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Sample records for dementia wisde study

  1. [Depression and dementia: perspectives from clinical studies].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Shoko; Yoshimura, Kimio; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-12-01

    In this review, we present an overview of clinical studies that addressed the relationship between depression and dementia or cognitive decline. Cross-sectional studies and meta-analyses have repeatedly shown an association between late-life depression (LLD) and dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia; however, the findings of cohort studies have been inconsistent. Furthermore, studies on the association between depression with a younger age of onset and dementia have yielded inconsistent results. Regarding cognitive decline associated with LLD, several studies have reported an association between LLD and mild cognitive impairment, suggesting that depression itself can cause persistent cognitive impairment. Other studies have compared the cognitive profile between LLD and depression with a younger age of onset, but their results have been inconclusive, especially regarding the association between memory impairment and the age of onset of depression. LLD is associated with vascular change and white matter degeneration of the brain, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Recently, several studies reported an association between gray matter change and LLD. Studies currently in progress employ functional brain imaging methods such as single-photon emission computed tomography, functional MRI, and positron emission tomography. Clinically, it is important to understand how subtypes of depression can be defined in terms of risk of developing dementia, and to devise effective treatments. One paper explored the possibility of detecting depression associated with AD by measuring the blood Aβ40/Aβ42 levels, and other studies have suggested that symptoms of apathy and loss of interest are associated with conversion of depression to AD. Unfortunately, current antidepressants may have limited efficacy on depression with dementia; therefore, further investigation for devising methods of predicting conversion of depression to dementia and

  2. [Depression and dementia: case-control study].

    PubMed

    Vilalta-Franch, J; Llinàs-Reglà, J; López-Pousa, S

    To know the prevalence and risk factors for depression in demented patients. From a field epidemiological study, in a double phase, door to door, in which 1,460 subjects older than 69 from a rural area participated, three groups were established: group A made up of 200 dementia diagnosed subjects; group B made up of 119 subjects without dementia but with punctuation on the screening instrument (MEC) under the cut off point; the 283 subjects on the group C were not catalogued as demented, and the MEC punctuation was over the cut off point. Both the diagnoses of dementia and depression were made in basis of CAMDEX criteria. The frequency of depression in groups A, B and C was 26.5%, 11.76% and 4.94%, respectively. The dementia is a risk factor for depression (OR: 4.81; CI: 2.93-7.91). There are no differences in the frequency of depression according to dementia subtypes. Sex, age, marital status and severity of dementia do not have an influence on the prevalence of depression. The presence of psychiatric history is a risk factor for depression on groups A and B, but not for C. Depressions are more common on subjects with cognitive impairment.

  3. Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... skills) Dementia usually first appears as forgetfulness. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the stage between normal forgetfulness due to aging and the development of dementia. People with MCI have mild problems ...

  4. Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... dementia have serious problems with two or more brain functions, such as memory and language. Although dementia is common in very elderly people, it is not part of normal aging. Many different diseases ... dementia or repair brain damage, they may improve symptoms or slow down ...

  5. Imaging retina to study dementia and stroke.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui; Ikram, M Kamran; Chen, Christopher; Wong, Tien Yin

    2017-03-01

    With increase in life expectancy, the number of persons suffering from common age-related brain diseases, including neurodegenerative (e.g., dementia) and cerebrovascular (e.g., stroke) disease is expected to rise substantially. As current neuro-imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging may not be able to detect subtle subclinical changes (resolution <100-500 μm) in dementia and stroke, there is an urgent need for other complementary techniques to probe the pathophysiology of these diseases. The retina - due to its anatomical, embryological and physiological similarities with the brain - offers a unique and accessible "window" to study correlates and consequences of subclinical pathology in the brain. Retinal components such as the microvasculature and retinal ganglion cell axons can now be visualized non-invasively using different retinal imaging techniques e.g., ocular fundus photography and optical coherence tomography. Advances in retinal imaging may provide new and potentially important insights into cerebrovascular neurodegenerative processes in addition to what is currently possible with neuro-imaging. In this review, we present an overview of the current literature on the application of retinal imaging in the study of dementia and stroke. We discuss clinical implications of these studies, novel state-of-the-art retinal imaging techniques and future directions aimed at evaluating whether retinal imaging can be an additional investigation tool in the study of dementia and stroke.

  6. Study of visuospatial skill in patients with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Asutosh; Biswas, Atanu; Pandit, Alak; Roy, Arijit; Guin, Debsankar; Gangopadhyay, Goutam; Senapati, Asit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the visuospatial function in different types of dementia with the visual object and space perception (VOSP) battery and to relate the degree of visuospatial dysfunction with different types and stages of dementia. Materials and Methods: A sample of 53 participants with dementia and equal number of age-, sex-, and education-matched controls were recruited for the study. Participants were evaluated for visuospatial skill using VOSP test battery. The scores of dementia patients were compared with controls and within dementia cohort scores were compared based on stage of dementia. Results: The dementia group scored low in all of the subtests of the VOSP battery in comparison to controls. Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia of Lewy bodies (DLB), and vascular dementia (VaD) patients performed more poorly than controls in all subtests examining object perception and space perception. The three semantic variants of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients scored low in all four subtests of object perception, whereas behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) patients performed normally. The scores deteriorated with the advancement of dementia in all patients from the dementia groups. Conclusions: Visuospatial function is significantly impaired in dementia patients particularly in AD, DLB, and VaD patients from the beginning, and the impairment is severe in advanced disease stages. PMID:27011635

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Community-Based Dementia Care Networks: The Dementia Care Networks' Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux-Charles, Louis; Chambers, Larry W.; Cockerill, Rhonda; Jaglal, Susan; Brazil, Kevin; Cohen, Carole; LeClair, Ken; Dalziel, Bill; Schulman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The Dementia Care Networks' Study examined the effectiveness of four community-based, not-for-profit dementia networks. The study involved assessing the relationship between the types of administrative and service-delivery exchanges that occurred among the networked agencies and the network members' perception of the effectiveness of…

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Community-Based Dementia Care Networks: The Dementia Care Networks' Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux-Charles, Louis; Chambers, Larry W.; Cockerill, Rhonda; Jaglal, Susan; Brazil, Kevin; Cohen, Carole; LeClair, Ken; Dalziel, Bill; Schulman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The Dementia Care Networks' Study examined the effectiveness of four community-based, not-for-profit dementia networks. The study involved assessing the relationship between the types of administrative and service-delivery exchanges that occurred among the networked agencies and the network members' perception of the effectiveness of…

  9. Preferred computer activities among individuals with dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sunghee H; Zhang, Hongmei; Hong, Song Hee

    2015-03-01

    Computers offer new activities that are easily accessible, cognitively stimulating, and enjoyable for individuals with dementia. The current descriptive study examined preferred computer activities among nursing home residents with different severity levels of dementia. A secondary data analysis was conducted using activity observation logs from 15 study participants with dementia (severe = 115 logs, moderate = 234 logs, and mild = 124 logs) who participated in a computer activity program. Significant differences existed in preferred computer activities among groups with different severity levels of dementia. Participants with severe dementia spent significantly more time watching slide shows with music than those with both mild and moderate dementia (F [2,12] = 9.72, p = 0.003). Preference in playing games also differed significantly across the three groups. It is critical to consider individuals' interests and functional abilities when computer activities are provided for individuals with dementia. A practice guideline for tailoring computer activities is detailed. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. [Prevalence of dementia in institutionalized patients. The RESYDEM study].

    PubMed

    López Mongil, Rosa; López Trigo, J Antonio; Castrodeza Sanz, F Javier; Tamames Gómez, Sonia; León Colombo, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of dementia in nursing homes in Spain and to analyze the associated factors in an elderly population in the institutional setting. We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study of 852 residents of public, private and state-assisted nursing homes throughout Spain. Dementia was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV-TR clinical criteria. The Hughes Clinical Dementia Rating scale was used to measure global impairment or the global severity of dementia. Sociodemographic, clinical and neuropsychological variables, together with the pharmacological treatments prescribed to the participants, were recorded. The overall prevalence of dementia was 61.7% (95% CI 58.4-65.1) and that of Alzheimer's disease was 16.9% (95% CI 14.3-19.5). Vascular dementia was found in 7.3% (95% CI 5.5-9.1). Female sex was independently associated with a greater frequency of dementia. The prevalence of dementia increased with age. Only 18.8% (95% CI 15.4-22.3) of the patients diagnosed with dementia received specific treatment for the disorder. Two-thirds of the elderly persons living in nursing homes in Spain have dementia. Undertreatment of this disease is common. Increased awareness among health care professionals is important for the early diagnosis and appropriate management of dementia, which would represent a radical change in the approach to this disease.

  11. Oskar Fischer and the study of dementia

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The centenary of Alois Alzheimer's description of the case of Auguste Deter has renewed interest in the early history of dementia research. In his 1907 paper Alzheimer described the presence of plaques and tangles in one case of presenile dementia. In the same year, Oskar Fischer reported neuritic plaques in 12 cases of senile dementia. These were landmark findings in the history of research in dementia because they delineated the clinicopathological entity that is now known as Alzheimer's disease. Although much has been written about Alzheimer, only little is known about Fischer. The present article discusses Fischer's work on dementia in the context of his life and time. PMID:18952676

  12. Presymptomatic studies in genetic frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Rohrer, J D; Warren, J D; Fox, N C; Rossor, M N

    2013-10-01

    Approximately 20% of patients with the neurodegenerative disorder frontotemporal dementia (FTD) have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Genetic FTD is caused by mutations in three genes in most cases (progranulin, microtubule-associated protein tau and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72) although a number of other genes are rare causes. Studies of other neurodegenerative diseases have shown imaging and biomarker evidence of disease onset many years prior to the development of symptoms. Similar studies in genetic FTD are now revealing evidence of a series of presymptomatic changes, initially in plasma biomarkers followed by MR imaging abnormalities of functional and structural connectivity and then grey matter atrophy. Lastly, neuropsychometric tests become abnormal in proximity to the onset of symptoms. Such studies have been relatively small until now but research centres with an expertise in genetic FTD are now forming consortia such as the Genetic Frontotemporal Dementia Initiative (GenFI) to create larger cohorts that can form the basis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of Dementia Caregiver Depressive Symptoms in a Population: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Previous research has consistently reported elevated rates of depressive symptoms in dementia caregivers, but mostly with convenience samples. This study examined rates and correlates of depression at the baseline visit of a population sample of dementia caregivers (N = 256). Method. Using a modified version of Williams (Williams, I. C. [2005]. Emotional health of black and white dementia caregivers: A contextual examination. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 60, P287–P295) ecological contextual model, we examined 5 contexts that have contributed to dementia caregiver depression. A series of linear regressions were performed to determine correlates of depression. Results. Rates of depressive symptoms were lower than those reported in most convenience studies. We found fewer depressive symptoms in caregivers with higher levels of education and larger social support networks, fewer health problems, greater likelihood of using problem-focused coping, and less likelihood of wishful thinking and with fewer behavioral disturbances in the persons with dementia. Discussion. These results suggest that depression may be less prevalent in populations of dementia caregivers than in clinic-based samples, but that the correlates of depression are similar for both population and convenience samples. Interventions targeting individuals with small support networks, emotion-focused coping styles, poorer health, low quality of life, and those caring for persons with higher numbers of behavioral problems need development and testing. PMID:23241850

  14. Nuclear techniques applied to dementia studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ehmann, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    Trace element imbalances have been implicated in the etiology and/or pathogenesis of several dementing disorders related to aging. Of these diseases, Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is by far the most prevalent. Many elemental imbalances have been reported in AD brain, compared to neurologically normal controls. Using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), we have observed significant increases (p {le} 0.05) in bromine, chlorine, mercury, sodium, and phosphorus and decreased amounts of cesium, nitrogen, and rubidium in AD brain, compared to age-matched control brain. Because INAA is a simultaneous multielement method that does not require tissue dissolution, fewer opportunities for contamination exist than with otherwise powerful analytical methods, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or atomic absorption spectrometry. Although INAA is a very important tool in the study of potential trace element involvement in dementia, we have often found it necessary to go beyond conventional INAA methods.

  15. Risk of suicide in patients with dementia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Linda

    Evidence indicates that the risk of attempted suicide is a significant issue among people with dementia, however there is a lack of information to guide professional practice. This article uses a case study to reflect on the risk management strategies and ethics of suicide and assisted suicide in relation to a specific patient with dementia. It analyses recommendations aimed at improving the lived experience of people with dementia and those involved in their care, including providing patients with a formal diagnosis as early as possible.

  16. Dementia in Ageing Mental Defectives: A Clinical and Neuropathological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, A. H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The study was aimed at establishing the prevalence and clinical features of the psychoses of senescence (senile, presenile, and cerebral arteriosclerotic dementias) in 155 mentally retarded patients over the age of 45. (SBH)

  17. Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in dementia: A qualitative study of the views of former dementia carers.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Emily; Spector, Aimee; Nurock, Shirley; Stott, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    Despite media and academic interest on assisted dying in dementia, little is known of the views of those directly affected. This study explored the views of former carers on assisted dying in dementia. This was a qualitative study using thematic analysis. A total of 16 former carers of people with dementia were recruited through national dementia charities and participated in semi-structured interviews. While many supported the individual's right to die, the complexity of assisted dying in dementia was emphasized. Existential, physical, psychological and psychosocial aspects of suffering were identified as potential reasons to desire an assisted death. Most believed it would help to talk with a trained health professional if contemplating an assisted death. Health workers should be mindful of the holistic experience of dementia at the end of life. The psychological and existential aspects of suffering should be addressed, as well as relief of physical pain. Further research is required. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Older people dying with dementia: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Meeussen, Koen; Van den Block, Lieve; Echteld, Michael; Boffin, Nicole; Bilsen, Johan; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Large-scale nationwide data describing the end-of-life characteristics of older people with dementia are lacking. This paper describes the dying process and end-of-life care provided to elderly people with mild or severe dementia in Belgium. It compares with elderly people dying without dementia. A nationwide retrospective mortality study was conducted, via representative network of general practitioners (GPs) in 2008 in Belgium, with weekly registration of all deaths (aged ≥ 65) using a standardized form. GPs reported on diagnosis and severity of dementia, aspects of end-of-life care and communication, and on the last week of life in terms of symptoms that caused distress as judged by the GP, and the patients' physical and cognitive abilities. Thirty-one percent of our sample (1,108 deaths) had dementia (43% mildly, 57% severely). Of those, 26% died suddenly, 59% in care home, and 74% received palliative treatment, versus 37%, 19%, and 55% in people without dementia. GP-patient conversations were less frequent among those with (45%) than those without (73%) dementia, and 11% of both groups had a proxy decision-maker. During the last week of life, physical and psychological distress was common in both groups. Of older people with dementia, 83% were incapable of decision-making and 83% were bedridden; both significantly higher percentages than found in the group without dementia (24% and 52%). Several areas of end-of-life care provision could be improved. Early communication and exploration of wishes and appointment of proxy decision-makers are important components of an early palliative care approach which appears to be initiated too infrequently.

  19. The role of higher education in transforming the quality of dementia care: dementia studies at the University of Bradford.

    PubMed

    Downs, M; Capstick, A; Baldwin, P C; Surr, C; Bruce, E

    2009-04-01

    There is now widespread concern about the inadequate care and support provided to people with dementia from diagnosis to death. It is acknowledged that while there is a range of effective ways to care for and support people with dementia and their families from diagnosis to death, these have yet to become integral to practice. In England, for example, the National Dementia Strategy seeks to transform the quality of dementia care. One of the key components to transforming the quality of care is to ensure we have an informed and effective workforce. We argue here that in order to transform the quality of care we need to distinguish between the aims of training and education. Whilst there is a place for skills-based workplace training, Higher Education in dementia studies has a key role to play in the provision of specialist knowledge and skills in dementia care emphasizing as it does the development of critical thinking, reflection and action. In this paper we describe dementia studies at Bradford University available at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. We outline their aims and learning outcomes, curricula, approach to teaching, learning and assessment. We describe the nature of students who study with us, noting their fit with the Higher Education Funding Council in England's agenda for widening participation in higher education. Higher Education in dementia studies has a unique role to play in equipping practitioners and professionals with the information, skills and attitudes to realize the potential for quality of life for people with dementia and their families.

  20. Improving the experience of dementia and enhancing active life--living well with dementia: study protocol for the IDEAL study.

    PubMed

    Clare, Linda; Nelis, Sharon M; Quinn, Catherine; Martyr, Anthony; Henderson, Catherine; Hindle, John V; Jones, Ian R; Jones, Roy W; Knapp, Martin; Kopelman, Michael D; Morris, Robin G; Pickett, James A; Rusted, Jennifer M; Savitch, Nada M; Thom, Jeanette M; Victor, Christina R

    2014-11-30

    Enabling people with dementia and carers to 'live well' with the condition is a key United Kingdom policy objective. The aim of this project is to identify what helps people to live well or makes it difficult to live well in the context of having dementia or caring for a person with dementia, and to understand what 'living well' means from the perspective of people with dementia and carers. Over a two-year period, 1500 people with early-stage dementia throughout Great Britain will be recruited to the study, together with a carer wherever possible. All the participants will be visited at home initially and again 12 months and 24 months later. This will provide information about the way in which well-being, life satisfaction and quality of life are affected by social capitals, assets and resources, the challenges posed by dementia, and the ways in which people adjust to and cope with these challenges. A smaller group will be interviewed in more depth. The findings will lead to recommendations about what can be done by individuals, communities, health and social care practitioners, care providers and policy-makers to improve the likelihood of living well with dementia.

  1. [Dementia study using induced pluripotent stem cells].

    PubMed

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Abe, Koji; Inoue, Haruhisa

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology have facilitated, and have contributed to overcome the difficulty of modeling dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), etc. The following models using iPSCs were reported: the pathophysiology caused by gene mutations such as presenilin or amyloid β precursor protein in AD, α-synuclein in DLB, and microtubule-associated protein tau, fused in sarcoma, progranulin, or chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 in FTLD, anti-AD drug screening, sortilin-related receptor L 1 haplotype influence in sporadic AD, and amyloid β secretion in Down syndrome. Patient-specific iPSC could be expected to reveal the disease pathology and lead to drug discoveries for dementia patients.

  2. Physical Activity, Brain Volume, and Dementia Risk: The Framingham Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zaldy S; Spartano, Nicole L; Beiser, Alexa S; DeCarli, Charles; Auerbach, Sanford H; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-06-01

    Several longitudinal studies found an inverse relationship between levels of physical activity and cognitive decline, dementia, and/or Alzheimer's disease (AD), but results have been inconsistent. We followed an older, community-based cohort for over a decade to examine the association of physical activity with the risk of incident dementia and subclinical brain MRI markers of dementia. The physical activity index (PAI) was assessed in the Framingham Study Original and Offspring cohorts, aged 60 years or older. We examined the association between PAI and risk of incident all-cause dementia and AD in participants of both cohorts who were cognitively intact and had available PAI (n = 3,714; 54% women; mean age = 70±7 years). We additionally examined the association between PAI and brain MRI in the Offspring cohort (n = 1,987). Over a decade of follow-up, 236 participants developed dementia (188 AD). Participants in the lowest quintile of PAI had an increased risk of incident dementia compared with those in higher quintiles (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.97, p = .028) in a multivariable-adjusted model. Secondary analysis revealed that this relation was limited to participants who were apolipoprotein (APO)E ε4 allele noncarriers (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08-2.32; p = .018) and strongest in participants aged 75 years or older. PAI was also linearly related to total brain and hippocampal volumes (β ± SE = 0.24±0.06; p < .01 and 0.004±0.001; p = .003, respectively). Low physical activity is associated with a higher risk for dementia in older individuals, suggesting that a reduced risk of dementia and higher brain volumes may be additional health benefits of maintaining physical activity into old age.

  3. Ethnic minority, young onset, rare dementia type, depression: A case study of a Muslim male accessing UK dementia health and social care services.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jemma L

    2016-07-01

    A case study comprised of formal interviews, formal observations and informal discussions investigated the motivations and experiences accessing dementia care health and social care services for a Muslim, Pakistani male with dementia. Motivations derived from 'desperation' and an inability to access support from family or religious community. Experiences of accessing services were mostly negative. Dementia services were ill-informed about how to support persons with young onset dementia, with pre-existing mental health conditions, from an ethnic minority. Education and training to remove barriers to all dementia care services is required for persons with dementia, their families and within dementia services and religious communities.

  4. Comorbidity in Dementia: Update of An Ongoing Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Magaki, Shino; Yong, William H.; Khanlou, Negar; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine systemic and central nervous system (CNS) comorbidities of patients with dementia evaluated during general autopsy. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING A large tertiary academic medical center in Los Angeles, California. PARTICIPANTS A cohort of 86 participants with clinically and neuropathologically diagnosed dementia who received complete autopsies and 132 participants with dementia who received partial (brain only) autopsies. MEASUREMENTS The causes of death as well as systemic and CNS comorbidities were obtained from autopsy reports and clinical information as available from the medical records. Findings were tabulated with respect to type of dementia, semiquantitative assessment of the severity of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, semiquantitative assessment of the severity of cerebrovascular disease, and evidence of ischemic damage in the brain. RESULTS Out of a total of 218 subjects with dementia, 175 (80.3%) had Alzheimer’s disease (AD) either in isolation or in combination with other lesions that might contribute to cognitive impairment, such as cerebrovascular disease and diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), 14 (6.4%) had frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and 7 (3.2%) had isolated DLBD. The most common cause of death among demented patients was pneumonia (57 cases, 66.3%) followed by cardiovascular disease (14 cases, 16.3%). Eighteen subjects (20.9%) had lung disease and 16 (18.6%) had evidence of old or recent myocardial infarct. Clinically undiagnosed neoplasms included colonic adenocarcinoma, metastatic pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma, meningioma, and Schwannoma. CONCLUSION Significant comorbidities were discovered at autopsy in patients with dementia. Understanding the causes of death and associated comorbidities in patients with various subtypes of dementia is important in the assessment of end of life care in these subjects. PMID:25039832

  5. Importance of home study visit capacity in dementia studies

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Paul K.; Gibbons, Laura E.; McCurry, Susan M.; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D.; Sonnen, Joshua; Keene, C. Dirk; Grabowski, Thomas; Montine, Thomas J.; Larson, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The importance of home research study visit capacity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies is unknown. METHODS All evaluations are from the prospective Adult Changes in Thought study. Based on analyses of factors associated with volunteering for a new in-clinic initiative, we analyzed AD risk factors and the relevance of neuropathological findings for dementia comparing all data including home visits, and in-clinic data only. We performed bootstrapping to determine whether differences were greater than expected by chance. RESULTS Of the 1,781 people enrolled 1994–1996 with ≥1 follow-up, 1,369 (77%) had in-clinic data, covering 61% of follow-up time. In-clinic data resulted in excluding 76% of incident dementia and AD cases. AD risk factors and the relevance of neuropathological findings for dementia were both different with in-clinic data. DISCUSSION Limiting data collection in AD studies to research clinics alone likely reduces power and also can lead to erroneous inferences. PMID:26602628

  6. People with dementia and carers' experiences of dementia care and services: Outcomes of a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Caroline L; Roe, Brenda; Jasper, Rowan; Jolley, David; Challis, David J

    2015-11-01

    An ageing population and an associated increase in the prevalence of dementia are of increasing concern in the United Kingdom and worldwide. Recently, the United Kingdom and other European countries implemented national dementia strategies to address this. This paper reports on the outcomes of a focus group study involving people with dementia and carers on their experiences of dementia care and support services in relation to government and third sector agencies' objectives and recommendations. Three focus groups comprising carers and people with dementia (n = 27) were undertaken covering topics related to experiences, service receipt, information sharing and service development. Some participants experienced difficulties or delays in receiving a dementia diagnosis and in accessing appropriate care. The provision of training, timeliness of information, access to appropriate advice, and consistent and flexible services were deemed important. The findings suggest that some issues raised by participants were highlighted in earlier policy objectives and recommendations but remain of central concern. The projected growth in the number of people with dementia coupled with reduced availability of informal care and increased demand for services emphasises the need to transform dementia care in the United Kingdom.

  7. Experience of Dementia-related Anxiety in Middle-aged Female Caregivers for Family Members with Dementia: A Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Sun; Kim, Eun Ha; An, Minjeong

    2016-06-01

    In Korea, most elderly with dementia receive care from family members, yet little research is available on the experience of dementia-related anxiety in middle-aged female caregivers for a family member with dementia. The purpose of this study was to describe the lived experience of dementia-related anxiety in middle-aged female caregivers for family members with dementia. A descriptive phenomenological study was conducted. A purposive sampling strategy was used to recruit participants. Twelve middle-aged women (40-59 years, mean age = 51.90 years) who were family caregivers were interviewed from February 2014 to August 2014. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and analyzed using Giorgi's method. The essential structure of the phenomenon was a fear of losing self-identity. The main essence was represented by six components: keenly feeling the effects of aging because of memory deficit, continuous comparison of the family member's behavior with that of the participant's, Finding it painful to see a family member with dementia as he/she does not know how this will end, not knowing the conclusion of the disease process, reducing the risk of dementia, and trying to change one's lifestyle from what it used to be in the past. The study provides the essential structure of the experience on dementia-related anxiety that caregivers of a family member with dementia have. The findings could help healthcare providers and researchers have better understanding of dementia-related anxiety and give more attention to the caregivers to relieve their anxiety. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. [The Well-Being Measure - dementia: A validation study].

    PubMed

    Westerhof, Gerben J; Richters, Kristel; Ten Klooster, Peter M

    2017-02-01

    The Well-Being Measure - dementia is a digital observation instrument that assesses the well-being of persons with dementia on four domains of quality of life: Mental well-being, Physical well-being, Participation, and Living arrangements. Its goal is to assess the well-being of persons with dementia in an easy and positive way. Besides illness-related symptoms and problems, the instrument also assesses positive aspects of functioning. It visualizes the results and provides specific behavioural advice to the caregivers. The goal of the present article is to conduct a first psychometric analysis: factor structure, reliability (Cronbach's alpha), concurrent, and convergent validity.Observations were carried out among 168 persons with dementia in eleven different small-scale psychogeriatric wards. Five existing instruments were used among 63 persons to validate the Well-Being Measure-dementia: quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms, care dependency, depression, and agitation.The expected factor structure was found in each of the four domains. Coefficients were high on the expected factor and low on the other factor(s). The scale means were on the positive side, but showed an adequate range and variability. Reliability was satisfactory to good. The relation with existing scales was moderate to strong. The pattern of relations was consistent with the measurement intentions of the different existing instruments.The Well-Being Measure - dementia appears to be a valid and reliable scale. Further studies should assess its test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change and relation with the course of dementia. Current experience shows that the instrument is also useful in everyday practice.

  9. Energy expenditure in frontotemporal dementia: a behavioural and imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rebekah M; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Collet, Tinh-Hai; van der Klaauw, Agatha A; Devenney, Emma; Henning, Elana; Kiernan, Matthew C; Piguet, Olivier; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Hodges, John R

    2017-01-01

    SEE FINGER DOI101093/AWW312 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Abnormal eating behaviour and metabolic parameters including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and body mass index are increasingly recognized as important components of neurodegenerative disease and may contribute to survival. It has previously been established that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia is associated with abnormal eating behaviour characterized by increased sweet preference. In this study, it was hypothesized that behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia might also be associated with altered energy expenditure. A cohort of 19 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 13 with Alzheimer's disease and 16 (age- and sex-matched) healthy control subjects were studied using Actiheart devices (CamNtech) to assess resting and stressed heart rate. Actiheart devices were fitted for 7 days to measure sleeping heart rate, activity levels, and resting, active and total energy expenditure. Using high resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging the neural correlates of increased resting heart rate were investigated including cortical thickness and region of interest analyses. In behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, resting (P = 0.001), stressed (P = 0.037) and sleeping heart rate (P = 0.038) were increased compared to control subjects, and resting heart rate (P = 0.020) compared to Alzheimer disease patients. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia was associated with decreased activity levels compared to controls (P = 0.002) and increased resting energy expenditure (P = 0.045) and total energy expenditure (P = 0.035). Increased resting heart rate correlated with behavioural (Cambridge Behavioural Inventory) and cognitive measures (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination). Increased resting heart rate in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia correlated with atrophy involving the mesial temporal cortex, insula, and amygdala, regions previously

  10. Etiology of Syncope and Unexplained Falls in Elderly Adults with Dementia: Syncope and Dementia (SYD) Study.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Andrea; Mussi, Chiara; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Nicosia, Franco; Bo, Mario; Riccio, Daniela; Martone, Anna Maria; Guadagno, Livia; Noro, Gabriele; Ghidoni, Giulia; Rafanelli, Martina; Marchionni, Niccolò; Abete, Pasquale

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the etiology of transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC) suspected to be syncope and unexplained falls in elderly adults with dementia. Prospective, observational, multicenter study. Acute care wards, syncope units or centers for the diagnosis of dementia. Individuals aged 65 and older with a diagnosis of dementia and one or more episodes of T-LOC of a suspected syncopal nature or unexplained falls during the previous 3 months were enrolled. The causes of T-LOC suspected to be syncope and unexplained falls were evaluated using a simplified protocol based on European Society of Cardiology guidelines. Of 357 individuals enrolled, 181 (50.7%) had been referred for T-LOC suspected to be syncope, 166 (46.5%) for unexplained falls, and 10 (2.8%) for both. An initially suspected diagnosis of syncope was confirmed in 158 (87.3%), and syncope was identified as the cause of the event in 75 (45.2%) of those referred for unexplained falls. Orthostatic hypotension was the cause of the event in 117 of 242 (48.3%) participants with a final diagnosis of syncope. The simplified syncope diagnostic protocol can be used in elderly people with dementia referred for suspected syncope or unexplained falls. Unexplained falls may mask a diagnosis of syncope or pseudosyncope in almost 50% of cases. Given the high prevalence of orthostatic syncope in participants (~50%), a systematic reappraisal of drugs potentially responsible for orthostatic hypotension is warranted. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. [Dementia Care Manager for patients with dementia. Determination of the requirements and qualifications contents for nurses in the DelpHi-MV study].

    PubMed

    Dreier, A; Hoffmann, W

    2013-10-01

    Dementia is one of the most prevalent chronic progressive diseases in older age. The progression of dementia is associated with an increasing demand for patient care. Thus, the nursing profession fulfills important tasks in the supply of care in dementia. Care of dementia patients requires nurses with more specialized professional knowledge. Consequently, the development of new qualification concepts in dementia is needed. Therefore, the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Rostock/Greifswald, has developed a qualification according to the Dementia Care Management concept. A prospective cross-sectional study identified the tasks and qualifications of nurses as Dementia Care Managers. Overall, 27 tasks and 28 qualification items were identified for a nurse to qualify as a Dementia Care Manager. In the next step, the first version of the Dementia Care Management Curriculum was developed.

  12. Case-control study of dementia of the Alzheimer type

    SciTech Connect

    French, L.R.; Schuman, L.M.; Mortimer, J.A.; Hutton, J.T.; Boatman, R.A.; Christians, B.

    1985-03-01

    A case-control study to assess factors of possible etiologic significance to dementia of the Alzheimer type was conducted with 78 male cases diagnosed in 1979-1982 at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota and age-race-sex-matched hospital and neighborhood controls (14 of 16 autopsied cases were histopathologically confirmed). Information was obtained on variables relevant to vital, genetic, and immunologic hypotheses, and on possible occupational and environmental exposures, drug use, psychologic stress, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The only major difference between patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type and controls was a significantly greater occurrence of antecedent head trauma in the patients (odds ratio = 4.50). This finding is consistent with the literature on posttraumatic dementia but its importance is presently unclear.

  13. Mortality in incident dementia - results from the German Study on Aging, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients.

    PubMed

    Roehr, S; Luck, T; Bickel, H; Brettschneider, C; Ernst, A; Fuchs, A; Heser, K; König, H-H; Jessen, F; Lange, C; Mösch, E; Pentzek, M; Steinmann, S; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Wiese, B; Scherer, M; Maier, W; Riedel-Heller, S G

    2015-10-01

    Dementia is known to increase mortality, but the relative loss of life years and contributing factors are not well established. Thus, we aimed to investigate mortality in incident dementia from disease onset. Data were derived from the prospective longitudinal German AgeCoDe study. We used proportional hazards models to assess the impact of sociodemographic and health characteristics on mortality after dementia onset, Kaplan-Meier method for median survival times. Of 3214 subjects at risk, 523 (16.3%) developed incident dementia during a 9-year follow-up period. Median survival time after onset was 3.2 years (95% CI = 2.8-3.7) at a mean age of 85.0 (SD = 4.0) years (≥2.6 life years lost compared with the general German population). Survival was shorter in older age, males other dementias than Alzheimer's, and in the absence of subjective memory complaints (SMC). Our findings emphasize that dementia substantially shortens life expectancy. Future studies should further investigate the potential impact of SMC on mortality in dementia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Occupational exposure to low frequency magnetic fields and dementia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Andreas; Geller, Petra; Nienhaus, Albert; Bernhardt, Tanja; Ruppe, Ingeburg; Eggert, Siegfried; Hietanen, Maila; Kauppinen, Timo; Frölich, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    Background Several studies point to a potential aetiological relevance to dementia of exposure to low‐frequency magnetic fields, but the evidence is inconclusive. Objective To further examine the relationship between low frequency magnetic fields and dementia. Methods From 23 general practices, 195 patients with dementia were recruited. Of these, 108 had possible Alzheimer's disease, 59 had possible vascular dementia and 28 had secondary or unclassified dementia. A total of 229 controls were recruited: 122 population controls and 107 ambulatory patients free from dementia. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview; in cases, the interview was administered to the next of kin. Exposure to low‐frequency electromagnetic fields was assessed by expert rating. To identify occupations suspected to be associated with dementia, major occupations were a priori formed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression, to control for age, region, sex, dementia in parents and smoking. Results Exposure to magnetic fields was not significantly associated with dementia; restriction of the analysis to cases with possible Alzheimer's disease or possible vascular dementia did not lead to statistically significant results. We found an increased risk of dementia in blue‐collar occupations (electrical and electronics workers, metal workers, construction workers, food and beverage processors and labourers). Conclusions Our study does not support a strong association between occupational exposure to low‐frequency magnetic fields and dementia. Further studies should consider the relationship between blue‐collar work and the late development of dementia. PMID:17043077

  15. Screening for dementia: a preliminary study on the validity of the Chinese version of the Blessed-Roth Dementia Scale.

    PubMed

    Lam, L C; Chiu, H F; Li, S W; Chan, W F; Chan, C K; Wong, M; Ng, K O

    1997-03-01

    Blessed-Roth Dementia Scale has been one of the most widely used rating scales in dementia. Previous studies indicated that this behavioral assessment scale is a useful tool for differentiating elderly subjects with no or minimal intellectual decline from those with cognitive deterioration. In the present study, the authors examined the validity of the Chinese version of the Blessed-Roth Dementia Scale (CDS) in Hong Kong. A total of 106 Chinese subjects were recruited from a social center, an old-age home, and psychogeriatric outpatient clinics. At a cutoff score of 3 of 4, the CDS achieved a sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 98.1% in differentiating demented from healthy control subjects. In the Chinese population studied, the scale was readily acceptable and considered to be an useful adjunct in screening of dementia.

  16. Symptoms of Dementia among Adults with Down's Syndrome: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Shoumitro; Hare, M.; Prior, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dementia is common among adults with Down's syndrome (DS); yet the diagnosis of dementia, particularly in its early stage, can be difficult in this population. One possible reason for this may be the different clinical manifestation of dementia among people with intellectual disabilities. Aims: The aim of this study was to map out the…

  17. Symptoms of Dementia among Adults with Down's Syndrome: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deb, Shoumitro; Hare, M.; Prior, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Dementia is common among adults with Down's syndrome (DS); yet the diagnosis of dementia, particularly in its early stage, can be difficult in this population. One possible reason for this may be the different clinical manifestation of dementia among people with intellectual disabilities. Aims: The aim of this study was to map out the…

  18. Validation of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group diagnostic assessment for dementia in Arabic: a study in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Phung, Kieu T. T.; Chaaya, Monique; Waldemar, Gunhild; Atweh, Samir; Asmar, Khalil; Ghusn, Husam; Karam, Georges; Sawaya, Raja; Khoury, Rose Mary; Zeinaty, Ibrahim; Salman, Sandrine; Hammoud, Salem; Radwan, Wael; Bassil, Nazem; Prince, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In the North Africa and Middle East region, the illiteracy rates among older people are high, posing a great challenge to cognitive assessment. Validated diagnostic instruments for dementia in Arabic are lacking, hampering the development of dementia research in the region. The study aimed at validating the Arabic version of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) diagnostic assessment for dementia to determine if it is suitable for case ascertainment in epidemiological research. Methods 244 participants older than 65 years were included, 100 with normal cognition and 144 with mild to moderate dementia. Dementia was diagnosed by clinicians according to DSM-IV criteria. Depression was diagnosed using the Geriatric Mental State. Trained interviewers blind to the cognitive status of the participants administered the 10/66 DRG diagnostic assessment to the participants and interviewed the caregivers. The discriminatory ability of the 10/66 DRG assessment and its subcomponents were evaluated against the clinical diagnoses. Results Half of the participants had no formal education and 49% of them were depressed. The 10/66 DRG diagnostic assessment showed excellent sensitivity (92.0%), specificity (95.1%), positive predictive value (PPV, 92.9%), and low false positive rates (FPR) among controls with no formal education (8.1%) and depression (5.6%). Each subcomponent of the 10/66 DRG diagnostic assessment independently predicted dementia diagnosis. The predictive ability of the 10/66 DRG assessment was superior to that of its subcomponents. Conclusion 10/66 DRG diagnostic assessment for dementia is well suited for case ascertainment in epidemiological studies among Arabic speaking older population with high prevalence of illiteracy. PMID:24771602

  19. Comparative Study of Subcortical Atrophy in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Dementia with Extrapyramidal Signs

    PubMed Central

    Caixeta, Leonardo; Vieira, Renata Teles; Paes, Flávia; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Rocha, Nuno B. F; Budde, Henning; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives : To investigate the severity of subcortical atrophy in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) without extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and dementia with EPS. In addition, we aim to verify if there is correlation between demographic and clinical characteristics and subcortical atrophy in the groups. Methodology : The sample was composed of 21 patients with dementia and EPS as well as 19 patients with FTD without EPS. A linear assessment was conducted in order to identify the degree of subcortical atrophy (i.e., bifrontal index - BFI) using MRI. Moreover, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were used to investigate clinical aspects. Results : It was verified that patients with dementia and EPS was older than the patients with FTD (p=0.01). The severity of cognitive deficits was associated with BFI, as well as the dementia severity in the EPS group. Conclusion : FTD group presented mean BFI scores above the cutoff for normal elderly population, indicating the presence of subcortical atrophy in this group. Mean BFI was higher (although not statistically significant) in FTD group than in dementia with EPS, which can suggest at least that subcortical pathology in FTD may be as important as in the dementia with EPS group. Subcortical atrophy is a good biological marker for cognitive deterioration in FTD and in dementia with EPS. PMID:25870648

  20. Decisions to forgo hospitalization in advanced dementia: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Susan L; Teno, Joan M; Intrator, Orna; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2007-03-01

    To examine the prevalence and factors associated with decisions to forgo hospitalization in nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia. Cross-sectional study. All Medicare- and Medicaid-certified NHs within the 48 contiguous U.S. states. NH residents with advanced dementia were identified using Minimum Data Set (MDS) assessments completed close to April 1, 2000 (N=91,521). Multilevel, multivariate logistic regression identified factors independently associated with having a do-not-hospitalize (DNH) directive. Independent variables included subject characteristics (MDS), facility factors (On-line Survey of Certification of Automated Records), and hospital referral region (HRR) features (Dartmouth Atlas). Nationwide, 7.1% (n=6,518) residents with advanced dementia had DNH orders (range 0.7% in Oklahoma to 25.9% in Rhode Island). Resident characteristics associated with having a DNH order were older age, white, living will, durable power of attorney for health care, and total functional dependence. Controlling for these factors, DNH orders were more likely in residents of facilities with the following features: not part of a chain, urban location, special care dementia unit, fewer black residents, nurse practitioner or physician assistant on staff, higher staffing ratios, and location in HRRs with fewer intensive care unit admissions during terminal hospitalizations. Directives to forgo hospitalization for U.S. NH residents with advanced dementia are uncommon and are associated with the organizational features of the facilities caring for them and the intensity of end-of-life care practiced in the region, as well as individual resident characteristics.

  1. Volunteering in dementia care – a Norwegian phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Söderhamn, Ulrika; Landmark, Bjørg; Aasgaard, Live; Eide, Hilde; Söderhamn, Olle

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The number of people suffering from dementia will increase dramatically in the future, and this will be a great challenge and concern for health care services. It is assumed that volunteers will strengthen community health care services more in the future than they do today. Aim The aim of this study was to elucidate lived experiences of working as a volunteer in an activity center with adapted activities for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia. Methods Qualitative interviews were implemented in a group of nine female volunteers from an activity center in southern Norway. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with a descriptive phenomenological method. Results Volunteering in an activity center for home-dwelling people with early stage dementia was reported to provide experiences of being useful and feeling satisfied with performing a good job. It was an advantage for the volunteers to have had experiences from life in general, but also as a health professional or as being the next of kin of a dementia sufferer. It was important for the volunteers to focus on the dementia sufferer and show caring behavior, and interaction with and the appreciation of the health care professionals were also important. The volunteers were motivated by being able to have influence and participate in the planning of the work, to be a part of the social setting, and to learn. However, for some volunteers it was difficult to adjust to an appropriate role. Conclusion In order to promote volunteering in a caring context, mutual trust and freedom should be emphasized. Being conscious of important volunteer characteristics like their experiences, knowledge, and caring behavior, as well as a focus on the staff showing appreciation and providing feedback, may be the difference between success and failure. PMID:22396627

  2. [Methodology of a long-term study of senile dementia].

    PubMed

    Wertheimer, J; Brull, J

    1977-01-01

    The longitudinal method aims to point out phenomena that are bound with time. It is thus particularly fit for the study of ageing as it is proved by many large American research programs. It is also useful to follow during a limited period (short term) the natural history of pathologic entities as degenerative illnesses. After mentioning the fundamental conditions of any longitudinal approach, the program of this study on senile dementia is described. Each case is followed for 2 years, with an examination every 6 months. This later is based on anamnestic, psychiatric, neurologic and functional items as well as on intellectual functions and EEG. A sample of 50 cases should be collected. After a period of 3 years prospection 91 cases were found of which on 31 fitted. The difficulty of recruitement is bound to several factors: the little knowledge of senile dementia frequency in the general population, the poor criteria used in their choices by non-specialists as the directors of homes, the refusals and the withdrawals. Difficulties in establishing contact with patients showing behavioral troubles are underlined as well as cooperative problems with the surroundings. The repetition, at regular periods, of psychological tests sets the problem of learning. In the way of senile dementia it should decrease with the illness evolution thus bringing the overestimation of initial capacities, the gap becomming artifically greater between performances at the beginning and at the end of the observation.

  3. The influence of relationships on personhood in dementia care: a qualitative, hermeneutic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In dementia personhood can be understood as increasingly concealed rather than lost. The sense of being a person evolves in relationships with others. The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of the nature and quality of relationships between persons with dementia, family carers and professional caregivers and how these relationships influenced personhood in people with dementia. Methods This Norwegian study had a qualitative hermeneutical design based on ten cases. Each case consisted of a triad: the person with dementia, the family carer and the professional caregiver. Inclusion criteria for persons with dementia were (1) 67 years or older (2) diagnosed with dementia (3) Clinical Dementia Rating score 2 ie. moderate dementia (4) able to communicate verbally. A semi-structured interview guide was used in interviews with family carers and professional caregivers. Field notes were written after participant observation of interactions between persons with dementia and professional caregivers during morning care or activities at a day care centre. Data were analysed in two steps: (1) inductive analysis with an interpretive approach and (2) deductive analysis, applying a theoretical framework for person-centred care. Results Relationships that sustained personhood were close emotional bonds between family carers and persons with dementia and professional relationships between caregivers and persons with dementia. Relationships that diminished personhood were task-centred relationships and reluctant helping relationships between family carers and persons with dementia and unprofessional relationships between caregivers and persons with dementia. Conclusions A broad range of relationships was identified. Understanding the complex nature and quality of these relationships added insight as to how they influenced the provision of care and the personhood of persons with dementia. Personhood was not only bestowed upon them by family carers and

  4. The meanings of delusions in dementia: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava; Ben-Israel, Joshua; Garfinkel, Doron

    2011-08-30

    One of the common symptoms of dementia is delusions. Due to a biological conceptualization of the behaviors represented as delusions, these are classified as psychotic symptoms. This is a qualitative and quantitative study aiming to describe the delusions experienced by older persons with dementia and the context of occurrence, and to elucidate their etiology. Participants were 74 nursing home residents aged 65 and over, diagnosed with dementia, from nine nursing homes in Israel. Participants with delusions were found to have significantly more difficulties in performing ADLs, and poorer vision and hearing. Based on assessment using the BEHAVE-AD, six categories of delusions were examined: 1. One's house is not one's home, 2. Theft, 3. Danger, 4. Abandonment, 5. Misidentification, and 6. Other non-paranoid. Common themes appeared across delusions including reality, disorientation, re-experience of past events, loneliness and insecurity, boredom, and trigger. Current results suggest that delusions may not represent psychotic symptoms for most participants, because they sometimes represented reality, or were neither firm nor incontrovertible. Thus, utilizing the term delusion relegates the person's behavior to the domain of severe psychiatric phenomena and precludes understanding its true meaning. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. How people with dementia and carers understand and react to social functioning changes in mild dementia: a UK-based qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Singleton, David; Mukadam, Naaheed; Livingston, Gill; Sommerlad, Andrew

    2017-07-12

    To analyse people with dementia and their family carers' attribution of social changes in dementia and the consequences of these attributions. Qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview guide. Individual interviews continued to theoretical saturation. Two researchers independently analysed interview transcripts. People with mild dementia and family carers purposively selected from London-based memory services for diverse demographic characteristics to encompass a range of experiences. Attribution of social changes experienced by the person with dementia and the consequences of these attributions. We interviewed nine people with dementia and nine carers, encompassing a range of age, ethnicity and educational backgrounds.Both groups reported that the person with dementia had changed socially. People with dementia tended to give one or two explanations for social change, but carers usually suggested several. People with dementia were often socially embarrassed or less interested in going out, and they or their relatives' physical illness or fear of falls led to reduced social activity. Carers often attributed not going out to a choice or premorbid personality. Carers found that their relative needed more support to go out than they could give and carers needed time to themselves because of carer stress or other problems from which they shielded the person with dementia. Additionally, there was decreased opportunity to socialise, as people were bereaved of friends and family. Participants acknowledged the direct impact of dementia symptoms on their ability to socially engage but sometimes decided to give up socialising when they knew they had dementia. There were negative consequences from social changes being attributed to factors such as choice, rather than dementia. Clinicians should ask about social changes in people with dementia. Explaining that these may be due to dementia and considering strategies to overcome them may be beneficial. © Article author

  6. The Effects of Anti-Dementia and Nootropic Treatments on the Mortality of Patients with Dementia: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen-Yi; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chow, Lok-Hi; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Huang, Nicole; Wang, Pei-Ning; Li, Chung-Pin

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the contribution of treatment on the mortality of dementia based on a population-based study. Objective To investigate the effects of anti-dementia and nootropic treatments on the mortality of dementia using a population-based cohort study. Methods 12,193 incident dementia patients were found from 2000 to 2010. Their data were compared with 12,193 age- and sex-matched non-dementia controls that were randomly selected from the same database. Dementia was classified into vascular (VaD) and degenerative dementia. Mortality incidence and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated. Results The median survival time was 3.39 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.88–3.79) for VaD without medication, 6.62 years (95% CI: 6.24–7.21) for VaD with nootropics, 3.01 years (95% CI: 2.85–3.21) for degenerative dementia without medication, 8.11 years (95% CI: 6.30–8.55) for degenerative dementia with anti-dementia medication, 6.00 years (95% CI: 5.73–6.17) for degenerative dementia with nootropics, and 9.03 years (95% CI: 8.02–9.87) for degenerative dementia with both anti-dementia and nootropic medications. Compared to the non-dementia group, the HRs among individuals with degenerative dementia were 2.69 (95% CI: 2.55–2.83) without medication, 1.46 (95% CI: 1.39–1.54) with nootropics, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.82–1.34) with anti-dementia medication, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.80–1.05) with both nootropic and anti-dementia medications. VaD with nootropics had a lower mortality (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.15–1.37) than VaD without medication (HR: 2.46, 95% CI: 2.22–2.72). Conclusion Pharmacological treatments have beneficial effects for patients with dementia in prolonging their survival. PMID:26098910

  7. An Evaluation of an Online Postgraduate Dementia Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Anthea; Kelly, Fiona; McCabe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Education is key to addressing the challenges of providing high-quality care to the ever growing number of people with dementia. Although dementia education is required for multiple professions and disciplines working with people with dementia and their families and friends, there is a gap in knowledge of students' views about university-level…

  8. An Evaluation of an Online Postgraduate Dementia Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Anthea; Kelly, Fiona; McCabe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Education is key to addressing the challenges of providing high-quality care to the ever growing number of people with dementia. Although dementia education is required for multiple professions and disciplines working with people with dementia and their families and friends, there is a gap in knowledge of students' views about university-level…

  9. Prescribing patterns in dementia: a multicentre observational study in a German network of CAM physicians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dementia is a major and increasing health problem worldwide. This study aims to investigate dementia treatment strategies among physicians specialised in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by analysing prescribing patterns and comparing them to current treatment guidelines in Germany. Methods Twenty-two primary care physicians in Germany participated in this prospective, multicentre observational study. Prescriptions and diagnoses were reported for each consecutive patient. Data were included if patients had at least one diagnosis of dementia according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases during the study period. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with a prescription of any anti-dementia drug including Ginkgo biloba. Results During the 5-year study period (2004-2008), 577 patients with dementia were included (median age: 81 years (IQR: 74-87); 69% female). Dementia was classified as unspecified dementia (57.2%), vascular dementia (25.1%), dementia in Alzheimer's disease (10.4%), and dementia in Parkinson's disease (7.3%). The prevalence of anti-dementia drugs was 25.6%. The phytopharmaceutical Ginkgo biloba was the most frequently prescribed anti-dementia drug overall (67.6% of all) followed by cholinesterase inhibitors (17.6%). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for receiving any anti-dementia drug was greater than 1 for neurologists (AOR = 2.34; CI: 1.59-3.47), the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AOR = 3.28; CI: 1.96-5.50), neuroleptic therapy (AOR = 1.87; CI: 1.22-2.88), co-morbidities hypertension (AOR = 2.03; CI: 1.41-2.90), and heart failure (AOR = 4.85; CI: 3.42-6.88). The chance for a prescription of any anti-dementia drug decreased with the diagnosis of vascular dementia (AOR = 0.64; CI: 0.43-0.95) and diabetes mellitus (AOR = 0.55; CI: 0.36-0.86). The prescription of Ginkgo biloba was associated with sex (female: AOR = 0.41; CI: 0.19-0.89), patient age (AOR = 1.06; CI: 1

  10. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's fully operationalised DSM-IV dementia computerized diagnostic algorithm, compared with the 10/66 dementia algorithm and a clinician diagnosis: a population validation study

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin J; de Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Noriega, L; Lopez, A; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Copeland, John RM; Dewey, Michael; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; McKeigue, Paul; Sousa, Renata; Stewart, Robert J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwa, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background The criterion for dementia implicit in DSM-IV is widely used in research but not fully operationalised. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group sought to do this using assessments from their one phase dementia diagnostic research interview, and to validate the resulting algorithm in a population-based study in Cuba. Methods The criterion was operationalised as a computerised algorithm, applying clinical principles, based upon the 10/66 cognitive tests, clinical interview and informant reports; the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the CERAD 10 word list learning and animal naming tests, the Geriatric Mental State, and the History and Aetiology Schedule – Dementia Diagnosis and Subtype. This was validated in Cuba against a local clinician DSM-IV diagnosis and the 10/66 dementia diagnosis (originally calibrated probabilistically against clinician DSM-IV diagnoses in the 10/66 pilot study). Results The DSM-IV sub-criteria were plausibly distributed among clinically diagnosed dementia cases and controls. The clinician diagnoses agreed better with 10/66 dementia diagnosis than with the more conservative computerized DSM-IV algorithm. The DSM-IV algorithm was particularly likely to miss less severe dementia cases. Those with a 10/66 dementia diagnosis who did not meet the DSM-IV criterion were less cognitively and functionally impaired compared with the DSMIV confirmed cases, but still grossly impaired compared with those free of dementia. Conclusion The DSM-IV criterion, strictly applied, defines a narrow category of unambiguous dementia characterized by marked impairment. It may be specific but incompletely sensitive to clinically relevant cases. The 10/66 dementia diagnosis defines a broader category that may be more sensitive, identifying genuine cases beyond those defined by our DSM-IV algorithm, with relevance to the estimation of the population burden of this disorder. PMID:18577205

  11. Predictors of dementia in Parkinson disease: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Anang, Julius B M; Gagnon, Jean-Francois; Bertrand, Josie-Anne; Romenets, Silvia Rios; Latreille, Veronique; Panisset, Michel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Postuma, Ronald B

    2014-09-30

    We investigated an array of possible markers of early dementia in Parkinson disease. We performed a comprehensive assessment of autonomic, sleep, psychiatric, visual, olfactory, and motor manifestations in 80 patients with Parkinson disease who were dementia-free at baseline. After 4.4 years' follow-up, patients were evaluated for dementia. Predictive variables were assessed using logistic regression adjusting for disease duration, follow-up duration, age, and sex. Of 80 patients, 27 (34%) developed dementia. Patients destined to develop dementia were older and more often male (odds ratio [OR] = 3.64, p = 0.023). Those with baseline mild cognitive impairment had increased dementia risk (OR = 22.5, p < 0.001). REM sleep behavior disorder at baseline dramatically increased dementia risk (OR = 49.7, p = 0.001); however, neither daytime sleepiness nor insomnia predicted dementia. Higher baseline blood pressure increased dementia risk (OR = 1.37 per 10 mm Hg, p = 0.032). Orthostatic blood pressure drop was strongly associated with dementia risk (OR = 1.84 per 10 mm Hg, p < 0.001); having a systolic drop of >10 mm Hg increased dementia odds 7-fold (OR = 7.3, p = 0.002). Abnormal color vision increased dementia risk (OR = 3.3, p = 0.014), but olfactory dysfunction did not. Among baseline motor variables, proportion of gait involvement (OR = 1.12, p = 0.023), falls (OR = 3.02, p = 0.042), and freezing (OR = 2.63, p = 0.013), as well as the Purdue Pegboard Test (OR = 0.67, p = 0.049) and alternate tap test (OR = 0.97, p = 0.033) predicted dementia. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, REM sleep behavior disorder, color discrimination ability, and gait dysfunction strongly predict development of dementia in Parkinson disease. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. Joy, happiness, and humor in dementia care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Person, Marianne; Hanssen, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    People with advanced dementia can still enjoy life. Even if their language is impaired and they live in the moment, it should still be possible for them to live a life of pleasure and joy. A pilot study was conducted to learn more about these individuals' experiences, but because of the decline in their access to language, it was necessary to have others speak on their behalf. Analysis of findings was based on a hermeneutic approach inspired by Ricoeur (1981). Central findings were that all the interviewees emphasized humor and interacting with other people as a source of happiness.

  13. [Behavior and well-being of people with dementia in a social care group. Observation study with dementia care mapping].

    PubMed

    Hochgraeber, Iris

    2013-07-01

    Social care groups for people with dementia areone way to relieve family caregivers and to activate individuals with dementia. This study aimed to describe one social care group and investigate the well-being of the groups members. The research question therefore was: What are people with dementia doing and how do they feel in a social care group? In this descriptive observation study we observed three group sessions in one social care group with five members in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) using Dementia Care Mapping (DCM). The results show that there was a special course of action fixed by meals, welcoming and farewell. The behaviour and well-being varied. Leisure like doing handicraft and interaction were depicted as main activities. The well-being was high, if participants had energetic activities and the course of action of the different group members was similar. Interestingly one person was excluded from almost all activities. It is important for staff to know the constellation of the group and to include all visitors.

  14. Investigating the ways that older people cope with dementia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Preston, Laura; Marshall, Ann; Bucks, Romola S

    2007-03-01

    Understanding the way that older people cope with dementia has important implications for the enhancement of the psychological well-being and quality of life of this group of people. This qualitative study explored how older people cope with dementia, by engaging 12 people with early-stage dementia in semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to identify the shared themes in participants' accounts. Three major themes emerged: "managing identity in relation to dementia", "making sense of dementia", and "coping strategies and mechanisms" (the latter theme divided into "everyday, individual strategies", "coping in relation to others", and "personal attitude/approach"). There were also two additional themes in relation to process issues: issues of "conflict and control" which were evident across all other themes, as was individuality and the importance of "context" in coping with dementia. These findings are discussed in the relation to previous research in this field, and suggestions for further research and clinical practice are outlined.

  15. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  16. Risk factors for dementia in the epidemiological study of Munguialde County (Basque Country-Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Martínez, Manuel; Castro Flores, Jessica; Pérez de las Heras, Susana; Mandaluniz Lekumberri, Aitziber; Gordejuela Menocal, María; Zarranz Imirizaldu, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevalence of degenerative dementias and dementias associated with cerebrovascular disease is increasing. Dementia is one of the most significant public health problem. In recent years, the role of vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia) and depression has been evaluated. The incidence of dementia and risk factors has not been fully investigated in Spain. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) in elderly people in Munguialde County (Spain). Methods A two phase, door-to-door populational study was performed. Demographic variables and the presence of vascular risk factors and depression were recorded. The MMSE, the DSM-IV and the conventional criteria for AD and VD were used in the evaluation. The odds ratio for each risk factor was calculated by logistic regression analysis. Results 1756 healthy subjects and 175 patients with dementia participated in the study. Of these, 133 had AD, 15 VD and the remainder other dementias. The risk factors for dementia and AD were female sex (OR = 1.67 and 1.97, respectively); age (OR = 1.14 and 1.15); stroke (OR = 7.84 and 3); and depression (OR = 53.08 and 3.19). Stroke was the only risk factor for VD (OR = 119). Conclusion Greater age, female sex, stroke and depression increase the risk of suffering dementia, AD and VD. The relationship between depression, vascular risk factors and dementia has clear public health implications. Prevention and early treatment of vascular risk factors and depression may have an important impact in lowering the risk of dementia and could modify the natural history of the disease. PMID:18922150

  17. Alcohol-Related Dementia and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Review Study.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina; Choudhary, Mona; Dayal, Prabhoo; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms "alcohol and dementia", "alcohol and cognitive impairment", and "alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff" mentioned in the title of the published papers. A total of 131 studies showed up. Appropriate studies were shortlisted and included (n = 72). Cross-references if relevant were considered from the selected studies. Eligible articles were fully read by the authors and the results were compiled. The prolonged and excessive use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional brain damage, leading to ARD. The cognitive deficits are most frequently observed in domains of visuospatial functions, memory and executive tasks, with a potential of partial recovery if abstinence is maintained. However, there are doubts regarding the etiopathogenesis, nosological status, prevalence and diagnostic criteria for ARD, due to difficulty in assessment and various confounding factors. With growing cohort of young and middle-aged people, there is a probable risk of upsurge of ARD. Presently, there are dilemmas over the diagnosis of independent ARD. Thus, there is a need to develop evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management of ARD through further systematic studies.

  18. Living with dementia in a nursing home, as described by persons with dementia: a phenomenological hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Mjørud, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Røsvik, Janne; Kirkevold, Marit

    2017-01-31

    Persons with dementia have described life in nursing home as difficult and lonely. Persons with dementia often reside in nursing homes for several years; therefore, knowledge is needed about how quality of life is affected in the nursing-home setting in order to be able to provide the best possible care. The aim of this study was to investigate the personal experience of living in a nursing home over time from the perspective of the person with dementia and to learn what makes life better or worse in the nursing home. A phenomenological hermeneutic research design was applied. Unstructured, face-to-face interviews and field observations were conducted twice, three months apart. Twelve persons residing in three different nursing homes were included. The analysis revealed four themes: "Being in the nursing home is okay, but you must take things as they are"; "Everything is gone"; "Things that make it better and things that make it worse"; and "Persons - for better or worse? Staff, family, and co-residents". Persons with dementia are able to communicate their feelings and thoughts about their lives in the nursing home and can name several factors that have impacts on their quality of life. They differentiate between members of the staff, and they prefer their primary nurse. They are content with life in general, but everyday life is boring, and their sense of contentment is based on acceptance of certain facts of reality and their ability to adjust their expectations.

  19. A population-based study on dementia and stroke in 97 year olds.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mats; Guo, Xinxin; Börjesson-Hanson, Anne; Liebetrau, Martin; Östling, Svante; Skoog, Ingmar

    2012-07-01

    the number of nonagenarians increases dramatically worldwide. to examine the prevalence of stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and dementia, their inter-relationship and their relation to 2-year mortality and institutionalisation in 97 year olds. a population-based sample of 97 year olds (n=591) was examined. Information on stroke/TIA was obtained from self-reports, key informants and hospital discharge registers. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria. the response rate was 65%. The prevalence of dementia was 32.7% in men and 59.3% in women (P<0.001). The prevalence of stroke/TIA was 21.5% (17.8% in men, 22.3% in women). Stroke/TIA was related to dementia in women (odds ratio=1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0), but not in men. Dementia, but not stroke/TIA, was related to 2-year mortality and institutionalisation in logistic regression models. dementia was very common in this age group, and related to mortality and institutionalisation. Stroke/TIA in 97 year olds showed less association with dementia, mortality and institutionalisation than reported in studies of younger elderly populations. The finding that stroke was not associated with dementia in men needs to be taken cautiously due to the small number of men. The findings also emphasise that more studies are needed to scrutinise the aetiology of dementia in nonagenarians.

  20. Physical activity for people with dementia: a scoping study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This scoping study aimed to identify how physical activity may benefit people with dementia; how and/or if current service provide these benefits; and what support they need to do so. Methods Methods included an evidence review using literature; mapping current service provision through a survey; and in-depth interviews with a sample of service providers. Results The 26 studies included in the review indicated the potential effectiveness of physical activity for people with dementia, including improvements in cognition and mood, behaviour and physical condition. Mechanisms of action and the link with outcomes were poorly defined and implemented. The mapping survey and related interviews showed that service providers were delivering a range of services broadly consistent with the scientific evidence. They tended to take a holistic view of possible benefits, and focused on enjoyment and well-being, more than specific cognitive, physical and behavioural outcomes highlighted in literature. Service providers needed more evidence based information and resources to develop services and realise their potential. Conclusion Despite potential benefits demonstrated in literature and practice, there is a need for further research to optimise interventions and to consider some neglected issues including delivery at home and in communities; impacts for carers; physical activities through ADLs; and individual needs. Studies are needed which take a more holistic approach to the effects of physical activity, and outcomes should be broader and include mental health and wellbeing. PMID:24274624

  1. Detection of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the preclinical phase: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Katie; Bäckman, Lars; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate a simple three step procedure to identify people in the general population who are in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Three year population based cohort study. Kungsholmen cohort, Stockholm, Sweden. 1435 people aged 75-95 years without dementia. Single question asking about memory complaints, assessment by mini-mental state examination, and neuropsychological testing. Alzheimer's disease and dementia at three year follow up. None of the three instruments was sufficiently predictive of Alzheimer's disease and dementia when administered separately. After participants had been screened for memory complaints and global cognitive impairment, specific tests of word recall and verbal fluency had positive predictive values for dementia of 85-100% (95% confidence intervals range from 62% to 100%). However, only 18% of future dementia cases were identified in the preclinical phase by this three step procedure. Memory complaints were the most sensitive indicator of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the whole population, but only half the future dementia cases reported memory problems three years before diagnosis. This three step procedure, which simulates what might occur in clinical practice, has a high positive predictive value for dementia, although only a small number of future cases can be identified.

  2. Accounting for the relationship between low education and dementia: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Gatz, Margaret; Mortimer, James A; Fratiglioni, Laura; Johansson, Boo; Berg, Stig; Andel, Ross; Crowe, Michael; Fiske, Amy; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2007-09-10

    We evaluated whether the association between low education and greater risk of dementia is explained by genetic influences, using three different types of analyses. The HARMONY study (Swedish for "health" (Hälsa), "genes" (ARv), "environment" (Miljö), "and" (Och), and "new" (NY)) includes members of the Swedish Twin Registry who were aged 65 and older and alive in 1998, and who were screened and clinically assessed for dementia. There were 394 cases with dementia and 7786 unrelated controls. Analyses included co-twin control, tests for association between education and a measured genotype, and bivariate twin modeling. Low education was a significant risk factor for dementia both in case-control analyses (odds ratio=1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 2.28) and co-twin control analyses with monozygotic twin pairs (odds ratio=3.17, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 7.93). Apolipoprotein E genotype was not associated with education and did not account for the relationship between education and dementia. Bivariate twin modeling showed that the association between education and dementia was not mediated by genetic influences in common between education and dementia. The association was mediated by shared environmental influences that were related to both dementia and to education. Low education is confirmed as a risk factor for dementia. Findings from three different analytic approaches showed that genetic influences did not explain this association.

  3. Longitudinal Study-Based Dementia Prediction for Public Health.

    PubMed

    Kim, HeeChel; Chun, Hong-Woo; Kim, Seonho; Coh, Byoung-Youl; Kwon, Oh-Jin; Moon, Yeong-Ho

    2017-08-30

    The issue of public health in Korea has attracted significant attention given the aging of the country's population, which has created many types of social problems. The approach proposed in this article aims to address dementia, one of the most significant symptoms of aging and a public health care issue in Korea. The Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior Cohort Database contains personal medical data of every citizen in Korea. There are many different medical history patterns between individuals with dementia and normal controls. The approach used in this study involved examination of personal medical history features from personal disease history, sociodemographic data, and personal health examinations to develop a prediction model. The prediction model used a support-vector machine learning technique to perform a 10-fold cross-validation analysis. The experimental results demonstrated promising performance (80.9% F-measure). The proposed approach supported the significant influence of personal medical history features during an optimal observation period. It is anticipated that a biomedical "big data"-based disease prediction model may assist the diagnosis of any disease more correctly.

  4. Relation between smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Reitz, C; den Heijer, T; van Duijn, C; Hofman, A; Breteler, M M B

    2007-09-04

    Previous studies relating smoking with the risk of dementia have been inconsistent and limited in their validity by short follow-up times, large intervals between baseline and follow-up assessments, and unspecific determination of dementia diagnosis. We re-assessed after longer follow-up time in the large population-based cohort of the Rotterdam Study whether smoking habits and pack-years of smoking are associated with the risk of dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD). Prospective population-based cohort study in 6,868 participants, 55 years or older and free of dementia at baseline. First, Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate smoking status at baseline with the risks of incident dementia, VaD, and AD, using never smokers as the reference category in all analyses. Then Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate pack-years of smoking with the risks of incident dementia, VaD, and AD. To explore the impact of the APOEepsilon4 allele, sex, and age on the association between smoking status and dementia, we repeated all analyses stratifying, in separate models, by APOEepsilon4 genotype, sex, and median of age. After a mean follow-up time of 7.1 years, current smoking at baseline was associated with an increased risk of dementia (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.86) and AD (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.02). This increase in disease risk was restricted to persons without the APOEepsilon4 allele. There was no association between current smoking and risk of VaD, and there was no association between past smoking and risk of dementia, AD, or VaD. Current smoking increases the risk of dementia. This effect is more pronounced in persons without the APOEepsilon4 allele than APOEepsilon4 carriers.

  5. Dementia Literacy among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Urban China: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Loi, Samantha M; Zhou, Shu'aijun; Zhao, Mei; Lv, Xiaozhen; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xiao; Lautenschlager, Nicola; Yu, Xin; Wang, Huali

    2017-01-01

    Delay in seeking diagnosis of dementia is common in China. Misinformation and poor knowledge about dementia may contribute to it. The study was designed to explore the nationwide dementia literacy among older adults in urban China and to investigate the factors associated with overall dementia literacy. In a cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 3,439 community-dwelling old adults aged 60 and over was recruited from 34 cities in 20 provinces between June 20 and August 20, 2014. All participants were administered the face-to-face mental health literacy questionnaire, which included the prevalence, symptoms, intention, and options for treatment of dementia. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis was used to explore factors associated with overall dementia literacy. The response rate was 87.4%. The overall dementia literacy was 55.5% (SD = 20.9%) among all respondents. The correct response rate was higher for questions on symptoms (58.7-89.6%), but lower for questions on the prevalence (22.2%) and choosing appropriate professional care personnel (22.2%). Being male [OR = 1.256, 95% CI (1.022-1.543)], having lower per capita annual income [OR = 1.314, 95% CI (1.064-1.623)], lower education [OR = 1.462, 95% CI (1.162-1.839)], and suspected depression [OR = 1.248, 95% CI (1.009-1.543)] were negatively associated with overall dementia literacy. Dementia literacy among community-dwelling older adults in urban China remains very low, in particular about the impact of dementia and appropriate treatment personnel. Community educational programs aiming to close this knowledge gap are encouraged to focus on those in the population at highest risk of low dementia literacy.

  6. Caregivers' understanding of dementia predicts patients' comfort at death: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Knol, Dirk L; Ribbe, Miel W; Deliens, Luc

    2013-04-11

    Patients with dementia frequently do not receive adequate palliative care which may relate to poor understanding of the natural course of dementia. We hypothesized that understanding that dementia is a progressive and terminal disease is fundamental to a focus on comfort in dementia, and examined how family and professional caregivers' understanding of the nature of the disease was associated with patients' comfort during the dying process. We enrolled 372 nursing home patients from 28 facilities in The Netherlands in a prospective observational study (2007 to 2010). We studied both the families and the physicians (73) of 161 patients. Understanding referred to families' comprehension of complications, prognosis, having been counseled on these, and perception of dementia as "a disease you can die from" (5-point agreement scale) at baseline. Physicians reported on this perception, prognosis and having counseled on this. Staff-assessed comfort with the End-of-Life in Dementia - Comfort Assessment in Dying (EOLD-CAD) scale. Associations between understanding and comfort were assessed with generalized estimating equations, structural equation modeling, and mediator analyses. A family's perception of dementia as "a disease you can die from" predicted higher patient comfort during the dying process (adjusted coefficient -0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.5; -0.06 point increment disagreement). Family and physician combined perceptions (-0.9, CI: -1.5; -0.2; 9-point scale) were also predictive, including in less advanced dementia. Forty-three percent of the families perceived dementia as a disease you can die from (agreed completely, partly); 94% of physicians did. The association between combined perception and higher comfort was mediated by the families' reporting of a good relationship with the patient and physicians' perception that good care was provided in the last week. Awareness of the terminal nature of dementia may improve patient comfort at the end of life

  7. Distance Caregivers of People with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The population of distance caregivers of people with dementia/Alzheimer's disease has not been extensively researched. This research study focused on exploring the lived experience of people caring for someone with dementia/Alzheimer's disease from a distance (defined as 2 or more hours away) to help shed light on this caregiving population. Ten…

  8. Distance Caregivers of People with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementia: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The population of distance caregivers of people with dementia/Alzheimer's disease has not been extensively researched. This research study focused on exploring the lived experience of people caring for someone with dementia/Alzheimer's disease from a distance (defined as 2 or more hours away) to help shed light on this caregiving population. Ten…

  9. Reversible dementias

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Manjari; Vibha, Deepti

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been given to the early diagnostic evaluation of patients with dementia which is essential to identify patients with cognitive symptoms who may have treatable conditions. Guidelines suggest that all patients presenting with dementia or cognitive symptoms should be evaluated with a range of laboratory tests, and with structural brain imaging with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While many of the disorders reported as ‘reversible dementias’ are conditions that may well be associated with cognitive or behavioral symptoms, these symptoms are not always sufficiently severe to fulfill the clinical criteria for dementia. Thus, while the etiology of a condition may be treatable it should not be assumed that the associated dementia is fully reversible. Potentially reversible dementias should be identified and treatment considered, even if the symptoms are not sufficiently severe to meet the clinical criteria for dementia, and even if partial or full reversal of the cognitive symptoms cannot be guaranteed. In the literature, the most frequently observed potentially reversible conditions identified in patients with cognitive impairment or dementia are depression, adverse effects of drugs, drug or alcohol abuse, space-occupying lesions, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and metabolic conditions land endocrinal conditions like hypothyroidism and nutritional conditions like vitamin B-12 deficiency. Depression is by far the most common of the potentially reversible conditions. The review, hence addresses the common causes of reversible dementia and the studies published so far. PMID:21416018

  10. Reporting of clinically diagnosed dementia on death certificates: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Gayan; Stewart, Robert; Higginson, Irene J.; Sleeman, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: mortality statistics are a frequently used source of information on deaths in dementia but are limited by concerns over accuracy. Objective: to investigate the frequency with which clinically diagnosed dementia is recorded on death certificates, including predictive factors. Methods: a retrospective cohort study assembled using a large mental healthcare database in South London, linked to Office for National Statistics mortality data. People with a clinical diagnosis of dementia, aged 65 or older, who died between 2006 and 2013 were included. The main outcome was death certificate recording of dementia. Results: in total, 7,115 people were identified. Dementia was recorded on 3,815 (53.6%) death certificates. Frequency of dementia recording increased from 39.9% (2006) to 63.0% (2013) (odds ratio (OR) per year increment 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.15). Recording of dementia was more likely if people were older (OR per year increment 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), and for those who died in care homes (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.50–2.40) or hospitals (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.46) compared with home, and less likely for people with less severe cognitive impairment (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.96), and if the diagnosis was Lewy body (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.15–0.62) or vascular dementia (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68–0.93) compared with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions: changes in certification practices may have contributed to the rise in recorded prevalence of dementia from mortality data. However, mortality data still considerably underestimate the population burden of dementia. Potential biases affecting recording of dementia need to be taken into account when interpreting mortality data. PMID:27146301

  11. A Population-Based Study Examining Injury in Older Adults with and without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Meuleners, Lynn B; Hobday, Michelle B

    2017-03-01

    To estimate the incidence of and risk factors for injuries in older adults with and without dementia. Retrospective, population-based cohort study. Western Australian Data Linkage System (WADLS). Cases included 29,671 (47.9%) older adults aged 50 and older with an index hospital admission for dementia between 2001 and 2011. Comparison participants without dementia included a random sample of 32,277 (52.1%) older adults aged 50 and older from the state electoral roll. Hospital admission to a metropolitan tertiary hospital for at least 24 hours with an injury. Age-standardized all-cause injury rates for older adults with dementia (≥60) were 117 per 1,000 population and 24 per 1,000 population for older adults without dementia. Falls caused the majority of injuries for both groups (dementia, 94%; without dementia, 87%), followed by transport-related injuries and burns. Multivariate modeling found that older adults with a diagnosis of dementia had more than twice the risk of hospital admission for an injury than those without dementia (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 2.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.96-2.15). Other significant risk factors for a hospital admission for injury were age 85 and older (IRR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.13-1.81), being unmarried (IRR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.03-1.12), and a history of falls (IRR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.06). Women were at lower risk then men of a hospital admission due to an injury (IRR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97). Older adults with dementia are at greater risk of a hospital admission for an injury. Multifactorial injury prevention programs would benefit older adults with and without dementia, especially those aged 85 and older, living alone, and with a history of previous falls. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (Dementia diagnoses were made during biennial health examinations with a two-phase procedure. DSM IV criteria were used for diagnosing dementia, NINCDS-ADRDA for Alzheimer disease, and NINDS-AIREN for vascular disease. To estimate the effect of radiation on the dementia incidence rate, we applied Poisson regression analysis. Incidence per 1000 person-years was 16.3 in the <5 mGy group, 17.0 in the 5-499 mGy group, and 15.2 in the >or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  13. Quality of life in dementia: a study on proxy bias.

    PubMed

    Arons, Alexander M M; Krabbe, Paul F M; Schölzel-Dorenbos, Carla J M; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2013-09-06

    Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in dementia is difficult. At some point people with dementia become unable to meaningfully assess their own HRQoL. At such a point in time researchers need to rely on other types of information such as observation or assessments from informal caregivers (proxies). However, caregiver assessments may be biased by several mechanisms. The current study explores whether caregivers project part of their own HRQoL in their assessments of patient HRQoL. The participants in the current study were 175 pairs, consisting of community-dwelling persons with dementia and their caregivers. The EQ-5D, the EQ-VAS and the QoL-AD were administered to collect HRQoL measurements from patients and caregivers at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Two linear mixed models were used to investigate factors that bias proxy ratings, one with the EQ-VAS as dependent variable, and one with the EQ-5D utility as dependent variable. The independent variables were caregiver age, caregiver sex and caregiver QoL-AD items. The linear mixed model with EQ-VAS as dependent variable indicated that 3 caregiver characteristics, namely caregiver age, money (caregiver's financial situation) and valuation of life as a whole were significant predictors of the patient-by-proxy VAS scores. The linear mixed model with utility value as the dependent variable showed that caregiver age and valuation of the ability to do things for fun were significant predictors of the patient-by-proxy EQ-5D utility values. The current study was a first step in identifying factors that bias patient-by-proxy HRQoL assessments. It was discovered that caregivers project part of their own HRQoL onto patients when assessing patient HRQoL. This implies that patient-by-proxy HRQoL values should be interpreted with caution and not be used as a direct substitute for patient self-assessment, even when patients are no longer able meaningfully assess themselves.

  14. Quality of life in dementia: a study on proxy bias

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in dementia is difficult. At some point people with dementia become unable to meaningfully assess their own HRQoL. At such a point in time researchers need to rely on other types of information such as observation or assessments from informal caregivers (proxies). However, caregiver assessments may be biased by several mechanisms. The current study explores whether caregivers project part of their own HRQoL in their assessments of patient HRQoL. Methods The participants in the current study were 175 pairs, consisting of community-dwelling persons with dementia and their caregivers. The EQ-5D, the EQ-VAS and the QoL-AD were administered to collect HRQoL measurements from patients and caregivers at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Two linear mixed models were used to investigate factors that bias proxy ratings, one with the EQ-VAS as dependent variable, and one with the EQ-5D utility as dependent variable. The independent variables were caregiver age, caregiver sex and caregiver QoL-AD items. Results The linear mixed model with EQ-VAS as dependent variable indicated that 3 caregiver characteristics, namely caregiver age, money (caregiver’s financial situation) and valuation of life as a whole were significant predictors of the patient-by-proxy VAS scores. The linear mixed model with utility value as the dependent variable showed that caregiver age and valuation of the ability to do things for fun were significant predictors of the patient-by-proxy EQ-5D utility values. Conclusions The current study was a first step in identifying factors that bias patient-by-proxy HRQoL assessments. It was discovered that caregivers project part of their own HRQoL onto patients when assessing patient HRQoL. This implies that patient-by-proxy HRQoL values should be interpreted with caution and not be used as a direct substitute for patient self-assessment, even when patients are no longer able meaningfully assess

  15. Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway.

    PubMed

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-10-15

    An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06 million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49 years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69 years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80 years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age.

  16. Finding meaning in everyday life with dementia: A case study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jane M

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a case study exploring an older woman's perspective on the quality of her life with dementia. The case study establishes the importance of coherence across the life course in understanding how she evaluates her changed situation in the present compared to the past. The metaphoric description of moving from 'up there' to 'down here' represents the perceived struggle to maintain a sense of worth despite a marginalised social position. Being able to define self and social identity in ways that preserve a sense of social status is important to find meaning in everyday life. Finding meaning involves looking backwards to sustain continuity with the past and looking forwards to maintain momentum and keep going. A narrative framework is valuable in showing that quality of life is a dimension of meaning associated with maintaining a sense of social worth.

  17. The "syncope and dementia" study: a prospective, observational, multicenter study of elderly patients with dementia and episodes of "suspected" transient loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Andrea; Mussi, Chiara; Nicosia, Franco; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Bo, Mario; Riccio, Daniela; Landi, Francesco; Martone, Anna Maria; Langellotto, Assunta; Ghidoni, Giulia; Noro, Gabriele; Abete, Pasquale

    2015-12-01

    Syncope and related falls are one of the main causes and the predominant cause of hospitalization in elderly patients with dementia. However, the diagnostic protocol for syncope is difficult to apply to patients with dementia. Thus, we developed a "simplified" protocol to be used in a prospective, observational, and multicenter study in elderly patients with dementia and transient loss of consciousness suspected for syncope or unexplained falls. Here, we describe the protocol, its feasibility and the characteristics of the patients enrolled in the study. Patients aged ≥65 years with a diagnosis of dementia and one or more episodes of transient loss of consciousness during the previous 3 months, subsequently referred to a Geriatric Department in different regions of Italy, from February 2012 to May 2014, were enrolled. A simplified protocol was applied in all patients. Selected patients underwent a second-level evaluation. Three hundred and three patients were enrolled; 52.6% presented with episodes suspected to be syncope, 44.5% for unexplained fall and 2.9% both. Vascular dementia had been previously diagnosed in 53.6% of participants, Alzheimer's disease in 23.5% and mixed forms in 12.6%. Patients presented with high comorbidity (CIRS score = 3.6 ± 2), severe functional impairment, (BADL lost = 3 ± 2), and polypharmacy (6 ± 3 drugs). Elderly patients with dementia enrolled for suspected syncope and unexplained falls have high comorbidity and disability. The clinical presentation is often atypical and the presence of unexplained falls is particularly frequent.

  18. Canadian study of health and aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    2021. CONCLUSIONS: These Canadian estimates of the prevalence of dementia fall toward the upper end of the ranges in other studies, whereas the estimates for Alzheimer's disease fall in the middle of the ranges. This may suggest an unusual balance between Alzheimer's and other forms of dementia in the Canadian population. PMID:8131123

  19. Diagnosing dementia in Dutch general practice: a qualitative study of GPs’ practices and views

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Agnes; Hemke, Feia; Pols, Jeannette; van Charante, Eric P Moll

    2016-01-01

    Background GPs play an important role in recognising the symptoms of dementia; however, little is known about how they perceive their actual and future role in diagnosing dementia. Aim To explore Dutch GPs’ perceptions of their current position in diagnosing dementia, their reasons for referral to secondary care, and views on the future diagnostic role of GPs. Design and setting A qualitative study among Dutch GPs. Method Eighteen GPs participated in a semi-structured interview that ranged from 20 to 60 minutes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was performed. Results GPs reported that their role in the diagnostic phase of identifying people with suspected dementia is limited to recognising cognitive problems and deciding whether a patient needs to be referred for further investigation, or whether care could be organised without specialist diagnosis. GPs indicated that they were likely to refer patients if patients/caregivers or dementia case managers requested it, or if they thought it could have consequences for treatment. Typically, GPs do not see the need for referral when their patients are very old and declining slowly. GPs would welcome a more prominent role in diagnosing dementia in their own practice. Conclusion Diagnosing dementia involves a complex balance between patient and carer preferences, the consequences for treatment and care, and the burden of referral. Dutch GPs favour a stronger involvement in diagnosing dementia provided that both resources and diagnostic algorithms are improved. PMID:27114209

  20. [The prevalence of dementias in a rural area. A study in Girona].

    PubMed

    Vilalta-Franch, J; López-Pousa, S; Llinàs-Reglà, J

    To know the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes in our area. Epidemiological study, door-to-door, double phase, in which all non-institutionalized subjects from 8 rural villages aged 70 and more were selected. The general physicians and nurses, previously trained, administered the Mini Cognitive Examination (MCE) in the first phase. All subjects to whom cannot been administered MCE due to illness or sensorial deficit, all subjects under the cut-off point and a similar number of subjects randomized among the ones over the cut-off point, get through the second phase in which a clinical psychologist and a neurological trained physician administered the Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination (CAMDEX). All diagnosis were done under CAMDEX criteria. A total of 1,460 subjects participated. The prevalence of dementia was 16.3% (14.4-18.2). The dementia Alzheimer type ratio was 40.76% (34.5-47), the vascular dementia was 38.24% (32.1-44.4), the mixed dementia was 11.7% (7.7-15.8) and the secondary dementia was 9.2% (5.5-12.9%). The logistic regression confirms that age and female sex are dementia risk factor. In our geographical area a very high prevalence of dementia is found.

  1. Diagnosing dementia in Dutch general practice: a qualitative study of GPs' practices and views.

    PubMed

    Prins, Agnes; Hemke, Feia; Pols, Jeannette; Moll van Charante, Eric P

    2016-06-01

    GPs play an important role in recognising the symptoms of dementia; however, little is known about how they perceive their actual and future role in diagnosing dementia. To explore Dutch GPs' perceptions of their current position in diagnosing dementia, their reasons for referral to secondary care, and views on the future diagnostic role of GPs. A qualitative study among Dutch GPs. Eighteen GPs participated in a semi-structured interview that ranged from 20 to 60 minutes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was performed. GPs reported that their role in the diagnostic phase of identifying people with suspected dementia is limited to recognising cognitive problems and deciding whether a patient needs to be referred for further investigation, or whether care could be organised without specialist diagnosis. GPs indicated that they were likely to refer patients if patients/caregivers or dementia case managers requested it, or if they thought it could have consequences for treatment. Typically, GPs do not see the need for referral when their patients are very old and declining slowly. GPs would welcome a more prominent role in diagnosing dementia in their own practice. Diagnosing dementia involves a complex balance between patient and carer preferences, the consequences for treatment and care, and the burden of referral. Dutch GPs favour a stronger involvement in diagnosing dementia provided that both resources and diagnostic algorithms are improved. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  2. Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Dewey, Michael E; Acosta, Isaac; Jotheeswaran, Amuthavalli T; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Results of the few cohort studies from countries with low incomes or middle incomes suggest a lower incidence of dementia than in high-income countries. We assessed incidence of dementia according to criteria from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV, the effect of dementia at baseline on mortality, and the independent effects of age, sex, socioeconomic position, and indicators of cognitive reserve. Methods We did a population-based cohort study of all people aged 65 years and older living in urban sites in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, and China, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia 3–5 years after cohort inception. We used questionnaires to obtain information about age in years, sex, educational level, literacy, occupational attainment, and number of household assets. We obtained information about mortality from all sites. For participants who had died, we interviewed a friend or relative to ascertain the likelihood that they had dementia before death. Findings 12 887 participants were interviewed at baseline. 11 718 were free of dementia, of whom 8137 (69%) were reinterviewed, contributing 34 718 person-years of follow-up. Incidence for 10/66 dementia varied between 18·2 and 30·4 per 1000 person-years, and were 1·4–2·7 times higher than were those for DSM-IV dementia (9·9–15·7 per 1000 person-years). Mortality hazards were 1·56–5·69 times higher in individuals with dementia at baseline than in those who were dementia-free. Informant reports suggested a high incidence of dementia before death; overall incidence might be 4–19% higher if these data were included. 10/66 dementia incidence was independently associated with increased age (HR 1·67; 95% CI 1·56–1·79), female sex (0·72; 0·61–0·84), and low education (0·89; 0·81–0·97), but not with occupational attainment (1

  3. Midlife psychological stress and risk of dementia: a 35-year longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Lena; Guo, Xinxin; Waern, Margda; Ostling, Svante; Gustafson, Deborah; Bengtsson, Calle; Skoog, Ingmar

    2010-08-01

    The number of people with dementia has increased dramatically with global ageing. Nevertheless, the pathogeneses of these diseases are not sufficiently understood. The present study aims to analyse the relationship between psychological stress in midlife and the development of dementia in late-life. A representative sample of females (n = 1462) aged 38-60 years were examined in 1968-69 and re-examined in 1974-75, 1980-81, 1992-93 and 2000-03. Psychological stress was rated according to a standardized question in 1968, 1974 and 1980. Dementia was diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria based on information from neuropsychiatric examinations, informant interviews, hospital records and registry data. During the 35-year follow-up, 161 females developed dementia (105 Alzheimer's disease, 40 vascular dementia and 16 other dementias). We found that the risk of dementia (hazard ratios, 95% confidence intervals) was increased in females reporting frequent/constant stress in 1968 (1.60, 1.10-2.34), in 1974 (1.65, 1.12-2.41) and in 1980 (1.60, 1.01-2.52). Frequent/constant stress reported in 1968 and 1974 was associated with Alzheimer's disease. Reporting stress at one, two or three examinations was related to a sequentially higher dementia risk. Compared to females reporting no stress, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident dementia were 1.10 (0.71-1.71) for females reporting frequent/constant stress at one examination, 1.73 (1.01-2.95) for those reporting stress at two examinations and 2.51 (1.33-4.77) at three examinations. To conclude, we found an association between psychological stress in middle-aged women and development of dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease. More studies are needed to confirm our findings and to study potential neurobiological mechanisms of these associations.

  4. Overweight in Midlife and Risk of Dementia: A 40-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hassing, Linda B.; Dahl, Anna K.; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Berg, Stig; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Johansson, Boo

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examines if overweight in midlife increases dementia risk later in life. Methods In 1963 Body Mass Index was assessed in 1152 participants of The Swedish Twin Registry, then at the age of 45 to 65 years. These participants were later screened for dementia in a prospective study with up to 40 years follow-up. A total of 312 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Results Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking and alcohol habits, indicated that men and women categorized as overweight in their midlife had an elevated risk of dementia (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.07, p = .002), Alzheimer’s disease (OR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.35, p = .003), and vascular dementia (OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 0.98 to 2.47, p = .059). Further adjustments for diabetes and vascular diseases did not substantially affect the associations, except for vascular dementia (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 0.82 to 2.56, p = .116), reflecting the significance of diabetes and vascular diseases in the aetiology of vascular dementia. There was no significant interaction between overweight and APOE ε4 status, indicating that having both risk factors does not have a multiplicative effect concerning dementia risk. Conclusions This study gives further support to the notion that overweight in midlife increases later risk of dementia. The risk is increased for both Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, and follows the same pattern for men and women. PMID:19506566

  5. Coronary Artery Calcium and Risk of Dementia in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Fujiyoshi, Akira; Jacobs, David R; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Alonso, Alvaro; Duprez, Daniel A; Sharrett, A Richey; Seeman, Teresa; Blaha, Michael J; Luchsinger, José A; Rapp, Stephen R

    2017-05-01

    Studies suggest a link between vascular injuries and dementia. Only a few studies, however, examined a longitudinal relation of subclinical vascular disease with dementia. We tested whether baseline coronary artery calcium (CAC), a biomarker of subclinical vascular disease, is associated with incident dementia independent of vascular risk factors and APOE-ε4 genotype in a community-based sample. We analyzed 6293 participants of MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (2000-2002), initially free of cardiovascular disease and noticeable cognitive deficit. Dementia cases were identified using hospital and death certificate International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes. Cox models were used to obtain hazard ratios according to CAC category, or per 1 SD log2[CAC+1], adjusted for vascular risk factor, APOE-ε4, with or without exclusion of interim stroke or cardiovascular disease. We observed 271 dementia cases in a median follow-up of 12.2 years. Baseline CAC had a graded positive association with dementia risk. Compared with no CAC, CAC score of 1 to 400, 401 to 1000, and ≥1001 had increased risk of dementia by 23%, 35%, and 71%, respectively, (Ptrend=0.026) after adjustment. 1 SD higher log2[CAC+1] was associated with 24% (95% confidence interval, 8%-41%; P=0.002) increase in dementia risk. Although the association was partially explained by interim stroke/cardiovascular disease, it remained significant even after excluding the interim events, or regardless of baseline age. Higher baseline CAC was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia independent of vascular risk factor, APOE-ε4, and incident stroke. This is consistent with a hypothesis that vascular injuries play a role in the development of dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. In-hospital death according to dementia diagnosis in acutely ill elderly patients: the REPOSI study.

    PubMed

    Marengoni, A; Corrao, S; Nobili, A; Tettamanti, M; Pasina, L; Salerno, F; Iorio, A; Marcucci, M; Bonometti, F; Mannucci, P M

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the association of dementia with in-hospital death in acutely ill medical patients. Thirty-four internal medicine and 4 geriatric wards in Italy participated in the Registro Politerapie SIMI-REPOSI-study during 2008. One thousand three hundred and thirty two in-patients aged 65 years or older were enrolled. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of dementia with in-hospital death. Socio-demographic characteristics, morbidity (single diseases and the Charlson Index), number of drugs, and adverse clinical events during hospitalization were considered as potential confounders. One hundred and seventeen participants were diagnosed as being affected by dementia. Patients with dementia were more likely to be women, older, to have cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, and a higher number of adverse clinical events during hospitalization. The percentage of patients affected by dementia who died during hospitalization was higher than that of patients without dementia (9.4 versus 4.9%). After multiadjustment, the diagnosis of dementia was associated with in-hospital death (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.0-4.5). Having dementia and at least one adverse clinical event during hospitalization showed an additive effect on in-hospital mortality (OR = 20.7; 95% CI = 6.9-61.9). Acutely ill elderly patients affected by dementia are more likely to die shortly after hospital admission. Having dementia and adverse clinical events during hospital stay increases the risk of death. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Midlife and Late-Life Smoking and Risk of Dementia in the Community: The Hisayama Study.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Tomoyuki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Hata, Jun; Ozawa, Mio; Yoshida, Daigo; Mukai, Naoko; Nagata, Masaharu; Iwaki, Toru; Kitazono, Takanari; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kiyohara, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    To clarify the association between midlife and late-life smoking and risk of dementia. Prospective cohort study. The Hisayama Study, Japan. Japanese community-dwellers without dementia aged 65 to 84 (mean age 72) followed for 17 years (1988-2005) (N = 754), 619 of whom had participated in a health examination conducted in 1973-74 (mean age, 57) and were included in the midlife analysis. The risk estimates of smoking status on the development of dementia were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. During follow-up, 252 subjects developed all-cause dementia; 143 had Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 76 had vascular dementia (VaD). In late life, the multivariable-adjusted risk of all-cause dementia was significantly greater in current smokers than in never smokers; similar associations were seen for all-cause dementia, AD, and VaD in midlife current smokers. Meanwhile, no significant association was observed between past smoking and risk of any type of dementia in late or midlife. Multivariable analysis showed that smokers in midlife and late life had significantly greater risks than lifelong nonsmokers of all-cause dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-3.49), AD (aHR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.09-3.61), and VaD (aHR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.34-6.20). Such associations were not observed for midlife smokers who quit smoking in late life. Persistent smoking from mid- to late life is a significant risk factor for dementia and its subtypes in the general Japanese population. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. The Study of Pathogen Resistance and Antimicrobial Use in Dementia: Study Design and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Susan L.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Kiely, Dan K; Givens, Jane L.; D'Agata, Erika

    2012-01-01

    Advanced dementia is characterized by the onset of infections and antimicrobial use is extensive. The extent to which this antimicrobial use is appropriate and contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria is not known. The object of this report is to present the methodology established in the Study of Pathogen Resistance and Exposure to Antimicrobials in Dementia (SPREAD), and describe how challenges specific to this research were met. SPREAD is an ongoing, federally-funded, 5-year prospective cohort study initiated in September 2009. Subjects include nursing home residents with advanced dementia and their proxies recruited from 31 Boston-area facilities. The recruitment and data collection protocols are described. Characteristics of participant facilities are presented and compared to those nationwide. To date, 295 resident/proxy dyads have been recruited. Baseline and selected follow-up data demonstrate successful recruitment of subjects and repeated collection of complex data documenting infections, decision-making for these infections, and antimicrobial bacteria resistance among the residents. SPREAD integrates methods in dementia, palliative care and infectious diseases research. Its successful implementation further establishes the feasibility of conducting rigorous, multi-site NH research in advanced dementia, and the described methodology serves as a detailed reference for subsequent publications emanating from the study. PMID:22925431

  9. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and later dementia: a Swedish National Register Study.

    PubMed

    Andolf, Ellika G; Sydsjö, Gunilla C M; Bladh, Marie K; Berg, Goran; Sharma, Surendra

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the rate of vascular dementia and dementia in women with previous hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, since white matter lesions of the brain and cardiovascular disease are linked both to dementia and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Prospective population-based registry study on all women giving birth in Sweden between 1973 and 1975 (284 598). Women with and without hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were identified by means of the Swedish Medical Birth Register and linked to the National Patient Register, where data on somatic disease later in life were obtained. International classification of disease was used. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to calculate hazard ratios for both groups and adjusted for possible confounders. Main outcome measures were in-hospital diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, vascular dementia and dementia. No increased risks were seen for vascular dementia or dementia after any hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. If broken down in specific diagnoses for hypertensive disease in pregnancy, adjusted risks for vascular dementia after hypertension and proteinuria during pregnancy the hazard ratio was 6.27 (95% CI 1.65-27.44). Higher risks for cardiovascular disease were confirmed. Because of the very low absolute risk, the wide confidence interval and risk of misclassification, our results on vascular dementia could be questioned. Considering the pathophysiology of preeclampsia, the findings of brain lesions and the increased risk for cardiovascular disease, the possibly increased risk for all kinds of dementia must be investigated in larger and more well-defined cohorts. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Mushroom Consumption and Incident Dementia in Elderly Japanese: The Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Tomata, Yasutake; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    Both in vivo and in vitro studies have indicated that edible mushrooms may have preventive effects against cognitive impairment. However, few cohort studies have yet examined the relationship between mushroom consumption and incident dementia. We examined the relationship between mushroom consumption and incident dementia in a population of elderly Japanese subjects. Prospective cohort study. Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study. 13,230 individuals aged ≥65 years living in Ohsaki City, northeastern Japan. Daily mushroom consumption, other lifestyle factors, and dementia incidence. The 5.7 years incidence of dementia was 8.7%. In comparison with participants who consumed mushrooms <1 time/wk, the multi-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for incident dementia among those did so 1-2 times/week and ≥3 times/week were 0.95 (0.81, 1.10) and 0.81 (0.69, 0.95), respectively (P-trend <.01). The inverse association persisted after excluding participants whose dementia event occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up and whose baseline cognitive function was lower. The inverse association did not differ statistically in terms of vegetable consumption (P-interaction = .10). This cohort study suggests that frequent mushroom consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Assistive technology for people with dementia: an overview and bibliometric study.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Ikram; Cang, Shuang; Yu, Hongnian

    2017-03-01

    This study presents an overview of recent research activities in assistive technology (AT) for people with dementia. Bibliometric studies are used to explore breadth and depth of different research areas, yet this method has not yet been fully utilised in AT research for people with dementia. The bibliometric method was used for collecting studies related to AT. Based on inclusion/exclusion criteria, the AT studies with a focus on people with dementia are considered. The study is based on factors such as number of publications, citations per paper, collaborative research output, P-Index, major research and application areas and national dementia strategies. Data were collected from 2000 to 2014 in AT research. The top 10 countries are selected based on their research outputs. USA emerged as the leading contributor with 503 publications and an annual growth rate of 16%, followed by UK with 399 publications and growth rate of 22%. Germany with 101 publications is on the 6th place, but it has a higher citation rate 16.43% as compared to USA (13.34%). Although all 10 countries show good collaborative research output, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands emerge as top collaborative research contributors with high percentages (84%, 84% and 79%). All the top 10 countries, except Canada, Germany and Spain, have national dementia strategies in place. The overall analysis shows that USA and UK are working extensively in AT research for people with dementia. Both these countries also have well established national dementia strategies. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  12. Blood Pressure Fluctuations Tied to Dementia Risk in Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... for dementia or Alzheimer's disease, new research from Japan suggests. People whose systolic blood pressure (the top ... School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City, Japan; Costantino Iadecola, M.D., professor, neurology, director, Feil ...

  13. Behavior management approach for agitated behavior in Japanese patients with dementia: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junko; Nakaaki, Shutaro; Torii, Katsuyoshi; Oka, Mizuki; Negi, Atsushi; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Narumoto, Jin; Furukawa, Toshi A; Mimura, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Background Agitated behaviors are frequently observed in patients with dementia and can cause severe distress to caregivers. However, little evidence of the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions for agitated behaviors exists for patients with dementia. The present pilot study aimed to evaluate a behavioral management program developed by the Seattle Protocols for patients with agitated behaviors in Japan. Methods Eighteen patients with dementia (Alzheimer’s disease, n = 14; dementia with Lewy bodies, n = 4) participated in an open study testing the effectiveness of a behavioral management program. The intervention consisted of 20 sessions over the course of 3 months. The primary outcomes were severity of agitation in dementia, as measured using the Agitated Behavior in Dementia scale (ABID) and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). Results The behavioral management program resulted in significant reductions in total scores on both the ABID and CMAI. Although both physically agitated and verbally agitated behavior scores on the ABID improved significantly, symptoms of psychosis did not improve after the intervention. Conclusion The behavioral management technique may be beneficial to distressed caregivers of patients with dementia. In the future, a well designed study to develop the behavioral management program more fully is needed. PMID:23293522

  14. Is complexity of work associated with risk of dementia? The Canadian Study of Health And Aging.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Edeltraut; Andel, Ross; Lindsay, Joan; Benounissa, Zohra; Verreault, René; Laurin, Danielle

    2008-04-01

    The authors evaluated the association of complexity of work with data, people, and things with the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, while adjusting for work-related physical activity. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a 10-year population study, from 1991 to 2001, of a representative sample of persons aged 65 years or older. Lifetime job history allowed application of complexity scores and classification of work-related physical activity. Analyses included 3,557 subjects, of whom 400 were incident dementia cases, including 299 with Alzheimer's disease and 93 with vascular dementia. In fully adjusted Cox regression models, high complexity of work with people or things reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratios were 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.98) and 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.99), respectively) but not Alzheimer's disease. For vascular dementia, hazard ratios were 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.15, 0.90) for high complexity of work with people and 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.25, 1.00) for high complexity of work with things. Subgroup analyses according to median duration (23 years) of principal occupation showed that associations with complexity varied according to duration of employment. High complexity of work appears to be associated with risk of dementia, but effects may vary according to subtype.

  15. Dementia is associated with open-angle glaucoma: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, S-D; Ho, J-D; Chen, C-H; Lin, H-C; Tsai, M-C; Sheu, J-J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous epidemiologic studies that focused on the association between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and dementia showed inconsistent results. In the present study, we explored the association between OAG and dementia in an ethnic Chinese (ie, Taiwanese) population using a population-based data set. Methods We retrieved data on study subjects for this case-control study from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We identified 7770 patients who had a diagnosis of dementia as cases, and 7770 subjects matched in terms of sex and age, which were randomly extracted as controls. A conditional logistic regression conditioned on age group, sex, and index year was used to assess the association of dementia with previously diagnosed OAG among the sampled patients. Results Of 15 540 patients, 1.70% had prior OAG, including 2.02% of the dementia group and 1.38% of the controls. After adjusting for patient socioeconomic characteristics and comorbid medical disorders, dementia patients were more likely to have had prior OAG than controls (odds ratio (OR): 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–1.85; P<0.01). In addition, female dementia patients were more likely to have had prior OAG than controls (OR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.35–2.77; P<0.001), whereas no statistical difference in prior OAG between male dementia patients and controls was found. Conclusions Female dementia patients were associated with a higher proportion of prior OAG than were the controls. PMID:26160529

  16. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in dementia: the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.

    PubMed

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Kröger, Edeltraut; Verreault, René; Lindsay, Joan; Dewailly, Éric; Tyas, Suzanne L; Bureau, Alexandre; Laurin, Danielle

    2014-08-01

    Even though polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides are recognized as neurotoxicants, few studies have investigated their associations with dementia. Here, we assess associations of plasma PCB and OC pesticide concentrations with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analyses are based on data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a population-based study of men and women aged 65+ years at baseline. PCB and OC pesticide concentrations were measured in 2023 participants who had complete clinical evaluations and blood samples; 574 had dementia, including 399 cases of AD. Concentrations were log-transformed and used as continuous variables in logistic regression models to assess their individual associations with dementia and AD. After adjustment for blood collection period, total plasma lipids, age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E e4 allele (ApoE4), tobacco and alcohol use, rural/urban residence, and comorbidities, elevated plasma PCB concentrations were not associated with increased prevalence of dementia and AD. Elevated concentrations of some OC pesticides and metabolites such as hexachlorobenzene, cis-nonachlor and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of dementia. A significant reduced prevalence of AD was also observed with elevated hexachlorobenzene concentrations. Other OC pesticides and metabolites were not associated with the prevalence of dementia or AD. No effect modification by sex and ApoE4 was observed for either dementia or AD. Elevated plasma PCB and OC pesticide concentrations were not associated with higher prevalence of all-cause dementia and AD. The possibility of modest reductions in prevalence with specific OC pesticides remains to be further investigated given the cross-sectional design of this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tablet splitting of psychotropic drugs for patients with dementia: a pharmacoepidemiologic study in a Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas Starling, Flávio; Medeiros-Souza, Patrícia; Francisco de Camargos, Einstein; Ferreira, Felipe; Rodrigues Silva, Alessandra; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of tablet splitting of psychotropic drugs in a population of older adults with a diagnosis of dementia. This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined a sample of geriatric outpatients seen at a public center specializing in the care of elderly patients, a referral center for management of dementias in general, especially Alzheimer dementia to identify the frequency of tablet splitting of psychotropic drugs and the factors that may be involved in this practice. Comparison of the presence or absence of tablet splitting in relation to several parameters was assessed by means of P values; between-group differences with an α < 5% (P < 0.05) were deemed significant. The presence of dementia was significantly associated with prescriptions implying to split tablets, which was found in 88 patients with dementia (34.9%) versus 90 patients without dementia (23.7%) (P = 0.002). Among the 88 patients with dementia who split tablets, 64 (72.7%) split tablets of psychotropic drugs. These results indicate the importance of identifying the practice of tablet splitting, particularly when it involves psychotropic drugs, because it entails several factors that can reduce the efficacy of the drug therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined dementia-risk biomarkers in Parkinson's disease: a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Compta, Yaroslau; Pereira, Joana B; Ríos, Jose; Ibarretxe-Bilbao, Naroa; Junqué, Carme; Bargalló, Núria; Cámara, Ana; Buongiorno, Mariateresa; Fernández, Manel; Pont-Sunyer, Claustre; Martí, Maria J

    2013-08-01

    Neuropsychological (mostly posterior-cortical) deficits, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atrophy patterns, and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β have been separately related to worsening cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, these biomarkers have not been longitudinally assessed in combination as PD-dementia predictors. In this prospective longitudinal study, 27 non-demented PD patients underwent CSF, neuropsychological and 3-T brain-MRI studies at baseline and were re-assessed 18 months later in terms of progression to dementia (primary outcome) and longitudinal neuropsychological and cortical thickness changes (secondary outcomes). At follow-up 11 patients (41%) had progressed to dementia. Lower CSF amyloid-β, worse verbal learning, semantic fluency and visuoperceptual scores, and thinner superior-frontal/anterior cingulate and precentral regions were significant baseline dementia predictors in binary logistic regressions as quantitative and/or dichotomised traits. All participants without baseline biomarker abnormalities remained non-demented whereas all with abnormalities in each biomarker type progressed to dementia, with intermediate risk for those showing abnormalities in a single to two biomarker types (p = 0.006). Both the dementia-outcome and low baseline CSF amyloid-β were prospectively associated with limbic and posterior-cortical neuropsychological decline and frontal, limbic and posterior-cortical thinning from baseline to follow-up. These findings suggest that the combination of CSF amyloid-β, neuropsychological and cortical thickness biomarkers might provide a basis for dementia-risk stratification and progression monitoring in PD.

  19. Gender, citizenship and dementia care: a scoping review of studies to inform policy and future research.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Ruth; Gjernes, Trude; Lotherington, Ann-Therese; Obstefelder, Aud

    2016-03-17

    Gender is a neglected dimension in public discourse related to people with dementia. Those living with this condition are typically portrayed in policies and strategies in gender neutral terms as 'people with dementia' and 'family carers' as if gender does not matter, when clearly it does. The purpose of this scoping review was to take stock of knowledge about gender differences in relation to dementia care to inform policy and future research. The work is grounded in a feminist perspective to citizenship, as this provide a lens with which to expose and examine gendered assumptions within dementia studies. A search of four databases, including CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane was conducted using systematic techniques between May and July 2014. A repeat search was conducted in February 2015. We found a significant amount of valuable research concerned with gender differences in relation to dementia care published from 1990 to 2014; the majority of which lacks a feminist citizenship perspective. Moreover, a disproportionate number of studies focused solely on caregivers rather than citizens with dementia. As such, questions about gender equality are not being raised and the voices of men and women with dementia are silent. Thus we argue for increased gender-sensitivity in policy making and recommend that social scientists inject a feminist citizenship perspective into their work.

  20. Enabling resources in people with dementia: a qualitative study about nurses' strategies that may support a sense of coherence in people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Lillekroken, Daniela; Hauge, Solveig; Slettebø, Åshild

    2015-11-01

    To explore nurses' strategies that may support the sense of coherence in people with dementia. People with dementia are often described as people with no resources, people who need support from family or from healthcare personnel to function in everyday life. Despite the disease, some people still have the resources needed to cope well with parts of their lives and experience coherence. To date, no research has explored any nurses' strategies that may support the sense of coherence in people with dementia. The design of the study is qualitative and exploratory. Data were collected by participant observation and focus group interviews. Sixteen registered nurses from two different Norwegian nursing homes were recruited and participated in the study. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data. The empirical material consisted of field notes from participant observation and transcripts from focus group interviews. Three generic categories were identified as strategies that may support sense of coherence in people with dementia: 'Finding and nurturing the individual's resources', 'Customising meaningful activities' and 'Finding creative solutions'. These categories were identified as strategies that may support and possibly enhance the sense of coherence in people with dementia. The findings provide an empirical base for assuming that with support and help from nurses, people with dementia may experience and strengthen their sense of coherence, therefore, the nurses need to be aware of the activities that may support and possibly enhance the sense of coherence in people with dementia. Despite the contextual limitations, this study highlights the need to identify and nurture resources in people with dementia, thus supporting their sense of coherence. The findings may contribute in enhancing the quality of care for people with dementia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Incidence of dementia after ischemic stroke: results of a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Desmond, David W; Moroney, Joan T; Sano, Mary; Stern, Yaakov

    2002-09-01

    A number of cross-sectional epidemiological studies have reported that one fourth of elderly patients meet criteria for dementia 3 months after ischemic stroke, but few longitudinal studies of the incidence of dementia after stroke have been performed. We conducted the present study to investigate the incidence and clinical predictors of dementia after ischemic stroke. We administered neurological, neuropsychological, and functional assessments annually to 334 ischemic stroke patients (age, 70.4+/-7.5 years) and 241 stroke-free control subjects (age, 70.6+/-6.5 years), all of whom were nondemented in baseline examinations. We diagnosed incident dementia using modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition criteria requiring deficits in memory and > or =2 additional cognitive domains, as well as functional impairment. The crude incidence rate of dementia was 8.49 cases per 100 person-years in the stroke cohort and 1.37 cases per 100 person-years in the control cohort. A Cox proportional-hazards analysis found that the relative risk (RR) of incident dementia associated with stroke was 3.83 (95% CI, 2.14 to 6.84), adjusting for demographic variables and baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score. Within the stroke cohort, intercurrent medical illnesses associated with cerebral hypoxia or ischemia were independently related to incident dementia (RR, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.20 to 8.85), adjusting for recurrent stroke, demographic variables, and baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score. The risk of incident dementia is high among patients with ischemic stroke, particularly in association with intercurrent medical illnesses that might cause cerebral hypoxia or ischemia, suggesting that cerebral hypoperfusion may serve as a basis for some cases of dementia after stroke.

  2. Periodontitis as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Dementia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao-Tung; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Hu, Chaur-Jongh; Huang, Li-Kai; Chao, Shu-Ping; Lin, Chia-Pei; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Lee, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chu-Chieh

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether periodontitis is a modifiable risk factor for dementia. Prospective cohort study. National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Individuals aged 65 and older with periodontitis (n = 3,028) and an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 3,028). Individuals with periodontitis were compared age- and sex-matched controls with for incidence density and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset dementia. Periodontitis was defined according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 523.3-5 diagnosed by dentists. To ensure diagnostic validity, only those who had concurrently received antibiotic therapies, periodontal treatment other than scaling, or scaling more than twice per year performed by certified dentists were included. Dementia was defined according to ICD-9-CM codes 290.0-290.4, 294.1, 331.0-331.2. After adjustment for confounding factors, the risk of developing dementia was calculated to be higher for participants with periodontitis (HR = 1.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.32, P = .03) than for those without. Periodontitis is associated with greater risk of developing dementia. Periodontal infection is treatable, so it might be a modifiable risk factor for dementia. Clinicians must devote greater attention to this potential association in an effort to develop new preventive and therapeutic strategies for dementia. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for anxiety in patients with dementia: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Cynthia A; Seignourel, Paul; Balasubramanyam, Valli; Snow, A Lynn; Wilson, Nancy L; Kunik, Mark E; Schulz, Paul E; Stanley, Melinda A

    2008-05-01

    Anxiety is common in dementia and is associated with decreased independence and increased risk of nursing home placement. However, little is known about the treatment of anxiety in dementia. This article reports results from two patients who were treated with a modified version of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in dementia (CBT-AD). Modifications were made in the content, structure, and learning strategies of CBT to adapt skills to the cognitive limitations of these patients and include collaterals (i.e., family members, friends, or other caregivers) in the treatment process. The patients received education and awareness training and were taught the skills of diaphragmatic breathing, coping self-statements, exposure, and behavioral activation. The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale was used to characterize dementia severity and determine eligibility for treatment (a CDR score of 0.5 to 2.0 was required for participation). Other measures included the Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Anxiety subscale, and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Outcome data showed improvement in anxiety as measured by standardized rating scales. We conclude that CBT-AD is potentially useful in treating anxiety in dementia patients and that this technique merits further study.

  4. Hospital-Diagnosed Dementia and Suicide: A Longitudinal Study Using Prospective, Nationwide Register Data

    PubMed Central

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H.; Conwell, Yeates

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study aims to examine the risk of suicide in persons diagnosed with dementia during a hospitalization and its relationship to mood disorders. Design Event-history analysis using time-varying covariates. Setting Population-based record linkage. Participants All individuals aged 50+ living in Denmark (N = 2,474,767) during January 1, 1990 through December 31, 2000. Measurements Outcome of interest is suicide. Relative risks are calculated based on person-days spent in each stratum. Results A total of 18,648,875 person-years were observed during the 11-year study period. During this period, 136 persons who previously had been diagnosed with dementia died by suicide. Men and women aged 50–69 years with hospital presentations of dementia have a relative suicide risk of 8.5 (95% confidence interval: 6.3–11.3) and 10.8 (95% confidence interval: 7.4–15.7), respectively. Those who are aged 70 or older with dementia have a threefold higher risk than persons with no dementia. The time shortly after diagnosis is associated with an elevated suicide risk. The risk among persons with dementia remains significant when controlling for mood disorders. As many as 26% of the men and 14% of the women who died by suicide died within the first 3 months after being diagnosed whereas 38% of the men and 41% of the women died more than 3 years after initial dementia diagnosis. Conclusions Dementia, determined during hospitalization, was associated with an elevated risk of suicide for older adults. Preventive measures should focus on suicidal ideation after initial diagnosis but also acknowledge that suicides can occur well after a dementia diagnosis has been established. PMID:18310552

  5. Higher prevalence of dementia in patients with schizophrenia: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hyemin; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Min-Young; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of dementia in patients with and without schizophrenia, with a particular focus on age-specific and sex-specific differences. We conducted a population-based study using the National Health Insurance claims database from 2010 to 2013. Using a 10:1 matching ratio, 248,919 patients without schizophrenia and 26,591 patients with schizophrenia were identified based on the ICD-10 code. Patients with dementia were extracted by diagnosis or use of anti-dementia drugs. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and dementia. The prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared with that in matched non-schizophrenia patients (9.9% versus 2.2%, P < 0.0001). After adjusting for Charlson comorbidity index and underlying comorbidities, conditional logistic regression showed that schizophrenia was associated with dementia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4-5.1). When stratified by sex, the AOR was 5.6 (95% CI, 5.0-6.2) among women and 4.0 (95% CI, 3.6-4.5) among men. Moreover, the association between dementia and schizophrenia was strong in elderly patients. The AOR of dementia prevalence was 6.6 (95% CI, 6.1-7.2) in patients aged ≥65 years and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.0-3.8) in patients aged <65 years. Schizophrenia patients were more likely to have dementia compared with non-schizophrenia patients. This association seems greater in higher prevalence groups such as women and patients aged ≥65 years. Further investigation on the mechanism is required. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. The association between physical activity and dementia in an elderly population: the Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Schrijvers, Elisabeth M C; de Groot, Karen A; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have associated physical activity with the risk of dementia, but mostly did so during short follow-up. It remains unclear whether physical activity also affects dementia during longer follow-up. We examined the association between physical activity and risk of dementia during a follow-up period up to 14 years. From 1997 to 1999, physical activity was assessed using a validated questionnaire in 4,406 elderly persons (age range 61-97) from the prospective, population-based Rotterdam Study. Follow-up for dementia was complete until January 1, 2011. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between physical activity and incident dementia. Next, we stratified follow-up time using a cut-off of 4 years. We separately investigated dementia due to Alzheimer disease. During 38,631 person-years, 583 participants developed dementia. When adjusting for age and sex, we found a borderline significant association between higher physical activity and lower risk of dementia (HR 0.95; 95% CI 0.87-1.04). This association was confined to follow-up up to 4 years (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.71-0.95), and not to follow-up of at least 4 years (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.93-1.16). Additional adjustments only slightly attenuated the associations. A similar pattern was present for Alzheimer disease. We found a higher level of physical activity to be associated with a lower risk of dementia. This association was confined to follow-up for up to 4 years and not to longer follow-up, suggesting either a role for reverse causality or only a short term effect of late-life physical activity in an elderly population.

  7. Age-related hearing loss and dementia: a 10-year national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Su, Peijen; Hsu, Chih-Chao; Lin, Hung-Ching; Huang, Wei-Shin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Chang, Kuang-Hsi; Hsu, Yi-Chao

    2017-05-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is postulated to affect dementia. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between ARHL and the prevalence, and 10-year incidence of dementia in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We selected patients diagnosed with ARHL from the NHIRD. A comparison cohort comprising of patients without ARHL was frequency-matched by age, sex, and co-morbidities, and the occurrence of dementia was evaluated in both cohorts. The ARHL cohort consisted of 4108 patients with ARHL and the control cohort consisted of 4013 frequency-matched patients without ARHL. The incidence of dementia [hazard ratio (HR), 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.14-1.49); P = 0.002] was higher among ARHL patients. Cox models showed that being female (HR, 1.34; 95% CI 1.07-1.68), as well as having co-morbidities, including chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, stroke, head injury, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, alcohol abuse/dependence, and tobacco abuse/dependence (HR, 1.27; 95% CI 1.11-1.45), were independent risk factors for dementia in ARHL patients. We found ARHL may be one of the early characteristics of dementia, and patients with hearing loss were at a higher risk of subsequent dementia. Clinicians should be more sensitive to dementia symptoms within the first 2 years following ARHL diagnosis. Further clinical studies of the relationship between dementia and ARHL may be necessary.

  8. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Oudin, Anna; Forsberg, Bertil; Adolfsson, Annelie Nordin; Lind, Nina; Modig, Lars; Nordin, Maria; Nordin, Steven; Adolfsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden. Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed using a land-use regression model with a spatial resolution of 50 m × 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) were used as markers for long-term exposure to air pollution. Out of 1,806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the group with the highest exposure were more likely than those in the group with the lowest exposure to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% CI: 0.998, 2.05 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer's disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated with the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A subanalysis that excluded a younger sample that had been retested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than were present in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile). If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Trends in Dementia Incidence in a Birth Cohort Analysis of the Einstein Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Derby, Carol A; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B

    2017-09-05

    Trends in dementia incidence rates have important implications for planning and prevention. To better understand incidence trends over time requires separation of age and cohort effects, and few prior studies have used this approach. To examine trends in dementia incidence and concomitant trends in cardiovascular comorbidities among individuals aged 70 years or older who were enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study between 1993 and 2015. In this birth cohort analysis of all-cause dementia incidence in persons enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study from October 20, 1993, through November 17, 2015, a systematically recruited, population-based sample of 1348 participants from Bronx County, New York, who were 70 years or older without dementia at enrollment and at least one annual follow-up was studied. Poisson regression was used to model dementia incidence as a function of age, sex, educational level, race, and birth cohort, with profile likelihood used to identify the timing of significant increases or decreases in incidence. Birth year and age. Incident dementia defined by consensus case conference based on annual, standardized neuropsychological and neurologic examination findings, using criteria from the DSM-IV. Among 1348 individuals (mean [SD] baseline age, 78.5 [5.4] years; 830 [61.6%] female; 915 [67.9%] non-Hispanic white), 150 incident dementia cases developed during 5932 person-years (mean [SD] follow-up, 4.4 [3.4] years). Dementia incidence decreased in successive birth cohorts. Incidence per 100 person-years was 5.09 in birth cohorts before 1920, 3.11 in the 1920 through 1924 birth cohorts, 1.73 in the 1925 through 1929 birth cohorts, and 0.23 in cohorts born after 1929. Change point analyses identified a significant decrease in dementia incidence among those born after July 1929 (95% CI, June 1929 to January 1930). The relative rate for birth cohorts before July 1929 vs after was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.04-0.41). Prevalence of stroke and myocardial infarction

  10. Alcohol-Related Dementia and Neurocognitive Impairment: A Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina; Choudhary, Mona; Dayal, Prabhoo; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Context Alcohol consumption has escalated rapidly in many countries over the past decade. Evidence suggests a correlation between alcohol use and cognitive decline. We have systematically reviewed the concept and controversies, epidemiology, nosology, neuropathology and neurobiology, neuropsychology and management updates of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) in this paper. Evidence Acquisition We retrieved papers for this review by searching the PubMed database for terms “alcohol and dementia”, “alcohol and cognitive impairment”, and “alcohol and wernicke-korsakoff” mentioned in the title of the published papers. A total of 131 studies showed up. Appropriate studies were shortlisted and included (n = 72). Cross-references if relevant were considered from the selected studies. Eligible articles were fully read by the authors and the results were compiled. Results The prolonged and excessive use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional brain damage, leading to ARD. The cognitive deficits are most frequently observed in domains of visuospatial functions, memory and executive tasks, with a potential of partial recovery if abstinence is maintained. However, there are doubts regarding the etiopathogenesis, nosological status, prevalence and diagnostic criteria for ARD, due to difficulty in assessment and various confounding factors. Conclusions With growing cohort of young and middle-aged people, there is a probable risk of upsurge of ARD. Presently, there are dilemmas over the diagnosis of independent ARD. Thus, there is a need to develop evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management of ARD through further systematic studies. PMID:27818965

  11. Driving behaviors in early stage dementia: a study using in-vehicle technology.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Silverstein, Nina M; Molnar, Lisa J; LeBlanc, David; Adler, Geri

    2012-11-01

    According to the Alzheimer's Association (2011), (1) in 8 people age 65 and older, and about one-half of people age 85 and older, have Alzheimer's disease in the United States (US). There is evidence that drivers with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at an increased risk for unsafe driving. Recent advances in sensor, computer, and telecommunication technologies provide a method for automatically collecting detailed, objective information about the driving performance of drivers, including those with early stage dementia. The objective of this project was to use in-vehicle technology to describe a set of driving behaviors that may be common in individuals with early stage dementia (i.e., a diagnosis of memory loss) and compare these behaviors to a group of drivers without cognitive impairment. Seventeen drivers with a diagnosis of early stage dementia, who had completed a comprehensive driving assessment and were cleared to drive, participated in the study. Participants had their vehicles instrumented with a suite of sensors and a data acquisition system, and drove 1-2 months as they would under normal circumstances. Data from the in-vehicle instrumentation were reduced and analyzed, using a set of algorithms/heuristics developed by the research team. Data from the early stage dementia group were compared to similar data from an existing dataset of 26 older drivers without dementia. The early stage dementia group was found to have significantly restricted driving space relative to the comparison group. At the same time, the early stage dementia group (which had been previously cleared by an occupational therapist as safe to drive) drove as safely as the comparison group. Few safety-related behavioral errors were found for either group. Wayfinding problems were rare among both groups, but the early stage dementia group was significantly more likely to get lost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the preclinical phase: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Katie; Bäckman, Lars; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate a simple three step procedure to identify people in the general population who are in the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Design Three year population based cohort study. Setting Kungsholmen cohort, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants 1435 people aged 75-95 years without dementia. Assessments Single question asking about memory complaints, assessment by mini-mental state examination, and neuropsychological testing. Main outcome measure Alzheimer's disease and dementia at three year follow up. Results None of the three instruments was sufficiently predictive of Alzheimer's disease and dementia when administered separately. After participants had been screened for memory complaints and global cognitive impairment, specific tests of word recall and verbal fluency had positive predictive values for dementia of 85-100% (95% confidence intervals range from 62% to 100%). However, only 18% of future dementia cases were identified in the preclinical phase by this three step procedure. Memory complaints were the most sensitive indicator of Alzheimer's disease and dementia in the whole population, but only half the future dementia cases reported memory problems three years before diagnosis. Conclusion This three step procedure, which simulates what might occur in clinical practice, has a high positive predictive value for dementia, although only a small number of future cases can be identified. What is already known on this topicAlzheimer's disease is characterised by a preclinical phase, during which cognitive deficits are seen before diagnosisElderly people with subjective memory complaints and objective global cognitive impairment have a high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and dementiaWhat this study addsThis three step procedure (self report of memory complaints, test of global cognitive functioning, and then domain specific cognitive tests) has a positive predictivity of 85-100% for Alzheimer's disease and dementia at

  13. Study protocol: EXERcise and cognition in sedentary adults with early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON).

    PubMed

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M; Eggermont, Laura H P; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Koppe, Peter A; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-08-16

    Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. The present study is registered within The Netherlands National Trial Register (ref: NTR2124).

  14. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. Discussion The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. Trial registration The present study is registered within The Netherlands

  15. [Dementia in the focus of health research : A comparative analysis of current ageing studies].

    PubMed

    Illiger, Kristin; Walter, Ulla; Koppelin, Frauke

    2017-03-23

    Health research on an increasingly aging population calls for careful consideration of aging-associated phenomena, such as dementia. Accounting for such diseases is a necessary step for gaining a view of health in the elderly. It is moreover imperative to gather data on subjects' mental limitations in surveys to better evaluate the validity of answers disclosed by elderly participants. This article discusses the availability of data on individuals suffering from dementia in national studies on aging. It centers on the question of how surveys respond to the challenge of diagnosing dementia. The analysis is based on a literature review, which focuses on national studies on aging that were conducted no later than 2005, and that enforced an upper age limit of at least 79 years old for their subjects. By evaluating these published studies, and analyzing their data descriptively, it was determined how many subjects suffering from dementia were part of each sample, and which methods were applied to diagnose such illnesses. Overall, the availability of data on age and aging is satisfactory in Germany. The literature review discovered seven studies on aging, as well as five that lend themselves to a framework oriented toward research on aging. The number of subjects suffering from dementia in the samples is between 0 and 14% - over half of the studies reach less than 1.5% of those affected. These results thus point out problems in surveying individuals suffering from dementia. They highlight the limitations of studies on aging that do not account for dementia in their subjects. The following discussion aims to contribute to the debate on relevant research methodology, and to the development of methodological approaches that consider dementia as a crucial factor.

  16. Articulating the strategies for maximising the inclusion of people with dementia in qualitative research studies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathy; Jordan, Fionnuala; Hunter, Andrew; Cooney, Adeline; Casey, Dympna

    2015-11-01

    It is essential to understand the experience of living with dementia from the perspective of the person with dementia so that services can be appropriately constructed. This review paper, drawing on prior work, identifies key strategies for the meaningful inclusion of persons with dementia within qualitative research studies, it examines the articulation of these strategies and shares how these strategies were operationalised within one national research study in Ireland. Strategies within the literature were categorised and then synthesized into a guide consisting of four main areas; gaining COnsent, maximizing Responses, Telling the story, and Ending on a high (CORTE). The CORTE guideline was used to as a tool for analysing relevant research reports. CORTE is a synthesized account of grouped strategies that could be used to maximize the meaningful involvement of persons with dementia and can also provide a guide for reporting the strategies used so that researchers can learn from each other.

  17. Alcohol consumption and dementia risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Huifu; Wan, Yu; Tan, Chenchen; Li, Jieqiong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose-response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Eleven studies with 73,330 participants and 4586 cases for all-cause dementia (ACD), five studies with 52,715 participants and 1267 cases for Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and four studies with 49,535 participants and 542 cases for vascular dementia were included. We observed a nonlinear association between alcohol consumption and ACD risk (p nonlinearity < 0.05). The alcohol dose associated with lower risk of dementia was confined to at most 12.5 g/day, with the risk hitting bottom (RR ≈ 0.9) at roughly 6 g/day. Of note, the ACD risk seemed to be elevated (≈10%) when the dose surpasses certain levels: 23 drinks/week or 38 g/day. For the alcohol type, recommendation for wine is prioritized. The subgroup analysis further indicated that the effect of alcohol may be greater in younger adults (<60 years old) with regard to fighting against dementia. Modest alcohol consumption (≤12.5 g/day) is associated with a reduced risk of dementia with 6 g/day of alcohol conferring a lower risk than other levels while excessive drinking (≥38 g/day) may instead elevate the risk.

  18. Nonverbal sound processing in semantic dementia: A functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Goll, Johanna C.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Crutch, Sebastian J.; Theunissen, Frederic E.; Warren, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a unique neurodegenerative syndrome accompanied by relatively selective loss of the meaning of objects and concepts. The brain mechanisms that underpin the syndrome have not been defined: a better understanding of these mechanisms would inform our understanding of both the organisation of the human semantic system and its vulnerability to neurodegenerative disease. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain correlates of sensory object processing in nine patients with SD compared with healthy control subjects, using the paradigm of nonverbal sound. Compared with healthy controls, patients with SD showed differential activation of cortical areas surrounding the superior temporal sulcus, both for perceptual processing of spectrotemporally complex but meaningless sounds and for semantic processing of environmental sound category (animal sounds versus tool sounds). Our findings suggest that defective processing of sound objects in SD spans pre-semantic perceptual processing and semantic category formation. This disease model illustrates that antero-lateral temporal cortical mechanisms are critical for representing and differentiating sound categories. The breakdown of these mechanisms constitutes a network-level functional signature of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:22405732

  19. Organic solvents and presenile dementia: a case referent study using death certificates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Flynn, R R; Monkman, S M; Waldron, H A

    1987-01-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents has been implicated in the development of "presenile dementia" in several studies. The death certificates of all men aged under 65 dying in England and Wales bearing presenile dementia as cause of death were collected for the years 1970-9 (n = 557): control death certificates were obtained, matched for age and sex. No significant differences were found between the groups as regards estimated occupational exposure to either organic solvents or lead. PMID:3567100

  20. Integrated dementia care in The Netherlands: a multiple case study of case management programmes.

    PubMed

    Minkman, Mirella M N; Ligthart, Suzanne A; Huijsman, Robbert

    2009-09-01

    The number of dementia patients is growing, and they require a variety of services, making integrated care essential for the ability to continue living in the community. Many healthcare systems in developed countries are exploring new approaches for delivering health and social care. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse a new approach in extensive case management programmes concerned with long-term dementia care in The Netherlands. The focus is on the characteristics, and success and failure factors of these programmes.A multiple case study was conducted in eight regional dementia care provider networks in The Netherlands. Based on a literature study, a questionnaire was developed for the responsible managers and case managers of the eight case management programmes. During 16 semistructured face-to-face interviews with both respondent groups, a deeper insight into the dementia care programmes was provided. Project documentation for all the cases was studied. The eight programmes were developed independently to improve the quality and continuity of long-term dementia care. The programmes show overlap in terms of their vision, tasks of case managers, case management process and the participating partners in the local dementia care networks. Differences concern the targeted dementia patient groups as well as the background of the case managers and their position in the local dementia care provider network. Factors for success concern the expert knowledge of case managers, investment in a strong provider network and coherent conditions for effective inter-organizational cooperation to deliver integrated care. When explored, caregiver and patient satisfaction was high. Further research into the effects on client outcomes, service use and costs is recommended in order to further analyse the impact of this approach in long-term care. To facilitate implementation, with a focus on joint responsibilities of the involved care providers, policy

  1. Clinical decision trees for predicting conversion from cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND) to dementia in a longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lesley J; Tuokko, Holly

    2011-02-01

    The lack of gold standard diagnostic criteria for cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia has resulted in variable nomenclature, case definitions, outcomes, risk factors, and prognostic utilities. Our objective was to elucidate the clinical correlates of conversion to dementia in a longitudinal population-based sample. Using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, a machine learning algorithm was used to identify symptoms that best differentiated converting from nonconverting cognitively impaired not demented participants. Poor retrieval was the sole predictor of conversion to dementia over 5 years. This finding suggests that patients with impaired retrieval are at greater risk for progression to dementia at follow-up. Employing significant predictors as markers for ongoing monitoring and assessment, rather than as clinical markers of conversion, is recommended given the less than optimal specificity of the predictive algorithms.

  2. Diagnosis of Dementia by Machine learning methods in Epidemiological studies: a pilot exploratory study from south India.

    PubMed

    Bhagyashree, Sheshadri Iyengar Raghavan; Nagaraj, Kiran; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline H D; Krishna, Murali

    2017-07-11

    There are limited data on the use of artificial intelligence methods for the diagnosis of dementia in epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. A culture and education fair battery of cognitive tests was developed and validated for population based studies in low- and middle-income countries including India by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. We explored the machine learning methods based on the 10/66 battery of cognitive tests for the diagnosis of dementia based in a birth cohort study in South India. The data sets for 466 men and women for this study were obtained from the on-going Mysore Studies of Natal effect of Health and Ageing (MYNAH), in south India. The data sets included: demographics, performance on the 10/66 cognitive function tests, the 10/66 diagnosis of mental disorders and population based normative data for the 10/66 battery of cognitive function tests. Diagnosis of dementia from the rule based approach was compared against the 10/66 diagnosis of dementia. We have applied machine learning techniques to identify minimal number of the 10/66 cognitive function tests required for diagnosing dementia and derived an algorithm to improve the accuracy of dementia diagnosis. Of 466 subjects, 27 had 10/66 diagnosis of dementia, 19 of whom were correctly identified as having dementia by Jrip classification with 100% accuracy. This pilot exploratory study indicates that machine learning methods can help identify community dwelling older adults with 10/66 criterion diagnosis of dementia with good accuracy in a LMIC setting such as India. This should reduce the duration of the diagnostic assessment and make the process easier and quicker for clinicians, patients and will be useful for 'case' ascertainment in population based epidemiological studies.

  3. Aortic Valve Calcification and the Risk of dementia: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J; Bos, Daniel; Vernooij, Meike W; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The association of aortic valve calcification (AVC) with dementia remains unknown. In 2,428 non-demented participants from the population-based Rotterdam Study, we investigated the association of CT-assessed AVC with risk of dementia and cognitive decline. AVC was present in 33.1% of the population. During a median follow-up of 9.3 years, 160 participants developed dementia. We found no association between presence of AVC and risk of all-cause dementia [hazard ratio (HR): 0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI):0.63;1.26)]. Presence of AVC was not associated with cognitive decline on any of the cognitive tests, nor with a measure of global cognition.

  4. The behaviours that dementia care home staff in South Africa find challenging: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Adele; Manthorpe, Jill; Clark, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    Background Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are often the reasons for moving to a care home. Care staff, often with limited dementia training, may have to support residents with distressed behaviour on a daily basis. Evidence about the support of residents with distressed or challenging behaviour in the South African context is lacking. This exploratory study aimed to gain an understanding of what care home staff perceived to be distressed behaviour, their coping strategies and how they learned to work with residents with behavioural symptoms of dementia. Methods An exploratory study was conducted among 17 participants working in four care homes in the Western Cape province of South Africa in 2014. Semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded. Data were analysed thematically. Findings Findings reflected the literature with regard to examples of behavioural symptoms of people with dementia that staff find challenging to manage. Overall, the majority of staff reported holding positive feelings about working with people with dementia. All preferred interpersonal approaches to manage distressed behaviour above medication although a small minority noted the use of medication in some cases. Dementia training was considered by most participants as an unmet need. Conclusion This exploratory study identified care home workers' desires for training about dementia and their preferences for interpersonal as opposed to pharmacological approaches to managing residents' distressed behaviour. The legacy of race and cultural perspectives in South Africa appears to still influence care practice and provision. Staff commitment, their interest in advancing their practice and their aspirations to offer more person-centred care were evident. Dementia training was identified as potentially helpful to care home staff who manage residents' distressed behaviour. Training should be developed in South Africa to promote good practice.

  5. The CUIDEME Study: determinants of burden in chilean primary caregivers of patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Slachevsky, Andrea; Budinich, Marilu; Miranda-Castillo, Claudia; Núñez-Huasaf, Javier; Silva, Jaime R; Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; Gloger, Sergio; Jimenez, Oscar; Martorell, Bernardo; Delgado, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Caring for a person with dementia is associated with well-documented increases in burden and distress and decreases in mental health and wellbeing. Studies assessing burden in caregivers of patients with dementia and its determinants are scarce in Latin America. The main objective of this study was to assess the extent and the determinants of burden in informal primary caregivers of patients with dementia in Chile. A descriptive study was conducted using clinically validated scales to assess dementia characteristics and to measure caregiver variables. Family socio-demographic characteristics and functional status, patient functional dependency and behavioral disturbances, and caregiver psychiatric morbidity were analyzed as independent variables to determine caregiver burden. Two hundred and ninety-two informal caregivers were included. There were more female (80%) than male caregivers, consisting mainly of daughters and spouses of the patients. Severe burden was reported in 63% of the caregivers, and 47% exhibited psychiatric morbidity. Burden was associated with caregiver psychiatric distress, family dysfunction, severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional disability, but neither patient age, gender, nor socioeconomic status impacted burden. Our results underscore the importance of assessing the consequences of dementia in both caregivers and patients in order to evaluate the real biopsychosocial impact of dementia, as well as the importance of planning appropriate and effective public health interventions in Latin American countries. In addition, interventions targeting caregiver psychological distress, caregiver familial dysfunction, patient neuropsychiatric disorders, and patient functional disability could potentially diminish caregiver burden.

  6. Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Forest on People With Dementia: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Wendy; Jones, Cindy; Dwan, Toni; Petrovich, Tanya

    2017-03-15

    To measure and describe the effectiveness of a Virtual Reality Forest (VRF) on engagement, apathy, and mood states of people with dementia, and explore the experiences of staff, people with dementia and their families. A mixed-methods study conducted between February and May 2016. Ten residents with dementia, 10 family members, and 9 care staff were recruited from 2 residential aged care facilities, operated by one care provider, located in Victoria, Australia. Residents participated in one facilitated VRF session. Residents' mood, apathy, and engagement were measured by the Observed Emotion Rating Scale, Person-Environment Apathy Rating Scale, and Types of Engagement. All participants were interviewed. Overall, the VRF was perceived by residents, family members, and staff to have a positive effect. During the VRF experience, residents experienced more pleasure (p = .008) and a greater level of alertness (p < .001). They also experienced a greater level of fear/anxiety during the forest experience than the comparative normative sample (p = .016). This initial, small-scale study represents the first to introduce the VRF activity and describe the impact on people with dementia. The VRF was perceived to have a positive effect on people with dementia, although, compared to the normative sample, a greater level of fear/anxiety during the VRF was experienced. This study suggests virtual reality may have the potential to improve quality of life, and the outcomes can be used to inform the development of future Virtual Reality activities for people with dementia.

  7. Anesthesia and Incident Dementia: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sprung, Juraj; Jankowski, Christopher J.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Weingarten, Toby N.; Aguilar, Andrea L.; Runkle, Kayla J.; Tucker, Amanda K.; McLaren, Kathryn C.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Hanson, Andrew C.; Knopman, David S.; Gurrieri, Carmelina; Warner, David O.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia during adulthood is not significantly associated with incident dementia using a retrospective, population-based, nested case-controlled study design. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project and the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry, residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed with dementia between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1994, were identified. For each incident case, a sex and age matched control was randomly selected from the general pool of Olmsted County residents who were dementia-free in the index year of dementia diagnosis. Medical records were reviewed to determine exposures to procedures requiring anesthesia after the age of 45 and prior to the index year. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results 877 cases of dementia, each with a corresponding control, were analyzed. Among dementia cases, 615 (70%) individuals underwent 1,681 procedures requiring general anesthesia, and 636 controls (73%) underwent 1,638 procedures. When assessed as a dichotomous variable, anesthetic exposure was not significantly associated with dementia (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.73-1.10; P = 0.27). In addition, no significant association was found (P = 0.51) when exposure was quantified as number of procedures (OR = 0.87, 0.86, and 1.0 for 1, 2-3, and ≥4 exposures compared to none, respectively). Conclusion This study found no significant association between exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia after the age of 45 years and incident dementia. PMID:23642337

  8. Plasma phosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid content and risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease: the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Ernst J; Bongard, Vanina; Beiser, Alexa S; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Robins, Sander J; Au, Rhoda; Tucker, Katherine L; Kyle, David J; Wilson, Peter W F; Wolf, Philip A

    2006-11-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an abundant fatty acid in the brain. In the diet, DHA is found mostly in fatty fish. The content of DHA has been shown to be decreased in the brain and plasma of patients with dementia. To determine whether plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) DHA content is associated with the risk of developing dementia. A prospective follow-up study in 899 men and women who were free of dementia at baseline, had a median age of 76.0 years, and were followed up for a mean of 9.1 years for the development of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease. Plasma PC fatty acid levels were measured at baseline. Cox proportional regression analysis was used to assess relative risks of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease according to baseline plasma levels. Ninety-nine new cases of dementia (including 71 of Alzheimer disease) occurred during the follow-up. After adjustment for age, sex, apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele, plasma homocysteine concentration, and education level, subjects in the upper quartile of baseline plasma PC DHA levels, compared with subjects in the lower 3 quartiles, had a relative risk of 0.53 of developing all-cause dementia (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.97; P=.04) and 0.61 of developing Alzheimer disease (95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.18; P=.14). Subjects in the upper quartile of plasma PC DHA levels had a mean DHA intake of 0.18 g/d and a mean fish intake of 3.0 servings per week (P<.001) in a subset of 488 participants. We found no other significant associations. The top quartile of plasma PC DHA level was associated with a significant 47% reduction in the risk of developing all-cause dementia in the Framingham Heart Study.

  9. Tooth Loss and Risk of Dementia in the Community: the Hisayama Study.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Kenji; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Furuta, Michiko; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Hata, Jun; Yoshida, Daigo; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2017-05-01

    To clarify the effect of tooth loss on development of all-cause dementia and its subtypes in an elderly Japanese population. Prospective cohort study. The Hisayama Study, Japan. Community-dwelling Japanese adults without dementia aged 60 and older (N = 1,566) were followed for 5 years (2007-2012). Participants were classified into four categories according to baseline number of remaining teeth (≥20, 10-19, 1-9, 0). The risk estimates of the effect of tooth loss on the development of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) were computed using a Cox proportional hazards model. During follow-up, 180 (11.5%) subjects developed all-cause dementia; 127 (8.1%) had AD, and 42 (2.7%) had VaD. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was a tendency for the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of all-cause dementia to increase with decrease in number of remaining teeth (P for trend = .04). The risk of all-cause dementia was 1.62 times as great in subjects with 10 to 19 teeth, 1.81 times as great in those with one to nine teeth, and 1.63 times as great in those with no teeth as in those with 20 teeth or more. An inverse association was observed between number of remaining teeth and risk of AD (P for trend = .08), but no such association was observed with risk of VaD (P for trend = .20). Tooth loss is associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia and AD in the Japanese population. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Retinal Vascular Changes and Prospective Risk of Disabling Dementia: the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS)

    PubMed Central

    Jinnouchi, Hiroshige; Kitamura, Akihiko; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Kiyama, Masahiko; Imano, Hironori; Okada, Takeo; Cui, Renzhe; Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Muraki, Isao; Hayama-Terada, Mina; Kawasaki, Ryo; Sankai, Tomoko; Ohira, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the association of retinal vascular changes with a risk of dementia in longitudinal population-based study. Methods: We performed a nested case-control study of 3,718 persons, aged 40–89 years, enrolled between 1983 and 2004. Retinal vascular changes were observed in 351 cases with disabling dementia (average period before the onset, 11.2 years) and in 702 controls matched for sex, age, and baseline year. Incidence of disabling dementia was defined as individuals who received cares for disabilities including dementia-related symptoms and/or behavioral disturbance. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and multivariable adjusted OR (Models 1 and 2) for incidence of disabling dementia according to each retinal vascular change. Regarding confounding variables, Model 1 included overweight status, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and smoking status, whereas Model 2 also included incidence of stroke prior to disabling dementia for further analysis. Results: The proportion of cases (controls) with retinal vascular changes was 23.1 (15.7)% for generalized arteriolar narrowing, 7.7 (7.5)% for focal arteriolar narrowing, 15.7 (11.8)% for arteriovenous nicking, 10.5 (9.3)% for increased arteriolar wall reflex, and 11.4 (9.8)% for any other retinopathy. Generalized arteriolar narrowing was associated with an increased risk of disabling dementia: crude OR, 1.66 (95% confidence interval, 1.19–2.31); Model 1: OR, 1.58 (1.12–2.23); Model 2: OR, 1.48 (1.04–2.10). The number of retinal abnormalities was associated in a dose–response manner with the risk. Conclusion: Generalized arteriolar narrowing and total number of retinal abnormalities may be useful markers for identifying persons at higher risks of disabling dementia. PMID:27904027

  11. Prevalence of Dementia and Subtypes in Valladolid, Northwestern Spain: The DEMINVALL Study

    PubMed Central

    Tola-Arribas, Miguel Angel; Yugueros, María Isabel; Garea, María José; Ortega-Valín, Fernando; Cerón-Fernández, Ana; Fernández-Malvido, Beatriz; San José-Gallegos, Antonio; González-Touya, Marta; Botrán-Velicia, Ana; Iglesias-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Díaz-Gómez, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of dementia and subtypes in a general elderly population in northwestern Spain and to analyze the influence of socio-demographic factors. Methods Cross-sectional, two-phase, door-to-door, population-based study. A total of 870 individuals from a rural region and 2,119 individuals from an urban region of Valladolid, Spain, were involved. The seven-minute screen neurocognitive battery was used in the screening phase. A control group was included. Results A total of 2,170 individuals aged 65 to 104 years (57% women) were assessed. There were 184 subjects diagnosed with dementia. The crude prevalence was 8.5% (95% CI: 7.3-9.7). Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 5.5 (95% CI: 4.5-6.5). Main subtypes of dementia were: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) 77.7%, Lewy Body disease, 7.6% and vascular dementia (VD) 5.9%. Crude prevalences were 6.6% (AD), 0.6% (Lewy Body disease), and 0.5% (VD). Dementia was associated with age (OR 1.14 for 1-year increase in age), female sex (OR 1.79) and the absence of formal education (OR 2.53 compared to subjects with primary education or more). Conclusion The prevalence of dementia in the study population was lower than the most recent estimates for Western Europe. There was a high proportion of AD among all dementia cases and very low prevalence of VD. Old age, female sex, and low education level were independent risk factors for dementia and AD. PMID:24147055

  12. Leptin and dementia over 32 years-The Prospective Population Study of Women.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Deborah R; Bäckman, Kristoffer; Lissner, Lauren; Carlsson, Lena; Waern, Margda; Ostling, Svante; Guo, Xinxin; Bengtsson, Calle; Skoog, Ingmar

    2012-07-01

    We have shown that high mid-life central adiposity may increase the risk for dementia after 32 years. Leptin, an adipose tissue hormone, is correlated with adiposity measures and may contribute to a better etiological understanding of the relationship between high adiposity and dementia. We explored the relationship between serum leptin in mid-life and dementia, which is a late-life outcome. A longitudinal cohort study, the Prospective Population Study of Women, in Gothenburg, Sweden, includes a representative sample of 1462 women followed from mid-life ages of 38 to 60 years to late-life ages of 70 to 92 years. Women were examined in 1968, 1974, 1980, 1992, and 2000 using neuropsychiatric, anthropometric, clinical, and other measurements. Serum leptin was measured on samples collected at the 1968 baseline examination, after storage at -20°C for 29 years. Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated incident dementia risk by baseline leptin. Logistic regression models related leptin levels to dementia among surviving participants 32 years later. All models were adjusted for multiple potential confounders. Mid-life leptin was not related to dementia risk using Cox or logistic regression models. This was observed despite positive baseline correlations between leptin and adiposity measures, and given our previous report of high mid-life waist-to-hip ratio being related to a twofold higher dementia risk. Leptin is not a mid-life marker of late-life dementia risk in this population sample of Swedish women born between 1908 and 1930. Copyright © 2012 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Caregivers’ understanding of dementia predicts patients’ comfort at death: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with dementia frequently do not receive adequate palliative care which may relate to poor understanding of the natural course of dementia. We hypothesized that understanding that dementia is a progressive and terminal disease is fundamental to a focus on comfort in dementia, and examined how family and professional caregivers’ understanding of the nature of the disease was associated with patients’ comfort during the dying process. Methods We enrolled 372 nursing home patients from 28 facilities in The Netherlands in a prospective observational study (2007 to 2010). We studied both the families and the physicians (73) of 161 patients. Understanding referred to families’ comprehension of complications, prognosis, having been counseled on these, and perception of dementia as “a disease you can die from” (5-point agreement scale) at baseline. Physicians reported on this perception, prognosis and having counseled on this. Staff-assessed comfort with the End-of-Life in Dementia - Comfort Assessment in Dying (EOLD-CAD) scale. Associations between understanding and comfort were assessed with generalized estimating equations, structural equation modeling, and mediator analyses. Results A family’s perception of dementia as “a disease you can die from” predicted higher patient comfort during the dying process (adjusted coefficient −0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.5; -0.06 point increment disagreement). Family and physician combined perceptions (−0.9, CI: −1.5; -0.2; 9-point scale) were also predictive, including in less advanced dementia. Forty-three percent of the families perceived dementia as a disease you can die from (agreed completely, partly); 94% of physicians did. The association between combined perception and higher comfort was mediated by the families’ reporting of a good relationship with the patient and physicians’ perception that good care was provided in the last week. Conclusions Awareness of the terminal

  14. Prevalence of dementia in the oldest old: the Monzino 80-plus population based study.

    PubMed

    Lucca, Ugo; Tettamanti, Mauro; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Tiraboschi, Pietro; Landi, Cristina; Sacco, Leonardo; Garrì, Mariateresa; Ammesso, Sonia; Bertinotti, Chiara; Biotti, Anna; Gargantini, Elena; Piedicorcia, Alessandro; Nobili, Alessandro; Pasina, Luca; Franchi, Carlotta; Djade, Codjo Djignefa; Riva, Emma; Recchia, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological studies commonly include too few of the oldest old to provide accurate prevalence rates of dementia in older age groups. Estimates of the number of those affected, necessary for healthcare planning, are thus flawed. The objective is to estimate the prevalence of dementia and levels of dementia severity in a very large population of oldest old and to investigate the relation between age and dementia prevalence in the extreme ages. The Monzino 80-plus is a population-based study among residents 80 years or older in Varese province, Italy. Dementia cases were identified using a one-phase design. The survey was conducted in the participant's place of residence, whether home or institution. Both participants and informants were interviewed. Information was available for 2504 of the 2813 residents (89%). In all, 894 individuals (714 women and 180 men) met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) criteria for dementia, for a standardized prevalence of 25.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.4, 27.2%), 28.5% (95% CI: 26.2, 30.9) in women and 18.6% (95% CI: 15.2, 21.9) in men. Age-specific prevalence estimates of dementia increased with age from 15.7% at age 80 to 84 years to 65.9% at age 100 years and higher. For women, prevalence continued to rise after age 100 years, from 64.8% at age 100 to 101 years to 76.1% at age 102 to 107 years. After age 85 years prevalence rates tended to rise linearly, on average 2.6% per year in women and 1.8% in men. About 80% of the cases were moderate or severe. The frequency of mild dementia decreased and that of severe dementia increased with age. One-quarter of 80-plus year olds are affected by dementia, mostly moderate or severe. Prevalence rates of dementia do not level off, but continue to rise gradually even in the extreme ages. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Orthostatic Hypotension and the Long-Term Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-10-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study. OH was defined as a ≥20 mm Hg drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or ≥10 mm Hg drop in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) within 3 min from postural change. We furthermore calculated within participant variability in SBP related to postural change, expressed as coefficient of variation. Follow-up for dementia was conducted until 1 January 2014. We determined the risk of dementia in relation to OH and SBP variability, using a Cox regression model, adjusted for age; sex; smoking status; alcohol intake; SBP; DBP; cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio; diabetes; body mass index; use of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, or anticholinergic medication; and apolipoprotein E genotype. Finally, we explored whether associations varied according to compensatory increase in heart rate. Among 6,204 participants (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 68.5 ± 8.6 y, 59.7% female) with a median follow-up of 15.3 y, 1,176 developed dementia, of whom 935 (79.5%) had Alzheimer disease and 95 (8.1%) had vascular dementia. OH was associated with an increased risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.00-1.34, p = 0.05), which was similar for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Similarly, greater SBP variability with postural change was associated with an increased risk of dementia (aHR per SD increase 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, p = 0.02), which was similar when excluding those who fulfilled the formal criteria for OH (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17, p = 0.06). The risk of

  16. Association between delirium superimposed on dementia and mortality in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Avelino-Silva, Thiago J; Campora, Flavia; Curiati, Jose A E; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2017-03-01

    Hospitalized older adults with preexisting dementia have increased risk of having delirium, but little is known regarding the effect of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) on the outcomes of these patients. Our aim was to investigate the association between DSD and hospital mortality and 12-mo mortality in hospitalized older adults. This was a prospective cohort study completed in the geriatric ward of a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We included 1,409 hospitalizations of acutely ill patients aged 60 y and over from January 2009 to June 2015. Main variables and measures included dementia and dementia severity (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, Clinical Dementia Rating) and delirium (Confusion Assessment Method). Primary outcomes were time to death in the hospital and time to death in 12 mo (for the discharged sample). Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed at admission, and additional clinical data were documented upon death or discharge. Cases were categorized into four groups (no delirium or dementia, dementia alone, delirium alone, and DSD). The no delirium/dementia group was defined as the referent category for comparisons, and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders (sociodemographic information, medical history and physical examination data, functional and nutritional status, polypharmacy, and laboratory covariates). Overall, 61% were women and 39% had dementia, with a mean age of 80 y. Dementia alone was observed in 13% of the cases, with delirium alone in 21% and DSD in 26% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 8% for patients without delirium or dementia, 12% for patients with dementia alone, 29% for patients with delirium alone, and 32% for DSD patients (Pearson Chi-square = 112, p < 0.001). DSD and delirium alone were independently associated with in-hospital mortality, with respective hazard ratios (HRs) of 2.14 (95% CI = 1

  17. Association between delirium superimposed on dementia and mortality in hospitalized older adults: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Curiati, Jose A. E.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Background Hospitalized older adults with preexisting dementia have increased risk of having delirium, but little is known regarding the effect of delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) on the outcomes of these patients. Our aim was to investigate the association between DSD and hospital mortality and 12-mo mortality in hospitalized older adults. Methods and findings This was a prospective cohort study completed in the geriatric ward of a university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We included 1,409 hospitalizations of acutely ill patients aged 60 y and over from January 2009 to June 2015. Main variables and measures included dementia and dementia severity (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, Clinical Dementia Rating) and delirium (Confusion Assessment Method). Primary outcomes were time to death in the hospital and time to death in 12 mo (for the discharged sample). Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed at admission, and additional clinical data were documented upon death or discharge. Cases were categorized into four groups (no delirium or dementia, dementia alone, delirium alone, and DSD). The no delirium/dementia group was defined as the referent category for comparisons, and multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for possible confounders (sociodemographic information, medical history and physical examination data, functional and nutritional status, polypharmacy, and laboratory covariates). Overall, 61% were women and 39% had dementia, with a mean age of 80 y. Dementia alone was observed in 13% of the cases, with delirium alone in 21% and DSD in 26% of the cases. In-hospital mortality was 8% for patients without delirium or dementia, 12% for patients with dementia alone, 29% for patients with delirium alone, and 32% for DSD patients (Pearson Chi-square = 112, p < 0.001). DSD and delirium alone were independently associated with in-hospital mortality, with respective hazard ratios

  18. Studies Involving People With Dementia and Touchscreen Technology: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Joddrell, Phil; Astell, Arlene J

    2016-11-04

    Devices using touchscreen interfaces such as tablets and smartphones have been highlighted as potentially suitable for people with dementia due to their intuitive and simple control method. This population experience a lack of meaningful, engaging activities, yet the potential use of the touchscreen format to address this issue has not been fully realized. To identify and synthesize the existing body of literature involving the use of touchscreen technology and people with dementia in order to guide future research in this area. A systematized review of studies in the English language was conducted, where a touchscreen interface was used with human participants with dementia. A total of 45 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four questions were addressed concerning (1) the context of use, (2) reasons behind the selection of the technology, (3) details of the hardware and software, and (4) whether independent use by people with dementia was evidenced. This review presents an emerging body of evidence demonstrating that people with dementia are able to independently use touchscreen technology. The intuitive control method and adaptability of modern devices has driven the selection of this technology in studies. However, its primary use to date has been as a method to deliver assessments and screening tests or to provide an assistive function or cognitive rehabilitation. Building on the finding that people with dementia are able to use touchscreen technology and which design features facilitate this, more use could be made to deliver independent activities for meaningful occupation, entertainment, and fun.

  19. Studies Involving People With Dementia and Touchscreen Technology: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Astell, Arlene J

    2016-01-01

    Background Devices using touchscreen interfaces such as tablets and smartphones have been highlighted as potentially suitable for people with dementia due to their intuitive and simple control method. This population experience a lack of meaningful, engaging activities, yet the potential use of the touchscreen format to address this issue has not been fully realized. Objective To identify and synthesize the existing body of literature involving the use of touchscreen technology and people with dementia in order to guide future research in this area. Methods A systematized review of studies in the English language was conducted, where a touchscreen interface was used with human participants with dementia. Results A total of 45 articles met the inclusion criteria. Four questions were addressed concerning (1) the context of use, (2) reasons behind the selection of the technology, (3) details of the hardware and software, and (4) whether independent use by people with dementia was evidenced. Conclusions This review presents an emerging body of evidence demonstrating that people with dementia are able to independently use touchscreen technology. The intuitive control method and adaptability of modern devices has driven the selection of this technology in studies. However, its primary use to date has been as a method to deliver assessments and screening tests or to provide an assistive function or cognitive rehabilitation. Building on the finding that people with dementia are able to use touchscreen technology and which design features facilitate this, more use could be made to deliver independent activities for meaningful occupation, entertainment, and fun. PMID:28582254

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Incident Dementia: Evidence from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Megan; Mather, Karen A; Xu, Jing; Assareh, Amelia A; Kochan, Nicole A; Reppermund, Simone; Draper, Brian; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-03-29

    Alcohol consumption is a potentially modifiable risk factor for dementia, but the literature is not completely consistent. This inconsistency may be partly due to an interaction with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, an established risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether alcohol consumption is associated with incident dementia or decline in specific cognitive domains over 4 years, and if this effect is modified by APOEɛ4 status. Non-demented community dwelling older adults (70-90 years) from an ongoing longitudinal study were assessed for cognitive impairment in attention/processing speed, language, executive function, visuospatial ability, and memory. Incident dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Compared to those who did not drink in the previous 12 months, neither low consumption (HR 0.64 95% CI 0.3-1.4) or risky consumption (HR 0.58 95% CI 0.2-1.5) was associated with incident dementia. Carriers of the APOEɛ4 allele were more likely to develop dementia, but there was no significant interaction with alcohol consumption.

  1. Nutrition and the prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Grant, William B; Prina, A Matthew; Lee, Hsin-yi; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Western diets are associated with obesity, vascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome and might increase dementia risk in later life. If these associations are causal, those low- and middle-income countries experiencing major changes in diet might also see an increasing prevalence of dementia. To investigate the relationship of dietary supply and the prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan over time using existing data and taking diagnostic criteria into account. Estimated total energy supply and animal fat from the United Nations was linked to the 70 prevalence studies in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan from 1980 to 2012 according to the current, 10 years, and 20 years before starting year of investigation. Studies using newer and older diagnostic criteria were separated into two groups. Spearman's rank correlation was calculated to investigate whether trends in total energy, animal fat supply, and prevalence of dementia were monotonically related. The supply of total energy and animal fat per capita per day in China increased considerably over the last 50 years. The original positive relationship of dietary supply and dementia prevalence disappeared after stratifying by newer and older diagnostic criteria and there was no clear time lag effect. Taking diagnostic criteria into account, there is no cross-sectional or time lag relationship between the dietary trends and changes in dementia prevalence. It may be too early to detect any such changes because current cohorts of older people did not experience these dietary changes in their early to mid-life.

  2. Knowledge exchange throughout the dementia care journey by Canadian rural community-based health care practitioners, persons with dementia, and their care partners: an interpretive descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Dorothy A; Finkelstein, Sara; Blake, Catherine M; Gibson, Maggie; Morgan, Debra G; Markle-Reid, Maureen; Culum, Ivan; Thiessen, Emily

    2012-10-01

    Accessing, assessing, exchanging, and applying dementia care information can be challenging in rural communities for healthcare practitioners (HCPs), persons with dementia (PWD), and their care partners. The overall purpose of this research was to enable HCPs, care partners, and PWD to use dementia care information more effectively by examining their information needs, how these change over time, and how they access, assess, and apply the knowledge. A qualitative interpretive descriptive approach was used. A convenience sample was initially recruited through study collaborators in Southwestern Ontario, followed by purposive sampling. Nine rural dementia care networks consisting of PWD (n = 5), care partners (n = 14), and HCPs (n = 14) were recruited and 80 interviews were conducted at three time points. Transcripts were coded using Lubrosky's thematic analysis. Six stages of the dementia care journey were identified: (1) recognizing the symptoms; (2) receiving a diagnosis; (3) loss of independence; (4) initiating and using home care and respite services; (5) long-term care (LTC) placement; and (6) decisions related to end-of-life care. Rural care partners identified the need for different types of knowledge during each of these critical decision points of the dementia care journey. They accessed information from family members, friends, local organizations, and dementia internet sites. Persons with dementia tended not to identify the need for dementia care information. The HCPs accessed dementia care information from their own organization, other organizations, and internet sites. Care partners and HCPs assessed the trustworthiness of the information based on whether the source was a well-known agency or their own organization. Barriers to knowledge exchange included: lack of rural community-based services for dementia care; care partners reluctant to seek help and had limited energy; and lack of integration of dementia-related services and supports. Facilitators

  3. Healing words: A study of poetry interventions in dementia care.

    PubMed

    Swinnen, Aagje M C

    2016-11-01

    The personhood movement in dementia research has established the theoretical foundation for implementing cultural arts interventions in care practices. The underlying assumption is that professionals from the visual and the performance arts are well equipped to see the person behind the condition and to focus on possibilities for meaningful relationships in the here and now. This article focuses on poetry interventions as one example of cultural arts interventions. The use of poetry might seem counterintuitive, given that people with dementia lose their language abilities and that poetry is regarded to be the most complex literary form. I will argue that expanding on existing research on poetry interventions from a health and science perspective with a humanities approach will help illuminate how poetry works to enhance the exchange with people with dementia. Drawing on participant observations of poetry interventions by Gary Glazner (Alzheimer's Poetry Project, USA) at the New York Memory Center, I will frame poetry interventions as a specific form of oral poetry in which people with dementia are positioned as cocreators of embodied texts and directly benefit from the power of the spoken word.

  4. Lithium treatment and risk for dementia in adults with bipolar disorder: population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, Tobias; Devanand, D P; Huang, Cecilia; Crystal, Stephen; Olfson, Mark

    2015-07-01

    BackgroundLithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, an enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of dementia.AimsTo examine the association of lithium and dementia risk in a large claims-based US cohort of publicly insured older adults with bipolar disorder.MethodThe cohort included individuals ≥50 years diagnosed with bipolar disorder who did not receive dementia-related services during the prior year. Each follow-up day was classified by past-year cumulative duration of lithium use (0, 1-60, 61-300 and 301-365 days). Dementia diagnosis was the study outcome. Anticonvulsants commonly used as mood stabilisers served as a negative control.ResultsCompared with non-use, 301-365 days of lithium exposure was associated with significantly reduced dementia risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77, 95% CI 0.60-0.99). No corresponding association was observed for shorter lithium exposures (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.83-1.31 for 61-300 days; HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.67-1.71 for 1-60 days) or for any exposure to anticonvulsants.ConclusionsContinuous lithium treatment may reduce dementia risk in older adults with bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. "We're certainly not in our comfort zone": a qualitative study of GPs' dementia-care educational needs.

    PubMed

    Foley, Tony; Boyle, Siobhán; Jennings, Aisling; Smithson, W Henry

    2017-05-22

    Rising dementia prevalence rates rise combined with the policy objective of enabling people with dementia to remain living at home, means that there will be a growing demand for dementia care in the community setting. However, GPs are challenged by dementia care and have identified it as an area in which further training is needed. Previous studies of GPs dementia care educational needs have explored the views of GPs alone, without taking the perspectives of people with dementia and family carers into account. The aim of the study was to explore GPs' dementia care educational needs, as viewed from multiple perspectives, in order to inform the design and delivery of an educational programme for GPs. A qualitative study of GPs, people with dementia and family carers in a community setting was undertaken. Face-to-face interviews were performed with GPs, people with dementia and with family carers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Thirty-one people were interviewed, consisting of fourteen GPs, twelve family carers and five people with dementia. GPs expressed a wish for further education, preferentially through small group workshops. Five distinct educational needs emerged from the interviews, namely, diagnosis, disclosure, signposting of local services, counselling and the management of behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD). While GPs focused on diagnosis, disclosure and BPSD in particular, people with dementia and family carers emphasised the need for GPs to engage in counselling and signposting of local services. The triangulation of data from multiple relevant sources revealed a broader range of GPs' educational needs, incorporating both medical and social aspects of dementia care. The findings of this study will inform the content and delivery of a dementia educational programme for GPs that is practice-relevant, by ensuring that the curriculum meets the needs of GPs, patients and their families.

  6. Differential associations of plasma lipids with incident dementia and dementia subtypes in the 3C Study: A longitudinal, population-based prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Sabrina; Tzourio, Christophe; Soumaré, Aïcha; Kaffashian, Sara; Dartigues, Jean-François; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Dufouil, Carole; Debette, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Background Vascular risk factors have been proposed as important targets for the prevention of dementia. As lipid fractions represent easily modifiable targets, we examined the longitudinal relationship of baseline lipid fractions with 13-y incident dementia and its subtypes (Alzheimer disease [AD] and mixed or vascular dementia) in older community-dwelling persons. Methods and findings Non-institutionalized persons aged 65+ y (n = 9,294) were recruited for the Three-City Study (3C Study), a population-based cohort study from the electoral rolls of the cities of Dijon, Bordeaux, and Montpellier, France, between March 1999 and March 2001. Follow-up examinations were performed every 2 y after the baseline assessment. The final study sample comprised 7,470 participants from the 3C Study (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 73.8 ± 5.3 y, 61.0% women) who were prospectively followed up for up to 13 y. Fasting lipid fractions (triglycerides [TGs], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC]) were studied as continuous variables, and results are reported per SD increase of each lipid fraction. Incident dementia and its subtypes were studied as censored variables using Cox models with age as time scale. Analyses were adjusted for sex, study center, and educational level, as well as vascular risk factors and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype. We corrected for multiple testing, yielding a significance threshold of 0.0169. p-Values above the significance threshold but less than 0.05 were considered nominally significant. During a mean (± SD) follow-up period of 7.9 ± 3.6 y, 779 participants developed incident dementia (n = 532 AD and n = 154 mixed or vascular dementia). Higher LDL-C and TC concentrations at baseline were associated with an increased risk of AD (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase = 1.13 [95% CI 1.04–1.22], p = 0.0045, and HR = 1.12 [1.03–1.22], p = 0.0072, respectively). These

  7. 37 years of body mass index and dementia: observations from the prospective population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Deborah R; Bäckman, Kristoffer; Joas, Erik; Waern, Margda; Östling, Svante; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Level of adiposity is linked to dementia in epidemiological studies. Overweight and obesity in mid- and late-life may increase risk for dementia, whereas decline in body weight or body mass index (BMI) and underweight in years preceding and at the time of a dementia diagnosis may also relate to dementia. Longitudinal studies with sufficient follow-up are necessary to estimate trajectories that allow better understanding of the relationship between adiposity indices and dementia over the life course. We evaluated the natural history of BMI in relationship to clinical dementia over 37 years in the Prospective Population Study of Women (PPSW) in Sweden. PPSW is a systematic sample of 1462 women born 1908, 1914, 1918, 1922, and 1930 and aged 38-60 years at baseline. Examinations occurred in 1968, 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000, and 2005. Statistical analyses were conducted using mixed effects regression models. Trajectories of BMI over 37 years as a function of age differed between women who did versus did not develop dementia. Women developing dementia evidenced a lesser increase in BMI from age 38 to 70 years. After age 70, the BMI slope decreased similarly (no "accelerated decline") irrespective of dementia status. A lower BMI before and during dementia onset was observed. Women with similar BMI at mid-life exhibited a different pattern of BMI change as they approached late-life that was related to dementia onset. BMI may be a potential marker of dementia-related neuropathologies in the brain. Dementia is related to a common risk factor, BMI, from mid-to late-life.

  8. Inadequate Diagnostic Evaluation in Young Patients Registered with a Diagnosis of Dementia: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Nielsen, T. Rune; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-01-01

    Background Establishing a diagnosis of dementia in young patients may be complex and have significant implications for the patient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of the diagnostic work-up in young patients diagnosed with dementia in the clinical routine. Methods Two hundred patients were randomly selected from 891 patients aged ≤65 years registered with a diagnosis of dementia for the first time in 2008 in Danish hospitals, and 159 medical records were available for review. Three raters evaluated their medical records for the completeness of the diagnostic work-up on which the diagnosis of dementia had been based, using evidence-based guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation of dementia as reference standards. Results According to the rater review, only 111 (70%) patients met the clinical criteria for dementia. An acceptable diagnostic work-up including all items of recommended basic diagnostic evaluation was performed in only 24%, although more often (28%) in the subgroup of patients where dementia was confirmed by raters. Conclusion This first nationwide study of unselected young patients registered with a diagnosis of dementia indicated that the concept of dementia may be misinterpreted by clinicians and that a diagnosis of dementia in the young is only rarely based on a complete basic diagnostic work-up, calling for increased competency. PMID:24711812

  9. The treatment of hypertension in people with dementia: a systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is very common in older people and a number of trials of antihypertensives have demonstrated benefit from treatment in even the oldest old. However, people with dementia were significantly under-represented in these studies and as a population are more likely to be physically frail, to suffer orthostatic hypotension and to experience adverse effects from polypharmacy at a lower drug count. It may be that different thresholds for commencement and cessation of treatment should be considered and may already be used for this group. Against this background this review sets out to describe the prevalence of hypertension in people with dementia, its treatment, change in treatment over time and the achievement of blood pressure (BP) control. Methods The PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and PsychINFO databases were searched for observational studies involving people with dementia and a diagnosis of hypertension. The search was limited to English language articles involving adults and humans published from 1990 onwards. Abstracts and titles were then reviewed with eligible articles read in full. Bibliographies were examined for further relevant studies. The final selection of studies was then analysed and appraised. Results Thirteen articles were identified for analysis. The prevalence of hypertension in people with dementia was 45% (range 35%-84%). 73% of these were on at least one antihypertensive, with diuretics being the most common. The reported prevalence of hypertension in study populations remained unchanged over time. ACEi/ARBs and calcium channel blockers were prescribed more frequently in more recent studies whilst use of β-blockers and diuretics remained unchanged. Target blood pressure was achieved in 55% of those on treatment. Conclusion Hypertension is as common in people with dementia as in other populations and is as commonly treated with antihypertensive drugs. The findings presented here will support further work to establish the risk

  10. Drug use in patients with dementia: a register-based study in the health region of Girona (Catalonia/Spain).

    PubMed

    Avila-Castells, Pilar; Garre-Olmo, Josep; Calvó-Perxas, Laia; Turró-Garriga, Oriol; Alsina, Elisabet; Carmona, Olga; Perkal, Héctor; Roig, Anna Maria; Cuy, Josep Ma; Lozano, Manuela; Molins, Albert; Vallmajó, Natàlia; López-Pousa, Secundino

    2013-05-01

    To describe the pattern of drug consumption among patients with dementia in a geographically defined general population in Catalonia (Spain), and to determine its association with age, gender, type of dementia and severity indicators. Cross-sectional study that included 1,894 cases of dementia registered by the Registry of Dementias of Girona from 2007 to 2009. Prescribed drugs were categorized according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. A descriptive analysis of drug consumption was stratified according to age, gender, dementia subtypes and dementia severity. Binary logistic regression models were adjusted to detect the association of these variables with drug consumption according to the ATC groups. The most commonly prescribed drugs were for the central nervous system (CNS) (96.4 %), cardiovascular system (79.4 %) and digestive and metabolic system categories (77.7 %). No significant differences were found between the use of nervous system drugs and age, gender, dementia subtypes or dementia severity. The use of alimentary tract and metabolism related drugs, as well as cardiovascular and blood system drugs, were positively correlated with age and secondary dementia. The prevalence of use of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal drugs was higher in women than in men (OR: 1.34; OR: 1.26 respectively). A negative association was found between the severity of dementia and the use of musculoskeletal drugs (OR: 0.71), while its use was significantly higher in the youngest patients (OR: 1.71). Almost all patients with dementia received a CNS drug, being at risk of inappropriate treatment. Treatment for comorbidities in patients with dementia should not be withheld on the basis of age or dementia severity, but rather on the benefit/risk ratio of its prescription. Further studies are needed to evaluate potentially inappropriate drug use and possible untreated conditions in this population.

  11. Risk of dementia in seniors with newly diagnosed diabetes: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Haroon, Nisha Nigil; Austin, Peter C; Shah, Baiju R; Wu, Jianbao; Gill, Sudeep S; Booth, Gillian L

    2015-10-01

    To study whether diabetes onset in late life is a risk factor for dementia. We conducted a population-based matched cohort study using provincial health data from Ontario, Canada. Seniors with (n = 225,045) and without newly diagnosed diabetes (n = 668,070) between April 1995 and March 2007 were followed until March 2012 for a new diagnosis of dementia. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare the risk of dementia between groups after adjusting for baseline cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease (CKD), hypertension, and other risk factors. Over this period, we observed 169,114 new cases of dementia. Individuals with diabetes had a modestly higher incidence of dementia (2.68 vs. 2.62 per 100 person-years) than those without diabetes. In the fully adjusted Cox model, the risk of dementia was 16% higher among our subgroup with diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16 [95% CI 1.15-1.18]). Adjusted HRs for dementia were 1.20 (95% CI 1.17-1.22) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.12-1.16) among men and women, respectively. Among seniors with diabetes, the risk of dementia was greatest in those with prior cerebrovascular disease (HR 2.03; 95% CI 1.88-2.19), peripheral vascular disease (HR 1.47; 95% CI 1.19-1.82), and CKD (HR 1.44; 95% CI 1.38-1.51), and those with one or more hospital visits for hypoglycemia (HR 1.73; 95% CI 1.62-1.84). In this population-based study, newly diagnosed diabetes was associated with a 16% increase in the risk of dementia among seniors. Preexisting vascular disease and severe hypoglycemia were the greatest risk factors for dementia in seniors with diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. The Determinants of Dementia After Stroke (DEDEMAS) Study: protocol and pilot data.

    PubMed

    Wollenweber, Frank A; Zietemann, Vera; Rominger, Axel; Opherk, Christian; Bayer-Karpinska, Anna; Gschwendtner, Andreas; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Bürger, Katharina; Duering, Marco; Dichgans, Martin

    2014-04-01

    About 20% of stroke patients develop dementia within a few months after their event, but the determinants and mechanisms of poststroke dementia are insufficiently understood. To identify and characterize the determinants of cognitive impairment poststroke. Observational prospective study in patients with acute stroke and no prior dementia. Six hundred subjects will be characterized by detailed interview, standardized clinical examinations, biometric measures (intima-media thickness, waist-hip ratio, and ankle-brachial index), multimodal imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), amyloid-positron emission tomography (amyloid-PET), and retinal imaging), analysis of biomarkers derived from blood and cerebrospinal fluid, and detailed cognitive testing at repeat time points. Patients will be followed for five-years with a total of five personal visits and three telephone interviews. Primary end-point is the occurrence of poststroke dementia. Secondary end-points include poststroke cognitive impairment-no dementia, stroke recurrence, and death. Predictive factors for poststroke dementia will be identified by multiple Cox proportional-hazards model. Baseline characteristics of the first 71 patients (study inclusion between May 2011 and August 2012) are as follows: median age, 70 years (interquartile range, 65-75); female gender, 25 (35%); median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at admission, 2 (1-4); and etiological stroke subtypes according to TOAST classification, 15% large artery disease, 18% small vessel disease, 35% cardioembolic, and 32% undetermined or multiple competing etiologies. This study will provide insights into the mechanisms of poststroke dementia and hold the potential to identify novel diagnostic markers and targets for preventive therapies. The study is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01334749) and will be extended as a multicenter study starting 2013. © 2013 The Authors

  13. Higher Education Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Dementia after a Stroke or TIA. The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Portegies, Marileen L P; Wolters, Frank J; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia, possibly because of a higher tolerance to subclinical neurodegenerative pathology. Whether higher education also protects against dementia after clinical stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. Within the population-based Rotterdam Study, 12,561 participants free of stroke, TIA and dementia were followed for occurrence of stroke, TIA and dementia. Across the levels of education, associations of incident stroke or TIA with subsequent development of dementia and differences in cognitive decline following stroke or TIA were investigated. During 124,862 person-years, 1,463 persons suffered a stroke or TIA, 1,158 persons developed dementia, of whom 186 developed dementia after stroke or TIA. Risk of dementia after a stroke or TIA, compared to no stroke or TIA, was highest in the low education category (hazards ratio [HR] 1.46, 95% CI 1.18-1.81) followed by intermediate education category (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03-1.81). No significant association was observed in the high education category (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.25-1.54). In gender stratified analyses, decrease in risk of dementia with increasing education was significant only in men. Higher education is associated with a lower risk of dementia after stroke or TIA, particularly in men, which might be explained by a higher cognitive reserve. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. 10-year trajectories of depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Wolters, Frank J; Swanson, Sonja A; Koudstaal, Peter J; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-07-01

    Late-life depressive symptoms have been extensively studied for their relationship with incident dementia, but have been typically assessed at a single timepoint. Such an approach neglects the course of depression, which, given its remitting and relapsing nature, might provide further insights into the complex association of depression with dementia. We therefore repeatedly measured depressive symptoms in a population of adults over a decade to study the subsequent risk of dementia. Our study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study of adults aged 55 years or older in Rotterdam (Netherlands), ongoing since 1990. The cohort is monitored continuously for major events by data linkage between the study database and general practitioners. We examined a cohort of participants who were free from dementia, but had data for depressive symptoms from at least one examination round in 1993-95, 1997-99, or 2002-04. We assessed depressive symptoms with the validated Dutch version of the Center for Epidemiology Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression. We used these data to identify 11-year trajectories of depressive symptoms by latent class trajectory modelling. We screened participants for dementia at each examination round and followed up participants for 10 years for incident dementia by latent trajectory from the third examination round to 2014. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) for dementia by assigned trajectory using two Cox proportional hazards models (model 1 adjusted for age and sex only, and model 2 adjusted additionally for APOEɛ4 carrier status, educational level, body-mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, cognitive score, use of antidepressants, and prevalent disease status at baseline). We repeated the analyses censoring for incident stroke, restricting to Alzheimer's disease as an outcome, and accounting for mortality as a competing risk for dementia. From 1993-2004, we obtained data for depressive

  15. Trends in autopsy-verified dementia prevalence over 29 years of the Hisayama study.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Kensuke; Hamasaki, Hideomi; Shijo, Masahiro; Koyama, Sachiko; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the trends in dementia over the past 29 years in the town of Hisayama, Japan using 1266 autopsy specimens. The Hisayama study is a prospective cohort study of lifestyle-related diseases that was started in 1961. Clinical examination of dementia was started in 1985 with five detailed cross-sectional assessments conducted in 1985, 1992, 1998, 2005 and 2012. To examine the trends in dementia, we divided the 1266 autopsy samples into five groups according to the year of death: I (1986-1991, 257 cases), II (1992-1997, 268 cases), III (1998-2004, 318 cases), IV (2005-2011, 296 cases) and V (2012-2014, 127 cases). The prevalence of all-cause dementia significantly increased over time (28.4% in group I, 22.4% in group II, 32.1% in group III, 30.1% in group IV, 51.2% in group V; P for trend <0.001). A similar trend was observed for Alzheimer's disease (AD) (15.2%, 11.9%, 17.3%, 20.6% and 33.1%, respectively; P for trend <0.001). A significant increasing trend was observed in both men and women. A rapid increase in senile dementia of the NFT type (SD-NFT) in recent years was notable. Vascular dementia was the most common type of dementia in men prior to 2004; however, its prevalence decreased over time. Our study revealed that tauopathies, including AD and SD-NFT, significantly increased in the aged Japanese population over the course of this study. The neuritic plaque pathology of AD was associated with metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and abnormal lipid metabolism, whereas the risk factors for tau pathology remain unclear. Although aging is considered one of the important risk factors accelerating tau pathology, there could be other risk factors associated with lifestyle diseases.

  16. Baby boomer caregiver and dementia caregiving: findings from the National Study of Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Heehyul; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye

    2015-01-01

    Background: previous studies have well documented the characteristics of baby boomers but less is known about the experiences of boomer caregivers (CGs) of people with dementia. Objective: the purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of boomer CGs of people with dementia with those of boomer CGs for people without dementia and to ascertain factors associated with outcomes. Design: we selected baby boomer CGs from the National Study of Caregiving (NSOC) with 650 primary boomer CGs (138 CGs of people with dementia and 512 CGs of people without dementia). Methods: the Stress Process Model (SPM) was used to examine the effects of resources (the use of paid help and informal support) and stressors (primary: level of CG care activities and interrupted sleep; secondary: strain of caregiving on work, other care and social activities) on CGs' down, depressed or hopeless feelings and self-perceived general health. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare SPM domain differences and ordinary least-square multiple regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of CGs' outcomes. Results: high blood pressure and arthritis were the most prevalent chronic diseases in both groups. Boomer CGs of people with dementia reported providing more help with daily activities, higher level of caregiving and social activity conflict, experiencing more interrupted sleep and more down, depressed or hopeless feelings than CGs of people without dementia. Different factors predicted boomer CGs' outcomes. Conclusion: the current results yield important information about the considerable differences between two baby boomer CG groups within the caregiving experiences. The findings highlight the need to provide tailored interventions to boomer CGs to help them cope with caregiving stress to improve their physical and mental health. PMID:25359299

  17. Baby boomer caregiver and dementia caregiving: findings from the National Study of Caregiving.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heehyul; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have well documented the characteristics of baby boomers but less is known about the experiences of boomer caregivers (CGs) of people with dementia. The purpose of this study was to compare the characteristics of boomer CGs of people with dementia with those of boomer CGs for people without dementia and to ascertain factors associated with outcomes. We selected baby boomer CGs from the National Study of Caregiving (NSOC) with 650 primary boomer CGs (138 CGs of people with dementia and 512 CGs of people without dementia). The Stress Process Model (SPM) was used to examine the effects of resources (the use of paid help and informal support) and stressors (primary: level of CG care activities and interrupted sleep; secondary: strain of caregiving on work, other care and social activities) on CGs' down, depressed or hopeless feelings and self-perceived general health. T-tests and chi-square tests were used to compare SPM domain differences and ordinary least-square multiple regression analysis was used to investigate predictors of CGs' outcomes. High blood pressure and arthritis were the most prevalent chronic diseases in both groups. Boomer CGs of people with dementia reported providing more help with daily activities, higher level of caregiving and social activity conflict, experiencing more interrupted sleep and more down, depressed or hopeless feelings than CGs of people without dementia. Different factors predicted boomer CGs' outcomes. The current results yield important information about the considerable differences between two baby boomer CG groups within the caregiving experiences. The findings highlight the need to provide tailored interventions to boomer CGs to help them cope with caregiving stress to improve their physical and mental health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Psychotropic drug use among people with dementia – a six-month follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychotropic drugs are widely used among old people with dementia but few studies have described long-term treatment in this group of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the long-term use of psychotropic drugs in old people with dementia. Methods Data on psychotropic drug use, functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms were collected at baseline and six months later, using the Multi-Dimensional Dementia Assessment Scale (MDDAS). The data were collected in 2005–2006. Detailed data about the prescribing of psychotropic drugs were collected from prescription records. This study was conducted in 40 specialized care units in northern Sweden, with a study population of 278 people with dementia. Results At the start of the study, 229 of the participants (82%) were prescribed at least one psychotropic drug; 150 (54%) used antidepressants, 43 (16%) used anxiolytics, 107 (38%) used hypnotics and sedatives, and 111 (40%) used antipsychotics. Among the baseline users of antidepressants, anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives and antipsychotics, 67%, 44%, 57% and 57% respectively, still used the same dose of the same psychotropic drug after six months. Associations were found between behavioral and psychological symptoms and different psychotropic drugs. Conclusion Psychotropic drug use was high among people with dementia living in specialized care units and in many cases the drugs were used for extended periods. It is very important to monitor the effects and adverse effects of the prescribed drug in this frail group of people. PMID:24196341

  19. Dermatoglyphic patterns in dementia of the Alzheimer type: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Berr, C; Okra-Podrabinek, N; Feteanu, D; Taurand, S; Hervy, M P; Forette, F; Piette, F; Sebag-Lanoe, R; Alperovitch, A

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to compare digital and palmar dermatoglyphics in subjects with dementia of Alzheimer type and in mentally healthy elderly controls. DESIGN--This design was a case-control study. SETTING--The study was carried out in geriatric units and retirement communities in the Paris area. PARTICIPANTS--Cases were women with clinically diagnosed Alzheimer type dementia according to DSM III-R criteria (n = 82), mainly with late onset of the disease. Controls were women aged 85 years or older without cognitive deterioration (n = 76). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Finger and palm prints obtained from both hands by the classical ink method were examined. Fingerprints were classified into four types of figures. On palms, palmar flexion creases, palmar axial triradii, true patterns of the hypothenar area, and main line terminations were described. Examinations were performed by two examiners blind to the subjects's diagnostic category. For the different patterns studied, no major differences between dementia patients and elderly controls were found. Nor was there evidence of high frequencies of features commonly observed in Down's syndrome (trisomy 21), which have previously, though sporadically, been reported. CONCLUSIONS--On one of the largest samples of Alzheimer dementia patients studied, and with evaluation blind to diagnosis, no evidence has been found that particular dermatoglyphic patterns occur like those observed in Down's syndrome, a disease which is related to dementia of the Alzheimer type. PMID:1479321

  20. The COACH prompting system to assist older adults with dementia through handwashing: An efficacy study

    PubMed Central

    Mihailidis, Alex; Boger, Jennifer N; Craig, Tammy; Hoey, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Background Many older adults with dementia require constant assistance from a caregiver when completing activities of daily living (ADL). This study examines the efficacy of a computerized device intended to assist people with dementia through ADL, while reducing caregiver burden. The device, called COACH, uses artificial intelligence to autonomously guide an older adult with dementia through the ADL using audio and/or audio-video prompts. Methods Six older adults with moderate-to-severe dementia participated in this study. Handwashing was chosen as the target ADL. A single subject research design was used with two alternating baseline (COACH not used) and intervention (COACH used) phases. The data were analyzed to investigate the impact of COACH on the participants' independence and caregiver burden as well as COACH's overall performance for the activity of handwashing. Results Participants with moderate-level dementia were able to complete an average of 11% more handwashing steps independently and required 60% fewer interactions with a human caregiver when COACH was in use. Four of the participants achieved complete or very close to complete independence. Interestingly, participants' MMSE scores did not appear to robustly coincide with handwashing performance and/or responsiveness to COACH; other idiosyncrasies of each individual seem to play a stronger role. While the majority (78%) of COACH's actions were considered clinically correct, areas for improvement were identified. Conclusion The COACH system shows promise as a tool to help support older adults with moderate-levels of dementia and their caregivers. These findings reinforce the need for flexibility and dynamic personalization in devices designed to assist older adults with dementia. After addressing identified improvements, the authors plan to run clinical trials with a sample of community-dwelling older adults and caregivers. PMID:18992135

  1. Citrus consumption and incident dementia in elderly Japanese: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Tomata, Yasutake; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    Although some experimental biological studies have indicated that citrus may have preventive effects against cognitive impairment, no cohort study has yet examined the relationship between citrus consumption and incident dementia. In a baseline survey, we collected data on daily citrus intake (categorised as ≤2, 3-4 times/week or almost every day) and consumption of other foods using a FFQ, and used a self-reported questionnaire to collect data on other covariates. Data on incident dementia were retrieved from the Japanese Long-term Care Insurance database. A multivariate-adjusted Cox model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for incident dementia according to citrus consumption. Among 13 373 participants, the 5·7-year incidence of dementia was 8·6 %. In comparison with participants who consumed citrus ≤2 times/week, the multivariate-adjusted HR for incident dementia among those did so 3-4 times/week and almost every day was 0·92 (95 % CI 0·80, 1·07) and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·73, 1·01), respectively (P trend=0·065). The inverse association persisted after excluding participants whose dementia events had occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. The multivariate HR was 1·00 (reference) for ≤2 times/week, 0·82 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·98) for 3-4 times/week and 0·77 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·93) for almost every day (P trend=0·006). The present findings suggest that frequent citrus consumption was associated with a lower risk of incident dementia, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  2. Comorbidity of dementia: a cross-sectional study of primary care older patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiologic study of comorbidities of an index health problem represents a methodological challenge. This study cross-sectionally describes and analyzes the comorbidities associated with dementia in older patients and reviews the existing similarities and differences between identified comorbid diseases using the statistical methods most frequently applied in current research. Methods Cross-sectional study of 72,815 patients over 64 seen in 19 Spanish primary care centers during 2008. Chronic diseases were extracted from electronic health records and grouped into Expanded Diagnostic Clusters®. Three different statistical methods were applied (i.e., analysis of prevalence data, multiple regression and factor analysis), stratifying by sex. Results The two most frequent comorbidities both for men and women with dementia were hypertension and diabetes. Yet, logistic regression and factor analysis demonstrated that the comorbidities significantly associated with dementia were Parkinson’s disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, anemia, cardiac arrhythmia, chronic skin ulcers, osteoporosis, thyroid disease, retinal disorders, prostatic hypertrophy, insomnia and anxiety and neurosis. Conclusions The analysis of the comorbidities associated with an index disease (e.g., dementia) must not be exclusively based on prevalence rates, but rather on methodologies that allow the discovery of non-random associations between diseases. A deep and reliable knowledge about how different diseases are grouped and associated around an index disease such as dementia may orient future longitudinal studies aimed at unraveling causal associations. PMID:24645776

  3. Pharmaceutical consumption and cost in patients with dementia: A longitudinal study by the Registry of Dementias of Girona (ReDeGi) in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Turró-Garriga, O; Calvó-Perxas, L; Albaladejo, R; Alsina, E; Cuy, J M; Llinàs-Reglà, J; Roig, A M; Serena, J; Vallmajó, N; Viñas, M; López-Pousa, S; Vilalta-Franch, J; Garre-Olmo, J

    2015-01-01

    Drug spending increases exponentially from the age of 65-70 years, and dementia is one of the diseases significantly contributing to this increase. Our aim was to describe pharmaceutical consumption and cost in patients with dementia, using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. We also assessed the evolution of costs and consumption, and the variables associated to this evolution during three years. Three years prospective cohort study using data from the ReDeGi and the Health Region of Girona (HRG) Pharmacy Unit database from the Public Catalan Healthcare Service (PCHS). Frequency of consumption and costs of ATC categories of drugs were calculated. Sample of 869 patients with dementia, most of them with a diagnosis of degenerative dementia (72.6%), and in a mild stage of the disease (68.2%). Central nervous system (CNS) drugs had the highest consumption rate (97.2%), followed by metabolic system drugs (80.1%), and cardiovascular system drugs (75.4%). Total pharmaceutical cost was of 2124.8 € per patient/year (standard deviation (SD)=1018.5 €), and spending on CNS drugs was 55.5% of the total cost. After 36 months, pharmaceutical cost increased in 694.9 € (SD=1741.9), which was associated with dementia severity and institutionalization at baseline. Pharmaceutical consumption and costs are high in patients with dementia, and they increase with time, showing an association with baseline dementia severity and institutionalization. CNS drugs are the pharmaceuticals with highest prescription rates and associated costs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anesthesia Exposure and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Larson, Eric B; Pong, Ryan P; Walker, Rod L; Anderson, Melissa L; Yu, Onchee; Gray, Shelly L; Crane, Paul K; Dublin, Sascha

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the associations between anesthesia and dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk using prospectively collected data. Cohort study. Community-dwelling members of the Adult Changes in Thought cohort aged 65 and older and free of dementia at baseline (N = 3,988). Participants self-reported all prior surgical procedures with general or neuraxial (spinal or epidural) anesthesia at baseline and reported new procedures every 2 years. People undergoing high-risk surgery with general anesthesia, other surgery with general anesthesia, and other surgery with neuraxial anesthesia exposures were compared with those with no surgery and no anesthesia. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dementia and AD associated with time-varying lifetime and recent (past 5 years) anesthesia exposures. At baseline, 254 (6%) people reported never having anesthesia; 248 (6%) had had one or more high-risk surgeries with general anesthesia, 3,363 (84%) had had one or more other surgeries with general anesthesia, and 123 (3%) had had one or more surgeries with neuraxial anesthesia. High-risk surgery with general anesthesia was not associated with greater risk of dementia (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.58-1.28) or AD (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.61-1.49) than no history of anesthesia. People with any history of other surgery with general anesthesia had a lower risk of dementia (HR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.46-0.85) and AD (HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.46-0.93) than people with no history of anesthesia. There was no association between recent anesthesia exposure and dementia or AD. Anesthesia exposure was not associated with of dementia or AD in older adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Neuropsychological Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Risk in the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Jak, Amy J; Preis, Sarah R; Beiser, Alexa S; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A; Bondi, Mark W; Au, Rhoda

    2016-10-01

    To refine mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnostic criteria, we examined progression to dementia using two approaches to identifying MCI. A total of 1203 Framingham Heart Study participants were classified at baseline as cognitively normal or MCI (overall and four MCI subtypes) via conventional Petersen/Winblad criteria (single cognitive test impaired per domain, >1.5 SD below expectations) or Jak/Bondi criteria (two tests impaired per domain, >1 SD below norms). Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to examine the association between each MCI definition and incident dementia. The Petersen/Winblad criteria classified 34% of participants as having MCI while the Jak/Bondi criteria classified 24% as MCI. Over a mean follow-up of 9.7 years, 58 participants (5%) developed incident dementia. Both MCI criteria were associated with incident dementia [Petersen/Winblad: hazards ratio (HR) = 2.64; p-value=.0002; Jak/Bondi: HR=3.30; p-value <.0001]. When both MCI definitions were included in the same model, only the Jak/Bondi definition remained statistically significantly associated with incident dementia (HR=2.47; p-value=.008). Multi-domain amnestic and single domain non-amnestic MCI subtypes were significantly associated with incident dementia for both diagnostic approaches (all p-values <.01). The Jak/Bondi MCI criteria had a similar association with dementia as the conventional Petersen/Winblad MCI criteria, despite classifying ~30% fewer participants as having MCI. Further exploration of alternative methods to conventional MCI diagnostic criteria is warranted. (JINS, 2016, 22, 937-943).

  6. Neuropsychological Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Risk in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Jak, Amy J.; Preis, Sarah R.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Bondi, Mark W.; Au, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To refine mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnostic criteria, we examined progression to dementia using two approaches to identifying MCI. Methods A total of 1203 Framingham Heart Study participants were classified at baseline as cognitively normal or MCI (overall and four MCI subtypes) via conventional Petersen/Winblad criteria (single cognitive test impaired per domain, >1.5 SD below expectations) or Jak/Bondi criteria (two tests impaired per domain, >1 SD below norms). Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to examine the association between each MCI definition and incident dementia. Results The Petersen/Winblad criteria classified 34% of participants as having MCI while the Jak/Bondi criteria classified 24% as MCI. Over a mean follow-up of 9.7 years, 58 participants (5%) developed incident dementia. Both MCI criteria were associated with incident dementia [Petersen/Winblad: hazards ratio (HR) = 2.64; p-value = .0002; Jak/Bondi: HR = 3.30; p-value <.0001]. When both MCI definitions were included in the same model, only the Jak/Bondi definition remained statistically significantly associated with incident dementia (HR = 2.47; p-value = .008). Multi-domain amnestic and single domain non-amnestic MCI subtypes were significantly associated with incident dementia for both diagnostic approaches (all p-values <.01). Conclusions The Jak/Bondi MCI criteria had a similar association with dementia as the conventional Petersen/Winblad MCI criteria, despite classifying ~30% fewer participants as having MCI. Further exploration of alternative methods to conventional MCI diagnostic criteria is warranted. PMID:27029348

  7. Making decisions for people with dementia who lack capacity: qualitative study of family carers in UK.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Gill; Leavey, Gerard; Manela, Monica; Livingston, Deborah; Rait, Greta; Sampson, Elizabeth; Bavishi, Shilpa; Shahriyarmolki, Khodayar; Cooper, Claudia

    2010-08-18

    To identify common difficult decisions made by family carers on behalf of people with dementia, and facilitators of and barriers to such decisions, in order to produce information for family carers about overcoming barriers. Qualitative study to delineate decision areas through focus groups and complexity of decision making in individual interviews. Community settings in London. 43 family carers of people with dementia in focus groups and 46 carers who had already made such decisions in individual interviews. Family carers identified five core problematic areas of decision making: accessing dementia related health and social services; care homes; legal-financial matters; non-dementia related health care; and making plans for the person with dementia if the carer became too ill to care for them. They highlighted the difficulties in making proxy decisions, especially against active resistance, and their altered role of patient manager while still a family member. Families devised strategies to gain agreement in order to ensure that the person with dementia retained dignity. The following strategies helped with implementation of decisions: introducing change slowly; organising legal changes for the carer as well as the patient; involving a professional to persuade the patient to accept services; and emphasising that services optimised, not impeded, independence. To access services, carers made patients' general practice appointments, accompanied them to the surgery, pointed out symptoms, gained permission to receive confidential information, asked for referral to specialist services, and used professionals' authority to gain patients' agreement. End of life decisions were particularly difficult. They were helped by knowledge of the person with dementia's previous views, clear prognostic information, and family support. Information sheets to help carers to overcome barriers to proxy decision making have been developed; their impact in practice has yet to be evaluated.

  8. Difficulties in disclosing the diagnosis of dementia: a qualitative study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Jill; Pond, Constance Dimity; Paterson, Nerida Elizabeth; Howell, Cate; Shell, Allan; Stocks, Nigel P; Goode, Susan M; Marley, John E

    2012-01-01

    Background Dementia is an insidious and stigmatised condition, and research indicates that GPs find communicating this diagnosis particularly problematic. Delays in diagnosis may impede optimal patient care. Little research has been published on Australian GPs’ perceptions of barriers to disclosing the diagnosis of dementia. Aim To explore GPs’ perceptions of barriers to disclosing the diagnosis of dementia. Design and setting Qualitative study in the general practice consultation context. Method Semi-structured, audiorecorded interviews were conducted with GPs from three capital cities and one regional centre in Australia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was conducted. Results GPs’ lack of confidence in having a correct diagnosis, concern to act in patients’ best interests, and the stigma associated with the ‘dementia’ label influenced the disclosure process. GPs found it challenging to identify dementia in the consultation context. It was difficult to raise the issue when both the patient and their family/carer(s) ignore/are unaware of symptoms of cognitive decline. Referral to a specialist was favoured to confirm suspicions, although this did not always result in a definitive diagnosis. Opinions differed as to whether the GP or the specialist was better placed to deliver the diagnosis. GPs preferred disclosure to the patient with his/her family/carer(s) present; associated issues of confidentiality and the importance of offering hope emerged. The severity of the patient’s dementia also guided the diagnostic disclosure process. GPs often used euphemisms for dementia when disclosing the diagnosis, to soften the message. Conclusion Complex issues surround the disclosure of dementia. Communicating this diagnosis remains particularly challenging for many GPs. PMID:22867678

  9. Does an Interdisciplinary Network Improve Dementia Care? Results from the IDemUck-Study

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Leonore; Meinke-Franze, Claudia; Hein, Jürgen; Fendrich, Konstanze; Heymann, Romy; Thyrian, Jochen René; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most persons with dementia live at home and are treated in the primary care. However, the ambulatory health care system in Germany contains a lot of “interface problems” and is not optimized for the future challenges. Innovative concepts like regional networks in dementia care exist on a project level and need to be tested for efficacy to encourage implementation. The goal of the study is the scientific evaluation of an already existing regional dementia network. Methods: Prospective randomized controlled trial of 235 community-living elderly with dementia and their family caregivers of network treatment (n=117) compared to usual care (n=118) in a predominantly rural region. The allocation to intervention or control group was based on network membership of their General Practitioner. Intervention patients received diagnostic evaluation and subsequent treatment according to network guidelines. Main outcome measures were the early contact with a neurologic or psychiatric specialist and dementia-specific medication as well as quality of life of the patients, and as secondary outcomes caregiver burden and caregiver health-related quality of life. Results: Network patients were more likely to receive antidementive drugs (50.5 % vs. 35.8 %; p=0.035) and had more often contact to a neurologist (18.6 % vs. 2.8 %; p<0.001). No group differences were found on patient’s quality of life nor overall effects or treatment by time effects. Intervention caregivers reported no significant improvements in health related quality of life measured by SF-36 and EQ-5D. Conclusion: The management of dementia patients in an interdisciplinary regional network solelyprovides measurable advantages with respect to the provision of dementia-specific medication and utilization of medical treatment i.e. referral rates to specialists. Further evaluation research is needed to identify relevant mechanismsof collaborative processes with respect to their impact on patient and

  10. Nutritional status and oral status of the elderly with dementia: a 2-year study.

    PubMed

    Sadamori, Shinsuke; Hayashi, Syouji; Fujihara, Isao; Abekura, Hitoshi; Hamada, Taizo; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2012-06-01

    To determine the relationship between denture wearing and nutritional status in the elderly with dementia. There could be a correlation between nutrition, oral health, dietary habits, patients' satisfaction, and their socio-economic status in the elderly, and the relationship between compromised oral status and nutritional status in the elderly with dementia. A 2-year follow-up study of 63 elderly Japanese women with and without dentures from a nursing home was undertaken to investigate their oral, physical and mental, and nutritional status. Each item for 2006 and 2008 in this study showed no significant difference between 2006 and 2008, except the calories/day. The elderly with dementia without complete dentures during the 2 years of the study only significantly decreased the mean of the calories/day. The calories/day of the elderly with dementia without dentures decreased after 2 years. Denture wearing for the elderly with dementia could be necessary to maintain a satisfactory intake of calories. © 2011 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Who has undiagnosed dementia? A cross-sectional analysis of participants of the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Savva, George M.; Arthur, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Background: delays in diagnosing dementia may lead to suboptimal care, yet around half of those with dementia are undiagnosed. Any strategy for case finding should be informed by understanding the characteristics of the undiagnosed population. We used cross-sectional data from a population-based sample with dementia aged 71 years and older in the United States to describe the undiagnosed population and identify factors associated with non-diagnosis. Methods: the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study (ADAMS) Wave A participants (N = 856) each underwent a detailed neuropsychiatric investigation. Informants were asked whether the participant had ever received a doctor's diagnosis of dementia. We used multiple logistic regression to identify factors associated with informant report of a prior dementia diagnosis among those with a study diagnosis of dementia. Results: of those with a study diagnosis of dementia (n = 307), a prior diagnosis of dementia was reported by 121 informants (weighted proportion = 42%). Prior diagnosis was associated with greater clinical dementia rating (CDR), from 26% (CDR = 1) to 83% (CDR = 5). In multivariate analysis, those aged 90 years or older were less likely to be diagnosed (P = 0.008), but prior diagnosis was more common among married women (P = 0.038) and those who had spent more than 9 years in full-time education (P = 0.043). Conclusions: people with dementia who are undiagnosed are older, have fewer years in education, are more likely to be unmarried, male and have less severe dementia than those with a diagnosis. Policymakers and clinicians should be mindful of the variation in diagnosis rates among subgroups of the population with dementia. PMID:25758406

  12. A population study of apoE genotype at the age of 85: relation to dementia, cerebrovascular disease, and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Skoog, I.; Hesse, C.; Aevarsson, O.; Landahl, S.; Wahlstrom, J.; Fredman, P.; Blennow, K.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study the association of apoE genotypes with dementia and cerebrovascular disorders in a population based sample of 85year old people.
METHODS—A representative sample of 85 year old people (303 non-demented, 109 demented) were given a neuropsychiatric and a medical examination and head CT. The apoE isoforms were determined. Dementia was diagnosed according to DSM-III-R.
RESULTS—At the age of 85, carriers of the apoE ε4 allele had an increased odds ratio (OR) for dementia (1.9; p<0.01) and its subtypes Alzheimer's disease (1.9; p<0.05) and vascular dementia (2.0; p<0.05). Among those categorised as having vascular dementia, the apoE ε4 allele was associated with mixed Alzheimer's disease-multi-infarct dementia (OR 6.5; p<0.05), but not with pure multi-infarct dementia (OR 1.5; NS). Only carriers of the apoE ε4 allele who also had ischaemic white matter lesions on CT of the head had an increased OR for dementia (OR 6.1; p=0.00003), and its main subtypes Alzheimer's disease (OR 6.8; p=0.002) and vascular dementia (OR 5.6; p=0.0007), whereas carriers of the apoE ε4 allele without white matter lesions had an OR for dementia of 1.0 (OR for Alzheimer's disease 1.8; NS and for vascular dementia 0.6; NS) and non-carriers of the apoE ε4 allele with white matter lesions had an OR for dementia of 2.2; NS (OR for Alzheimer's disease 2.7; NS and for vascular dementia 1.6; NS). The apoE allele variants were not related to mortality or incidence of dementia between the ages of 85 and 88. The ε2 allele was related to a higher prevalence of stroke or transient ischaemic attack at the age of 85 (OR 2.1; p<0.05) and a higher incidence of multi-infarct dementia during the follow up (OR 2.9; p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS—Neither the apoE ε4 allele nor white matter lesions are sufficient risk factors by themselves for dementia at very old ages, whereas possession of both these entities increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

  13. Nutritional Status is Associated with Faster Cognitive Decline and Worse Functional Impairment in the Progression of Dementia: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study1

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Chelsea; Behrens, Stephanie; Schwartz, Sarah; Wengreen, Heidi; Corcoran, Chris D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Tschanz, JoAnn T.

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional status may be a modifiable factor in the progression of dementia. We examined the association of nutritional status and rate of cognitive and functional decline in a U.S. population-based sample. Study design was an observational longitudinal study with annual follow-ups up to 6 years of 292 persons with dementia (72% Alzheimer’s disease, 56% female) in Cache County, UT using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-sb), and modified Mini Nutritional Assessment (mMNA). mMNA scores declined by approximately 0.50 points/year, suggesting increasing risk for malnutrition. Lower mMNA score predicted faster rate of decline on the MMSE at earlier follow-up times, but slower decline at later follow-up times, whereas higher mMNA scores had the opposite pattern (mMNA by time β = 0.22, p = 0.017; mMNA by time2 β = −0.04, p = 0.04). Lower mMNA score was associated with greater impairment on the CDR-sb over the course of dementia (β = 0.35, p < 0.001). Assessment of malnutrition may be useful in predicting rates of progression in dementia and may provide a target for clinical intervention. PMID:26967207

  14. Nutritional Status is Associated with Faster Cognitive Decline and Worse Functional Impairment in the Progression of Dementia: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study1.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Chelsea; Behrens, Stephanie; Schwartz, Sarah; Wengreen, Heidi; Corcoran, Chris D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Tschanz, JoAnn T

    2016-02-27

    Nutritional status may be a modifiable factor in the progression of dementia. We examined the association of nutritional status and rate of cognitive and functional decline in a U.S. population-based sample. Study design was an observational longitudinal study with annual follow-ups up to 6 years of 292 persons with dementia (72% Alzheimer's disease, 56% female) in Cache County, UT using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-sb), and modified Mini Nutritional Assessment (mMNA). mMNA scores declined by approximately 0.50 points/year, suggesting increasing risk for malnutrition. Lower mMNA score predicted faster rate of decline on the MMSE at earlier follow-up times, but slower decline at later follow-up times, whereas higher mMNA scores had the opposite pattern (mMNA by time β= 0.22, p = 0.017; mMNA by time2 β= -0.04, p = 0.04). Lower mMNA score was associated with greater impairment on the CDR-sb over the course of dementia (β= 0.35, p <  0.001). Assessment of malnutrition may be useful in predicting rates of progression in dementia and may provide a target for clinical intervention.

  15. Dementia and cognitive disorder identified at a forensic psychiatric examination - a study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekström, Anette; Kristiansson, Marianne; Björkstén, Karin Sparring

    2017-09-18

    Few studies have addressed the relationship between dementia and crime. We conducted a study of persons who got a primary or secondary diagnosis of dementia or cognitive disorder in a forensic psychiatric examination. In Sweden, annually about 500 forensic psychiatric examinations are carried out. All cases from 2008 to 2010 with the diagnoses dementia or cognitive disorder were selected from the database of the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. Out of 1471 cases, there were 54 cases of dementia or cognitive disorder. Case files were scrutinized and 17 cases of dementia and 4 cases of cognitive disorder likely to get a dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting were identified and further studied. There were 18 men and 3 women; Median age 66 (n = 21; Range 35-77) years of age. Eleven men but no women had a previous criminal record. There were a total of 38 crimes, mostly violent, committed by the 21 persons. The crimes were of impulsive rather that pre-meditated character. According to the forensic psychiatric diagnoses, dementia was caused by cerebrovascular disorder (n = 4), alcohol or substance abuse (n = 3), cerebral haemorrhage and alcohol (n = 1), head trauma and alcohol (n = 2), Alzheimer's disease (n = 2), Parkinson's disease (n = 1), herpes encephalitis (n = 1) and unspecified (3). Out of four persons diagnosed with cognitive disorder, one also had delusional disorder and another one psychotic disorder and alcohol dependence. An alcohol-related diagnosis was established in ten cases. There were only two cases of Dementia of Alzheimer's type, one of whom also had alcohol intoxication. None was diagnosed with a personality disorder. All but one had a history of somatic or psychiatric comorbidity like head traumas, stroke, other cardio-vascular disorders, epilepsy, depression, psychotic disorders and suicide attempts. In this very ill group, the suggested verdict was probation in one case and different forms of care in the remaining

  16. Incidence of Dementia over Three Decades in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Satizabal, Claudia L.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Chouraki, Vincent; Chêne, Geneviève; Dufouil, Carole; Seshadri, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of dementia is expected to soar as the average life expectancy increases, but recent estimates suggest that the age-specific incidence of dementia is declining in high-income countries. Temporal trends are best derived through continuous monitoring of a population over a long period with the use of consistent diagnostic criteria. We describe temporal trends in the incidence of dementia over three decades among participants in the Framingham Heart Study. METHODS Participants in the Framingham Heart Study have been under surveillance for incident dementia since 1975. In this analysis, which included 5205 persons 60 years of age or older, we used Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for age and sex to determine the 5-year incidence of dementia during each of four epochs. We also explored the interactions between epoch and age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 status, and educational level, and we examined the effects of these interactions, as well as the effects of vascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease, on temporal trends. RESULTS The 5-year age- and sex-adjusted cumulative hazard rates for dementia were 3.6 per 100 persons during the first epoch (late 1970s and early 1980s), 2.8 per 100 persons during the second epoch (late 1980s and early 1990s), 2.2 per 100 persons during the third epoch (late 1990s and early 2000s), and 2.0 per 100 persons during the fourth epoch (late 2000s and early 2010s). Relative to the incidence during the first epoch, the incidence declined by 22%, 38%, and 44% during the second, third, and fourth epochs, respectively. This risk reduction was observed only among persons who had at least a high school diploma (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 0.88). The prevalence of most vascular risk factors (except obesity and diabetes) and the risk of dementia associated with stroke, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure have decreased over time, but none of these trends completely explain the

  17. Social housing provision for minority ethnic older people with dementia: Findings from a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lipman, Valerie; Manthorpe, Gillian

    2015-11-08

    Little research has explored how not-for-profit housing providers, often termed Housing Associations in the United Kingdom, meet the needs of older tenants with dementia who are from black and ethnic minority communities. This article presents findings from an exploratory study conducted in 2015. The study took an audit approach, investigating current practice and policy in 12 Housing Associations. All were developing their understanding of dementia; some were augmenting their standard rented property portfolio to include housing with care provision; and most had policies relating to equalities and diversity and were offering dementia training to members of staff. None appeared to have fully integrated the three strands of housing services, dementia care, and cultural or ethnicity-related needs and preferences. A range of strategies was reported as being developed to meet tenants' changing circumstances. Anxiety about the cost of adaptations was commonly reported, although the nature and extent of this were ill-defined. Discussion focuses on the findings' implications for housing providers and for dementia professionals.

  18. Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dartigues, Jean François; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Le Goff, Mélanie; Viltard, Mélanie; Amieva, Hélène; Orgogozo, Jean Marc; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Helmer, Catherine

    2013-08-29

    To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. A prospective population-based study. In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. The risk of dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants developed dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. The risk of dementia was 15% lower in board game players than in non-players (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; p=0.04) after adjustment on age, gender, education and other confounders. The statistical significance disappeared after supplementary adjustment on baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and depression (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61). However, board game players had less decline in their MMSE score during the follow-up of the cohort (β=0.011, p=0.03) and less incident depression than non-players (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; p<0.03). A possible beneficial effect of board game playing on the risk of dementia could be mediated by less cognitive decline and less depression in elderly board game players.

  19. Gene-based association studies report genetic links for clinical subtypes of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Aniket; Ferrari, Raffaele; Heutink, Peter; Hardy, John; Pijnenburg, Yolande; Posthuma, Danielle

    2017-04-05

    Genome-wide association studies in frontotemporal dementia showed limited success in identifying associated loci. This is possibly due to small sample size, allelic heterogeneity, small effect sizes of single genetic variants, and the necessity to statistically correct for testing millions of genetic variants. To overcome these issues, we performed gene-based association studies on 3348 clinically identified frontotemporal dementia cases and 9390 controls (discovery, replication and joint-cohort analyses). We report association of APOE and TOMM40 with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and ARHGAP35 and SERPINA1 with progressive non-fluent aphasia. Further, we found the ɛ2 and ɛ4 alleles of APOE harbouring protective and risk increasing effects, respectively, in clinical subtypes of frontotemporal dementia against neurologically normal controls. The APOE-locus association with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia indicates its potential risk-increasing role across different neurodegenerative diseases, whereas the novel genetic associations of ARHGAP35 and SERPINA1 with progressive non-fluent aphasia point towards a potential role of the stress-signalling pathway in its pathophysiology.

  20. Designing prevention programmes to reduce incidence of dementia: prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Carrière, I; Berr, C; Artero, S; Ancelin, M-L

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the percentage reduction in incidence of dementia that would be obtained if specific risk factors were eliminated. Design Prospective seven year cohort study. Setting General population, Montpellier, France. Participants 1433 people aged over 65 with a mean baseline age of 72.5 (SD 5.1) years. Main outcome measures Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia established by a standardised neurological examination. Results Cox models were constructed to derive hazard ratios and determine confounding and interaction effects for potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia. Mean percentage population attributable fractions were calculated with 95% confidence intervals derived from bootstrapping for seven year incidence of mild cognitive impairment or dementia. The final model retained crystallised intelligence (population attributable fraction 18.11%, 95% confidence interval 10.91% to 25.42%), depression (10.31%, 3.66% to 17.17%), fruit and vegetable consumption (6.46%, 0.15% to 13.06%), diabetes (4.88%, 1.87% to 7.98%), and apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (7.11%, 2.44% to 11.98%). Conclusions Increasing crystallised intelligence and fruit and vegetable consumption and eliminating depression and diabetes are likely to have the biggest impact on reducing the incidence of dementia, outweighing even the effect of removing the principal known genetic risk factor. Although causal relations cannot be concluded with certainty, the study suggests priorities that may inform public health programmes. PMID:20688841

  1. Study partners perform essential tasks in dementia research and can experience burdens and benefits in this role.

    PubMed

    Black, Betty S; Taylor, Holly A; Rabins, Peter V; Karlawish, Jason

    2016-05-13

    Most studies that enroll individuals with dementia require a study partner for each participant. Study partners-usually family members-perform several key roles: accompanying the participant to visits, providing information about the participant, and assisting with procedures such as taking medication. Little is known, however, about their experiences when performing these roles. Dementia researchers and institutional review boards need to know these experiences because the study partner role is one key factor in a study's success. This prospective qualitative study, using up to three semi-structured interviews with 62 study partners involved in a range of dementia studies, documented their subjective experiences. Content analysis demonstrates that study partners perform a range of tasks-often within the context of being a caregiver-that enable cognitively impaired individuals to participate in dementia research. These tasks present study partners with unique burdens and benefits, some of which dementia researchers and institutional review boards can address.

  2. Curcumin as a therapeutic agent in dementia: a mini systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Brondino, Natascia; Re, Simona; Boldrini, Annalisa; Cuccomarino, Antonella; Lanati, Niccolò; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is a leading health problem worldwide, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) representing up to 60% of all dementia cases. A growing interest has recently risen on the potential use of natural molecules in this condition. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound traditionally used in Indian medicine. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have found a protective effect of curcumin in AD. In the present systematic review we aimed to evaluate the state-of-the-art of clinical trials of curcumin in AD. We retrieved three published studies, while there are several ongoing clinical trials. To date there is insufficient evidence to suggest the use of curcumin in dementia patients. Of note, short-term use of curcumin appears to be safe. Several reasons could be responsible for the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo findings and human trials, such as low bioavailability and poor study design.

  3. Cerebral Perfusion and the Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J; Zonneveld, Hazel I; Hofman, Albert; van der Lugt, Aad; Koudstaal, Peter J; Vernooij, Meike W; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-08-22

    Cerebral hypoperfusion has previously been associated with mild cognitive impairment and dementia in various cross-sectional studies, but whether hypoperfusion precedes neurodegeneration is unknown. We prospectively determined the association of cerebral perfusion with subsequent cognitive decline and development of dementia. Between 2005 and 2012, we measured cerebral blood flow by 2-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging in participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study without dementia. We determined the association of cerebral perfusion (mL/100mL/min) with risk of dementia (until 2015) using a Cox model, adjusting for age, sex, demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and apolipoprotein E genotype. We repeated analyses for Alzheimer disease and accounting for stroke. We used linear regression to determine change in cognitive performance during 2 consecutive examination rounds in relation to perfusion. Finally, we investigated whether associations were modified by baseline severity of white matter hyperintensities. Of 4759 participants (median age 61.3 years, 55.2% women) with a median follow-up of 6.9 years, 123 participants developed dementia (97 Alzheimer disease). Lower cerebral perfusion was associated with higher risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval per standard deviation decrease, 1.07-1.61), similar for Alzheimer disease only, and unaltered by accounting for stroke. Risk of dementia with hypoperfusion was higher with increasing severity of white matter hyperintensities (with severe white matter hyperintensities; hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.14). At cognitive reexamination after on average 5.7 years, lower baseline perfusion was associated with accelerated decline in cognition (global cognition: β=-0.029, P=0.003), which was similar after excluding those with incident dementia, and again most profound in individuals with higher volume of white matter hyperintensities (P value

  4. How do people with dementia utilise primary care physicians and specialists within dementia networks? Results of the Dementia Networks in Germany (DemNet-D) study.

    PubMed

    Wübbeler, Markus; Thyrian, Jochen René; Michalowsky, Bernhard; Erdmann, Pia; Hertel, Johannes; Holle, Bernhard; Gräske, Johannes; Schäfer-Walkmann, Susanne; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Outpatient dementia healthcare is predominantly fragmented, and dementia networks (DNs) represent an integrated care concept to overcome this problem. Little is known about the patients of these networks with regard to utilisation of physicians and associated factors. We interviewed 560 caregivers of people with dementia in 13 different DNs in Germany in 2013 and assessed socio-demographics, clinical data and physician utilisation. Networks were categorised in predominantly medical DNs and community-oriented DNs. Descriptive and multivariate statistical models were used to identify associated factors between DNs and users' data. Overall, the users of networks received high rates of physician care; 93% of the sample stated at least one contact with a primary care physician within the last 6 months, and 74% had been treated by a specialist (neurology/psychiatry physician). Only 5% of the sample had no contact with a physician in the 6 months preceding the interview. Females showed a lower odds for physician specialist consultations (OR = 0.641). Users of medical DNs receive greater specialist consultations overall (OR = 8.370). Compared to the German general population and people with dementia in other settings, users of DNs receive physician care more regularly, especially with regard to the consultations of neurologist/psychiatrists. Therefore, DNs seem to perform a supportive role within the integration of physician healthcare. More research is needed on the appropriate relationship between the needs of the people with dementia and utilisation behaviour. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Commissioning care for people with dementia at the end of life: a mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Gotts, Zoe M; Baur, Nicole; McLellan, Emma; Goodman, Claire; Robinson, Louise; Lee, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand how end-of-life (EoL) care for people with dementia is currently commissioned (ie, contracted) and organised, with a view to informing the development of commissioning guidance for good-quality community-based EoL care in dementia. Design Mixed-methods study; narrative review and qualitative interviews. Setting 8 National Health Service (NHS) clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) and five adult services across England. Methods Narrative review of evidence; 20 semistructured interviews (telephone and face-to-face) with professionals involved in commissioning EoL care for people with dementia. Main outcome measures Summary of the existing evidence base for commissioning, commissioners' approaches to the commissioning process for EoL care for people with dementia in England. Results: In the context of commissioning EoL for people with dementia, the literature review generated three key themes: (1) importance of joint commissioning; (2) lack of clarity for the process and (3) factors influencing commissioning. In exploring health professionals' perceptions of the commissioning process, ‘uncertainty’ was elicited as an overarching theme across the CCGs interviewed. Organisation of the process, lack of expertise, issues surrounding integration and the art of specification were considered important factors that contribute to the uncertainty surrounding the commissioning process. Conclusions The current evidence base for commissioning EoL care is limited with considerable uncertainty as how clinical commissioners in England undertake the process to ensure future services are evidence-based. PMID:28003297

  6. [Olfaction and dementia. Preliminary results of a clinical and experimental study with N-propanol].

    PubMed

    Richard, J; Bizzini, L

    1981-01-01

    Various reports concerning the oro-alimentary ducts of dements and increasing arguments in favour of a new etiopathogenic hypothesis for Pick's disease, involving impaired zinc metabolism and histological lesions partly linked with the hodology of the olfactory system, lie at the origin of our present clinical interest in olfaction. In a first stage, using a technique based on dilution with N-propanol, we observed certain conditions permitting an evaluation of the olfactory capacities of patients with Pick's disease, senile plaque dementia and neurofibrillary degenerescense. There does not seem to be a decline in olfaction with age. Olfactory capacities in the two forms of dementia studied were distinctly inferior to those of non-dements. Olfactory habituation was more marked, especially in Pick's disease where there were also paradoxical responses which seemed to form part of a more general change in reaction to stimulus. In senile plaque dementia and neurofibrillary degenerescence the response to olfactory stimulus declines with dilution of N-propanol and lesional extension. Observation of recorded parameters (EEG, psycho-galvanic reflex, ocular movement, breathing) is useful in Pick's disease and may be difficult in senile plaque dementia and neurofibrillary degenerescence. Olfactory capacities appear to constitute an additional criterion on which to base a diagnosis of dementia. They could be used to help establish the neuro-biological bases of certain types of demential behaviour and to observe the progress of tentative therapies.

  7. Empowering older people with early dementia and family caregivers: a participatory action research study.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Michie; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Kato, Motoko; Shiba, Tamami; Matsuura, Chieko; Shigenobu, Kazue; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Matsumoto, Naomi; Ikeda, Manabu

    2009-04-01

    The increase in the number of people suffering from dementia is of increasing global concern. A survey on the living conditions of the elderly in a Japanese rural community revealed a high prevalence of early dementia and the necessity for interventions not only for the elderly with early dementia but also for their families. To describe the implementation and process evaluation of a programme based on cognitive rehabilitation aimed at empowering the elderly with early dementia and education and counselling programmes aimed at likewise empowering their family caregivers. This study used a community health action research model. Participatory action research (PAR) was conducted through a cycle of planning, action, and reflection to identify effective interventions to empower participants with dementia (PsWD) and their caregivers. A rural town in Japan. This project involved 37 community-dwelling elderly with early or mild dementia and 31 family caregivers. A focus group interview was used for assessment. A monthly activity-based programme based on cognitive rehabilitation was developed to improve cognitive function. Three types of data were collected: observational data collected during the activities, written comments from the caregivers, the record of phone interviews and counsellings with caregivers. These data were compiled in chronological order into a portfolio for analysis. To empower family caregivers, educational and counselling programmes were offered. The PAR lasted for 5 years and evolved over three cycles: individual, group and community. In the first cycle, the major focus of the intervention was to regain procedural skills for each PWD through a cooking programme. In the second cycle, to increase interactions with family members and with other PsWD, group activities that promoted communication among family members as well as among PsWD were implemented. The collective values and the beliefs of the PsWD's generation were validated by a series of trips

  8. A MULTIVARIATE FINITE MIXTURE LATENT TRAJECTORY MODEL WITH APPLICATION TO DEMENTIA STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Dongbing; Xu, Huiping; Koller, Daniel; Foroud, Tatiana; Gao, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    Dementia patients exhibit considerable heterogeneity in individual trajectories of cognitive decline, with some patients showing rapid decline following diagnoses while others exhibiting slower decline or remaining stable for several years. Dementia studies often collect longitudinal measures of multiple neuropsychological tests aimed to measure patients’ decline across a number of cognitive domains. We propose a multivariate finite mixture latent trajectory model to identify distinct longitudinal patterns of cognitive decline simultaneously in multiple cognitive domains, each of which is measured by multiple neuropsychological tests. EM algorithm is used for parameter estimation and posterior probabilities are used to predict latent class membership. We present results of a simulation study demonstrating adequate performance of our proposed approach and apply our model to the Uniform Data Set (UDS) from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC) to identify cognitive decline patterns among dementia patients. PMID:27642206

  9. Application of iodine-123-labeled isopropylamphetamine imaging to the study of dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, P.; Gemmell, H.; Cherryman, G.; Besson, J.; Crawford, J.; Smith, F.

    1986-06-01

    Forty-seven patients diagnosed as clinically demented were imaged with 123I isopropylamphetamine (IMP). All of these patients also had a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study. In those patients diagnosed as having senile dementia of the Alzheimer type a bilateral reduction in IMP uptake in the temporo-parieto-occipital region was always seen. The NMR appearances were normal in 64% of these sites. The IMP images of patients with multi-infarct dementia varied from normal to marked focal deficits. There was, however, a much closer agreement between the abnormalities seen on the IMP and NMR images. In alcoholic dementia no focal areas of reduced IMP uptake were seen, although the uptake was generally irregular. In both Korsakoff's psychosis and Huntington's chorea the IMP uptake pattern and the NMR study were normal.

  10. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease Dementia Are More Similar to Alzheimer's Disease than Dementia with Lewy Bodies: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Pai-Yi; Tsai, Chun-Tang; Chen, Ping-Kun; Chen, Whe-Jen; Lai, Te-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the clinical and pathological manifestations of Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) have reported findings more similar to dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PDD compared to DLB and AD. We conducted a retrospective case-control study on 125 newly diagnosed consecutive PDD patients and age- and dementia stage-matched controls with either DLB (N = 250) or AD (N = 500) who visited the same hospital over the same period. For each case and control, neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Overall, 513 (58.6%) patients were female and 362 (41.4%) were male. Comparisons of clinical data revealed that the PDD group, similar to the AD group, had a lower NPI total score, NPI caregiver burden score, and rate of antipsychotic use (all p < 0.001) than the DLB group. One or more psychiatric symptoms were reported in 95.2% of the PDD, 99.2% of the DLB, and 96.8% of the AD patients. The PDD group had lower subscores in the items of delusions, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, irritation, aberrant motor behavior compared to the DLB group. Severe neuropsychiatric symptoms among all dementia patients were associated with younger age, more advanced stage, and a diagnosis of DLB. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in PDD were more like those in AD than in DLB. Severe neuropsychiatric symptoms in degenerative dementia were associated with younger age, more advanced stage of dementia, and a diagnosis of DLB.

  11. Incidence of Dementia Among Participants and Nonparticipants in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Cha, Ruth H.; Rocca, Walter A.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of incident dementia have been reported from several populations, the impact of nonparticipation on dementia incidence in studies of cognitive aging is unknown. In 2004, investigators with the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging selected persons aged 70–89 years from an enumeration of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents (age- and sex-stratified random sample). Of 4,398 potential participants, 2,050 agreed to undergo an in-person health assessment. Those participants were reevaluated in person using standard diagnostic procedures approximately every 15 months over a median follow-up period of 5.7 years (through September 15, 2013). There were 1,679 persons who refused any participation. A trained nurse abstractor reviewed the medical records of nonparticipants using the Rochester Epidemiology Project's medical record linkage system a median of 3.9 years after refusal. Nonparticipants had a higher prevalence of dementia than participants evaluated in person (6.5% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.0001). The standardized incidence of dementia was not significantly higher among the nonparticipants (23.2 per 1,000 person-years) than in those evaluated in person (19.6 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43 (P = 0.13); adjusted for education and sex, with age as the time scale). The small, nonsignificant impact of nonparticipation on rates of incident dementia is reassuring for future studies based on incident dementia cases. PMID:24859276

  12. Relation between caffeine and behavioral symptoms in elderly patients with dementia: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Kromhout, M A; Jongerling, J; Achterberg, W P

    2014-04-01

    Caffeine is known to improve concentration and reduce fatigue in healthy adults, but high doses may induce anxiety and agitation. Because the effects of caffeine in elderly people with dementia are unknown, this study explores the relation between caffeine and behavioral symptoms in a group of elderly patients with dementia. An observational pilot study. A dementia special care unit of a Dutch nursing home. A total of 29 elderly patients with dementia. Behavioral symptoms were measured with the NPI-NH, and sleep and caffeine consumption were measured using questionnaires. A significant relation was found between the total amount of caffeine consumed during the day and apathy [Kendall's tau (KT) -0.287 p=0.03], and the number of times that participants got up at night (KT 0.462; p <0.01). The amount of caffeine consumed after 6 p.m. was also significantly related to the number of times participants got up at night (KT 0.436; p <0.01). Multilevel analysis showed caffeine to be negatively correlated with aberrant motor behavior [b = -0.47 (0.22), Wald (461) = -2.12, p=0.03] and apathy [b = -0.88 (0.45), Wald (461)= -1.96, p=0.05], and showed a significant relation between caffeine consumption after 6 p.m. and the number of times participants got up at night [b=0.48 (0.22), Wald (461)= 2.20, p=0.03]. This study established an association between caffeine consumption and behavioral symptoms in elderly patients with moderately severe dementia. Therefore, adjusting caffeine consumption could be part of an interdisciplinary approach to behavioral symptoms, particularly when aberrant motor behavior, apathy or sleeping difficulties are involved. These results indicate that further research on the effects of caffeine on behavioral symptoms in dementia is warranted.

  13. Outreach visits to improve dementia care in general practice: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Trine; Kallerup, Hans; Rosendal, Marianne

    2007-10-01

    Outreach visits reflect newer developments in adult learning theory, where the learner is actively involved in the session. Previous studies have indicated a positive effect of outreach visits on GPs' behaviour. However, the empirical role of the facilitator in the visits is poorly described. To explore general practitioners' perception of the outcome of a facilitator programme about dementia, in relation to central aspects of the facilitator's communicative role during the visits. Observational studies, and focus group discussions with participating general practitioners (3 groups, 19 participants) as well as with facilitators (4 participants) in Vejle County, Denmark. Facilitators drew both on a 'factual' knowledge of dementia and a more 'experience-based' knowledge when conveying programme messages. They described themselves as 'carriers of experience'. All general practitioners described an outcome of the programme, and all wished to receive a future visit by a facilitator on new topics. The outcome was described not as ground-breaking medical news, but as practical effects in terms of knowledge of dementia, motivation for working with dementia, structured assessment and management of dementia and critical reflection of established practices regarding dementia. Some general practitioners remained critical as to whether this outcome justified the resources used in the programme. The experience-based dialogue was described as central to the outcome as it linked factual knowledge to clinical practice. This study confirms that outreach visits contribute to the integration of factual knowledge in clinical practice, but it also underscores the importance of addressing tacit communicative practices during facilitator visits and their implications for the outcome of the programme.

  14. Increasing enjoyable activities to treat depression in nursing home residents with dementia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Travers, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a behavioral activities intervention (BE-ACTIV) in Australian nursing homes. BE-ACTIV was developed by researchers at the University of Louisville, USA, to improve mood and quality of life (QOL) in nursing home residents with mild to moderate dementia. An eight-week trial was conducted and 10 residents with mild to moderate dementia received the BE-ACTIV intervention while eight residents received a Walking and Talking intervention. Measures of depression (GDS-12R) and QOL (QOL-AD-NH) were administered prior to and following the interventions. Qualitative feedback indicated residents benefited from BE-ACTIV, evident by improved mood, although no statistically significant treatment effect was found. Moreover, the intervention was found to be feasible and acceptable to Australian nursing home staff and our findings highlight the importance of individualizing activities for people with dementia, of which 1:1 staff attention was a key component.

  15. Quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease and neurodegenerative dementia: A nationally representative study.

    PubMed

    Chekani, Farid; Bali, Vishal; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2016-01-01

    The disability inherent to Parkinson's disease and dementia would suggest poor health-related quality of life for patients with these neurodegenerative conditions; however, the extent of disability from a nationally representative data has not been previously available. This study examined factors associated with the health-related quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease and dementia using nationally representative samples. The study used data from 2002 to 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative survey of households in the United States. The quality of life of patients was captured based on Physical Component Summary (PCS), Mental Component Summary (MCS), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Multivariate regression models were used to compare PCS, MCS, ADL and IADL across the two neurodegenerative conditions after controlling for various sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The weighted study population included 0.80 million (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 0.75-0.85) patients; those with Parkinson's disease accounted for 40.23% and remaining 59.77% were diagnosed with dementia. Mean age of the study population was 74.32 years (Standard Deviation, SD = 11.36). Most of the Parkinson's patients were male (57.70%), whereas most of the dementia patients were females (58.10%). The unadjusted mean PCS was 33.66 and 35.31 in Parkinson's and dementia patients, respectively (P < 0.01). Patients with Parkinson's disease were less likely to seek help for IADL than neurodegenerative dementia (Odds Ratio, OR = 0.68, P = 0.02). Various other individual, biological and environmental factors were also associated with quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease and neurodegenerative dementia. This study found that patients with Parkinson's disease had lower PCS and were less likely to seek help for IADL when compared to the patients with neurodegenerative dementia

  16. Mixed Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... community Use our Virtual Library Treatment and outcomes back to top Because most people with mixed dementia are diagnosed with a single type of dementia, physicians often base their prescribing decisions on the type of dementia ...

  17. Lifestyle factors and dementia in the oldest-old: The 90+ Study

    PubMed Central

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    Dementia incidence increases exponentially with age even in people aged 90 years and older. Because therapeutic regimens are limited, modification of lifestyle behaviors may offer the best means for disease control. To test the hypotheses that lifestyle factors are related to lower risk of dementia in the oldest-old, we analyzed data from The 90+ Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort study initiated in 2003. This analysis included 587 participants (mean age = 93 years) seen in-person and determined not to have dementia at enrollment. Information on lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, caffeine intake, vitamin supplement use, exercise and other activities) was obtained at enrollment and was available from data collected 20 years previously. After an average follow-up of 36 months, 268 participants were identified with incident dementia. No variable measured 20 years previously was associated with risk. Engagement in specific activities at time of enrollment, especially going to church/ synagogue and reading, was associated with significantly reduced risk. Consumers of 200+ mg/day of caffeine had a 34 per cent lower risk (HR=0.66, p<0.05) compared with those consuming <50 mg/day. Users of antioxidant vitamin supplements had 25 per cent lower risks compared with non-users. With reading, going to church, caffeine, and vitamin C supplements analyzed together, the HRs changed little and remained significant for reading (0.54, p=0.01) and going to church (HR=0.66, p<0.05) but were not significant for caffeine (HR=0.61, p=0.15) and vitamin C (HR= 0.68, p=0.07). This analysis suggests that lifestyle behaviors at approximately age 70 do not modify risk of late-life dementia. However, participation in activities and caffeine and supplemental vitamin intake around age 90 may reduce risk of dementia in the oldest-old, although cause and effect cannot be determined. PMID:25710250

  18. Associations between specific autoimmune diseases and subsequent dementia: retrospective record-linkage cohort study, UK.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Clare J; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether hospital admission for autoimmune disease is associated with an elevated risk of future admission for dementia. Retrospective, record-linkage cohort study using national hospital care and mortality administrative data, 1999-2012. Cohorts of people admitted to hospital with a range of autoimmune diseases were constructed, along with a control cohort, and followed forward in time to see if they developed dementia. 1 833 827 people were admitted to hospital with an autoimmune disease; the number of people in cohorts for each autoimmune disease ranged from 1019 people in the Goodpasture's syndrome cohort, to 316 043 people in the rheumatoid arthritis cohort. The rate ratio for dementia after admission for an autoimmune disease, compared with the control cohort, was 1.20 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.21). Where dementia type was specified, the rate ratio was 1.06 (1.04 to 1.08) for Alzheimer's disease and 1.28 (1.26 to 1.31) for vascular dementia. Of 25 autoimmune diseases studied, 18 showed significant positive associations with dementia at p<0.05 (with 14 significant at p<0.001) including Addison's disease (1.48, 1.34 to 1.64), multiple sclerosis (1.97, 1.88 to 2.07), psoriasis (1.29, 1.25 to 1.34) and systemic lupus erythematosus (1.46, 1.32 to 1.61). The associations with vascular dementia may be one component of a broader association between autoimmune diseases and vascular damage. Though findings were significant, effect sizes were small. Clinicians should be aware of the possible coexistence of autoimmune disease and dementia in individuals. Further studies are needed to confirm or refute our findings and to explore possible mechanisms mediating any elevation of risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Concomitant use of anti-dementia drugs with psychotropic drugs in Norway--a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Engdahl, Bo; Selbaek, Geir; Nordeng, Hedvig

    2011-12-01

    Concomitant use of anti-dementia drugs with psychotropic drugs is potentially problematic in patients with dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate how frequently patients in Norway use anti-dementia drugs concomitantly with psychotropic drugs. Analyses are based on data from the Norwegian Prescription Database. All patients who had an anti-dementia drug (ATC-code N06D) dispensed from a Norwegian pharmacy between January 2004 and July 2009 were included. A total of 33,816 individuals received anti-dementia drugs at some time during this period. The total concomitant use of anti-dementia drugs with psychotropic drugs was 57.4% in men and 65.8% in women. Compared with men, a significantly higher percentage of women used antidepressants (35.8% versus 27.2%), mild hypnotics (28.8% versus 23.6%), benzodiazepines (25.4% versus 20.8%) and opioids (22.8% versus 17.4%) concomitantly with anti-dementia drugs. Concomitant use of antipsychotics with anti-dementia drugs was about 16% for both male and female patients. Of the total sample, 11.9% of the women and 11.7% of the men used acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) anti-dementia drugs concomitantly with an interacting psychotropic drug. The concomitant use of psychotropic drugs with anti-dementia drugs was extensive, especially among women. Co-medication with potentially interacting drugs occurred at a rate of one in 10. The concomitant use of anti-dementia drugs with psychotropic drugs identified in this study may inform the ongoing clinical debate about drug use in this patient group. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Does Caring for a Spouse With Dementia Accelerate Cognitive Decline? Findings From the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Dassel, Kara Bottiggi; Carr, Dawn C; Vitaliano, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand our recent work, which showed that spousal dementia caregivers compared to spousal nondementia caregivers experience an accelerated rate of frailty over time, by exploring cognitive health outcomes between dementia and nondementia caregivers. Using 8 biannual waves of the Health and Retirement Study data and performance on the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, we examined changes in cognitive health among surviving spousal caregivers (N = 1,255) of individuals with dementia (n = 192) and without dementia (n = 1,063), 2 waves prior and 2 waves following the death of the care recipient. Controlling for baseline health and contextual factors (e.g., frailty status, age, education), results revealed that dementia caregivers had significantly greater cognitive decline (p < .01) compared to nondementia caregivers. Relative to 2 waves prior to the death of their spouse, dementia caregivers declined by 1.77 points relative to nondementia caregivers (0.87 points) at the time their spouses' deaths were reported and 1.89 relative to the 1.18 points at the wave following these deaths, respectively. The findings from this study show that spousal caregivers of persons with dementia experience accelerated cognitive decline themselves compared to nondementia caregivers. These results, along with our previous study findings, suggest that this vulnerable group could benefit from early cognitive screening and psychosocial interventions designed to help dementia caregivers better maintain their cognitive and physical health during and following their intensive caregiving responsibilities.

  1. Cognitive impairment and dementia after intracerebral hemorrhage: a cross-sectional study of a hospital-based series.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Pierre Yves; Roussel, Martine; Bugnicourt, Jean Marc; Lamy, Chantal; Canaple, Sandrine; Peltier, Johan; Loas, Gwénolé; Deramond, Hervé; Godefroy, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Frequencies of cognitive impairment and dementia have not been assessed in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The objective of this study was to determine the frequencies and patterns of cognitive impairment and dementia in a cross-sectional study of consecutive patients hospitalized in a single university medical center. Of 183 consecutive patients hospitalized between 2002 and 2006, 80 survivors were contacted and 78 were included (mean time since stroke 40 months). Thirty patients were scored with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in a telephone interview, and 48 underwent a comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment. Dementia was observed in 18 of 78 patients (23%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 13-32%) and cognitive impairment without dementia was seen in 37 of 48 patients (77%; 95% CI 65-89%). The cognitive disorders mainly concerned episodic memory (52%), psychomotor speed (44%), and executive function (37%), followed by language and visuoconstructive abilities. In a logistic regression analysis, Rankin score >1 at discharge and hemorrhage volume were the initial factors to be selected as a predictor of long-term dementia. This single-center, cross-sectional study revealed that the prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia after ICH are high and are similar to those observed in cerebral infarct. Further longitudinal, prospective studies are required to assess accurately the prevalence, mechanisms and predictors of post-ICH dementia. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activities of daily living and quality of life across different stages of dementia: a UK study.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2015-01-01

    People with dementia (PwD) require an increasing degree of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency may negatively impact on their well-being. However, it remains unclear which activities are impaired at each stage of dementia and to what extent this is associated with variations in quality of life (QoL) across the different stages, which were the two objectives of this study. The sample comprised 122 PwD, and their carers, either living at home or recently admitted to long-term care. Measures of cognition and QoL were completed by the PwD and proxy measures of psychopathology, depression, ADLs and QoL were recorded. Using frequency, correlation and multiple regression analysis, data were analysed for the number of ADL impairments across mild, moderate and severe dementia and for the factors impacting on QoL. ADL performance deteriorates differently for individual activities, with some ADLs showing impairment in mild dementia, including dressing, whereas others only deteriorate later on, including feeding. This decline may be seen in the degree to which carers perceive ADLs to explain the QoL of the PwD, with more ADLs associated with QoL in severe dementia. RESULTS of the regression analysis showed that total ADL performance however was only impacting on QoL in moderate dementia. Knowledge about performance deterioration in different ADLs has implications for designing interventions to address specific activities at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, findings suggest that different factors are important to consider when trying to improve or maintain QoL at different stages.

  3. Midlife Work-Related Stress Increases Dementia Risk in Later Life: The CAIDE 30-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Shireen; Hagman, Göran; Håkansson, Krister; Kulmala, Jenni; Nilsen, Charlotta; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia

    2016-04-08

    To investigate the associations between midlife work-related stress and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and Alzheimer's disease later in life, in a large representative population. Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study participants were randomly selected from independent population-based surveys (mean age 50 years). A random sample of 2,000 individuals was invited for two reexaminations including cognitive tests (at mean age 71 and mean age 78), and 1,511 subjects participated in at least one reexamination (mean follow-up 28.5 years). Work-related stress was measured using two questions on work demands that were administered in midlife. Analyses adjusted for important confounders. Higher levels of midlife work-related stress were associated with higher risk of MCI (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.76), dementia (OR, 1.53; CI, 1.13-2.07), and Alzheimer's disease (OR, 1.55; CI, 1.19-2.36) at the first follow-up among the CAIDE participants. Results remained significant after adjusting for several possible confounders. Work-related stress was not associated with MCI and dementia during the extended follow-up. Midlife work-related stress increases the risk for MCI, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease in later life. The association was not seen after the extended follow-up possibly reflecting selective survival/participation, heterogeneity in dementia among the oldest old, and a critical time window for the effects of midlife stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Dementia wander garden aids post cerebrovascular stroke restorative therapy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Detweiler, Mark B; Warf, Carlena

    2005-01-01

    An increasing amount of literature suggests the positive effects of nature in healthcare. The extended life expectancy in the US and the consequent need for long-term care indicates a future need for restorative therapy innovations to reduce the expense associated with long-term care. Moving carefully selected stroke patients' sessions to the peaceful setting of a dementia wander garden, with its designed paths and natural stimuli, may be beneficial. Natural settings have been shown to improve attention and reduce stress--both important therapy objectives in many post-stroke rehabilitation programs. In this case study, using the dementia wander garden for restorative therapy of a non-dementia patient was a novel idea for the restorative therapy group, which does not have a horticultural therapy program. The dementia wander garden stage of the post-stroke rehabilitation helped the patient through a period of treatment resistance. The garden provided both an introduction to the patient's goal of outdoor rehabilitation and a less threatening environment than the long-term care facility hallways. In part because the patient was less self-conscious about manifesting his post-stroke neurological deficits, falling, and being viewed as handicapped when in the dementia wander garden setting, he was able to resume his treatment plan and finish his restorative therapy. In many physical and mental rehabilitation plans, finding a treatment modality that will motivate an individual to participate is a principal goal. Use of a dementia wander garden may help some patients achieve this goal in post-stroke restorative therapy.

  5. Cerebral Vasoreactivity, Apolipoprotein E, and the Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Frank J; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Hofman, Albert; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR) is a key factor in maintenance of continuous cerebral perfusion and a marker of (micro)vascular damage. We aimed to determine the longitudinal relation between CVR and the risk of dementia in the general population. We determined CVR in nondemented participants who underwent transcranial Doppler with induced hypercapnia from 1997 to 1999, as part of the ongoing population-based Rotterdam Study. We used a Cox model to determine the risk of dementia in relation to CVR, adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and carotid intima-media thickness. We furthermore determined decline on a cognitive test battery in relation to CVR, using linear mixed models. Among 1629 participants (mean ± SD age 70.6 ± 6.2 years, 46.2% female) with a mean follow-up of 11.5 years, 209 were diagnosed with dementia, of whom 171 had Alzheimer disease. Higher CVR at baseline was associated with lower risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval, per SD increase: 0.87, 0.75-1.00) and Alzheimer disease (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.84; 0.71-0.99). This association was more profound in APOEε4 carriers than in noncarriers (adjusted hazard ratio for all dementia: 0.77, 0.60-0.98 versus 0.89, 0.73-1.07). Performance on cognitive tests at baseline was better with higher CVR (g-factor: P=0.02), but during 3 cognitive assessments over 11 years of follow-up, higher CVR at baseline was associated with less decline in test scores on the Stroop reading and interference tasks in APOEε4 carriers only (P=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Impaired CVR is associated with an increased risk of dementia in the general population. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Effects of indoor gardening on sleep, agitation, and cognition in dementia patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y; Kim, S

    2008-05-01

    A pilot study was performed to examine the efficacy of indoor gardening on sleep, agitation and cognition of dementia patients. Twenty-three institutionalized dementia patients who had sleep disturbance and/or agitation participated in a 5-week study protocol of 1 week of baseline and 4 weeks of treatment. The study design was a one group repeated measures study. For the first and fifth week of the study period, sleep patterns, agitation, and cognition were evaluated using a sleep diary, Modified Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale respectively. Significant improvement in wake after sleep onset, nap, nocturnal sleep time, and nocturnal sleep efficiency was identified. On the contrary sleep onset time, wake-up time, total sleep time did not change after indoor gardening. Agitation and cognition score was significantly improved. Indoor gardening was found to be effective for sleep, agitation, and cognition of dementia patients. Randomized controlled studies of larger sample size are needed to confirm treatment effect.

  7. Introducing a Latin ballroom dance class to people with dementia living in care homes, benefits and concerns: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-García, Azucena; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta; James, Ian

    2013-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of introducing a dance-based psychomotor intervention using Danzón (Latin ballroom) for people with dementia in care homes. This was a grounded theory qualitative study. Thirteen of the 22 participants had dementia and were care-home residents. The remaining participants were care staff and facilitators of the dance sessions. Interviews were undertaken with seven people with dementia and nine staff, resulting in two separate sets of grounded theory methodologies. Two conceptual models, outlining positive outcomes and negative concerns of the use of Danzón were developed, depicting the experiences of people with dementia and care staff respectively. Danzón psychomotor intervention was found to enhance positive emotional states and general levels of satisfaction for both people with dementia and care staff. The details of these findings have been used to design a quantitative study.

  8. Risk of dementia from proton pump inhibitor use in Asian population: A nationwide cohort study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Shu-Yu; Chien, Chen-Yu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Lin, Kun-Der; Ho, Bo-Lin; Chang, Yu-Han

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Concerns have been raised regarding the potential association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and dementia. Objective This study aimed to examine this association in an Asian population. Methods Patients initiating PPI therapy between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2003 without a prior history of dementia were identified from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. The outcome of interest was all-cause dementia. Cox regression models were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of dementia. The cumulative PPI dosage stratified by quartiles of defined daily doses and adjusted for baseline disease risk score served as the primary variables compared against no PPI use. Results We analyzed the data of 15726 participants aged 40 years or older and free of dementia at baseline. PPI users (n = 7863; average follow-up 8.44 years) had a significantly increased risk of dementia over non—PPI users (n = 7863; average follow-up 9.55 years) (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.42). A significant association was observed between cumulative PPI use and risk of dementia (P for trend = .013). Subgroup analysis showed excess frequency of dementia in PPI users diagnosed with depression (aHR 2.73 [1.91–3.89]), hyperlipidemia (aHR 1.81 [1.38–2.38]), ischemic heart disease (aHR 1.55 [1.12–2.14]), and hypertension (aHR 1.54 [1.21–1.95]). Conclusions An increased risk for dementia was identified among the Asian PPI users. Cumulative PPI use was significantly associated with dementia. Further investigation into the possible biological mechanisms underlying the relationship between dementia and PPI use is warranted. PMID:28199356

  9. Family caregivers' conceptualisation of quality end-of-life care for people with dementia: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nathan; Rait, Greta; Maio, Laura; Iliffe, Steve

    2017-09-01

    People with dementia have been described as the 'disadvantaged dying' with poor end-of-life care. Towards the end of life, people with dementia cannot report on the care they receive. It is therefore important to talk to caregivers; however, few have explored the views about end-of-life care from the caregivers' perspective. The majority of research on family caregivers has focussed on the burden and psychological impact of caring for a relative with dementia. This study aimed to explore the views of family caregivers about quality end-of-life care for people with dementia. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. Purposive sampling from a third sector organisation's caregiver network was used to recruit 47 caregivers in England (2012-2013), consisting of (1) family caregivers of someone who had recently received a diagnosis of dementia, (2) family caregivers currently caring for someone with dementia and (3) bereaved family caregivers. Three over-arching themes were derived from the interviewees' discourse, including maintaining the person within, fostering respect and dignity and showing compassion and kindness. End-of-life care for people with dementia does not differ from care throughout the dementia trajectory. Throughout the findings, there is an implicit underlying theme of conflict: conflict between family caregivers and an increasingly systematised service of care and conflict between family caregivers and professionals. This study has in particular demonstrated the importance of the psycho-social aspects of care, aligning with the holistic definition of palliative care.

  10. Impact of a person-centred dementia care training programme on hospital staff attitudes, role efficacy and perceptions of caring for people with dementia: A repeated measures study.

    PubMed

    Surr, C A; Smith, S J; Crossland, J; Robins, J

    2016-01-01

    People with dementia occupy up to one quarter of acute hospital beds. However, the quality of care delivered to this patient group is of national concern. Staff working in acute hospitals report lack of knowledge, skills and confidence in caring for people with dementia. There is limited evidence about the most effective approaches to supporting acute hospital staff to deliver more person-centred care. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a specialist training programme for acute hospital staff regarding improving attitudes, satisfaction and feelings of caring efficacy, in provision of care to people with dementia. A repeated measures design, with measures completed immediately prior to commencing training (T1), after completion of Foundation level training (T2: 4-6 weeks post-baseline), and following Intermediate level training (T3: 3-4 months post-baseline). One NHS Trust in the North of England, UK. 40 acute hospital staff working in clinical roles, the majority of whom (90%) were nurses. All participants received the 3.5 day Person-centred Care Training for Acute Hospitals (PCTAH) programme, comprised of two levels, Foundation (0.5 day) and Intermediate (3 days), delivered over a 3-4 months period. Staff demographics and previous exposure to dementia training were collected via a questionnaire. Staff attitudes were measured using the Approaches to Dementia Questionnaire (ADQ), satisfaction in caring for people with dementia was captured using the Staff Experiences of Working with Demented Residents questionnaire (SEWDR) and perceived caring efficacy was measured using the Caring Efficacy Scale (CES). The training programme was effective in producing a significant positive change on all three outcome measures following intermediate training compared to baseline. A significant positive effect was found on the ADQ between baseline and after completion of Foundation level training, but not for either of the other measures. Training acute hospital staff in

  11. A Study of the Criterion Validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Scheffel, Debora L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the criterion validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (S. Mattis, 1988) with a concurrent study to obtain a cut-off score for an Argentinean population by administering a battery of tests to 60 memory disorder patients. Findings demonstrate high convergent validity with another measure and show an appropriate cut score for use with…

  12. Dementia is associated with iron-deficiency anemia in females: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Kao, Li-Ting; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kang, Jiunn-Horng

    2014-11-15

    Cognitive derangement and neurological symptoms are observed in patients with anemia. Although it is still controversial, a few studies suggested that anemia may increase the risk of dementia. This study aimed to explore the association between iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) and dementia in a population-based case-control study. We retrieved our study sample from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We extracted 8300 subjects with a diagnosis of dementia and 8300 age- and gender-matched controls. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of prior IDA between cases and controls (6.0% vs. 3.8%, p<0.001). The conditional logistic regression analysis suggested that the odds ratio (OR) of prior IDA for cases was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.07-1.74) compared to controls after adjusting for subjects' monthly income, geographic location, urbanization level, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and alcohol abuse. Among female subjects, the adjusted OR of prior IDA for cases was as high as 2.00 (95% CI: 1.42-2.80) compared to controls. However, in men-no increased odds of prior IDA were observed, compared to controls. We concluded that women with dementia had a higher prevalence of prior IDA, compared to controls.

  13. Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

  14. Fluent Aphasia in Telugu: A Case Comparison Study of Semantic Dementia and Stroke Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alladi, Suvarna; Mridula, Rukmini; Mekala, Shailaja; Rupela, Vani; Kaul, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    This study presents two cases with fluent aphasia in Telugu with semantic dementia and post-stroke fluent aphasia. Comparable scores were obtained on the conventional neuropsychological and language tests that were administered on the two cases. Both cases demonstrated fluent, grammatical and well-articulated speech with little content, impaired…

  15. Vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Korczyn, Amos D; Vakhapova, Veronika; Grinberg, Lea T

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic grow of dementia causes great concern for the society. It is customary to consider Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as the most common cause of dementia, followed by vascular dementia (VaD). This dichotomous view of a neurodegenerative disease as opposed to brain damage caused by extrinsic factors led to separate lines of research in these two entities. Indeed, accumulated data suggest that the two disorders have additive effects and probably interact; however it is still unknown to what degree. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown “vascular” risk factors to be associated with AD. Therefore, a clear distinction between AD and VaD cannot be made in most cases, and is furthermore unhelpful. In the absence of efficacious treatment for the neurodegenerative process, special attention must be given to vascular component, even in patients with presumed mixed pathology. Symptomatic treatment of VaD and AD are similar, although the former is less effective. For prevention of dementia it is important to treat aggressively all factors, even in stroke survivors who do not show evidence of cognitive decline,. In this review, we will give a clinical and pathological picture of the processes leading to VaD and discuss it interaction with AD. PMID:22575403

  16. Orthostatic Hypotension and the Long-Term Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Frank J.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2016-01-01

    Background Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a common cause of transient cerebral hypoperfusion in the population. Cerebral hypoperfusion is widely implicated in cognitive impairment, but whether OH contributes to cognitive decline and dementia is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association between OH and the risk of developing dementia in the general population. Methods and Findings Between 4 October 1989 and 17 June 1993, we assessed OH in non-demented, stroke-free participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study. OH was defined as a ≥20 mm Hg drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or ≥10 mm Hg drop in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) within 3 min from postural change. We furthermore calculated within participant variability in SBP related to postural change, expressed as coefficient of variation. Follow-up for dementia was conducted until 1 January 2014. We determined the risk of dementia in relation to OH and SBP variability, using a Cox regression model, adjusted for age; sex; smoking status; alcohol intake; SBP; DBP; cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio; diabetes; body mass index; use of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, or anticholinergic medication; and apolipoprotein E genotype. Finally, we explored whether associations varied according to compensatory increase in heart rate. Among 6,204 participants (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 68.5 ± 8.6 y, 59.7% female) with a median follow-up of 15.3 y, 1,176 developed dementia, of whom 935 (79.5%) had Alzheimer disease and 95 (8.1%) had vascular dementia. OH was associated with an increased risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.15, 95% CI 1.00–1.34, p = 0.05), which was similar for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Similarly, greater SBP variability with postural change was associated with an increased risk of dementia (aHR per SD increase 1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.16, p = 0.02), which was similar when excluding those who fulfilled the formal criteria for OH (aHR 1.08, 95% CI 1

  17. A two decade dementia incidence comparison from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies I and II

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, F. E.; Stephan, B. C. M.; Robinson, L.; Jagger, C.; Barnes, L. E.; Arthur, A.; Brayne, C.; Comas-Herrera, A.; Wittenberg, R.; Dening, T.; McCracken, C.F.M.; Moody, C.; Parry, B.; Green, E.; Barnes, R.; Warwick, J.; Gao, L.; Mattison, A.; Baldwin, C.; Harrison, S.; Woods, B.; McKeith, I.G.; Ince, P.G.; Wharton, S.B.; Forster, G.

    2016-01-01

    Dramatic global increases in future numbers of people with dementia have been predicted. No multicentre population-based study powered to detect changes over time has reported dementia incidence. MRC Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) undertook baseline interviews in populations aged 65+ years in England and Wales (1989–1994). Three areas (CFAS I) were selected for new sampling two decades later (2008–2011) with same geographical boundaries, sampling and approach methods (CFAS II). At 2 years CFAS I interviewed 5,156 (76% response) with 5,288 interviewed in CFAS II (74% response). Here we report a 20% drop in incidence (95% CI: 0–40%), driven by a reduction in men across all ages above 65. In the UK we estimate 209,600 new dementia cases per year. This study was uniquely designed to test for differences across geography and time. A reduction of age-specific incidence means that the numbers of people estimated to develop dementia in any year has remained relatively stable. PMID:27092707

  18. Ocular Fundus Photography as a Tool to Study Stroke and Dementia.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol Y; Chen, Christopher; Wong, Tien Y

    2015-10-01

    Although cerebral small vessel disease has been linked to stroke and dementia, due to limitations of current neuroimaging technology, direct in vivo visualization of changes in the cerebral small vessels (e.g., cerebral arteriolar narrowing, tortuous microvessels, blood-brain barrier damage, capillary microaneurysms) is difficult to achieve. As the retina and the brain share similar embryological origin, anatomical features, and physiologic properties with the cerebral small vessels, the retinal vessels offer a unique and easily accessible "window" to study the correlates and consequences of cerebral small vessel diseases in vivo. The retinal microvasculature can be visualized, quantified and monitored noninvasively using ocular fundus photography. Recent clinic- and population-based studies have demonstrated a close link between retinal vascular changes seen on fundus photography and stroke and dementia, suggesting that ocular fundus photography may provide insights to the contribution of microvascular disease to stroke and dementia. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on retinal vascular changes, such as retinopathy and changes in retinal vascular measures with stroke and dementia as well as subclinical makers of cerebral small vessel disease, and discuss the possible clinical implications of these findings in neurology. Studying pathologic changes of retinal blood vessels may be useful for understanding the etiology of various cerebrovascular conditions; hence, ocular fundus photography can be potentially translated into clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Prevalence of Dementia in People Aged 60 Years and Above: Results from the WiSE Study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Chua, Hong Choon; Eng, Goi Khia; Heng, Derrick; Hia, Soo Boon; Huang, Wanping; Jeyagurunathana, Anitha; Kua, Joshua; Lee, Siau Pheng; Mahendran, Rathi; Magadi, Harish; Malladi, Srinivasa; McCrone, Paul; Pang, Shirlene; Picco, Louisa; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Sambasivam, Rajeswari; Seng, Kok Han; Seow, Esmond; Shafie, Saleha; Shahwan, Shazana; Tan, Lay Ling; Yap, Mabel; Zhang, YunJue; Ng, Li Ling; Prince, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of an aging population with its expected attendant problem of an increase in the number of people with dementia is a growing concern across the world. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence and risk factors of dementia in Singapore among the elderly resident population (aged 60 years and above). The WiSE study was a comprehensive single phase, cross-sectional, epidemiological survey that adapted the 10/66 protocol to establish the 10/66 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders -fourth edition (DSM-IV) diagnosis of dementia. 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia diagnosis as established by the survey questionnaires was validated by comparing against a gold standard of clinical assessment. A total of 2,565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.6%. The validity of 10/66 dementia was higher (sensitivity = 95.6%, specificity = 81.8%) than that of DSM-IV dementia (sensitivity = 75.6%, specificity = 88.6%) when compared against the clinical gold standard. The study found that the prevalence of 10/66 dementia was 10% in the older adult population while the prevalence of DSM-IV dementia was 4.6%. Older age (75 years and above); no formal education, or completed primary education (versus higher education); homemaker and retired status (versus employed); and a history of stroke were associated with a higher risk of 10/66 dementia. The establishment of accurate data on the number of people with dementia is essential in the planning of services and initiatives.

  20. Ethical dilemmas concerning autonomy when persons with dementia wish to live at home: a qualitative, hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Smebye, Kari Lislerud; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut

    2016-01-19

    Caring for people with dementia living in their own homes is a challenging care issue that raises ethical dilemmas of how to balance autonomy with their safety and well-being. The theoretical framework for this study consisted of the concepts of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, paternalism and from the ethics of care. The aim of this study was to explore ethical dilemmas concerning autonomy that were identified when persons with dementia wished to live at home. This Norwegian study had a qualitative, hermeneutic design and was based on nine cases. Each case consisted of of a triad: the person with dementia, the family carer and the professional caregiver. Inclusion criteria for the persons with dementia were: (1) 67 years or older (2) diagnosed with dementia (3) Clinical Dementia Rating score 2 i.e. dementia of moderate degree (4) able to communicate verbally and (5) expressed a wish to live at home. The family carers and professional caregivers registered in the patients' records were included in the study. An interview guide was used in interviews with family carers and professional caregivers. Field notes were written after participant observation of interactions between persons with dementia and professional caregivers during morning care or activities at a day care centre. By means of deductive analysis, autonomy-related ethical dilemmas were identified. The final interpretation was based on perspectives from the theoretical framework. The analysis revealed three main ethical dilemmas: When the autonomy of the person with dementia conflicted with (1) the family carer's and professional caregiver's need to prevent harm (non-maleficence) (2) the beneficence of family carers and professional caregivers (3) the autonomy of the family carer. In order to remain living in their own homes, people with dementia accepted their dependence on others in order to uphold their actual autonomy and live in accordance with their identified values. Paternalism could be

  1. Delayed help seeking behavior in dementia care: preliminary findings from the Clinical Pathway for Alzheimer's Disease in China (CPAD) study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei; Lv, Xiaozhen; Tuerxun, Maimaitirexiati; He, Jincai; Luo, Benyan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Kai; Gu, Ping; Kuang, Weihong; Zhou, Yuying; Qu, Qiumin; He, Jianhua; Zhang, Nan; Feng, Yongping; Wang, Yanping; Yu, Xin; Wang, Huali

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence and factors associated with delays in help seeking for people with dementia in China are unknown. Within 1,010 consecutively registered participants in the Clinical Pathway for Alzheimer's Disease in China (CPAD) study (NCT01779310), 576 persons with dementia (PWDs) and their informants reported the estimated time from symptom onset to first medical visit seeking diagnosis. Univariate analysis of general linear model was used to examine the potential factors associated with the delayed diagnosis seeking. The median duration from the first noticeable symptom to the first visit seeking diagnosis or treatment was 1.77 years. Individuals with a positive family history of dementia had longer duration (p = 0.05). Compared with other types of dementia, people with vascular dementia (VaD) were referred for diagnosis earliest, and the sequence for such delays was: VaD < Alzheimer's disease (AD) < frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (p < 0.001). Subtypes of dementia (p < 0.001), family history (p = 0.01), and education level (p = 0.03) were associated with the increased delay in help seeking. In China, seeking diagnosis for PWDs is delayed for approximately 2 years, even in well-established memory clinics. Clinical features, family history, and less education may impede help seeking in dementia care.

  2. Midlife smoking, apolipoprotein E and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a population-based cardiovascular risk factors, aging and dementia study.

    PubMed

    Rusanen, M; Rovio, S; Ngandu, T; Nissinen, A; Tuomilehto, J; Soininen, H; Kivipelto, M

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of midlife smoking on the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and the possible modification of this relation by the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4. Participants of the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia study were randomly selected from population-based samples originally studied in midlife (1972, 1977, 1982 or 1988). After an average follow-up of 21 years, 1,449 persons (73%) aged 65-79 years took part in a reexamination in 1998. Smoking in midlife increased the risk of dementia (odds ratio, OR: 4.93; 95% CI: 1.51-16.11) and AD (OR: 6.56; 95% CI: 1.80-23.94) among the APOE ε4 carriers, but not among the APOE ε4 noncarriers. Midlife smoking was associated with an increased risk of dementia and AD later in life only among those individuals carrying the APOE ε4 allele. These results suggest that the association between smoking and AD may be complex and vary according to genotype. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Association between dementia and midlife risk factors: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Masunari, Naomi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Suzuki, Gen

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the association between midlife risk factors and the development of vascular dementia (VaD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) 25 to 30 years later. A prevalence study within a longitudinal cohort study. Subjects in the Adult Health Study (a prospective cohort study begun in 1958) have been followed through biennial medical examinations in Hiroshima, Japan. One thousand seven hundred seventy-four subjects in Hiroshima, Japan born before September 1932 (1,660 with no dementia, 114 with dementia (51 with AD, and 38 with VaD) diagnosed from 1992 to 1997 according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria). The subjects were examined for effect on dementia of sex, age, education, atomic bomb radiation dose, and midlife factors associated with risk (smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, dietary habits, systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index, and history of diabetes mellitus) that had been evaluated in 1965-1970. VaD prevalence increased significantly with age, higher SBP, and lower milk intake. The odds ratios of VaD for age (in 5-year increments), SBP (10 mmHg increments), and milk intake (almost daily/less than four times a week) were 1.29, 1.33, and 0.35, respectively. The risk factors for VaD were compatible with the risk factors for stroke in this study population. AD prevalence increased significantly with age and lower education. Other midlife factors and radiation dose did not show any significant association with VaD or AD. Increased SBP and low milk intake in midlife were associated with VaD detected 25 to 30 years later. Early behavioral control of the risk factors for vascular disease might reduce the risk of dementia.

  4. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  5. Association between mid- to late life physical fitness and dementia: evidence from the CAIDE study.

    PubMed

    Kulmala, J; Solomon, A; Kåreholt, I; Ngandu, T; Rantanen, T; Laatikainen, T; Soininen, H; Tuomilehto, J; Kivipelto, M

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the association between perceived physical fitness at midlife, changes in perceived fitness during the three decades from mid- to late life and dementia risk. Prospective cohort study. Cardiovascular risk factors, ageing and incidence of dementia (CAIDE) study. Subjects were selected from four independent, random samples of population-based cardiovascular surveys and were first examined in 1972, 1977, 1982 or 1987, when they were on average 50 years old. The CAIDE target population included 3559 individuals. A random sample of 2000 individuals still alive in 1997 was drawn for re-examinations (performed in 1998 and 2005-2008) that consisted of cognitive assessments, with 1511 subjects participating in at least one re-examination. Dementia diagnoses were also confirmed from national registers for the entire target population. All-cause dementia. Poor physical fitness at midlife was associated with increased dementia risk in the entire target population [hazard ratio (HR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0]. In participants, odds ratio (OR) was 2.0 (95% CI, 0.9-4.0). This association was significant in apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOEε4) noncarriers (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4-13.3), men (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.0) and people with chronic conditions (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3-6.6). A decline in fitness after midlife was also associated with dementia (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7-5.1), which was significant amongst both men and women and more pronounced in APOEε4 carriers (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.1-9.1). Perceived poor physical fitness reflects a combination of biological and lifestyle-related factors that can increase dementia risk. A simple question about perceived physical fitness may reveal at-risk individuals who could benefit from preventive interventions. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  6. Reversible Cognitive Frailty, Dementia, and All-Cause Mortality. The Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Scafato, Emanuele; Seripa, Davide; Lozupone, Madia; Imbimbo, Bruno P; D'Amato, Angela; Tortelli, Rosanna; Schilardi, Andrea; Galluzzo, Lucia; Gandin, Claudia; Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Inzitari, Domenico; Daniele, Antonio; Sabbà, Carlo; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Panza, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive frailty, a condition describing the simultaneous presence of physical frailty and mild cognitive impairment, has been recently defined by an international consensus group. We estimated the predictive role of a "reversible" cognitive frailty model on incident dementia, its subtypes, and all-cause mortality in nondemented older individuals. We verified if vascular risk factors or depressive symptoms could modify this predictive role. Longitudinal population-based study with 3.5- and 7-year of median follow-up. Eight Italian municipalities included in the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging. In 2150 older individuals from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging, we operationalized reversible cognitive frailty with the presence of physical frailty and pre-mild cognitive impairment subjective cognitive decline, diagnosed with a self-report measure based on item 14 of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Incidence of dementia, its subtypes, and all-cause mortality. Over a 3.5-year follow-up, participants with reversible cognitive frailty showed an increased risk of overall dementia [hazard ratio (HR) 2.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-5.18], particularly vascular dementia (VaD), and all-cause mortality (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.07-2.83). Over a 7-year follow-up, participants with reversible cognitive frailty showed an increased risk of overall dementia (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.12-4.03), particularly VaD, and all-cause mortality (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.03-2.00). Vascular risk factors and depressive symptoms did not have any effect modifier on the relationship between reversible cognitive frailty and incident dementia and all-cause mortality. A model of reversible cognitive frailty was a short- and long-term predictor of all-cause mortality and overall dementia, particularly VaD. The absence of vascular risk factors and depressive symptoms did not modify the predictive role of reversible cognitive frailty on these outcomes. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  7. Hallucinations and signs of parkinsonism help distinguish patients with dementia and cortical Lewy bodies from patients with Alzheimer's disease at presentation: a clinicopathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Ala, T A; Yang, K H; Sung, J H; Frey, W H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare, in a retrospective clinicopathological study, the presentation features of patients with dementia and cortical Lewy bodies (Lewy body dementia) with those of patients with Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: From a population of 426 cases from the dementia brain bank, 39 cases of Lewy body dementia and 61 cases of Alzheimer's disease with presentation details were identified. RESULTS: The Lewy body dementia group had significantly more frequent hallucinations (23% v 3%, P = 0.006) and signs of parkinsonism (41% v 5%, P < 0.0001) than the Alzheimer's disease group. The Lewy body dementia group also had a greater proportion of men (62% v 34%, P = 0.013). CONCLUSION: Hallucinations and signs of parkinsonism help distinguish Lewy body dementia from Alzheimer's disease at presentation. These indicators may not be very sensitive, because they were reported for less than half of the patients with Lewy body dementia. PMID:9010394

  8. Pareidolia in Parkinson's disease without dementia: A positron emission tomography study.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Makoto; Nishio, Yoshiyuki; Yokoi, Kayoko; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Takeda, Atsushi; Mori, Etsuro

    2015-06-01

    Pareidolia, which is a particular type of complex visual illusion, has been reported to be a phenomenon analogous to visual hallucinations in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. However, whether pareidolia is observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) or whether there are common underlying mechanisms of these two types of visual misperceptions remains to be elucidated. A test to evoke pareidolia, the Pareidolia test, was administered to 53 patients with PD without dementia and 24 healthy controls. The regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose was measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the PD patients. PD patients without dementia produced a greater number of pareidolic illusions compared with the controls. Pareidolia was observed in all of the patients having visual hallucinations as well as a subset of those without visual hallucinations. The number of pareidolic illusions was correlated with hypometabolism in the bilateral temporal, parietal and occipital cortices. The index of visual hallucinations was correlated with hypometabolism in the left parietal cortex. A region associated with both pareidolia and visual hallucinations was found in the left parietal lobe. Our study suggests that PD patients without dementia experience pareidolia more frequently than healthy controls and that posterior cortical dysfunction could be a common neural mechanism of pareidolia and visual hallucinations. Pareidolia could represent subclinical hallucinations or a predisposition to visual hallucinations in Lewy body disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with early cortical dementia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, S R; Nagaraju, B C

    2013-10-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of the currently available tools carries poor sensitivity resulting in significant delay in specific diagnosis of cortical dementias. Considering the properties of default mode networking of the brain it is highly probable that specific changes may be seen in frontotemporal dementias (FTDs) and Alzheimer's disease sufficiently early. The aim of this study is to look for changes in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in cortical dementia. Evaluated with a single pulse TMS with the figure of eight coil and recorded from right first dorsal interossei (FDI). Resting Motor Threshold (RMT) was estimated on the opposite motor cortex (T1). Second site of stimulation was cervical spine at C7-T2. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) is equal toT1-T2. Silent Period (SP) identified by applying TMS pulse to contracting FDI. RMT was reduced in seven out of eight Alzheimer's dementias. CMCT was in the upper limit of normal in both patients with FTD. The most consistent observation was that SP was reduced and there were escape discharges noticed during the SP suggesting increased cortical excitability and decreased cortical inhibition. This suggests probable early asymptomatic changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) nergic and cholinergic system is taking place. This if confirmed may give some insight into early diagnosis and therapeutic role of GABA agonists in these disorders.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with early cortical dementia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, S. R.; Nagaraju, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The diagnostic accuracy of the currently available tools carries poor sensitivity resulting in significant delay in specific diagnosis of cortical dementias. Considering the properties of default mode networking of the brain it is highly probable that specific changes may be seen in frontotemporal dementias (FTDs) and Alzheimer's disease sufficiently early. Aim: The aim of this study is to look for changes in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in cortical dementia. Materials and Methods: Evaluated with a single pulse TMS with the figure of eight coil and recorded from right first dorsal interossei (FDI). Resting Motor Threshold (RMT) was estimated on the opposite motor cortex (T1). Second site of stimulation was cervical spine at C7-T2. Central motor conduction time (CMCT) is equal toT1-T2. Silent Period (SP) identified by applying TMS pulse to contracting FDI. Conclusions: RMT was reduced in seven out of eight Alzheimer's dementias. CMCT was in the upper limit of normal in both patients with FTD. The most consistent observation was that SP was reduced and there were escape discharges noticed during the SP suggesting increased cortical excitability and decreased cortical inhibition. This suggests probable early asymptomatic changes in the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) nergic and cholinergic system is taking place. This if confirmed may give some insight into early diagnosis and therapeutic role of GABA agonists in these disorders. PMID:24339592

  11. Connecting the person with dementia and family: a feasibility study of a telepresence robot

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maintenance of communication is important for people with dementia living in long-term care. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using “Giraff”, a telepresence robot to enhance engagement between family and a person with dementia living in long-term care. Methods A mixed-methods approach involving semi-structured interviews, call records and video observational data was used. Five people with dementia and their family member participated in a discussion via the Giraff robot for a minimum of six times over a six-week period. A feasibility framework was used to assess feasibility and included video analysis of emotional response and engagement. Results Twenty-six calls with an average duration of 23 mins took place. Residents showed a general state of positive emotions across the calls with a high level of engagement and a minimal level of negative emotions. Participants enjoyed the experience and families reported that the Giraff robot offered the opportunity to reduce social isolation. A number of software and hardware challenges were encountered. Conclusions Participants perceived this novel approach to engage families and people with dementia as a feasible option. Participants were observed and also reported to enjoy the experience. The technical challenges identified have been improved in a newer version of the robot. Future research should include a feasibility trial of longer duration, with a larger sample and a cost analysis. PMID:24456417

  12. Connecting the person with dementia and family: a feasibility study of a telepresence robot.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Wendy; Jones, Cindy; Cooke, Marie; O'Dwyer, Siobhan; Sung, Billy; Drummond, Suzie

    2014-01-24

    Maintenance of communication is important for people with dementia living in long-term care. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using "Giraff", a telepresence robot to enhance engagement between family and a person with dementia living in long-term care. A mixed-methods approach involving semi-structured interviews, call records and video observational data was used. Five people with dementia and their family member participated in a discussion via the Giraff robot for a minimum of six times over a six-week period. A feasibility framework was used to assess feasibility and included video analysis of emotional response and engagement. Twenty-six calls with an average duration of 23 mins took place. Residents showed a general state of positive emotions across the calls with a high level of engagement and a minimal level of negative emotions. Participants enjoyed the experience and families reported that the Giraff robot offered the opportunity to reduce social isolation. A number of software and hardware challenges were encountered. Participants perceived this novel approach to engage families and people with dementia as a feasible option. Participants were observed and also reported to enjoy the experience. The technical challenges identified have been improved in a newer version of the robot. Future research should include a feasibility trial of longer duration, with a larger sample and a cost analysis.

  13. Clinical history for diagnosis of dementia in men: Caerphilly Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Creavin, Sam; Fish, Mark; Gallacher, John; Bayer, Antony; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of dementia often requires specialist referral and detailed, time-consuming assessments. Aim To investigate the utility of simple clinical items that non-specialist clinicians could use, in addition to routine practice, to diagnose all-cause dementia syndrome. Design and setting Cross-sectional diagnostic test accuracy study. Participants were identified from the electoral roll and general practice lists in Caerphilly and adjoining villages in South Wales, UK. Method Participants (1225 men aged 45–59 years) were screened for cognitive impairment using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination, CAMCOG, at phase 5 of the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS). Index tests were a standardised clinical evaluation, neurological examination, and individual items on the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Disorders in the Elderly (IQCODE). Results Two-hundred and five men who screened positive (68%) and 45 (4.8%) who screened negative were seen, with 59 diagnosed with dementia. The model comprising problems with personal finance and planning had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.86 to 0.97), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 23.7 (95% CI = 5.88 to 95.6), negative likelihood ratio (LR−) of 0.41 (95% CI = 0.27 to 0.62). The best single item for ruling out was no problems learning to use new gadgets (LR− of 0.22, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.43). Conclusion This study found that three simple questions have high utility for diagnosing dementia in men who are cognitively screened. If confirmed, this could lead to less burdensome assessment where clinical assessment suggests possible dementia. PMID:26212844

  14. [Advance euthanasia directives in dementia rarely carried out. Qualitative study in physicians and patients].

    PubMed

    Rurup, Mette L; Pasman, H R W Roeline; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2010-01-01

    To study how advance euthanasia directives (AEDs) in dementia are viewed in practice in the Netherlands. Qualitative study. In-depth interviews on nine patients with the patients themselves and/or partners and their physicians. The patients were included from a cohort of people with an AED. All interviews were done in 2006. Cases were included with different diagnoses and at different stages of dementia. Interviewed patients and their relatives had very high expectations of the feasibility of the AED. Interviewed physicians often thought of AEDs as aids in starting up a dialogue about medical decisions at the end of life, but they did not always do this in practice. Most physicians were open to adhering to AEDs in exceptional cases, on condition that the patient obviously suffered, and that communication with the patient to some extent was possible. In this study two cases were found in which adhering to the AED was seriously considered. In one case, fear of legal consequences was the only reason the physician had not adhered to the AED, while it seemed all the requirements of due care could be met. Euthanasia was not carried out in the other patient either. Several physicians mentioned the need for more detailed practical guidelines for the use of AEDs for dementia. Patients had too high expectations of AEDs. It seemed that in exceptional cases the requirements for due care for euthanasia can be met in patients with dementia with an AED. It seems advisable that more detailed practical guidelines for the use of AEDs in cases of dementia be drawn up, as a first step to more clarity for patients and physicians.

  15. Clinical history for diagnosis of dementia in men: Caerphilly Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Creavin, Sam; Fish, Mark; Gallacher, John; Bayer, Antony; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2015-08-01

    Diagnosis of dementia often requires specialist referral and detailed, time-consuming assessments. To investigate the utility of simple clinical items that non-specialist clinicians could use, in addition to routine practice, to diagnose all-cause dementia syndrome. Cross-sectional diagnostic test accuracy study. Participants were identified from the electoral roll and general practice lists in Caerphilly and adjoining villages in South Wales, UK. Participants (1225 men aged 45-59 years) were screened for cognitive impairment using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination, CAMCOG, at phase 5 of the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS). Index tests were a standardised clinical evaluation, neurological examination, and individual items on the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Disorders in the Elderly (IQCODE). Two-hundred and five men who screened positive (68%) and 45 (4.8%) who screened negative were seen, with 59 diagnosed with dementia. The model comprising problems with personal finance and planning had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.86 to 0.97), positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 23.7 (95% CI = 5.88 to 95.6), negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.41 (95% CI = 0.27 to 0.62). The best single item for ruling out was no problems learning to use new gadgets (LR- of 0.22, 95% CI = 0.11 to 0.43). This study found that three simple questions have high utility for diagnosing dementia in men who are cognitively screened. If confirmed, this could lead to less burdensome assessment where clinical assessment suggests possible dementia. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  16. Music and dementia.

    PubMed

    Baird, Amee; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of dementia in our aging population, and consequently an urgent need to develop treatments and activities that may alleviate the symptoms of dementia. Accumulating evidence shows that persons with dementia enjoy music, and their ability to respond to music is potentially preserved even in the late or severe stages of dementia when verbal communication may have ceased. Media interest in this topic has contributed to the public perception that music abilities are an "island of preservation" in an otherwise cognitively impaired person with dementia. In this chapter, we review the current literature on music cognition in dementia and show that there has been very scarce rigorous scientific investigation of this issue, and that various types of music memory exist and are differentially impaired in the different types of dementia. Furthermore, we discuss the recent development of music activities as a nonpharmacological treatment for dementia and highlight the methodological limitations of the current literature on this topic. While it has been reported that music activities can improve behavior, (particularly agitation), mood, and cognition in persons with dementia, recent large-scale randomized control studies have questioned the specificity of the effect of music and found that it is no more beneficial than other pleasant activities. Nevertheless, music is unique in its powerful ability to elicit both memories and emotions. This can provide an important link to individual's past and a means of nonverbal communication with carers, which make it an ideal stimulus for persons with dementia.

  17. Incidence of dementia in very elderly individuals: a clinical, neuropathological and molecular genetic study.

    PubMed

    Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sulkava, Raimo; Rastas, Sari; Sutela, Annamaija; Niinistö, Leena; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Verkkoniemi, Auli; Viramo, Petteri; Juva, Kati; Haltia, Matti

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of medical record use on figures for the incidence of dementia and the effect of apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism on this incidence and neuropathologically defined Alzheimer's disease (AD) in very elderly individuals. Cognitive functions were examined in a cohort of 328 (92% of the very elderly people of a town participated in this study) nondemented Finnish elderly individuals 85 years of age or more in 1991. The examination was repeated in survivors in 1994, 1996, 1999 and 2001. Medical notes and social work records were evaluated. All these individuals were genotyped for APOE. Neuropathological analysis of AD-type pathology was performed on 159 of 303 subjects who died during the follow-up. Age group, gender or APOE did not significantly affect the incidence of dementia, which was over 20% higher (85 vs. 69 per 1,000 person-years) if the cognitive status at death was ascertained by medical and social work records than without this evaluation. The APOE upsilon4 allele was highly significantly (p=0.002) and age almost significantly (p=0.06) associated with neuropathological AD in nondemented individuals. Medical records should be analyzed in studies on the incidence of dementia in very elderly individuals. APOE polymorphism does not affect the incidence of dementia in this age group. However, clinical dementia diagnosis in very elderly individuals does not necessarily correlate well with the presence of neuropathological AD which, even in this age group, is significantly associated with the APOE upsilon4 allele. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Cognitive Trajectory Changes Over 20 Years Before Dementia Diagnosis: A Large Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge; Larson, Eric B; Shofer, Jane B; Crane, Paul K; Gibbons, Laura E; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D; Thompson, Mary Lou

    2017-09-21

    Longitudinal studies have shown an increase in cognitive decline many years before clinical diagnosis of dementia. We sought to estimate changes, relative to "normal" aging, in the trajectory of scores on a global cognitive function test-the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). A prospective cohort study. Community-dwelling members of a U.S. health maintenance organization. Individuals aged 65 and older who had no dementia diagnosis at baseline and had at least two visits with valid CASI test score (N = 4,315). Average longitudinal trajectories, including changes in trajectory before clinical diagnosis in those who would be diagnosed with dementia, were estimated for CASI item response theory (IRT) scores. The impact of sex, education level, and APOE genotype on cognitive trajectories was assessed. Increased cognitive decline relative to "normal" aging was evident in CASI IRT at least 10 years before clinical diagnosis. Male gender, lower education, and presence of ≥1 APOE ε4 alleles were associated with lower average IRT scores. In those who would be diagnosed with dementia, a trajectory change point was estimated at an average of 3.1 years (95% confidence interval 3.0-3.2) before clinical diagnosis, after which cognitive decline appeared to accelerate. The change point did not differ by sex, education level, or APOE ε4 genotype. There were subtle differences in trajectory slopes by sex and APOE ε4 genotype, but not by education. Decline in average global cognitive function was evident at least 10 years before clinical diagnosis of dementia. The decline accelerated about 3 years before clinical diagnosis. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Development of a Late-Life Dementia Prediction Index with Supervised Machine Learning in the Population-Based CAIDE Study.

    PubMed

    Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Ngandu, Tiia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a late-life dementia prediction model using a novel validated supervised machine learning method, the Disease State Index (DSI), in the Finnish population-based CAIDE study. The CAIDE study was based on previous population-based midlife surveys. CAIDE participants were re-examined twice in late-life, and the first late-life re-examination was used as baseline for the present study. The main study population included 709 cognitively normal subjects at first re-examination who returned to the second re-examination up to 10 years later (incident dementia n = 39). An extended population (n = 1009, incident dementia 151) included non-participants/non-survivors (national registers data). DSI was used to develop a dementia index based on first re-examination assessments. Performance in predicting dementia was assessed as area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUCs for DSI were 0.79 and 0.75 for main and extended populations. Included predictors were cognition, vascular factors, age, subjective memory complaints, and APOE genotype. The supervised machine learning method performed well in identifying comprehensive profiles for predicting dementia development up to 10 years later. DSI could thus be useful for identifying individuals who are most at risk and may benefit from dementia prevention interventions.

  20. Development of a Late-Life Dementia Prediction Index with Supervised Machine Learning in the Population-Based CAIDE Study

    PubMed Central

    Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Ngandu, Tiia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: This study aimed to develop a late-life dementia prediction model using a novel validated supervised machine learning method, the Disease State Index (DSI), in the Finnish population-based CAIDE study. Methods: The CAIDE study was based on previous population-based midlife surveys. CAIDE participants were re-examined twice in late-life, and the first late-life re-examination was used as baseline for the present study. The main study population included 709 cognitively normal subjects at first re-examination who returned to the second re-examination up to 10 years later (incident dementia n = 39). An extended population (n = 1009, incident dementia 151) included non-participants/non-survivors (national registers data). DSI was used to develop a dementia index based on first re-examination assessments. Performance in predicting dementia was assessed as area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: AUCs for DSI were 0.79 and 0.75 for main and extended populations. Included predictors were cognition, vascular factors, age, subjective memory complaints, and APOE genotype. Conclusion: The supervised machine learning method performed well in identifying comprehensive profiles for predicting dementia development up to 10 years later. DSI could thus be useful for identifying individuals who are most at risk and may benefit from dementia prevention interventions. PMID:27802228

  1. Survival and early recourse to care for dementia: A population based study.

    PubMed

    Pimouguet, Clément; Delva, Fleur; Le Goff, Mélanie; Stern, Yaakov; Pasquier, Florence; Berr, Claudine; Tzourio, Christophe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Helmer, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    A large proportion of dementia cases are still undiagnosed. Although early dementia care has been hypothesized to benefit both patients and families, evidence-based benefits are lacking. Thus, investigating the benefits for newly demented persons according to their recourse to care in the "real life" appears critical. We examined the relation between initial care recourse care and demented individuals' survival in a large cohort of incident dementia cases screened in a prospective population-based cohort, the Three-City Study. We assessed recourse to care for cognitive complaint at the early beginning of dementia when incident cases were screened. We classified patients in three categories: no care recourse, general practitioner consultation or specialist consultation. We used proportional hazard regression models to test the association between recourse to care and mortality, adjusting on socio-demographical and clinical characteristics. Two hundred and fifty-three incident dementia participants were screened at the 2 year or 4 year follow-up. One third of the incident demented individuals had not consulted a physician for cognitive problems. Eighty-six (34.0%) individuals had reported a cognitive problem only to their general practitioner (GP) and 80 (31.6%) had consulted a specialist. Mean duration of follow-up after incident dementia was 5.1 years, during which 146 participants died. After adjustment on potential confounders, participants who had consulted a specialist early in the disease course presented a poorer survival than those who did not consult any physician (hazard ratio = 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.03-2.62). There was a trend but no significant differential survival profile between participants who complained to their GP and those without any care recourse. Neither recourse to a specialist nor recourse to GP improve survival of new dementia cases. Those who had consulted a specialist early in the disease course even reported a worse life

  2. Perceptions of exercise for older people living with dementia in Bangkok, Thailand: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Karuncharernpanit, Sirikul; Hendricks, Joyce; Toye, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a significant issue globally, including in Thailand, and exercise is known to have health benefits for people living with dementia. However, little is known about exercise acceptable to, and feasible for, this population group in low-to-middle income countries although, more broadly, it is recognised that health-related behaviours are influenced by the perceptions of the individual, which exist within a cultural context. To explore and describe perceptions of appropriate exercise for people living with dementia in Bangkok, Thailand. Qualitative exploratory descriptive. Bangkok, Thailand. Nine professionals - experts in exercise, dementia care and relevant policy development - and nine dyads of people with dementia and their family caregivers all recruited using purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews subjected to thematic analysis. Three themes emerged: how exercise was defined, perceived benefits of exercise and how exercise should be implemented. Professionals recognised three exercise elements: aerobic exercise plus balance and strength training. Dyads recognised home-based activities (e.g., housework) and walking. Both groups recognised benefits of exercise in maintaining health and function and improving mood and sleep. Only health professionals identified falls risk reduction. There was limited appreciation of benefits for caregivers by maintaining function in care recipients. Professionals deemed that exercise should address all three elements, using easily accessible low-cost resources. The need for safety was emphasised, and there was agreement that in-home exercise was appropriate. Family/cultural values were evident that could present barriers to exercise implementation. Changing health-related behaviours requires an understanding of individual perspectives, which exist within a cultural context. This study has illuminated the Thai context and has implications beyond this. Findings emphasise a need for potential benefits to be

  3. Lifestyle Behavior Pattern Predicts Incident Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease. The Cache County Study

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Maria C.; Dew, Jeffrey; Smith, Heeyoung; Fauth, Elizabeth; Piercy, Kathleen W.; Breitner, John C.S.; Tschanz, JoAnn; Wengreen, Heidi; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cognitive decline and dementia risk have been associated with diet, exercise, social interaction, church attendance, alcohol consumption and smoking. OBJECTIVES To identify distinct behavioral patterns, and to examine their association with subsequent dementia risk. DESIGN Longitudinal, population-based dementia study. SETTING Rural county in northern Utah, at-home evaluations. PARTICIPANTS 2,491 non-demented participants (51% male) initially reported no problems in activities of daily living and no stroke or head injury within past five years. Average age was 73.01 (SD=5.69) years and average education 13.67 (SD=4.10) years. MEASUREMENTS Six dichotomized lifestyle behaviors included: Diet: high = above median on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scale; Exercise: 5+ hours/week of light activity and at least occasional moderate/vigorous activity; Church attendance: attending church services at least weekly; Social Interaction: spending time with family/friends at least twice weekly; Alcohol: currently drinking alcoholic beverages 2+/week; Non-smoker: no current use (or former if < 100 cigarettes ever). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified patterns among these behaviors. Proportional hazards regression modeled time to dementia onset as a function of behavioral class, age, gender, education, APOE status. Follow-up averaged 6.32 (SD=5.31) years, revealing 278 cases of incident dementia (200 AD). RESULTS LCA identified four distinct lifestyle classes. “Unhealthy-Religious” (UH-R; 11.5%), “Unhealthy-Non-Religious” (UH-NR; 10.5%), “Healthy-Moderately Religious” (H-MR; 38.5%), and “Healthy-Very Religious” (H-VR; 39.5%). Compared to UH-R class, UH-NR (Hazard Ratio, HR=.54, p=.028), H-MR (HR=.56, p=.003), and H-VR (HR=.58, p=.005) had significantly lower dementia risk. Results were comparable for AD, except that UH-NR was less definitive. CONCLUSION Functionally independent older adults appear to cluster into subpopulations having

  4. Green Tea Consumption and the Risk of Incident Dementia in Elderly Japanese: The Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    PubMed

    Tomata, Yasutake; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Kaiho, Yu; Honkura, Kenji; Watanabe, Takashi; Zhang, Shu; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2016-10-01

    Biologic studies have shown that certain components of green tea may have protective effects on neurocognition. However, because of the lack of human epidemiologic studies, the impact of green tea consumption on the incidence of dementia has never been confirmed. The objective of this cohort study was to clarify the association between green tea consumption and incident dementia. In this 5.7-year prospective cohort study, using a questionnaire, information on daily green tea consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected from elderly Japanese individuals aged 65 years or more. Data on incident dementia were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance Database. Among 13,645 participants, the 5.7-year rate of incident dementia was 8.7%. More frequent green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of incident dementia (hazard ratio for ≥5 cups/day versus <1 cup/day: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.87). The lower risk of incident dementia was consistent even after selecting participants who did not have subjective memory complaints at the baseline. Green tea consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dying in hospital with dementia and pneumonia: a nationwide study using death certificate data.

    PubMed

    Houttekier, Dirk; Reyniers, Thijs; Deliens, Luc; Van Den Noortgate, Nele; Cohen, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    For people with dementia dying from pneumonia, hospitalization at the end of life may be of little benefit and result in unfavourable outcomes such as hospital death. The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of and factors associated with hospital death in people with dementia dying from pneumonia. We used death certificate data of all deaths in Belgium in 2008 (n = 101,685) to examine characteristics of deaths of people with dementia dying from pneumonia. Information about the urbanization level of the place of residence and the availability of hospital beds, residential (without continuous skilled nursing) and skilled nursing beds in long-term care settings was linked through the zip code of the place of residence. Of people with dementia dying from pneumonia (n = 1,420), 47.2% died in hospital. Of those living in long-term care settings, 25.6% died in hospital. For people living in their own home, hospital death was more likely for those who were single (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.83, 95% CI 1.30-6.16) and living in strongly urbanized areas (AOR 2.48, 95% CI 1.47-4.18). For those living in long-term care settings, hospital death was more likely in regions with higher availability of residential beds (without continuous skilled nursing) in long-term care settings (AOR per unit 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03). Almost half of all those with dementia dying from pneumonia and a quarter of those living in long-term care settings died in a hospital. These results suggest shortcomings in the Belgian healthcare system in preventing potentially avoidable terminal hospitalizations in a vulnerable population.

  6. Counsellors contact dementia caregivers - predictors of utilisation in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Counselling of family members is an established procedure in the support of dementia patients' relatives. In absence of widespread specialised dementia care services in most countries, however, counselling services are often not taken up or only very late in the course of the disease. Object In order to promote acceptance of this service, a new counselling concept was implemented where general practitioners recommended family counsellors, who then actively contacted the family caregivers to offer counselling ("Counsellors Contact Caregivers", CCC). The research questions were: To what extent can the rate of family counselling be increased by CCC? What are the predictors for usage of this form of family counselling? Methods The study started in June 2006 in Middle Franconia for patients with mild to moderate dementia. At baseline, 110 family caregivers were offered counselling based on the CCC guideline. Data was analysed from 97 patient-caregiver dyads who received counselling for one year. The mean age of the patients with dementia (67 women and 30 men) was 80.7 years (SD = 6.2). The mean age of their primary family caregivers (68 women, 23 men) was 60.8 years (SD = 13.8). Results 35 family members (36%) made use of more extensive counselling (more than one personal contact). By contrast, 29 family members (30%) had no personal contact or only one personal contact (33 cases, 34%). The factors "spouse" (p = .001) and "degree of care" (p = .005) were identified as significant predictors for acceptance of extensive counselling. Conclusions Actively contacting patients and their caregivers is a successful means of establishing early and frequent contact with family members of patients with mild to moderate dementia. Use of extensive counselling is made especially by spouses of patients requiring intensified care. Trial Registration ISRCTN68329593 PMID:20470365

  7. Elder-clowning in long-term dementia care: Results of a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kontos, Pia; Miller, Karen-Lee; Colobong, Romeo; Lazgare, Luis Ivan Palma; Binns, Malcolm; Low, Lee-Fay; Surr, Claire; Naglie, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of elder-clowning on moderate to severe behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in nursing home residents with dementia, primarily of the Alzheimer’s type. Design Before-after study. Setting Nursing home. Participants Twenty-three nursing home residents with moderate to severe BPSD defined by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH) score of ≥10, and their care aides. Intervention A pair of elder-clowns visited all residents twice weekly (approximately 10 minutes per visit) for 12 weeks. They utilized improvisation, humor and empathy, as well as expressive modalities such as song, musical instruments, and dance to individualize resident engagement. Measurements Primary outcomes were BPSD measured by the NPI-NH, quality of life measured by Dementia Care Mapping (DCM), and nursing burden of care measured by the Modified Nursing Care Assessment Scale (M-NCAS). Secondary outcomes included occupational disruptiveness measured by the NPI-NH, agitation measured by the Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), and psychiatric medication use. Results Over 12 weeks, NPI-NH scores significantly declined (t22 = −2.68, p = 0.01) and DCM quality of life scores significantly improved (F1,50 = 23.09, p < 0.001). CMAI agitation scores decreased nominally, but was not statistically significant (t22 = −1.86, p = 0.07). The occupational disruptiveness score significantly improved (t22 = −2.58, p = 0.02), yet there was no appreciable change in M-NCAS scores of staff burden of care. Conclusion Results suggest that elder-clowning reduced moderate to severe BPSD of nursing home residents with dementia, primarily of the Alzheimer’s type. Elder-clowning is a promising intervention that may improve Alzheimer’s dementia care for nursing home residents. PMID:26889843

  8. Everyday decision-making in dementia: findings from a longitudinal interview study of people with dementia and family carers.

    PubMed

    Samsi, Kritika; Manthorpe, Jill

    2013-06-01

    Exercising choice and control over decisions is central to quality of life. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 (England and Wales) provides a legal framework to safeguard the rights of people with dementia to make their own decisions for as long as possible. The impact of this on long-term planning has been investigated; everyday decision-making in people's own homes remains unexplored. Using a phenomenological approach, we interviewed 12 dyads (one person with dementia + one carer) four times over one year to ascertain experience of decision-making, how decisions were negotiated, and how dynamics changed. Qualitative interviews were conducted in people's own homes, and thematic analysis was applied to transcripts. Respecting autonomy, decision-specificity and best interests underlay most everyday decisions in this sample. Over time, dyads transitioned from supported decision-making, where person with dementia and carer made decisions together, to substituted decision-making, where carers took over much decision-making. Points along this continuum represented carers' active involvement in retaining their relative's engagement through providing cues, reducing options, using retrospective information, and using the best interests principle. Long-term spouse carers seemed most equipped to make substitute decisions for their spouses; adult children and friend carers struggled with this. Carers may gradually take on decision-making for people with dementia. This can bring with it added stresses, such as determining their relative's decision-making capacity and weighing up what is in their best interests. Practitioners and support services should provide timely advice to carers and people with dementia around everyday decision-making, and be mindful how abilities may change.

  9. Risk of subsequent dementia in patients with hypertensive encephalopathy: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Shih; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Chi-Yu; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association of hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) with subsequent dementia. Using universal insurance claims data, we identified a study cohort of 5,504 participants with HE newly diagnosed between 1997 and 2010 and a comparison cohort of 22,016 healthy participants. Incidence and risks of dementia were estimated for both cohorts until the end of 2010. The dementia incidence was 1.45-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.27-1.66] higher in the study cohort than in the comparison cohort, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.38 (95% CI = 1.19-1.59) for the study cohort. The risk was higher for males than for females and elderly patients. With an incidence of 13.4 per 1,000 person-years, the HR of dementia increased to 2.09 (95% CI = 1.18-3.71) for the HE patients with the comorbidities of head injury and diabetes compared to those without HE and comorbidities. The risk of developing dementia declined with the follow-up time. Hypertensive patients with HE displayed a significantly higher risk for dementia than those without HE. The risk increased further in those with the comorbidities of head injury and diabetes. Physicians should be aware of the link between HE and dementia when assessing patients with HE. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Impact of Physical Activity on Cognitive Decline, Dementia, and Its Subtypes: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Noor A.; Adam, Mohd B.; Said, Salmiah Md

    2017-01-01

    The association of physical activity with dementia and its subtypes has remained controversial in the literature and has continued to be a subject of debate among researchers. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on the relationship between physical activity and the risk of cognitive decline, all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia among nondemented subjects are considered. A comprehensive literature search in all available databases was conducted up until April 2016. Well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed with focus on prospective studies ≥ 12 months. The overall sample from all studies is 117410 with the highest follow-up of 28 years. The analyses are performed with both Bayesian parametric and nonparametric models. Our analysis reveals a protective effect for high physical activity on all-cause dementia, odds ratio of 0.79, 95% CI (0.69, 0.88), a higher and better protective effect for Alzheimer's disease, odds ratio of 0.62, 95% CI (0.49, 0.75), cognitive decline odds ratio of 0.67, 95% CI (0.55, 0.78), and a nonprotective effect for vascular dementia of 0.92, 95% CI (0.62, 1.30). Our findings suggest that physical activity is more protective against Alzheimer's disease than it is for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia, and cognitive decline. PMID:28271072

  11. Impact of Physical Activity on Cognitive Decline, Dementia, and Its Subtypes: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Guure, Chris B; Ibrahim, Noor A; Adam, Mohd B; Said, Salmiah Md

    2017-01-01

    The association of physical activity with dementia and its subtypes has remained controversial in the literature and has continued to be a subject of debate among researchers. A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on the relationship between physical activity and the risk of cognitive decline, all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and vascular dementia among nondemented subjects are considered. A comprehensive literature search in all available databases was conducted up until April 2016. Well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed with focus on prospective studies ≥ 12 months. The overall sample from all studies is 117410 with the highest follow-up of 28 years. The analyses are performed with both Bayesian parametric and nonparametric models. Our analysis reveals a protective effect for high physical activity on all-cause dementia, odds ratio of 0.79, 95% CI (0.69, 0.88), a higher and better protective effect for Alzheimer's disease, odds ratio of 0.62, 95% CI (0.49, 0.75), cognitive decline odds ratio of 0.67, 95% CI (0.55, 0.78), and a nonprotective effect for vascular dementia of 0.92, 95% CI (0.62, 1.30). Our findings suggest that physical activity is more protective against Alzheimer's disease than it is for all-cause dementia, vascular dementia, and cognitive decline.

  12. General anesthesia exposure and risk of dementia: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Dong, Yunxia; Huang, Wei; Bao, Min

    2017-08-29

    The association between exposure to general anesthesia and dementia risk has been inconsistently reported across epidemiological studies. To better understand the association, we conducted a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. PubMed and Embase were searched through April 2017. Random-effects models were used to pool association estimates. We further evaluated potential dose-response relationship. Based on literature search, seven prospective/cohort studies, 11 case-control studies, and a pooled analysis of six case-control studies were identified. Sixteen of these studies were with high quality. After pooling available risk estimates, overall no significant association between exposure to general anesthesia (yes versus no) and dementia risk was detected (odds ratio (OR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.19, p for heterogeneity < 0.001). The null association persisted in the majority of subgroup analyses, although a significant positive association was detected in studies collecting anesthesia exposure using records (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.47, p for heterogeneity < 0.001), a method that is less prone to bias compared with interview or questionnaire using proxy reporters. Based on the dose-response analysis of three studies, a significant nonlinear relationship between times of exposure to general anesthesia and increased risk of dementia was suggested (p < 0.0001). Overall, this meta-analysis suggests that overall the evidence from epidemiological studies supporting a link between general anesthesia exposure and an increased dementia risk is not very strong, while an association was suggested in the studies collecting anesthesia exposure using records and those providing anesthesia exposure frequency data. Further well-designed studies are warranted to better characterize the relationship of interest.

  13. Hospitalization, Depression and Dementia in Community-Dwelling Older Americans: Findings from the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Davydow, Dimitry S.; Zivin, Kara; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of both dementia and depression among community-dwelling older Americans, and to determine if hospitalization is independently associated with dementia or depression in this population. Method This cross-sectional study utilized data from a nationally representative, population-based sample of 7,197 community-dwelling adults ≥ 65 years old interviewed in 2011 as part of the National Health and Aging Trends Study. Information on hospitalizations was obtained from self or proxy-report. Possible and probable dementia was assessed according to a validated algorithm. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Results An estimated 3.1 million community-dwelling older Americans may have dementia, and approximately 5.3 million may have substantial depressive symptoms. After adjusting for demographic and social characteristics, medical diagnoses, smoking history, serious falls, and pain symptoms, being hospitalized in the previous year was independently associated with greater odds of probable dementia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.42, 95% confidence interval[95%CI]: 1.16, 1.73) and substantial depressive symptoms (OR: 1.60, 95%CI: 1.29, 1.99). Conclusions Dementia and depression are common in community-dwelling older Americans, and hospitalization is associated with these conditions. Additional research increasing understanding of the bi-directional relationship between hospitalizations, dementia, and depression, along with targeted interventions to reduce hospitalizations, are needed. PMID:24388630

  14. Strategies to support engagement and continuity of activity during mealtimes for families living with dementia; a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather H; Martin, Lori Schindel; Dupuis, Sherry; Reimer, Holly; Genoe, Rebecca

    2015-10-09

    Mealtimes are an essential part of living and quality of life for everyone, including persons living with dementia. A longitudinal qualitative study provided understanding of the meaning of mealtimes for persons with dementia and their family care partners. Strategies were specifically described by families to support meaningful mealtimes. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the strategies devised and used by these families living with dementia. A longitudinal qualitative study was undertaken to explore the meaning and experience of mealtimes for families living with dementia over a three-year period. 27 families [older person with dementia and at least one family care partner] were originally recruited from the community of South-Western Ontario. Individual and dyad interviews were conducted each year. Digitally recorded transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Strategies were identified and categorized. Strategies to support quality mealtimes were devised by families as they adapted to their evolving lives. General strategies such as living in the moment, as well as strategies specific to maintaining social engagement and continuity of mealtime activities were reported. In addition to nutritional benefit, family mealtimes provide important opportunities for persons with dementia and their family care partners to socially engage and continue meaningful roles. Strategies identified by participants provide a basis for further education and support to families living with dementia.

  15. Predicting dementia in primary care patients with a cardiovascular health metric: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hessler, Johannes Baltasar; Ander, Karl-Heinz; Brönner, Monika; Etgen, Thorleif; Förstl, Hans; Poppert, Holger; Sander, Dirk; Bickel, Horst

    2016-07-26

    Improving cardiovascular health possibly decreases the risk of dementia. Primary care practices offer a suitable setting for monitoring and controlling cardiovascular risk factors in the older population. The purpose of the study is to examine the association of a cardiovascular health metric including six behaviors and blood parameters with the risk of dementia in primary care patients. Participants (N = 3547) were insurants aged ≥55 of the largest German statutory health insurance company, who were enrolled in a six-year prospective population-based study. Smoking, physical activity, body mass index, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose were assessed by general practitioners at routine examinations. Using recommended cut-offs for each factor, the patients' cardiovascular health was classified as ideal, moderate, or poor. Behaviors and blood parameters sub-scores, as well as a total score, were calculated. Dementia diagnoses were retrieved from health insurance claims data. Results are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Over the course of the study 296 new cases of dementia occurred. Adjusted for age, sex, and education, current smoking (HR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.09-2.85), moderate (1.38, 1.05-1.81) or poor (1.81, 1.32-2.47) levels of physical activity, and poor fasting glucose levels (1.43, 1.02-2.02) were associated with an increased risk of dementia. Body mass index, blood pressure, and cholesterol were not associated with dementia. Separate summary scores for behaviors and blood values, as well as a total score showed no association with dementia. Sensitivity analyses with differently defined endpoints led to similar results. Due to complex relationships of body-mass index and blood pressure with dementia individual components cancelled each other out and rendered the sum-scores meaningless for the prediction of dementia.

  16. Evaluation of plasma Aβ as predictor of Alzheimer's disease in older individuals without dementia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Oskar; Stomrud, Erik; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; Östling, Svante; Gustafson, Deborah R; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Skoog, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology is a major component in the mechanisms behind Alzheimer's disease (AD). Measurement of Aβ(42) in cerebrospinal fluid predicts cognitive decline in patients with mild cognitive impairment and identifies AD in patients with dementia. However, studies on Aβ in plasma are contradictory. In this prospective population-based study, plasma Aβ(42) and Aβ(40) were measured at baseline in 730 adults aged 70 years or older and without dementia. After five years, plasma levels were analyzed again and participants were assessed for development of dementia. During follow-up, 53 individuals (7%) developed dementia of which 37 (5%) were classified as AD. No difference in baseline plasma Aβ(42), Aβ(40), or Aβ(42)/Aβ(40) ratio levels were observed between converters to dementia or AD compared to the cognitively stable individuals. However, individuals with plasma Aβ(40) levels above the median level for the group at baseline had an increased risk of developing dementia and AD during the follow-up, even after adjustment for age, gender, APOE genotype, and educational level (odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.0-4.7, p < 0.05). Neither plasma Aβ(42) nor the Aβ(42)/Aβ(40) ratio influenced the risk of developing dementia or AD. Moreover, Aβ(42) and Aβ(40) levels increased over the 5 years, whereas the Aβ(42)/Aβ(40) ratio decreased (p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study suggests that measurement of plasma Aβ should not be used clinically to predict dementia or AD. However, plasma Aβ(40) may possibly be regarded as a moderate risk marker comparable to other risk markers for AD such as first-degree family history of dementia.

  17. Living with dementia in hospital wards: a comparative study of staff perceptions of practice and observed patient experience.

    PubMed

    Innes, Anthea; Kelly, Fiona; Scerri, Charles; Abela, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    To ascertain the experiences, attitudes and knowledge of staff working in two Maltese hospital wards and the observed experiences of people with dementia living there. To examine the impact of recommendations made in October 2011 for improving the psychosocial and physical environments of the wards 1 year later. There is an increasing policy recognition of the need for a better trained and educated dementia care workforce and of ensuring that the environmental design of care settings meets the needs of people with dementia. At both time points, three established and validated data-collection methods evaluated (i) staff/patient interaction and patient experience, (ii) the extent to which the wards met dementia friendly principles and (iii) staff views about their work environment and their perceptions about their practice. Sixteen (five male and 11 female) patients with dementia and 69 staff in the two wards participated in the study. We noted small but important changes; however, the physical and psychosocial environments of the wards did not always align to current recommendations for dementia care, with staff perceptions of care delivery not always reflecting the observed experiences of care of those living with dementia. Comparing staff questionnaire data with observational methods offered a unique opportunity to understand multiple perspectives in a complex hospital setting. Incorporating these perspectives into staff and management feedback allowed for recommendations that recognised both patient-centred values and staff constraints. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Association between Coffee Consumption and Incident Risk of Disabling Dementia in Elderly Japanese: The Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Tomata, Yasutake; Kaiho, Yu; Honkura, Kenji; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association between coffee consumption and dementia have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated the association between coffee consumption and incident risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population. 23,091 subjects aged ≥65 y living in Ohsaki City, northeastern Japan, responded to the baseline survey in 2006. Of these, we analyzed 13,137 subjects who gave informed consent and were not disabled at baseline. The outcome was the incidence of disabling dementia defined by usage of the Long-term Care Insurance database. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression model for multivariate analysis. During 5.7 y of follow-up period, we identified 1,107 cases of incident dementia. Overall, coffee consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia. The multivariate-adjusted HRs for the incidence of dementia according to coffee consumption categories (never, occasionally, 1-2 cups/d, and ≥3 cups/d) were 1.00, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.62-0.86), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.61-0.84), and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02; p for trend = 0.009), respectively. In addition, this significant inverse association was more remarkable among women, non-smokers, and non-drinkers. Coffee consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia.

  19. Inter-professional perspectives of dementia services and care in England: Outcomes of a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Caroline L; Jasper, Rowan; Roe, Brenda; Jolley, David; Crook, Anthony; Challis, David J

    2016-09-01

    Many people living with dementia are supported at home using a variety of health and social care services. This paper reports the findings from a focus group study undertaken with staff in community mental health teams to explore areas for improvement in relation to national policies and recommendations for dementia care. Two focus groups were held with staff (n = 23) in 2011 to discuss topics including service delivery, information and communication, and provision of health and community care for people with dementia. Respondents identified problems with information sharing and incompatible electronic systems; inflexibility in home care services; and poor recognition of dementia in hospital settings. General practitioners had developed a greater awareness of the disease and some community services worked well. They felt that budgetary constraints and a focus on quality indicators impeded good dementia care. Key areas suggested by staff for improvements in dementia care included the implementation of more flexible services, dementia training for health and social care staff, and better quality care in acute hospital settings.

  20. Immigrants with dementia in Swedish residential care: an exploratory study of the experiences of their family members and Nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Rosendahl, Sirpa Pietilä; Söderman, Mirkka; Mazaheri, Monir

    2016-01-16

    Worldwide, there is a growing population of older people who develop dementia in a country other than that of their origin. When their dementia has reached an advanced stage, residential care is most often needed. People with dementia in Sweden are often cared for in group homes. For immigrants, this may mean a linguistically challenging care environment for both healthcare staff and the patients' family members. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of family members and professional caregivers regarding the care provided to immigrants with dementia in group homes in Sweden. An exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach was chosen. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine professional caregivers and five family members of people with dementia with Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian and Ingrian backgrounds; all were chosen purposefully. All people with dementia had lost their Swedish language skills as their second language. The data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three main categories and seven subcategories were identified. The first main category: A new living situation comprised the subcategories: adjusting to new living arrangements and expectations regarding activities and traditional food at the group home, the second main category: Challenges in communication with the subcategories: limited communication between the immigrant with dementia and the Swedish-speaking nursing staff and the consequences of linguistic misunderstandings and nuanced communication in a common language and the third main category: The role of the family member at the group home with the subcategories: a link to the healthy life story of the family member with dementia and an expert and interpreter for the nursing staff. The family member played a crucial role in the lives of immigrants with dementia living in a group home by facilitating communication between the nursing staff and the PWD and also by making

  1. Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Methods Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Results Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Conclusions Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner’s nursing home admission. PMID:24885732

  2. Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risks of Incident Stroke and Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Himali, Jayandra J; Beiser, Alexa S; Aparicio, Hugo J; Satizabal, Claudia L; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Seshadri, Sudha; Jacques, Paul F

    2017-05-01

    Sugar- and artificially-sweetened beverage intake have been linked to cardiometabolic risk factors, which increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease and dementia. We examined whether sugar- or artificially sweetened beverage consumption was associated with the prospective risks of incident stroke or dementia in the community-based Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort. We studied 2888 participants aged >45 years for incident stroke (mean age 62 [SD, 9] years; 45% men) and 1484 participants aged >60 years for incident dementia (mean age 69 [SD, 6] years; 46% men). Beverage intake was quantified using a food-frequency questionnaire at cohort examinations 5 (1991-1995), 6 (1995-1998), and 7 (1998-2001). We quantified recent consumption at examination 7 and cumulative consumption by averaging across examinations. Surveillance for incident events commenced at examination 7 and continued for 10 years. We observed 97 cases of incident stroke (82 ischemic) and 81 cases of incident dementia (63 consistent with Alzheimer's disease). After adjustments for age, sex, education (for analysis of dementia), caloric intake, diet quality, physical activity, and smoking, higher recent and higher cumulative intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks were associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, all-cause dementia, and Alzheimer's disease dementia. When comparing daily cumulative intake to 0 per week (reference), the hazard ratios were 2.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-6.97) for ischemic stroke and 2.89 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-7.07) for Alzheimer's disease. Sugar-sweetened beverages were not associated with stroke or dementia. Artificially sweetened soft drink consumption was associated with a higher risk of stroke and dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Mental health and wellbeing in spouses of persons with dementia: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ask, Helga; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Holmen, Jostein; Selbæk, Geir; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Tambs, Kristian

    2014-05-01

    Caring for a spouse diagnosed with dementia can be a stressful situation and can put the caregiving partner at risk of loss of mental health and wellbeing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dementia and spousal mental health in a population-based sample of married couples older than 55 years of age. The association was investigated for individuals living together with their demented partner, as well as for individuals whose demented partner was living in an institution. Data on dementia were collected from hospitals and nursing homes in the county of Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. These data were combined with data on spousal mental health, which were collected in a population-based health screening: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT). Of 6,951 participating couples (>55 years), 131 included one partner that had been diagnosed with dementia. Our results indicate that after adjustment for covariates, having a partner with dementia is associated with lower levels of life satisfaction and more symptoms of anxiety and depression than reported by spouses of elderly individuals without dementia. Spouses living together with a partner diagnosed with dementia experienced moderately lower levels of life satisfaction (0.35 standard deviation [SD]) and more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD) and anxiety (0.23 SD) than did their non-caregiving counterparts. Having a partner with dementia that resided in a nursing home was associated with clearly lower life satisfaction. Compared with non-caregivers, these spouses reported lower levels of life satisfaction (1.16 SD), and also more symptoms of depression (0.38 SD), and more symptoms of anxiety (0.42 SD). Having a partner with dementia is associated with loss of mental health and reduced life satisfaction. The risk of adverse mental health outcomes is greatest after the partner's nursing home admission.

  4. Usefulness of data from magnetic resonance imaging to improve prediction of dementia: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Blossom C M; Tzourio, Christophe; Auriacombe, Sophie; Amieva, Hélène; Dufouil, Carole; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the addition of data derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain to a model incorporating conventional risk variables improves prediction of dementia over 10 years of follow-up. Design Population based cohort study of individuals aged ≥65. Setting The Dijon magnetic resonance imaging study cohort from the Three-City Study, France. Participants 1721 people without dementia who underwent an MRI scan at baseline and with known dementia status over 10 years’ follow-up. Main outcome measure Incident dementia (all cause and Alzheimer’s disease). Results During 10 years of follow-up, there were 119 confirmed cases of dementia, 84 of which were Alzheimer’s disease. The conventional risk model incorporated age, sex, education, cognition, physical function, lifestyle (smoking, alcohol use), health (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, systolic blood pressure), and the apolipoprotein genotype (C statistic for discrimination performance was 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.82). No significant differences were observed in the discrimination performance of the conventional risk model compared with models incorporating data from MRI including white matter lesion volume (C statistic 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.72 to 0.82; P=0.48 for difference of C statistics), brain volume (0.77, 0.72 to 0.82; P=0.60), hippocampal volume (0.79, 0.74 to 0.84; P=0.07), or all three variables combined (0.79, 0.75 to 0.84; P=0.05). Inclusion of hippocampal volume or all three MRI variables combined in the conventional model did, however, lead to significant improvement in reclassification measured by using the integrated discrimination improvement index (P=0.03 and P=0.04) and showed increased net benefit in decision curve analysis. Similar results were observed when the outcome was restricted to Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions Data from MRI do not significantly improve discrimination performance in prediction of all cause dementia

  5. Compression or expansion of dementia in Germany? An observational study of short-term trends in incidence and death rates of dementia between 2006/07 and 2009/10 based on German health insurance data.

    PubMed

    Doblhammer, Gabriele; Fink, Anne; Zylla, Stephanie; Willekens, Frans

    2015-11-05

    There have been recent reports about a decline in dementia incidence, but only little is known about trends in the mortality of patients with dementia. Only the simultaneous analysis of both trends can inform whether the reported decline in dementia has led to a compression of dementia into higher ages. We used health claims data from the largest public health insurer in Germany over the two time periods 2004/07 and 2007/10. Dementia was defined according to the International Classification of Disease 10th revision (ICD-10) numbers G30, G31.0, G31.82, G23.1, F00, F01, F02, F03 and F05.1 or by a prescription of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine or both. In the two time periods, we observed 502,065 person-years of exposure and 10,881 incident dementia cases and 10,013 person-years of exposure among the newly demented and 3049 deaths. We estimated the relative risks of the two time periods applying proportional hazard models and calculated years with or without dementia using the illness-death model. Dementia incidence was significantly higher in 2006/07 than in 2009/10, whereas mortality with dementia tended to be lower in the first period, albeit statistically significant among women only. Mortality without dementia tended to be higher in the first period for men and remained stable for women. Combining these trends, we found that at age 65 remaining life years with dementia were compressed by a yearly 0.4 months for men and 1.4 months for women. At the same time, remaining life years without dementia increased by a yearly 1.4 months for men and 1.1 months for women. This study provides evidence that the increase in dementia-free life years went together with an absolute compression of life years with dementia. This positive trend was particularly strong among women. Results were controlled for trends in multi-morbidity and care need, suggesting that the postponement in dementia incidence is not simply caused by a delay in diagnosis.

  6. Dementia and Physical Activity (DAPA) - an exercise intervention to improve cognition in people with mild to moderate dementia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Nicky; Bridle, Chris; Brown, Deborah; Collins, Helen; Dosanjh, Sukhdeep; Griffiths, Frances; Hennings, Susie; Khan, Kamran; Lall, Ranjit; Lyle, Samantha; McShane, Rupert; Mistry, Dipesh; Nichols, Vivien; Petrou, Stavros; Sheehan, Bart; Slowther, Anne-Marie; Thorogood, Margaret; Withers, Emma; Zeh, Peter; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-03-25

    Dementia is more common in older than in younger people, and as a result of the ageing of the population in developed countries, it is becoming more prevalent. Drug treatments for dementia are limited, and the main support offered to people with dementia and their families is generally services to mitigate against loss of function. Physical exercise is a candidate non-pharmacological treatment for dementia. DAPA is a randomised controlled trial funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme to estimate the effect of a 4-month, moderate- to hard-intensity exercise training programme and subsequent advice to remain active, on cognition (primary outcome) at 12 months in people with mild to moderate dementia. Community-dwelling participants (with their carers where possible), who are able to walk 3 metres without human assistance, able to undertake an exercise programme and do not have any unstable or terminal illness are recruited. Participants are then randomised by an independent statistician using a computerised random number generator to usual care or exercise at a 2:1 ratio in favour of exercise. The exercise intervention comprises 29, 1-hour-long exercise classes, run twice weekly at suitable venues such as leisure centres, which include aerobic exercise (on static bikes) and resistance exercise (using weights). Goals for independent exercise are set while the classes are still running, and supported thereafter with phone calls. The primary outcome is measured using ADAS-cog. Secondary outcome measures include behavioural symptoms, functional ability, quality of life and carer burden. Primary and secondary outcomes will be measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after randomisation, by researchers masked to participant randomisation in the participants' own homes. An economic evaluation will be carried out in parallel to the RCT, as will a qualitative study capturing the experiences of participants, carers and

  7. [Cognitive and affective theory of mind in Lewy body dementia: A preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Heitz, C; Vogt, N; Cretin, B; Philippi, N; Jung, B; Phillipps, C; Blanc, F

    2015-04-01

    'Theory of Mind' refers to the ability to attribute mental states, thoughts (cognitive component) or feelings (affective component), to others. This function has been studied in many neurodegenerative diseases; however, to our knowledge no studies investigating theory of mind in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) have been published. The aim of our study was to search theory of mind deficits in patients with DLB. Seven patients with DLB (DLB group), at the stage of mild dementia or mild cognitive impairments, and seven healthy elderly adults (control group) were included in the study. After a global cognitive assessment, we used the Faux Pas Recognition test to assess the cognitive component of theory of mind, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test for the assessment of affective component. We found a significant difference between the two groups for the Faux Pas test with an average score of 35.6 for the DLB group and 48.3 for the control group (P=0.04). Scores were particularly low in the DLB group for the last question of the test concerning empathy (42.9% versus 85%, P=0.01). There was not a significant difference between the two groups for the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (P=0.077). This preliminary study showed early impairments of theory of mind in the DLB. The cognitive component seems more affected than the affective component in this pathology. This pattern is consistent with the pattern found in Parkinson's disease, but differs from other neurodegenerative diseases as Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal lobe dementia. These patterns may help to differentiate DLB from these diseases. Further study is needed to confirm these results and to compare with other dementias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Delirium is a strong risk factor for dementia in the oldest-old: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Muniz Terrera, Graciela; Keage, Hannah; Rahkonen, Terhi; Oinas, Minna; Matthews, Fiona E.; Cunningham, Colm; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sulkava, Raimo; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.; Brayne, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that delirium is associated with risk of dementia and also acceleration of decline in existing dementia. However, previous studies may have been confounded by incomplete ascertainment of cognitive status at baseline. Herein, we used a true population sample to determine if delirium is a risk factor for incident dementia and cognitive decline. We also examined the effect of delirium at the pathological level by determining associations between dementia and neuropathological markers of dementia in patients with and without a history of delirium. The Vantaa 85+ study examined 553 individuals (92% of those eligible) aged ≥85 years at baseline, 3, 5, 8 and 10 years. Brain autopsy was performed in 52%. Fixed and random-effects regression models were used to assess associations between (i) delirium and incident dementia and (ii) decline in Mini-Mental State Examination scores in the whole group. The relationship between dementia and common neuropathological markers (Alzheimer-type, infarcts and Lewy-body) was modelled, stratified by history of delirium. Delirium increased the risk of incident dementia (odds ratio 8.7, 95% confidence interval 2.1–35). Delirium was also associated with worsening dementia severity (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.5–6.3) as well as deterioration in global function score (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.4–5.5). In the whole study population, delirium was associated with loss of 1.0 more Mini-Mental State Examination points per year (95% confidence interval 0.11–1.89) than those with no history of delirium. In individuals with dementia and no history of delirium (n = 232), all pathologies were significantly associated with dementia. However, in individuals with delirium and dementia (n = 58), no relationship between dementia and these markers was found. For example, higher Braak stage was associated with dementia when no history of delirium (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1

  9. Neuropsychological tests for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease dementia and other dementias: a generic protocol for cross-sectional and delayed-verification studies

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Daniel HJ; Creavin, Sam T; Noel-Storr, Anna; Quinn, Terry J; Smailagic, Nadja; Hyde, Chris; Brayne, Carol; McShane, Rupert; Cullum, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To determine the cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy of [index test] at various thresholds for ADD and other dementias [target condition] in [target population].ORTo determine the accuracy of [index test] at various thresholds for diagnosing ADD and other dementias [target condition] in [target population] after a follow-up period (delayed-verification studies).To investigate the heterogeneity of test accuracy in the included studies.To highlight the quality and quantity of research evidence available on the effectiveness of the index test in the target population.To identify gaps in the evidence and determine where further research is required. PMID:25177209

  10. Dementia and lower blood pressure in Latin America, India, and China: a 10/66 cross-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Emiliano; Lombardo, Flavia L; Prince, Martin J; Stewart, Robert

    2013-07-16

    To study the relationship between dementia and blood pressure (BP) in 8 low- and middle-income countries. In identical cross-sectional surveys of older adults (aged 65 years and older) conducted in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico, Puerto Rico, China, and India (n = 15,746), we measured systolic and diastolic BP and used the 10/66 prevalidated algorithms to adjudicate dementia diagnosis and quantify dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR]). BP levels, dementia prevalence, and participants' sociodemographic and health characteristics varied across sites. In fixed-effect meta-analyses of site-specific linear regression coefficients adjusted for potential confounders, dementia and CDR were cross-sectionally associated with lower systolic BP (β = -1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.8, -0.6; and β = -1.1, 95% CI: -1.5, -0.7) and diastolic BP (β = -0.4, 95% CI: -1.1, 0.2; and β = -0.4, 95% CI: -0.7, -0.2). Associations were heterogeneous across sites for both dementia (I(2) < 47%) and CDR (I(2) < 75%), and were strongest in Cuba, where prevalence of hypertension was highest. Results were robust to alternative model specifications that accounted for hypertensive status, antihypertensive treatment, and leanness (i.e., smaller waist circumference). The association between dementia and lower BP was heterogeneous across geographically diverse samples, strongest where prevalent hypertension was highest (in Cuba), and relatively small compared with that found in Western settings. Both the mechanisms and the extent to which different levels of lifetime hypertensive disease explain this heterogeneity remain uncertain. However, because rapid increments in both dementia and hypertension are predicted in low- and middle-income countries, closer monitoring is warranted.

  11. Dementia in older people admitted to hospital: a regional multi-hospital observational study of prevalence, associations and case recognition

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Suzanne; Manning, Edmund; Barrett, Aoife; Brady, Noeleen M.; Browne, Vanessa; O’Shea, Emma; Molloy, David William; O'Regan, Niamh A.; Trawley, Steven; Cahill, Suzanne; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Woods, Noel; Meagher, David; Ni Chorcorain, Aoife M.; Linehan, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: previous studies have indicated a prevalence of dementia in older admissions of ∼42% in a single London teaching hospital, and 21% in four Queensland hospitals. However, there is a lack of published data from any European country on the prevalence of dementia across hospitals and between patient groups. Objective: to determine the prevalence and associations of dementia in older patients admitted to acute hospitals in Ireland. Methods: six hundred and six patients aged ≥70 years were recruited on admission to six hospitals in Cork County. Screening consisted of Standardised Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE); patients with scores <27/30 had further assessment with the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE). Final expert diagnosis was based on SMMSE, IQCODE and relevant medical and demographic history. Patients were screened for delirium and depression, and assessed for co-morbidity, functional ability and nutritional status. Results: of 598 older patients admitted to acute hospitals, 25% overall had dementia; with 29% in public hospitals. Prevalence varied between hospitals (P < 0.001); most common in rural hospitals and acute medical admissions. Only 35.6% of patients with dementia had a previous diagnosis. Patients with dementia were older and frailer, with higher co-morbidity, malnutrition and lower functional status (P < 0.001). Delirium was commonly superimposed on dementia (57%) on admission. Conclusion: dementia is common in older people admitted to acute hospitals, particularly in acute medical admissions, and rural hospitals, where services may be less available. Most dementia is not previously diagnosed, emphasising the necessity for cognitive assessment in older people on presentation to hospital. PMID:26420638

  12. [Living and dying in community based housing for people with dementia. An exploratory qualitative study].

    PubMed

    Reitinger, E; Pleschberger, S; Schumann, F

    2010-10-01

    Community based housing for people with dementia is gaining importance. In co-operation between the people concerned, their relatives, professionals and volunteers, person-centred care, nursing and guidance can be realised within small units. Questions regarding end of life, dying, grief and the role of palliative care form the basis of the exploratory qualitative study presented here. Coping with end of life, ethical decisions and the relevance of hospice and palliative care in the field are highlighted. The results of the study show that "shared flats for people with dementia" are good places for death and dying. Close relationships, good communication with relatives and highly motivated professionals can be regarded as powerful resources. So far only few co-operations between hospice and palliative care exist. Areas of improvement encompass clinical issues and coping with bereavement.

  13. The effectiveness of dementia care mapping in intellectual disability residential services: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jaycock, Sue; Persaud, Michelle; Johnson, Robert

    2006-12-01

    This article is presented as a follow-up to exploratory work published in this journal in 2001. It describes a study that aimed to assess the effectiveness of dementia care mapping in supporting practice improvement in intellectual disability residential services. An average of 9 hours of observational data was collected using dementia care mapping in relation to 14 adults with severe or profound intellectual disabilities. Sixteen interviews were also undertaken with staff over a 4 month period.The findings provided a detailed picture of the activities and interactions between the participants involved in the study and raised some issues about 'organizational culture' when developing person-centred approaches. They have helped strengthen the case that care mapping has the potential to be a useful addition to the existing repertoire of tools to support effective practice improvement and person-centred planning.

  14. Day-to-Day Blood Pressure Variability and Risk of Dementia in a General Japanese Elderly Population: The Hisayama Study.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Emi; Ohara, Tomoyuki; Sakata, Satoko; Fukuhara, Masayo; Hata, Jun; Yoshida, Daigo; Shibata, Mao; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Kitazono, Takanari; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu

    2017-08-08

    Several observational studies have reported that higher visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, no studies have investigated the association of day-to-day blood pressure variability assessed by home blood pressure measurement with the development of dementia. A total of 1674 community-dwelling Japanese elderly without dementia, ≥60 years of age, were followed up for 5 years (2007-2012). Home blood pressure was measured 3 times every morning for a median of 28 days. Day-to-day systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure variabilities, calculated as coefficients of variation (CoV) of home SBP and diastolic blood pressure, were categorized into quartiles. The hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of the CoV levels of home blood pressure on the development of all-cause dementia, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer disease (AD) were computed with a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 194 subjects developed all-cause dementia; of these, 47 had VaD and 134 had AD. The age- and sex-adjusted incidences of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD increased significantly with increasing CoV levels of home SBP (all P for trend <0.05). These associations remained unchanged after adjustment for potential confounding factors, including home SBP. Compared with subjects in the first quartile of CoV levels of home SBP, the risks of the development of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD were significantly higher in those in the fourth quartile (hazard ratio=2.27, 95% confidence interval=1.45-3.55, P<0.001 for all-cause dementia; hazard ratio=2.79, 95% confidence interval=1.04-7.51, P=0.03 for VaD; hazard ratio=2.22, 95% confidence interval=1.31-3.75, P<0.001 for AD). Similar associations were observed for CoV levels of home diastolic blood pressure. Meanwhile, home SBP levels were significantly associated with the risk of VaD but not with the risks of all-cause dementia and AD. There was no

  15. A systematic review of intervention studies to prevent hospitalizations of community-dwelling older adults with dementia.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Elizabeth A; Debnam, Katrina J; Anderson, Lynda A; Owens, Steven B

    2015-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to determine if there were any intervention strategies that had any measurable effect on acute-care hospitalizations among community-dwelling adults with dementia. Studies were identified by a professional research librarian and content experts. Community dwelling. Participants were diagnosed with dementia, severity ranging from mild to severe, and were recruited from health care and community agencies. A study met the inclusion criteria if it: (a) was published in English; (b) included a control or comparison group; (c) published outcome data from the intervention under study; (d) reported hospitalization as one of the outcomes; (e) included community-dwelling older adults; and (f) enrolled participants with dementia. Ten studies met all inclusion criteria. Of the 10 studies included, most assessed health services use (ie, hospitalizations) as a secondary outcome. Participants were recruited from a range of health care and community agencies, and most were diagnosed with dementia with severity ratings ranging from mild to severe. Most intervention strategies consisted of face-to-face assessments of the persons living with dementia, their caregivers, and the development and implementation of a care plan. A significant reduction in hospital admissions was not found in any of the included studies, although 1 study did observe a reduction in hospital days. The majority of studies included hospitalizations as a secondary outcome. Only 1 intervention was found to have an effect on hospitalizations. Future work would benefit from strategies specifically designed to reduce and prevent acute hospitalizations in persons with dementia.

  16. Offering architects insights into experiences of living with dementia: A case study on orientation in space, time, and identity.

    PubMed

    Van Steenwinkel, Iris; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Heylighen, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Due to memory loss, people with dementia are increasingly disorientated in space, time, and identity, which causes profound experiences of insecurity, anxiety, and homesickness. In the case study presented in this article, we explored how architecture can support people in coping with this challenge. We took a novel approach to offer architects insights into experiences of living with dementia. Starting from a critical realist and constructionist approach, we combined ethnographic techniques with an architectural analysis. This case study offers insights into the experiences and activities of a woman living with dementia within the architectural context of her home. We describe how the physical and social environment provided her guidance through sequences of day-to-day activities. This study highlights how architecture can support people with dementia in orientating by accommodating places for (1) everyday activities and (2) privacy and togetherness.

  17. Vascular risk factors and dementia in the general population aged >85 years: prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rastas, Sari; Pirttilä, Tuula; Mattila, Kimmo; Verkkoniemi, Auli; Juva, Kati; Niinistö, Leena; Länsimies, Esko; Sulkava, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between dementia and common vascular risk factors including blood pressure, blood lipids, homocysteine and diabetes mellitus in a population of very old people. This study is a 9-year follow-up prospective population-based study monitoring 339 non-demented subjects aged 85 years or over in the city of Vantaa, Southern Finland. During the follow-up, those individuals with diabetes mellitus at the baseline and new incident stroke had a higher probability for developing dementia. History of hypertension or higher level of education were associated with a lower probability of dementia. It seems that the contribution of vascular risk factors to the risk of dementia may be age-dependent and their role in the very old subjects may be mediated through their influence on cerebrovascular morbidity. Thus, prevention of stroke and diabetes mellitus may reduce the risk of cognitive decline in the very old.

  18. Dementia, Preclinical Studies in Neurodegeneration and its Potential for Translational Medicine in South America

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia; Lopera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Latin-American people with dementia will increase to an astounding 368% in 2050, higher than USA and Europe. In addition, to sporadic dementia type like Alzheimer, and vascular dementia (VaD) progression after Cerebrovascular disease is also found. These incidences are increased in Colombia by specific populations affected with pure Neurodegenerative and VaDs like Autosomical Dominant familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). In spite of the enormous human effort with and economical effort and investment costs, neither sporadic nor genetic kinds of dementia progression have been prevented or blocked yet. Currently, there exist several animal models that partially solve the understanding of the neurodegenerative etiopathogenesis and its treatment. However, when the potential therapies are translated to humans, those do not work or present a limited action. Main difficulties are the diverse comorbility associated to the cause and/or several affected brain regions, reducing the efficacy of some therapies which are limited to a tissue-specific action or modulating a kind of neurotransmission. Global investigation suggests that a general prevention could be achieved with the improvement in the quality of lifestyle, including healthy diet, physical and mental activity, and avoiding mechanical or chemical pro-inflammatory events in an early stage in the most of non-communicable diseases. In this review article, we present some molecular targets and preclinical studies in animal models to propose strategies that could be useful in a future translation to prevent or block neurodegeneration: one is gene therapy; silencing pathogenic genes in critical brain areas where excitotoxicity arise and spread. Another is to take advantage of the natural source and its wide biodiversity of natural products that are capable of identifying, by the blocking and prevention of

  19. Retrospective and prospective data collection compared in the Dutch End Of Life in Dementia (DEOLD) study.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, Jenny T; Ribbe, Miel W; Deliens, Luc; Gutschow, Giselka; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-01-01

    Studying end of life in dementia patients is challenging because of ill-defined prognoses and frequent inability to self-report. We aim to quantify and compare (1) feasibility and (2) sampling issues between prospective and retrospective data collection specific to end-of-life research in long-term care settings. The observational Dutch End of Life in Dementia study (DEOLD; 2007 to 2011) used both prospective data collection (28 facilities; 17 nursing home organizations/physician teams; questionnaires between January 2007 and July 2010, survival until July 2011) and retrospective data collection (exclusively after death; 6 facilities; 2 teams, questionnaires between November 2007 and March 2010). Prospective collection extended from the time of admission to the time after death or conclusion of the study. Prospectively, we recruited 372 families: 218 residents died (59%) and 184 (49%) had complete physician and family after-death assessments. Retrospectively, 119 decedents were enrolled, with 64 (54%) complete assessments. Cumulative data collection over all homes lasted 80 and 8 years, respectively. Per complete after-death assessments in a year, the prospective data collection involved 37.9 beds, whereas this was 7.9 for the retrospective data collection. Although age at death, sex, and survival curves were similar, prospectively, decedents' length of stay was shorter (10.3 vs. 31.4 mo), and fewer residents had advanced dementia (39% vs. 54%). Regarding feasibility, we conclude that prospective data collection is many fold more intensive and complex per complete after-death assessment. Regarding sampling, if not all are followed until death, it results in right censoring and in different, nonrepresentative samples of decedents compared with retrospective data collection. Future work may adjust or stratify for dementia severity and length of stay as key issues to promote comparability between studies.

  20. A five-year study of residents of a special hostel for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    Lefroy, R B; Hobbs, M S; Hyndman, J

    1992-03-01

    In order to consider whether admission to a special hostel was a desirable policy in view of the likelihood of subsequent transfer to a nursing home, this study compared the time spent by residents in a special hostel with the period in a nursing home after they were transferred out of the hostel. We also estimated the number of nursing home places necessary for residents who were transferred and studied the reasons for transfer. The setting was a special hostel in Perth, Western Australia, for 36 people with moderate or severe dementia. The periods spent in the hostel or a nursing home were calculated for all residents admitted between 1985 and 1990. Forty-two of the 84 residents admitted during the study period were transferred to nursing homes. About two thirds of the total time in the two institutions was spent in the hostel. The two principal reasons necessitating transfer to a nursing home were advancing dementia and the addition of a physical impairment. Because a major proportion of the care of selected people with dementia (who can no longer remain at home) can be undertaken in a special hostel, this facility should be included with standard hostel and nursing home in arrangements for institutional care. Between 20 and 25 nursing home places are necessary for residents transferred from a hostel of this size.

  1. Forecasting the ward climate: a study from a dementia care unit.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, David; Sandman, Per-Olof; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-04-01

    This article present findings from a study aiming to explore the psychosocial climate and its influence on the well-being of people with dementia in a psycho-geriatric hospital unit. Environmental influence in dementia is well explored in relation to the physical environment; however, few studies have explored the psychosocial environment and its influence on well-being. The study had a grounded theory design. Participant observations were conducted in a psycho-geriatric ward for assessment and treatment of people with dementia in Sweden (n = 36 hours). Data were collected and analysed in a dialectical fashion using the principles of grounded theory methodology. The basic social process that best accounted for the variation in the psychosocial climate and well-being of patients at the unit was 'staff presence or absence', conceptualised as the core category. Three categories emerged in relation to the core category; 'sharing place and moment', 'sharing place but not moment' and 'sharing neither place nor moment'. Staff were catalysts for the psychosocial climate and when being present and engaged they could create a climate interpreted as at-homeness which supported patient well-being. When being absent, the climate quickly became anxious and this facilitated patient ill-being. To provide quality care for people with dementia staff need to be aware of their role in setting the emotional tone of the psychosocial climate and also that this emotional tone significantly influences patient well-being. The findings are clinically relevant and can be operationalised and applied in clinical practice. Awareness of the intimate connection between staff presence and absence, the psychosocial climate and patient well-being highlights an ethical responsibility to question: routines that promote staff absence; a culture of merely 'doing for'; and nursing tasks which involve a minimum of staff-patient interaction. The findings have implications for managers as well as for

  2. Association of interleukin-10 polymorphisms with risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (SADEM study).

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Juárez-Cedillo, Enrique; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Fragoso, José Manuel; García-Hernández, Normand; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Some studies have reported a genetic association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of Interleukin (IL) 10 and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with conflicting results. To further investigate the proposed association and to clarify the role of cytokines as a potential cause for AD susceptibility, we analyzed genotypes, allele distributions and haplotypes of IL-10 promoter polymorphisms -1082 (rs1800896) and -819 (rs1800871) in a Mexican population: 986 normal controls and 221 cases divided as follows: 122 with Alzheimer disease (AD), 67 with (VaD) and 32 with mixed dementia (AD/VaD). Patients with dementia showed increased frequency of "ATA, CTG, and CTA" haplotypes when compared to controls. We identified two risk haplotypes: ATA (OR=3.56, 95%CI=2.84-4.45, p<0.0001), and CTA (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.38-2.62, p<0.0001), and four protection haplotypes: ATG (OR=0.60, 95%CI=0.45-0.82, p=0.0012), CTG (OR=0.38, 95%CI=0.23-0.62, p<0.0001), ACG (OR=0.01, 95%CI=0.002-1.13, p<0.0001), and CCG (OR=0.02, 95%CI=0.004-0.203, p<0.0001). In summary, this is the first study in Mexican population that considers the analysis of IL-10 in patients with AD, VaD and AD/VaD. Our results showed the relevance of the role that IL-10 plays in the pathological mechanisms that result in the development of dementia. In addition, in our study, it was possible to distinguish two protective and two risk haplotypes for the development of dementia. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise.

  4. A soundscape study: What kinds of sounds can elderly people affected by dementia recollect?

    PubMed

    Nagahata, K; Fukushima, T; Ishibashi, N; Takahashi, Y; Moriyama, M

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the kinds of sounds recollected by elderly people with dementia were investigated as a first step towards improving their sound environment. Onomatopoeias were presented to elderly people as keys to recollecting sounds, and they told what they imagined from each onomatopoeia. The results are summarized as follows. (1) Generally speaking, sounds from nature, such as the songs of birds and the sound of rain were recollected easily from onomatopoeias, regardless of gender. (2) Sounds of kitchen work were recollected by women only. (3) Sounds from old routines were recollected clearly. (4) Sounds that elicited feelings of nostalgia were also recollected intensely from onomatopoeias. These results show that elderly people suffering from dementia are able to recollect the sounds that had once occupied very important parts of their lives. However, these sounds in themselves are not unusual sounds in their daily lives. This suggests the importance of soundscape design in daily life.

  5. Etiology and Pathophysiology of Frontotemporal Dementia, Parkinson Disease and Alzheimer Disease: Lessons from Genetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wider, Christian; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic studies have led to major discoveries in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Ubiquitin-positive familial frontotemporal dementia was recently found to be caused by mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN), and the major constituent of the inclusions, TDP-43, was subsequently identified. The tau gene (MAPT) causes frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. In Parkinson disease, LRRK2 mutations have emerged as a major cause of both familial and sporadic forms, adding to the previously known genes SNCA, PRKN, DJ1 and PINK1. Several genes have been implicated in Alzheimer disease, including the APP gene and the PSEN genes. Recently, variants in the sortilin-related receptor 1 gene, SORL1, were associated with Alzheimer disease. PMID:18322368

  6. Etiology and pathophysiology of frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease: lessons from genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Wider, Christian; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2008-01-01

    Genetic studies have led to major discoveries in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Ubiquitin-positive familial frontotemporal dementia was recently found to be caused by mutations in the progranulin gene (PGRN), and the major constituent of the inclusions, TDP-43, was subsequently identified. The tau gene (MAPT) causes frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. In Parkinson disease, LRRK2 mutations have emerged as a major cause of both familial and sporadic forms, adding to the previously known genes SNCA,PRKN,DJ1 and PINK1. Several genes have been implicated in Alzheimer disease, including the APP gene and the PSEN genes. Recently, variants in the sortilin-related receptor 1 gene, SORL1, were associated with Alzheimer disease. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. The Bedford Alzheimer nursing-severity scale to assess dementia severity in advanced dementia: a nonparametric item response analysis and a study of its psychometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Hendriks, Simone A; Volicer, Ladislav; Smalbrugge, Martin; Hertogh, Cees M P M; van der Steen, Jenny T

    2014-02-01

    The Bedford Alzheimer Nursing-Severity Scale (BANS-S) assesses disease severity in patients with advanced Alzheimer's disease. Since Alzheimer is a progressive disease, studying the hierarchy of the items in the scale can be useful to evaluate the progression of the disease. Data from 164 Alzheimer's patients and 186 patients with other dementia were analyzed using the Mokken Scaling Methodology to determine whether respondents can be ordered in the trait dementia severity, and to study whether an ordering between the items exist. The scalability of the scale was evaluated by the H coefficient. Results showed that the BANS-S is a reliable and medium scale (0.4≤H<0.5) for the Alzheimer group. All items with the exception of the item about mobility could be ordered. When later item was eliminated from the scale, the H coefficient decreased indicating that the scalability of the scale in the original form is more accurate than in the shorter version. For the other dementia group, the BANS-S did not fit any of the Mokken Scaling models because the scale was not unidimensional. In this group, a shorter version of the scale without the sleeping cycle item and the mobility item has better reliability and scalability properties than the original scale.

  8. Predictors of the time to institutionalization in young- versus late-onset dementia: results from the Needs in Young Onset Dementia (NeedYD) study.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Christian; de Vugt, Marjolein E; van Vliet, Deliane; Verhey, Frans R J; Pijnenburg, Yolande A; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J; Koopmans, Raymond T C M

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the time from symptom onset to institutionalization in persons with young-onset dementia (YOD) and compare these findings with late-onset dementia (LOD), and to determine which factors predict institutionalization in persons with YOD compared with LOD. Longitudinal study of community-dwelling patients with YOD and LOD and their caregivers. A total of 226 patients with YOD and 102 with LOD and their informal caregivers were recruited through memory clinics and health care facilities. Cox proportional hazard models were used to relate covariates with time to institutionalization. The main outcome was time from symptom onset to institutionalization. Key predictors were cohort (YOD or LOD), neuropsychiatric symptoms, caregiver distress caused by neuropsychiatric symptoms, and caregivers' sense of competence (Short Sense of Competence Questionnaire total score). The time from symptom onset to institutionalization was nearly 9 years for patients with YOD compared with approximately 4 years for patients with LOD. In the YOD group, apathy significantly predicted time of institutionalization. Furthermore, the caregiver's competence in caring for the person with dementia significantly predicted institutionalization in both groups. Patients with YOD are cared for at home for a longer period than patients with LOD. The results of this study underline the importance of a timely diagnosis for these patients and their families to facilitate the initiation of appropriate care and support. Support programs aimed at enhancing the caregivers' sense of competence and ability to deal with neuropsychiatric symptoms, especially apathy, may postpone the institutionalization of the patient. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Statins and the risk of dementia in patients with atrial fibrillation: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tze-Fan; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Su-Jung; Wang, Kang-Ling; Lin, Yenn-Jiang; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Lip, Gregory Y H; Chiang, Chern-En; Chen, Shih-Ann

    2015-10-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with cognitive decline and may contribute to an increased risk of dementia. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether statin use prevented non-vascular dementia in subjects with AF. Data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. The study group comprised 51,253 AF subjects aged ≥ 60 years who had received statin treatment. For each study patient, four age- and sex-matched AF subjects without statin exposure were selected as the control group (n=205,012). The risk of non-vascular dementia was compared between the statin and control groups. During the follow-up period, 17,201 patients experienced non-vascular dementia. The annual incidence of non-vascular dementia was lower in the statin group than in the control group (1.89% vs. 2.20%; p<0.001). Statin use exhibited a protective effect on the occurrence of non-vascular dementia, with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.832 (95% confidence interval=0.801-0.864). Among statin types, the use of rosuvastatin was associated with the largest risk reduction (adjusted HR=0.661). Statin exposure duration was related inversely to the risk of non-vascular dementia. In this large-scale nationwide cohort study, statin use was associated with a lower risk of non-vascular dementia in AF. Use of more potent statin and longer exposure time may be associated with greater benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of diet and life style in etiopathogenesis of senile dementia: A survey study

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kundan; Samarakoon, S. M. S.; Chandola, H M; Kumar, Rajesh; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Mind and body are inseparable entities and influences each other until death. Many factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, negative thoughts, unhealthy life style, unwholesome diet etc., disturb mental and physical wellbeing. Senile dementia is the mental deterioration, i.e, loss of intellectual ability associated with old age. It causes progressive deterioration of mental faculties, e.g., memory, intellect, attention, thinking, comprehension and personality, with preservation of normal level of consciousness. Two major types of senile dementia have been identified, namely that due to generalized atrophy in the cortical area of the brain (Alzheimer's type) and that due to vascular disorders mainly due to stroke. According to DSM-IV (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders), the essential feature of dementia is the development of multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment and at least one of the following cognitive disturbances such as aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or a disturbance in executive function. For the present study, a standardized questionnaire in the form of proforma incorporating types of foods (madhura, amla and lavana rasayukta ahara etc.) and life style (divaswapna, ratrijagarana and manasika bhavas etc) is prepared. To assess manasika bhava, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, and standardized gradations of anumana pariksha of manasika bhavas mentioned by Charaka at Vimana Sthana 4/8 were adopted. In this study, most of the patients had disturbed sleep, tendency to indulge in defective dietary habits and kapha vitiating diets and life style. On Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, patients had anxiety, tension, depression, difficulty in concentration, and memory. On Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, these patients had anxiety, depression, and hypochondriasis. On Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, psychological factors affected include: anxiety, depression, somatic

  11. Evaluation of diet and life style in etiopathogenesis of senile dementia: A survey study.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Kundan; Samarakoon, S M S; Chandola, H M; Kumar, Rajesh; Ravishankar, B

    2011-04-01

    Mind and body are inseparable entities and influences each other until death. Many factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, negative thoughts, unhealthy life style, unwholesome diet etc., disturb mental and physical wellbeing. Senile dementia is the mental deterioration, i.e, loss of intellectual ability associated with old age. It causes progressive deterioration of mental faculties, e.g., memory, intellect, attention, thinking, comprehension and personality, with preservation of normal level of consciousness. Two major types of senile dementia have been identified, namely that due to generalized atrophy in the cortical area of the brain (Alzheimer's type) and that due to vascular disorders mainly due to stroke. According to DSM-IV (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders), the essential feature of dementia is the development of multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment and at least one of the following cognitive disturbances such as aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, or a disturbance in executive function. For the present study, a standardized questionnaire in the form of proforma incorporating types of foods (madhura, amla and lavana rasayukta ahara etc.) and life style (divaswapna, ratrijagarana and manasika bhavas etc) is prepared. To assess manasika bhava, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, and standardized gradations of anumana pariksha of manasika bhavas mentioned by Charaka at Vimana Sthana 4/8 were adopted. In this study, most of the patients had disturbed sleep, tendency to indulge in defective dietary habits and kapha vitiating diets and life style. On Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, patients had anxiety, tension, depression, difficulty in concentration, and memory. On Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, these patients had anxiety, depression, and hypochondriasis. On Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, psychological factors affected include: anxiety, depression, somatic

  12. Vascular Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... dementia is a general term describing problems with reasoning, planning, judgment, memory and other thought processes caused ... dementia. Whether a stroke affects your thinking and reasoning depends on your stroke's severity and location. Vascular ...

  13. A placebo-controlled study of memantine (Ebixa) in dementia of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rustembegović, Avdo; Kundurović, Zlata; Sapcanin, Aida; Sofic, Emin

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the responses of 16 patients to preliminarily explore the spectrum of effectiveness and tolerability of the memantine, and NMDA antagonist, in the treatment of dementia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. In this study, for the first time in dementia of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, the response to memantine was assessed. 16 patients with median age of 64 years and median body weight of 77 kg were treated with memantine 10 mg twice daily for up to 28 weeks. Clinical global impressions (CGI), and Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) were performed during the treatment period (after 2, 4, and 28 weeks). Efficacy measures also included the ADCS-Activities of Daily Living scale (ADCS-ADL). At 28 weeks, the ADCS-ADL showed significantly less deterioration in memantine treated patients compared with placebo (-2.3 compared with -4.3: p = 0.005). The results of MMSE demonstrate a significant and clinically relevant benefit for memantine relative to placebo as shown by positive outcomes in cognitive and functional assessments. Memantine (10 mg) was safe and well tolerated. The preliminarily findings of this study with 16 patients suggested that memantine is effective in the treatment of dementia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

  14. [Evaluation by case managers dementia : An explorative practice based study on types and content].

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, Nicole A B M; Jukema, Jan S; van Bemmel, Marlies; Adriaansen, Marian J M; Smits, Carolien H M

    2017-06-01

    This practice based explorative study aims to provide insight into the ways in which case managers shape and fill up the evaluation phase of their support of the informal care network of persons with dementia. A combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. A group of 57 case managers of persons with dementia in three different organisational networks took part in this study. Results from the quantitative and qualitative data are organized into four themes: (1) attitude towards evaluation, (2) forms of evaluation, (3) implementation of evaluation and (4) content of evaluation. There are different ways in shaping evaluation and the content of it. The importance of interim and final evaluation is recognized, but is difficult to realize in a methodical way. Barriers experienced by the case managers include various factors associated both with clients as professionals. Case managers evaluate continuously and in an informal way to assess whether the extent of their assistance is meeting the needs of the client and informal network. Case managers do not use systematic evaluation to measure the quality of care they offer to persons with dementia and their caregivers. The findings demand a discussion on the level of clients, as well as on the professional and societal level about the way case managers should evaluate their support.

  15. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition.

  16. Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jodi; Mitchell, Gary; Webber, Catherine; Johnson, Karen

    2016-04-11

    Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past.

  17. A 12-month follow-up study of people with dementia referred to general hospital liaison psychiatry services.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Bart; Lall, Ranjit; Gage, Heather; Holland, Caroline; Katz, Jeanne; Mitchell, Kate

    2013-11-01

    new services for patients with dementia in general hospitals are being widely developed. Little is known of outcomes after hospital for such patients. to establish outcomes for patients with dementia referred to general hospital psychiatric services. prospective cohort study. two UK general hospitals. referrals with dementia to liaison psychiatric services. eligible referrals (n = 112), and their carers, were assessed during admission, and at 6 and 12 months, using battery of health measurements. mortality at 6 months was 31% and at 12 months 40%. At baseline, 13% lived in a care home, rising to 84% by 6 months. Quality of life scores remained stable over 12 months, while carer stress fell significantly. Baseline clinical and demographic variables did not predict quality of life or carer stress at 6 and 12 months. dementia liaison services in general hospitals currently focus on poor outcome cases.

  18. Risk of Dementia and Death in the Long Term Follow Up of the Pittsburgh CHS Cognition Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuller, Lewis H.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Chang, Yuefang; Newman, Anne B.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Increasing life expectancy has resulted in a larger population of older individuals at risk of dementia. METHODS The Cardiovascular Health Study–Cognition Study (CHS-CS) followed 532 participants from 1998–99 (mean age 79) to 2013 (mean age 93) for death and dementia. RESULTS Risk of death was determined by extent of coronary artery calcium, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin, and brain natriuretic peptide, and white matter grade. Significant predictors of dementia were age, apolipoprotein-E4, vocabulary raw score, hippocampal volume, ventricular size, cognitive performance, and number of blocks walked. By 2013, 160 of 532 were alive, including 19 cognitively normal. Those with normal cognition had higher grade education, better cognition test scores, greater hippocampal volume, faster gait speed, and number of blocks walked as compared to survivors who were demented. DISCUSSION Few survived free of dementia and disability. Prevention and delay of cognitive decline for this older population is an imperative. PMID:26519786

  19. Sudden-On-Chronic Death and Complicated Grief in Bereaved Dementia Caregivers: Two Case Studies of Complicated Grief Group Therapy.

    PubMed

    Supiano, Katherine P; Andersen, Troy C; Haynes, Lara Burns

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease is challenging and often has negative health and mental health effects that, for 7-20% of caregivers, persist into bereavement in the form of complicated grief. Complicated grief is a state of prolonged and ineffective mourning. An under-recognized phenomenon in dementia care and bereavement is "sudden-on-chronic death." In these situations, the caregiver is preparing for a gradual dying process from dementia, but the care recipient dies instead from a sudden death. In this study, an application of complicated grief group therapy for bereaved dementia caregivers with complicated grief is presented, and the effect of therapy with two bereaved caregivers who experienced the sudden death of their spouses who had a diagnosis of dementia is described. The unique treatment elements of complicated grief group therapy facilitated resolution of the 'trauma-like" features of bereavement and progression to a healthy grief process.

  20. Psychosocial factors that shape patient and carer experiences of dementia diagnosis and treatment: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Frances; Goodman, Claire; Sworn, Katie; Rait, Greta; Brayne, Carol; Robinson, Louise; McNeilly, Elaine; Iliffe, Steve

    2012-10-01

    Early diagnosis and intervention for people with dementia is increasingly considered a priority, but practitioners are concerned with the effects of earlier diagnosis and interventions on patients and caregivers. This systematic review evaluates the qualitative evidence about how people accommodate and adapt to the diagnosis of dementia and its immediate consequences, to guide practice. We systematically reviewed qualitative studies exploring experiences of community-dwelling individuals with dementia, and their carers, around diagnosis and the transition to becoming a person with dementia. We searched PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and the British Nursing Index (all searched in May 2010 with no date restrictions; PubMed search updated in February 2012), checked reference lists, and undertook citation searches in PubMed and Google Scholar (ongoing to September 2011). We used thematic synthesis to identify key themes, commonalities, barriers to earlier diagnosis, and support identified as helpful. We identified 126 papers reporting 102 studies including a total of 3,095 participants. Three overarching themes emerged from our analysis: (1) pathways through diagnosis, including its impact on identity, roles, and relationships; (2) resolving conflicts to accommodate a diagnosis, including the acceptability of support, focusing on the present or the future, and the use or avoidance of knowledge; and (3) strategies and support to minimise the impact of dementia. Consistent barriers to diagnosis include stigma, normalisation of symptoms, and lack of knowledge. Studies report a lack of specialist support particularly post-diagnosis. There is an extensive body of qualitative literature on the experiences of community-dwelling individuals with dementia on receiving and adapting to a diagnosis of dementia. We present a thematic analysis that could be useful to professionals working with people with dementia. We suggest that research emphasis should shift towards the

  1. Psychosocial Factors That Shape Patient and Carer Experiences of Dementia Diagnosis and Treatment: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Frances; Goodman, Claire; Sworn, Katie; Rait, Greta; Brayne, Carol; Robinson, Louise; McNeilly, Elaine; Iliffe, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis and intervention for people with dementia is increasingly considered a priority, but practitioners are concerned with the effects of earlier diagnosis and interventions on patients and caregivers. This systematic review evaluates the qualitative evidence about how people accommodate and adapt to the diagnosis of dementia and its immediate consequences, to guide practice. Methods and Findings We systematically reviewed qualitative studies exploring experiences of community-dwelling individuals with dementia, and their carers, around diagnosis and the transition to becoming a person with dementia. We searched PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and the British Nursing Index (all searched in May 2010 with no date restrictions; PubMed search updated in February 2012), checked reference lists, and undertook citation searches in PubMed and Google Scholar (ongoing to September 2011). We used thematic synthesis to identify key themes, commonalities, barriers to earlier diagnosis, and support identified as helpful. We identified 126 papers reporting 102 studies including a total of 3,095 participants. Three overarching themes emerged from our analysis: (1) pathways through diagnosis, including its impact on identity, roles, and relationships; (2) resolving conflicts to accommodate a diagnosis, including the acceptability of support, focusing on the present or the future, and the use or avoidance of knowledge; and (3) strategies and support to minimise the impact of dementia. Consistent barriers to diagnosis include stigma, normalisation of symptoms, and lack of knowledge. Studies report a lack of specialist support particularly post-diagnosis. Conclusions There is an extensive body of qualitative literature on the experiences of community-dwelling individuals with dementia on receiving and adapting to a diagnosis of dementia. We present a thematic analysis that could be useful to professionals working with people with dementia. We suggest that

  2. Using Multistate Observational Studies to Determine Role of Hypertension and Diabetes as Risk Factors for Dementia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mitasha; Raj, Des; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Gandhi, Manoj Kumar; Chander, Vishav

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that modifiable risk factors which can be targeted by prevention are vascular diseases, such as diabetes, midlife hypertension (HTN), midlife obesity, midlife cholesterol, mid- and late-life depression as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. A comprehensive search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database and Google Scholar was conducted. A combinations of medical subject headings and free text words that included search terms related to the exposure (e.g., prevalence, HTN, raised BP, high BP, diabetes, high blood sugar, DM, India, state), were combined with search terms related to the outcomes (e.g., prevalence, disease burden, estimate, dementia, India). The filters included were English for the language category and humans for the study category. The PubMed search initially identified 269 references, and a total of 204 abstracts were screened by inclusion criteria. Full-text assessment of 136 articles on prevalence of dementia resulted in 20 relevant articles from which the different regions of the country were identified. Based on the search conducted according to the regions; 287abstracts of the prevalence of HTN and 577 on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were screened. There were 43 full-text articles on the prevalence of HTN and diabetes from the regions where the prevalence of dementia was available. Of these potentially relevant articles were 14 in number. Despite the uncertainty in the role, the data analysis, therefore, points to a role in the prevention of HTN and diabetes to prevent dementia.

  3. Using Multistate Observational Studies to Determine Role of Hypertension and Diabetes as Risk Factors for Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mitasha; Raj, Des; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Gandhi, Manoj Kumar; Chander, Vishav

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that modifiable risk factors which can be targeted by prevention are vascular diseases, such as diabetes, midlife hypertension (HTN), midlife obesity, midlife cholesterol, mid- and late-life depression as well as lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Methods: A comprehensive search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database and Google Scholar was conducted. A combinations of medical subject headings and free text words that included search terms related to the exposure (e.g., prevalence, HTN, raised BP, high BP, diabetes, high blood sugar, DM, India, state), were combined with search terms related to the outcomes (e.g., prevalence, disease burden, estimate, dementia, India). The filters included were English for the language category and humans for the study category. Results: The PubMed search initially identified 269 references, and a total of 204 abstracts were screened by inclusion criteria. Full-text assessment of 136 articles on prevalence of dementia resulted in 20 relevant articles from which the different regions of the country were identified. Based on the search conducted according to the regions; 287abstracts of the prevalence of HTN and 577 on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus were screened. There were 43 full-text articles on the prevalence of HTN and diabetes from the regions where the prevalence of dementia was available. Of these potentially relevant articles were 14 in number. Conclusion: Despite the uncertainty in the role, the data analysis, therefore, points to a role in the prevention of HTN and diabetes to prevent dementia. PMID:28163495

  4. Elder-Clowning in Long-Term Dementia Care: Results of a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Pia; Miller, Karen-Lee; Colobong, Romeo; Palma Lazgare, Luis I; Binns, Malcolm; Low, Lee-Fay; Surr, Claire; Naglie, Gary

    2016-02-01

    To assess the effects of elder-clowning on moderate to severe behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in nursing home residents with dementia, primarily of the Alzheimer's type. Before-and-after study. Nursing home. Nursing home residents with moderate to severe BPSD, as defined according to a Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH) score of 10 or greater (N = 23), and their care aides. A pair of elder-clowns visited all residents twice weekly (~10 minutes per visit) for 12 weeks. They used improvisation, humor, empathy, and expressive modalities such as song, musical instruments, and dance to individualize resident engagement. Primary outcomes were BPSD measured using the the NPI-NH, quality of life measured using Dementia Care Mapping (DCM), and nursing burden of care measured using the Modified Nursing Care Assessment Scale (M-NCAS). Secondary outcomes were occupational disruptiveness measured using the NPI-NH, agitation measured using the Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), and psychiatric medication use. Over 12 weeks, NPI-NH scores declined significantly (t22 = -2.68, P = .01), and DCM quality-of-life scores improved significantly (F1,50 = 23.09, P < .001). CMAI agitation scores decreased nominally, but the difference was not statistically significant (t22 = -1.86, P = .07). Occupational disruptiveness score significantly improved (t22 = -2.58, P = .02), but there was no appreciable change in M-NCAS scores of staff burden of care. Results suggest that elder-clowning reduced moderate to severe BPSD of nursing home residents with dementia, primarily of the Alzheimer's type. Elder-clowning is a promising intervention that may improve Alzheimer's disease care for nursing home residents. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Target risk factors for dementia prevention: a systematic review and Delphi consensus study on the evidence from observational studies.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Kay; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Schiepers, Olga J G; de Vugt, Marjolein; Muñoz Sánchez, Juan Luis; Anstey, Kaarin J; Brayne, Carol; Dartigues, Jean-Francois; Engedal, Knut; Kivipelto, Miia; Ritchie, Karen; Starr, John M; Yaffe, Kristine; Irving, Kate; Verhey, Frans R J; Köhler, Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Dementia has a multifactorial etiology, but the importance of individual health and lifestyle related risk factors is often uncertain or based on few studies. The goal of this paper is to identify the major modifiable risk factors for dementia as a first step in developing an effective preventive strategy and promoting healthy late life cognitive functioning. A mixed-method approach combined findings from a systematic literature review and a Delphi consensus study. The literature search was conducted in PubMed and updated an earlier review by the United States National Institutes of Health from 2010. We reviewed the available evidence from observational epidemiological studies. The online Delphi study asked eight international experts to rank and weigh each risk factor for its importance for dementia prevention. Out of 3127 abstracts, 291 were included in the review. There was good agreement between modifiable risk factors identified in the literature review and risk factors named spontaneously by experts. After triangulation of both methods and re-weighting by experts, strongest support was found for depression, (midlife) hypertension, physical inactivity, diabetes, (midlife) obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, while more research is needed for coronary heart disease, renal dysfunction, diet, and cognitive activity. Findings provide good support for several somatic and lifestyle factors and will be used to inform the design of a new multicenter trial into dementia prevention. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Utilization of legal and financial services of partners in dementia care study.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srijana; Judge, Katherine S; Wilson, Nancy L; Moye, Jennifer A; Snow, A Lynn; Kunik, Mark E

    2011-03-01

    Financial and legal services are unique needs of persons with dementia and their caregivers. This study examines their need for legal and financial assistance and the kinds of legal and financial services provided within Partners in Dementia Care, a telephone-based, care coordination and support service intervention delivered through a partnership between Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and local Alzheimer's Association chapters. Based on comprehensive assessment, and needs prioritization, care coordinators collaboratively planned action steps (specific behavioral tasks) with each caregiver/person with dementia to address the dyad's identified unmet needs. Results show that 51 (54.8%) of 93 dyads reported a need for legal and financial services. Action steps related to legal and financial need included education or assistance with legal services (27.27%), nonhealth-related financial benefits (32.32%), health-related financial benefits (21.21%), financial management/planning (9.09%), and financial support (10.1%). Comparable numbers of action steps were directed to VA (41.4%) and non-VA (58.6%) services.

  7. Distinguishing age-related cognitive decline from dementias: A study based on machine learning algorithms.

    PubMed

    Er, Füsun; Iscen, Pınar; Sahin, Sevki; Çinar, Nilgun; Karsidag, Sibel; Goularas, Dionysis

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to examine the distinguishability of age-related cognitive decline (ARCD) from dementias based on some neurocognitive tests using machine learning. 106 subjects were divided into four groups: ARCD (n=30), probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=20), vascular dementia (VD) (n=21) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=35). The following tests were applied to all subjects: The Wechsler memory scale-revised, a clock-drawing, the dual similarities, interpretation of proverbs, word fluency, the Stroop, the Boston naming (BNT), the Benton face recognition, a copying-drawings and Öktem verbal memory processes (Ö-VMPT) tests. A multilayer perceptron, a support vector machine and a classification via regression with M5-model trees were employed for classification. The pairwise classification results show that ARCD is completely separable from AD with a success rate of 100% and highly separable from MCI and VD with success rates of 95.4% and 86.30%, respectively. The neurocognitive tests with the higher merit values were Ö-VMPT recognition (ARCD vs. AD), Ö-VMPT total learning (ARCD vs. MCI) and semantic fluency, proverbs, Stroop interference and naming BNT (ARCD vs. VD). The findings show that machine learning can be successfully utilized for distinguishing ARCD from dementias based on neurocognitive tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolution of autobiographical memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia - A longitudinal neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Mothakunnel, Annu; Ramanan, Siddharth; Hsieh, Sharpley; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2017-03-10

    Compromised autobiographical memory (ABM) retrieval is well established in dementia, attributable to degeneration of a core memory brain network. It remains unclear, however, how the progressive spread of atrophy with advancing disease severity impacts ABM retrieval across life epochs. To this end, we conducted a longitudinal study of recent and remote ABM in Alzheimer's disease (AD, n =11), and a frontotemporal lobar degeneration group (FTD, n =13) comprising 7 behavioral variant FTD and 6 semantic dementia patients, in comparison with 23 healthy older Controls. Patients were re-assessed approximately one year following their initial visit and underwent repeat testing and brain imaging. Linear mixed modeling neuroimaging analyses explored disease-specific cortical changes driving ABM alterations over time. AD patients showed comparable ABM profiles across assessment periods however, follow-up performance correlated strongly with lateral temporal lobe integrity. In contrast, recent ABMs were disproportionately disrupted at follow-up relative to baseline in the FTD group, attributable to cortical thinning in posterior brain regions, including the right posterior cingulate cortex. Our findings offer new insights regarding the potential time-specific role of discrete cortical regions in ABM retrieval and the differential fate of formerly evocative memories with advancing disease severity in dementia syndromes.

  9. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; White, Nicola; Leurent, Baptiste; Scott, Sharon; Lord, Kathryn; Round, Jeff; Jones, Louise

    2014-09-01

    Dementia is common in older people admitted to acute hospitals. There are concerns about the quality of care they receive. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD) seem to be particularly challenging for hospital staff. AIMS To define the prevalence of BPSD and explore their clinical associations. Longitudinal cohort study of 230 people with dementia, aged over 70, admitted to hospital for acute medical illness, and assessed for BPSD at admission and every 4 (± 1) days until discharge. Other measures included length of stay, care quality indicators, adverse events and mortality. Participants were very impaired; 46% at Functional Assessment Staging Scale (FAST) stage 6d or above (doubly incontinent), 75% had BPSD, and 43% had some BPSD that were moderately/severely troubling to staff. Most common were aggression (57%), activity disturbance (44%), sleep disturbance (42%) and anxiety (35%). We found that BPSD are very common in older people admitted to an acute hospital. Patients and staff would benefit from more specialist psychiatric support. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  10. Statins Reduces the Risk of Dementia in Patients with Late-Onset Depression: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yen-Ting; Li, Szu-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, Albert C.; Chan, Hsiang-Lin; Hsieh, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Hsu, Fu-Ying; Liu, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Wen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with late-onset depression (LOD) have been reported to run a higher risk of subsequent dementia. The present study was conducted to assess whether statins can reduce the risk of dementia in these patients. Methods We used the data from National Health Insurance of Taiwan during 1996–2009. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were calculated for LOD and subsequent dementia. The criteria for LOD diagnoses included age ≥65 years, diagnosis of depression after 65 years of age, at least three service claims, and treatment with antidepressants. The time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model was applied for multivariate analyses. Propensity scores with the one-to-one nearest-neighbor matching model were used to select matching patients for validation studies. Kaplan-Meier curve estimate was used to measure the group of patients with dementia living after diagnosis of LOD. Results Totally 45,973 patients aged ≥65 years were enrolled. The prevalence of LOD was 12.9% (5,952/45,973). Patients with LOD showed to have a higher incidence of subsequent dementia compared with those without LOD (Odds Ratio: 2.785; 95% CI 2.619–2.958). Among patients with LOD, lipid lowering agent (LLA) users (for at least 3 months) had lower incidence of subsequent dementia than non-users (Hazard Ratio = 0.781, 95% CI 0.685–0.891). Nevertheless, only statins users showed to have reduced risk of dementia (Hazard Ratio = 0.674, 95% CI 0.547–0.832) while other LLAs did not, which was further validated by Kaplan-Meier estimates after we used the propensity scores with the one-to-one nearest-neighbor matching model to control the confounding factors. Conclusions Statins may reduce the risk of subsequent dementia in patients with LOD. PMID:26383103

  11. [Hypertension and dementia].

    PubMed

    Hanon, O

    2014-06-01

    Prevention and treatment of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. Several epidemiological studies have indicated a significant association between the presence of hypertension and the onset of dementia (vascular or Alzheimer's type) several years later. Cognitive disorder may be related to focal cerebral lesions of vascular origin (infarctus, lacunae) and/or chronic ischemia of the white matter (white matter lesions) related to arteriosclerosis and/or lipohyalinosis of small perforating arteries high blood pressure in mid-life to later cognitive decline and dementia. Moreover, disorders of cerebral microcirculation and endothelial dysfunction may be associated to blood brain barrier dysfunction and amyloid plaques formation leading to Alzheimer's process. Few randomized clinical trials have included a cognitive assessment and dementia as outcome in their design. They all raise some major criticisms: cognitive assessment was never the main outcome, too short follow-up to study dementia; incomplete assessment of cognition, lost of follow-up and a small proportion of subjects at risk for dementia at inclusion. However, the results of therapeutic trials (SYST-EUR, PROGRESS) open the way to the prevention of dementia (vascular or Alzheimer's type) or cognitive decline by antihypertensive treatments. A meta-analysis including randomized controlled studies, suggests a significant decrease in the risk of dementia with antihypertensive treatment compared to placebo.

  12. Increased Risk of Dementia in Patients With Acute Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM) are the most commonly used pesticides against insects. Little is known regarding the relationship between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. A nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in patients hospitalized for acute OP and CM poisoning from 2000 to 2011. The comparison cohort was matched with the poisoned cohort at a 4:1 ratio based on age, sex, and the year of hospitalization. During the follow-up period, the incidence of dementia was 29.4 per 10,000 person-years in the poisoned group, and represented a 1.98-fold increased risk of dementia compared with the control cohort (95% confidence interval, 1.59-2.47). This study provides evidence on the association between dementia and acute OP and CM poisoning. Regular follow-up of poisoned patients for dementia is suggested.

  13. Incidence of pneumonia in nursing home residents with dementia in the Netherlands: an estimation based on three differently designed studies.

    PubMed

    Zomer, T P; VAN DER Maaden, T; VAN Gageldonk-Lafeber, A B; DE Greeff, S C; VAN DER Steen, J T; Verhoef, L

    2017-08-01

    Pneumonia leads to considerable morbidity and mortality in nursing home residents with dementia. We assessed pneumonia incidence based on data from three different studies: (1) real-time national surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in nursing home residents in 2009-2015; (2) a randomized controlled trial in 2012-2015 to assess effects of a practical guideline in nursing home residents with dementia and pneumonia; and (3) a study in 2007-2010 to assess quality of dying in newly admitted nursing home residents with dementia. In national surveillance data, pneumonia incidence was calculated separately for psychogeriatric and somatic beds, as a proxy for residents with and without dementia. Weekly pneumonia incidence was significantly lower per 1000 psychogeriatric beds (3·9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·2-4·6) compared with 1000 somatic beds (5·7; 95% CI 5·1-6·3). Annual incidence per 1000 psychogeriatric beds was similar in national surveillance (range 78·9-117·1) and the trial (range 71·0-94·3), and significantly higher in newly admitted dementia residents (range 267·3-363·2). The incidence was highest during the first months after admission when compared with residents with longer stay. In conclusion, follow-up of pneumonia in newly admitted dementia residents may result in higher incidence, possibly due to higher risk in this population.

  14. Relationship between low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and dementia in the elderly. The InChianti study.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, G; Cavalieri, M; Galvani, M; Volpato, S; Cherubini, A; Bandinelli, S; Corsi, A M; Lauretani, F; Guralnik, J M; Fellin, R; Ferrucci, L

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate the association between plasma lipid fractions and the prevalence of dementia in a large sample of Italian older individuals. A total of 1051 older community-dwelling individuals (age >/=65 years), enrolled in the InChianti study, were included. Diagnosis of dementia was established at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (Fourth Edition) criteria. Plasma lipids were measured by standardized methods at baseline and after 3 years. At baseline, 61 individuals (5.8%) were affected by dementia. Demented individuals showed significantly lower total cholesterol (TC), nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared with controls; no differences were found in triglycerides (TG) and lipoprotein (a) levels. Of the 819 subjects reevaluated at the 3-year follow-up, 81 (9.9%) received a new diagnosis of dementia. Again, demented subjects were characterized by significantly lower TC, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels compared with controls, thus confirming the baseline findings. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, HDL-C levels (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.93-0.99), but not TG and non-HDL-C, were associated with dementia independent of important confounders including age, gender, apo E phenotype, stroke, weight loss, interleukin 6 levels, and ankle-brachial index. Among community-dwelling older people, individuals affected by dementia showed significantly lower TC, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels; however, at multivariate analysis, only HDL-C was associated with dementia. Our results suggest the existence of an independent relationship between dementia and low HDL-C levels.

  15. Relationship Between Low Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Dementia in the Elderly. The InChianti Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, M.; Galvani, M.; Volpato, S.; Cherubini, A.; Bandinelli, S.; Corsi, A. M.; Lauretani, F.; Guralnik, J. M.; Fellin, R.; Ferrucci, L.

    2010-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the association between plasma lipid fractions and the prevalence of dementia in a large sample of Italian older individuals. Methods. A total of 1051 older community-dwelling individuals (age ≥65 years), enrolled in the InChianti study, were included. Diagnosis of dementia was established at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (Fourth Edition) criteria. Plasma lipids were measured by standardized methods at baseline and after 3 years. Results. At baseline, 61 individuals (5.8%) were affected by dementia. Demented individuals showed significantly lower total cholesterol (TC), nonhigh–density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels compared with controls; no differences were found in triglycerides (TG) and lipoprotein (a) levels. Of the 819 subjects reevaluated at the 3-year follow-up, 81 (9.9%) received a new diagnosis of dementia. Again, demented subjects were characterized by significantly lower TC, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels compared with controls, thus confirming the baseline findings. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, HDL-C levels (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.93–0.99), but not TG and non-HDL-C, were associated with dementia independent of important confounders including age, gender, apo E phenotype, stroke, weight loss, interleukin 6 levels, and ankle–brachial index. Conclusions. Among community-dwelling older people, individuals affected by dementia showed significantly lower TC, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels; however, at multivariate analysis, only HDL-C was associated with dementia. Our results suggest the existence of an independent relationship between dementia and low HDL-C levels. PMID:20299544

  16. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Elizabeth L; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-04-01

    Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia.

  17. A Cognitive Turning Point in Development of Clinical Alzheimer's Disease Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Biracial Population Study.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Kumar B; Wilson, Robert S; Barnes, Lisa L; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Weuve, Jennifer; Evans, Denis A

    2017-03-01

    Cognitive changes during the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia have been characterized among European Americans (EAs), but studies of preclinical changes among African Americans (AAs) are notably absent. Preclinical changes in cognition before the development of AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment over a period of 18 years were examined using change points in a biracial sample of 2,125 older adults. Of 2,125 participants, 442 (21%) developed AD dementia and 661 (31%) developed mild cognitive impairment. A cognitive change point occurred between 4 and 5 years before the clinical diagnosis of AD dementia. Differences between AAs and EAs were observed: EAs had a higher starting level of composite cognitive function, and a change point occurred 4.3 years before AD dementia among AAs and 4.7 years among EAs. The slope of cognitive decline after the change point among those developing clinical AD dementia was significantly greater among EAs (0.233 units/y) than among AAs (0.171 units/y; p < .001). This difference in slope of cognitive decline persisted after diagnosis of AD dementia so that at the conclusion of observation the difference in average cognitive level was reversed. AAs without cognitive impairment had a lower average baseline of cognition than EAs, but the slopes of cognitive decline were similar. A prominent change to a steeper slope of cognitive decline occurs between 4 and 5 years prior to the diagnosis of AD dementia. The slope of cognitive decline after the change point is steeper among EAs than AAs.

  18. Pain, agitation, and behavioural problems in people with dementia admitted to general hospital wards: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Elizabeth L.; White, Nicola; Lord, Kathryn; Leurent, Baptiste; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Scott, Sharon; Jones, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pain is underdetected and undertreated in people with dementia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of pain in people with dementia admitted to general hospitals and explore the association between pain and behavioural and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD). We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of 230 people, aged above 70, with dementia and unplanned medical admissions to 2 UK hospitals. Participants were assessed at baseline and every 4 days for self-reported pain (yes/no question and FACES scale) and observed pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia scale [PAINAD]) at movement and at rest, for agitation (Cohen–Mansfield Agitating Inventory [CMAI]) and BPSD (Behavioural Pathology in Alzheimer Disease Scale [BEHAVE-AD]). On admission, 27% of participants self-reported pain rising to 39% on at least 1 occasion during admission. Half of them were able to complete the FACES scale, this proportion decreasing with more severe dementia. Using the PAINAD, 19% had pain at rest and 57% had pain on movement on at least 1 occasion (in 16%, this was persistent throughout the admission). In controlled analyses, pain was not associated with CMAI scores but was strongly associated with total BEHAVE-AD scores, both when pain was assessed on movement (β = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.07-0.32, P = 0.002) and at rest (β = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.14-0.69, P = 0.003). The association was the strongest for aggression and anxiety. Pain was common in people with dementia admitted to the acute hospital and associated with BPSD. Improved pain management may reduce distressing behaviours and improve the quality of hospital care for people with dementia. PMID:25790457

  19. Care Needs and Clinical Outcomes of Older People with Dementia: A Population-Based Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Fei-Yuan; Peng, Li-Ning; Wen, Yu-Wen; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Wang, Pei-Ning; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the healthcare resource utilization, psychotropic drug use and mortality of older people with dementia. Design A nationwide propensity score-matched cohort study. Setting National Health Insurance Research database. Participants A total of 32,649 elderly people with dementia and their propensity-score matched controls (n=32,649). Measurements Outpatient visits, inpatient care, psychotropic drug use, in-hospital mortality and all-cause mortality at 90 and 365 days. Results Compared to the non-dementia group, a higher proportion of patients with dementia used inpatient services (1 year after index date: 20.91% vs. 9.55%), and the dementia group had more outpatient visits (median [standard deviation]: 7.00 [8.87] vs. 3.00 [8.30]). Furthermore, dementia cases with acute admission had the highest psychotropic drug utilization both at baseline and at the post-index dates (difference-in-differences: all <0.001). Dementia was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (90 days, Odds ratio (OR)=1.85 [95%CI 1.67-2.05], p<0.001; 365 days, OR=1.59 [1.50-1.69], p<0.001) and in-hospital mortality (90 days, OR=1.97 [1.71-2.27], p<0.001; 365 days, OR=1.82 [1.61-2.05], p<0.001) compared to matched controls. Conclusions When older people with dementia are admitted for acute illnesses, they may increase their use of psychotropic agents and their risk of death, particularly in-hospital mortality. PMID:25955163

  20. Development of a candy-sucking test for evaluating oral function in elderly patients with dementia: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Mineka; Maruyama, Mariko; Hiraoka, Aya; Nakamori, Masahiro; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Tsuga, Kazuhiro

    2017-02-22

    To maintain oral intake in elderly patients with dementia, it is important to evaluate their oral function. However, these patients often have difficulties following instructions during oral function tests, especially with the progression of dementia. The task of sucking a lollipop candy is simple for elderly patients with mild or severe dementia. The present study aimed to develop a new oral function test - the "candy sucking test" (CST) - for elderly patients with dementia. We recruited 23 female elderly patients with dementia (mean age 89.0 ± 6.7 years). First, we determined the number of participants who were able to carry out this new oral function test, compared with other existing tests. Then, swallowing function was evaluated using videofluoroscopy for those who could carry out the CST. More participants were able to perform carry out CST than other function tests (P < 0.05). A significant correlation was observed between the CST value, evaluated as the difference in candy weight, and oral transit time (ρ = -0.62, P < 0.01). The CST could be useful as a new method for evaluating the oral function of elderly patients with dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Playing a Musical Instrument as a Protective Factor against Dementia and Cognitive Impairment: A Population-Based Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports that playing a musical instrument may benefit cognitive development and health at young ages. Whether playing an instrument provides protection against dementia has not been established. In a population-based cotwin control study, we examined the association between playing a musical instrument and whether or not the twins developed dementia or cognitive impairment. Participation in playing an instrument was taken from informant-based reports of twins' leisure activities. Dementia diagnoses were based on a complete clinical workup using standard diagnostic criteria. Among 157 twin pairs discordant for dementia and cognitive impairment, 27 pairs were discordant for playing an instrument. Controlling for sex, education, and physical activity, playing a musical instrument was significantly associated with less likelihood of dementia and cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36 [95% confidence interval 0.13–0.99]). These findings support further consideration of music as a modifiable protective factor against dementia and cognitive impairment. PMID:25544932

  2. Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Alzheimer-Type Dementia in Institutionalized Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, F. E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Institutionalized patients with Down syndrome (N=307) were monitored for 5 to 10 years to determine prevalence of Alzheimer-type dementia. Prevalence increased from 11% between ages 40 and 49 to 77% between 60 and 69. All patients 70 and over had dementia. Mean age of onset of dementia was 56 years. Neuropathological findings were consistent with…

  3. People with dementia in nursing home research: a methodological review of the definition and identification of the study population.

    PubMed

    Palm, Rebecca; Jünger, Saskia; Reuther, Sven; Schwab, Christian G G; Dichter, Martin N; Holle, Bernhard; Halek, Margareta

    2016-04-05

    There are various definitions and diagnostic criteria for dementia, leading to discrepancies in case ascertainment in both clinical practice and research. We reviewed the different definitions, approaches and measurements used to operationalize dementia in health care studies in German nursing homes with the aim of discussing the implications of different approaches. We conducted a systematic search of the MEDLINE and CINAHL databases to identify pre-2016 studies conducted in German nursing homes that focused on residents with dementia or cognitive impairment. In- or exclusion of studies were consented by all authors; data extraction was independently carried out by 2 authors (RP, SJ). The studies' sampling methods were compared with respect to their inclusion criteria, assessment tools and methods used to identify the study population. We summarized case ascertainment methods from 64 studies. Study participants were identified based on a diagnosis that was evaluated during the study, or a recorded medical dementia diagnosis, or a recorded medical diagnosis either with additional cognitive screenings or using screening tests exclusively. The descriptions of the diagnostics that were applied to assess a diagnosis of dementia were not fully transparent in most of the studies with respect to either a clear reference definition of dementia or applied diagnostic criteria. If reported, various neuropsychological tests were used, mostly without a clear rationale for their selection. Pragmatic considerations often determine the sampling strategy; they also may explain the variances we detected in the different studies. Variations in sampling methods impede the comparability of study results. There is a need to consent case ascertainment strategies in dementia studies in health service research in nursing homes. These strategies should consider resource constraints and ethical issues that are related to the vulnerable population of nursing home residents. Additionally

  4. Exploring the need for a new UK occupational therapy intervention for people with dementia and family carers: Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia (COTiD). A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Sinéad M; Field, Becky; Ledgerd, Ritchard; Swinson, Thomas; Wenborn, Jennifer; di Bona, Laura; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Poland, Fiona; Orrell, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the Netherlands, Graff et al. found Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia (COTiD) demonstrated benefits to people with dementia and family carers. In this study, focus groups took place with people with dementia and family carers to explore how to make COTiD relevant to the UK context. Six focus groups (three with people living with dementia (n = 18) and three with family carers (n = 21)) took place. Participants were asked for their impressions of the intervention, the extent to which it could meet their needs, and what modifications were needed. Audio-recordings of the groups were transcribed and analysed. Three key themes emerged covering 'loss and living with dementia', 'what helped us', and 'consistency and continuity'. People with dementia and family carers spoke about the impact of their diagnosis on them and their family and what strategies helped. Issues such as timing, follow-up, and the importance of an early intervention in preventing crises were highlighted. There was some concern over the length of the intervention and the disruption it might cause to current schedules. Overall, participants were optimistic about COTiD being used in the United Kingdom if it was to be introduced in a flexible and timely manner, incorporating the needs and existing strategies of the person with dementia. These outcomes have led to changes, such as incorporating more flexibility into COTiD, being made to the intervention prior to its implementation in the United Kingdom.

  5. Design, methods and demographic findings of the DEMINVALL survey: a population-based study of Dementia in Valladolid, Northwestern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This article describes the rationale and design of a population-based survey of dementia in Valladolid (northwestern Spain). The main aim of the study was to assess the epidemiology of dementia and its subtypes. Prevalence of anosognosia in dementia patients, nutritional status, diet characteristics, and determinants of non-diagnosed dementia in the community were studied. The main sociodemographic, educational, and general health status characteristics of the study population are described. Methods Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A two-phase door-to-door study was performed. Both urban and rural environments were included. In phase 1 (February 2009 – February 2010) 28 trained physicians examined a population of 2,989 subjects (age: ≥ 65 years). The seven-minute screen neurocognitive battery was used. In phase 2 (May 2009 – May 2010) 4 neurologists, 1 geriatrician, and 3 neuropsychologists confirmed the diagnosis of dementia and subtype in patients screened positive by a structured neurological evaluation. Specific instruments to assess anosognosia, the nutritional status and diet characteristics were used. Of the initial sample, 2,170 subjects were evaluated (57% female, mean age 76.5 ± 7.8, 5.2% institutionalized), whose characteristics are described. 227 persons were excluded for various reasons. Among those eligible were 592 non-responders. The attrition bias of non-responders was lower in rural areas. 241 screened positive (11.1%). Discussion The survey will explore some clinical, social and health related life-style variables of dementia. The population size and the diversification of social and educational backgrounds will contribute to a better knowledge of dementia in our environment. PMID:22935626

  6. Midlife mental distress and risk for dementia up to 27 years later: the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) in linkage with a dementia registry in Norway.

    PubMed

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Bergh, Sverre; Stewart, Robert; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2015-03-10

    Dementia is an increasing public health challenge, and the number of individuals affected is growing rapidly. Mental disorders and symptoms of mental distress have been reported to be risk factors for dementia. The aim of this study was to examine whether midlife mental distress is a predictor for onset of dementia later in life. Using data from a large population-based study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study; HUNT1) linked to a dementia registry (The Health and Memory study; HMS) enabling a maximum 27 years of follow-up, we ascertained mental distress and subsequent dementia status for 30,902 individuals aged 30-60 years at baseline. In HUNT1, self-reported mental distress was assessed using the four-item Anxiety and Depression Index (ADI-4). Dementia status was ascertained from HMS, which included patient and caregiver history, cognitive testing and clinical and physical examinations from the hospitals and nursing homes serving the catchment area of HUNT1. In the main analysis, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were computed for the prospective association between mental distress and dementia. In secondary analyses, two-way age and gender interactions with mental distress on later dementia were examined. A 50% increased odds for dementia among HUNT1-participants reporting mental distress was found (crude odds ratio (OR): 1.52; 95% CI 1.15-2.01), and a 35% increase in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.01-1.80). In secondary analyses, we found evidence for a two-way interaction with age on the association between mental distress and dementia (p = 0.030): the age- and gender adjusted OR was 2.44 (95% CI 1.18-5.05) in those aged 30-44 years at baseline, and 1.24 (0.91-1.69) in 45-60 year olds. Our results indicate an association between midlife mental distress and increased risk of later dementia, an association that was stronger for distress measured in early compared to later midlife. Mental distress should be investigated further as

  7. Contribution of cognitive performance and cognitive decline to associations between socioeconomic factors and dementia: A cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moatti, Jean-Paul; Marmot, Michael G.; Kivimaki, Mika

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic disadvantage is a risk factor for dementia, but longitudinal studies suggest that it does not affect the rate of cognitive decline. Our objective is to understand the manner in which socioeconomic disadvantage shapes dementia risk by examining its associations with midlife cognitive performance and cognitive decline from midlife to old age, including cognitive decline trajectories in those with dementia. Methods and findings Data are drawn from the Whitehall II study (N = 10,308 at study recruitment in 1985), with cognitive function assessed at 4 waves (1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012). Sociodemographic, behavioural, and cardiometabolic risk factors from 1985 and chronic conditions until the end of follow-up in 2015 (N dementia/total = 320/9,938) allowed the use of inverse probability weighting to take into account data missing because of loss to follow-up between the study recruitment in 1985 and the introduction of cognitive tests to the study in 1997. Generalized estimating equations and Cox regression were used to assess associations of socioeconomic markers (height, education, and midlife occupation categorized as low, intermediate, and high to represent hierarchy in the socioeconomic marker) with cognitive performance, cognitive decline, and dementia (N dementia/total = 195/7,499). In those with dementia, we examined whether retrospective trajectories of cognitive decline (backward timescale) over 18 years prior to diagnosis differed as a function of socioeconomic markers. Socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with poorer cognitive performance (all p < 0.001). Using point estimates for the effect of age, the differences between the high and low socioeconomic groups corresponded to an age effect of 4, 15, and 26 years, for height, education, and midlife occupation, respectively. There was no evidence of faster cognitive decline in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Low occupation, but not height or education, was associated with

  8. How do persons with dementia participate in decision making related to health and daily care? A multi-case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many countries have passed laws giving patients the right to participate in decisions about health care. People with dementia cannot be assumed to be incapable of making decisions on their diagnosis alone as they may have retained cognitive abilities. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how persons with dementia participated in making decisions about health care and how their family carers and professional caregivers influenced decision making. Methods This Norwegian study had a qualitative multi-case design. The triad in each of the ten cases consisted of the person with dementia, the family carer and the professional caregiver, in all 30 participants. Inclusion criteria for the persons with dementia were: (1) 67 years or older (2) diagnosed with dementia (3) Clinical Dementia Rating score 2, moderate dementia; (3) able to communicate verbally. The family carers and professional caregivers were then asked to participate. A semi-structured interview guide was used in interviews with family carers and professional caregivers. Field notes were written after participant observation of interactions between persons with dementia and professional caregivers during morning care or activities at a day centre. How the professional caregivers facilitated decision making was the focus of the observations that varied in length from 30 to 90 minutes. The data were analyzed using framework analysis combined with a hermeneutical interpretive approach. Results Professional caregivers based their assessment of mental competence on experience and not on standardized tests. Persons with dementia demonstrated variability in how they participated in decision making. Pseudo-autonomous decision making and delegating decision making were new categories that emerged. Autonomous decision making did occur but shared decision making was the most typical pattern. Reduced mental capacity, lack of available choices or not being given the opportunity to

  9. Effects of general medical health on Alzheimer's progression: the Cache County Dementia Progression Study.

    PubMed

    Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Han, Dingfen; Mielke, Michelle M; Forrester, Sarah N; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Corcoran, Chris D; Green, Robert C; Norton, Maria C; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2012-10-01

    Several observational studies have suggested a link between health status and rate of decline among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to quantify the relationship in a population-based study of incident AD, and to compare global comorbidity ratings to counts of comorbid conditions and medications as predictors of AD progression. This was a case-only cohort study arising from a population-based longitudinal study of memory and aging, in Cache County, Utah. Participants comprised 335 individuals with incident AD followed for up to 11 years. Patient descriptors included sex, age, education, dementia duration at baseline, and APOE genotype. Measures of health status made at each visit included the General Medical Health Rating (GMHR), number of comorbid medical conditions, and number of non-psychiatric medications. Dementia outcomes included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating - sum of boxes (CDR-sb), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Health status tended to fluctuate over time within individuals. None of the baseline medical variables (GMHR, comorbidities, and non-psychiatric medications) was associated with differences in rates of decline in longitudinal linear mixed effects models. Over time, low GMHR ratings, but not comorbidities or medications, were associated with poorer outcomes (MMSE: β = -1.07 p = 0.01; CDR-sb: β = 1.79 p < 0.001; NPI: β = 4.57 p = 0.01). Given that time-varying GMHR, but not baseline GMHR, was associated with the outcomes, it seems likely that there is a dynamic relationship between medical and cognitive health. GMHR is a more sensitive measure of health than simple counts of comorbidities or medications. Since health status is a potentially modifiable risk factor, further study is warranted.

  10. Effects of General Medical Health on Alzheimer Progression: the Cache County Dementia Progression Study

    PubMed Central

    Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Han, Dingfen; Mielke, Michelle M.; Forrester, Sarah N.; Tschanz, JoAnn T.; Corcoran, Chris D.; Green, Robert C.; Norton, Maria C.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several observational studies suggested a link between health status and rate of decline among individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We sought to quantify the relationship in a population-based study of incident AD, and to compare global comorbidity ratings to counts of comorbid conditions and medications as predictors of AD progression. Methods Design Case-only cohort study arising from population-based longitudinal study of memory and aging. Setting Cache County, Utah Participants 335 individuals with incident AD followed for up to 11 years. Measurements Patient descriptors included sex, age, education, dementia duration at baseline, and APOE genotype. Measures of health status made at each visit included the GMHR (General Medical Health Rating), number of comorbid medical conditions, and number of non-psychiatric medications. Dementia outcomes included the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating – sum of boxes (CDR-sb), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Results Health Status tended to fluctuate over time within individuals. None of the baseline medical variables (GMHR, comorbidities, non-psychiatric medications) were associated with differences in rates of decline in longitudinal linear mixed effects models. Over time, low GMHR ratings, but not comorbidities or medications, were associated with poorer outcomes (MMSE: β=−1.07 p=0.01; CDR-sb: β=1.79 p<0.001; NPI: β=4.57 p=0.01) Conclusions Given that time-varying GMHR, but not baseline GMHR, was associated with the outcomes, there is likely a dynamic relationship between medical and cognitive health. GMHR is a more sensitive measure of health than simple counts of comorbidities or medications. Since health status is a potentially modifiable risk factor, further study is warranted. PMID:22687143

  11. Temporal trend in dementia incidence since 2002 and projections for prevalence in England and Wales to 2040: modelling study.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Shipley, Martin J; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Steptoe, Andrew; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-07-05

    Objective To forecast dementia prevalence with a dynamic modelling approach that integrates calendar trends in dementia incidence with those for mortality and cardiovascular disease.Design Modelling study.Setting General adult population of England and Wales.Participants The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a representative panel study with six waves of data across 2002-13. Men and women aged 50 or more years, selected randomly, and their cohabiting partners were recruited to the first wave of ELSA (2002-03). 11392 adults participated (response rate 67%). To maintain representativeness, refreshment participants were recruited to the study at subsequent waves. The total analytical sample constituted 17 906 people. Constant objective criteria based on cognitive and functional impairment were used to ascertain dementia cases at each wave.Main outcome measures To estimate calendar trends in dementia incidence, correcting for bias due to loss to follow-up of study participants, a joint model of longitudinal and time-to-event data was fitted to ELSA data. To forecast future dementia prevalence, the probabilistic Markov model IMPACT-BAM (IMPACT-Better Ageing Model) was developed. IMPACT-BAM models transitions of the population aged 35 or more years through states of cardiovascular disease, cognitive and functional impairment, and dementia, to death. It enables prediction of dementia prevalence while accounting for the growing pool of susceptible people as a result of increased life expectancy and the competing effects due to changes in mortality, and incidence of cardiovascular disease.Results In ELSA, dementia incidence was estimated at 14.3 per 1000 person years in men and 17.0/1000 person years in women aged 50 or more in 2010. Dementia incidence declined at a relative rate of 2.7% (95% confidence interval 2.4% to 2.9%) for each year during 2002-13. Using IMPACT-BAM, we estimated there were approximately 767 000 (95% uncertainty interval 735

  12. Temporal trend in dementia incidence since 2002 and projections for prevalence in England and Wales to 2040: modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Shipley, Martin J; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika; Steptoe, Andrew; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin; Brunner, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To forecast dementia prevalence with a dynamic modelling approach that integrates calendar trends in dementia incidence with those for mortality and cardiovascular disease. Design Modelling study. Setting General adult population of England and Wales. Participants The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a representative panel study with six waves of data across 2002-13. Men and women aged 50 or more years, selected randomly, and their cohabiting partners were recruited to the first wave of ELSA (2002-03). 11392 adults participated (response rate 67%). To maintain representativeness, refreshment participants were recruited to the study at subsequent waves. The total analytical sample constituted 17 906 people. Constant objective criteria based on cognitive and functional impairment were used to ascertain dementia cases at each wave. Main outcome measures To estimate calendar trends in dementia incidence, correcting for bias due to loss to follow-up of study participants, a joint model of longitudinal and time-to-event data was fitted to ELSA data. To forecast future dementia prevalence, the probabilistic Markov model IMPACT-BAM (IMPACT-Better Ageing Model) was developed. IMPACT-BAM models transitions of the population aged 35 or more years through states of cardiovascular disease, cognitive and functional impairment, and dementia, to death. It enables prediction of dementia prevalence while accounting for the growing pool of susceptible people as a result of increased life expectancy and the competing effects due to changes in mortality, and incidence of cardiovascular disease. Results In ELSA, dementia incidence was estimated at 14.3 per 1000 person years in men and 17.0/1000 person years in women aged 50 or more in 2010. Dementia incidence declined at a relative rate of 2.7% (95% confidence interval 2.4% to 2.9%) for each year during 2002-13. Using IMPACT-BAM, we estimated there were approximately 767 000 (95% uncertainty interval

  13. Dementia and Traffic Accidents: A Danish Register-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe; Vass, Mikkel; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2016-01-01

    Background As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. Objective Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. Methods We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual’s personal data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used for the main analysis. Results Our study protocol has 3 phases including data collection, data analysis, and reporting. The first phase of register-based data collection of 853,228 individual’s personal information was completed in August, 2016. The next phase is data analysis, which is expected to be finished before December 2016, and thereafter writing publications based on the findings. The study started in January 2016 and will end in December 2018. Discussion This study covers the entire elderly population of Denmark, and thereby will avoid selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic

  14. Prevalence of depression among older adults with dementia living in low- and middle-income countries: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Paula; Lönnroos, Eija; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of depression has been evaluated in populations of low- and middle-income (LMI) countries but the risk of depression has not been specified among persons with dementia. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to assess the prevalence and risk of depression among older people with dementia living in LMI countries. The study analysed data from a population-based survey conducted by 10/66 Dementia Research Group in 2004. Altogether, 17 031 participants from eight different countries aged 65 years and above were assessed. Logistic regression was used to calculate prevalence and odds ratio (OR) of depression on persons with dementia. Adjustments by age and education were included in the analysis. ORs of depression on different types of dementia were determined. Depression was identified in 5.8% (4.4% of men, 6.6% of women) of all the 17 031 participants and in 12.4% (18.9% of men, 10.1% of women) of the 1612 persons with dementia. Persons with dementia had an increased risk of depression compared with persons without dementia, the age- and education-adjusted OR was 2.38 [95% confidence interval (CI0 1.99-2.84]); 3.86 (95% CI 2.83-5.26) for men and 1.88 (95% CI 1.51-2.35) for women. Compared with Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body [OR 2.75 (95% CI 1.40-3.72)] and vascular dementia [OR 2.35, (95% CI 1.49-3.72)] were associated with a higher risk of depression. Persons with dementia were twice as likely to have depression as persons without dementia. Among persons with dementia, the prevalence of depression was higher for men than women, and the risk of depression varied by the type of dementia.

  15. Key components in models of community-based interventions coordinating care in dementia: a mixed studies systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Backhouse, Amy; Dickens, Chris; Richards, David; McCabe, Rose

    2015-11-07

    Current health and social care systems are providing suboptimal and fragmented care to the growing dementia population. Interventions aiming to coordinate care services for individuals with dementia and their families are already widely used; however, the structure and implementation of these interventions vary. This mixed studies review aims to investigate the key components of effective community-based interventions that focus on coordinating care in dementia. We will search MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase and PsycINFO databases for studies of any design that look at community-based interventions that aim to coordinate dementia care through the allocation of a specified professional responsible for provision of care. Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), Social Policy and Practice (SPP), ProQuest and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) databases will be searched for grey literature. Outcomes of interest are health outcome measures that relate to the individual with dementia and/or informal caregiver, measures of resource use or process measures. Two independent reviewers will screen identified papers and extract data from eligible studies. Evidence synthesis will take place in three stages, and methods will be largely dependent on the data available. A sequential review design will be used where the qualitative evidence will be synthesised first, focusing on stakeholder's subjective views of key components. This will drive forward the quantitative stage which will identify key components of effective interventions. The final stage of the review will merge the two strands of evidence through a narrative synthesis. The results from this review will be used to develop a model for a community-based intervention coordinating care in dementia. Furthermore, the findings will help guide future work on intervention development of health and social care services for dementia. PROSPERO CRD42015024618.

  16. Statins, Risk of Dementia and Cognitive Function: Secondary Analysis of the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS)

    PubMed Central

    Bettermann, Kerstin; Arnold, Alice M.; Williamson, Jeff.; Rapp, Stephen; Sink, Kaycee; Toole, James F.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Yasar, Sevil; DeKosky, Steven; Burke, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Goal To examine whether lipid lowering medications (LLMs) and especially statin drugs can delay cognitive decline and dementia onset in individuals with and without Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at baseline. Methods Longitudinal, observational study of 3,069 cognitively healthy elderly, ages 75 years and older, who were enrolled in the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study. Primary outcome measure was the time to adjudicated all-cause dementia and Alzheimer dementia (AD). Secondary outcome measure was the change in global cognitive function over time measured by 3MSE and ADAS-cog scores. Findings Among participants without MCI at baseline current use of statins was consistently associated with a reduced risk of all cause dementia (HR 0. 79, 95% confidence interval, 0.65–0.96, p=0.021) and AD (HR 0.57, 95% confidence interval, 0.39–0.85, p= 0.005). In participants who initiated statin therapy lipophilic statins tended to reduce dementia risk more than nonlipophilic agents. In contrast there was no significant association between LLM use (including statins), dementia onset or cognitive decline in individuals with baseline MCI. However, in individuals without MCI at baseline there was a trend for a neuroprotective effect of statins on cognitive decline. Conclusions Statins may slow the rate of cognitive decline and delay the onset of AD and all cause dementia in cognitively healthy elderly individuals whereas individuals with MCI may not have comparable cognitive protection from these agents. However, the results from this observational study need to be interpreted with caution and will require confirmation by randomized clinical trials stratifying treatment groups based on MCI status at baseline. PMID:21236699

  17. Effect of wearing fingers rings on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Teruo; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Watanabe, Katsuya; Yokoi, Shigeko; Atae, Hitoshi; Ueda, Masayuki; Kuwayama, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Shigekazu; Tomino, Saaya; Fujii, Hideo; Honda, Takefumi; Morita, Takayosi; Yukawa, Takafumi; Harada, Nobuko

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effects of an approach that wears finger rings on elderly females with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Method: The subjects were seven Japanese dementia patients living in elderly nursing homes. A single-case experimental design was adopted for the study. Each study subject was asked to put rings on her finger (from 9:00 to 19:00) for 7 days. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory, scenes of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, interest in wearing rings, self-awareness, and overall profile were determined to assess the effect on the patients of wearing rings. Results: The majority of nursing care providers stated, based on their assessment, that the “irritability/lability” that was noted during the baseline period disappeared during the ring-wearing intervention period in the three patients who displayed an interest in rings. In the assessment of the self-awareness ability, these three women were aware themselves of their intellect collapsing and were capable of conjecturing their own and others’ minds. It was commonly seen that the nursing staff, even though they had not been asked to do so by the researchers, told the patients, “Mrs. XX, you look so beautiful” when they found a patient wearing rings. Discussion/conclusion: Individuals with low self-esteem are inclined to get angry and display aggression. In subjects with low self-esteem, anger and aggression readily arise when they are slighted by others. Self-esteem is low in those women who are aware of their own status of collapsing intellect. It is concluded that the words of conjuration, “you look so beautiful,” which the wearing of the ring per se by the patient elicited from the caregivers heightened the self-esteem and alleviated “irritability/lability” in the study subjects. PMID:28856006

  18. Effect of wearing fingers rings on the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Teruo; Okamura, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Tomoka; Watanabe, Katsuya; Yokoi, Shigeko; Atae, Hitoshi; Ueda, Masayuki; Kuwayama, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Shigekazu; Tomino, Saaya; Fujii, Hideo; Honda, Takefumi; Morita, Takayosi; Yukawa, Takafumi; Harada, Nobuko

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of an approach that wears finger rings on elderly females with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The subjects were seven Japanese dementia patients living in elderly nursing homes. A single-case experimental design was adopted for the study. Each study subject was asked to put rings on her finger (from 9:00 to 19:00) for 7 days. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory, scenes of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, interest in wearing rings, self-awareness, and overall profile were determined to assess the effect on the patients of wearing rings. The majority of nursing care providers stated, based on their assessment, that the "irritability/lability" that was noted during the baseline period disappeared during the ring-wearing intervention period in the three patients who displayed an interest in rings. In the assessment of the self-awareness ability, these three women were aware themselves of their intellect collapsing and were capable of conjecturing their own and others' minds. It was commonly seen that the nursing staff, even though they had not been asked to do so by the researchers, told the patients, "Mrs. XX, you look so beautiful" when they found a patient wearing rings. Individuals with low self-esteem are inclined to get angry and display aggression. In subjects with low self-esteem, anger and aggression readily arise when they are slighted by others. Self-esteem is low in those women who are aware of their own status of collapsing intellect. It is concluded that the words of conjuration, "you look so beautiful," which the wearing of the ring per se by the patient elicited from the caregivers heightened the self-esteem and alleviated "irritability/lability" in the study subjects.

  19. Zotepine for behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia: an open-label study.

    PubMed

    Rainer, Michael K; Mucke, Hermann A M; Krüger-Rainer, Christine; Haushofer, Manfred; Kasper, Sigfried

    2004-01-01

    To provide initial information on the safety and efficacy of the atypical antipsychotic zotepine in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This was an open-label, single-centre field study. Twenty-four patients with BPSD associated with Alzheimer's disease (n=12) or other forms of dementia (n=12) were included. During the 8-week observation period, the patients received zotepine (Nipolept) [12.5-150 mg/day] for the psychotic components of BPSD; no other treatment interventions for BPSD were allowed. At baseline, day 28 and day 56, patients were evaluated using the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale; the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Syndrome Brief Test (SKT) and the Age Concentration Test (AKT) to assess cognition; and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI) to assess BPSD. General adverse effects and, more specifically, the emergence of extrapyramidal symptoms were also assessed. There was no change from baseline to day 56 in the CGI score and the caregiver burden (as indicated by the caregiver-related section of the NPI). There was also no change in cognition (as assessed by the MMSE, SKT and AKT). The neuropsychiatric symptom score according to part 1 of the NPI (especially key psychotic symptoms, aggression and disinhibition) and the CMAI scores improved by 36% and 15%, respectively, between baseline and the end of the study in a highly statistically significant fashion. No significant differences in treatment response or adverse effect profile were noted between the 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease and the 12 patients with other types of dementia. Zotepine was well tolerated, with tiredness and sedation (five and four cases, respectively) being the most frequent complaints. No clinically significant emergence of extrapyramidal symptoms was seen. Zotepine appears to be well tolerated and effective in treating BPSD, consistent with the performance of other

  20. Does more education mean less disability in people with dementia? A large cross-sectional study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chi, Wen-Chou; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Liao, Hua-Fang; Escorpizo, Reuben; Chang, Feng-Hang; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2017-05-04

    WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) is a feasible tool for assessing functional disability and analysing the risk of institutionalisation among elderly patients with dementia. However, the data for the effect of education on disability status in patients with dementia is lacking. The aim of this large-scale, population-based study was to analyse the effect of education on the disability status of elderly Taiwanese patients with dementia by using WHODAS 2.0. From the Taiwan Data Bank of Persons with Disability, we enrolled 7698 disabled elderly (older than 65 years) patients diagnosed with dementia between July 2012 and January 2014. According to their education status, we categorised these patients with and without formal education (3849 patients each). We controlled for the demographic variables through propensity score matching. The standardised scores of these patients in the six domains of WHODAS 2.0 were evaluated by certified interviewers. Student's t-test was used for comparing the WHODAS 2.0 scores of patients with dementia in the two aforementioned groups. Poisson regression was applied for analysing the association among all the investigated variables. Patients with formal education had low disability status in the domains of getting along and social participation than did patients without formal education. Poisson regression revealed that standardised scores in all domains of WHODAS 2.0-except self-care-were associated with education status. This study revealed lower disability status in the WHODAS 2.0 domains of getting along and social participation for patients with dementia with formal education compared with those without formal education. For patients with disability and dementia without formal education, community intervention of social participation should be implemented to maintain better social interaction ability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights

  1. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: A study based on focus group interviews

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Risa; Shimizu, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1–1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. Results In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. Conclusions The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a) the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b) nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted. PMID:25716983

  2. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety in people with dementia: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spector, Aimee; Orrell, Martin; Lattimer, Miles; Hoe, Juanita; King, Michael; Harwood, Kate; Qazi, Afifa; Charlesworth, Georgina

    2012-10-23

    Many people with dementia experience anxiety, which can lead to decreased independence, relationship difficulties and increased admittance to care homes. Anxiety is often treated with antipsychotic medication, which has limited efficacy and serious side effects. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is widely used to treat anxiety in a range of populations, yet no RCTs on CBT for anxiety in dementia exist. This study aims to develop a CBT for anxiety in dementia manual and to determine its feasibility in a pilot RCT. Phase I involves the development of a CBT for anxiety in dementia manual, through a process of (1) focus groups, (2) comprehensive literature reviews, (3) expert consultation, (4) a consensus conference and (5) field testing. Phase II involves the evaluation of the manual with 50 participants with mild to moderate dementia and anxiety (and their carers) in a pilot, two-armed RCT. Participants will receive either ten sessions of CBT or treatment as usual. Primary outcome measures are anxiety and costs. Secondary outcome measures are participant quality of life, behavioural disturbance, cognition, depression, mood and perceived relationship with the carer, and carer mood and perceived relationship with the person with dementia. Measures will be administered at baseline, 15 weeks and 6 months. Approximately 12 qualitative interviews will be used to gather service-users' perspectives on the intervention. This study aims to determine the feasibility of CBT for people with anxiety and dementia and provide data on the effect size of the intervention in order to conduct a power analysis for a definitive RCT. The manual will be revised according to qualitative and quantitative findings. Its publication will enable its availability throughout the NHS and beyond. ISRCTN64806852.

  3. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: a study based on focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Risa; Shimizu, Yasuko; Seto, Natsuko

    2015-01-01

    Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1-1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a) the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b) nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted.

  4. Study Links Moderate Drinking to Reduced Risk of Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy lifestyle to maintain cognitive fitness in aging," study author Erin Richard said in the news release. "However, it is not a recommendation for everyone to drink," she added. "Some people have health problems that are made worse by alcohol, and others ...

  5. A Population-based study of dementia in the oldest old: the Monzino 80-plus Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite being the fastest growing and the most cognitively impaired age group, the oldest olds are under-represented in clinical research. The purpose of this study was to describe the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the survey population and investigate possible differences in demographic, cognitive, functional, and behavioral characteristics between oldest old with and without any performance on cognitive tests and between oldest old alive and those deceased prior to the interview. Methods The Monzino 80-plus Study is a prospective door-to-door population-based survey among 80 years or older residents in the municipalities in the province of Varese, Italy. Dementia cases were identified with a one-phase design. Trained psychologists interviewed both the subject and a proxy informant. The interview included a comprehensive standardized questionnaire together with an array of rating scales and a multidomain cognitive battery to assess cognitive and functional ability, behavioral disturbances and mood. Results Information was available for 2,139 of the 2,428 registered individuals aged 80 years or older. Main baseline characteristics of the population are reported and discussed. In comparison with those living, elderly persons who had died before the first visit were older, had twice the rate of institutionalization, poorer cognitive performance and competence, and significantly greater instrumental and basic functional disability. The percentage of elderly persons, alive at baseline, without Mini-Mental State Examination rose rather evenly with age. Moreover, they had significantly worse cognitive competence and functional ability, and reported higher prevalences of depressive symptoms and problem behaviors than those with Mini-Mental State Examination. Conclusions Prospective investigation of a large population of oldest old can contribute significantly to understanding the relations between age, cognitive decline, and dementia

  6. Crafts as memory triggers in reminiscence: a case study of older women with dementia.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, Sinikka Hannele; Hirsimäki, Reetta Marja

    2014-10-01

    This case study explored the benefits of crafts as memory triggers in reminiscence sessions with older women in residential care who had severe symptoms of dementia and had enjoyed crafting as a leisure activity during their lifetime. Three structured reminiscence sessions, involving different kinds of handicrafts, craft material, and craft tools, were used to trigger memories and offer multisensory stimuli. Thematization, quantification, and theory-based reasoning were employed for content analysis. Multisensory triggers activated nonverbal and verbal reactions, sustaining attention and prompting interaction and nonverbal communication. The most interesting triggers stimulated recall of forgotten, pleasing craft experiences.

  7. A Descriptive Study of Home Modifications for People with Dementia and Barriers to Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Gesine; Johnston, Deirdre; Black, Betty S.; Morrison, Ann; Rosenblatt, Adam; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Samus, Quincy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes home environmental features, safety issues, and health-related modifications in a community dwelling sample of 82 elderly people with dementia. Main barriers to the accessibility of the homes were steps, both inside and outside the house. The majority of the caregivers had made home modifications, which pertained mainly to physical limitations. Home modifications to support cognitive deficits were made to a lesser extent. The main barrier to the implementation of home modifications to accommodate the care recipient’s memory loss was skepticism about their usefulness. Regarding the removal of physical barriers, financial constraints were most frequently mentioned. PMID:21904419

  8. In search of autobiographical memories: A PET study in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Piolino, Pascale; Chételat, Gaël; Matuszewski, Vanessa; Landeau, Brigitte; Mézenge, Florence; Viader, Fausto; de la Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2007-09-20

    Patients suffering from frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia (fv-FTD) undergo autobiographical amnesia encompassing all time periods. We previously demonstrated in a group of 20 fv-FTD patients that this impairment involved deficits in executive function and semantic memory for all periods as well as new episodic learning and behavioural changes for the most recent period covering the last 12 months [Matuszewski, V., Piolino, P., de la Sayette, V., Lalevée, C., Pélerin, A., Dupuy, B., et al. (2006). Retrieval mechanisms for autobiographical memories: Insights from the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia, Neuropsychologia, 44, 2386-2397]. The aim of the present study was to unravel the neural bases of this impairment by mapping in a subgroup of patients correlations between resting-state brain glucose utilization measured by FDG-PET and measures of autobiographical memory (AM) using the TEMPau task which is designed to gauge personal event recollection across five life time periods. Like in our previous report, the group of patients was impaired regardless of time periods compared to healthy subjects providing generic memories instead of event specific sensory-perceptual-affective details, i.e., episodic memories. New data showed that the patients were also impaired in sense of reliving and self-perspective during retrieval. The cognitivo-metabolic correlations between the AM score and resting normalized FDG-Uptake were computed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and controlling for age and dementia severity. They revealed that AM deficits were mainly subserved by the dysfunction of left-sided orbitofrontal and also temporal neocortical areas whatever the period. Additional analysis showed that specific memories were associated with left orbitofrontal areas whereas generic memories were mainly associated with the left temporal pole. This study supports the view that fv-FTD patients undergo a breakdown of generative processes which relies

  9. [Comparative study on elderly and disabled subjects with various degrees of dementia].

    PubMed

    Ciccarello, A

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at showing the positive effects of arts therapies in individual and group sessions, with an aging, valid or dependent population, presenting symptoms of dementia or not. The improvement of cognition (including memory), well-being, as well as of certain medical problems (pain, tension...) was underlined in several studies on arts therapies, including especially the use of music therapeutic techniques. Indeed, music stimulates the emotional memory, causing the emergence of ancient memories, thus restoring narcissism. The well-being of participants is increased. Our population consists of elderly people, most of them suffering from dementia. They come to the workshops by themselves or led by their families. Music but also pictorial arts are used as a therapeutic mediation for one session per week during the time of hospitalization. This period varies depending on the condition of the subject. The scales used in T1 and T2 with patients suffering from dementia are the Echelle d'appréciation clinique en gériatrie by Bouvard & Cottraux and the Fragebogen zur Beurteilung der Behandlung durch den Therapeuten (FBB-T) by Mattejat and Remschmidt. Regarding the criteria for external validation, a semi-structured interview is proposed to the nurses in T2. The scales used with valid people are the Index of Well-being by Campbell et al, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) by Zigmond and Snaith, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES), validated by Vallières and Vallerand in 1990, and the Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen (SVF 78) by Janke et al. CDC: There was a positive effect for most seniors who attended the sessions: an increased well-being and a temporary appropriation of memories. However, given the small size and the heterogeneity of samples, the irregularity of attendance, the results cannot be generalized. More regular sessions of arts therapies would be favorable for a consolidation of results.

  10. How nursing home residents with dementia respond to the interactive art installation 'VENSTER': a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Tom; Braun, Susy; Jamin, Gaston; van Hooren, Susan; de Witte, Luc

    2017-03-12

    The goal of this study was (1) to determine whether and how nursing home residents with dementia respond to the interactive art installation in general and (2) to identify whether responses change when the content type and, therefore, the nature of the interaction with the artwork changes. The interactive art installation 'VENSTER' evokes responses in nursing home residents with dementia, illustrating the potential of interactive artworks in the nursing home environment. Frequently observed responses were naming, recognizing or asking questions about depicted content and how the installation worked, physically gesturing towards or tapping on the screen and tapping or singing along to the music. It seemed content matters a lot. When VENSTER is to be used in routine care, the choice of a type of content is critical to the intended experience/usage in practice. In this study, recognition seemed to trigger memory and (in most cases) a verbal reaction, while indistinctness led to asking for more information. When (initially) coached by a care provider, residents actively engaged physically with the screen. Responses differed between content types, which makes it important to further explore different types of content and content as an interface to provide meaningful experiences for nursing home residents. Implications for rehabilitation VENSTER can facilitate different types of responses ranging from verbal reactions to active physical engagement. The choice of a type of content is critical to the intended experience/usage in practice. Activating content seems suitable for use as a meaningful experience during the spare time in between existing activities or therapy. Sessions with interactive content are short (avg. 30 mins) and intense and can therefore potentially be used as an activating therapy, activity or exercise. In order to actively engage residents with dementia, the role of the care provider seems very important.

  11. Does telecare prolong community living in dementia? A study protocol for a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assistive technology and telecare (ATT) are relatively new ways of delivering care and support to people with social care needs. It is claimed that ATT reduces the need for community care, prevents unnecessary hospital admission, and delays or prevents admission into residential or nursing care. The current economic situation in England has renewed interest in ATT instead of community care packages. However, at present, the evidence base to support claims about the impact and effectiveness of ATT is limited, despite its potential to mitigate the high financial cost of caring for people with dementia and the social and psychological cost to unpaid carers. Method/design ATTILA (Assistive Technology and Telecare to maintain Independent Living At Home for People with Dementia) is a pragmatic, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial over 104 weeks that compares outcomes for people with dementia who receive ATT and those who receive equivalent community services but not ATT. The study hypothesis is that fewer people in the ATT group will go into institutional care over the 4-year period for which the study is funded. The study aims to recruit 500 participants, living in community settings, with dementia or significant cognitive impairment, who have recently been referred to social services. Primary outcome measures are time in days from randomisation to institutionalisation and cost effectiveness. Secondary outcomes are caregiver burden, health-related quality of life in carers, number and severity of serious adverse events, and data on acceptability, applicability and reliability of ATT intervention packages. Assessments will be undertaken in weeks 0 (baseline), 12, 24, 52 and 104 or until institutionalisation or withdrawal of the participant from the trial. Discussion In a time of financial austerity, CASSRs in England are increasingly turning to ATT in the belief that it will deliver good outcomes for less money. There is an absence of robust evidence for

  12. Creativity and dementia: a review.

    PubMed

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2012-08-01

    In these last years, creativity was found to play an important role for dementia patients in terms of diagnosis and rehabilitation strategies. This led us to explore the relationships between dementia and creativity. At the aim, artistic creativity and divergent thinking are considered both in non-artists and artists affected by different types of dementia. In general, artistic creativity can be expressed in exceptional cases both in Alzheimer's disease and Frontotemporal dementia, whereas divergent thinking decreases in dementia. The creation of paintings or music is anyway important for expressing emotions and well-being. Yet, creativity seems to emerge when the right prefrontal cortex, posterior temporal, and parietal areas are relatively intact, whereas it declines when these areas are damaged. However, enhanced creativity in dementia is not confirmed by controlled studies conducted in non-artists, and whether artists with dementia can show creativity has to be fully addressed. Future research directions are suggested.

  13. Comparison of dementia risk between end stage renal disease patients with hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis--a population based study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ping-Hsun; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ming-Yen; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2015-02-23

    A higher risk of dementia was reported in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) compared to those undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Selection bias and competing risk of death were not considered in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate dementia risk in patients undergoing HD and PD by using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. We enrolled 52,332 incident HD patients and 3292 incident PD patients who were older than 40 years between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2007. During the study period, 3775 patients were diagnosed with dementia in the HD group (177.5 per 10,000 person-years incidence rate) and 181 patients in the PD group (145.9 per 10,000 person-years incidence rate). The results revealed that the higher hazard ratio of HD compared with PD for dementia disappeared after controlling for demographic characteristics, propensity score, and competing death risk (subdistribution hazard ratio was 1.086; 95% confidence interval, 0.940-1.255). In conclusion, HD did not increase the risk of dementia in dialysis-dependent patients compared to PD.

  14. How a creative storytelling intervention can improve medical student attitude towards persons with dementia: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R; Stuckey, Heather L; Whitehead, Megan M

    2014-05-01

    The creative arts can integrate humanistic experiences into geriatric education. This experiential learning case study evaluated whether medical student participation in TimeSlips, a creative storytelling program with persons affected by dementia, would improve attitudes towards this patient population. Twenty-two fourth-year medical students participated in TimeSlips for one month. The authors analyzed pre- and post-program scores of items, sub-domains for comfort and knowledge, and overall scale from the Dementia Attitudes Scale using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests to evaluate mean change in students' self-reported attitudes towards persons with dementia. A case study approach using student reflective writing and focus group data was used to explain quantitative results. Twelve of the 20 items, the two sub-domains, and the overall Dementia Attitudes Scale showed significant improvement post-intervention. Qualitative analysis identified four themes that added insight to quantitative results: (a) expressions of fear and discomfort felt before storytelling, (b) comfort experienced during storytelling, (c) creativity and openness achieved through storytelling, and (d) humanistic perspectives developed during storytelling can influence future patient care. This study provides preliminary evidence that participation in a creative storytelling program improves medical student attitudes towards persons with dementia, and suggests mechanisms for why attitudinal changes occurred.

  15. Increased risk of dementia in patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury: A nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Li

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether acute kidney injury (AKI) is a risk factor for dementia. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study was based on data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 2000–2011. The incidence and relative risk of dementia were assessed in 207788 patients hospitalized for AKI. The comparison control was selected using the propensity score based on age, sex, index year and comorbidities. Results During the 12-year follow-up, patients with AKI had a significantly higher incidence for developing dementia than did the controls (8.84 vs 5.75 per 1000 person-y). A 1.88-fold increased risk of dementia (95% confidence interval, 1.76–2.01) was observed after adjustment for age, sex, and several comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, head injury, depression, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cancer, liver disease, chronic infection/inflammation, autoimmune disease, malnutrition). Conclusions We found that patients with AKI exhibited a significantly increased risk of developing dementia. This study provides evidence on the association between AKI and long-term adverse outcomes. Additional clinical studies investigating the related pathways are warranted. PMID:28192452

  16. The effects of cognitive reserve and lifestyle on cognition and dementia in Parkinson's disease--a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hindle, John V; Hurt, Catherine S; Burn, David J; Brown, Richard G; Samuel, Mike; Wilson, Kenneth C; Clare, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive reserve theory seeks to explain the observed mismatch between the degree of brain pathology and clinical manifestations. Early-life education, midlife social and occupational activities and later-life cognitive and social interactions are associated with a more favourable cognitive trajectory in older people. Previous studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) have suggested a possible role for the effects of cognitive reserve, but further research into different proxies for cognitive reserve and longitudinal studies is required. This study examined the effects of cognitive lifestyle on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of cognition and dementia severity in people with PD. Baseline assessments of cognition, and of clinical, social and demographic information, were completed by 525 participants with PD. Cognitive assessments were completed by 323 participants at 4-year follow-up. Cognition was assessed using the measures of global cognition dementia severity. Cross-sectional and longitudinal serial analyses of covariance for cognition and binomial regression for dementia were performed. Higher educational level, socio-economic status and recent social engagement were associated with better cross-sectional global cognition. In those with normal cognition at baseline, higher educational level was associated with better global cognition after 4 years. Increasing age and low levels of a measure of recent social engagement were associated with an increased risk of dementia. Higher cognitive reserve has a beneficial effect on performance on cognitive tests and a limited effect on cognitive decline and dementia risk in PD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Squid (Loligo pealei) giant fiber system: a model for studying neurodegeneration and dementia?

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Zheng, Yali; Pant, Harish C

    2006-06-01

    In many neurodegenerative disorders that lead to memory loss and dementia, the brain pathology responsible for neuronal loss is marked by accumulations of proteins in the form of extracellular plaques and intracellular filamentous tangles, containing hyperphosphorylated cytoskeletal proteins. These are assumed to arise as a consequence of deregulation of a normal pattern of topographic phosphorylation-that is, an abnormal shift of cytoskeletal protein phosphorylation from the normal axonal compartment to cell bodies. Although decades of studies have been directed to this problem, biochemical approaches in mammalian systems are limited: neurons are too small to permit separation of cell body and axon compartments. Since the pioneering studies of Hodgkin and Huxley on the giant fiber system of the squid, however, the stellate ganglion and its giant axons have been the focus of a large literature on the physiology and biochemistry of neuron function. This review concentrates on a host of studies in our laboratory and others on the factors regulating compartment-specific patterns of cytoskeletal protein phosphorylation (primarily neurofilaments) in an effort to establish a normal baseline of information for further studies on neurodegeneration. On the basis of these data, a model of topographic regulation is proposed that offers several possibilities for further studies on potential sites of deregulation that may lead to pathologies resembling those seen in mammalian and human brains showing neurodegeneration, dementia, and neuronal cell death.

  18. Diabetes mellitus and risk of dementia: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.

    PubMed

    Gudala, Kapil; Bansal, Dipika; Schifano, Fabrizio; Bhansali, Anil

    2013-11-27

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between diabetes and the risk of all type dementia (ATD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Prospective observational studies describing the incidence of ATD, AD and VaD in patients with diabetes mellitus were extracted from PubMed, EMBASE and other databases up to January 2012. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also carried out. A total of 28 studies contributed to the analysis. Pooled RR of developing ATD (n = 20) was 1.73 (1.65-1.82, I (2) = 71.2%), AD (n = 20) was 1.56 (1.41-1.73, I (2) = 9.8%) and VaD (n = 13) was 2.27 (1.94-2.66, I (2) = 0%) in patients with diabetes mellitus. Higher and medium quality studies did not show any significant difference for pooled RR for ATD, AD or VaD. Sensitivity analyses showed robustness of pooled RR among ATD, AD and VaD, showing no single study had a major impact on pooled RR. The results showed a 73% increased risk of ATD, 56% increase of AD and 127% increase of VaD in diabetes patients.

  19. Nicergoline in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical and EEG/ERP mapping study.

    PubMed

    Saletu, B; Paulus, E; Linzmayer, L; Anderer, P; Semlitsch, H V; Grünberger, J; Wicke, L; Neuhold, A; Podreka, I

    1995-02-01

    In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the therapeutic efficacy and central effects of nicergoline, an ergot alkaloid with metabolic, antithrombotic and vasoactive action, 112 patients with mild to moderate dementia, diagnosed according to DSM III-R criteria (MMS 13-25), living in pensioners' homes, were included. Fifty-six were subdiagnosed as senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT), 56 as multiinfarct dementia (MID), based on computed tomography and Hachinski scores (< or = 49 SDAT, > or = 7 MID). They received, after 2 weeks' run-in period (placebo), randomized for 8 weeks either 2 x 30 mg nicergoline (NIC) or 2 x 1 placebo (PLAC) orally. The four subgroups (SDAT/NIC. SDAT/PLAC, MID/NIC, MID/PLAC; 4 x 28 patients) were comparable in regard to age and sex. Only four, four, four and two patients of the respective groups did not finish the study for minor reasons. Confirmatory statistical analysis demonstrated in the target variable-the Clinical Global Impression (CGI)-a significant superiority of Global Impression (CGI)-a significant superiority of NIC over PLAC in both the SDAT and MID groups. Global improvement (CGI item 2) was seen in both nicergoline subgroups (3 and 3), while no changes occurred under placebo (4 and 4, respectively). The responder versus non-responder ratio was in the SDAT/NIC group 16/8, versus 8/16 in the SDAT/PLAC group (chi 2 = 4.1, P = 0.04); in the MID/NIC group 17/7, versus 7/19 in the MID/PLAC group (chi 2 = 7.96, P < 0.005). Furthermore, there was a significant improvement of the Mini-Mental State and the SCAG score in both the MID and SDAT group after 8 weeks of nicergoline, which was significantly superior to the minimal improvement or no change in placebo-treated SDAT and MID patients. EEG mapping demonstrated in NIC-treated SDAT and MID patients a significant decrease in delta and theta, increase in alpha 2 and beta activity and an acceleration of the centroid of the total power spectrum as compared with pretreatment

  20. Survival times in people with dementia: analysis from population based cohort study with 14 year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To provide estimates of survival after onset of dementia by age, sex, self reported health, disability, and severity of cognitive impairment. Design Analysis of participants from prospective population based cohort study in 1991-2003, with follow-up of dementia status in all individuals after two and six years (in one centre) and 10 years and in subsamples additionally at six and eight years and mortality until 2005. Setting Multicentre population based study in England and Wales: two rural and three urban centres. Participants 438 participants who developed dementia from a population based study of 13 004 individuals aged 65 years and over drawn from primary care population registers. Main outcome measures Sociodemographic factors, cognitive function, specific health conditions, and self reported health collected at each interview. Cox’s proportional hazards regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality from the selected variables in people who received diagnosis of dementia according the study’s criteria. Results By December 2005, 356 of the 438 (81%) participants who developed dementia during the study had died. Estimated median survival time from onset of dementia to death was 4.1 years (interquartile range 2.5-7.6) for men and 4.6 years (2.9-7.0) for women. There was a difference of nearly seven years in survival between the younger old and the oldest people with dementia: 10.7 (25th centile 5.6) for ages 65-69; 5.4 (interquartile range 3.4-8.3) for ages 70-79; 4.3 (2.8-7.0) for ages 80-89, and 3.8 (2.3-5.2) years for ages ≥90. Significant factors that predicted mortality in the presence of dementia during the follow-up included sex, age of onset, and disability. Conclusion These analyses give a population based estimated median survival for incident dementia of 4.5 years. Such estimates can be used for prognosis and planning for patients, carers, service providers, and policy makers. PMID:18187696

  1. Being a pedestrian with dementia: A qualitative study using photo documentation and focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Anna; Öhman, Annika; Lundberg, Stefan; Nygård, Louise

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify problematic situations in using zebra crossings. They were identified from photo documentations comprising film sequences and the perspectives of people with dementia. The aim was also to identify how they would understand, interpret and act in these problematic situations based on their previous experiences and linked to the film sequences.A qualitative grounded theory approach was used. Film sequences from five zebra crossings were analysed. The same film sequences were used as triggers in two focus group interviews with persons with dementia. Individual interviews with three informants were also performed.The core category, the hazard of meeting unfolding problematic traffic situations when only one layer at a time can be kept in focus, showed how a problematic situation as a whole consisted of different layers of problematic situations. The first category, adding layers of problematic traffic situations to each other, was characterized by the informants' creation of a problematic situation as a whole. The different layers were described in the subcategories of layout of streets and zebra crossings, weather conditions, vehicles and crowding of pedestrians. The second category, actions used to meet different layers of problematic traffic situations, was characterized by avoiding problematic situations, using traffic lights as reminders and security precautions, following the flow at the zebra crossing and being cautious pedestrians.In conclusion, as community-dwelling people with dementia commonly are pedestrians, it is important that health care professionals and caregivers take their experiences and management of problematic traffic situations into account when providing support.

  2. Do spouse caregivers of young and older persons with dementia have different needs? A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Wawrziczny, Emilie; Pasquier, Florence; Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the needs of spouse caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) and then to compare them based on the PWD's age at disease onset. This data could be used to adapt support programmes to address differences between the two groups. Thirty-eight spouse caregivers of persons with late-onset dementia and 40 spouse caregivers of persons with early-onset dementia (PEOD) agreed to participate in the study. The mean ± SD age of the PEOD was 57.6 ± 4.0 years, whereas it was 80.9 ± 5.3 years for the persons with late-onset dementia. Interviews were conducted in the spouse caregivers' homes with only the spouse caregiver. The semi-structured interviews were based on the French version of the Carers Outcome Agreement Tool. The interviews were analyzed in two steps. The first step was qualitative to identify needs. The data were thematically analyzed using QSR NVivo 10. The second step was quantitative to compare the needs depending on the PWD's age at onset. The comparison between the two groups was performed using the χ(2) test. The results demonstrated that the majority of needs are the same for the two groups of spouse caregivers. All caregivers need to unwind, to stimulate and pay attention to the PWD, to break the isolation, and to be more prepared and confident. However, some differences emerge, with the spouse caregivers of PEOD expressing a greater number of needs. The caregivers of PEOD seem to have a greater need to interact and maintain contacts with other people (P = 0.001), have more general care-related needs (P = 0.005), require more appropriate care structures (P = 0.037), and need greater assistance with administrative procedures (P = 0.004). To improve spouse caregivers' well-being and sense of efficiency, it would be interesting to develop a support programme with a common framework and specific modules depending on the PWD's age at disease onset. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  3. Risk analysis of use of different classes of antidepressants on subsequent dementia: A nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Then, Chee-Kin; Chi, Nai-Fang; Chung, Kuo-Hsuan; Kuo, Lynn; Liu, Kao-Hui; Hu, Chaur-Jong; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Lin, Yen-Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Depression and dementia are common mental health problems and are associated in several ways. Early-life depression is associated with increased risk of later life dementia, and depression can present as a preclinical symptom or consequence of dementia. Despite the plausible relationship between these two clinical entities, the potential association between antidepressant medication and dementia has rarely been investigated. We conducted a 9-year retrospective analysis of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), enrolling 5819 cases who had received prescriptions of antidepressants between 2003 and 2006, and 23,276 (with ratio of 1:4) age, sex, and index date-matched controls. The hazard ratio (HR) of dementia among antidepressant users with depression was 2.42 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-5.10), for those without depression was 4.05 (95% CI: 3.19-5.15), compared to antidepressant non-users respectively. Among the 6 classes of common antidepressants used in Taiwan, the adjusted HRs were 3.66 (95% CI: 2.62-5.09) for SSRIs, 4.73 (95% CI: 2.54-8.80) for SNRI, 3.26 (95% CI: 2.30-4.63) for TCAs, 6.62 (95% CI: 3.34-13.13) for TeCA, 4.94 (95% CI: 2.17-11.24) for MAOI, and 4.48 (95% CI: 3.13-6.40) for SARI. Furthermore, the multivariate analysis result showed that the adjusted HRs of cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs) were 3.74 (95% CI: 2.91-4.82), 3.73 (95% CI: 2.39-5.80) and 5.22 (95% CI: 3.35-8.14) for those who had cDDDs of <90, 90-180 and >180 compared to those who had taken no antidepressant medication. This is a retrospective study based on secondary data, hence, we could not claim causality between antidepressant medication and dementia. However, a potential association between antidepressant and occurrence of dementia after controlling for the status of depression was observed. Lack of patients' data about smoking status and body mass index in NHIRD, which are considered related to dementia, was also a limitation in this study. In

  4. A study of the effectiveness of MP3 players to support family carers of people living with dementia at home.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Virginia; Bauer, Michael; Winbolt, Margaret; Chenco, Carol; Hanley, Francine

    2015-03-01

    Music can be therapeutic to people with dementia; however, little is known about its effect on the family carers. This project aimed to (1) assess the effects of MP3 player use by a person with dementia on caregivers' mental health and wellbeing, including their self-care and health-promoting behavior and (2) determine whether MP3 player use increases caregivers' self-reported capacity to cope with their role. A pre-post quantitative and qualitative design was used. Carers completed a survey prior to commencing and four weeks after using the player. The survey included validated measures to assess the level of stress and coping among carers. Carers also kept a diary of the way they used the MP3 player. Half of the carers were interviewed about their experiences at the end of the study. Of 59 people who started using the MP3 player, 51 carers completed the four-week study period and surveys. Use of the MP3 player significantly decreased psychological distress, significantly improved the mental health and wellbeing of carers, significantly increased caregiver self-efficacy to manage symptoms of dementia, and was reported to provide valued respite from the high level of vigilance required for caring for a person with dementia. An MP3 player loaded with music can be a low cost and relatively simple and effective additional strategy to support families caring for people with dementia in the community.

  5. The impact of group music therapy on depression and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Lin, Yu; Ou, Keng-Liang; Lee, Tso-Ying; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2014-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of group music therapy for improving depression and delaying the deterioration of cognitive functions in elderly persons with dementia. The study had a prospective, parallel-group design with permuted-block randomization. Older persons with dementia (N = 104) were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group music therapy (two 30-min sessions per week for 6 weeks), and the control group received usual care. Data were collected 4 times: (1) 1 week before the intervention, (2) the 6th session of the intervention, (3) the 12th session of the intervention, and (4) 1 month after the final session. Group music therapy reduced depression in persons with dementia. Improvements in depression occurred immediately after music therapy and were apparent throughout the course of therapy. The cortisol level did not significantly decrease after the group music therapy. Cognitive function significantly improved slightly at the 6th session, the 12th session, and 1 month after the sessions ended; in particular, short-term recall function improved. The group music therapy intervention had the greatest impact in subjects with mild and moderate dementia. The group music intervention is a noninvasive and inexpensive therapy that appeared to reduce elders' depression. It also delayed the deterioration of cognitive functions, particularly short-term recall function. Group music therapy may be an appropriate intervention among elderly persons with mild and moderate dementia.

  6. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Are Associated with Increased Risk of Dementia among the Elderly: A Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chi-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Ping; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsieh, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Ping-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Studies show a strong association between dementia and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether LUTS are a risk factor for cognitive impairment. We enrolled 50-year-old and older subjects with LUTS (LUTS[+]) (n = 6801) and controls without LUTS (LUTS[−]) (n = 20,403) from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. LUTS, dementia, and other confounding factors are defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes. Participants were recruited from 2000 to 2004 and then followed up until death or the end of 2011. The outcome was the onset of dementia, which was assessed using Poisson regression analysis, Cox hazards models, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The incidence of dementia was significantly higher in the LUTS[+] group than in the LUTS[−] group (124.76 versus 77.59/1000 person-years). The increased risk of dementia related to LUTS remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–1.76, P < 0.0001) and higher than that related to cerebrovascular disease (AHR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.26–1.61, P < 0.0001). The outcome suggests the need for early screening and appropriate intervention to help prevent cognitive impairment of patients with LUTS. PMID:26290863

  7. [Tablet computers and their benefits for nursing home residents with dementia: Results of a qualitative pilot study].

    PubMed

    Nordheim, Johanna; Hamm, Sabine; Kuhlmey, Adelheid; Suhr, Ralf

    2015-08-01

    Initial sporadic experiences in a Berlin nursing home showed that residents with dementia responded well to activating therapy with tablet computers. This innovative technology seemed to provide a differentiated and individual therapeutic access. These observations encouraged the nursing home management to contact the Institute of Medical Sociology and Rehabilitation Science at the Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin with the aim to examine the practical experiences. The Centre for Quality in Care (ZQP) sponsored the 1 year pilot study. An examination of the feasibility and usability of tablet computers in the daily care of nursing home residents with dementia was carried out. In this study 14 residents (12 women and 2 men) of a special care unit for dementia patients were included in a 3-month intervention of tablet activation 3 times a week. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze data (e.g. observation protocols and videos, staff interviews, document analysis of nursing records and standardized resident interviews/proxy interviews). Nursing home residents suffering from dementia showed a high degree of acceptance of tablet computers. Most notable benefits were easy handling and the variety of multifunctional applications. Sustainable therapeutic effects resulted in stimulation of communication and interaction, improvement of well-being, memory training and reduction of neuropsychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, contact to family members of several residents was improved. The use of tablet computers was convincing as an activation therapy for nursing home residents with dementia. Further research and development of specially adapted software are required.

  8. Improving Well-being and Health for People with Dementia (WHELD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with dementia living in care homes often have complex mental health problems, disabilities and social needs. Providing more comprehensive training for staff working in care home environments is a high national priority. It is important that this training is evidence based and delivers improvement for people with dementia residing in these environments. Well-being and Health for People with Dementia (WHELD) combines the most effective elements of existing approaches to develop a comprehensive but practical staff training intervention. This optimised intervention is based on a factorial study and qualitative evaluation, to combine: training on person-centred care, promoting person-centred activities and interactions, and providing care home staff and general practitioners with updated knowledge regarding the optimal use of psychotropic medications for persons with dementia in care homes. Design The trial will be a randomised controlled two-arm cluster single blind trial that will take place for nine months across 80 care homes in the United Kingdom. Discussion The overarching goal of this trial is to determine whether this optimised WHELD intervention is more effective in improving the quality of life and mental health than the usual care provided to people with dementia living in nursing homes. This study will be the largest and best powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the benefits of an augmented person-centred care training intervention in care homes worldwide. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN62237498 Date registered: 5 September 2013 PMID:25016303

  9. The influence of neuroticism and extraversion on the perceived burden of dementia caregivers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    González-Abraldes, Isabel; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Lorenzo-López, Laura; Maseda, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Most studies reflect dementia caregivers usually sustain higher levels of burden compared to other caregivers. However, they do not consider variability within the caregiver, such as personality traits. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of extraversion and neuroticism on dementia caregiver burden. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 33 caregivers looking after demented-patients. All caregivers had intense burden levels, and their personality, depression, anxiety and self-rated health were evaluated. Personality variables had important effects on the caregiver burden and consequences on their mental health. Neuroticism was significantly correlated with burden (r=0.6, p<0.01), depression (r=0.68, p<0.01) and both anxiety measures, state (r=0.46, p<0.01) and trait (r=0.67, p<0.01). Extraversion was significantly correlated with neuroticism (r=-0.42, p<0.01) and burden (r=-0.46, p<0.01). Finally, depression was significantly correlated with state (r=0.63, p<0.01) and trait anxiety (r=0.66, p<0.01). These results indicate the importance of considering the caregiver personality in the theoretical and empirical models of the caring process. It is necessary to adequately assess the caregiver personality, as those presenting high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion are more vulnerable to experience negative caring effects.

  10. Insular cognitive impairment at the early stage of dementia with Lewy bodies: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Philippi, Nathalie; Kemp, Jennifer; Constans-Erbs, Morgane; Hamdaoui, Malik; Monjoin, Laetitia; Ehrhard, Emmanuelle; Albasser, Timothée; Botzung, Anne; Demuynck, Catherine; Heim, Géraldine; Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine; Bilger, Mathias; Berly, Laetitia; Soulier, David; Cretin, Benjamin; Després, Olivier; Blanc, Frédéric

    2017-09-01

    The anterior part of the insula appears atrophied in the early stage of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) whereas it is not the case in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of this study was to develop neuropsychological markers supposed to reflect insular dysfunction, which would facilitate early diagnosis of DLB, namely in comparison to AD. Twelve patients with DLB, 12 patients with AD, all at the stage of Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia, as well as 10 Controls subjects (CS) participated in the study. Cognitive functions supposedly related to the insula were evaluated with a battery of tests: a facial expression recognition test, a test assessing the feeling of disgust with images, a test evaluating idioms' comprehension, an empathy questionnaire and a questionnaire screening for disgusting behaviors. Compared to AD patients and CS, DLB patients experienced less disgust when they were shown disgusting images, whereas their ability to recognize emotional expression of disgust appeared to be preserved. Furthermore, DLB patients seemed less empathetic than AD patients. Finally, compared to CS, DLB patients were less effective to provide an intuitive decision about idioms' signification since they needed significantly more time to answer. This preliminary study suggests the existence of a potential « insular cognitive impairment » profile in DLB at the early stage. These results provide interesting leads to develop tools facilitating the differential diagnosis of DLB and AD.

  11. Diagnostic test accuracy of informant-based tools to diagnose dementia in older hospital patients with delirium: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Thomas A; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Gladman, John R F; Lord, Janet M; Sheehan, Bart

    2016-07-01

    delirium and dementia co-exist commonly in hospital. Older people with delirium have high rates of undiagnosed dementia, but delirium affects the use of cognitive testing in dementia diagnosis. Novel methods to detect dementia in delirium are needed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the diagnostic test accuracy of informant tools to detect dementia in hospitalised older people with delirium. the presence of dementia on admission was assessed using the short form of the Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE-SF) and Alzheimer's Disease 8 (AD8) in people over 70 years old with delirium. Reference standard diagnosis was made using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria at 3 months. The main outcome measures were the diagnostic test accuracy of the IQCODE-SF and the AD8 in diagnosing DSM-IV dementia. dementia prevalence at 3 months was 61%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was 0.93 (P < 0.0005) for admission IQCODE-SF and 0.91 (P < 0.0005) for admission AD8. An IQCODE-SF test result of >3.82 on admission had a sensitivity of 0.91 (0.79-0.97) and specificity of 0.93 (0.76-0.99) for detecting dementia. An AD8 of >6 had a sensitivity of 0.83 (0.69-0.92) and specificity of 0.90 (0.72-0.97) for detecting dementia. the IQCODE-SF and AD8 are sensitive and specific tools to detect prior dementia in older people with delirium. The routine use of either tool in practice could have important clinical impact, by improving the recognition and hence management of those with dementia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Delirium Superimposed on Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Steis, Melinda R.; Fick, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Delirium is an acute, fluctuating confusional state that results in poor outcomes for older adults. Dementia causes a more convoluted course when coexisting with delirium. This study examined 128 days of documentation to describe what nurses document when caring for patients with dementia who experience delirium. Nurses did not document that they recognized delirium. Common descriptive terms included words and phrases indicating fluctuating mental status, lethargy, confusion, negative behavior, delusions, and restlessness. Delirium is a medical emergency. Nurses are in need of education coupled with clinical and decisional support to facilitate recognition and treatment of underlying causes of delirium in individuals with dementia. PMID:21761816

  13. Nutritional status among older residents with dementia in open versus special care units in municipal nursing homes: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Undernutrition is widespread among institutionalised elderly, and people suffering from dementia are at particularly high risk. Many elderly with dementia live in open units or in special care units in nursing homes. It is not known whether special care units have an effect on the nutritional status of the residents. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the nutritional status of residents with dementia in both open units and in special care units. Methods Among Oslo’s 29 municipal nursing homes, 21 participated with 358 residents with dementia or cognitive impairment, of which 46% lived in special care units. Nutritional status was assessed using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and anthropometry. Results We found no differences (p > 0.05) in risk of undernutrition, body mass index, mid-upper arm muscle circumference or triceps skinfold thickness between residents in open units and those in special care units. Residents in special care units were significantly younger and stronger when measured with a hand-grip test. Conclusions We found no difference in nutritional status between nursing home residents with dementia/cognitive impairment in open units versus in special care units. PMID:23496975

  14. Opinions about euthanasia and advanced dementia: a qualitative study among Dutch physicians and members of the general public.

    PubMed

    Kouwenhoven, Pauline S C; Raijmakers, Natasja J H; van Delden, Johannes J M; Rietjens, Judith A C; van Tol, Donald G; van de Vathorst, Suzanne; de Graeff, Nienke; Weyers, Heleen A M; van der Heide, Agnes; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2015-01-28

    The Dutch law states that a physician may perform euthanasia according to a written advance euthanasia directive (AED) when a patient is incompetent as long as all legal criteria of due care are met. This may also hold for patients with advanced dementia. We investigated the differing opinions of physicians and members of the general public on the acceptability of euthanasia in patients with advanced dementia. In this qualitative study, 16 medical specialists, 19 general practitioners, 16 elderly physicians and 16 members of the general public were interviewed and asked for their opinions about a vignette on euthanasia based on an AED in a patient with advanced dementia. Members of the general public perceived advanced dementia as a debilitating and degrading disease. Physicians emphasized the need for direct communication with the patient when making decisions about euthanasia. Respondent from both groups acknowledged difficulties in the assessment of patients' autonomous wishes and the unbearableness of their suffering. Legally, an AED may replace direct communication with patients about their request for euthanasia. In practice, physicians are reluctant to forego adequate verbal communication with the patient because they wish to verify the voluntariness of patients' request and the unbearableness of suffering. For this reason, the applicability of AEDs in advanced dementia seems limited.

  15. Perioperative hemodynamics and risk for delirium and new onset dementia in hip fracture patients; A prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Neerland, Bjørn Erik; Krogseth, Maria; Juliebø, Vibeke; Hylen Ranhoff, Anette; Engedal, Knut; Frihagen, Frede; Ræder, Johan; Bruun Wyller, Torgeir; Watne, Leiv Otto

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is common in hip fracture patients and many risk factors have been identified. Controversy exists regarding the possible impact of intraoperative control of blood pressure upon acute (delirium) and long term (dementia) cognitive decline. We explored possible associations between perioperative hemodynamic changes, use of vasopressor drugs, risk of delirium and risk of new-onset dementia. Prospective follow-up study of 696 hip fracture patients, assessed for delirium pre- and postoperatively, using the Confusion Assessment Method. Pre-fracture cognitive function was assessed using the Informant Questionnaire of Cognitive Decline in the Elderly and by consensus diagnosis. The presence of new-onset dementia was determined at follow-up evaluation at six or twelve months after surgery. Blood pressure was recorded at admission, perioperatively and postoperatively. Preoperative delirium was present in 149 of 536 (28%) assessable patients, and 124 of 387 (32%) developed delirium postoperatively (incident delirium). The following risk factors for incident delirium in patients without pre-fracture cognitive impairment were identified: low body mass index, low level of functioning, severity of physical illness, and receipt of ≥ 2 blood transfusions. New-onset dementia was diagnosed at follow-up in 26 of 213 (12%) patients, associated with severity of physical illness, delirium, receipt of vasopressor drugs perioperatively and high mean arterial pressure postoperatively. Risk factors for incident delirium seem to differ according to pre-fracture cognitive status. The use of vasopressors during surgery and/or postoperative hypertension is associated with new-onset dementia after hip fracture.

  16. Compassion in healthcare – lessons from a qualitative study of the end of life care of people with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Jacqueline; Wilson, Kenneth CM; Horton, Siobhan; Lloyd-Williams, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A lack of compassion in UK healthcare settings has received much recent attention. This study explores the experiences of people with dementia in the last year of life and time surrounding death and how the presence and lack of compassion, kindness and humanity influenced the experience of care. Design Qualitative in-depth interviews with bereaved informal carers of people with dementia. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Forty bereaved carers – 31 women and nine men – with an age range of 18–86 years and from wide socioeconomic backgrounds participated. Main outcome measures Experiences of carers of care for person with dementia during last year of life. Results The interviews highlighted differences and challenges in care settings in providing compassionate, humanistic care and the impact of the care experienced by the person with dementia during the last year of life on informal carers during the bereavement period and beyond. Excellent examples of compassionate care were experienced alongside very poor and inhumane practices. Conclusion The concepts of compassion, kindness and humanity in dementia care are discussed within the paper. The ability to deliver care that is compassionate, kind and humanistic exists along a continuum across care settings – examples of excellent care sit alongside examples of very poor care and the reasons for this are explored together with discussion as to how health and social care staff can be trained and supported to deliver compassionate care. PMID:24108538

  17. Height in relation to dementia death: individual participant meta-analysis of 18 UK prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Tom C.; Kivimäki, Mika; Starr, John M.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Background That risk factors measured in middle age may not fully explain future dementia risk implicates exposures acting earlier in life. Height may capture early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress. Aims To investigate the little-explored association between height and dementia death. Method Individual participant meta-analysis using 18 prospective general population cohort studies with identical methodologies (1994-2008; n = 181 800). Results Mean follow-up of 9.8 years gave rise to 426 and 667 dementia deaths in men and women respectively. The mean heights were 174.4 cm (s.d. = 7.3) for men and 161.0 cm (s.d. = 6.8) for women. In analyses taking into account multiple covariates, increasing height was related to lower rates of death from dementia in a dose-response pattern (P⩽0.01 for trend). There was evidence of a differential effect by gender (P = 0.016 for interaction). Thus, the association observed in men (hazard ratio per s.d. decrease in height 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.39) was markedly stronger than that apparent in women (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03-1.24). Conclusions Early-life circumstances, indexed by adult height, may influence later dementia risk. PMID:25368359

  18. Nursing home residents dying with dementia in Flanders, Belgium: a nationwide postmortem study on clinical characteristics and quality of dying.

    PubMed

    Vandervoort, An; Van den Block, Lieve; van der Steen, Jenny T; Volicer, Ladislav; Vander Stichele, Robert; Houttekier, Dirk; Deliens, Luc

    2013-07-01

    There is a lack of large-scale, nationwide data describing clinical characteristics and quality of dying of nursing home residents dying with dementia. We set out to investigate quality of end-of-life care and quality of dying of nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium. To obtain representativity, we conducted a postmortem study (2010) using random cluster sampling. In selected nursing homes, all deceased residents with dementia in a period of 3 months were reported. For each case, a structured questionnaire was filled in by the nurse most involved in care, the family physician, and the nursing home administrator. We used the Cognitive Performance Scale and Global Deterioration Scale to assess dementia. Main outcome measures were health status, clinical complications, symptoms at the end of life, and quality of dying. Health status, clinical complications, symptoms at the end of life, and quality of dying. We identified 198 deceased residents with dementia in 69 nursing homes (58% response rate). Age distribution was the same as all deceased residents with dementia in Flanders, 2010. Fifty-four percent had advanced dementia. In the last month of life, 95.5% had 1 or more sentinel events (eg, eating/drinking problems, febrile episodes, or pneumonia); most frequently reported symptoms were pain, fear, anxiety, agitation, and resistance to care. In the last week, difficulty swallowing and pain were reported most frequently. Pressure sores were present in 26.9%, incontinence in 89.2%, and cachexia in 45.8%. Physical restraints were used in 21.4% of cases, and 10.0% died outside the home. Comparing stages of dementia revealed few differences between groups regarding clinical complications, symptoms, or quality of dying. Regardless of the dementia stage, many nursing home residents develop serious clinical complications and symptoms in the last phase of life, posing major challenges to the provision of optimum end-of-life care. Copyright © 2013

  19. Does self-neglect occur among older adults with dementia when unsupervised in assisted living? An exploratory, observational study.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Eilon

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of older adults with dementia who develop behavioral expressions when they are unsupervised in assisted living residences is understudied. This qualitative study aimed to bridge this gap in the literature by focusing on 12 residents in various stages of dementia. Grounded Theory was followed to guide data collection and analysis. Data were collected in two special care units of an assisted living residence for 10 months. Participant observation was the primary data collection strategy. Semistructured interviews with staff and managers and review of clinical records augmented the observation data. While unsupervised, residents exhibited a wide spectrum of negative emotional states, behavioral expressions, functional difficulties, wayfinding difficulties, serious hygiene problems, and safety risks. More than half of the identified incidents represented self-neglectful behaviors. The study highlights the need for enhanced supervision and targeted interventions for residents with dementia who are susceptible to self-neglect.

  20. Trazodone for the treatment of sleep disorders in dementia: an open-label, observational and review study.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Einstein Francisco; Pandolfi, Marcela Basso; Freitas, Marco Polo Dias; Quintas, Juliana Lima; Lima, Juliana de Oliveira; Miranda, Leandra Camapum; Pimentel, Wanderley; Medeiros-Souza, Patricia

    2011-02-01

    Sleep disorders (SD) in patients with dementia are very common in clinical practice. The use of antidepressants with hypnotic actions, such as trazodone, plays an important role in these cases. The aim of this study is to present a profile of the use of trazodone in demented patients with SD, as well as a review of trazodone hydrochloride in SD. We evaluated 178 elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, clinically presenting SD and treated with hypnosedative medications. In the one-year period comprising the study, 68 (38.2%) of the 178 had sleep disorders. Most patients (114; 64%) had a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Approximately 85% of patients with SD used hypnosedative drugs. Trazodone was the most commonly used drug among patients (N = 35), with an effectiveness of 65.7%. Trazodone has been shown to be a good option for treatment of the elderly with dementia and associated SD.

  1. The impact of neurodegeneration on network connectivity: a study of change detection in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Laura E; Rowe, James B

    2013-05-01

    The neural response to unpredictable auditory events is suggested to depend on frontotemporal interactions. We used magnetoencephalography in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia to study change detection and to examine the impact of disease on macroscopic network connectivity underlying this core cognitive function. In patients, the amplitudes of auditory cortical responses to predictable standard tones were normal but were reduced for unpredictable deviant tones. Network connectivity, in terms of coherence among frontal, temporal, and parietal sources, was also abnormal in patients. In the beta frequency range, left frontotemporal coherence was reduced. In the gamma frequency range, frontal interhemispheric coherence was reduced whereas parietal interhemispheric coherence was enhanced. These results suggest impaired change detection resulting from dysfunctional frontotemporal interactions. They also provide evidence of a rostro-caudal reorganization of brain networks in disease. The sensitivity of magnetoencephalography to cortical network changes in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia enriches the understanding of neurocognitive systems as well as showing potential for studies of experimental therapies for neurodegenerative disease.

  2. Embodiment in tests of cognitive functioning: A study of an interpreter-mediated dementia evaluation.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Ali Reza; Plejert, Charlotta

    2016-02-27

    This study explores how manners of mediation, and the use of embodiment in interpreter-mediated conversation have an impact on tests of cognitive functioning in a dementia evaluation. By a detailed analysis of video recordings, we show how participants-an occupational therapist, an interpreter, and a patient-use embodied practices to make the tasks of a test of cognitive functioning intelligible, and how participants collaboratively put the instructions of the tasks into practice. We demonstrate that both instructions and instructed actions-and the whole procedure of accomplishing the tasks-are shaped co-operatively by embodied practices of all three participants involved in the test situation. Consequently, the accomplishment of the tasks should be viewed as the outcome of a collaborative achievement of instructed actions, rather than an individual product. The result of the study calls attention to issues concerning interpretations of, and the reliability of interpreter-mediated tests and their bearings for diagnostic procedures in dementia evaluations.

  3. Evaluating the MESSAGE Communication Strategies in Dementia training for use with community-based aged care staff working with people with dementia: a controlled pretest-post-test study.

    PubMed

    Conway, Erin R; Chenery, Helen J

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to evaluate the effects of a communication skills training programme on community aged care staff's knowledge of communication support in dementia and on staff's care experience. Dementia can lead to impairments in communication. Therefore, quality community-based dementia care requires that staff be skilled communicators, equipped to facilitate interactions with people with dementia. The current investigation evaluated the effectiveness of the MESSAGE Communication Strategies in Dementia for Care Staff training programme with respect to knowledge of communication support and the staff/caregiver experience. A multi-centre controlled pretest/post-test design with randomised cohort allocation was used. Outcome measures were completed at baseline, immediately after training (training group only), and at three-month follow-up. Thirty-eight care staff working in community aged care participated and completed all outcome measures (training = 22; control = 16).Training and control groups completed the following outcome measures: knowledge of communication support strategies, self-efficacy, preparedness to provide care, strain in nursing care and attitude to dementia care. Staff in the training group provided written feedback on the training. A significant improvement in knowledge scores from baseline was found for the training group both immediately after training and at three-month follow-up. There was also a significant training effect for self-efficacy and preparedness to provide care. No significant difference was found for the control group for any measure. No significant training effects were found for measures of strain or attitudes to dementia care. Feedback from staff suggests that the training was well received. The MESSAGE training was positively received by staff and had a significant effect on care staff knowledge, and confidence to provide care for people with dementia. The easily accessible multimedia training programme is well received by

  4. Low diastolic pressure and risk of dementia in very old people: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Chengxuan; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Midlife high blood pressure is linked to late-life dementia. We sought to investigate the temporal relation of blood pressure to the risk of dementia and Alzhei-mer's disease (AD) among older adults. A dementia-free cohort (n = 422) aged > or =81 years was followed for 3 years to detect dementia and AD cases (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised criteria). The blood pressure was measured 4 times over a 9-year period starting from > or =75 years of age. The data were analyzed with Cox models controlling for potential confounders. During the 954 person-years of follow- up, 89 subjects developed dementia (72 AD cases). Low diastolic pressure (<70 vs. 70-89 mm Hg) was associated with a multiadjusted hazard ratio of 2.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-4.32] for dementia and 2.16 (95% CI = 0.98-4.73) for AD occurring over a 6-to 9-year period, whereas high diastolic pressure (> or =90 mm Hg) was marginally related to a decreased hazard ratio of 0.58 (95% CI = 0.33-1.02) for dementia and 0.57 (95% CI = 0.30-1.09) for AD. Systolic pressure was not significantly related to dementia risk. Subjects who developed dementia had a greater decline in blood pressure than persons who did not, mainly during the 3-year period before dementia diagnosis. Low diastolic pressure predicts the risk of dementia among very old people, and the blood pressure exhibits a substantial decline over around 3 years before the dementia syndrome becomes clinically evident. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Explanatory models and openness about dementia in migrant communities: A qualitative study among female family carers.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, Nienke; Francke, Anneke L; Kayan Acun, Emine; Devillé, Walter Ljm; van Grondelle, Nies J; Blom, Marco M

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of dementia is increasing among people with a Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese-Creole background. Because informal care is very important in these communities, it is pertinent to see what explanations female family carers have for dementia and whether they can discuss dementia openly within the community and the family. Forty-one individual interviews and six focus group interviews (n = 28) were held with female Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese Creole family carers who are looking after a close relative with dementia, and who live in The Netherlands. Qualitative analysis has been carried out, supported by the software MaxQda. The dominant explanations of dementia given by the female family carers interviewed are in line with what Downs et al. describe as the explanatory models 'dementia as a normal ageing process' and 'dementia as a spiritual experience'. In addition, some female family carers gave explanations that were about an interplay between various factors. Turkish and Moroccan informal caregivers ascribe the causes of dementia relatively often to life events or personality traits, whereas Surinamese Creole caregivers frequently mention physical aspects, such as past dehydration. However, the explanatory model 'dementia as a neuropsychiatric condition', which is dominant in Western cultures, was rarely expressed by the informal caregivers. The female family carers generally talked openly about the dementia with their close family, whereas particularly in the Turkish and Moroccan communities open communication within the broader communities was often hampered, e.g. by feelings of shame. Female family carers of Turkish, Moroccan or Surinamese Creole backgrounds often consider dementia as a natural consequence of ageing, as a spiritual experience, and/or as an interplay between various factors. They feel they can talk openly about dementia within their close family, while outside the close family this is often more difficult. © The Author

  6. Caring for older people with dementia: an exploratory study of staff knowledge and perception of training in three Australian dementia care facilities.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cindy; Moyle, Wendy; Stockwell-Smith, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    To ascertain care staff's knowledge of dementia relating to aetiology and/or pathology, symptoms and care/treatment; and explore their perceptions of the importance and adequacy of dementia education and training opportunities. Thirty-five care staff working in three secure dementia care facilities were recruited. Dementia knowledge was surveyed using the Staff Knowledge of Dementia Test (SKDT). Perceptions of dementia education and training were examined via semi-structured individual interviews. An average of 21 out of 33 SKDT questions (SD = 4.0) was correctly answered. Knowledge discrepancy was attributed to participants' cultural and ethnic origin and the length of residency in Australia of migrant care staff. Participants acknowledged the importance of dementia education and training but were critical of the content relevancy to direct care practices. There is a need to improve care staff knowledge of dementia, and dementia education and training should include direct practical competencies required for effective care delivery. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  7. Cognitive Reserve, Incident Dementia, and Associated Mortality in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Bello, Toyin; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe factors associated with incident dementia and dementia mortality over 5 years in a large community sample of elderly persons. Design Longitudinal investigation of a household multistage probability sample. Setting Eight contiguous states of the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. Participants Individuals aged 65 and older (N=2,149). Measurements Dementia was diagnosed using tools previously validated in the population. Incident cases of dementia over three follow-up waves were determined after censoring cases in the preceding wave. Information on mortality was collected from key informants in subjects’ households. Results A dementia incident rate was found of 20.9 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI)=17.7–24.9). The adjusted mortality hazard for those with dementia was 1.5 (95% CI=1.1–2.1). Along with previously identified social and demographic factors, poor predementia cognitive function (hazard ratio (HR)=1.8, 95% CI=1.1–2.8) and low occupational complexity (HR=3.2, 95% CI=1.3–8.0) were associated with incident dementia. Conclusion The findings confirm the low incidence of dementia in this population, as previously reported. The condition is nevertheless associated with higher risk of mortality. Along with some features of social disadvantage, proxies of lower cognitive reserve were risk factors for incident dementia. PMID:26926137

  8. Case Studies Illustrating Focal Alzheimer's, Fluent Aphasia, Late-Onset Memory Loss, and Rapid Dementia.

    PubMed

    Camsari, Gamze Balci; Murray, Melissa E; Graff-Radford, Neill R

    2016-08-01

    Many dementia subtypes have more shared signs and symptoms than defining ones. We review 8 cases with 4 overlapping syndromes and demonstrate how to distinguish the cases. These include focal cortical presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD; posterior cortical atrophy and corticobasal syndrome [CBS]), fluent aphasia (semantic dementia and logopenic aphasia), late-onset slowly progressive dementia (hippocampal sclerosis and limbic predominant AD) and rapidly progressive dementia (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and limbic encephalitis). Recognizing the different syndromes can help the clinician to improve their diagnostic skills, leading to improved patient outcomes by early and accurate diagnosis, prompt treatment, and appropriate counseling and guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuropathologic findings of dementia with lewy bodies (DLB) in a population-based Vantaa 85+ study.

    PubMed

    Oinas, Minna; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sulkava, Raimo; Myllykangas, Liisa; Juva, Kati; Notkola, Irma-Leena; Rastas, Sari; Niinistö, Leena; Kalimo, Hannu; Paetau, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The consortium on dementia with Lewy bodies has established consensus guidelines for the neuropathologic diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) including the likelihood that the neuropathologic findings associate with the clinical syndrome. Nevertheless, clinico-pathological correlations remain controversial. We applied the consensus guidelines for determining Lewy-related pathology (LRP) and evaluated the clinical presentation in the prospective, population-based Vantaa 85+ study consisting of individuals at least 85 years of age. LRP was seen in 36% of 304 subjects and categorized as follows: 3% brainstem-predominant, 14% limbic, 15% diffuse neocortical type (4% could not be categorized). The likelihood that the neuropathology predicts the DLB clinical syndrome was low in 6%, intermediate in 13%, and high in 13% of all 304 subjects. In the latter two groups, 77% were demented, 35% had at least one extrapyramidal symptom, and 15% had visual hallucinations. Surprisingly, DLB clinical features associated better with high neurofibrillary stage than with diffuse neocortical LRP. Moreover, the neurofibrillary stage, substantia nigra neuron loss, and grade of Lewy neurites in hippocampal CA2-3 region, each showed a significant association with the extent of LRP. In conclusion, the neuropathologic DLB in this very elderly population was common, but the clinical symptoms tended to associate better with severe neurofibrillary pathology than with extensive LRP.

  10. Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells as a Laboratory to Study Dementia in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Arosio, Beatrice; D'Addario, Claudio; Gussago, Cristina; Casati, Martina; Tedone, Enzo; Ferri, Evelyn; Nicolini, Paola; Rossi, Paolo D.; Maccarrone, Mauro; Mari, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The steady and dramatic increase in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the lack of effective treatments have stimulated the search for strategies to prevent or delay its onset and/or progression. Since the diagnosis of dementia requires a number of established features that are present when the disease is fully developed, but not always in the early stages, the need for a biological marker has proven to be urgent, in terms of both diagnosis and monitoring of AD. AD has been shown to affect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that are a critical component of the immune system which provide defence against infection. Although studies are continuously supplying additional data that emphasize the central role of inflammation in AD, PBMCs have not been sufficiently investigated in this context. Delineating biochemical alterations in AD blood constituents may prove valuable in identifying accessible footprints that reflect degenerative processes within the Central Nervous System (CNS). In this review, we address the role of biomarkers in AD with a focus on the notion that PBMCs may serve as a peripheral laboratory to find molecular signatures that could aid in differential diagnosis with other forms of dementia and in monitoring of disease progression. PMID:24877062

  11. Towards affordable biomarkers of frontotemporal dementia: A classification study via network's information sharing.

    PubMed

    Dottori, Martin; Sedeño, Lucas; Martorell Caro, Miguel; Alifano, Florencia; Hesse, Eugenia; Mikulan, Ezequiel; García, Adolfo M; Ruiz-Tagle, Amparo; Lillo, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea; Serrano, Cecilia; Fraiman, Daniel; Ibanez, Agustin

    2017-06-19

    Developing effective and affordable biomarkers for dementias is critical given the difficulty to achieve early diagnosis. In this sense, electroencephalographic (EEG) methods offer promising alternatives due to their low cost, portability, and growing robustness. Here, we relied on EEG signals and a novel information-sharing method to study resting-state connectivity in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and controls. To evaluate the specificity of our results, we also tested Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The classification power of the ensuing connectivity patterns was evaluated through a supervised classification algorithm (support vector machine). In addition, we compared the classification power yielded by (i) functional connectivity, (ii) relevant neuropsychological tests, and (iii) a combination of both. BvFTD patients exhibited a specific pattern of hypoconnectivity in mid-range frontotemporal links, which showed no alterations in AD patients. These functional connectivity alterations in bvFTD were replicated with a low-density EEG setting (20 electrodes). Moreover, while neuropsychological tests yielded acceptable discrimination between bvFTD and controls, the addition of connectivity results improved classification power. Finally, classification between bvFTD and AD patients was better when based on connectivity than on neuropsychological measures. Taken together, such findings underscore the relevance of EEG measures as potential biomarker signatures for clinical settings.

  12. Emotional and behavioural responses to music in people with dementia: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, K; Thornton, A; Hatton, C

    2004-05-01

    Using continuous time sampling and direct observation methodology, this study examined the impact of social interaction in music listening on behavioural responses of people with moderate-to-severe dementia (n = 24). Using Kitwood's theory of personhood as a framework, it was hypothesized that levels of well-being and engagement would be greatest during a live music condition compared with recorded and no music conditions and that levels of challenging behaviour would decrease most in the live music conditions compared with the other music conditions. The relationship between severity of cognitive impairment and well-being, engagement and challenging behaviours across conditions was also examined. The findings suggest that live music was significantly more effective in increasing levels of engagement and well-being regardless of level of cognitive impairment. No significant differences across conditions were found for challenging behaviours, but the correlation between these and cognitive impairment revealed mixed results. Clinical implications regarding the use of live music in dementia care settings are highlighted and recommendations for future research of interventions aimed at reducing challenging behaviours are discussed.

  13. The use and utility of specific nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms in dementia: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Marx, Marcia S; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Thein, Khin

    2015-02-01

    This study compares different nonpharmacological interventions for persons with behavioral symptoms and dementia on frequency of use and perceived efficacy in terms of change in behavior and interest. Participants were 89 nursing home residents from six Maryland nursing homes with a mean age of 85.9 years (SD: 8.6 years). Research assistants presented interventions tailored to the participants' needs and preferences in a pre-intervention trial phase and in an intervention phase. The impact of each intervention on behavioral symptoms and on the person's interest was rated immediately after the intervention by a research assistant. The most utilized interventions in both trial and treatment phases were the social intervention of one-on-one interaction, simulated social interventions such as a lifelike doll and respite video, the theme intervention of magazine, and the sensory stimulation intervention of music. In contrast, the least utilized interventions in both phases were sewing, fabric book, and flower arrangement. Interventions with the highest impact on behavioral symptoms included one-on-one social interaction, hand massage, music, video, care, and folding towels. Other high impact interventions included walking, going outside, flower arranging, food or drink, sewing, group activity, book presentation, ball toss, coloring or painting, walking, and family video. The results provide initial directions for choosing specific interventions for persons with dementia and also demonstrate a methodology for increasing knowledge through ongoing monitoring of practice. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular neuropathology of frontotemporal dementia: insights into disease mechanisms from postmortem studies.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R A; Neumann, Manuela

    2016-08-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical syndrome with a heterogeneous molecular basis. The past decade has seen the discovery of several new FTD-causing genetic mutations and the identification of many of the relevant pathological proteins. The current neuropathological classification is based on the predominant protein abnormality and allows most cases of FTD to be placed into one of three broad molecular subgroups; frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tau, TDP-43 or FET protein accumulation. This review will describe our current understanding of the molecular basis of FTD, focusing on insights gained from the study of human postmortem tissue, as well as some of the current controversies. Most cases of FTD can be subclassified into one of three broad molecular subgroups based on the predominant protein that accumulates as pathological cellular inclusions. Understanding the associated pathogenic mechanisms and recognizing these FTD molecular subtypes in vivo will likely be crucial for the development and use of targeted therapies. This article is part of the Frontotemporal Dementia special issue.

  15. Does physical activity prevent cognitive decline and dementia?: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background By 2050, it has been estimated that approximately one-fifth of the population will be made up of older adults (aged ≥60 years). Old age often comes with cognitive decline and dementia. Physical activity may prevent cognitive decline and dementia. Methods We reviewed and synthesised prospective studies into physical activity and cognitive decline, and physical activity and dementia, published until January 2014. Forty-seven cohorts, derived from two previous systematic reviews and an updated database search, were used in the meta-analyses. Included participants were aged ≥40 years, in good health and/or randomly selected from the community. Studies were assessed for methodological quality. Results Twenty-one cohorts on physical activity and cognitive decline and twenty-six cohorts on physical activity and dementia were included. Meta-analysis, using the quality-effects model, suggests that participants with higher levels of physical activity, when compared to those with lower levels, are at reduced risk of cognitive decline, RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76, and dementia, RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76-0.97. Sensitivity analyses revealed a more conservative estimate of the impact of physical activity on cognitive decline and dementia for high quality studies, studies reporting effect sizes as ORs, greater number of adjustments (≥10), and longer follow-up time (≥10 years). When one heavily weighted study was excluded, physical activity was associated with an 18% reduction in the risk of dementia (RR 0.82; 0.73-0.91). Conclusions Longitudinal observational studies show an association between higher levels of physical activity and a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. A case can be made for a causal interpretation. Future research should use objective measures of physical activity, adjust for the full range of confounders and have adequate follow-up length. Ideally, randomised controlled trials will be conducted. Regardless of any effect on cognition

  16. Association of comorbidity and health service usage among patients with dementia in the UK: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Jorge; Edwards, Duncan A; Rhodes, Kirsty M; Brimicombe, D James; Payne, Rupert A

    2017-01-01

    Background The majority of people with dementia have other long-term diseases, the presence of which may affect the progression and management of dementia. This study aimed to identify subgroups with higher healthcare needs, by analysing how primary care consultations, number of prescriptions and hospital admissions by people with dementia varies with having additional long-term diseases (comorbidity). Methods A retrospective cohort study based on health data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) was conducted. Incident cases of dementia diagnosed in the year starting 1/3/2008 were selected and followed for up to 5 years. The number of comorbidities was obtained from a set of 34 chronic health conditions. Service usage (primary care consultations, hospitalisations and prescriptions) and time-to-death were determined during follow-up. Multilevel negative binomial regression and Cox regression, adjusted for age and gender, were used to model differences in service usage and death between differing numbers of comorbidities. Results Data from 4999 people (14 866 person-years of follow-up) were analysed. Overall, 91.7% of people had 1 or more additional comorbidities. Compared with those with 2 or 3 comorbidities, people with ≥6 comorbidities had higher rates of primary care consultations (rate ratio (RR) 1.31, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.36), prescriptions (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.81), and hospitalisation (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.83), and higher risk of death (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.37 to 1.78). Discussion In the UK, people with dementia with higher numbers of comorbidities die earlier and have considerably higher health service usage in terms of primary care consultations, hospital admissions and prescribing. This study provides strong evidence that comorbidity is a key factor that should be considered when allocating resources and planning care for people with dementia. PMID:28279992

  17. Quantifying the benefits of peer support for people with dementia: A Social Return on Investment (SROI) study.

    PubMed

    Willis, Elizabeth; Semple, Amy C; de Waal, Hugo

    2016-03-24

    Peer support for people with dementia and carers is routinely advocated in national strategies and policy as a post-diagnostic intervention. However there is limited evidence to demonstrate the value these groups offer. This study looked at three dementia peer support groups in South London to evaluate what outcomes they produce and how much social value they create in relation to the cost of investment. A Social Return on Investment (SROI) analysis was undertaken, which involves collecting data on the inputs, outputs and outcomes of an intervention, which are put into a formula, the end result being a SROI ratio showing how much social value is created per £1 of investment. Findings showed the three groups created social value ranging from £1.17 to £5.18 for every pound (£) of investment, dependent on the design and structure of the group. Key outcomes for people with dementia were mental stimulation and a reduction in loneliness and isolation. Carers reported a reduction in stress and burden of care. Volunteers cited an increased knowledge of dementia. This study has shown that peer groups for people with dementia produce a social value greater than the cost of investment which provides encouraging evidence for those looking to commission, invest, set up or evaluate peer support groups for people with dementia and carers. Beyond the SROI ratio, this study has shown these groups create beneficial outcomes not only for the group members but also more widely for their carers and the group volunteers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Community environment, cognitive impairment and dementia in later life: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Jones, Andrew P.; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: few studies have investigated the impact of the community environment, as distinct from area deprivation, on cognition in later life. This study explores cross-sectional associations between cognitive impairment and dementia and environmental features at the community level in older people. Method: the postcodes of the 2,424 participants in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England were mapped into small area level geographical units (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) and linked to environmental data in government statistics. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between cognitive impairment (defined as MMSE ≤ 25), dementia (organicity level ≥3 in GMS-AGECAT) and community level measurements including area deprivation, natural environment, land use mix and crime. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of people moving residence within the last two years. Results: higher levels of area deprivation and crime were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment and dementia after accounting for individual level factors. Living in areas with high land use mix was significantly associated with a nearly 60% reduced odds of dementia (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) after adjusting for individual level factors and area deprivation, but there was no linear trend for cognitive impairment. Increased odds of dementia (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.2) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0) were found in the highest quartile of natural environment availability. Findings were robust to exclusion of the recently relocated. Conclusion: features of land use have complex associations with cognitive impairment and dementia. Further investigations should focus on environmental influences on cognition to inform health and social policies. PMID:26464419

  19. Risk factors in clinically diagnosed presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type: a case-control study in northern England.

    PubMed Central

    Forster, D P; Newens, A J; Kay, D W; Edwardson, J A

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relationship between presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type (PDAT) and family history, medical history, cigarette smoking, and exposure to aluminum. DESIGN--A case-control study in which 109 cases of clinically diagnosed PDAT and 109 controls matched for age and sex were compared for exposure to the risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using McNemar's test. SETTING--The northern health region of England. PATIENTS--Cases comprised those under 65 years diagnosed as having dementia by specialist services, who met clinical algorithm criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cases were confirmed at interview. MAIN RESULTS--Comparing cases with controls, (ORs) significantly greater than unity were obtained when there was a first degree relative with dementia (OR 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.05, 6.56), any relative with dementia (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.01, 4.55), and any relative aged less than 65 with dementia (OR 8.0, 95% CI 1.07, 348). Exposure to moderate levels of cigarette smoking (cumulative) was not significant; nor was exposure to aluminum in drinking water, diet, and medicinal sources. CONCLUSION--In this study of modest statistical power, a family history of dementia was confirmed as a risk factor in PDAT. No significant relationship between exposure to aluminium in water supplies, tea, and antacids was found. What is important, however, is the bioavailability of all dietary aluminium, determined by the concentrations of dissolved silicon in water: this requires further investigation. PMID:7629459

  20. The influence of ethnicity and culture on dementia caregiving: a review of empirical studies on Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Ong, Rebecca; Burnette, Denise

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to pinpoint the cultural and ethnic influences on dementia caregiving in Chinese American families through a systemic review and analysis of published research findings. Eighteen publications on Chinese American dementia family caregivers published in peer-reviewed journals between 1990 and early 2011 were identified. Based on a systematic database search and review process, we found that caregivers' beliefs concerning dementia and the concept of family harmony as evidenced through the practice of filial piety are permeating cultural values, which together affect attitudes toward research and help-seeking behaviors (ie, seeking information on diagnosis and using formal services). There is also evidence to suggest that these cultural beliefs impinge on key elements of the caregiving process, including caregivers' appraisal of stress, coping strategies, and informal and formal support. The study concludes with recommendations for future research and practice with the Chinese American population.

  1. The facilitators of communication with people with dementia in a care setting: an interview study with healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Stanyon, Miriam Ruth; Griffiths, Amanda; Thomas, Shirley A.; Gordon, Adam Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to describe the views of healthcare workers on the facilitators of communication with people with dementia in a care setting. Design: thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews. Setting: all participants were interviewed in their place of work. Participants: sixteen healthcare workers whose daily work involves interacting with people with dementia. Results: four overarching categories of themes were identified from the interviews that impact on communication: the attributes of a care worker, communication strategies used, organisational factors and the physical characteristics of the care environment. Conclusion: many strategies used by healthcare workers to facilitate communication have not yet been studied in the research literature. Participants' views on training should be incorporated into future dementia training programmes. PMID:26764403

  2. Frailty and incident dementia.

    PubMed

    Gray, Shelly L; Anderson, Melissa L; Hubbard, Rebecca A; LaCroix, Andrea; Crane, Paul K; McCormick, Wayne; Bowen, James D; McCurry, Susan M; Larson, Eric B

    2013-09-01

    We sought to examine whether frailty is associated with dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and non-AD dementia risk. This is a prospective population-based cohort derived from an integrated health maintenance organization. The sample consisted of 2,619 participants aged 65 and older without dementia at baseline followed from 1994 to 2010. Frailty was defined as having at least 3 of the following criteria: weakness (grip strength), slowness (walking speed), weight loss, low physical activity, and self-reported exhaustion. Follow-up occurred every 2 years to identify incident dementia, possible or probable AD, and non-AD dementia using standard research criteria. Covariates came from self-report and study measures. We used adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between frailty and each outcome. Over a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, 521 participants developed dementia (of which 448 developed AD). In the model adjusted for age, sex, education, and race, the hazard ratio for frailty was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-2.40). In the fully adjusted models, the hazard ratio for frailty was 1.20 for all-cause dementia (95% CI 0.85-1.69), 1.08 for AD (95% CI 0.74-1.57), and 2.57 for non-AD dementia (95% CI 1.08-6.11). For all-cause dementia, we found an interaction between baseline cognitive score and frailty (p = .02); hazard ratio for frailty was 1.78 for those with higher global cognition (95% CI 1.14-2.78) and 0.79 for those with lower global cognition (95% CI 0.50-1.26). Frailty was associated with dementia when adjusting only for demographic variables but not in the fully adjusted model. Frailty was associated with higher risk of developing non-AD dementia but not AD. Although frailty was not associated with all-cause dementia in the entire sample, an association did exist in participants with higher cognitive scores. Mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be elucidated.

  3. Medical and environmental risk factors associated with frontotemporal dementia: a case-control study in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar V; Jawaid, Ali; Qureshi, Salah U; Shirani, Peyman; Wheaton, Michael; Pinto-Patarroyo, Gineth P; Schulz, Paul E

    2012-05-01

    Compared with other major dementias, very little is known about the medical and environmental risk factors associated with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In this study, we evaluated medical and environmental disorders associated with FTD in a veteran population. The medical records of 845 consecutive veterans who were evaluated for cognitive and/or behavioral complaints at a cognitive disorders clinic in an academic medical center between March 1, 2003, and June 30, 2008, were reviewed and 554 patients received a diagnosis of dementia. Medical disorders and environmental risk factors in 63 patients with behavioral variant of FTD were compared with 491 patients with non-FTD dementias. The prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was significantly greater in patients with FTD versus those with non-FTD dementias (12.7% vs 3.5%; P < .05). The FTD group also had a lower prevalence of heart disease (19.0% vs 36.7%; P < .05) and cerebrovascular diseases (12.7% vs 26.1%; P < .05), although the prevalence of vascular risk factors was comparable between FTD and non-FTD dementia groups: hypertension (65.1% vs 68.2%), diabetes (31.7% vs 26.9%), hyperlipidemia (42.9% vs 48.9%), and tobacco use (7.9% vs 8.8%; P > .05 for all). In multivariate analysis, the risk for FTD was increased in patients with TBI (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.6-11.8). The risk for FTD was marginally decreased in patients with heart disease (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.96). In a clinical sample of veterans, risk of FTD was increased in patients with TBI and marginally decreased in patients with heart disease. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations temporally and to identify their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Relationships Between Caffeine Intake and Risk for Probable Dementia or Global Cognitive Impairment: The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Ira; Shumaker, Sally A; Snively, Beverly M; Margolis, Karen L; Manson, JoAnn E; Vitolins, Mara Z; Rossom, Rebecca C; Espeland, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Nonhuman studies suggest a protective effect of caffeine on cognition. Although human literature remains less consistent, reviews suggest a possible favorable relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive impairment or dementia. We investigated the relationship between caffeine intake and incidence of cognitive impairment or probable dementia in women aged 65 and older from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. All women with self-reported caffeine consumption at enrollment were included (N = 6,467). In 10 years or less of follow-up with annual assessments of cognitive function, 388 of these women received a diagnosis of probable dementia based on a 4-phase protocol that included central adjudication. We used proportional hazards regression to assess differences in the distributions of times until incidence of probable dementia or composite cognitive impairment among women grouped by baseline level of caffeine intake, adjusting for risk factors (hormone therapy, age, race, education, body mass index, sleep quality, depression, hypertension, prior cardiovascular disease, diabetes, smoking, and alcohol consumption). Women consuming above median levels (mean intake = 261mg) of caffeine intake for this group were less likely to develop incident dementia (hazard ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [0.56, 0.99], p = .04) or any cognitive impairment (hazard ratio = 0.74, confidence interval [0.60, 0.91], p = .005) compared to those consuming below median amounts (mean intake = 64mg) of caffeine for this group. Our findings suggest lower odds of probable dementia or cognitive impairment in older women whose caffeine consumption was above median for this group and are consistent with the existing literature showing an inverse association between caffeine intake and age-related cognitive impairment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  5. Handling the Dilemma of Self-Determination and Dementia: A Study of Case Managers' Discursive Strategies in Assessment Meetings.

    PubMed

    Österholm, Johannes H; Taghizadeh Larsson, Annika; Olaison, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In assessment meetings concerning care services for people with dementia, Swedish case managers face a dilemma. On the one hand, according to the law, the right to self-determination of every adult citizen must be respected, but on the other hand cognitive disabilities make it difficult to fulfill obligations of being a full-fledged citizen. In this article, we examine 15 assessment meetings to identify discursive strategies used by case managers to handle this dilemma. We also examine how these affect the participation of persons with dementia, and indicate implications of our study for social work practice and research.

  6. Autonomic dysfunction: A comparative study of patients with Alzheimer's and frontotemporal dementia – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Gupta, Neelesh; Rukmani, Malligurki Raghurama; Deepika, S.; Sathyaprabha, T. N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), central autonomic structures get affected early. An insight into autonomic functions in these patients is likely to be of diagnostic importance and thus help in prognosticating and also probably explain unexplained sudden death in some of these patients. Objectives: The objective of this study is to identify autonomic dysfunction prevailing in patients. Then, if there is dysfunction, is the pattern same or different in these two conditions. And if different it will serve as an additional biomarker for specific diagnosis. Patients and Methods: There were 25 patients and 25 controls and six patients and three controls in AD and FTD groups, respectively. The participants who were recruited were assessed for heart rate variability and conventional cardiac autonomic function testing. The parameters were analyzed using LabChart version 7 software and compared with control population using appropriate statistical methods using SPSS version 22 software. Results: The mean overall total power was low in the FTD group (P < 0.001), and there was significant reduction in the standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals and root mean square of successive differences (P < 0.001) with elevated sympathovagal balance in the FTD group (P = 0.04). Patients with AD also showed sympathetic dominance, but there was in addition parasympathetic suppression unlike in the FTD group. Conclusion: This study reveals autonomic dysfunction in patients with FTD and AD. Both conditions show sympathetic dominance, probably consecutive to the involvement of central autonomic regulatory structures as a shared domain. It remains to be confirmed if these findings are the cause or effect of neurodegeneration and might open up newer territories of research b