impact of non-video role-playing games, such as Dungeons & Dragons. The present study examines how psychiatrists' perceive role-playing games and whether they play them. Psychiatrists at a tertiary care centre in Canada completed a questionnaire assessing history of playing role-playing games and whether they associate them with psychopathology. Forty-eight psychiatrists responded. Twenty-three percent have played a role-playing game over their lifetimes. Twenty-two percent believed there was an association between psychopathology and role-playing games. A majority of psychiatrists who responded do not associate role-playing games with psychopathology. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.
Lazovsky, Rivka; Shimoni, Aviva
This study examined the role of the ideal on-site mentor and the actual mentor's role performance, as perceived by 158 mentor counselors and 171 school counseling interns. Results indicated that the ideal mentor's professional traits were given priority by both groups and that the teacher role was the most salient among role domains. In the actual…
Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Nicholas; Goulimaris, Dimitris
This study examines role conflict, role ambiguity, and job satisfaction among Greek physical education teachers, and the extent to which role conflict and role ambiguity predict job satisfaction. All members of the sample of 61 physical education teachers were employed in Greek "Sport for all" programs. The standard multiple regression…
Tomeh, Aida K.; Vasko, Catherine
This paper examines the role of parents and friends (reference groups) in forming college students' sex-role orientations. Emphasis is placed on the mother's domestic, parental, and achieved (professional/occupational) role and on the mother's modeling transmission effect on her daughter's and son's sex-role attitudes. The hypothesis is that…
Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.
In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…
Kobayashi, Koichi; Endo, Kaichiro; Wada, Hajime
Thylakoid membranes in cyanobacterial cells and chloroplasts of algae and higher plants are the sites of oxygenic photosynthesis. The lipid composition of the thylakoid membrane is unique and highly conserved among oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Major lipids in thylakoid membranes are glycolipids, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, and the phospholipid, phosphatidylglycerol. The identification of almost all genes involved in the biosynthesis of each lipid class over the past decade has allowed the generation and isolation of mutants of various photosynthetic organisms incapable of synthesizing specific lipids. Numerous studies using such mutants have revealed that these lipids play important roles not only in the formation of the lipid bilayers of thylakoid membranes but also in the folding and assembly of the protein subunits in photosynthetic complexes. In addition to the studies with the mutants, recent X-ray crystallography studies of photosynthetic complexes in thylakoid membranes have also provided critical information on the association of lipids with photosynthetic complexes and their activities. In this chapter, we summarize our current understanding about the structural and functional involvement of thylakoid lipids in oxygenic photosynthesis.
Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M
Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.
Carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient that plays a vital role in energy production and fatty acid metabolism. Vegetarians possess a greater bioavailability than meat eaters. Distinct deficiencies arise either from genetic mutation of carnitine transporters or in association with other disorders such as liver or kidney disease. Carnitine deficiency occurs in aberrations of carnitine regulation in disorders such as diabetes, sepsis, cardiomyopathy, malnutrition, cirrhosis, endocrine disorders and with aging. Nutritional supplementation of L-carnitine, the biologically active form of carnitine, is ameliorative for uremic patients, and can improve nerve conduction, neuropathic pain and immune function in diabetes patients while it is life-saving for patients suffering primary carnitine deficiency. Clinical application of carnitine holds much promise in a range of neural disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, hepatic encephalopathy and other painful neuropathies. Topical application in dry eye offers osmoprotection and modulates immune and inflammatory responses. Carnitine has been recognized as a nutritional supplement in cardiovascular disease and there is increasing evidence that carnitine supplementation may be beneficial in treating obesity, improving glucose intolerance and total energy expenditure. PMID:20398344
Nieves, Jeri W
Osteoporosis and low bone mass are currently estimated to be a major public health threat. Adequate nutrition plays a major role in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis; the micronutrients of greatest importance are calcium and vitamin D. Calcium has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone mass at all ages, although the results are not always consistent. Higher doses than the current US recommendation (600 IU) of vitamin D in the elderly (age > or = 65 y) may actually be required for optimal bone health (800-1000 IU/d). The elderly can clearly benefit from increased vitamin D intakes; however, the potential importance of vitamin D in peak bone mass is just being investigated. Vitamin D has been related to falls, with supplementation reducing the number of falls. There are clear fracture benefits demonstrated in randomized clinical trials of calcium and vitamin D supplementation. The other micronutrient needs for optimizing bone health can be easily met by a healthy diet that is high in fruits and vegetables to ensure adequate intakes for magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin K, and other potentially important nutrients. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of the importance of adequate calcium and vitamin D intakes (easily monitored by serum 25(OH)D) for optimal bone health, as well as the prevention of falls and fractures. In addition, a healthy diet that includes 5 servings a day of fruits and vegetables should optimize the intake of micronutrients required for bone health.
Dawson, Paul Anthony
Sulphate contributes to numerous processes in mammalian physiology, particularly during development. Sulphotransferases mediate the sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of numerous compounds, including steroids, glycosaminoglycans, proteins, neurotransmitters and xenobiotics, transforming their biological activities. Importantly, the ratio of sulphonated to unconjugated molecules plays a significant physiological role in many of the molecular events that regulate mammalian growth and development. In humans, the fetus is unable to generate its own sulphate and therefore relies on sulphate being supplied from maternal circulation via the placenta. To meet the gestational needs of the growing fetus, maternal blood sulphate concentrations double from mid-gestation. Maternal hyposulphataemia has been linked to fetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational fetal loss in mice. Disorders of sulphonation have also been linked to a number of developmental disorders in humans, including skeletal dysplasias and premature adrenarche. While recognised as an important nutrient in mammalian physiology, sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. In part, this may be due to technical challenges in measuring sulphate with standard pathology equipment and hence the limited findings of perturbed sulphate homoeostasis affecting human health. This review article is aimed at highlighting the importance of sulphate in mammalian development, with basic science research being translated through animal models and linkage to human disorders.
Martin-Liberal, Juan; Ochoa de Olza, María; Hierro, Cinta; Gros, Alena; Rodon, Jordi; Tabernero, Josep
The use of agents able to modulate the immune system to induce or potentiate its anti-tumour activity is not a new strategy in oncology. However, the development of new agents such as immune checkpoint inhibitors has achieved unprecedented efficacy results in a wide variety of tumours, dramatically changing the landscape of cancer treatment in recent years. Ipilimumab, nivolumab, pembrolizumab or atezolizumab are now standard of care options in several malignancies and new indications are being approved on a regular basis in different tumours. Moreover, there are many other novel immunotherapy strategies that are currently being assessed in clinical trials. Agonists of co-stimulatory signals, adoptive cell therapies, vaccines, virotherapy and others have raised interest as therapeutic options against cancer. In addition, many of these novel approaches are being developed both in monotherapy and as part of combinatory regimes in order to synergize their activity. The results from those studies will help to define the expanding role of immunotherapy in cancer treatment in a forthcoming future.
Spagnuolo, Carmela; Napolitano, Marianna; Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Milito, Alfonsina; Russo, Gian Luigi
Neurodegenerative diseases cause a progressive functional alteration of neuronal systems, resulting in a state of dementia which is considered one of the most common psychiatric disorders of the elderly. Dementia implies an irreversible impairment of intellect that increases with age causing alteration of memory, language and behavioral problems. The most common form, which occurs in more than half of all cases, is Alzheimer's disease, characterized by accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stresses have been considered as a hallmark of Alzheimer disease, playing a crucial role in neurotoxicity. For this reason, an adequate antioxidant strategy may improve the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. Several studies support the neuroprotective abilities of polyphenolic compounds resulting in neuronal protection against injury induced by neurotoxins, ability to suppress neuroinflammation and the potential to promote memory, learning and cognitive functions. We critically reviewed here the therapeutic potential of pure herbal compounds (e.g., green tea polyphenol (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate, resveratrol, curcumin, quercetin and others) and extracts enriched in polyphenols showing the most promising neuroprotective effects. We are also presenting data on the ability of an extract derived from elderberry, Sambucus nigra, possessing elevated polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity to protect neuronal cells against oxidizing agents.
Hydrogen sulfide is a novel gasotransmitter that has been shown to play a major role in regulating vascular tone. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide in inflammation, sepsis and burns has only recently been studied. In animal studies, hydrogen sulfide has been shown to play a role in both promoting and inhibiting inflammation. Understanding the role of H2S in sepsis and shock is particularly important due to the high mortality associated with both conditions. In animal sepsis models, hydrogen sulfide appears to increase survival. Severe burns are associated with an inflammatory response that causes increased permeability and edema. Currently, there are few studies that have examined the exact role of hydrogen sulfide in burns. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide in inflammation enables us to hypothesize its role in burns. This review highlights the role of hydrogen sulfide in the mechanisms of action underlying inflammation, wound healing and sepsis as well as examining the potential role of hydrogen sulfide in burns. The authors of this article hope that this review will stimulate research to discover the exact role of this fascinating molecule in burns.
Specht, Jennifer A
This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience.
Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark A; Irving, P Gregory
Many athletes experience a discrepancy between the roles they expect to fulfill and the roles they eventually occupy. Drawing from met expectations theory, we applied response surface methodology to examine how role expectations, in relation to role experiences, influence perceptions of group cohesion among Canadian Interuniversity Sport athletes (N = 153). On the basis of data from two time points, as athletes approached and exceeded their role contribution expectations, they reported higher perceptions of task cohesion. Furthermore, as athletes approached and exceeded their social involvement expectations, they reported higher perceptions of social cohesion. These response surface patterns-pertaining to task and social cohesion-were driven by the positive influence of role experiences. On the basis of the interplay between athletes' role experiences and their perception of the group environment, efforts to improve team dynamics may benefit from focusing on improving the quality of role experiences, in conjunction with developing realistic role expectations.
Taub, Alyson; Gilmore, Gary D; Olsen, Larry K; Connell, Dave
Role delineation research for the verification of professional competencies is essential in many professions to promote quality assurance and support capacity building and workforce development. In this article, guidance is provided about key aspects of role delineation research. The information contained in this article focuses on 13 key questions within three selected research phases when attempting to identify and verify the roles that are inherent within any given profession. The major sections in the paper include planning the research, collecting and analyzing the data, interpreting findings, and considering the future. Recommendations and examples related to each of the important questions are provided to assist others undertaking role delineation research.
Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.
A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.
Since World War II, physicists have been involved in various aspects of national life. The roles played have included: 1) Pure or applied researcher, 2) Advisor to policy makers, and 3) Congressman. Today there are many challenges and questions that the United States faces and scientists, physicists included, are often asked on how these challenges should be addressed. In addressing these concerns what is the ``proper'' role that scientists should play? Do scientists even know what the possible roles are? This talk will briefly address the possible roles that scientists play and what other avenues of input go into the making of policy.
Robinson, Sharon E.; Cabianca, William A.
Although the effectiveness of role play and its vicarious learning experiences for counselor training is well documented, little research has focused on the impact of the order of playing the roles on skill development. To investigate the effect of ordinal position, 36 beginning counseling students, 24 female and 12 male, with a median age of 30,…
BENNETT, WILLIAM S., JR.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CLASSES OF COGNITIVE PHENOMENA WAS INVESTIGATED, I.E., THE MOTIVATIONAL STRUCTURE AND THE DEGREE OF PERCEIVED ROLE DISPARITY OF TEACHERS. ONE ELEMENT OF MOTIVATION, CALLED "ORIENTATION FOR CHANGE," WAS RELATED TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF ROLE DISPARITY, INCLUDING "OPTIMISM" OR THE EXTENT IN WHICH THE…
Clift, Renee Tipton
This self-study describes the ways in which a move to a different state, university, and academic role has shaped my sense of self as a scholar, teacher educator, and college administrator. I draw from role theory and from conceptions of habitus and field to provide a conceptual lens for interpreting the data and my experiences. I then address two…
Sedlacek, James R.
Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…
Classification) Military Intellignece : Its Role In Counterinsurgency (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) LTC (P) Julian M. Campbell, Jr, USA 13a. TYPE OF...combat elements. 1MW operations, in a more visible role, serve as a tangible furce muiltiplier which the theater commander can use in the business of
The struggle for an Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the American Constitution is one of the most controversial issues of this era. Discusses the changing role of women amidst a fast-changing society, the styles of those opposing the women's revolution, the debate over women as persons, women in dual roles, and the implications of ERA for the world…
Recent interest in vitamin K has been motivated by evidence of physiological roles beyond that of coagulation. Vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins may be involved in regulation of calcification, energy metabolism, and inflammation. However, the evidence for many of these proposed roles in the...
Children across the United States of America are maturing in a media-saturated society. Unfortunately, this often results in poor content choices and evaluative skills. North American schools have attempted to address this problem through information literacy skills. One role key to teaching these skills is the role of the school librarian.…
Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar
The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…
Boardman, Craig; Bozeman, Barry
One way in which university faculty members' professional lives have become more complex with the advent of contemporary university research centers is that many faculty have taken on additional roles. The authors' concern in this article is to determine the extent to which role strain is experienced by university faculty members who are…
Hodgkinson, Virginia A.
The federal role in postsecondary education since 1787 is traced. Attention is directed to the types of indirect federal support toward postsecondary education until the first Higher Education Act of 1965, and the kinds of national priorities served by the current federal role in postsecondary education. Future projections and the implications of…
Martin, Mary E.; Didion, Judy
Today, with the threat of bioterrorism and war, there is a new dimension to the traditional role of the school nurse. The smallpox threat to public health will invoke the school nurse's role as an educator, liaison, and consultant in the community. This article discusses smallpox, the vaccination process, adverse effects, and postvaccination care.…
Hayes, P. Lynn
The role of educational interpreters for deaf students mainstreamed in regular classes was examined through interviews with 35 educational interpreters. Among concerns were (1) defining their professional role, (2) the variety of sign systems used in schools, (3) their relationships with the students they serve, and (4) professional development.…
The year 2014 marks an important milestone for the SENCo role. It is the 20-year anniversary of the requirement for schools to have a named person as lead for special educational needs. This article, by Catherine Tissot from the University of Reading, explores the vision of the role as seen in Government guidance and documents and compares this…
Martin, Jeffery S.; Marion, Russell
Purpose: To examine the critical roles of leadership in higher education and to define how such roles enable an environment that embraces the demands of a knowledge-based organization. Design/methodology/approach: Through interviews with executive leadership in several higher education institutions, the ontology of knowledge management was…
BAILEY, STEPHEN K.
THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE VARIOUS WAYS IN WHICH THE UNIVERSITY CAN AND SHOULD INFLUENCE URBAN DECISION MAKING. THE CENTRAL UNIVERSITY ROLE IS SENSITIZING THE DECISION MAKERS AND THE CITIZENS TO HUMAN MISERY, SUCH AS BIGOTRY, SQUALOR, DISEASE, UGLINESS, POVERTY, AND IGNORANCE. LONG-RANGE ROLES ARE PINPOINTING THE PROBLEMS URBAN DECISION MAKERS SHOULD…
Comparative Education Review, 2007
This article presents a two-round discussion that centered around the question: "How well has UNESCO framed its own proposed role in meeting Education for All objectives as well as the roles of other UN organizations, national governments, and civil society actors?" The participants reviewed the most recent draft of UNESCO's "Global Action Plan"…
The training of nurses has changed significantly in recent years, as have the role and expectations of nurse teachers and lecturers. In this article, the author suggests the development of a new role which could satisfy the requirements of educators, clinicians and students.
Tye, S; Carnie, R; Chambers, R; Doran, C M; Matthews, J J
The current configuration of the surgical component of the Role 2 Afloat team is described, including an outline of the equipment available. The lessons learned from a recent exercise, where a Role 2 Afloat team was deployed on RFA CARDIGAN BAY are outlined and expanded, emphasising the difficulties of providing damage control surgery in the maritime environment.
Benham, William J.
An examiniation of past and recent federal legislation affecting American Indians reveals the important role of Congress in developing policy for Indian affairs. The role of Congress inititally seemed directed toward providing a legal means of taking Indian land and other resources for the benefit of non-Indians. Subsequent policy has varied…
Rutz, Linda Robinson
A study was conducted to determine how well the advertising industry portrays the changing work roles of women. Four advertising executives were interviewed to find out their feelings about the changes in women's work roles and what action they were taking to adapt advertising to these changes, while 11 women were interviewed with similar…
GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS
THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS OF THREE ROLE BEHAVIOR ASPECTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS WERE STUDIED, AS FOLLOWS--(1) CLOSENESS OF TEACHER SUPERVISION, (2) SUPPORT OF INNOVATION, AND (3) INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS IN SCHOOL AFFAIRS. SPECIFICALLY, THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS TO BE EXAMINED WERE THE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTS OF ROLE BEHAVIOR IN TERMS OF TEACHER…
Webmasters can add users to a web area, and assign or change roles, which define the actions a user is able to take in the web area. Non-webmasters must use a request form to add users and change roles.
Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Patil, Shankargouda
Role of calcium in bone remodeling and tooth remineral-ization is well known. However, calcium also plays a very imperative role in many biochemical reactions, which are essential for normal functioning of cells. The calcium associated tissue homeostasis encompasses activities like proliferation, cell death, cell motility, oxygen, and nutrient supply.
Chesler, Mark; Fox, Robert
This book, one of three Teacher Resource Booklets on Classroom Social Relations and Learning developed at the Center for Research on Utilization of Scientific Knowledge at the University of Michigan, discusses the theoretical background of role playing and gives a step-by-step discussion of how to use role playing in the classroom. There are…
Tovey, Duane R., Ed.; Kerber, James E., Ed.
Refining and better understanding the roles parents, teachers, administrators, and researchers play in helping children learn to process written language is the focus of this book. Part 1 considers the role of the parents and includes the following articles: "Learning to Read: It Starts in the Home" (David B. Doake): "Let's Read…
The career and technical education (CTE) programs play critical roles in the growth of workforce readiness credentials. This article presents an ACTE issue brief that highlighting the need for workforce readiness credentials, and the role CTE plays in helping students acquire them. CTE is at the forefront of preparing students at all levels for…
for alert, or for training when not deployed. As a wartime mission, there is potential for an AC/RC mix of personnel fulfilling rapid response team ... roles , should this be developed as a Navy role. 18 Evacuation Transport The diversity of operating locations and the rapid operational tempo military
Discusses the National Research and Education Network (NREN) and the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET), and the role that interagency cooperation and government-industry cooperation have played in their formation. The role of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) and future plans are also…
Silberman, Harry F.
The functional role of a national center for vocational education depends on the people doing the work; consequently, the center sets its own agenda when it makes personal decisions. A center's role should include two elements: in setting its own research agenda, a center should take a broad perspective on vocational education; and a center should…
Osborn, Debra; Costas, Lisa
This study examined how role-plays impacted 27 counseling students' overall skills as measured by instructor ratings and self-ratings during practice triads in a microskills course. A Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test revealed no significant difference for scripted versus personal concerns role-plays. Students indicated a strong belief that…
Massad, Christopher M.
Examined the relationship between sex role identity and two measures of adjustment--self-acceptance and peer acceptance--among adolescents. Sex differences were discovered regarding factors positively associated with self-acceptance. Findings suggest that a model of sex role differentiation during adolescence must recognize differential pressures…
Booth, Alan; Amato, Paul R.
Used data from longitudinal study of 471 parents and their adult offspring to examine whether nontraditional gender roles/attitudes among parents were associated with later life outcomes of children. Found very little evidence that mother's participation in labor force, father's participation in household tasks, and parents' gender role attitudes…
Rushlow, Bonnie B., Ed.
The role and expectations of the arts supervisor and administrator have expanded beyond managing personnel and programmatic activities to informing policy decisions. Legislation such as The No Child Left Behind Act, signed by President Bush in 2002, exacerbated this paradigm shift. Thus, the role of arts supervisors and administrators as leaders…
Examines students' roles during a long-term collaborative task that required mastering complex sets of cognitive, regulatory, and social skills needed for building knowledge largely from their own and their peers' ideas and observations. Describes the eight prominent sociocognitive roles that emerged from the study. Contains 61 references.…
Montoro-García, Silvia; Schindewolf, Marc; Stanford, Sophia; Larsen, Ole Halfdan; Thiele, Thomas
Multiple factors contribute to the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Platelets have attracted much interest in arterial cardiovascular disease, whereas their role in VTE has received much less attention. Recent evidence suggests that platelets may play a more important role in VTE than previously anticipated. This review discusses the mechanisms that link platelets with venous thrombotic disease and their potential applications as novel risk factors for VTE. In addition, animal studies and randomized clinical trials that highlight the potential effect of antiplatelet therapy in venous thrombosis are evaluated to assess the role of platelets in VTE. The clinical significance of platelets for VTE risk assessment in specific patient cohorts and their role as a suitable therapeutic target for VTE prevention is acknowledged. The role of platelets in VTE is a promising field for future research.
Mumford, Troy V; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Morgeson, Frederick P; Campion, Michael A
The main objectives in this research were to introduce the concept of team role knowledge and to investigate its potential usefulness for team member selection. In Study 1, the authors developed a situational judgment test, called the Team Role Test, to measure knowledge of 10 roles relevant to the team context. The criterion-related validity of this measure was examined in 2 additional studies. In a sample of academic project teams (N = 93), team role knowledge predicted team member role performance (r = .34). Role knowledge also provided incremental validity beyond mental ability and the Big Five personality factors in the prediction of role performance. The results of Study 2 revealed that the predictive validity of role knowledge generalizes to team members in a work setting (N = 82, r = .30). The implications of the results for selection in team environments are discussed.
Loder, Tondra L.; Spillane, James P.
The authors examined 16 US women school administrators' experiences with role conflict and role discontinuity within their first one to five years of transitioning from teaching to administration. Findings from this theory-building, qualitative study indicate that this transition triggered role conflicts that emerged from the participants'…
Karunanayake, Danesh; Nauta, Margaret M.
The authors examined whether college students' race was related to the modal race of their identified career role models, the number of identified career role models, and their perceived influence from such models. Consistent with A. Bandura's (1977, 1986) social learning theory, students tended to have role models whose race was the same as…
Herman, Jerry J.; Kaufman, Roger
Roles, perspectives, and skills of superintendents and their fit to the Organizational Elements Model (OEM) are examined by defining the elements in the model and providing examples of applications, analyzing superintendents' roles in the planning process, and discussing a method of determining the roles of superintendents in different situations.…
Eckman, Ellen Wexler
Quantitative/qualitative study of female public high school principals in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin regarding their experiences with role conflict, role commitment, and job satisfaction. Describes personal and professional characteristics of female high school principals. Finds that role conflict negatively impacts job satisfaction and…
Faccio, Elena; Bordin, Elena; Cipolletta, Sabrina
This study explores the parental role of transsexuals and compares this to common assumptions about transsexuality and parentage. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 male-to-female transsexuals and 14 men, half parents and half non-parents, in order to explore four thematic areas: self-representation of the parental role, the description of the transsexual as a parent, the common representations of transsexuals as a parent, and male and female parental stereotypes. We conducted thematic and lexical analyses of the interviews using Taltac2 software. The results indicate that social representations of transsexuality and parenthood have a strong influence on processes of self-representation. Transsexual parents accurately understood conventional male and female parental prototypes and saw themselves as competent, responsible parents. They constructed their role based on affection toward the child rather than on the complementary role of their wives. In contrast, men's descriptions of transsexual parental roles were simpler and the descriptions of their parental role coincided with their personal experiences. These results suggest that the transsexual journey toward parenthood involves a high degree of re-adjustment, because their parental role does not coincide with a conventional one.
Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A
Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.
Walker, Mark C.
The amino acid glutamate is a major metabolic hub in many organisms and as such is involved in diverse processes in addition to its role in protein synthesis. Nitrogen assimilation, nucleoside, amino acid, and cofactor biosynthesis, as well as secondary natural product formation all utilize glutamate in some manner. Glutamate also plays a role in the catabolism of certain amines. Understanding glutamate's role in these various processes can aid in genome mining for novel metabolic pathways or the engineering of pathways for bioremediation or chemical production of valuable compounds. PMID:26323613
Mensik, Jennifer S
Nurse staffing in a world of health care reform and accountable care is uncertain and creates fear not only for the nurse leaders, but all RNs. As health care reform transforms the environment, so must the role and staffing of nurses. There is still not one right answer or agreed upon manner to nurse staffing of inpatient units. This leaves nurses free to imagine roles and staffing possibilities for the future across the continuum. Including all RNs in conversations, visioning, and problem solving for the future will best prepare the profession for our role in caring for our patients.
Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way: an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR ...The Role of Social Media in Crisis Agenda • Contributors List • Definitions • Lessons From Past Crisis • The Role of ICT in Crisis • The iSAR + Way...an Approach for Social Media in Crisis – The THEO Methodological Approach – iSAR + Platform and Services • Conclusions Best Paper Award Paper
Weiner, Elizabeth E; Trangenstein, Patricia A
Initial growth in the field of nursing informatics has centered primarily on the clinical setting. Much has been written about the systems developed and evaluated and possible new roles that one can play in the clinical environment. The educational arena has not fared as well. Early attention has been focused on the integration of educational technology or on competency-based skills in informatics according to program levels of students. This paper will focus on the emerging role of educational informatics. Examples will provide nurses with a better understanding of the roles played by the educational informaticist in crafting the science of nursing informatics to produce better nursing education outcomes.
Girdler, Sonya J.
Increasingly, women simultaneously balance the roles of mother, parental carer and worker. However, individual role balance strategies among these working ‘sandwich’ generation women have not been thoroughly explored. Eighteen women combining these three roles were interviewed about their individual role balance strategies. Findings were identified through the framework analysis technique, underpinned by the Model of Juggling Occupations. Achieving and maintaining role balance was explained as a complex process accomplished through a range of strategies. Findings revealed the women used six within-role balance strategies: living with integrity, being the best you can, doing what you love, loving what you do, remembering why and searching for signs of success. The women also described six between-role balance strategies: maintaining health and wellbeing, repressing perfectionism, managing time and energy, releasing responsibility, nurturing social connection and reciprocating. These findings provide a basis for health care providers to understand and potentially support working ‘sandwich’ generation women. PMID:27305074
Arumugam, Prabhu; Balarajah, Vickna; Watt, Jennifer; Abraham, Ajit T.; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Kocher, Hemant M.
The many benefits of laparoscopy, including smaller incision, reduced length of hospital stay and more rapid return to normal function, have seen its popularity grow in recent years. With concurrent improvements in non-surgical cancer management the importance of accurate staging is becoming increasingly important. There are two main applications of laparoscopic surgery in managing hepato-pancreatico-biliary (HPB) malignancy: accurate staging of disease and resection. We aim to summarize the use of laparoscopy in these contexts. The role of staging laparoscopy has become routine in certain cancers, in particular T2 staged, locally advanced gastric cancer, hilar cholangiocarcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For other cancers, in particular colorectal, laparoscopy has now become the gold standard management for resection such that there is no role for stand-alone staging laparoscopy. In HPB cancers, although staging laparoscopy may play a role, with ever improving radiology, its role remains controversial. PMID:27377496
Hermansen, Spencer; Croninger, Bill; Croninger, Sara
The case is the personal perspective and reflection of a father and his daughter, each individually addressing five key aspects of the role of father, revealing a unique and fundamental family perspective.
Braun, Linda W.
Considers the new roles of librarians that have evolved from changes in technology. Discusses new job titles for librarians; changes in bibliographic instruction; training the trainers; virtual branch libraries; teamwork and collaboration; changes in organizational structures; and outsourcing options. (LRW)
Davis, Michael D.; Davis, Concetta M.
There is variance in the way in which student teachers accept responsibility for the teaching act. This study explains why some variables may affect student teachers' acceptance of role responsibilities. (CM)
Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.
Presents exercises and role plays designed to help English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students enrolled in or bound for American universities understand plagiarism and the need to properly document essays and term papers. (five references) (MDM)
In its role as a broker between the scientific community and the Congress, the Office of Technology Assessment evaluates the soundness of scientific conclusions for policy makers and ensures that research findings are included in formative policy analysis. (Author)
Abdelmagid, Samir M; Barbe, Mary F; Safadi, Fayez F
Chronic inflammation in aging is characterized by increased inflammatory cytokines, bone loss, decreased adaptation, and defective tissue repair in response to injury. Aging leads to inherent changes in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, resulting in impaired osteoblastogenesis. Also, the pro-inflammatory cytokines increase with aging, leading to enhanced myelopoiesis and osteoclastogenesis. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) play pivotal roles in osteoblast differentiation, the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and subsequent bone repair. However, during aging, little is known about the role of macrophages in the differentiation and function of MSC and HSC. Aged mammals have higher circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines than young adults, supporting the hypothesis of increased inflammation with aging. This review will aid in the understanding of the potential role(s) of pro-inflammatory (M1) and anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages in differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in relation to aging.
Valero, Yulema; Martínez-Morcillo, Francisco J.; Esteban, M. Ángeles; Chaves-Pozo, Elena; Cuesta, Alberto
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative damage. In addition, Prxs may act as modulators of inflammation, protect against cell death and tumour progression, and facilitate tissue repair after damage. The most studied roles of Prx1 and Prx2 are immunological. Here we present a review on the effects of some immunostimulant treatments and bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections on the expression of fish Prxs at the gene and/or protein level, and point to their important role in immunity. The Prxs show antioxidant activity as well as a protective effect against infection. Some preliminary data are presented about the role of fish Prx1 and Prx2 in virus resistance although further studies are needed before the role of fish Prx in immunity can be definitively defined. PMID:26633533
Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.
Succinic acid is converted into other carboxylic acids by ionizing radiation. The results obtained have been correlated with the ready formation of this compound in prebiotic experiments. Its role in biological systems may be related to its prebiotic occurrence.
Mettler, A E
The role of the manufacturing food industry in relation to provision of foods for the weanling encompasses 4 main objectives viz. customer satisfaction, safety, providing product information and the maintenance of commercial viability. The effectiveness of the manufacturing food industry to fulfil these roles is judged by the customer wishing to buy for quality and convenience reasons, by the law of the land in meeting legal requirements for safety and labelling and by its generation of profit in terms of commercial viability. Whereas it is commonly expected that industry should fulfil a role in nutrition education this is seen as a primary role of health professionals whilst industry needs to provide full and detailed product information. The industry is highly creative in both its technological innovation and adaptation and works hard at trying to satisfy the requirements of consumers, the industry, health professionals and its critics.
Paulsen, Jens Erik
Normative discussions about modern health care often revolve around principles stating what must not be done or how to ration scarce resources in the name of justice. These are important discussions. However, in order to have an impact on clinical roles, ethical reflection must be able to describe and address the complexities and challenges of modern nursing and doctoring, and maybe even the patient role. A multi-principled approach, such as the one suggested by Beauchamp and Childress, can obviously address almost any such issue, but a great deal of translation is often required in order to address role-related issues. I shall here argue that an ethics of caring is better suited to grasping the big picture when the question is how to create value-informed clinical roles in an era of rapid development.
Discusses the role of screen translation in minority language broadcasting. The article is a response to a roundtable discussion on minority language broadcasting and language maintenance. (Author/VWL)
Earth's climate is changing because of human activity. Learn about NASA's role in understanding climate and climate change with Gilberto Colón, special assistant to the deputy director of NASA's Go...
Rizzo, John R.; And Others
Study describes the development and testing of questionnaire measures of role conflict and ambiguity. Analyses of responses of managers show these two constructs to be factorially identifiable and independent. (Author/KJ)
The low status of nursing is traced from the days of Florence Nightingale, and concepts of role socialization are applied to nurses. A highly automated, democratized workplace is envisioned that will change socialization practices. (SK)
Motz, Annabelle B.; Hollander, Elaine K.
Impressions of what teachers experience when they are registered in a graduate level course as students and the ways in which they accommodate to their new role are analyzed by the research method of participation-observation. (Author/KM)
AD______________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0428 TITLE: Role of Grainyhead in Kidney Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven Frisch CONTRACTING...SUBTITLE Role of Grainyhead in Kidney Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0428 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven...metastatic gene expression in RCC. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Grainyhead-like-2/ kidney /collecting ducts/proximal tubules/distal tubules/clear cell renal
Roles of Knowledge in Motor Learning by Christopher Granger Atkeson A.B., Harvard College (1981) S.M., Harvard University (1981) Submitted to the...Chairman, Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences 11 31 j 1 E =Emil Roles of Knowledge in Motor Learning by Christopher Granger Atkeson Submitted to the...independent pape-s. The price of trying to write a thesis whose chapters are publishable is some repetition and seeming multiplicity of goals. 1.2.2
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-2-0195 TITLE: Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0195 Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind 5b. GRANT NUMBER PT074804 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...build coping skills, improve access to services for veteran and family, and serve as a source of shared support. The study will enroll 60 OEF/OIF
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-2-0195 TITLE: Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone BATTLEMIND PRINCIPAL Linda Nichols, Ph.D...NUMBER Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0195 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Linda Nichols... veteran and family, and serve as a source of shared support. The study enrolled 60 OEF/OIF spouses from the general population of spouses. In addition, per
Wong, Cecilia H.M. Ho, Wing-chung
The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIA development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.
Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I
A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available. PMID:25954093
Masri, Omar A; Chalhoub, Jean M; Sharara, Ala I
A tremendous amount of data from research was published over the past decades concerning the roles of different vitamins in various gastrointestinal diseases. For instance, most vitamins showed an inverse relationship with the risk of colorectal carcinoma as well as other malignancies like gastric and esophageal cancer in observational trials, however interventional trials failed to prove a clear beneficial preventive role. On the other hand, more solid evidence was obtained from high quality studies for a role of certain vitamins in specific entities. Examples for this include the therapeutic role of vitamin E in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the additive role of vitamins B12 and D to the standard therapy of chronic hepatitis C virus, the role of vitamin C in reducing the risk of gallstones, the positive outcome with vitamin B12 in patients with aphthous stomatitis, and the beneficial effect of vitamin D and B1 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Other potential uses are yet to be elaborated, like those on celiac disease, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, cholestasis and other potential fields. Data from several ongoing interventional trials are expected to add to the current knowledge over the coming few years. Given that vitamin supplementation is psychologically accepted by patients as a natural compound with relative safety and low cost, their use should be encouraged in the fields where positive data are available.
Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H
In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content.
Athimon, Emmanuelle; Maanan, Mohamed
exports of wine or salt to finance the restoration of the bridges. So it appears that these societies have been able to adapt through a collective memory, a lifestyle, a significant perception of risks, a territory management, the construction of infrastructures, etc. Key words : Little Ice Age, West of France, climate hazards, resilience, adaptation. This work was supported by grants from the Fondation de France through the research program « Quels littoraux pour demain? ».
Wen, Yankai; Jeong, Seogsong; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni
Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein, is involved in numerous pathological conditions including inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in various tissues. Extensive studies have elucidated the critical role of OPN in cell signaling such as regulation of cell proliferation, migration, inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. In the liver, OPN interacts with integrins, CD44, vimentin and MyD88 signaling, thereby induces infiltration, migration, invasion and metastasis of cells. OPN is highlighted as a chemoattractant for macrophages and neutrophils during injury in inflammatory liver diseases. OPN activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to exert an enhancer in fibrogenesis. The role of OPN in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has also generated significant interests, especially with regards to its role as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. Interestingly, OPN acts an opposing role in liver repair under different pathological conditions. This review summarizes the current understanding of OPN in liver diseases. Further understanding of the pathophysiological role of OPN in cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms associated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and cancer may contribute to the development of novel strategies for clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapy of liver diseases. PMID:27570486
Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.
The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074
Baskakov, Ilia V.; Katorcha, Elizaveta
Mammalian prion or PrPSc is a proteinaceous infectious agent that consists of a misfolded, self-replicating state of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein, or PrPC. Sialylation of the prion protein N-linked glycans was discovered more than 30 years ago, yet the role of sialylation in prion pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Recent years have witnessed extraordinary growth in interest in sialylation and established a critical role for sialic acids in host invasion and host-pathogen interactions. This review article summarizes current knowledge on the role of sialylation of the prion protein in prion diseases. First, we discuss the correlation between sialylation of PrPSc glycans and prion infectivity and describe the factors that control sialylation of PrPSc. Second, we explain how glycan sialylation contributes to the prion replication barrier, defines strain-specific glycoform ratios, and imposes constraints for PrPSc structure. Third, several topics, including a possible role for sialylation in animal-to-human prion transmission, prion lymphotropism, toxicity, strain interference, and normal function of PrPC, are critically reviewed. Finally, a metabolic hypothesis on the role of sialylation in the etiology of sporadic prion diseases is proposed. PMID:27551257
Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié; Krause, Amanda
Genetic counseling is a growing health profession in South Africa. Training (set up in 1988) and registration are in place, but job creation remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles played by genetic counselors in the provision of genetic services, in South Africa. A questionnaire comprising items on the types of roles they performed was constructed and counselors were asked to make the log-books, in which they recorded their daily counseling activities, available. A check list was drawn up so that relevant information could be collected systematically from these log-books. Then departmental statistics were accessed from the two universities providing genetic services and genetic counselor training. Structured interviews were conducted with the genetic counselors (16 of 23 participated), and data were collected from their completed questionnaires, log-books and the departmental statistics, for the years 2007 and 2008. These data were analyzed and the findings showed that the counselors counseled about one third (39 %) of all the cases seen at genetic clinics per annum, and the total numbers were increasing. They counseled for 57 different genetic disorders, and their clients represented the range of local ethnic groups. They also had educational, research, marketing and administrative roles. They expected to expand these roles and advance the profession in future. Genetic counselors are versatile, playing several significant roles. As these become better recognized, demand for their services should increase, jobs should be created and the service expanded.
Lamprou, Margarita; Kaspiris, Angelos; Panagiotopoulos, Elias; Giannoudis, Peter V; Papadimitriou, Evangelia
Bone has an enormous capacity for growth, regeneration, and remodelling, largely due to induction of osteoblasts that are recruited to the site of bone formation. Although the pathways involved have not been fully elucidated, it is well accepted that the immediate environment of the cells is likely to play a role via cell–matrix interactions, mediated by several growth factors. Formation of new blood vessels is also significant and interdependent to bone formation, suggesting that enhancement of angiogenesis could be beneficial during the process of bone repair. Pleiotrophin (PTN), also called osteoblast-specific factor 1, is a heparin-binding angiogenic growth factor, with a well-defined and significant role in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. In this review we summarise the existing evidence on the role of PTN in bone repair.
Jenkins, D L; Brush, K; McGonagle, E; Vartanian, M; Levy, K
The dissolution of the Soviet Union and the declaration of Independence by the Republic of Armenia created the need for significant changes in the healthcare delivery system in Armenia. The desire to raise the level of health care presented challenges and opportunities for nurses within the Republic. Members of the departments of nursing at Boston City Hospital/Boston Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Massachusetts, and the Emergency Scientific Medical Center of Yerevan, Armenia, joined forces through a grant written by Boston University School of Medicine and sponsored by the American International Health Alliance under a cooperative agreement with the United States Agency for International Development to expand the role of nursing. This article describes the assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation of changes to the role of nursing and the development of new roles for nurses within a hospital in the capital city of Yerevan.
Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis
The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine.
Liu, Li; Chan, Christina
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic, progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease with clinical characteristics of memory loss, dementia and cognitive impairment. Although the pathophysiologic mechanism is not fully understood, inflammation has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AD. Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is characterized by the activation of glial cells and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that inflammasomes, which cleave precursors of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 to generate their active forms, play an important role in the inflammatory response in the CNS and in AD pathogenesis. Therefore, modulating inflammasome complex assembly and activation could be a potential strategy for suppressing inflammation in the CNS. This review aims to provide insight into the role of inflammasomes in the CNS, with respect to the pathogenesis of AD, and may provide possible clues for devising novel therapeutic strategies.
Letilovic, Tomislav; Vrhovac, Radovan; Verstovsek, Srdan; Jaksic, Branimir; Ferrajoli, Alessandra
Angiogenesis is a physiologic process of new blood vessels formation mediated by various cytokines called angiogenic and angiostatic factors. Although its potential pathophysiologic role in solid tumors has been extensively studied for more than 3 decades, enhancement of angiogenesis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other malignant hematological disorders has been recognized more recently. An increased level of angiogenesis has been documented by various experimental methods both in bone marrow and lymph nodes of patients with CLL. Although the role of angiogenesis in the pathophysiology of this disease remains to be fully elucidated, experimental data suggest that several angiogenic factors play a role in the disease progression. Biologic markers of angiogenesis were also shown to be of prognostic relevance in CLL. The current findings provide the rationale for investigating antiangiogenic agents in CLL. In the current review angiogenesis in CLL is discussed and its potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
Vestergaard, Stense; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Kaae, Susanne
Objective. To determine pharmacy interns' perceptions of the roles of the pharmacist and pharmacy prior to and during the pharmacy internship and to compare their perceptions with those of their supervisors and the pharmacy customers. Methods. Questionnaires were completed and submitted by 395 interns prior to and during their internships. Interns interviewed their supervisors and two to four local customers. Results. Ninety-six supervisors and 285 customers were interviewed. Interns' perceptions were aligned with those of their supervisors in that both groups indicated that a pharmacist's most important role is that of a clinical leader. Furthermore, interns' perception of customers' expectations regarding the pharmacy were well aligned with customers' actual expectations with regard to service. Conclusion. The study illustrates that interns became more aligned in their perceptions due to the pharmacy internship. The study findings imply that the pharmacy internship influences interns' perception of the pharmacy and pharmacist's roles in society through complex individual and social learning processes. PMID:28289300
Mancini, Maria; Toker, Alex
Preface The roles of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factors have been extensively studied in the immune system. However, ubiquitous expression of NFAT isoforms in mammalian tissues has been recently observed, as well as an emerging role for these transcription factors in human cancer. Various NFAT isoforms are functional in tumor cells and multiple compartments in the tumor microenvironment including fibroblasts, endothelial cells and infiltrating immune cells. How do NFAT isoforms regulate the complex interplay between these compartments during carcinoma progression? The answers lie with the multiple functions attributed to NFAT including cell growth, survival, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition to sorting out the complex role of NFAT in cancer we face the challenge of targeting this pathway therapeutically. PMID:19851316
Yang, Yong Ryoul; Follo, Matilde Y; Cocco, Lucio; Suh, Pann-Ghill
The roles of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) have been extensively investigated in diverse cell lines and pathological conditions. Among the PLC isozmes, primary PLCs, PLC-β and PLC-γ, are directly activated by receptor activation, unlike other secondary PLCs (PLC-ɛ, PLC-δ1, and PLC-η1). PLC-β isozymes are activated by G protein couple receptor and PLC-γ isozymes are activated by receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK). Primary PLCs are differentially expressed in different tissues, suggesting their specific roles in diverse tissues and regulate a variety of physiological and pathophysiological functions. Thus, dysregulation of phospholipases contributes to a number of human diseases and primary PLCs have been identified as therapeutic targets for prevention and treatment of diseases. Here we review the roles of primary PLCs in physiology and their impact in pathology.
Astrocytes are responsible for numerous aspects of metabolic support, nutrition, control of the ion and neurotransmitter environment in central nervous system (CNS). Failure by astrocytes to support essential neuronal metabolic requirements plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of brain injury and the ensuing neuronal death. Astrocyte-neuron interactions play a central role in brain homeostasis, in particular via neurotransmitter recycling functions. Disruption of the glutamine (Gln)/glutamate (Glu) -γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) cycle (GGC) between astrocytes and neurons contributes to changes in Glu-ergic and/or GABA-ergic transmission, and is associated with several neuropathological conditions, including manganese (Mn) toxicity. In this review, we discuss recent advances in support of the important roles for astrocytes in normal as well as neuropathological conditions primarily those caused by exposure to Mn. PMID:23594835
Wawrzyniak, Marcin; O'Mahony, Liam
The immune system is continuously exposed to great amounts of different antigens from both food and intestinal microbes. Immune tolerance to these antigens is very important for intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis. Oral tolerance is a specific type of peripheral tolerance induced by exposure to antigen via the oral route. Investigations on the role of intestinal immune system in preventing hypersensitivity reactions to innocuous dietary and microbial antigens have been intensively performed during the last 2 decades. In this review article, we discuss how food allergens are recognized by the intestinal immune system and draw attention to the role of regulatory T (Treg) and B (Breg) cells in the establishment of oral tolerance and tolerogenic features of intestinal dendritic cells. We also emphasize the potential role of tonsils in oral tolerance induction because of their anatomical location, cellular composition, and possible usage to develop novel ways of specific immunotherapy for the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:28102055
Verma, Anoop K.; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek
Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine. PMID:25298709
Verma, Anoop K; Kumar, Sachil; Rathore, Shiuli; Pandey, Abhishek
Forensic dentistry has become an integral part of forensic science over the past 100 years that utilizes dental or oro-facial findings to serve the judicial system. This has been due to the dedication of people like Gustafson's, Keiser-Nielson, and Suzuki for this field. They established the essential role which forensic dentistry plays mainly in the identification of human remains. The tooth has been used as weapons and under certain circumstances, may leave information about the identity of the biter. Dental professionals have a major role to play in keeping accurate dental records and providing all necessary information so that legal authorities may recognize mal practice, negligence, fraud or abuse, and identity of unknown individuals. This paper will try to summarize the various roles of dental experts in forensic medicine.
Balendiran, Ganesaratnam K; Dabur, Rajesh; Fraser, Deborah
Glutathione is an abundant natural tripeptide found within almost all cells. Glutathione is highly reactive and is often found conjugated to other molecules via its sulfhydryl moiety. It instils several vital roles within a cell including antioxidation, maintenance of the redox state, modulation of the immune response and detoxification of xenobiotics. With respect to cancer, glutathione metabolism is able to play both protective and pathogenic roles. It is crucial in the removal and detoxification of carcinogens, and alterations in this pathway, can have a profound effect on cell survival. However, by conferring resistance to a number of chemotherapeutic drugs, elevated levels of glutathione in tumour cells are able to protect such cells in bone marrow, breast, colon, larynx and lung cancers. Here we present a number of studies investigating the role of glutathione in promoting cancer, impeding chemotherapy, and the use of glutathione modulation to enhance anti-neoplastic therapy.
Galat, Edmund J.
Throughout the 1960's and 1970's, numerous optical system programs have been carried from conception to operational status. Industry responsibilities include definition of and resolution of critical technology problems, development of conceptual designs for operational and support hardware, and finally, development and production of the operational hardware. This paper will discuss the role and the contributions of the management team in the evolution of three typical high technology optical programs. The first case study to be discussed is the role of management in a high-risk/high-payoff technology program, exemplified by the DARPA High Altitude Large Optics (HALO) Program. The second case study is based on Itek's involvement in the definition phases of the Space Tele-scope Program. The last case to be examined is the role of management in a major optical program directed at producing operational hardware in a timely, cost-effective manner.
Criticizes Belbin's team role theory on the basis that roles are appropriate only in static organizations. Argues that most teams have no set roles and members interchange them. Suggests that all team members be trained to manage teamwork effectively. (SK)
Robinson, Sharon E.; Skarie, Elizabeth K.
A study of 91 professional women revealed that internal locus of control was significantly related to three job role stresses (role ambiguity, nonparticipation in decision making, and role overload) and to fear of success. (Author/ABB)
WEIDLE, H. ULRICH; BIRZELE, FABIAN; KOLLMORGEN, GWEN; RÜGER, RÜDIGER
Exosomes are important contributors to cell−cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes. PMID:28031234
Lee, Yoo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk
Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in cellular homeostasis under basal and stressed conditions. Autophagy is crucial for normal liver physiology and the pathogenesis of liver diseases. During the last decade, the function of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated extensively. Currently, autophagy is thought to play a dual role in HCC, i.e., autophagy is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor suppression. Recent investigations of autophagy have suggested that autophagy biomarkers can facilitate HCC prognosis and the establishment of therapeutic approaches. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of autophagy and discuss recent evidence for its role in HCC.
Although marketing has a well-established role in healthcare, few publications on the role of marketing in transplantation exist. In addition, the field of organ transplantation presents some unique marketing challenges because of the limited availability of organs. Marketing is essential to the success of transplantation services. An effective market planning process includes several steps: an assessment of the current program; analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; a competitive analysis; the identification of target audiences; setting of marketing goals, strategies, and tactics; and developing methods for tracking and evaluation. Two often overlooked needs are to assess readiness for marketing and internal marketing.
Weidle, Ulrich H; Birzele, Fabian; Kollmorgen, Gwen; Rüger, Rüdiger
Exosomes are important contributors to cell-cell communication and their role as diagnostic markers for cancer and the pathogenesis for cancer is under intensive investigation. Here, we focus on their role in metastasis-related processes. We discuss their impact regarding promotion of invasion and migration of tumor cells, conditioning of lymph nodes, generation of premetastatic niches and organotropism of metastasis. Furthermore, we highlight interactions of exosomes with bone marrow and stromal components such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, myeloid- and other immune-related cells in the context of metastases. For all processes as described above, we outline molecular and cellular components for therapeutic intervention with metastatic processes.
Elhelu, Mohamed A.
Macrophages play a significant part in immunity and immune responses. They assume a defensive role exhibited by their ability to carry on phagocytosis of parasites and microbes. They regulate lymphocyte activation and proliferation and they are essential in the activation process of T- and B-lymphocytes by antigens and allogenic cells. Enhanced bactericidal activity of “activated macrophages” is based on immunologically linked mechanisms involving lymphocytes. Macrophages kill ingested microbes but the mechanism by which this is accomplished is not completely understood. This paper discusses the role of macrophages in relation to immunity. PMID:6343621
Groll, Michael; Clausen, Tim
The 20S proteasome is a large, cylinder-shaped protease that is found in all domains of life and plays a crucial role in cellular protein turnover. It has multiple catalytic centers located within the hollow cavity of a molecular cage. This architecture prevents unwanted degradation of endogenous proteins and promotes processive degradation of substrates by restricting the dissociation of partially digested polypeptides. Although this kind of self-compartmentalization is generally conserved, the proteasomes of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes show many differences in architecture, subunit composition and regulation. The structure of the 20S proteasome and its inherent role in the regulation of proteasome function are gradually being elucidated.
Tang, Chunling; Xiang, Zhonghuai; Cui, Hongjuan
Tumorigenesis is a complex process that is regulated by a variety of network signals. With the continuous development of the process, tumor cells gradually exhibit lots of hallmarks.Tumor cells have the characteristics of unlimited proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, evading immune surveillance, among others. As a unique organelles, mitochondria play an important role in cellular energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species producing and apoptosis process. Particularly, mitochondria have a close relationship with tumor development. In this review, we focus on the essential role of mitochondria in tumor cells development.
The functions of adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been extensively investigated during the past decade. Numerous studies have shown that adult neurogenesis may play an important role in the hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. This study evaluated the influence of exercise on hippocampal neurogenesis, neural plasticity, neurotrophic factors, and cognition. Areas of research focused on enhancing effect of exercise for adult hippocampal neurogenesis and protective role of exercise against brain diseases. The present study suggests that exercise improves brain functions and prevents decline of cognition across the lifespan. Understanding of neurobiological mechanisms of exercise on brain functions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27807514
Newcombe, Nora S; Ambady, Nalini; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gomez, Louis; Klahr, David; Linn, Marcia; Miller, Kevin; Mix, Kelly
Improving mathematics and science education in the United States has been a matter of national concern for over half a century. Psychology has a vital role to play in this enterprise. In this article, the authors review the kinds of contributions that psychology can make in four areas: (a) early understanding of mathematics, (b) understanding of science, (c) social and motivational aspects of involvement in mathematics and science, and (d) assessment of learning in mathematics and science. They also examine challenges to psychology's playing a central and constructive role and make recommendations for overcoming those challenges.
The role of expert witnesses in medical malpractice litigation is often misunderstood. Much maligned, the expert has been the subject of castigation by a range of people, from his professional colleagues to the jurists who preside over his testimony. From an academic perspective, the expert witness is a necessary evil, and his denigration is his own doing; for the expert is a neutral character who creates his own professional persona. This purpose of this article is to serve as a primer for those interested in understanding the role that the expert is supposed to play in litigation, and the factors surrounding his activities.
Suchanek, Stepan; Grega, Tomas; Zavoral, Miroslav
The role of the surrounding equipment in endoscopic complications has not been published widely. However, an adequate understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of such devices might be helpful to avoid unnecessary problems during endoscopy. This is an overview of the basic principles, benefits and possible harms of electrical power units, medical gases and vital sign monitoring equipment. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the approach to the electrosurgical unit settings; periprocedural precautions, minimizing the risk of interference between endoscopic equipment and other electrical devices; the appropriate selection of instruments regarding the electrosurgical outcome and the role of carbon dioxide, argon plasma coagulation, pulse oximetry and capnography.
Xie, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhiyong; Chen, Fangman; Yuan, Yao; Wang, Jiayi; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qianming
Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play essential roles in organ development during the embryonic period, and regulate tissue repair in adults. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in FGFR signalling are involved in diverse types of cancer. In this review, we focus on aberrant regulation of FGFRs in pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), including altered expression and subcellular location, aberrant isoform splicing and mutations. We also provide an overview of oncogenic roles of each FGFR and its downstream signalling pathways in regulating OSCC cell proliferation and metastasis. Finally, we discuss potential application of FGFRs as anti-cancer targets in the preclinical environment and in clinical practice.
Almpani, Konstantinia; Kolokitha, Olga-Elpis
The role of third molars in the oral cavity has been extensively studied over the years. Literature includes numerous diagnostic and treatment alternatives regarding the third molars. However, an issue that has not been discussed at the same level is their involvement in orthodontic therapy. The aim of this study is to present a review of the contemporary literature regarding the most broadly discussed aspects of the multifactorial role of third molars in orthodontics and which are of general dental interest too. PMID:25685759
Ford, Alan; Peat, F. David
It is argued that language plays an active role in the development of scientific thought. A research project is outlined which will investigate this hypothesis and, in addition, focus on such questions as the role of mathematics in science and the status of the genetic code. “Nothing is more usual than for philosophers to encroach on the province of grammarians, and to engage in disputes of words, while they imagine they are handling controversies of the deepest importance and concern.”—David Hume.
Chertok, M.A. )
There are a myriad of federal, state and local permits which must be obtained before a resource recovery facility may be built and operated. Invariably, the development of such a facility also entails the preparation of an EIS. While these processes involve extensive technical data and scientific analyses in a variety of areas, the attorney plays an integral role in assuring that such information is properly integrated into the environmental and permitting process, and that the administrative record can withstand judicial scrutiny. This book focuses on the attorney's role.
Software will play a critical role throughout the Space Station Program. This presentation sets the stage and prompts participant interaction at the Software Issues Forum. The presentation is structured into three major topics: (1) an overview of the concept and status of the Space Station Program; (2) several charts designed to lay out the scope and role of software; and (3) information addressing the four specific areas selected for focus at the forum, specifically: software management, the software development environment, languages, and standards. NASA's current thinking is highlighted and some of the relevant critical issues are raised.
Babu, G.; Bhuyan, G.C.; Prasad, G.P.; Anitha, S
Ayuveda “the science of life” deals with various dimensions of human being. In this age old science, psychological factors have been given equal importance as physiological factors in the etiology of various diseases. Though there are so many rejuvenation therapies, Achara Rasayana is mainly advocated for psychosomatic disorders. Chittodvega (anxiety neurosis) is one among those psychological diseases in which, the code of conduct (Achara Rasayana) plays an important role in both etiology as well as treatment. Here an attempt has been taken to clarify the role of Achara Rasayana in the disease Chittodvega. PMID:22557248
Wang, Chunxin; Youle, Richard J.
Mitochondria play key roles in activating apoptosis in mammalian cells. Bcl-2 family members regulate the release of proteins from the space between the mitochondrial inner and outer membrane that, once in the cytosol, activate caspase proteases that dismantle cells and signal efficient phagocytosis of cell corpses. Here we review the extensive literature on proteins released from the intermembrane space and consider genetic evidence for and against their roles in apoptosis activation. We also compare and contrast apoptosis pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mammals that indicate major mysteries remaining to be solved. PMID:19659442
Kola, Blerina; Boscaro, Marco; Rutter, Guy A; Grossman, Ashley B; Korbonits, Márta
Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a regulator of cellular and systemic energy homeostasis. It mediates some of the effects of peripheral hormones such as leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin, and it is involved in the insulin-sensitizing role of the antidiabetic drug metformin. There is increasing evidence that AMPK has a central role in mediating the appetite-modulating and metabolic effects of many other hormones and substances, including the cannabinoids. Recent studies have illustrated the interaction between hormones and AMPK, and highlighted AMPK as a potential target for the development of tissue-specific AMPK modulators in the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
Writing is often seen as having a minor role in second language learning. This article explores recent research that suggests that writing can have a facilitative role in language development. In particular, it focuses on three features of writing: (1) its slower pace, and (2) the enduring record that it leaves, both of which can encourage…
Çerkez, Yagmur; Altinay, Zehra; Altinay, Fahriye; Bashirova, Elnara
The research study aims to explore the essence of group work in drama and role playing for teaching practice inline with the nature of collaborative learning process. This research study has qualitative nature by capturing experiences of volunteer ninety pre-service teachers about group works, gained skills from drama and role playing in their…
Gray, Lori F.
This study utilized symbolic interaction as a framework to examine the impact of mobility on four veteran elementary general music teachers' identities, roles, and perceptions of role support. Previous research has focused on teacher identity formation among preservice and novice teachers; veteran teachers are less frequently represented in the…
Ahonen, Elsi; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina
In recent decades, many educational reforms have been implemented that aim to effect a change in teachers' and pupils' roles by promoting meaningful learning. Yet, little is known about how teachers perceive these roles as a part of their professional belief system. In this study, 68 Finnish comprehensive school teachers were interviewed. The data…
Crispeels, Janet H.; Martin, Kathleen J.; Harari, Itamar; Strait, Cheryl C.; Rodarte, Marisol A.
Drawing on video, interview, survey, and observational data, analyzes four major actions by teacher leadership teams to explore the team's role-defining efforts. Using event mapping, open systems, and role theory, highlights complex interactions as teachers and principals implemented reforms challenging hierarchical patterns. Systems thinking is…
Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh
The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…
Siu, Oi-ling; Lu, Jia-fang; Brough, Paula; Lu, Chang-qin; Bakker, Arnold B.; Kalliath, Thomas; O'Driscoll, Michael; Phillips, David R.; Chen, Wei-qing; Lo, Danny; Sit, Cindy; Shi, Kan
This article proposes a theoretical model of work-family enrichment and tests the mediating role of work engagement. The inclusion of work engagement extends prior research on work-family interface, and allows for examination of the effects of role resources (job resources, family support) on work-family enrichment. A two-wave survey was conducted…
Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten
This article reports of an ethnographic study conducted in two academic research centers. The article is centrally directed at the role of digital technologies and devices in contemporary academic work, and more particularly at the role of the screen in the daily composition of this work. Three central questions are raised. First, which positional…
Kaiser, Susan; And Others
Explored the role of clothing in sex-role socialization by comparing stereotypic clothing-play cognitions with overt play behavior relative to dress. A multi-method approach, including observations and interviews, was used to study the behavior and cognitions of 39 preschool girls. (Author/DST)
Medford, Robert E.; Miskel, Cecil
The investigation examined the relationship among role conflict, role ambiguity, and motivation to work of teacher-negotiators. The theoretical rationale for the study was formulated from the finding of Walton and McKersie, Deutsch, Vidmar and McGrath, and Blum concerning the negotiator's conflict with his adversary, his dependence on his…
A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)
Camara, Wayne J.
Psychological testing has played a major role in the American Psychological Association (APA) because testing and assessment are important aspects of what psychologists do; tests assist psychologists in diagnosis and treatment. From its earliest years, APA has had one or more committees concerned with testing. The present Committee on…
Murr, Lawrence E.; Williams, James B.
Discusses emerging roles for the library and librarian, including services in the following areas: (1) special collection management and reference; (2) information systems; (3) expert systems; (4) electronic publishing; (5) telecommunications networking; and (6) computer support. The technologies of artificial intelligence, graphic imaging,…
Khan, Ehsan Ullah
Hypertension is a prevalent chronic illness that is implicated in many cardiovascular diseases. Practice nurses and the district nursing team have a major role to play in its management. In this article, current British Hypertension Society guidelines are presented and discussed with regards to their evidence base. Implications for nursing practice are highlighted.
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Explains how community-based organizations (CBOs) have become increasingly ineffective in fighting unemployment and how the role of such organizations has become that of watchdog for CETA activities since that 1973 legislation. Details the current conflicts between SER, CETA, and local government in Houston, Texas. (SB)
Crow, Gary M.; Slater, Robert O.
This monograph explores the notion of viewing leadership as a single, interconnecting system at work in the internal and external school environment, rather than as a collection of individual roles. The document explores what the new leadership paradigm--a decentralized, collaborative model--means to schools. Leadership is viewed as an…
Hagey, Allison R; Warren, Michelle P
Menopause and the aging process itself cause many physiologic changes, which explain the increased prevalence of chronic diseases observed in postmenopausal women. Exercise and nutrition play important roles in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, and depression.
The role of a district's technology leader, known by a variety of titles including "chief technology officer" (CTO), "chief information officer" (CIO), "director of technology" and others, is changing rapidly in school systems around the country. These administrators principally have managed the nuts and bolts of…
Worch, Eric A.; Scheuermann, Amy M.; Haney, Jodi J.
The activity shared here is an animal role-playing lesson developed, field-tested, and refined for "Nature's Neighborhood", a newly designed children's education facility at the Toledo Zoo. The activity is targeted at students in kindergarten through second grade, but it can be adapted for use in grades three and four as well. Through…
Barnett, George A.
The role of linguistic relativity was examined through the use of multidimensional scaling (MDS). Direct pair comparisons of the similarity among a set of translated equivalent lexical items dealing with the mass media were made by subjects monolingual in English or French or bilingual using either of the languages. Using MDS as a measure of…
Purpose: This study aims to examine the roles of stories in the innovation process. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative literature review was used to identify and analyze studies that examined stories of innovation in various organizational settings. The conceptual framework of the review was based on three perspectives of organizational…
Parsegian, V. Lawrence
The author elaborates on the thesis that much of the confusion and argument about the role of nuclear energy in meeting the energy needs of the nation and the world is caused by failure to place the known facts in perspective with respect to time, to hazards that accompany the use of energy in any form, to economics, and to ultimate limitations in…
LONG, RICHARD P.; RHODES, ERIC F.
PROBLEMS OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL'S ROLE AS THE MIDDLEMAN IN COLLECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN SCHOOL BOARDS AND TEACHER ORGANIZATIONS ARE IDENTIFIED WITHIN THE NEW RELATIONSHIP OF TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS. THE PRINCIPAL IS VIEWED AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBLE DECISIONMAKER ON QUESTIONS OF ADMINISTRATION…
Frank, Robert A.
This dissertation examined primary caregiving father families and how they construct their roles in contrast to primary caregiving mother families. A Self-report survey instrument was constructed. and administered to a sample of 93 married couples in the United States with children under the age of 6. Surveys were coded by couple, analyzed, and…
Neubauer, Heidi A.; Pham, Duyen H.; Zebol, Julia R.; Moretti, Paul A.B.; Peterson, Amanda L.; Leclercq, Tamara M.; Chan, Huasheng; Powell, Jason A.; Pitman, Melissa R.; Samuel, Michael S.; Bonder, Claudine S.; Creek, Darren J.; Gliddon, Briony L.; Pitson, Stuart M.
While both human sphingosine kinases (SK1 and SK2) catalyze the generation of the pleiotropic signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate, these enzymes appear to be functionally distinct. SK1 has well described roles in promoting cell survival, proliferation and neoplastic transformation. The roles of SK2, and its contribution to cancer, however, are much less clear. Some studies have suggested an anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic function for SK2, while others indicate it has a pro-survival role and its inhibition can have anti-cancer effects. Our analysis of gene expression data revealed that SK2 is upregulated in many human cancers, but only to a small extent (up to 2.5-fold over normal tissue). Based on these findings, we examined the effect of different levels of cellular SK2 and showed that high-level overexpression reduced cell proliferation and survival, and increased cellular ceramide levels. In contrast, however, low-level SK2 overexpression promoted cell survival and proliferation, and induced neoplastic transformation in vivo. These findings coincided with decreased nuclear localization and increased plasma membrane localization of SK2, as well as increases in extracellular S1P formation. Hence, we have shown for the first time that SK2 can have a direct role in promoting oncogenesis, supporting the use of SK2-specific inhibitors as anti-cancer agents. PMID:27588496
Costin, Frank; And Others
The hypothesis that views of rape which place women at a disadvantage are positively related to beliefs which restrict the rights and roles of women in our society is tested. Two scales, the R scale and the W scale, based on a survey of beliefs about rape (Hubert Feild) and the attitudes toward women's scale (Janet Spence and Robert Helmreich),…
Chejne, Anwar G.
This book reviews the position Arabic has traditionally occupied in Arab-Muslim society, and its role in the task of building a nation state. The work is aimed to aid students of Arabic and Arabic lore and add to a greater understanding of the historical factors which made Arabic a revered language in Arabic-Muslim cultural and religious…
Diamond, Myrna Elyse
This descriptive case study investigated the role of narrative in multimedia learning and teaching and observed how teachers applied their understanding of narrative, and new constructivist technologies, to design multimedia presentations for instruction. The study looked specifically at the cognitive strategies, visual narrative concepts, and…
Dowdy, Helen B.
This manual provides information on trustees' roles, responsibilities, and relationships with other agencies in the state. Following a foreword and introduction, a historical overview is provided of the North Carolina Community College System, including a description of the system's guiding philosophy of total education, mission statement,…
Garai, Josef E.
The roles that mental health professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mental health professionals must re-examine the meaning of mental health in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…
Moore, Tim; Clavier, David E.
Terrorists seek recognition for their cause by using violence to create public fear which will force the government into repressive counter-measures. The mass media play a vital role in this strategy. News reports of terrorism may magnify the climate of fear, thereby augmenting the public's overreaction. Moreover, broadcast of terrorist acts may…
Swartling, Fredrik J.; Grimmer, Matthew R.; Hackett, Christopher S.; Northcott, Paul A.; Fan, Qi-Wen; Goldenberg, David D.; Lau, Jasmine; Masic, Selma; Nguyen, Kim; Yakovenko, Slava; Zhe, Xiao-Ning; Flynn Gilmer, Heather C.; Collins, Rodney; Nagaoka, Mai; Phillips, Joanna J.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Tihan, Tarik; Vandenberg, Scott R.; James, C. David; Tanaka, Kohichi; Taylor, Michael D.; Weiss, William A.; Chesler, Louis
Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling drives a minority of MB, correlating with desmoplastic pathology and favorable outcome. The majority, however, arises independently of SHH and displays classic or large cell anaplastic (LCA) pathology and poor prognosis. To identify common signaling abnormalities, we profiled mRNA, demonstrating misexpression of MYCN in the majority of human MB and negligible expression in normal cerebella. We clarified a role in pathogenesis by targeting MYCN (and luciferase) to cerebella of transgenic mice. MYCN-driven MB showed either classic or LCA pathologies, with Shh signaling activated in ∼5% of tumors, demonstrating that MYCN can drive MB independently of Shh. MB arose at high penetrance, consistent with a role for MYCN in initiation. Tumor burden correlated with bioluminescence, with rare metastatic spread to the leptomeninges, suggesting roles for MYCN in both progression and metastasis. Transient pharmacological down-regulation of MYCN led to both clearance and senescence of tumor cells, and improved survival. Targeted expression of MYCN thus contributes to initiation, progression, and maintenance of MB, suggesting a central role for MYCN in pathogenesis. PMID:20478998
The role of apoptosis in neurodegeneration in developing animals and in adults has become increasingly apparent in the past ten years. Normal apoptosis occurs in the CNS from the embryonic stage through senescence, with different cells in each region of the nervous system having ...
Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol
Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…
Nithipatikom, Kasem; Campbell, William B.
Summary Eicosanoids, the metabolites of arachidonic acid, have diverse functions in the regulation of cancer including prostate cancer. This review will provide an overview of the roles of eicosanoids and endocannabinoids and their potential as therapeutic targets for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:24563660
Jasper, Cynthia R.; Roach-Higgins, Mary Ellen
Examined conflict regarding what form of dress is appropriate for Roman Catholic priest. Data from 5,475 American Catholic priests revealed that priests who conformed to church regulations regarding dress differed from nonconformists in beliefs about their roles as priests and in their opinions of church reform, commitment to the priesthood,…
Barnett, Rosalind Chait
Strong beliefs persist about the negative effects of maternal employment on women, their marriages, and their children, in spite of considerable systematic research indicating that, on average, employment has positive effects. The underlying assumption is that the roles of wife and mother are "natural" roles and are therefore performed without undue stress. In contrast, the role of employee is seen as "unnatural" and therefore highly demanding. These beliefs affect clinical practice, fostering a concern among mental health professionals about whether women can handle the demands of multiple roles without serious negative health consequences. It is therefore important to evaluate these beliefs in light of the empirical literature. Such an evaluation is especially critical at this particular time, when demographic trends suggest that the number of employed women with children is increasing, that paid employment will be a central component in most women's life experiences, and that as a society we are highly unlikely to return to the days of the "traditional" family. The need for careful scrutiny is underscored by the current political climate, in which there is much rhetoric implying that maternal employment "causes" many of our social ills--school dropouts, drug abuse, juvenile violence, and divorce.
A 13-part television series called "Freestyle" was designed to see if stereotypes about women and work could be changed and was targeted at fourth- through sixth-graders. "Freestyle's" effects were evaluated among more than 7,000 children in 7 cities who completed identical pre- and post-measures assessing sex-role beliefs,…
Discusses the role that teacher-librarians should take in public schools. Highlights include the impact of teacher-librarians on learning outcomes; sexism; administrators' and teachers' views of teacher-librarians; and a strategic planning process, including external and internal scanning, organizational analysis, and vision and mission…
Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie
The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of trust in the collaborative learning processes that underpin innovation as a competitive strategy in organizations. Design/methodology/approach: As a conceptual paper, the argument is framed by academic perspectives, drawn from the academic literature on the topic and by professional and…
The role of motivation in second language learning is explored. Motivation involves positive learner and teacher attitudes which must be sustained through every stage of the learning process. Factors that influence motivation are described, including: teaching methodology, understanding meanings of words, mastery, objectives, classroom techniques,…
Dunn, Steven; Jasinski, Dale
A vital component of a firm's human resource management is its new hire orientation (NHO) program. The authors' review of extant literature suggests that NHO programs can be organized based on a reconceptualization of human capital. Using their typology, a firm can organize the role and scope of its NHO program, assign responsibility for the…
Leach, Wesley B.; Owens, Vyrle W.
The authors discuss the qualities possessed by a model change agent and roles played by him as resident technical participant: analyst, advisor, advocate, systems linker, innovator, and trainer. Besides presenting the teaching plan for change agents, the authors call upon their Peace Corps experiences to provide specific examples of what is…
Bcl-3 is an established oncogene in hematologic malignancies, such as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that it also participates in progression of diverse solid tumors. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of Bcl3 role in solid tumors progression, including some new insights in its possible molecular mechanisms of action. PMID:22195643
Miller, David B.
"Five roles are considered by which systematic, quantified field research can augment controlled laboratory experimentation in terms of increasing the validity of laboratory studies." Advocates that comparative psychologists should "take more initiative in designing, executing, and interpreting our experiments with regard to the natural history of…
Adams, John; Adams, Robin
Discusses rise of videotex and teletext systems (delivery of graphic and textual information through electronic systems) in the United States, noting the role of libraries and librarians in providing these services. Corporate involvement, U.S. markets, library reference services, and major issues confronting growth are noted. Two references are…
Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T
Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.
This article investigates recent literature in the area of classroom conversation and dialogue with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the role that classroom conversation and dialogue plays in learning. It also investigates literature on the constructivist, collaborative nature of technology education and suggests that to enhance our…
Chernyaev, A P; Belousov, A V; Varzar, S M; Borchegovskaya, P Y; Nikolaeva, A A; Krusanov, G A
The paper describes the role of radionuclide technologies among the nuclear-physical methods used in medicine. The condition and prospects of the development of nuclear technology with use of radionuclides in medicine, and in particular, the method of brachytherapy are analyzed. The analysis of the current state of applying radionuclide facilities in medicine is provided.
The embodiment of this work is a table top game to explore cyber security and network defense concepts and cost. The game structure is such that it provides players an immersive environment to play a given role in cyber security to investigate the result of infrastructure and response decisions.
Milgrom, F.; Abeyounis, C.J.; Albini, B.
This book contains papers under 10 subject headings. The headings are: Production and Function of Antibodies, Protective Role of Antibodies, Antibodies to Foreign and Neoplastic Cells, Autoantibodies, Regulatory Mechanisms, Allergy, Immune Complexes, Antibodies in Pregnancy and Aging, Administration of Antibodies for Prevention and Therapy, and Abstracts of Poster Presentations.
Bradburn, Frances Bryant
This article describes a process one librarian discovered and implemented as she observed the changing role of the librarian and the library. Frustration was growing due to the gradual erosion of school libraries as they struggled to remain, with electronic books, video streaming, and databases supplanting many of the physical resources in the…
Office of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.
The role of education in developing man-environment relationships is portrayed in this essay by the Office of Education (OE). Environmental/Ecological Education (EEE) is defined as the way to increase an individual's awareness, appreciation, understanding, motivation for action, and skills necessary to maintain his world and enjoy life. Further,…
Bräu, Karin; Harring, Marius; Weyl, Christin
This article on hand discusses results of an ethnographic study which aims to perform a detailed description of practices of doing homework in a domestic environment. Based on the international state of research, first the question and the methodical approach will be explained, subsequently the role conflicts and stress ratios developed while…
Sinder, Benjamin P; Pettit, Allison R; McCauley, Laurie K
Macrophages are present in nearly all tissues and are critical for development, homeostasis, and regeneration. Resident tissue macrophages of bone, termed osteal macrophages, are recently classified myeloid cells that are distinct from osteoclasts. Osteal macrophages are located immediately adjacent to osteoblasts, regulate bone formation, and play diverse roles in skeletal homeostasis. Genetic or pharmacological modulation of macrophages in vivo results in significant bone phenotypes, and these phenotypes depend on which macrophage subsets are altered. Macrophages are also key mediators of osseous wound healing and fracture repair, with distinct roles at various stages of the repair process. A central function of macrophages is their phagocytic ability. Each day, billions of cells die in the body and efferocytosis (phagocytosis of apoptotic cells) is a critical process in both clearing dead cells and recruitment of replacement progenitor cells to maintain homeostasis. Recent data suggest a role for efferocytosis in bone biology and these new mechanisms are outlined. Finally, although macrophages have an established role in primary tumors, emerging evidence suggests that macrophages in bone support cancers which preferentially metastasize to the skeleton. Collectively, this developing area of osteoimmunology raises new questions and promises to provide novel insights into pathophysiologic conditions as well as therapeutic and regenerative approaches vital for skeletal health. PMID:26531055
The notion that women internalize personality characteristics that render them psychologically, socially and intellectually crippled is a denial of experience. The study of sex roles cuts across several disciplines, as well as being the major focus of women's liberation, thus creating the possibility for reappraisal of the field and its…
Ramstetter, Catherine L.; Murray, Robert; Garner, Andrew S.
Background: Recess is at the heart of a vigorous debate over the role of schools in promoting optimal child development and well-being. Reallocating time to accentuate academic concerns is a growing trend and has put recess at risk. Conversely, pressure to increase activity in school has come from efforts to combat childhood obesity. The purpose…
Arterberry, Christopher M.
Explores the role of macronutrients in exercise, examining research pertaining to exercise intensity, exercise duration, macronutrient intake, and mode of exercise as they pertain to both athletes and recreational exercisers. The paper explains that coaches and trainers must interpret and apply research findings to individual exercisers,…
Singer, Melissa; Radinsky, Joshua; Goldman, Susan R.
This article examines the role of gesture in the shared meaning-making processes of 6th-grade students studying plate tectonics using a data visualization tool; specifically, a geographic information system. Students' verbal and gestural characterizations of key concepts of plate motions (i.e., "subduction", "rift", and "buckling") were…
Ahmed, E; Holmström, S J M
Siderophores are organic compounds with low molecular masses that are produced by microorganisms and plants growing under low iron conditions. The primary function of these compounds is to chelate the ferric iron [Fe(III)] from different terrestrial and aquatic habitats and thereby make it available for microbial and plant cells. Siderophores have received much attention in recent years because of their potential roles and applications in various areas of environmental research. Their significance in these applications is because siderophores have the ability to bind a variety of metals in addition to iron, and they have a wide range of chemical structures and specific properties. For instance, siderophores function as biocontrols, biosensors, and bioremediation and chelation agents, in addition to their important role in weathering soil minerals and enhancing plant growth. The aim of this literature review is to outline and discuss the important roles and functions of siderophores in different environmental habitats and emphasize the significant roles that these small organic molecules could play in applied environmental processes. PMID:24576157
Bryant, Fred B.; And Others
Although the role of reminiscence in subjective adjustment has been studied among older adults, very little research has examined the functions of reminiscence in the everyday lives of younger people. A study was conducted to extend previous work on reminiscence in the elderly to younger populations by exploring the relationship between…
Donnenwerth, Gregory V.; Norvell, Melissa J.
The paper explores sex-role determinants of interpersonal interaction and reviews various theories of equity in human interaction. Equity is interpreted as occurring in human interaction when all participants in a relationship receive equal outcomes relative to their inputs. The document is presented in four major sections. Section I reviews…
Madden, Margaret E.; And Others
One hundred adults ages 18 to 42 completed measures of jealousy and dependency in romantic relationships and of sex role traditionalism. Traditionalism and jealousy were correlated, as predicted, but dependency and jealousy were not. For men, but not for women, traditionalism and jealousy were positively correlated. Dependency and traditionalism…
Newcombe, Nora S.; Ambady, Nalini; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gomez, Louis; Klahr, David; Linn, Marcia; Miller, Kevin; Mix, Kelly
Improving mathematics and science education in the United States has been a matter of national concern for over half a century. Psychology has a vital role to play in this enterprise. In this article, the authors review the kinds of contributions that psychology can make in four areas: (a) early understanding of mathematics, (b) understanding of…
Rollins, Nancy; And Others
A child patient may play one of several fixed roles in the family. As scapegoat, his shortcomings are emphasized; as baby, his dependence, weakness, and immaturity are rewarded; as pet, love and praise, some undeserved, are won; and, as peacemaker, he must promote peace at the cost of suppressing his own feelings. (ST)
Casey, Patricia; Dunlap, Karen; Brown, Kristen; Davison, Michele
This study explores the role elementary school principals play in science education. Specifically, the study employed an online survey of 16 elementary school principals at high-performing campuses in North Texas to explore their perceptions of how they influenced science education on their campuses. The survey used a combination of Likert-type…
Recent years have brought an increasing awareness that advertising sells images of success, normalcy, sexuality, and love as well as specific products. Stereotypes of gender roles, reinforced through ideal images of physical beauty and body language, have negative effects on both men and women. The author concludes with a discussion of strategies for effecting change.
I will first describe my role as a Research Ecologist with the EPA’s Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western Ecology Division, in Corvallis, Oregon, an example of a government agency conducting research in E...
Fawcett, Angela; Nicolson, Rod
Introduction: In this review article we outline the thinking and evidence behind our hypothesis that the problems suffered by dyslexic people may be attributable to cerebellar deficit. Method: Firstly, we provide an overview of recent evidence that proposes a central role for the cerebellum in cognitive skills, in particular those scaffolded by…
Shaikh, Zaffar Ahmed; Khoja, Shakeel Ahmed
This paper aims to discuss the changing roles and competencies of a teacher in context of prevailing developments accomplished by the vast availability of social software, which have made easy the development of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs). This has been accomplished by an in-depth review of the literature on teacher's socially situated…
Haussmann, Monika Johanna
Research has confirmed the prevalence of depression in women, based on theoretical explanations that encompass genetic/endocrinological factors, the learned helplessness model, the cognitive model of depression, the effects of marital and occupational roles, and/or social discrimination. Women (N=215) completed a questionnaire which examined…
Chun, Dorothy M.
In this review article for the 20th Anniversary Issue, I look back at research from the last two decades on the role of computer technology in understanding and facilitating second language acquisition (SLA) and forward to what future research might investigate. To be discussed are both how technology has been used to conduct research on SLA…
Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung
There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…
Miller, Joan G.
This chapter argues for the essential role of culture in forming the basic constructs and theories of developmental psychology. The case is made for the need to overcome the cultural insularity of core developmental concepts and methods in order to create a psychology that is more truly universal.
Duncombe, Sydney; Heikkinen, Michael H.
Presents a teaching technique in which the instructor alternately dons hats that represent opposing viewpoints. Discusses the educational value of the hat technique in teaching politics and government. Explains the role of students in the exercise and provides a students' evaluation of the technique. Maintains the technique makes abstract concepts…
Grote, Caleb W.; Wright, Douglas E.
The peripheral nervous system is one of several organ systems that are profoundly affected in diabetes. The longstanding view is that insulin does not have a major role in modulating neuronal function in both central and peripheral nervous systems is now being challenged. In the setting of insulin deficiency or excess insulin, it is logical to propose that insulin dysregulation can contribute to neuropathic changes in sensory neurons. This is particularly important as sensory nerve damage associated with prediabetes, type 1 and type 2 diabetes is so prevalent. Here, we discuss the current experimental literature related to insulin's role as a potential neurotrophic factor in peripheral nerve function, as well as the possibility that insulin deficiency plays a role in diabetic neuropathy. In addition, we discuss how sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system respond to insulin similar to other insulin-sensitive tissues. Moreover, studies now suggest that sensory neurons can also become insulin resistant like other tissues. Collectively, emerging studies are revealing that insulin signaling pathways are active contributors to sensory nerve modulation, and this review highlights this novel activity and should provide new insight into insulin's role in both peripheral and central nervous system diseases. PMID:28066166
Hayat, Shamsul; Hayat, Qaiser; Alyemeni, Mohammed Nasser; Wani, Arif Shafi; Pichtel, John; Ahmad, Aqil
When exposed to stressful conditions, plants accumulate an array of metabolites, particularly amino acids. Amino acids have traditionally been considered as precursors to and constituents of proteins, and play an important role in plant metabolism and development. A large body of data suggests a positive correlation between proline accumulation and plant stress. Proline, an amino acid, plays a highly beneficial role in plants exposed to various stress conditions. Besides acting as an excellent osmolyte, proline plays three major roles during stress, i.e., as a metal chelator, an antioxidative defense molecule and a signaling molecule. Review of the literature indicates that a stressful environment results in an overproduction of proline in plants which in turn imparts stress tolerance by maintaining cell turgor or osmotic balance; stabilizing membranes thereby preventing electrolyte leakage; and bringing concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within normal ranges, thus preventing oxidative burst in plants. Reports indicate enhanced stress tolerance when proline is supplied exogenously at low concentrations. However, some reports indicate toxic effects of proline when supplied exogenously at higher concentrations. In this article, we review and discuss the effects of exogenous proline on plants exposed to various abiotic stresses. Numerous examples of successful application of exogenous proline to improve stress tolerance are presented. The roles played by exogenous proline under varying environments have been critically examined and reviewed. PMID:22951402
Sallis, James F.; McKenzie, Thomas L.
Analyzes contributions physical education makes to child and adult health. Topics discussed are current levels of U.S. children's physical activity; status of elementary physical education programs; health-related physical activity interventions; public health analysis of elementary physical education; and public health role and goal for physical…
The role of discrete symmetries in nuclear physics is briefly reviewed within the context of the algebraic cluster model (ACM). The symmetries D3 (triangle) for 3α and Td (tetrahedron) for 4α are discussed and evidence shown for their occurrence in 12C (D3) and 16O (Td).
Cooper, Eric; And Others
A group of seven conference papers, all dealing with the role of testing and evaluation in the schools, is presented in this document. The papers are as follows: (1) "Framework for Effective Schools" (Eric Cooper), which identifies indicators of efficacy, quality, and equity; (2) "Quality Indicators for Monitoring Equity"…
Explores the differences between shame and guilt in suicide, with a focus on experiential and developmental factors and on behavioral reactions to these emotions. Illustrates the role of shame as a motive for suicidal behavior and provides examples of suicidal behavior in Greek tragedy, Asian cultures, jails, and famous individuals. (RJM)
Matlock, John; Hogg, Richard
The merger of the Tennessee State University's institutional research office and the planning, management, and evaluation offices is described. The roles of the institutional research office before the merger were the collection and dissemination of institutional data, storing of data collected from other sources, and conducting special studies.…
Lee, David R.
A method for incorporating an examination of sex roles and position of women into an undergraduate course on geography of Africa is discussed. It is a regional geography course with a cultural emphasis. Five percent of the total instruction is devoted to the examination of women. This is justified because geographical concepts such as spatial…
Rosenberg, Andrew A; Halpern, Michael; Shulman, Seth; Wexler, Celia; Phartiyal, Pallavi
Private and political interests routinely conspire to sideline and misrepresent science and evidence in the public policy process. The Center for Science and Democracy, a new initiative at the Union of Concerned Scientists, endeavors to change this dynamic to strengthen the role of science in decision making.
Association for Career and Technical Education (ACTE), 2012
This Issue Brief explores the promising role that career and technical education programs play in addressing key student achievement issues facing urban schools. CTE programs engage urban students by providing rigorous and relevant coursework, fostering positive relationships, establishing clear pathways and connecting education and…
Discusses how mentoring in health promotion differs from other key support roles, noting what the underlying rationale is behind mentoring, how a mentoring program should be designed, what the historical and theoretical roots of mentoring are, and what strategies mentors can use to be more effective. A research agenda for the mentoring approach is…
treating a service member or veteran . Spouses can have a dramatic effect on the reintegration of the family after deployment and can be a major support...Physical Health in a Sample of Spouses of OEF/OIF Service Members .......... 37 Easing Reintegration : Telephone Support Groups for Spouses of...68 Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone BATTLEMIND Pilot Project
Examples of imagery and visualization in medicine, sports, and preservice teaching explore the potential of these techniques in mentoring relationships. They help proteges develop a positive self-image in a new role, make mentors' experience more explicit, and depict possible selves toward which proteges can work. (SK)
Alfred, Richard L.; Linder, Vincent
Stresses carefully planned preservice and inservice education for faculty to overcome negative past experiences and training and assume new leadership roles within community colleges. Describes characteristics of faculty alienation, including powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation, self-estrangement, and outlines redefined roles…
Surveys 82 Alabama legislators and finds officials' views of the press as adversary or agent of consensus relates to perceived value of media for job-relevant information. Suggests a dysfunction of the "watch-dog" role because those believing the consensus model found the press more useful than those seeing the press as an adversary. (MG)
Examines some of the research and theories on the role of metacognition in cognitive development, argues that students in English education classes can become better informed about their own learning strategies by engaging in self monitoring, and suggests several ways to introduce metacognitive activities in an English methods class. (HOD)
This paper describes some of the drivers for "education for sustainability" that exist in universities and also explores some of the rationales that underpin higher education's reluctance to engage more formally in education for sustainability. It attempts to provide a balanced commentary on the role and capability of higher education in…
ACTE Issue Briefs are designed to highlight the role of career and technical education (CTE) in a broader issue of national interest. Each Brief is designed to strengthen the voice of CTE related to the specific issue and to draw more attention to CTE activities and best practices around the country. The Briefs provide background information,…
Alibhai, M K; Balasundaram, I; Bridle, C; Holmes, S B
Cranioplasty is often undertaken as a joint neurosurgical and maxillofacial procedure. The principal aims remain to improve cosmesis and to protect the underlying brain. We report two cases of cranioplasty with subsequent improvement in neurological function and discuss the possible therapeutic role of cranioplasty.
Summarizes the main elements of the library preservation officer's role--planning, administering, and coordinating. Areas in which preservation and collection development staff work together at the University of Texas at Austin are then discussed, including bibliographic review, binding, grant projects, needs assessment, and storage facility…
Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree
This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…
Rothblum, Esther D.
This paper discusses possible roles of a counselor in affirming a client's lesbianism. In 1983, it was legal to be a lesbian in only 26 states. Of 55 other countries on which statistics were available, lesbianism was legal in 18 countries. The prevailing view on lesbianism by mental health professionals today seems to be one of cautious…
Gjonbalaj, Muje; Dema, Marjan; Miftari, Iliriana
Considering science as the main contributor to contemporary developments has encouraged us to raise a scientific discussion regarding the role of statistics in business decision-making and economic development. Statistics, as an applicative science, is growing and being widely applied in different fields and professions. Statistical thinking is…
Ruff, Richard R.; And Others
This paper examines potential roles vocational education could play to assist the military in meeting its training responsibilities within the context of three major military and training issues: survival of the All Volunteer Force, use of the Total Force Management concept, and demands of high technology. Discussion is divided into three…
Epstein, Leonard H.
Defines behavioral medicine as multidisciplinary field that combines research methods from behavioral and biomedical sciences. Examines the role of behavior theory in behavioral medicine. Uses new advances in basic research on learning to illustrate that findings from behavioral science have implications for the field of contemporary behavioral…
Frolek Clark, Gloria
Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…
Doan, S. N.
The way in which emotion interacts with cognition has been of great interest to researchers for hundreds of years. Emotion has been shown to play an important role in attention, learning and memory. However, the way in which emotion influences the basic process of word learning in infancy has largely been ignored. In the current paper, the…
Herlihy, Catherine S.
Discusses both the opportunities and challenges to academic librarians of information resources available on the Internet. Notes that, beyond mechanical expertise, there are intellectual problems regarding research skills and critical assessment that have increased with the sheer amount of information available. The academic librarian's role is to…
Segregation of roles into alternative accounts is a model which provides not only the ability to collaborate but also enables accurate accounting of resources consumed by collaborative projects, protects the resources and objects of such a project, and does not introduce new security vulnerabilities. The implementation presented here does not require users to remember additional passwords and provides a very simple consistent interface.
Upadhyay, Ravi Kant
Present review paper highlights role of BBB in endothelial transport of various substances into the brain. More specifically, permeability functions of BBB in transendothelial transport of various substances such as metabolic fuels, ethanol, amino acids, proteins, peptides, lipids, vitamins, neurotransmitters, monocarbxylic acids, gases, water, and minerals in the peripheral circulation and into the brain have been widely explained. In addition, roles of various receptors, ATP powered pumps, channels, and transporters in transport of vital molecules in maintenance of homeostasis and normal body functions have been described in detail. Major role of integral membrane proteins, carriers, or transporters in drug transport is highlighted. Both diffusion and carrier mediated transport mechanisms which facilitate molecular trafficking through transcellular route to maintain influx and outflux of important nutrients and metabolic substances are elucidated. Present review paper aims to emphasize role of important transport systems with their recent advancements in CNS protection mainly for providing a rapid clinical aid to patients. This review also suggests requirement of new well-designed therapeutic strategies mainly potential techniques, appropriate drug formulations, and new transport systems for quick, easy, and safe delivery of drugs across blood brain barrier to save the life of tumor and virus infected patients. PMID:27355037
Dar, Fatima Rehan
The purpose of the study was to find out how teachers role modeled and taught empathetic and pro-social skills at the primary level. The study was qualitative in nature and followed a case study approach. Observations of regular English language classes were done from Grades 1-5 to see if class lessons incorporated the said themes and whether…
This article deals with the role that the National Education Association (NEA) wants in the school improvement agenda. In this article, the author points out how pressure from supporters and critics, as well as the changing education landscape, challenge the union's strategic goals. Both the NEA and its smaller peer, the American Federation of…
Miller, Charles; Hokanson, Brad; Doering, Aaron; Brandt, Tom
This is the fourth and final installment in a series of articles presenting a new outlook on the methods of instructional design. These articles examine the nature of the process of instructional design and are meant to stimulate discussion about the roles of designers in the fields of instructional design, the learning sciences, and interaction…
Copeland, Gary A.; Kelly, Lynne
Defining communication reticence as anxiousness due to a lack of basic communication skills, a study was conducted to determine (1) whether significant differences exist in the distribution of sex roles between reticent and nonreticent populations, (2) whether reticents and nonreticents differ in masculinity and femininity, and (3) which qualities…
Discusses the role and importance of physics in the engineering curriculum, considering the need for physics knowledge in technology transfer and in preventing architectural disasters. Also discusses preuniversity physics preparation in Saudi Arabia and an optimum engineering physics curriculum, outlining a proposed four-semester physics course.…
Cunanan, Esmeralda S.; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn
The School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 emphasizes counselor involvement in improving the academic, career, and occupational opportunities of all students. This paper focuses on the problem of defining the role of the school counselor and provides a review of the literature in three areas: (1) student counselees and their needs; (2) the…
Ramey, Craig T.
This paper deals with three areas concerning early vocal development: (1) review and critique of existing experimental evidence suggesting that early vocal behavior has the properties of an operant response, (2) speculations concerning the role of non-verbal vocal behavior in early psychological development, and (3) suggestions for future…
Snow, Linda J.; Parsons, Jean L.
Investigates the differences among 300 college women in four sex-role categories with regard to sexual behavior and attitudes. Results indicated that androgynous women did not differ significantly from feminine and masculine women with regard to sexual functioning, while undifferentiated women were more restricted. (JAC)
Hall, Judith A.; Halberstadt, Amy G.
Reports on a meta-analysis of research studies on the relationship of encoding and decoding abilities to sex roles. Suggests that "feminine" interpersonal goals may be achieved without superior nonverbal communication ability, whereas "masculine" goals may require more ability to judge others' feelings and moods. (Author/ST)
In this article, the author discusses how the view society has taken in regard to the status and role of the artist has evolved over the centuries, and in different countries and cultures. In general, the public has sometimes lacked understanding and has not accepted some of the more avant-garde artworks, while some artists have achieved…
Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael
The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…
Interviews with four teachers, one parent, one assistant, and two ancillary helpers found that classroom teams possess little structure with minimal role definition. Participants erect defenses against the lack of definition and use a process termed "fraternity" to get along with one another and camouflage uncertainties and tensions. (SK)
A client's gender role plays an important part in his or her life, emotional well being, and the therapeutic relationship. The process of male socialization begins early in a boy's life, typically with primary care givers. In North American culture, men are conditioned to disconnect from relationships, minimize emotional pain, and deal with…
Children's status as research participants in applied linguistics has been largely overlooked even though unique methodological and ethical concerns arise in projects where children, rather than adults, are involved. This article examines the role of children as research participants in applied linguistics and discusses the limitations of…
In this paper, the role of computers in writing process was investigated. Last 25 years of journals were searched to find related articles. Articles and books were classified under prewriting, composing, and revising and editing headings. The review results showed that computers can make writers' job easy in the writing process. In addition,…
Cisler, Amanda; Bruce, Mary Alice
Collaboration between school counselors and principals is increasingly important in this accountability era. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role of principal as perceived by professional school counselors and principals, both in training and practicing. While similarities were found in two categories: Managing School…
Lee, Yoonhyoung; Kwon, Youan; Gordon, Peter C.
Two experiments used eye-tracking during reading to investigate the role of the consistency of the relative markedness alignment of noun phrases (NPs) in the processing of complex sentences in Korean. To do so, the animacy of the first NP was varied in both experiments to manipulate the relative markedness of NPs. In addition, case markings of the…
Institutional research (IR) is a multifaceted function, occurring at many levels and in many types of settings, addressing numerous audiences, and embracing an almost infinite array of topics. The IR community is well served by understanding the role that consultants play in the panoply of postsecondary education. With the growing complexity and…
Nelissen, Sofie; Lemmens, Evi; Geurts, Nathalie; Kramer, Peter; Maurer, Marcus; Hendriks, Jerome; Hendrix, Sven
Mast cells (MCs) are densely granulated perivascular resident cells of hematopoietic origin and well known for their pathogenetic role in allergic and anaphylactic reactions. In addition, they are also involved in processes of innate and adaptive immunity. MCs can be activated in response to a wide range of stimuli, resulting in the release of not only pro-inflammatory, but also anti-inflammatory mediators. The patterns of secreted mediators depend upon the given stimuli and microenvironmental conditions, accordingly MCs have the ability to promote or attenuate inflammatory processes. Their presence in the central nervous system (CNS) has been recognized for more than a century. Since then a participation of MCs in various pathological processes in the CNS has been well documented. They can aggravate CNS damage in models of brain ischemia and hemorrhage, namely through increased blood-brain barrier damage, brain edema and hemorrhage formation and promotion of inflammatory responses to such events. In contrast, recent evidence suggests that MCs may have a protective role following traumatic brain injury by degrading pro-inflammatory cytokines via specific proteases. In neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, the role of MCs seems to be ambiguous. MCs have been shown to be damaging, neuroprotective, or even dispensable, depending on the experimental protocols used. The role of MCs in the formation and progression of CNS tumors such as gliomas is complex and both positive and negative relationships between MC activity and tumor progression have been reported. In summary, MCs and their secreted mediators modulate inflammatory processes in multiple CNS pathologies and can thereby either contribute to neurological damage or confer neuroprotection. This review intends to give a concise overview of the regulatory roles of MCs in brain disease.
Behera, S K
Gender role biases in Indian television have served to reinforce and even enhance the degradation of women in the broader society. A content analysis of 20 news programs, 20 fictionalized serials, and 100 commercials conducted over a 3-week period in 1988 indicated that women are portrayed as victims, caretakers, and sex objects while men are presented as masters, doers, and intellectuals. Of the 400 hours of news programs studied, men newsmakers accounted for 71% of the content while women were featured in only 10% of the segments. Even then, women's portrayal in the news tended to center on their roles as beneficiaries of welfare schemes, victims of accidents, or as the wives of male dignitaries. Fictionalized dramas reinforced the sex role stereotypes of men as decisive, assertive, dominant, and career- oriented, and of women as emotionally dependent, eager to please, sentimental, and primarily concerned with family relationships. Female characters in these series were most often housewives, secretaries, teachers, or nurses. Women were featured more often (56% of content) than men in Indian commercials, yet were shown performing stereotyped female activities such as shopping, preparing meals, and dressing to obtain the sexual approval of men. This sex role stereotyping in the media is seriously impeding the struggles of women in India to achieve economic and political autonomy. To promote more positive role modeling and change women's self-image, Indian television must move immediately to portray women achieving self-realization through their careers and social participation and to depict cooperation between men and women in performing household chores.
Helms, Heather M.; Walls, Jill K.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.
Treating the marital dyad as the unit of analysis, this study examined the within-couple patterning of 272 dual-earner spouses’ provider role attitudes and their longitudinal associations with marital satisfaction, role overload, and the division of housework. Based on the congruence of husbands’ and wives’ provider role attitudes, couples were classified into one of four types: (1) main-secondary, (2) coprovider, (3) ambivalent coprovider, and (4) mismatched couples. Nearly half of all spouses differed in their attitudes about breadwinning. A series of mixed model ANCOVAs revealed significant between- and within-couple differences in human capital characteristics, spouses’ perceptions of marital satisfaction and role overload, and the division of housework across 3 years of measurement. Coprovider couples reported higher levels of marital satisfaction and a more equitable division of housework than the other couple groups. Wives in the ambivalent coprovider couples’ group reported higher levels of role overload than their husbands to a greater extent than was found in the other couple groups. As the first study to adopt a dyadic approach that considers the meanings that both spouses in dual-earner couples ascribe to paid employment, these findings advance understanding of how dual-earner spouses’ provider role attitudes serve as contexts for marital quality, behavior, and role-related stress. PMID:20954767
Taylor, Shannon G; Kluemper, Donald H
Although research on workplace aggression has long recognized job stressors as antecedents, little is known about the process through which employee responses to stressful workplace demands escalate from relatively mild interactions into more intense behaviors. This study investigates the influence that employees' perceptions of role stress (ambiguity, conflict, overload) have on their aggressive behavior by affecting their perceptions of incivility, and whether these downstream effects depend on personality traits (neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness). Results supported moderated mediation, such that the indirect effects of perceived role ambiguity and role conflict on enacted aggression through experienced incivility varied according to individual differences in personality.
Daigle, Leah E; Mummert, Sadie J
Although sex-role identification has been found to be associated with crime and delinquency, the link between sex-role identification and violent victimization has remained largely unexplored. Using the Add Health data, this study examines sex-role identification and its relationship to violent victimization. The findings suggest that masculinity increases the risk of violent victimization for males, but does not for females. Other differences in risk factors across gender were also found. These findings indicate that masculinity is an important construct in understanding the complexity of why some persons are violently victimized and others are not.
Prichard, Jane S.; Stanton, Neville A.
Belbin's theory that teams with a wide range of roles are more effective than those with role imbalance was tested with six teams composed of individuals with homogenous roles and six with mixed roles. Mixed teams performed better on team tasks. (SK)
Piper, David; Piper, Terry
Although role playing is a well-established and useful method of second language instruction, its success is often undermined by assignment of roles alien to the students' needs and experience. Redefinition of role playing to include the roles an individual assumes in everyday life will help the teacher plan more appropriate activities. (MSE)
Anderson, Philip Wayne
This study utilized Mintzberg's taxonomy of managerial roles to examine the roles performed by community college chief academic officers (CAOs). Mintzberg's taxonomy defines managerial roles as a set of behaviors and identifies 10 distinct roles: (1) figurehead; (2) leader; (3) liaison; (4) monitor; (5) disseminator; (6) spokesperson; (7)…
Choi, Pik Lin; Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan
Beginning teachers encounter new challenges as the role system in contemporary society has become more and more demanding. By means of the life history method, role management strategies of four Hong Kong beginning teachers employed to cope with role demands and intra-role conflicts were located in their biographical, workplace and wider…
Bird, Gloria W.; Ford, Rachel
Examines the extent of role strain among husbands and wives in 69 dual-career couples. Results indicated that, for wives, number of children and importance of the parental role were significant predictors of role strain. For husbands, role strain was related to age of the youngest child and the extent to which child-care tasks were shared.…
Debacker, Jeffrey Paul
This mixed methods dissertation examines the relationships between role conflict and job satisfaction, role ambiguity and job satisfaction, and role conflict and job satisfaction within a convenience sample of American instructional coaches (n = 46). Theoretically, this analysis is formed by Merton's idea of role-sets and how instructional…
Lemoine, Amanda; Mayer, Alexandra; Gordon, Arletta; Johnson, Melanie; Budden, Michael C.
The roles within personal relationships have evolved throughout the years. What was once a "traditional" role within a household is now considered outdated and old-fashioned. These roles have been influenced by many factors, one of those being higher education. A study was conducted to examine how those roles have been influenced by…
Anderson, Kristin J.; Cavallaro, Donna
Examines the impact of mass media on children's choices of heroes and role models. Addresses questions of which cultural messages children attend to, whether role models vary according to ethnicity and gender, and the role played by educators in exposing children to previously unconsidered role models. (DLH)
This article discusses Japanese Wikipedia's reliability and its social role as a free, collaborative, multilingual Internet encyclopedia supported by the non-profit Wikimedia Foundation. Japanese Wikipedia's reliability is explained from several surveys. The central concern is how the nature of encyclopedia and Wikipedia affects the quality of Wikipedia's articles. Wikipedia's core content policies such as verifiability, no original research and a neutral point of view will make articles better. But incomplete or poorly written first drafts exist because Wikipedia is a work in progress. The article also argues that social role of online encyclopedia which provides knowledge for all. Knowledge-based society or/and advanced information society require public understanding of science and other expertise. Online encyclopedia attributed to a reliable, published source using an inline citation will guide anyone to specialized knowledge.
Finch, Thomas H; Chae, Sae-Rom; Shafaee, Maryam N; Siegel, Karen R; Ali, Mohammed K; Tomei, Rachelle; Panjabi, Rajesh; Kishore, Sandeep P
What role do students have in global health activities? On one hand, students have much to offer, including innovative ideas, fresh knowledge and perspective, and inspiring energy. At the same time, students lack technical credentials and may drain resources from host communities. Here, we examine the dynamic, contemporary roles of students in global health activities, including health delivery. We focus on 3 themes that guide engagement: (1) fostering an enabling policy environment (eg, toward greater health equity); (2) understanding and working within the local context and governments' needs; and (3) leading bidirectional partnerships. We next study the implications of short-term exposure and long-term engagement programs. We conclude with 4 recommendations on how to better equip students to engage in the next frontier of global health education and future action.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma (PPARγ), a ligand-activated transcription factor, has a role in various cellular functions as well as glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and prevention of oxidative stress. The activators of PPARγ are already widely used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The cardioprotective effect of PPARγ activation has been studied extensively over the years making them potential therapeutic targets in diseases associated with cardiovascular disorders. However, they are also associated with adverse cardiovascular events such as congestive heart failure and myocardial infarction. This review aims to discuss the role of PPARγ in the various cardiovascular diseases and summarize the current knowledge on PPARγ agonists from multiple clinical trials. Finally, we also review the new PPARγ agonists under development as potential therapeutics with reduced or no adverse effects. PMID:28243251
Lairmore, Terry C; Chen, Herbert
The menin protein encoded by the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved evolutionarily. The combination of findings from current in vitro and in vivo studies has not yielded a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of menin's tumor suppressor activity or the specific role for menin in endocrine tumorigenesis, although its diverse interactions suggest possible pivotal roles in transcriptional regulation, DNA processing and repair and cytoskeletal integrity. This manuscript summarizes recent research findings including studies of global gene expression in MEN1-associated neuroendocrine tumors and pivotal changes in intracellular signaling pathways associated with neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. Finally, the clinical applications provided by the understanding of the effects of MEN1 gene mutations on neuroendocrine tumor development in patients with this familial cancer syndrome are discussed.
Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier
This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.
Singh, Vipender; Fedeles, Bogdan I; Essigmann, John M
Heterocyclic nucleic acid bases and their analogs can adopt multiple tautomeric forms due to the presence of multiple solvent-exchangeable protons. In DNA, spontaneous formation of minor tautomers has been speculated to contribute to mutagenic mispairings during DNA replication, whereas in RNA, minor tautomeric forms have been proposed to enhance the structural and functional diversity of RNA enzymes and aptamers. This review summarizes the role of tautomerism in RNA biochemistry, specifically focusing on the role of tautomerism in catalysis of small self-cleaving ribozymes and recognition of ligand analogs by riboswitches. Considering that the presence of multiple tautomers of nucleic acid bases is a rare occurrence, and that tautomers typically interconvert on a fast time scale, methods for studying rapid tautomerism in the context of nucleic acids under biologically relevant aqueous conditions are also discussed.
Ciprandi, G; Caimmi, D; Raschetti, R; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Salpietro, C; Caimmi, S; Castellazzi, A M
Both allergic disorders and obesity keep increasing in industrialized countries. Even though a strong association between obesity and allergy- related diseases has been reported in several studies, no published data show a scientific and firm link in-between the two conditions. In general, obesity and weight gain have been associated with an increased risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis. Asthma, allergic rhinitis and obesity have a common inflammatory pattern that could therefore justify their association. In fact, the chronic inflammation that characterizes the increase in white adipose tissue typically pushes the immune system toward a Th2 pattern. Such a polarization might, consequentially, worsen a pre-existing allergic disease or even stimulate the evolution from a sensitization to a respiratory form of allergy. Several studies have been published on the role of different adipokines on allergic diseases. We focus our review on the role of adipokines on asthma and allergic rhinitis.
Overmier, J Bruce; Murison, Robert
This paper reviews the history of the transition from the belief that gastrointestinal ulcers are caused primarily by psychological factors to the current state of belief that they are caused primarily by infection and argues that neither is fully accurate. We argue that psychological factors play a significant role as predisposing to vulnerability, modulating of precipitation, and sustaining of gastric ulceration. We review data that challenge the assumption of a simple infectious disease model and adduce recent preclinical data that confirm the predisposing, modulatory, and sustaining roles for psychological factors. We note that others, too, are now challenging the adequacy of the contemporary simple bacterial infection model. We hope to replace the competition between psychology and medicine with cooperation in understanding and treating patients suffering gastric ulceration and ulcer. PMID:23457084
Margiotta, Azzurra; Bucci, Cecilia
Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway. PMID:27120621
Ryan-Harshman, Milly; Aldoori, Walid
OBJECTIVE: To assess growing evidence that vitamin K (phylloquinone) plays an important role in bone health and, subsequently, in prevention of osteoporotic fractures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: We searched MEDLINE from January 1972 to December 2002 using the key words vitamin K and bone health. We reviewed 30 articles that seemed relevant or had a human focus. All evidence can be categorized as level II. MAIN MESSAGE: Evidence suggests that dietary phylloquinone intake of <100 microg daily might not be optimal for bone health. Low intake of vitamin K could contribute to osteoporosis and subsequent fracture due to the undercarboxylation of osteocalcin. CONCLUSION: Family physicians need to be aware of the importance of encouraging adequate vitamin K intake, particularly among institutionalized elderly people, to prevent increased bone resorption. Further study is needed to determine the exact role of vitamin K in bone metabolism, and methods of assessing vitamin K requirements need to be standardized. PMID:15317231
Brincat, S D; Borg, M; Camilleri, G; Calleja-Agius, J
Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a silent systemic progressive disease characterised by a decrease in bone mass per unit volume. This condition compromises the physical strength of the skeleton and increases the susceptibility to fractures on minor trauma. The imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption is known to be responsible for postmenopausal bone loss. Estrogen deficiency contributes to bone loss by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by bone marrow and bone cells. Clinical and molecular evidence indicates that estrogen-regulated cytokines exert regulatory effects on bone turnover implicating their role as being the primary mediators of the accelerated bone loss at menopause. The current perspective on the role and interaction of cytokines such as IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, TNF, IFN-γ and TGF-β in bone loss linked with estrogen deficiency is reviewed. Current treatment options and emerging drug therapies in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis are also evaluated.
Zhu, Yu-Ning; Fan, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Chi; Guo, Fang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yu-Fei; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng; Qu, Shun-Lin
Atherosclerosis (AS) remains the leading cause for global cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, and a major cause of cardiopathy, myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular diseases. Macrophages serve a critical role in atherosclerotic plaque stabilization and rupture, and the selective removal of macrophages may be beneficial in improving plaque stability. Autophagy is a process of self‑feeding, during which cytoplasmic proteins or organelles are packaged into vesicles and fused with the lysosome to form an autophagosome. The newly formed autophagosome can degrade internalized proteins, and this process may be used to serve the metabolic and self‑renewal requirements of the cell. Autophagy serves an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis and promoting cell survival, and therefore an imbalance in autophagy is closely associated with multiple diseases.
Galloway, Chad A; Lee, Hakjoo; Yoon, Yisang
Dynamic change in mitochondrial shape is a cellular process mediated mainly by fission and fusion of mitochondria. Studies have shown that mitochondrial fission and fusion are directly and indirectly associated with mitochondrial maintenance, bioenergetic demand, and cell death. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are frequently observed in response to changes in the surrounding cellular milieu, such as metabolic flux, that influence cellular bioenergetics. Connections between morphological regulation and the bioenergetic status of mitochondria are emerging as reciprocally responsive processes, though the nature of the signaling remains to be defined. Given the pivotal role mitochondria play in cellular fate, tight regulation of fission and fusion is therefore critical to preserving normal cellular physiology. Here we describe recent advancements in the understanding of the mechanisms governing mitochondrial morphology and their emerging role in mitochondrial bioenergetics.
Whittington, Camilla M; Wilson, Anthony B
Prolactin (PRL) has one of the broadest ranges of functions of any vertebrate hormone, and plays a critical role in regulating aspects of reproduction in widely divergent lineages. However, while PRL structure, mode of action and functions have been well-characterised in mammals, studies of other vertebrate lineages remain incomplete. As the most diverse group of vertebrates, fish offer a particularly valuable model system for the study of the evolution of reproductive endocrine function. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on the role of prolactin in fish reproduction, which extends to migration, reproductive development and cycling, brood care behaviour, pregnancy, and nutrient provisioning to young. We also highlight significant gaps in knowledge and advocate a specific bidirectional research methodology including both observational and manipulative experiments. Focusing research efforts towards the thorough characterisation of a restricted number of reproductively diverse fish models will help to provide the foundation necessary for a more explicitly evolutionary analysis of PRL function.
Oncology nursing continues to evolve in response to advances in cancer treatment, information and biotechnology. As new scientific and technological discoveries are integrated into cancer care, oncology nurses need to play a key role in the management of this patient population. The role of the oncology nurse has expanded significantly and can differ greatly across cultures. Sophisticated treatments and the growth of targeted therapies will create the challenge of ensuring that all nurses working in this arena are well-educated, independent thinkers. Thus the future success of oncology nurses will focus on enhancement of nursing practice through advanced education. The increased globalisation of healthcare offers exciting opportunities to accomplish this goal by allowing for collaborative relationships among oncology nurses across the globe. PMID:21611002
Marks, Jaime; Bun, Lam Chun; McHale, Susan M.
Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict. PMID:22308059
Allergic asthma is on the rise in developed countries, and cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the importance of allergen-associated proteases in modulating allergic airway inflammation. Many of the studies have suggested the importance of allergen-associated proteases as having a direct role on airway epithelial cells and dendritic cells. In most cases, activation of the protease activated receptor (PAR)-2 has been implicated as a mechanism behind the potent allergenicity associated with cockroaches. In this review, we focus on recent evidence linking cockroach proteases to activation of a variety of cells important in allergic airway inflammation and the role of PAR-2 in this process. We will highlight recent data exploring the potential mechanisms involved in the biological effects of the allergen.
Sihra, Talvinder S; Flores, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio
Ionotropic glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)- and AMPA-type, as well as metabotropic glutamate receptors have been extensively invoked in plasticity. Until relatively recently, however, kainate-type receptors (KARs) had been the most elusive to study because of the lack of appropriate pharmacological tools to specifically address their roles. With the development of selective glutamate receptor antagonists, and knockout mice with specific KAR subunits deleted, the functions of KARs in neuromodulation and synaptic transmission, together with their involvement in some types of plasticity, have been extensively probed in the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize the findings related to the roles of KARs in short- and long-term forms of plasticity, primarily in the hippocampus, where KAR function and synaptic plasticity have received avid attention.
Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Shiio, Yuzuru
Cellular senescence has been proposed to play critical roles in tumor suppression and organismal aging, but the molecular mechanism of senescence remains incompletely understood. Here we report that a putative lysosomal carbohydrate efflux transporter, Spinster, induces cellular senescence in human primary fibroblasts. Administration of d-galactose synergistically enhanced Spinster-induced senescence and this synergism required the transporter activity of Spinster. Intracellular d-galactose is metabolized to galactose-1-phosphate by galactokinase. Galactokinase-deficient fibroblasts, which accumulate intracellular d-galactose, displayed increased baseline senescence. Senescence of galactokinase-deficient fibroblasts was further enhanced by d-galactose administration and was diminished by restoration of wild-type galactokinase expression. Silencing galactokinase in normal fibroblasts also induced senescence. These results suggest a role for intracellular galactose in the induction of cellular senescence.
Serati, Maurizio; Giarenis, Ilias; Meschia, Michele; Cardozo, Linda
The role of urodynamic studies (UDS) before prolapse surgery is contentious and a hotly debated topic in urogynaecology. Previous studies in women with prolapse and women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have focused on women without preoperative incontinence. Currently, it has not been possible to reach a universal consensus on the role of UDS before prolapse surgery in women with concomitant symptomatic or occult SUI. It is clear that UDS could add some information in women undergoing pelvic organ prolapse surgery and could facilitate counselling of patients. However, there is no evidence that the outcome of surgery is altered by prior UDS. New well-designed randomized studies are necessary to improve our understanding of this topic.
Fan, Xiaobin; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao
Scientific interest in graphene as a catalyst and as a catalyst support in heterogeneous catalytic reactions has grown dramatically over the past several years. The present critical review summarizes the multiple roles of graphene in heterogeneous catalysis and highlights the influence of defects, heteroatom-containing functionalities, and graphene's two-dimensional structure on catalytic performance. We first discuss the role and advantages of graphene as a catalyst support, with emphasis on its interactions with the catalytic phases and the influence of mass transfer processes. We then clarify the origin of the intrinsic catalytic activity of graphene in heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Finally we suggest challenges and potential practical applications for graphene in industrial processes.
Tamaki, Motoyuki; Fujitani, Yoshio
Pancreatic β cells contain the highest amount of zinc among cells within the human body, and hence, the relationship between zinc and diabetes has been of great interest. To date, many studies of zinc and diabetes have been reported, including studies demonstrating that diabetic patients and mice have a decreased amount of zinc in the pancreas. Zinc may counteract the deleterious effects of oxidative stress, which contributes to reduced insulin resistance, and may also protect pancreatic β cells from glucolipotoxicity. Recently, we have shown that SLC30A8/zinc transporter 8, which is a transporter expressed on the surface of insulin granules, plays a key role in zinc transport into insulin granules and in the regulation of hepatic insulin clearance. Here, we review the role of zinc in whole-body maintenance and the latest information on the relationship between zinc and diabetes.
Chih, Wen-Hai; Hsu, Li-Chun; Wang, Kai-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Yu
Using the dual mediation hypothesis, this study investigates the role of interestingness (the power of attracting or holding one's attention) attitude towards the news, in the formation of Facebook Fan Page users' electronic word-of-mouth intentions. A total of 599 Facebook fan page users in Taiwan were recruited and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results show that both perceived news entertainment and informativeness positively influence interestingness attitude towards the news. Interestingness attitude towards the news subsequently influences hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes towards the Fan Page, which then influence eWOM intentions. Interestingness attitude towards the news plays a more important role than hedonism and utilitarianism attitudes in generating electronic word-of-mouth intentions. Based on the findings, the implications and future research suggestions are provided.
Marks, Jaime; Bun, Lam Chun; McHale, Susan M
Study goals were to identify family patterns of gender role attitudes, to examine the conditions under which these patterns emerged, and to assess the implications of gender attitude patterns for family conflict. Participants were mothers, fathers, and first- and second-born adolescents from 358 White, working and middle-class US families. Results of cluster analysis revealed three gender role attitude patterns: egalitarian parents and children, traditional parents and children, and a divergent pattern, with parents more traditional and children more egalitarian. Mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that these family patterns were related to socioeconomic status, parents' time spent in gendered household tasks and with children, and the gender constellation of the sibling dyad. The traditional family group reported the most family conflict.
The role of GFAP in CNS injury is reviewed as revealed by studies using GFAP null mice. In order to provide background information for these studies, the effects of absence of GFAP in the uninjured astrocyte is also described. Activities attributable to GFAP include suppressing neuronal proliferation and neurite extension in the mature brain, forming a physical barrier to isolate damaged tissue, regulating blood flow following ischemia, contributing to the blood-brain barrier, supporting myelination, and providing mechanical strength. However, findings for many of these roles have been variable among laboratories, pointing to the presence of unappreciated complexity in GFAP function. One complexity may be regional differences in GFAP activities; others are yet to be discovered. PMID:24508671
Nicolussi, Arianna; D'Inzeo, Sonia; Capalbo, Carlo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Coppa, Anna
Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are a ubiquitously expressed family of small (22–27 kDa) non-seleno peroxidases that catalyze the peroxide reduction of H2O2, organic hydroperoxides and peroxynitrite. They are highly involved in the control of various physiological functions, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, lipid metabolism, the immune response, as well as cellular homeostasis. Although the protective role of PRDXs in cardiovascular and neurological diseases is well established, their role in cancer remains controversial. Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of PRDXs in carcinogenesis and in the development of drug resistance. Numerous types of cancer cells, in fact, are characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and often exhibit an altered redox environment compared with normal cells. The present review focuses on the complex association between oxidant balance and cancer, and it provides a brief account of the involvement of PRDXs in tumorigenesis and in the development of chemoresistance. PMID:28357082
Shi, Vivian Y; Leo, Michael; Hassoun, Lauren; Chahal, Dev S; Maibach, Howard I; Sivamani, Raja K
Skin is an important interface between the host and its environment. Inflammatory dermatoses often have disrupted skin barrier function, rendering patients more susceptible to allergenic triggers leading to an exaggerated immune response. The skin surface lipid film, an important component of the skin barrier, comprises a mixture of keratinocyte and sebaceous gland-derived lipids. Recent evidence demonstrated that defective keratinocyte lipid synthesis predisposes for the development of atopic dermatitis. However, the important role of sebaceous gland-derived lipids in skin inflammatory diseases may be underrecognized. This overview focuses on the importance of the contribution of sebaceous glands to barrier function. Sebaceous gland alteration may play a role in the pathogenesis of common skin diseases including acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, rosacea, and seborrheic dermatitis.
Suresh, Bharathi; Lee, Junwon; Hong, Seok-Ho; Kim, Kye-Seong; Ramakrishna, Suresh
Spermatogenesis is a complex process through which spermatogonial stem cells undergo mitosis, meiosis, and cell differentiation to generate mature spermatozoa. During this process, male germ cells experience several translational modifications. One of the major post-translational modifications in eukaryotes is the ubiquitination of proteins, which targets proteins for degradation; this enables control of the expression of enzymes and structural proteins during spermatogenesis. It has become apparent that ubiquitination plays a key role in regulating every stage of spermatogenesis starting from gonocytes to differentiated spermatids. It is understood that, where there is ubiquitination, deubiquitination by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) also exists to counterbalance the ubiquitination process in a reversible manner. Normal spermatogenesis is dependent on the balanced actions of ubiquitination and deubiquitination. This review highlights the current knowledge of the role of DUBs and their essential regulatory contribution to spermatogenesis, especially during progression into meiotic phase, acrosome biogenesis, quality sperm production, and apoptosis of germ cells.
Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier
This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.
Jinno, Akiko; Park, Pyong Woo
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to bind to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi in vitro. GAGs are thought to promote pathogenesis by facilitating pathogen attachment, invasion, or evasion of host defense mechanisms. However, the role of GAGs in infectious disease has not been extensively studied in vivo and therefore their pathophysiological significance and functions are largely unknown. Here we describe methods to directly investigate the role of GAGs in infections in vivo using mouse models of bacterial lung and corneal infection. The overall experimental strategy is to establish the importance and specificity of GAGs, define the essential structural features of GAGs, and identify a biological activity of GAGs that promotes pathogenesis.
Chemokines are a family of small cytokines that share a typical key structure that is stabilized by disulfide bonds between the cysteine residues at the NH2-terminal of the protein, and they are secreted by a great variety of cells in several different conditions. Their function is directly dependent on their interactions with their receptors. Chemokines are involved in cell maturation and differentiation, infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and, in general, in any situation where immune components are involved. However, their role in postfracture inflammation and fracture healing is not yet well established. In this article, we will discuss the response of chemokines to bone fracture and their potential roles in postfracture inflammation and healing based on data from our studies and from other previously published studies. PMID:28303118
Forrest, Christopher B
High use of specialist physicians and specialized procedures coupled with low exposure to primary care are distinguishing traits of the US health care system. Although the tasks of the primary care medical home are well established, consensus on the normative clinical roles of specialist physicians has not been achieved, which makes it unlikely that the specialist workforce is being used most effectively and efficiently. This article describes a typology of specialists' clinical roles that is based on the conceptual basis for health care specialism and empirical evaluations of the specialty referral process. The report concludes with a discussion on the implications of the typology for improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the primary-specialty care interface.
Yan, Jun; Li, Song; Li, Shulin
Despite the progress made in the clinical management of sepsis, sepsis morbidity and mortality rates remain high. The inflammatory pathogenesis and organ injury leading to death from sepsis are not fully understood for vital organs, especially the liver. Only recently has the role of the liver in sepsis begun to be revealed. Pre-existing liver dysfunction is a risk factor for the progression of infection to sepsis. Liver dysfunction after sepsis is an independent risk factor for multiple organ dysfunction and sepsis-induced death. The liver works as a lymphoid organ in response to sepsis. Acting as a double-edged sword in sepsis, the liver-mediated immune response is responsible for clearing bacteria and toxins but also causes inflammation, immunosuppression, and organ damage. Attenuating liver injury and restoring liver function lowers morbidity and mortality rates in patients with sepsis. This review summarizes the central role of liver in the host immune response to sepsis and in clinical outcomes.
Sarkar, Chandrani; Basu, Biswarup; Chakroborty, Debanjan; Dasgupta, Partha Sarthi; Basu, Sujit
The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is an important molecule bridging the nervous and immune systems. DA through autocrine/paracrine manner modulates the functions of immune effector cells by acting through its receptors present in these cells. DA also has unique and opposite effects on T cell functions. Although DA activates naïve or resting T cells, but it inhibits activated T cells. In addition, changes in the expression of DA receptors and their signaling pathways especially in T cells are associated with altered immune functions in disorders like schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. These results suggest an immunoregulatory role of DA. Therefore targeting DA receptors and their signaling pathways in these cells by using DA receptor agonists and antagonists may be useful for the treatment of diseases where DA induced altered immunity play a pathogenic role. PMID:19896530
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a heterogeneous, connective network composed of fibrous glycoproteins that coordinate in vivo to provide the physical scaffolding, mechanical stability, and biochemical cues necessary for tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis. This review highlights some of the recently raised aspects of the roles of the ECM as related to the fields of biophysics and biomedical engineering. Fundamental aspects of focus include the role of the ECM as a basic cellular structure, for novel spontaneous network formation, as an ideal scaffold in tissue engineering, and its essential contribution to cell sheet technology. As these technologies move from the laboratory to clinical practice, they are bound to shape the vast field of tissue engineering for medical transplantations. PMID:27230457
Devlin, A S
To examine architects' judgments of male and female applicants represented by the information in resumés, 204 architects, 156 men and 48 women, licensed in the state of Connecticut participated in a 2(job level) by 2(sex) between-subjects study. Architects were asked how they would rate applicants' potential (including the decision to hire) and gender-role characteristics judged on the basis of one-page resumés. Architects randomly assigned resumés for one of four evaluation conditions (intern or senior architect; male or female), rated the applicant on seven job-related characteristics, e.g., technical skill, potential for advancement, and completed the Bem Sex-role Inventory as they thought items applied to the applicant. Analysis indicated that male architect respondents were more likely to hire male applicants than female applicants as senior architects and that female applicants were judged to be as masculine-typed as were male applicants.
Physics plays a variety of roles in economic development. These are explored and ways of increasing the importance of physics to world economies are discussed. Surveys by the Institute of Physics have shown that over 40% of employment in manufacturing in the UK is based on physics, and that this sector continues to expand. Physics provides techniques and equipment for advances in the life sciences. An education in physics gives an ability to tackle a diverse range of subjects from first principles and to find innovative solutions to problems where conventional approaches fail. Physicists in many countries readily find employment in a wide range of areas. However, because of the range of opportunities available, there is a reluctance of physics graduates to enter teaching and prepare the next generation of physicists. Sharing experience between countries is vital. The World Year of Physics has played an important role in this.
Stucky, Marcelle A; Goldberger, Zachary D
Digoxin has been a key therapeutic for heart failure and atrial tachyarrhythmias for over 200 years following Withering's groundbreaking work depicting the therapeutic benefit of the common botanical foxglove in his 1785 monograph. The use of digoxin preceded any randomised evidence or even basic understanding of its mechanism of action. Over the past two decades, there has been mounting evidence further challenging the safety and efficacy of digoxin, while multiple other therapies for both heart failure and atrial tachyarrhythmias have proven to be more effective and safe. Altogether, digoxin still has an important role in contemporary pharmacotherapeutics, though its role remains controversial and should be reserved for selective patients and clinical situations, with careful attention to serum concentrations.
Sahay, A S; Sundrani, D P; Joshi, S R
Neurotrophins, a family of closely related proteins, were originally identified as growth factors for survival, development, and function of neurons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Subsequently, neurotrophins have been shown to have functions in immune and reproductive systems. Neurotrophins like nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are known to play an important role during pregnancy in the process of placental angiogenesis and maturation. Several studies have demonstrated the presence of neurotrophins in the human placenta. The current chapter reviews studies demonstrating the role of neurotrophins during pregnancy particularly in placental development. This chapter also focuses on the regional changes in neurotrophins in the human placenta and its interactions with other growth factors. Future research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which neurotrophins influence the growth and development of the placenta and pregnancy outcome.
Bowman, Robert C.
The various roles of hydrogen in space technology are identified and discussed. The preeminent position of hydrogen as rocket fuel in launch vehicles is explained and illustrated for the NASA Space Shuttle. The history of hydrogen in launching space vehicles is also briefly summarized. The cryogenic aspects of hydrogen for cooling instruments during flight missions are covered for several past and current systems. The technology of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries is covered. The storage of cryogenic hydrogen to operate fuel cells and to provide potable water is described for the NASA Apollo and Shuttle Missions. Other less well-known applications of hydrogen and metal hydrides such as gas gap heat switches, fueling hypersonic scramjet flights to Mach 10 speeds, in-situ resource utilization on lunar or Martian surfaces, and providing ultrapure reference hydrogen to scientific instruments are also described. Finally, some possible future roles for hydrogen in space exploration are identified.
Singh, Vipender; Fedeles, Bogdan I.
Heterocyclic nucleic acid bases and their analogs can adopt multiple tautomeric forms due to the presence of multiple solvent-exchangeable protons. In DNA, spontaneous formation of minor tautomers has been speculated to contribute to mutagenic mispairings during DNA replication, whereas in RNA, minor tautomeric forms have been proposed to enhance the structural and functional diversity of RNA enzymes and aptamers. This review summarizes the role of tautomerism in RNA biochemistry, specifically focusing on the role of tautomerism in catalysis of small self-cleaving ribozymes and recognition of ligand analogs by riboswitches. Considering that the presence of multiple tautomers of nucleic acid bases is a rare occurrence, and that tautomers typically interconvert on a fast time scale, methods for studying rapid tautomerism in the context of nucleic acids under biologically relevant aqueous conditions are also discussed. PMID:25516996
Kostakis, Ioannis D.; Zavras, Nick; Chatzemichael, Athanasios
Calprotectin (CP) is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein of the S100 family expressed mainly by neutrophils with important extracellular activity. The aim of the current review is to summarize the latest findings concerning the role of CP in a diverse range of inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions among children. Increasing evidence suggests the implication of CP in the diagnosis, followup, assessment of relapses, and response to treatment in pediatric pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, celiac disease, intestinal cystic fibrosis, acute appendicitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki disease, polymyositis-dermatomyositis, glomerulonephritis, IgA nephropathy, malaria, HIV infection, hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia, and cancer. Further studies are required to provide insights into the actual role of CP in these pathological processes in pediatrics. PMID:24175291
Joshi, Mandar S; Williams, David; Horlock, Duncan; Samarasinghe, Thilini; Andrews, Karen L; Jefferis, Ann-Maree; Berger, Philip J; Chin-Dusting, Jaye P; Kaye, David M
Microvascular complications are now recognized to play a major role in diabetic complications, and understanding the mechanisms is critical. Endothelial dysfunction occurs early in the course of the development of complications; the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction may occur in a diabetic rat heart and may act as a source of the oxidative stress. However, the role of endothelial cell-specific mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic vascular complications is poorly studied. Here, we studied the role of diabetes-induced abnormal endothelial mitochondrial function and the resultant endothelial dysfunction. Understanding the role of endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction in diabetic vasculature is critical in order to develop new therapies. We demonstrate that hyperglycaemia leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in microvascular endothelial cells, and that mitochondrial inhibition induces endothelial dysfunction. Additionally, we show that resveratrol acts as a protective agent; resveratrol-mediated mitochondrial protection may be used to prevent long-term diabetic cardiovascular complications.
Munoz, Elkin; Bosch, Ernesto; Fernandez, Iria; Portela, Susana; Ortiz, Ginna; Remohi, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio
LH is a glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in folliculogenesis during the natural ovarian cycles. It has the same activity and shares receptors with hCG. However the use of LH in combination with FSH in controlled ovarian stimulation remains controversial. A practical approach concerning the usefulness of LH according to the endogenous level of LH is described herein. Specific groups of patients can benefit from ovarian stimulation with LH. New applications of LH/hCG activity are also discussed.
Stokes, Lillian G.
The role of associate degree nursing (ADN) programs has changed dramatically in their 30 years of existence. The number of ADN graduates increased from 260 in 1954 to 36,434 in 1980, and 47.8% of all nursing graduates in 1980 came from ADN programs, as compared to 0.9% in 1954. These graduates have the best record of employment five years after…
Edmunds, M W
In promoting greater public awareness of nurse practitioners' contributions to health care, two major strategies may be used. Creating broad-based visibility through the use of the basic media and marketing strategies, and utilizing individual client encounters to educate clients about the NP role are both effective. NPs should assume the initiative in seeking out opportunities to create positive images for the nurse practitioner.
Gupta, Sandeep S; Shetty, Devi C; Urs, Aadithya B; Nainani, P
Periapical infection in the primary tooth may lead to periapical abscess, granuloma, radicular cyst and even osteomyelitis. The infection in primary teeth can also affect the developing successor teeth leading to hypomineralization, hypoplasia, arrest of tooth development, regional odontodysplasia, delayed eruption etc. The purpose of this article is to report a case of malformed permanent tooth in relation to overlying infected deciduous teeth. The probable role of inflammation in pathogenesis of the present condition is also being discussed. PMID:27194886
Bridge, W. M.
The application of precise time to the identification of friend or foe (IFF) problem is discussed. The simple concept of knowing when to expect each signal is exploited in a variety of ways to achieve an IFF system which is hard to detect, minimally exploitable and difficult to jam. Precise clocks are the backbone of the concept and the various candidates for this role are discussed. The compact rubidium-controlled oscillator is the only practical candidate.
This review paper describes and analyzes the roles of the major international standards organizations, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC). In particular, it analyzes the relationships of ISO and IEC with ANSI, CEN (including the ISO/CEN Vienna Agreement), and CENELEC. This paper also addresses recent developments to ensure the global relevance of ISO and IEC standards. Lastly, this paper addresses the myths, perceptions, and realities of European participation and potential dominance in ISO.
Pollastri, Susanna; Tattini, Massimiliano
Background New roles for flavonoids, as developmental regulators and/or signalling molecules, have recently been proposed in eukaryotic cells exposed to a wide range of environmental stimuli. In plants, these functions are actually restricted to flavonols, the ancient and widespread class of flavonoids. In mosses and liverworts, the whole set of genes for flavonol biosynthesis – CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS and F3′H – has been detected. The flavonol branch pathway has remained intact for millions of years, and is almost exclusively involved in the responses of plants to a wide array of stressful agents, despite the fact that evolution of flavonoid metabolism has produced >10 000 structures. Scope Here the emerging functional roles of flavonoids in the responses of present-day plants to different stresses are discussed based on early, authoritative views of their primary functions during the colonization of land by plants. Flavonols are not as efficient as other secondary metabolites in absorbing wavelengths in the 290–320 nm spectral region, but display the greatest potential to keep stress-induced changes in cellular reactive oxygen species homeostasis under control, and to regulate the development of individual organs and the whole plant. Very low flavonol concentrations, as probably occurred in early terrestrial plants, may fully accomplish these regulatory functions. Conclusions During the last two decades the routine use of genomic, chromatography/mass spectrometry and fluorescence microimaging techniques has provided new insights into the regulation of flavonol metabolism as well as on the inter- and intracellular distribution of stress-responsive flavonols. These findings offer new evidence on how flavonols may have performed a wide array of functional roles during the colonization of land by plants. In our opinion this ancient flavonoid class is still playing the same old and robust roles in present-day plants. PMID:21880658
Hayes, J. R.; Ardill, Joy; Kennedy, T. L.; Buchanan, K. D.
Observations on the plasma gastrin response to feeding protein in patients with the dumping syndrome, patients with pyloric stenosis, and patients asymptomatic after gastric surgery suggested that the duodenum might be important in the mechanism of gastrin release. This duodenal role was confirmed by the finding that when the stimulus was placed directly in the duodenum peak gastrin levels occurred earlier than when the stimulus was placed directly in the stomach. PMID:4422726
Graber, B; Kline-Graber, G
An examination is made of the role of the pubococcygeus muscle in relation to female orgasm in 281 women. A statistically significant difference is reported between orgasmic and anorgasmic women and the physiological state of the pubococcygeus muscle as measured using a pressure sensitive device inserted in the vagina. These data suggest the pubococcygeus muscle plays an important part in the pathophysiology of female orgasm.
Ethan Huffman; Sara Prentice
As technology continues to evolve, emergency management organizations must adapt to new ways of responding to the media and public. This paper examines a brief overview of social media's new role in emergency management. This includes definitions of social media, the benefits of utilizing social media, examples of social media being used and finally a discussion of how agencies, such as Department of Energy national laboratories, can begin including social media in their emergency management plans.
Frenkel, Joseph S
The polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) (synonyms - hyaluronic acid, hyaluronate) is a versatile, polymorphic, glycosoaminoglycan with vast biological functions. HA is found throughout the body, primarily residing in skin, thus playing an important role in wound healing. Research regarding HA's function has changed over the years, primarily focussing on a particular aspect or function. The contribution of HA in each stage of normal wound healing as well as its clinical wound dressing applications will be examined.
IQGAP1 and PP2C . Increased expression of PAK6 in androgen independent conditions suggests the role of PAK6 in androgen independent prostate cancers. 15...SUBJECT TERMS AR, PAK6, CRIB, PCA, MKK6, Nucleolin, IQGAP1, PP2C . 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...Nontransfected 293 cells were used as negative control. Another important proteins which were found to interact with PAK6 are IQGAP1 (Fig.2) and PP2C (Fig
Hayeems, Robin Z.; Miller, Fiona A.; Carroll, June C.; Little, Julian; Allanson, Judith; Bytautas, Jessica P.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Brenda J.
Abstract Objective To examine the role of primary care providers in informing and supporting families who receive positive screening results. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians, pediatricians, and midwives involved in newborn care. Main outcome measures Beliefs, practices, and barriers related to providing information to families who receive positive screening results for their newborns. Results A total of 819 providers participated (adjusted response rate of 60.9%). Of the respondents, 67.4% to 81.0% agreed that it was their responsibility to provide care to families of newborns who received positive screening results, and 64.2% to 84.8% agreed they should provide brochures or engage in general discussions about the identified conditions. Of the pediatricians, 67.3% endorsed having detailed discussions with families, but only 24.1% of family physicians and 27.6% of midwives endorsed this practice. All provider groups reported less involvement in information provision than they believed they should have. This discrepancy was most evident for family physicians: most stated that they should provide brochures (64.2%) or engage in general discussions (73.5%), but only a minority did so (15.3% and 27.7%, respectively). Family physicians reported insufficient time (42.2%), compensation (52.2%), and training (72.3%) to play this role, and only a minority agreed they were up to date (18.5%) or confident (16.5%) regarding newborn screening. Conclusion Providers of primary newborn care see an information-provision role for themselves in caring for families who receive positive newborn screening results. Efforts to further define the scope of this role combined with efforts to mitigate existing barriers are warranted. PMID:23946032
Guedes, Marta Catarina Esteves; Borrego, Luis Miguel; Proença, Rui Daniel
Th17 cells, a CD4+ T-cell subset, produce interleukin (IL)-17, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to be involved in several forms of infectious and noninfectious uveitis. Here, we explore the roles of this IL in uveitic disorders as well as in experimental autoimmune uveitis, the possible pathogenic implications of several cytokines associated with IL-17 and analyze the current outcomes and goals for drugs aiming for the IL-17 pathway.
Guedes, Marta Catarina Esteves; Borrego, Luis Miguel; Proença, Rui Daniel
Th17 cells, a CD4+ T-cell subset, produce interleukin (IL)-17, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been shown to be involved in several forms of infectious and noninfectious uveitis. Here, we explore the roles of this IL in uveitic disorders as well as in experimental autoimmune uveitis, the possible pathogenic implications of several cytokines associated with IL-17 and analyze the current outcomes and goals for drugs aiming for the IL-17 pathway. PMID:27853008
Muedra, V; Barettino, D; D'Ocón, P
Coagulation of blood is of multidisciplinary interest. Cardiac surgery produces major changes in the delicate balance between pro-and anti-coagulant serum factors. The role of antithrombin iii has been analysed after finding evidence that associated decreased levels of protein activity to postoperative morbidity and mortality. Supplementing exogenous antithrombin is considered with the aim of optimising outcomes. Its intrinsic anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties have stimulated a growing interest, and suggests new lines of research.
Stopping terrorist is most likely to be accomplished by state, local and federal law enforcement. With the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, the specific roles and responsibilities of the Department of Justice (DOJ) in preventing and responding to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) terrorist attacks are under reversion, but unquestionably the DOJ, as the chief federal law enforcement agency, will continue to have major responsibilities.
Both proteolytic and nonproteolytic functions of ubiquitination are essential regulatory mechanisms for promoting DNA repair and the DNA damage response in mammalian cells. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) have emerged as key players in the maintenance of genome stability. In this minireview, we discuss the recent findings on human DUBs that participate in genome maintenance, with a focus on the role of DUBs in the modulation of DNA repair and DNA damage signaling. PMID:26644404
Sledge, W H; Boydstun, J A
This paper presents two unique aspects of aerospace psychiatry: the influence of the specialized stressors and occupational requirements of an aviation career and the ambiguous role of the aerospace psychiatrist. Aerospace psychiatrists have multiple, sometimes conflicting, responsibilities to the organization and society (the social control task) and to the individual aviator (the humanistic and medical tasks). In the two case reports below the authors describe airmen who had vasovagal syncope and how the psychiatrist intervened and resolved these conflicting tasks.
The differences between shame and guilt are explored, with a focus on experiential and developmental factors and on behavioral reactions to these emotions. The role of shame as a motive for suicidal behavior is illustrated with examples of suicidal behavior in Greek tragedy, Asian cultures, and jails, and among contemporary suicides, such as that in 1996 by Admiral Mike Boorda, Chief of U.S. Naval Operations.
Xu, Huiyun; Duan, Jing; Ning, Dandan; Li, Jingbao; Liu, Ruofei; Yang, Ruixin; Jiang, Jean X; Shang, Peng
The Wnt signaling pathway is well known to play major roles in skeletal development and homeostasis. In certain aspects, fracture repair mimics the process of bone embryonic development. Thus, the importance of Wnt signaling in fracture healing has become more apparent in recent years. Here, we summarize recent research progress in the area, which may be conducive to the development of Wnt-based therapeutic strategies for bone repair.
Syvertson, C. A.; Mulholland, D. R.
The role of satellites designed to make a wide variety of earth observations is discussed along with the renewed interest in the use of aircraft as platforms for similar and complementary earth resources surveys. Surveys covering the areas of forestry, agriculture, hydrology, oceanography, geology, and geography are included. Aerials surveys equipped for nonphotographic remote sensing and aircraft flights synchronized with satellite observations to provide correlated data are discussed. Photographs are shown to illustrate preliminary results from several of the test sites.
Orellana, Juan A; Stehberg, Jimmy
The role of astrocytes in brain function has evolved over the last decade, from support cells to active participants in the neuronal synapse through the release of "gliotransmitters."Astrocytes express receptors for most neurotransmitters and respond to them through Ca(2+) intracellular oscillations and propagation of intercellular Ca(2+) waves. While such waves are able to propagate among neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions, thereby activating several astrocytes simultaneously, they can also trigger the release of gliotransmitters, including glutamate, d-serine, glycine, ATP, adenosine, or GABA. There are several mechanisms by which gliotransmitter release occurs, including functional hemichannels. These gliotransmitters can activate neighboring astrocytes and participate in the propagation of intercellular Ca(2+) waves, or activate pre- and post-synaptic receptors, including NMDA, AMPA, and purinergic receptors. In consequence, hemichannels could play a pivotal role in astrocyte-to-astrocyte communication and astrocyte-to-neuron cross-talk. Recent evidence suggests that astroglial hemichannels are involved in higher brain functions including memory and glucose sensing. The present review will focus on the role of hemichannels in astrocyte-to-astrocyte and astrocyte-to neuron communication and in brain physiology.
Chae, Younbyoung; Olausson, Håkan
Acupuncture is a therapeutic treatment that is characterised by the insertion of a needle at a particular location on the body. Acupuncture stimulation includes sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch dimensions. In this review, we discuss the role of touch during acupuncture stimulation with an emphasis on the therapeutic, sensory-discriminative and affective-social aspects. In the discriminative dimension, de qi, which is associated with needling, includes a combination of various sensations, such as heaviness, numbness, soreness and distension. Achieving the appropriate de qi sensation appears to be fundamental to the therapeutic outcome following acupuncture treatment. In the affective dimension, the acupuncture procedure typically includes gentle manual touch stimulation, which induces feelings of calm and well-being, perhaps by activating C tactile fibres. Enhanced activity of C tactile afferents may induce a 'limbic touch' response, resulting in emotional and hormonal reactions. Because acupuncture is a 'therapist intensive' and complex intervention, it is necessary to understand the role of social touch between the practitioner and patient. Both sensory-discriminative and affective-social touch aspects play an important role in the therapeutic effect of acupuncture treatment in clinical practice.
West, Susan Lynn
The increasing acuteness of care and developing technologies present new opportunities and challenges for the nursing profession. The NHS Plan emphasizes the need for change to meet these demands, especially in the area of patient assessment. Nurses are extending their repertoire of skills to include those that were once the domain of junior doctors. These new skills tend to be used mostly by experienced nurses such as the specialist or advanced nurse practitioner. One such skill is physical assessment. Traditionally viewed as part of the doctor's role, physical assessment has not routinely been taught in nurse training. With the advancement of nursing roles, it has been argued that physical assessment has become a key nursing skill. This article discusses the use of physical assessment as part of the growing role of the nurse in critical care. Nurses deliver holistic care, based on assessment. This assessment is incomplete, if a detailed physical assessment is omitted and, as a consequence, care is delivered in the absence of an appreciation of the impact of pathophysiological adaptations. This article argues that the ability to physically assess the patient in a principled and systematic fashion, in conjunction with routine health assessment, is a necessary skill for the modern nursing professional working in critical care. It is further argued that, within the current climate of advancing nursing practice, the acquisition of this skill is important for all nurses, to improve patient care, not to supplant the skills of the junior doctor.
Champion, Julie A.; Mitragotri, Samir
Phagocytosis is a principal component of the body’s innate immunity in which macrophages internalize targets in an actin-dependent manner. Targets vary widely in shape and size and include particles such as pathogens and senescent cells. Despite considerable progress in understanding this complicated process, the role of target geometry in phagocytosis has remained elusive. Previous studies on phagocytosis have been performed using spherical targets, thereby overlooking the role of particle shape. Using polystyrene particles of various sizes and shapes, we studied phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. We report a surprising finding that particle shape, not size, plays a dominant role in phagocytosis. All shapes were capable of initiating phagocytosis in at least one orientation. However, the local particle shape, measured by tangent angles, at the point of initial contact dictates whether macrophages initiate phagocytosis or simply spread on particles. The local shape determines the complexity of the actin structure that must be created to initiate phagocytosis and allow the membrane to move over the particle. Failure to create the required actin structure results in simple spreading and not internalization. Particle size primarily impacts the completion of phagocytosis in cases where particle volume exceeds the cell volume. PMID:16549762
Prenderville, Jack A; Kelly, Áine M; Downer, Eric J
The processes underpinning post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain continue to be defined. Such processes involve the proliferation of neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells (NPCs), neuronal migration, differentiation and integration into a network of functional synapses within the brain. Both intrinsic (cell signalling cascades) and extrinsic (neurotrophins, neurotransmitters, cytokines, hormones) signalling molecules are intimately associated with adult neurogenesis and largely dictate the proliferative activity and differentiation capacity of neural cells. Cannabinoids are a unique class of chemical compounds incorporating plant-derived cannabinoids (the active components of Cannabis sativa), the endogenous cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid ligands, and these compounds are becoming increasingly recognized for their roles in neural developmental processes. Indeed, cannabinoids have clear modulatory roles in adult neurogenesis, probably through activation of both CB1 and CB2 receptors. In recent years, a large body of literature has deciphered the signalling networks involved in cannabinoid-mediated regulation of neurogenesis. This timely review summarizes the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of NPCs and highlights intrinsic/extrinsic signalling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. Overall, these findings identify the central role of the cannabinoid system in adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and the lateral ventricles and hence provide insight into the processes underlying post-developmental neurogenesis in the mammalian brain. PMID:25951750
Schalper, Kurt A.; Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel; Oyarzo, Mauricio P.
In humans, connexins (Cxs) and pannexins (Panxs) are the building blocks of hemichannels. These proteins are frequently altered in neoplastic cells and have traditionally been considered as tumor suppressors. Alteration of Cxs and Panxs in cancer cells can be due to genetic, epigenetic and post-transcriptional/post-translational events. Activated hemichannels mediate the diffusional membrane transport of ions and small signaling molecules. In the last decade hemichannels have been shown to participate in diverse cell processes including the modulation of cell proliferation and survival. However, their possible role in tumor growth and expansion remains largely unexplored. Herein, we hypothesize about the possible role of hemichannels in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. To support this theory, we summarize the evidence regarding the involvement of hemichannels in cell proliferation and migration, as well as their possible role in the anti-tumor immune responses. In addition, we discuss the evidence linking hemichannels with cancer in diverse models and comment on the current technical limitations for their study. PMID:25018732
The lymphatic vasculature has been regarded as a passive conduit for interstitial fluid and responsible for the absorption of macromolecules such as proteins or lipids and transport of nutrients from food. However, emerging data show that the lymphatic vasculature system plays an important role in immune modulation. One of its major roles is to coordinate antigen transport and immune-cell trafficking from peripheral tissues to secondary lymphoid organs, lymph nodes. This perspective was recently updated with the notion that the interaction between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes controls the immune-cell migration and immune responses by regulating lymphatic flow and various secreted molecules such as chemokines and cytokines. In this review, we introduce the lymphatic vasculature networks and genetic transgenic models for research on the lymphatic vasculature system. Next, we discuss the contribution of lymphatic endothelial cells to the control of immune-cell trafficking and to maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Finally, the physiological roles and features of the lymphatic vasculature system are further discussed regarding inflammation-induced lymphangiogenesis in a pathological condition, especially in mucosal tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. PMID:28261022
Saini, Rajiv; Marawar, PP; Shete, Sujata; Saini, Santosh; Mani, Ameet
World Health Organization defines palliative care as the active total care of patients whose disease is not responding to curative treatment. Palliative care for the terminally ill is based on a multidimensional approach to provide whole-person comfort care while maintaining optimal function; dental care plays an important role in this multidisciplinary approach. The aim of the present study is to review significance of dentist's role to determine whether mouth care was effectively assessed and implemented in the palliative care setting. The oral problems experienced by the hospice head and neck patient clearly affect the quality of his or her remaining life. Dentist plays an essential role in palliative care by the maintenance of oral hygiene; dental examination may identify and cure opportunistic infections and dental disease like caries, periodontal disease, oral mucosal problems or prosthetic requirement. Oral care may reduce not only the microbial load of the mouth but the risk for pain and oral infection as well. This multidisciplinary approach to palliative care, including a dentist, may reduce the oral debilities that influence the patient's ability to speak, eat or swallow. This review highlighted that without effective assessment of the mouth, the appropriate implementation of care will not be delivered. Palliative dental care has been fundamental in management of patients with active, progressive, far-advanced disease in which the oral cavity has been compromised either by the disease directly or by its treatment; the focus of care is quality of life. PMID:20606852
Chen, Shuang; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe
The IL-23-IL-17 axis is emerging as a critical regulatory system that bridges the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Th17 cells have been linked to the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the role of Th17 cells and IL-17 in various stages of atherogenesis remains poorly understood and is only beginning to be elucidated. While IL-17 is a predominantly proinflammatory cytokine, it has a pleiotropic function and it has been implicated both as an instigator in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory disorders as well as being protective in certain inflammatory disease models. Therefore, it is not surprising that the current literature is conflicting on the role of IL-17 during atherosclerotic lesion development. Various approaches have been used by several groups to discern the involvement of IL-17 in atherosclerosis. While one study found that IL-17 is protective against atherosclerosis, several other recent studies have suggested that IL-17 plays a proatherogenic role. Thus, the function of IL-17 remains controversial and awaits more direct studies to address the issue. In this review, we will highlight all the latest studies involving IL-17 and atherosclerosis, including both clinical and experimental research.
Orban, T I; Olah, E
Germline mutations of the BRCA1 gene predispose individuals mainly to the development of breast and/or ovarian cancer. However, the exact function of the gene is still unclear, although the encoded proteins are involved in various cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation and DNA repair pathways. Several BRCA1 splice variants are found in different tissues, but in spite of intense investigations, their regulation and possible functions are poorly understood at the moment. This review summarises current knowledge on the roles of these splice variants and the mechanisms responsible for their formation. Because alternative splicing is now widely accepted as an important source of genetic diversity, elucidating the functions of the BRCA1 splice variants would help in the understanding of the exact role(s) of this tumour suppressor. This should help to resolve the current paradox that, despite its seemingly vital cellular functions, mutations of this gene are associated with tissue specific tumour formation predominantly in the breast and the ovary.
Mackereth, C J
In the winter of 1992, a postal survey was conducted on all practice nurses in Gateshead, England. The aim of the research was to describe the work of practice nurses (nurses working with and employed by general practitioners), with particular reference to health promotion and communication, and to explore the practice nurses' perceptions of their roles. The research found little conformity about what practice nurses do, apart from practical tasks. This confirms the essentially practical nature of their work, with poor role definition with regard to screening, health promotion and prevention. Training was found to vary, indicating a need for improvement. Women's health and surveillance of the health of elderly people were used to illustrate these issues. A wide consensus was found about what tasks are appropriate to practice nurses, indicating either that the list of tasks used in the survey accurately describes their potential role or that they are prepared to perform most tasks. Practice nurses perceive themselves as the specialists in health promotion although it was not possible to gain an understanding of whether they had a conception of the wider issues involved, which illustrated a limitation of survey methods. The information obtained will be relevant in the debate about the future of practice nurses, as well as the future of primary health care services in general.
Fitch, Margaret I; Mings, Deborah
The delivery of cancer care in Ontario is facing unprecedented challenges. Shortages in nursing, as in all professional disciplines, are having an impact on the delivery of cancer care. Oncology nurses have a major role to play in the delivery of optimum cancer care. Oncology nursing, when adequately defined and supported, can benefit the cancer delivery system, patients, and families. A primary nursing model is seen as being key to the delivery of optimum cancer care. Primary nursing as a philosophy facilitates continuity of care, coordination of a patient's care plan, and a meaningful ongoing relationship with the patient and his/her family. Primary nursing, when delivered in the collaboration of a nurse-physician team, allows for medical resources to be used appropriately. Defined roles enable nurses to manage patients within their scope of practice in collaboration with physicians. Enacting other nursing roles, such as nurse practitioners and advanced practice nurses, can also enable the health care system to manage a broader number of patients with more complex needs. This article presents a position paper originally written as the basis for an advocacy and education initiative in Ontario. It is shared in anticipation that the work may be useful to oncology nurses in other jurisdictions in their efforts to advance oncology nursing and improvement of patient care.
Lunardi, Andrea; Gaboli, Mirella; Giorgio, Marco; Rivi, Roberta; Bygrave, Anne; Antoniou, Michael; Drabek, Dubravka; Dzierzak, Elaine; Fagioli, Marta; Salmena, Leonardo; Botto, Marina; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Luzzatto, Lucio; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Grosveld, Frank; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo
The promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) of acute promyelocytic leukemia is an established tumor suppressor gene with critical functions in growth suppression, induction of apoptosis, and cellular senescence. Interestingly, although less studied, PML seems to play a key role also in immune response to viral infection. Herein, we report that Pml −/− mice spontaneously develop an atypical invasive and lethal granulomatous lesion known as botryomycosis (BTM). In Pml −/− mice, BTM is the result of impaired function of macrophages, whereby they fail to become activated and are thus unable to clear pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, Pml −/− mice are resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced septic shock as a result of an ineffective production of cytokines and chemokines, suggesting a role for PML in the innate immune Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB prosurvival pathway. These results not only shed light on a new fundamental function of PML in innate immunity, but they also point to a proto-oncogenic role for PML in certain cellular and pathological contexts. PMID:21779477
Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse
The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…
Yates, Karen; Usher, Kim; Kelly, Jenny
Nurses and midwives continue to make up the largest proportion of the health workforce. As a result, shortages of nurses and midwives have a significant impact on the delivery of effective health care. Shortages of nurses and midwives are known to be more pronounced in rural and remote areas where recruitment and retention remain problematic. However, rural nurses are often required to be multi-skilled, which has led to expectations that nurses who are also midwives, are required to work across areas of the hospital to help to address shortages. For midwives this issue is even more problematic as they may actually end up spending a very small percentage of their working day involved in the delivery of maternity care. This workforce strategy has the potential to seriously erode the skills of the midwives. Situations such as this are implicated in attrition of midwives because of the role stress that results when they are required to work in models of care where they experience the constant pull to work between departments and across roles. This paper addresses the requirement for midwives in some rural facilities to work across roles of general nurse and midwife and outlines the issues that arise as a result. In particular, the paper links the concepts of Role Theory to the requirement for midwives to work in dual roles and the potential for role stress to develop.
Jürgensen, Henrik J.; Madsen, Daniel H.; Ingvarsen, Signe; Melander, Maria C.; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Patthy, Laszlo; Engelholm, Lars H.; Behrendt, Niels
Collagens make up the most abundant component of interstitial extracellular matrices and basement membranes. Collagen remodeling is a crucial process in many normal physiological events and in several pathological conditions. Some collagen subtypes contain specific carbohydrate side chains, the function of which is poorly known. The endocytic collagen receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP)/Endo180 plays an important role in matrix remodeling through its ability to internalize collagen for lysosomal degradation. uPARAP/Endo180 is a member of the mannose receptor protein family. These proteins all include a fibronectin type II domain and a series of C-type lectin-like domains, of which only a minor part possess carbohydrate recognition activity. At least two of the family members, uPARAP/Endo180 and the mannose receptor, interact with collagens. The molecular basis for this interaction is known to involve the fibronectin type II domain but nothing is known about the function of the lectin domains in this respect. In this study, we have investigated a possible role of the single active lectin domain of uPARAP/Endo180 in the interaction with collagens. By expressing truncated recombinant uPARAP/Endo180 proteins and analyzing their interaction with collagens with high and low levels of glycosylation we demonstrated that this lectin domain interacts directly with glycosylated collagens. This interaction is functionally important because it was found to modulate the endocytic efficiency of the receptor toward highly glycosylated collagens such as basement membrane collagen IV. Surprisingly, this property was not shared by the mannose receptor, which internalized glycosylated collagens independently of its lectin function. This role of modulating its uptake efficiency by a specific receptor is a previously unrecognized function of collagen glycosylation. PMID:21768090
Cai, Zhiyou; Liu, Nannuan; Wang, Chuanling; Qin, Biyong; Zhou, Yingjun; Xiao, Ming; Chang, Liying; Yan, Liang-Jun; Zhao, Bin
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a receptor of the immunoglobulin super family that plays various important roles under physiological and pathological conditions. Compelling evidence suggests that RAGE acts as both an inflammatory intermediary and a critical inducer of oxidative stress, underlying RAGE-induced Alzheimer-like pathophysiological changes that drive the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A critical role of RAGE in AD includes beta-amyloid (Aβ) production and accumulation, the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, failure of synaptic transmission, and neuronal degeneration. The steady-state level of Aβ depends on the balance between production and clearance. RAGE plays an important role in the Aβ clearance. RAGE acts as an important transporter via regulating influx of circulating Aβ into brain, whereas the efflux of brain-derived Aβ into the circulation via BBB is implemented by LRP1. RAGE could be an important contributor to Aβ generation via enhancing the activity of β- and/or γ-secretases and activating inflammatory response and oxidative stress. However, sRAGE-Aβ interactions could inhibit Aβ neurotoxicity and promote Aβ clearance from brain. Meanwhile, RAGE could be a promoting factor for the synaptic dysfunction and neuronal circuit dysfunction which are both the material structure of cognition, and the physiological and pathological basis of cognition. In addition, RAGE could be a trigger for the pathogenesis of Aβ and tau hyper-phosphorylation which both participate in the process of cognitive impairment. Preclinical and clinical studies have supported that RAGE inhibitors could be useful in the treatment of AD. Thus, an effective measure to inhibit RAGE may be a novel drug target in AD.
Merle, Nicolas S.; Noe, Remi; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T.
The complement system has been considered for a long time as a simple lytic cascade, aimed to kill bacteria infecting the host organism. Nowadays, this vision has changed and it is well accepted that complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in host homeostasis, inflammation, and in the defense against pathogens. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of complement in physiology and pathology. It starts with a description of complement contribution to the normal physiology (homeostasis) of a healthy organism, including the silent clearance of apoptotic cells and maintenance of cell survival. In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing opsonization and a direct killing by C5b–9 membrane attack complex and by triggering inflammatory responses with the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Opsonization plays also a major role in the mounting of an adaptive immune response, involving antigen presenting cells, T-, and B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it can be also an enemy, when pathogens hijack complement regulators to protect themselves from the immune system. Inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, as in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Age-related macular degeneration and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of conditions, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a therapeutic target. PMID:26074922
Zhang, Hua; Sun, Suya; Herreman, An; De Strooper, Bart; Bezprozvanny, Ilya
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. Familial AD (FAD) mutations in presenilins have been linked to calcium (Ca2+) signaling abnormalities. To explain these results we previously proposed that presenilins function as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) passive Ca2+ leak channels. To directly investigate the role of presenilins in neuronal ER Ca2+ homeostasis we here performed a series of Ca2+ imaging experiments with primary neuronal cultures from conditional presenilin double-knockout mice (PScDKO mice; PS1dTAG/dTAG, PS2−/−) and from a triple transgenic AD mice (3xTg mice; KI-PS1M146V, Thy1-APPKM670/671NL, Thy1-tauP301L). Obtained results provided further support to the hypothesis that presenilins function as ER Ca2+ leak channels in neurons. Interestingly, we discovered that presenilins play a major role in ER Ca2+ leak function in hippocampal but not in striatal neurons. We further discovered that in hippocampal neurons loss of presenilin-mediated ER Ca2+ leak function was compensated by an increase in expression and function of ryanodine receptors (RyanR). Long-term feeding of RyanR inhibitor dantrolene to APPPS1 mice (Thy1-APPKM670/671NL, Thy1-PS1L166P) resulted in an increased amyloid load, loss of synaptic markers and neuronal atrophy in hippocampal and cortical regions. These results indicate that disruption of ER Ca2+ leak function of presenilins may play an important role in AD pathogenesis. PMID:20573903
Zhang, Hua; Sun, Suya; Herreman, An; De Strooper, Bart; Bezprozvanny, Ilya
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. Familial AD (FAD) mutations in presenilins have been linked to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling abnormalities. To explain these results, we previously proposed that presenilins function as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) passive Ca(2+) leak channels. To directly investigate the role of presenilins in neuronal ER Ca(2+) homeostasis, we here performed a series of Ca(2+) imaging experiments with primary neuronal cultures from conditional presenilin double-knock-out mice (PS1(dTAG/dTAG), PS2(-/-)) and from triple-transgenic AD mice (KI-PS1(M146V), Thy1-APP(KM670/671NL), Thy1-tau(P301L)). Obtained results provided additional support to the hypothesis that presenilins function as ER Ca(2+) leak channels in neurons. Interestingly, we discovered that presenilins play a major role in ER Ca(2+) leak function in hippocampal but not in striatal neurons. We further discovered that, in hippocampal neurons, loss of presenilin-mediated ER Ca(2+) leak function was compensated by an increase in expression and function of ryanodine receptors (RyanRs). Long-term feeding of the RyanR inhibitor dantrolene to amyloid precursor protein-presenilin-1 mice (Thy1-APP(KM670/671NL), Thy1-PS1(L166P)) resulted in an increased amyloid load, loss of synaptic markers, and neuronal atrophy in hippocampal and cortical regions. These results indicate that disruption of ER Ca(2+) leak function of presenilins may play an important role in AD pathogenesis.
De Backer, Ivan; Hussain, Sufyan S.; Gardiner, James V.
Glucokinase is a key component of the neuronal glucose-sensing mechanism and is expressed in brain regions that control a range of homeostatic processes. In this review, we detail recently identified roles for neuronal glucokinase in glucose homeostasis and counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia and in regulating appetite. We describe clinical implications from these advances in our knowledge, especially for developing novel treatments for diabetes and obesity. Further research required to extend our knowledge and help our efforts to tackle the diabetes and obesity epidemics is suggested. PMID:27189932
Koppel, Ross; Telles, Joel Leon
Handoffs-transfer of patient care from one clinician or service to another-are well known patient safety dangers. Healthcare Information Technology (HIT) as an intervening and powerful force in handoffs has received comparatively little attention. The role of HIT in concert with paper documentation has received even less attention. We analyze handoffs in relation to electronic records and hybrid systems (both paper and HIT) to identify sources of error and miscommunication. We propose a typology of handoffs and illustrate several of them.
White, Donald E
The old saying "the more it changes, the more it is the same thing," does not apply to the Joint Commission, which has changed more than it's name, according to the author. In this article, in which he gives detailed first-hand information on today's survey experience, including the pitfalls to be expected, he reports that healthcare security's roles have been expanded. Unannounced inspections now start the previous evening, thanks to surveyor drive-bys. The Life Safety surveyor has replaced the Administrator surveyor on the Joint Commission's inspection team. Two things to be prepared for are detailed questioning about security staff competency and room contents hazards for each room.
Guruswamy, Guru P.
On behalf of the High Performance Computing and Modernization Program (HPCMP) and NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division (NAS) a study is conducted to assess the role of supercomputers on computational aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles. The study is mostly based on the responses to a web based questionnaire that was designed to capture the nuances of high performance computational aeroelasticity, particularly on parallel computers. A procedure is presented to assign a fidelity-complexity index to each application. Case studies based on major applications using HPCMP resources are presented.
Harris-Glocker, Miranda; McLaren, Janet F
Infertility is defined as a couple's failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. The etiology of infertility can be due to female factors, male factors, combined male and female factors, or have an unknown etiology. This review focuses on the role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. Normal anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will be discussed, as well as the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes that cause infertility including ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, tubal blockage, mullerian anomalies, and abnormalities affecting the uterine cavity such as leiomyomata and endometrial polyps.
Martin, Kathleen D; Molitor-Kirsch, Shirley; Elgart, Heidi; Ruffolo, Daria C; Sicoutris, Corinna; Meredith, Denise
The need for advanced practice nurses (APN) has expanded over the past several decades as a result of the changing healthcare environment. Increased patient acuity and decreased resident work hours have lead to a need for additional clinical expertise at the bedside. APNs are becoming an integral part of the acute care delivery team in many trauma programs and intensive care units. To date little has been published regarding the role of the APN in Trauma Centers. This article outlines the wide variety of responsibilities and services provided by a select group of nurse practitioners who work in trauma centers throughout the United States.
Pollution prevention is at the top of the waste management hierarchy in the United States. If you don`t create pollution in the first place, concerns about transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of waste are moot. While industry is on the front line in accomplishing significant pollution prevention, universities can play a meaningful role in its accomplishment as well. Universities can do this through three basic missions: education, research, and public service. Examples of how this is carried out at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville are provided. To be fully effective, universities need to organize in an interdisciplinary manner and adopt a public outreach agenda.
Lakshminarayanan, V.; Ghalila, H.; Ammar, A.; Varadharajan, S.
Simulations can play an important role in science education. Simulations (enabled by powerful numerical and visualization methods) are excellent tools for teaching optical phenomena. The advantages of using simulations as a tool for teaching optics include, amongst others, (1) giving students an engaging, hands-on active learning experience, (2) helping in understanding equations as physical relationships among experimental measurements and (3) allowing students to investigate phenomena that would not be possible to experiment on in a laboratory or classroom setting. We illustrate the utility of simulations in optics by describing some examples from geometric and physical optics using the open source programming language Python.
Höhn, Annika; Grune, Tilman
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of the aging process and age dependent diseases. Both are closely connected to disturbances of proteostasis by protein oxidation and an impairment of the proteasomal system. The final consequence is the accumulation of highly cross-linked undegradable aggregates such as lipofuscin. These aggregates of damaged proteins are detrimental to normal cell functions. Here we provide an overview about effect of these aggregates on the proteasomal system, followed by transcription factor activation and loss of cell viability. Furthermore, findings on the mechanism of radical genesis, proteasomal inhibition and the required components of lipofuscin formation were resumed. PMID:24024146
Zhao, Wang; Zheng, Xi-Long; Zhao, Shui-Ping
Exosomes are nanosized vesicles secreted by cells, which are capable of carrying signaling molecules in the forms of protein, mRNA and miRNA to serve as the platforms for complex intercellular communications. During the past few years, increasing efforts have been devoted to exosome research, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of identifying the molecular composition, elucidating the mechanisms and regulations of biogenesis and characterizing the functions in a variety of physiological and pathological settings including cardiovascular diseases, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in modern society. This review provides an update on exosome research and summarizes the roles of exosomes in cardiovascular diseases.
Szalai, K. J.
The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.
Skincare formulations for the improvement of aging skin are increasingly important consumer products. Here, we review available data on one such agent - 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or deanol - that has recently been evaluated in a placebo-controlled trial. DMAE is an analog of the B vitamin choline and is a precursor of acetylcholine. Although the role of acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter is well known, growing evidence points to acetylcholine as a ubiquitous cytokine-like molecule that regulates basic cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, locomotion, and secretion in a paracrine and autocrine fashion. Indeed, this modulatory role may contribute to the cutaneous activity of DMAE. In a randomized clinical study, 3% DMAE facial gel applied daily for 16 weeks has been shown to be safe and efficacious (p < 0.05) in the mitigation of forehead lines and periorbital fine wrinkles, and in improving lip shape and fullness and the overall appearance of aging skin. These effects did not regress during a 2-week cessation of application. Beneficial trends (p > 0.05 but = 0.1) were noted in the appearance of coarse wrinkles, under-eye dark circles, nasolabial folds, sagging neck skin, and neck firmness. Application was found to be well tolerated, with no differences in the incidence of erythema, peeling, dryness, itching, burning, or stinging between the DMAE and placebo groups. An open-label extension of the trial showed that the long-term application of DMAE gel for up to 1 year was associated with a good safety profile. The acute skin-firming effects of DMAE have been confirmed by quantitative measures of cutaneous tensile strength. In vitro studies in peripheral blood lymphocytes indicate that DMAE is a moderately active anti-inflammatory agent. Although its mechanisms of action in the skin remain to be elucidated, evidence suggests that the skin is an active site of acetylcholine synthesis, storage, secretion, metabolism, and receptivity
Spiegel, Jeremy; Severino, Sally K.; Morrison, Nancy K.
The authors propose to clarify concepts of emotional attunement and failures of attunement in early development derived from theoretical and clinical work (Kohut) and infant psychiatry (Stern). Early attunement failures are experienced as shameful by the infant/child, and without repair they form a nidus for later destructive adult interpersonal relationships, “social blindness,” and depression. The authors present a case illustrating these ideas. The role of empathic attunement experienced in the unique setting/structure of psychotherapy emerges as the single critical variable for a successful outcome. PMID:10608906
Hunayn ibn Ishāq is one of the most important translators of scientific and medical texts in the 'abbāsid era. He played a fundamental role in the transmission of Greek medical science to the Arab world, because of his deep knowledge of the Syriac, Arabic and Persian languages. He translated about 300 texts, especially medical ones, and he founded a school in which many disciples were instructed in the art of translation, like his son Ishāq and his nephew Hubays. Hunayn composed a lexicon of scientific terminology, using a new method of translation which represents his great innovation.
Biondi, Alberto; Ricci, Riccardo
Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Metastases, including lymph nodes ones, heavily influence the prognosis of this disease. The pathological detection of positive lymph nodes is pivotal for an optimal prognostication and clinical management of affected individuals. Several factors influence the pathological investigation of surgical specimens, ultimately affecting the number of retrieved lymph nodes and, with it, the reliability of N staging. The pathologist plays a central role in optimizing this process. Factors influencing lymph node retrieval and analysis will be herein reviewed, together with the procedures adopted for an optimal pathological analysis of lymph nodes in gastric cancer. PMID:28275742
Molina Hazan, Vered; Balicer, Ran D; Groto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Levine, Hagai; Ash, Nachman
Pandemic influenza is a major challenge to emergency preparedness agencies and health systems throughout the world. It requires preparation for a situation of widespread morbidity due to flu and its complications which will lead to a huge burden on the health system in the community and in hospitals, and work absenteeism, also among health care personnel. This may require major involvement of the army in both preparedness and measures to be taken to tackle such an event. This article reviews the different roles armies could take in such a crisis, and presents the Israeli test case. Defense systems are characterized by a number of attributes that may be major advantages during pandemic influenza: crisis management capacities, ability to deal with varied tasks in sub-optimal conditions, logistic resources (fuel, food and water), widespread deployment in the country and sometimes in the world, and the ability to activate people in risky situations, even against their will. The army roles during pandemic outbreaks could include: taking national and regional command of the event, assigning workforce for essential civilian missions, use of logistic and military resources, maintaining public order and implementing public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. In addition, the army must continue its primary role of maintaining the security and guarding the borders of the state, especially in times of global geopolitical changes due to pandemic. Since March 2009, the influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus spread throughout the world, leading the WHO to declare a state of pandemic influenza. According to Israeli preparedness plans, the management of the event was supposed to pass to the defense system. However, due to the moderate severity of the illness, it was decided to leave the management of the event to the health system. In view of the necessity of maintaining military combat capabilities, and the possibility of outbreaks in combat units, which actually occurred, the
Miner, Jeffrey H
Laminins are alpha-beta-gamma heterotrimeric components of all basement membranes. Laminins are now known to play the central role in organizing and establishing the basement membrane. The diversity of laminins allows them to impart special structural and signaling properties to the basement membrane. Of the 12 known laminin chain genes, 10 have been either found to be mutated in humans or experimentally mutated in mice. This has led to great progress over the last several years towards understanding both the functions of laminins and the reasons for their great diversity. In this review, I will summarize the in vivo studies in mice and humans that have contributed to this new knowledge.
Groot, Arjan J.; Vooijs, Marc A.
Regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) is a highly conserved signaling paradigm whereby membrane-bound signaling proteins are cleaved in their transmembrane region and then released into the cytoplasm to act as signaling molecules. In most if not all cases intramembrane cleavage is preceded and regulated by a membrane proximal cleavage step called “ectodomain shedding”. Here we will review the role of ectodomain shedding in RIP of the NOTCH signaling pathway, a highly conserved cell-cell communication pathway that mediates cell fate decisions during development and in adult tissues. PMID:22399336
Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui; Xie, Fei; Chen, Chao
In complex network epidemiology, diseases spread along contacting edges between individuals and different edges may play different roles in epidemic outbreaks. Quantifying the efficiency of edges is an important step towards arresting epidemics. In this paper, we study the efficiency of edges in general susceptible-infected-recovered models, and introduce the transmission capability to measure the efficiency of edges. Results show that deleting edges with the highest transmission capability will greatly decrease epidemics on scale-free networks. Basing on the message passing approach, we get exact mathematical solution on configuration model networks with edge deletion in the large size limit.
Dixon, David P; Steel, Patrick G
Uniquely among the plant glutathione transferases, two classes possess a catalytic cysteine capable of performing glutathione-dependent reductions. These are the dehydroascorbate reductases (DHARs) and the lambda-class glutathione transferases (GSTLs). Using immobilized GSTLs probed with crude plant extracts we have identified flavonols as high affinity ligands and subsequently demonstrated a novel glutathione-dependent role for these enzymes in recycling oxidized quercetin. By comparing the activities of DHARs and GSTLs we now propose a unified catalytic mechanism that suggests oxidized anthocyanidins and tocopherols may be alternative polyphenolic substrates of GSTLs. PMID:21778824
Vontiesenhausen, G. (Editor)
The results of research and development that addressed the usefulness of tether applications in space, particularly for space station are described. A well organized and structured effort of considerable magnitude involving NASA, industry and academia have defined the engineering and technological requirements of space tethers and their broad range of economic and operational benefits. The work directed by seven NASA Field Centers is consolidated and structured to cover the general and specific roles of tethers in space as they apply to NASA's planned space station. This is followed by a description of tether systems and operations. A summary of NASA's plans for tether applications in space for years to come is given.
Numerous experiments indicate that in the pathogenesis of so-called civilization diseases, low consumption of dietary fibers seems to be one of etiological factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that dietary fibers play an ever increasing role both in prevention and dietetic management of the diseases. Among these fibers wheat bran containing about 50% of dietary fibers has the most beneficial physiological effect. Besides, wheat bran is fit very well for production of different foodstuffs. Data are reported on the content of crude and dietary fibers in cabbage, radish, carrot, wheat bran and brown bread.
Scaria, Minimol Kulakkottu
Cohesive interprofessional teamwork is essential to successful healthcare services. Interprofessional teamwork is the means by which different healthcare professionals - with diverse knowledge, skills and talents - collaborate to achieve a common goal. Several interventions are available to improve teamwork in the healthcare setting. This article explores the role of care pathways in improving interprofessional teamwork. Care pathways enhance teamwork by promoting coordination, collaboration, communication and decision making to achieve optimal healthcare outcomes. They result in improved staff knowledge, communication, documentation and interprofessional relations. Care pathways also contribute to patient-centred care and increase patient satisfaction.