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Sample records for demonstrated moderate correlation

  1. Demonstration and evaluation of a method for assessing mediated moderation.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; MacKinnon, David P

    2006-02-01

    Mediated moderation occurs when the interaction between two variables affects a mediator, which then affects a dependent variable. In this article, we describe the mediated moderation model and evaluate it with a statistical simulation using an adaptation of product-of-coefficients methods to assess mediation. We also demonstrate the use of this method with a substantive example from the adolescent tobacco literature. In the simulation, relative bias (RB) in point estimates and standard errors did not exceed problematic levels of +/- 10% although systematic variability in RB was accounted for by parameter size, sample size, and nonzero direct effects. Power to detect mediated moderation effects appears to be severely compromised under one particular combination of conditions: when the component variables that make up the interaction terms are correlated and partial mediated moderation exists. Implications for the estimation of mediated moderation effects in experimental and nonexperimental research are discussed.

  2. Moderator Demonstration Facility Design and Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    McClanahan, Tucker C.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Iverson, Erik B.

    2017-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is implementing a Moderator Demonstration Facility (MDF) to demonstrate the performance characteristics of advanced moderators central to the Second Target Station (STS) for SNS. The MDF will use the "spare" front-end installation within the SNS accelerator support complex – an ion source, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and medium-energy beam transport (MEBT) chopper - to provide a 2.5 MeV proton beam of peak current 50 mA and maximum pulse length of less than 10 s at a repetition rate of no more than 60 Hz to a suitable neutron-producingmore » target to demonstrate those aspects of moderator performance necessary to meet the goals of the STS design e ort. The accelerator beam parameters are not open to variation beyond that described above - they are fixed by the nature of the spare front-end installation (the Integrated Test Stand Facility; ITSF). Accordingly, there are some neutronic challenges in developing prototypic moderator illumination from a very non-prototypic primary neutron source; the spallation source we are attempting to mimic has an extended neutron source volume approximately 40 cm long (in the direction of the proton beam), approximately 10 cm wide (horizontally transverse to the proton beam) and approximately 5 cm high (vertically transverse to the proton beam), and an isotropic evaporation energy spectrum with mean energy above 1 MeV. In contrast, the primary neutron source available from the 7Li(p,n) reaction (the most prolific at 2.5 MeV proton energy by more than an order of magnitude) is strongly anisotropic, with an energy spectrum that is both strongly dependent on emission angle and kinematically limited to less than 700 keV, and the interaction zone between the incident protons and any target material (neutron-producing or not) is intrinsically limited to a few tens of microns. The MDF will be unique and innovative amongst the world

  3. Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: evidence for gene-environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Hankin, Benjamin L; Jenness, Jessica L; Young, Jami F; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Gene-environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene-environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths' genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework.

  4. Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: Evidence for gene–environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits

    PubMed Central

    OPPENHEIMER, CAROLINE W.; HANKIN, BENJAMIN L.; JENNESS, JESSICA L.; YOUNG, JAMI F.; SMOLEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Gene–environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene–environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths’ genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework. PMID:23398761

  5. Novel Multidimensional Cross-Correlation Data Comparison Techniques for Spectroscopic Discernment in a Volumetrically Sensitive, Moderating Type Neutron Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshor, Cory; Young, Stephan; Rogers, Brent; Currie, James; Oakes, Thomas; Scott, Paul; Miller, William; Caruso, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    A novel application of the Pearson Cross-Correlation to neutron spectral discernment in a moderating type neutron spectrometer is introduced. This cross-correlation analysis will be applied to spectral response data collected through both MCNP simulation and empirical measurement by the volumetrically sensitive spectrometer for comparison in 1, 2, and 3 spatial dimensions. The spectroscopic analysis methods discussed will be demonstrated to discern various common spectral and monoenergetic neutron sources.

  6. Experimental demonstration of nonbilocal quantum correlations

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Dylan J.; Bennet, Adam J.; Branciard, Cyril; Pryde, Geoff J.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics admits correlations that cannot be explained by local realistic models. The most studied models are the standard local hidden variable models, which satisfy the well-known Bell inequalities. To date, most works have focused on bipartite entangled systems. We consider correlations between three parties connected via two independent entangled states. We investigate the new type of so-called “bilocal” models, which correspondingly involve two independent hidden variables. These models describe scenarios that naturally arise in quantum networks, where several independent entanglement sources are used. Using photonic qubits, we build such a linear three-node quantum network and demonstrate nonbilocal correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality tailored for bilocal models. Furthermore, we show that the demonstration of nonbilocality is more noise-tolerant than that of standard Bell nonlocality in our three-party quantum network. PMID:28508045

  7. Experimental demonstration of nonbilocal quantum correlations.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Dylan J; Bennet, Adam J; Branciard, Cyril; Pryde, Geoff J

    2017-04-01

    Quantum mechanics admits correlations that cannot be explained by local realistic models. The most studied models are the standard local hidden variable models, which satisfy the well-known Bell inequalities. To date, most works have focused on bipartite entangled systems. We consider correlations between three parties connected via two independent entangled states. We investigate the new type of so-called "bilocal" models, which correspondingly involve two independent hidden variables. These models describe scenarios that naturally arise in quantum networks, where several independent entanglement sources are used. Using photonic qubits, we build such a linear three-node quantum network and demonstrate nonbilocal correlations by violating a Bell-like inequality tailored for bilocal models. Furthermore, we show that the demonstration of nonbilocality is more noise-tolerant than that of standard Bell nonlocality in our three-party quantum network.

  8. A serach for moderate- and high-energy neturino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Bratton, C. B.; Breault, J.; Casper, D.; Dye, S. T.; Gajewski, W.; Goldhaber, M.; Haines, T. J.; Halverson, P. G.; Kielczewska, D.

    1995-01-01

    A temporal correlation analysis between moderate- (60 Mev less than or equal to E(sub nu)greater than or equal to 2500 MeV) and high-energy (E(sub nu) greater than or equal to 2000 MeV) neutrino interactions consist of two types: the moderate-energy interactions that are contained within the volume of IMB-3 and the upward-going muons produced by high-energy nu(sub mu) interactions in the rock around the detector. No evidence is found for moderate- or high-energy neutrino emission from GRBs nor for any neutrino/neutrino correlation. The nonobservation of nu/GRB correlations allows upper limits to be placed on the neutrino flux associated with GRBs.

  9. Digital Correlation Microwave Polarimetry: Analysis and Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, J. R.; Gasiewski, A. J.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The design, analysis, and demonstration of a digital-correlation microwave polarimeter for use in earth remote sensing is presented. We begin with an analysis of three-level digital correlation and develop the correlator transfer function and radiometric sensitivity. A fifth-order polynomial regression is derived for inverting the digital correlation coefficient into the analog statistic. In addition, the effects of quantizer threshold asymmetry and hysteresis are discussed. A two-look unpolarized calibration scheme is developed for identifying correlation offsets. The developed theory and calibration method are verified using a 10.7 GHz and a 37.0 GHz polarimeter. The polarimeters are based upon 1-GS/s three-level digital correlators and measure the first three Stokes parameters. Through experiment, the radiometric sensitivity is shown to approach the theoretical as derived earlier in the paper and the two-look unpolarized calibration method is successfully compared with results using a polarimetric scheme. Finally, sample data from an aircraft experiment demonstrates that the polarimeter is highly-useful for ocean wind-vector measurement.

  10. The correlation between exposure to neighborhood violence and perpetration of moderate physical violence among Arab-Palestinian youth: Can it be moderated by parent-child support and gender?

    PubMed

    Massarwi, Adeem Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of parent-child support as a protective factor that moderates the correlation between exposure to neighborhood violence and perpetration of moderate physical violence among 3,187 Arab-Palestinian adolescents who live in Israel (aged 12 to 18), from 21 different schools who were selected randomly. The probability sampling method was a nonproportional multistage stratified cluster sample. We also examined gender differences across this protective process. Participants completed a structured, anonymous self-report questionnaire. The findings of the study reveal that 47.3% of the adolescents had perpetrated moderate physical violence against others at least once during the month preceding the study. Moreover, exposure of adolescents to violence in their neighborhood correlated significantly and positively with perpetration of moderate physical violence. A moderation analysis was tested and found that this correlation was stronger among adolescents who had poor parent-child support than among those who had strong parent-child support. Furthermore, the findings reveal that the correlation of exposure to neighborhood violence with perpetration of moderate physical violence was not moderated by gender. However, parent-child support correlated strongly with lower levels of perpetration of moderate physical violence among males than females. The findings of the study highlight the critical role of parental factors in decreasing violent behaviors among adolescents (especially boys) as well as among adolescents who are at risk for exposure to violence in their neighborhoods. In light of the findings, we recommend that practitioners working with these adolescents include parents in intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Reexamining the iconic dihadron correlation measurement demonstrating jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattrass, Christine

    2018-03-01

    Early measurements at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) demonstrated jet quenching through the suppression of pairs of high momentum hadrons. These dihadron correlations have a large correlated background. As understanding of the background improved, it was recognized in the field that a significant term was omitted from the background and several dihadron correlation results were quantitatively and qualitatively incorrect. The original measurements demonstrating jet quenching have not been revisited. These measurements are repeated in this paper in a kinematic range similar to the original measurement using publicly available data, applying current knowledge about the background. The new results are qualitatively consistent with the previous results, demonstrating complete suppression of the away side within uncertainties.

  12. Reexamining the iconic dihadron correlation measurement demonstrating jet quenching

    DOE PAGES

    Nattrass, Christine

    2018-03-28

    We report that early measurements at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) demonstrated jet quenching through the suppression of pairs of high momentum hadrons. These dihadron correlations have a large correlated background. As understanding of the background improved, it was recognized in the field that a significant term was omitted from the background and several dihadron correlation results were quantitatively and qualitatively incorrect. The original measurements demonstrating jet quenching have not been revisited. These measurements are repeated in this paper in a kinematic range similar to the original measurement using publicly available data, applying current knowledge about the background.more » Finally, the new results are qualitatively consistent with the previous results, demonstrating complete suppression of the away side within uncertainties.« less

  13. Reexamining the iconic dihadron correlation measurement demonstrating jet quenching

    SciTech Connect

    Nattrass, Christine

    We report that early measurements at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) demonstrated jet quenching through the suppression of pairs of high momentum hadrons. These dihadron correlations have a large correlated background. As understanding of the background improved, it was recognized in the field that a significant term was omitted from the background and several dihadron correlation results were quantitatively and qualitatively incorrect. The original measurements demonstrating jet quenching have not been revisited. These measurements are repeated in this paper in a kinematic range similar to the original measurement using publicly available data, applying current knowledge about the background.more » Finally, the new results are qualitatively consistent with the previous results, demonstrating complete suppression of the away side within uncertainties.« less

  14. Attitudinal moderation of correlation between food liking and consumption.

    PubMed

    Cantin, I; Dubé, L

    1999-06-01

    This paper focuses on the degree of correlation between food liking and consumption and proposes the degree of correspondence between affective and cognitive aspects of liking and consumption as moderators of this correlation. In a close-response questionnaire, 103 young females (average age of 20) indicated their liking for and consumption of 12 non-alcoholic cold beverages. They also indicated their level of agreement with affective and cognitive statements associated with each beverage as well as the affective or cognitive statement that was representative of their attitude toward each beverage. Even though there are affective and cognitive bases of both liking and consumption, the affective basis dominates liking whereas the cognitive basis dominates consumption for most beverage categories. Separate analyses conducted at the level of individual subjects and of individual beverage categories both revealed that those cases in which the attitude basis for liking and consumption showed the highest correspondence, also manifested the highest liking-consumption correlation. Results are discussed with regard to health promotion and food marketing strategies. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Understanding occupational sitting: prevalence, correlates and moderating effects in Australian employees.

    PubMed

    De Cocker, Katrien; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-10-01

    To (1) compare occupational sitting between different socio-demographic, health-related, work-related and psychosocial categories, (2) identity socio-demographic, health-related, work-related and psychosocial correlates of occupational sitting, and (3) examine the moderating effect of work-related factors in the relation between correlates and occupational sitting. Randomly-selected Australian adults completed a web-based survey assessing socio-demographic (country of birth, gender, age, education, income), health-related (general health, weight, physical activity), work-related (employment status, occupational task, occupational classification) and sedentary-specific psychosocial (social norm, social support, self-efficacy, control, advantages, disadvantage, intention) factors, and occupational sitting-time. t-tests, ANOVAs and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted (in 2013) on a sample of employees (n=993). Respondents sat on average for 3.75 (SD=2.45) h/day during work. Investigated correlates explained 41% of the variance in occupational sitting. More occupational sitting was associated with being male, being younger, higher education and income, part-time and full-time employment, sedentary job tasks, white-collar/professional occupations, higher BMI, and perceiving more advantages of sitting less at work. Employment status and occupational classification moderated the association between control to sit less and occupational sitting. A lack of control to sit less was associated with higher occupational sitting in part-time and full-time workers, but not in casual workers; and in white-collar and professional workers, but not in blue-collar workers. Most important contributors to occupational sitting were work-related and socio-demographic correlates. More research is needed to confirm present results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive reserve moderates the association between functional network anti-correlations and memory in MCI.

    PubMed

    Franzmeier, Nicolai; Buerger, Katharina; Teipel, Stefan; Stern, Yaakov; Dichgans, Martin; Ewers, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) shows protective effects on cognitive function in older adults. Here, we focused on the effects of CR at the functional network level. We assessed in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) whether higher CR moderates the association between low internetwork cross-talk on memory performance. In 2 independent aMCI samples (n = 76 and 93) and healthy controls (HC, n = 36), CR was assessed via years of education and intelligence (IQ). We focused on the anti-correlation between the dorsal attention network (DAN) and an anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN), assessed via sliding time window analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The DMN-DAN anti-correlation was numerically but not significantly lower in aMCI compared to HC. However, in aMCI, lower anterior DMN-DAN anti-correlation was associated with lower memory performance. This association was moderated by CR proxies, where the association between the internetwork anti-correlation and memory performance was alleviated at higher levels of education or IQ. In conclusion, lower DAN-DMN cross-talk is associated with lower memory in aMCI, where such effects are buffered by higher CR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Humor styles moderate borderline personality traits and suicide ideation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neil A; Helle, Ashley C; Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Gregory J; DeShong, Hilary L; Wingate, LaRicka R; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    The way individuals use humor to interact interpersonally has been associated with general personality, depression, and suicidality. Certain humor styles may moderate the risk for suicide ideation (SI) in individuals who are high in specific risk factors (e.g., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness). Previous research suggests a relationship between humor styles and borderline personality disorder (BPD) and an increased risk of suicidality and suicide completion in individuals with BPD. Participants (n =176) completed measures of BPD traits, SI, and humor styles. It was hypothesized that BPD traits would be positively correlated with negative humor styles and negatively correlated with positive humor styles, and that humor styles would significantly moderate BPD traits and SI. Results showed that BPD traits were negatively correlated with self-enhancing humor styles and positively correlated with self-defeating humor styles, but that they were not significantly correlated with affiliative or aggressive humor styles. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that the affiliative, self-enhancing, and self-defeating humor styles significantly moderated BPD traits and SI, while the aggressive humor style did not. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Joint demosaicking and zooming using moderate spectral correlation and consistent edge map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Dengwen; Dong, Weiming; Chen, Wengang

    2014-07-01

    The recently published joint demosaicking and zooming algorithms for single-sensor digital cameras all overfit the popular Kodak test images, which have been found to have higher spectral correlation than typical color images. Their performance perhaps significantly degrades on other datasets, such as the McMaster test images, which have weak spectral correlation. A new joint demosaicking and zooming algorithm is proposed for the Bayer color filter array (CFA) pattern, in which the edge direction information (edge map) extracted from the raw CFA data is consistently used in demosaicking and zooming. It also moderately utilizes the spectral correlation between color planes. The experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm produces an excellent performance on both the Kodak and McMaster datasets in terms of both subjective and objective measures. Our algorithm also has high computational efficiency. It provides a better tradeoff among adaptability, performance, and computational cost compared to the existing algorithms.

  19. Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David

    2016-02-01

    We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.

  20. Identifying strongly correlated elements of a moderately correlated wavefunction in URu2Si2 with resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, L. Andrew; He, Haowei; Miao, Lin; Denlinger, Jonathan; Chuang, Yi-De; Yang, Wanli; Butch, Nicholas; Maple, Brian; Gray, Alexander; Dürr, Herman

    The RIXS technique is best known for significant breakthroughs in the investigation of strongly correlated materials such as cuprates. However, the rapid advancement of RIXS spectrographs has made it increasingly attractive to apply the technique to a broad range of quantum materials outside of this comfort zone. This talk will review lessons learned from our recent measurements on material systems that feature a balance of correlated and itinerant physics, focusing on the hidden order compound URu2Si2, and touching on VO2 and Prussian blue analogue battery electrodes. RIXS spectra are found to reveal essential features defining low energy degrees of freedom in these moderately correlated wavefunctions. In the case of URu2Si2, we show that a principal energy gap defining strong correlations is fragile, and can be melted via modest chemical doping. Work at NYU was supported by the MRSEC Program of the National Science Foundation under Award Number DMR-1420073.

  1. A Correlational Study Examining Demonstrated Emotional Intelligence and Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Chris James

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative study with a correlational design, this research investigated whether certified teachers' ratings of their school leader's demonstrated emotional intelligence behaviors correlated with the teacher's perceptions of school climate. A sample of 42 graduate and post baccalaureate students from a Mid-Atlantic region college accessed a…

  2. Correlates of whole-blood polyunsaturated fatty acids among young children with moderate acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, C W; Cichon, B; Fabiansen, C; Rytter, M J H; Faurholt-Jepsen, D; Stark, K D; Briend, A; Shepherd, S; Traoré, A S; Christensen, V B; Michaelsen, K F; Friis, H; Lauritzen, L

    2017-07-13

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) has been associated with low polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status. However, investigations regarding PUFA status and correlates in children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) from low-income countries are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe whole-blood PUFA levels in children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and to identify correlates of PUFAs. We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from a prospective nutritional intervention trial among 1609 children with MAM aged 6-23 months in Burkina Faso,West Africa. Whole-blood PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percent of total whole-blood fatty acids (FA%). Potential correlates of PUFAs including infection, inflammation, hemoglobin, anthropometry (difference between children diagnosed as having MAM based on low mid-upper-arm-circumference (MUAC) only, low MUAC and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ), or low WHZ only) and diet were assessed by linear regression adjusted for age and sex. Children with MAM had low concentrations of whole-blood PUFAs, particularly n-3 PUFAs. Moreover, children diagnosed with MAM based only on low MUAC had 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14; 0.50) and 0.40 (95% CI, 0.16; 0.63) FA% lower arachidonic acid (AA) than those recruited based on both low WHZ as well as low MUAC and those recruited with low WHZ only, respectively. Infection and inflammation were associated with low levels of all long-chain (LC)-PUFAs, while hemoglobin was positively associated with whole-blood LC-PUFAs. While PUFA deficiency was not a general problem, overall whole-blood PUFA concentrations, especially of n-3 PUFAs, were low. Infection, inflammation, hemoglobin, anthropometry and diet were correlates of PUFAs concentrations in children with MAM. The trial is registered at http://www.isrctn.com ( ISRCTN42569496 ).

  3. Laboratory demonstration of Stellar Intensity Interferometry using a software correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Nolan; Kieda, David

    2017-06-01

    In this talk I will present measurements of the spatial coherence function of laboratory thermal (black-body) sources using Hanbury-Brown and Twiss interferometry with a digital off-line correlator. Correlations in the intensity fluctuations of a thermal source, such as a star, allow retrieval of the second order coherence function which can be used to perform high resolution imaging and source geometry characterization. We also demonstrate that intensity fluctuations between orthogonal polarization states are uncorrelated but can be used to reduce systematic noise. The work performed here can readily be applied to existing and future Imaging Air-Cherenkov telescopes to measure spatial properties of stellar sources. Some possible candidates for astronomy applications include close binary star systems, fast rotators, Cepheid variables, and potentially even exoplanet characterization.

  4. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  5. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of performance enhancing the sandwich panel heat pipe was investigated for moderate temperature range heat rejection radiators on future-high-power spacecraft. The hardware development program consisted of performance prediction modeling, fabrication, ground test, and data correlation. Using available sandwich panel materials, a series of subscale test panels were augumented with high-capacity sideflow and temperature control variable conductance features, and test evaluated for correlation with performance prediction codes. Using the correlated prediction model, a 50-kW full size radiator was defined using methanol working fluid and closely spaced sideflows. A new concept called the hybrid radiator individually optimizes heat pipe components. A 2.44-m long hybrid test vehicle demonstrated proof-of-principle performance.

  6. On Statistical Approaches for Demonstrating Analytical Similarity in the Presence of Correlation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Harry; Novick, Steven; Burdick, Richard K

    Analytical similarity is the foundation for demonstration of biosimilarity between a proposed product and a reference product. For this assessment, currently the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends a tiered system in which quality attributes are categorized into three tiers commensurate with their risk and approaches of varying statistical rigor are subsequently used for the three-tier quality attributes. Key to the analyses of Tiers 1 and 2 quality attributes is the establishment of equivalence acceptance criterion and quality range. For particular licensure applications, the FDA has provided advice on statistical methods for demonstration of analytical similarity. For example, for Tier 1 assessment, an equivalence test can be used based on an equivalence margin of 1.5 σ R , where σ R is the reference product variability estimated by the sample standard deviation S R from a sample of reference lots. The quality range for demonstrating Tier 2 analytical similarity is of the form X̄ R ± K × σ R where the constant K is appropriately justified. To demonstrate Tier 2 analytical similarity, a large percentage (e.g., 90%) of test product must fall in the quality range. In this paper, through both theoretical derivations and simulations, we show that when the reference drug product lots are correlated, the sample standard deviation S R underestimates the true reference product variability σ R As a result, substituting S R for σ R in the Tier 1 equivalence acceptance criterion and the Tier 2 quality range inappropriately reduces the statistical power and the ability to declare analytical similarity. Also explored is the impact of correlation among drug product lots on Type I error rate and power. Three methods based on generalized pivotal quantities are introduced, and their performance is compared against a two-one-sided tests (TOST) approach. Finally, strategies to mitigate risk of correlation among the reference products lots are discussed. A

  7. Social and physical environmental correlates of adults' weekend sitting time and moderating effects of retirement status and physical health.

    PubMed

    Van Holle, Veerle; McNaughton, Sarah A; Teychenne, Megan; Timperio, Anna; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Salmon, Jo

    2014-09-19

    Emerging research suggests that prolonged sedentary behaviour (SB) is detrimental to health. Changes in SB patterns are likely to occur during particular life stages, for example at retirement age (55-65-year-old). Evidence on socio-ecological SB correlates is scarce and inconsistent in this age group. Moreover, the influence of socio-ecological correlates may vary depending on health and retirement status. This study examined social and environment correlates of overall weekend day sitting among adults at or approaching retirement age, and moderating effects of perceived physical health and retirement status. Baseline data from the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in 2839 Australian adults (55-65-year-old) were analysed. Participants self-reported proximal social factors, neighbourhood social and physical environment, physical health and retirement status. MLwiN multilevel regression analyses were conducted. In the multivariable model, only social support from friends/colleagues to discourage sitting (B = -0.891; p = 0.036) was associated with overall weekend day sitting. No moderation of retirement status, nor physical health were found in the multivariable results. Results from this study suggest the importance of social factors in relation to weekend day sitting among 55-65-year-old adults. Health promotion initiatives in this age group should pay special attention to enhancing social interaction opportunities. Moreover, findings suggest that SB-specific correlates may need to be examined in future research.

  8. Demonstration of correlative atomic force and transmission electron microscopy using actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yutaro; Konno, Hiroki; Shimabukuro, Katsuya

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we present a new technique called correlative atomic force and transmission electron microscopy (correlative AFM/TEM) in which a targeted region of a sample can be observed under AFM and TEM. The ultimate goal of developing this new technique is to provide a technical platform to expand the fields of AFM application to complex biological systems such as cell extracts. Recent advances in the time resolution of AFM have enabled detailed observation of the dynamic nature of biomolecules. However, specifying molecular species, by AFM alone, remains a challenge. Here, we demonstrate correlative AFM/TEM, using actin filaments as a test sample, and further show that immuno-electron microscopy (immuno-EM), to specify molecules, can be integrated into this technique. Therefore, it is now possible to specify molecules, captured under AFM, by subsequent observation using immuno-EM. In conclusion, correlative AFM/TEM can be a versatile method to investigate complex biological systems at the molecular level. PMID:28828286

  9. Effects of Age and Acute Moderate Alcohol Administration on Electrophysiological Correlates of Working Memory Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Frazier, Ian; Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies suggest older adults may be differentially susceptible to the acute neurobehavioral effects of moderate alcohol intake. To our knowledge, no studies have addressed acute moderate alcohol effects on the electrophysiological correlates of working memory in younger and older social drinkers. This study characterized alcohol-related effects on frontal theta (FTP) and posterior alpha power (PAP) associated with maintenance of visual information during a working memory task. Older (55 to 70 years of age; n = 51, 29 women) and younger (25 to 35 years of age; n = 70, 39 women) community-dwelling moderate drinkers were recruited for this study. Participants were given either placebo or an active dose targeting breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.04 or 0.065 g/dl. Following absorption, participants completed a visual working memory task assessing cue recognition following a 9-s delay. FTP and PAP were determined via Fourier transformation and subjected to 2 (age group) × 3 (dose) × 2 (repeated: working memory task condition) mixed models analysis. In addition to expected age-related reductions in PAP, a significant age group × dose interaction was detected for PAP such that 0.04 g/dl dose level was associated with greater PAP in younger adults but lower PAP in their older counterparts. PAP was lower in older versus younger adults at both active doses. Further mixed models revealed a significant negative association between PAP and working memory efficiency for older adults. No effects of age, dose, or their interaction were noted for FTP. Results bolster the small but growing body of evidence that older adults exhibit differential sensitivity to the neurobehavioral effects of moderate alcohol use. Given the theoretical role of PAP in attentional and working memory function, these findings shed light on the attentional mechanisms underlying effects of acute moderate alcohol on working memory efficiency in older adults. Copyright

  10. Effects of Age and Acute Moderate Alcohol Administration on Electrophysiological Correlates of Working Memory Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Frazier, Ian; Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest older adults may be differentially susceptible to the acute neurobehavioral effects of moderate alcohol intake. To our knowledge, no studies have addressed acute moderate alcohol effects on the electrophysiological correlates of working memory in younger and older social drinkers. This study characterized alcohol-related effects on frontal theta (FTP) and posterior alpha power (PAP) associated with maintenance of visual information during a working memory task. Methods Older (55–70 years of age; n = 51, 29 women) and younger (25–35 years of age; n = 70, 39 women) community-dwelling moderate drinkers were recruited for this study. Participants were given either placebo or an active dose targeting breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.04 or 0.065 g/dL. Following absorption, participants completed a visual working memory task assessing cue recognition following a 9s delay. FTP and PAP were determined via Fourier transformation and subjected to 2 (age group) X 3 (dose) X 2 (repeated: working memory task condition) mixed models analysis. Results In addition to expected age-related reductions in PAP, a significant age group X dose interaction was detected for PAP such that 0.04 g/dL dose level was associated with greater PAP in younger adults but lower PAP in their older counterparts. PAP was lower in older vs younger adults at both active doses. Further mixed models revealed a significant negative association between PAP and working memory efficiency for older adults. No effects of age, dose, or their interaction were noted for FTP. Conclusions Results bolster the small but growing body of evidence that older adults exhibit differential sensitivity to the neurobehavioral effects of moderate alcohol use. Given the theoretical role of PAP in attentional and working memory function, these findings shed light on the attentional mechanisms underlying effects of acute moderate alcohol on working memory efficiency in older adults

  11. Standardized Effect Sizes for Moderated Conditional Fixed Effects with Continuous Moderator Variables

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Todd E.

    2017-01-01

    Wilkinson and Task Force on Statistical Inference (1999) recommended that researchers include information on the practical magnitude of effects (e.g., using standardized effect sizes) to distinguish between the statistical and practical significance of research results. To date, however, researchers have not widely incorporated this recommendation into the interpretation and communication of the conditional effects and differences in conditional effects underlying statistical interactions involving a continuous moderator variable where at least one of the involved variables has an arbitrary metric. This article presents a descriptive approach to investigate two-way statistical interactions involving continuous moderator variables where the conditional effects underlying these interactions are expressed in standardized effect size metrics (i.e., standardized mean differences and semi-partial correlations). This approach permits researchers to evaluate and communicate the practical magnitude of particular conditional effects and differences in conditional effects using conventional and proposed guidelines, respectively, for the standardized effect size and therefore provides the researcher important supplementary information lacking under current approaches. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with two real data examples and important assumptions underlying the standardization process are highlighted. PMID:28484404

  12. Experimental demonstration of entanglement-enhanced classical communication over a quantum channel with correlated noise.

    PubMed

    Banaszek, Konrad; Dragan, Andrzej; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Radzewicz, Czesław

    2004-06-25

    We present an experiment demonstrating the entanglement enhanced capacity of a quantum channel with correlated noise, modeled by a fiber optic link exhibiting fluctuating birefringence. In this setting, introducing entanglement between two photons is required to maximize the amount of information that can be encoded into their joint polarization degree of freedom. We demonstrated this effect using a fiber-coupled source of entangled photon pairs based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion, and a linear-optics Bell state measurement. The obtained experimental classical capacity with entangled states is equal to 0.82+/-0.04 per a photon pair, and it exceeds approximately 2.5 times the theoretical upper limit when no quantum correlations are allowed.

  13. "When the going gets tough, who keeps going?" Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion.

  14. Influence of moderate chronic wine consumption on insulin sensitivity and other correlates of syndrome X in moderately obese women.

    PubMed

    Cordain, L; Melby, C L; Hamamoto, A E; O'Neill, D S; Cornier, M A; Barakat, H A; Israel, R G; Hill, J O

    2000-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity; however, scant experimental evidence confirms this observation. To determine the effects of regular moderate wine consumption on insulin sensitivity, 20 overweight women (body mass index [BMI], 29.8 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) participated in a 20-week free-living randomized crossover trial. The subjects, serving as their own controls, consumed wine (190 mL red wine, 13% vol/vol ethanol, 5 days per week) for 10 weeks and abstained for 10 weeks or vice versa. The dependent variables (body weight, BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and insulin, blood lipids, dietary intake, and insulin sensitivity by intravenous glucose tolerance test [IVGTT]) were measured at the pretest, at the 10-week crossover, and at the 20-week completion of the study. Data were analyzed at the pretest and at completion of the wine drinking and abstention periods of the study using ANOVA by order of treatment. Fasting glucose remained unchanged (mean +/- SD; P > .05) throughout the experiment (pretest, drinking, and abstention, 91.1 +/- 9.2, 91.6 +/- 9.1, and 88.5 +/- 11.2 mg/dL), as did the measures of insulin sensitivity, fasting insulin (pretest, drinking, and abstention, 8.6 +/- 3.3, 8.6 +/- 4.1, and 9.1 +/- 4.7 microU/mg) and the insulin sensitivity index (3.60 +/- 2.96, 3.25 +/- 2.17, and 3.30 +/- 1.84). Body composition and blood lipids also remained unchanged (P > .05) during treatment. Moderate wine consumption at this dose in overweight women did not improve or impair insulin sensitivity, nor did it change any of the known correlates of insulin sensitivity, including body weight and composition, blood lipids, and blood pressure.

  15. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored injury prevention efforts.

  16. Channel correlation and BER performance analysis of coherent optical communication systems with receive diversity over moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yulong; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Lu, Gaoyuan

    2018-04-10

    In this paper, new expressions of the channel-correlation coefficient and its components (the large- and small-scale channel-correlation coefficients) for a plane wave are derived for a horizontal link in moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence using a generalized effective atmospheric spectrum which includes finite-turbulence inner and outer scales and high-wave-number "bump". The closed-form expression of the average bit error rate (BER) of the coherent free-space optical communication system is derived using the derived channel-correlation coefficients and an α-μ distribution to approximate the sum of the square root of arbitrarily correlated Gamma-Gamma random variables. Analytical results are provided to investigate the channel correlation and evaluate the average BER performance. The validity of the proposed approximation is illustrated by Monte Carlo simulations. This work will help with further investigation of the fading correlation in spatial diversity systems.

  17. The Moderating Effect of Mental Toughness: Perception of Risk and Belief in the Paranormal.

    PubMed

    Drinkwater, Kenneth; Dagnall, Neil; Denovan, Andrew; Parker, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This research demonstrates that higher levels of mental toughness provide cognitive-perceptual processing advantages when evaluating risk. No previous research, however, has examined mental toughness in relation to perception of risk and paranormal belief (a variable associated with distorted perception of causality and elevated levels of perceived risk). Accordingly, the present paper investigated relationships between these factors. A sample of 174 participants completed self-report measures assessing mental toughness, general perception of risk, and paranormal belief. Responses were analyzed via correlations and moderation analyses. Results revealed that mental toughness correlated negatively with perception of risk and paranormal belief, whereas paranormal belief correlated positively with perception of risk. For the moderation effects, simple slopes analyses indicated that high levels of MT and subfactors of commitment and confidence reduced the strength of association between paranormal belief and perceived risk. Therefore, MT potentially acts as a protective factor among individuals who believe in the paranormal, reducing the tendency to perceive elevated levels of risk.

  18. “When the going gets tough, who keeps going?” Depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Stefanie J.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Vet, Emely; Fennis, Bob M.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-control relies on a limited resource that can get depleted, a phenomenon that has been labeled ego-depletion. We argue that individuals may differ in their sensitivity to depleting tasks, and that consequently some people deplete their self-control resource at a faster rate than others. In three studies, we assessed individual differences in depletion sensitivity, and demonstrate that depletion sensitivity moderates ego-depletion effects. The Depletion Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was employed to assess depletion sensitivity. Study 1 employs the DSS to demonstrate that individual differences in sensitivity to ego-depletion exist. Study 2 shows moderate correlations of depletion sensitivity with related self-control concepts, indicating that these scales measure conceptually distinct constructs. Study 3 demonstrates that depletion sensitivity moderates the ego-depletion effect. Specifically, participants who are sensitive to depletion performed worse on a second self-control task, indicating a stronger ego-depletion effect, compared to participants less sensitive to depletion. PMID:25009523

  19. Correlation among Y Balance Test-Lower Quarter Composite Scores, Hip Musculoskeletal Characteristics, and Pitching Kinematics in NCAA Division I Baseball Pitchers.

    PubMed

    Culiver, Adam; Garrison, J Craig; Creed, Kalyssa M; Conway, John E; Goto, Shiho; Werner, Sherry

    2018-01-24

    Numerous studies have reported kinematic data on baseball pitchers using 3D motion analysis, but no studies to date have correlated this data with clinical outcome measures. To examine the relationship among Y Balance Test-Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ) composite scores, musculoskeletal characteristics of the hip and pitching kinematics in NCAA Division I baseball pitchers. Cross-sectional. 3D motion analysis laboratory. 19 healthy male collegiate baseball pitchers. Internal and external hip passive range of motion (PROM); hip abduction strength; YBT-LQ composite scores; kinematic variables of the pitching motion. Stride length demonstrated a moderate positive correlation with dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score (r=0.524, p=0.018) and non-dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score (r=0.550, p=0.012), and a weak positive correlation with normalized time to maximal humerus velocity (r=0.458, p=0.043). Stride length had a moderate negative correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.522, p=0.018) and dominant hip TRM (r= -0.660, p=0.002), and had a strong negative correlation with normalized time from SFC to maximal knee flexion (r= -0.722, p<0.001). Dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score had a weak negative correlation with hip abduction strength difference (r= -0.459, p=0.042) and normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.468, p=0.037), as well as a moderate negative correlation with dominant hip TRM (r= -0.160, p=0.004). Non-dominant limb YBT-LQ composite score demonstrated a weak negative correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r= -0.450, p=0.046) and had a moderate negative correlation with dominant hip TRM (r= -0.668, p=0.001). Hip abduction strength difference demonstrated a weak positive correlation with dominant hip TRM (r=0.482, p=0.032). Dominant hip TRM had a moderate positive correlation with normalized time to maximal thorax velocity (r=0.484, p=0.031). There were no other significant relationships between the

  20. Moderate correlation between breath-holding and CO(2) inhalation/hyperventilation methods for transcranial doppler evaluation of cerebral vasoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Haussen, Diogo C; Katsnelson, Michael; Rodriguez, Abiezer; Campo, Nelly; Campo-Bustillo, Iszet; Romano, Jose G; Koch, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Both CO(2) inhalation followed by hyperventilation and breath-holding have been utilized to measure cerebral vasomotor reactivity (VMR) but their correlation has been poorly studied and understood. A retrospective study was conducted in 143 subjects (62.6 ± 15.8 years old, 64% men) with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography measurement of mean flow velocity (MFV) at baseline, after 30 seconds of breath-holding, and after CO(2) inhalation followed by hyperventilation, in the left and right middle cerebral artery. Breath-holding index (BHI) was calculated as the percentage of MFV increase from baseline per second of apnea. CO(2) inhalation/hyperventilation index (CO(2) /HV) was calculated as the percentage of MFV difference between CO(2) inhalation and hyperventilation. There were 75 carotid arteries with >70% stenosis or occlusion, and 18 middle cerebral arteries with >50% stenosis or occlusion. The mean BHI was 0.93 ± 0.7 and 0.89 ± 0.6, whereas the mean CO(2) /HV was 61 ± 26% and 60 ± 26%, respectively, on the right and left sides. The correlation between BHI and CO(2) /HV was moderate on the right (r = 0.33; p < 0.01) and left sides (r = 0.38; p < 0.01). Multivariate linear regression analysis indicated that age (p = 0.01) and history of stroke (p = 0.007) were associated independently with an impaired VMR on the right as measured by CO(2) /HV. No predictors for impaired VMR by CO(2) /HV on the left and by BHI on either side were found. CO(2) /HV and BHI are only moderately correlated. Further studies are necessary to determine which method more accurately predicts clinical morbidity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 2012; Published online in Wiley Online Library. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Does substance misuse moderate the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism?

    PubMed Central

    Caudy, Michael S.; Folk, Johanna B.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Wooditch, Alese; Martinez, Andres; Maass, Stephanie; Tangney, June P.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Some differential intervention frameworks contend that substance use is less robustly related to recidivism outcomes than other criminogenic needs such as criminal thinking. The current study tested the hypothesis that substance use disorder severity moderates the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism. Methods The study utilized two independent criminal justice samples. Study 1 included 226 drug-involved probationers. Study 2 included 337 jail inmates with varying levels of substance use disorder severity. Logistic regression was employed to test the main and interactive effects of criminal thinking and substance use on multiple dichotomous indicators of recidivism. Results Bivariate analyses revealed a significant correlation between criminal thinking and recidivism in the jail sample (r = .18, p < .05) but no significant relationship in the probation sample. Logistic regressions revealed that SUD symptoms moderated the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism in the jail-based sample (B = −.58, p < .05). A significant moderation effect was not observed in the probation sample. Conclusions Study findings indicate that substance use disorder symptoms moderate the strength of the association between criminal thinking and recidivism. These findings demonstrate the need for further research into the interaction between various dynamic risk factors. PMID:25598559

  2. [Cardiorespiratory capacity in children living at moderate altitude].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Arruda, Miguel; Almonacid-Fierro, Alejandro; Holbold, Edílson; Amaral-Camargo, Cristiane; Gamero, Diego; Cossio-Bolanos, Marco A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the cardiorespiratory capacity of school children living at moderate altitude. 795 children (394 children and 401 girls) were selected from urban public schools in Arequipa, Peru at moderate altitude (2,320 m). Anthropometric variables (body mass, height, body fat percentage) and cardiorespiratory capacity were assessed using the Course Navette test, considering the following categories: deficient, poor, fair, good, very good and excellent. The results showed significant differences in all categories (p<0.05). It was described that the median values of the poor and deficient categories in both gender were lower than what is considered acceptable (p<0.05). It was concluded that 19% of boys and 21% of girls showed low level of cardiorespiratory capacity and a low negative correlation with overweight (r=-0.20 to -0.22) and a moderate negative correlation with obesity (r=-0.39 to -0.42) were described for both genders. Low levels of cardiorespiratory capacity in boys and girls living at moderate altitude are observed, which is negatively correlated with excess body weight. The results suggest that 1 in 5 children are likely to suffer some type of cardiovascular event.

  3. Demonstration of optimum fuel-to-moderator ratio in a PWR unit fuel cell

    SciTech Connect

    Feltus, M.A.; Pozsgai, C.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear engineering students at The Pennsylvania State University develop scaled-down [[approx]350 MW(thermal)] pressurized water reactors (PWRs) using actual plants as references. The design criteria include maintaining the clad temperature below 2200[degree]F, fuel temperature below melting point, sufficient departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) margin, a beginning-of-life boron concentration that yields a negative moderator temperature coefficient, an adequate cycle power production (330 effective full-power days), and a batch loading scheme that is economical. The design project allows for many degrees of freedom (e.g., assembly number, pitch and height and batch enrichments) so that each student's result is unique. The iterative naturemore » of the design process is stressed in the course. The LEOPARD code is used for the unit cell depletion, critical boron, and equilibrium xenon calculations. Radial two-group diffusion equations are solved with the TWIDDLE-DEE code. The steady-state ZEBRA thermal-hydraulics program is used for calculating DNBR. The unit fuel cell pin radius and pitch (fuel-to-moerator ratio) for the scaled-down design, however, was set equal to the already optimized ratio for the reference PWR. This paper describes an honors project that shows how the optimum fuel-to-moderator ratio is found for a unit fuel cell shown in terms of neutron economics. This exercise illustrates the impact of fuel-to-moderator variations on fuel utilization factor and the effect of assuming space and energy separability.« less

  4. Assessing stability in mild and moderate Parkinson's disease: Can clinical measures provide insight?

    PubMed

    Hubble, Ryan P; Silburn, Peter A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Cole, Michael H

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between accelerometer-derived measures of movement rhythmicity and clinical measures of mobility, balance confidence and gait difficulty in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-nine independently-living PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr Stages 1-3) with no history of significant injury or orthopaedic/deep brain stimulation surgery were recruited from a database of patients who had expressed an interest to participate in research. Participants completed clinical assessments of mobility, postural stability, balance confidence and symptom severity, while head and trunk rhythmicity was evaluated during gait using accelerometers. Following data collection, patients were stratified based on disease stage into either a Mild (Hoehn & Yahr Stage 1) or Moderate (Hoehn & Yahr Stages 2-3) PD group. The results highlighted that the Moderate PD group had poorer quality of life, reduced balance confidence and increased gait and falls difficulty. Furthermore, for these patients, gait disability and the number of previous falls were both negatively correlated with multiple components of head and trunk rhythmicity. For the Mild PD group, six-meter walk time was positively correlated with ML head rhythmicity and linear regression highlighted a significant predictive relationship between these outcomes. For the Mild and Moderate PD groups, balance confidence respectively predicted anterior-posterior trunk rhythmicity and vertical head rhythmicity. While these findings demonstrate that falls history and the Gait and Falls questionnaire provide moderate insight into head and trunk rhythmicity in Moderate PD patients, objective and clinically-feasible measures of postural instability would assist with the management of these symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutron kinetics in moderators and SNM detection through epithermal-neutron-induced fissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi; King, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Extension of the well-established Differential Die Away Analysis (DDAA) into a faster time domain, where more penetrating epithermal neutrons induce fissions, is proposed and demonstrated via simulations and experiments. In the proposed method the fissions stimulated by thermal, epithermal and even higher-energy neutrons are measured after injection of a narrow pulse of high-energy 14 MeV (d,T) or 2.5 MeV (d,D) source neutrons, appropriately moderated. The ability to measure these fissions stems from the inherent correlation of neutron energy and time ("E-T" correlation) during the process of slowing down of high-energy source neutrons in common moderating materials such as hydrogenous compounds (e.g., polyethylene), heavy water, beryllium and graphite. The kinetic behavior following injection of a delta-function-shaped pulse (in time) of 14 MeV neutrons into such moderators is studied employing MCNPX simulations and, when applicable, some simple "one-group" models. These calculations served as a guide for the design of a source moderator which was used in experiments. Qualitative relationships between slowing-down time after the pulse and the prevailing neutron energy are discussed. A laboratory system consisting of a 14 MeV neutron generator, a polyethylene-reflected Be moderator, a liquid scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) and a two-parameter E-T data acquisition system was set up to measure prompt neutron and delayed gamma-ray fission signatures in a 19.5% enriched LEU sample. The measured time behavior of thermal and epithermal neutron fission signals agreed well with the detailed simulations. The laboratory system can readily be redesigned and deployed as a mobile inspection system for SNM in, e.g., cars and vans. A strong pulsed neutron generator with narrow pulse (<75 ns) at a reasonably high pulse frequency could make the high-energy neutron induced fission modality a realizable SNM detection technique.

  6. "Demonstrating Masculinity" Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.

  7. Diagnosis of cystocele--the correlation between clinical and radiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Altman, Daniel; Mellgren, Anders; Kierkegaard, Jonas; Zetterström, Jan; Falconer, Christian; López, Annika

    2004-01-01

    In patients with genital prolapse involving several compartments simultaneously, radiologic investigation can be used to complement the clinical assessment. Contrast medium in the urinary bladder enables visualization of the bladder base at cystodefecoperitoneography (CDP). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between clinical examination using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (POP-Q) and CDP. Thirty-three women underwent clinical assessment and CDP. Statistical analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient ( r) demonstrated a wide variability between the current definition of cystocele at CDP and POP-Q ( r=0.67). An attempt to provide an alternative definition of cystocele at CDP had a similar outcome ( r=0.63). The present study demonstrates a moderate correlation between clinical and radiologic findings in patients with anterior vaginal wall prolapse. It does not support the use of bladder contrast at radiologic investigation in the routine preoperative assessment of patients with genital prolapse.

  8. Demonstrating Masculinity” Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996

  9. Correlating voice handicap index and quantitative videostroboscopy following injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal paralysis.

    PubMed

    Lau, David Pang Cheng; Zhang, Edward Zhiyong; Wong, Seng Mun; Lee, Gwyneth; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2010-08-01

    1) Determine the correlation between voice handicap index and quantitative videostroboscopy for patients undergoing injection laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal paralysis; 2) assess which videostroboscopy measurements correlate best with voice handicap index in patients demonstrating progressive improvement beyond six months following injection laryngoplasty. Case series with chart review. Patients undergoing outpatient injection laryngoplasty with hyaluronic acid between 2005 and 2007. Twenty-eight patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively using voice handicap index and videostroboscopy. Various videostroboscopy measurements were quantified: glottic open area (ratio of open to total glottic area during closed phase of phonation), glottic closed phase (frame ratio of closed phase to total glottic cycle), supraglottic compression (percent encroachment of supraglottis onto best-fit ellipse around glottis), wave amplitude (difference in glottic open area between open and closed phases), and wave duration (number of frames per glottic cycle). Correlation coefficients were calculated using Spearman's r. One hundred seventeen separate recordings were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between voice handicap index (normalized to preoperative values) and glottic closed phase showed moderate-strong correlation (r = -0.733, P < 0.001), while glottic open area and wave duration showed weak-moderate correlation (r = 0.465, P < 0.001 and r = -0.404, P < 0.001 respectively). Other parameters showed poor correlation. A subset of 25 recordings from eight patients with progressive voice handicap index improvement beyond six months showed highest correlation with supraglottic compression (r = 0.504, P < 0.05). Voice handicap index correlates best with glottic closed phase, suggesting duration of vocal fold closure during the glottic cycle best represents patients' subjective outcome post-procedure. Progressive improvement in voice handicap index beyond six months may

  10. Movement patterns of Tenebrio beetles demonstrate empirically that correlated-random-walks have similitude with a Lévy walk.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andy M; Leprêtre, Lisa; Bohan, David A

    2013-11-07

    Correlated random walks are the dominant conceptual framework for modelling and interpreting organism movement patterns. Recent years have witnessed a stream of high profile publications reporting that many organisms perform Lévy walks; movement patterns that seemingly stand apart from the correlated random walk paradigm because they are discrete and scale-free rather than continuous and scale-finite. Our new study of the movement patterns of Tenebrio molitor beetles in unchanging, featureless arenas provides the first empirical support for a remarkable and deep theoretical synthesis that unites correlated random walks and Lévy walks. It demonstrates that the two models are complementary rather than competing descriptions of movement pattern data and shows that correlated random walks are a part of the Lévy walk family. It follows from this that vast numbers of Lévy walkers could be hiding in plain sight.

  11. Moderators of sexual behavior in gay men.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, David A; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-08-01

    We investigated factors that might moderate the association between sexual behavior desires and sexual behavior enactments in gay men. Condom eschewal, number of STIs, HIV serostatus, age, and relationship status were each hypothesized to moderate this association. An Internet survey collected data from 219 self-identifying gay men. Results indicated that sexual behavior desires and enactments were highly correlated, and of the five moderators tested, four varied this association. Condom eschewers had a stronger association between desires and enactments than condom users. Gay men with fewer STIs/STDs (excluding HIV) also had a stronger association between the two variables. HIV serostatus did not exclusively moderate the association. Rather, a three-way interaction was produced such that HIV-positive men with STIs had a stronger association between sexual behavior desires and enactments than HIV-negative men with STIs. Finally, gay men in monogamous relationships were least likely to have their desires associated with enactments. Age was not found to be a significant moderator. Overall, we concluded the moderators representing sexual health and sexual health behaviors were most influential over the enactment of sexual behavior desires.

  12. Moderators of the Relationship between Implicit and Explicit Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Nosek, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Automatic and controlled modes of evaluation sometimes provide conflicting reports of the quality of social objects. This paper presents evidence for four moderators of the relationship between automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) evaluations. Implicit and explicit preferences were measured for a variety of object pairs using a large sample. The average correlation was r = .36, and 52 of the 57 object pairs showed a significant positive correlation. Results of multilevel modeling analyses suggested that: (a) implicit and explicit preferences are related, (b) the relationship varies as a function of the objects assessed, and (c) at least four variables moderate the relationship – self-presentation, evaluative strength, dimensionality, and distinctiveness. The variables moderated implicit-explicit correspondence across individuals and accounted for much of the observed variation across content domains. The resulting model of the relationship between automatic and controlled evaluative processes is grounded in personal experience with the targets of evaluation. PMID:16316292

  13. Indicators of Moderate and Severe Preeclampsia in Correlation with Maternal IL10

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Ana Daneva; Hadži-Lega, Marija; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of the actual study was to evaluate the relationship between the formation of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 and several indicators of moderate and severe preeclampsia in the third trimester of pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Examination of the indicators of preeclampsia and maternal IL10 levels was conducted in 50 women with pregnancies complicated by varying degrees of preeclampsia in the third trimester of gestation as well as in 50 normotensive patients, hospitalized at the University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The levels of IL10 were determined with a commercial test developed by Orgenium Laboratories (Finland), using reagents from AviBion ELISA research kits. Patients with preeclampsia were categorized into moderate and severe preeclampsia group according to the degree of preeclampsia. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of different parameters for the occurrence of severe preeclampsia. Odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated in order to quantify independent associations. RESULTS: The regression analysis detected systolic blood pressure (160 mmHg or higher), diastolic blood pressure (100 mmHg or higher), persistent proteinuria in pregnancy, serum LDH concentration (450 U/L or higher) and reduced serum concentrations of IL10 as significant predictors of severe preeclampsia in pregnant women after adjusting for age. CONCLUSION: The findings of significantly lower serum IL10 concentrations in patients with severe preeclampsia in comparison with respective concentrations in patients with moderate preeclampsia can be considered as major pathognomonic laboratory sign of severe preeclampsia. PMID:27335593

  14. Correlation between T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance with left ventricular function and mass in adolescent and adult major thalassemia patients with iron overload.

    PubMed

    Djer, Mulyadi M; Anggriawan, Shirley L; Gatot, Djajadiman; Amalia, Pustika; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Widjaja, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    to assess for a correlation between T2*CMR with LV function and mass in thalassemic patients with iron overload. a cross-sectional study on thalassemic patients was conducted between July and September 2010 at Cipto Mangunkusumo and Premier Hospitals, Jakarta, Indonesia. Clinical examinations, review of medical charts, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and T2*CMR were performed. Cardiac siderosis was measured by T2*CMR conduction time. Left ventricle diastolic and systolic functions, as well as LV mass index were measured using echocardiography. Correlations between T2*CMR and echocardiography findings, as well as serum ferritin were determined using Pearson's and Spearman's tests. thirty patients aged 13-41 years were enrolled, of whom two-thirds had -thalassemia major and one-third had HbE/-thalassemia. Diastolic dysfunction was identified in 8 patients, whereas systolic function was normal in all patients. Increased LV mass index was found in 3 patients. T2*CMR conduction times ranged from 8.98 to 55.04 ms and a value below 20 ms was demonstrated in 14 patients. There was a statistically significant moderate positive correlation of T2*CMR conduction time with E/A ratio (r = 0.471, P = 0.009), but no correlation was found with LV mass index (r=0.097, P=0.608). A moderate negative correlation was found between T2*CMR and serum ferritin (r = -0.514, P = 0.004), while a moderate negative correlation was found between serum ferritin and E/A ratio (r = -0.425, P = 0.019). T2*CMR myocardial conduction time has a moderate positive correlation with diastolic function, moderate negative correlation with serum ferritin, but not with LV mass index and systolic function.

  15. Temperature Control of Hypertensive Rats during Moderate Exercise in Warm Environment.

    PubMed

    Campos, Helton O; Leite, Laura H R; Drummond, Lucas R; Cunha, Daise N Q; Coimbra, Cândido C; Natali, Antônio J; Prímola-Gomes, Thales N

    2014-09-01

    The control of body temperature in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) subjected to exercise in warm environment was investigated. Male SHR and Wistar rats were submitted to moderate exercise in temperate (25°C) and warm (32°C) environments while body and tail skin temperatures, as well as oxygen consumption, were registered. Total time of exercise, workload performed, mechanical efficiency and heat storage were determined. SHR had increased heat production and body temperature at the end of exercise, reduced mechanical efficiency and increased heat storage (p < 0.05). Furthermore, these rats also showed a more intense and faster increase in body temperature during moderate exercise in the warm environment (p < 0.05). The lower mechanical efficiency seen in SHR was closely correlated with their higher body temperature at the point of fatigue in warm environment (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that SHR exhibit significant differences in body temperature control during moderate exercise in warm environment characterized by increased heat production and heat storage during moderate exercise in warm environment. The combination of these responses result in aggravated hyperthermia linked with lower mechanical efficiency. Key PointsThe practice of physical exercise in warm environment has gained importance in recent decades mainly because of the progressive increases in environmental temperature;To the best of our knowledge, these is the first study to analyze body temperature control of SHR during moderate exercise in warm environment;SHR showed increased heat production and heat storage that resulted in higher body temperature at the end of exercise;SHR showed reduced mechanical efficiency;These results demonstrate that when exercising in a warm environment the hypertensive rat exhibit differences in temperature control.

  16. Moderate Cortical Cooling Eliminates Thalamocortical Silent States during Slow Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Sheroziya, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor

    2015-09-23

    Reduction in temperature depolarizes neurons by a partial closure of potassium channels but decreases the vesicle release probability within synapses. Compared with cooling, neuromodulators produce qualitatively similar effects on intrinsic neuronal properties and synapses in the cortex. We used this similarity of neuronal action in ketamine-xylazine-anesthetized mice and non-anesthetized mice to manipulate the thalamocortical activity. We recorded cortical electroencephalogram/local field potential (LFP) activity and intracellular activities from the somatosensory thalamus in control conditions, during cortical cooling and on rewarming. In the deeply anesthetized mice, moderate cortical cooling was characterized by reversible disruption of the thalamocortical slow-wave pattern rhythmicity and the appearance of fast LFP spikes, with frequencies ranging from 6 to 9 Hz. These LFP spikes were correlated with the rhythmic IPSP activities recorded within the thalamic ventral posterior medial neurons and with depolarizing events in the posterior nucleus neurons. Similar cooling of the cortex during light anesthesia rapidly and reversibly eliminated thalamocortical silent states and evoked thalamocortical persistent activity; conversely, mild heating increased thalamocortical slow-wave rhythmicity. In the non-anesthetized head-restrained mice, cooling also prevented the generation of thalamocortical silent states. We conclude that moderate cortical cooling might be used to manipulate slow-wave network activity and induce neuromodulator-independent transition to activated states. Significance statement: In this study, we demonstrate that moderate local cortical cooling of lightly anesthetized or naturally sleeping mice disrupts thalamocortical slow oscillation and induces the activated local field potential pattern. Mild heating has the opposite effect; it increases the rhythmicity of thalamocortical slow oscillation. Our results demonstrate that slow oscillation can be

  17. Children's Appraisal of Moderately Stressful Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Brianne; Power, Thomas; Hill, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated 2 questions: (1) do children show consistent styles of appraisal across a range of moderately stressful events?, and (2) what are the adjustment and parenting correlates of individual differences in children's appraisal style? Ninety-nine 3rd though 5th grade children and their mothers participated. For each of 6 vignettes…

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A WALL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (EDGEWATER LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the full-scale demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on the coal-fired, 105 MW, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. eveloped as a technology aimed at moderate levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen ...

  19. Correlates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among preschoolers during unstructured outdoor play periods.

    PubMed

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David; Sallis, James F

    2011-10-01

    Quantify moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and its correlates in preschool children during outdoor unstructured play periods using direct observation. Cross-sectional data consisting of 204 observation periods collected from 51 four- and five-year-old children using the Observation System for Recording Physical Activity in Children - Preschool (OSRAC-P) at a preschool in southern California, autumn and spring 2009-2010. Gender and BMI classification and OSRAC-P environmental codes were related to observed MVPA in multiple logistic regression models. Less than 21% of intervals were spent in MVPA overall. Boys and normal weight children engaged in higher intensity levels than their respective counterparts. More MVPA was associated with normal weight (OR=2.49-3.25, R(2)=3%), location (grass, playground, looping cycle path; OR=3.21-4.90, R(2)=4-12%), play context (ball/objects, wheel, open space; OR=2.78-8.51, R(2)=9%), and group composition (solitary, one-on-one; OR=1.34-2.08, R(2)=1%). Open spaces located in playgrounds and grass fields, and activity-genic portable equipment, manipulative objects, and riding vehicles are some design and equipment features that appear to foster MVPA. Lowering play space density and engaging children through teacher prompts and teacher-arranged activities may further increase MVPA on playgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intelligence moderates neural responses to monetary reward and punishment.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Daniel R; DeYoung, Colin G; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo

    2014-05-01

    The relations between intelligence (IQ) and neural responses to monetary gains and losses were investigated in a simple decision task. In 94 healthy adults, typical responses of striatal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal after monetary reward and punishment were weaker for subjects with higher IQ. IQ-moderated differential responses to gains and losses were also found for regions in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and left inferior frontal cortex. These regions have previously been identified with the subjective utility of monetary outcomes. Analysis of subjects' behavior revealed a correlation between IQ and the extent to which choices were related to experienced decision outcomes in preceding trials. Specifically, higher IQ predicted behavior to be more strongly correlated with an extended period of previously experienced decision outcomes, whereas lower IQ predicted behavior to be correlated exclusively to the most recent decision outcomes. We link these behavioral and imaging findings to a theoretical model capable of describing a role for intelligence during the evaluation of rewards generated by unknown probabilistic processes. Our results demonstrate neural differences in how people of different intelligence respond to experienced monetary rewards and punishments. Our theoretical discussion offers a functional description for how these individual differences may be linked to choice behavior. Together, our results and model support the hypothesis that observed correlations between intelligence and preferences may be rooted in the way decision outcomes are experienced ex post, rather than deriving exclusively from how choices are evaluated ex ante.

  1. Social Support Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Quality of Life in Patients With a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    PubMed

    Abshire, Martha; Russell, Stuart D; Davidson, Patricia M; Budhathoki, Chakra; Han, Hae-Ra; Grady, Kathleen L; Desai, Shashank; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl

    2018-04-20

    Living with a left ventricular assist device has significant psychosocial sequelae that affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this study was to (1) describe psychosocial indicators of stress including perceived stress, depression, fatigue, and coping; (2) examine relationships among stress indicators by level of perceived stress; (3) examine relationships among indicators of stress and clinical outcomes; and (4) test the moderation of social support on the relationship between stress and clinical outcomes. Participants were recruited from 2 outpatient clinics in a cross-sectional study design. Standardized measures were self-administered via survey. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted. The sample (N = 62) was mostly male (78%), black (47%), and married (66%), with a mean age of 56.5 ± 13 years. The overall sample had a moderate stress profile: moderate perceived stress (mean, 11.7 ± 7), few depressive symptoms (mean, 3.2 ± 3.9), and moderate fatigue (mean, 14.3 ± 9.1). Increased perceived stress was associated with fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maladaptive coping (P < .001). Regression analysis demonstrated that perceived stress and fatigue were significant correlates of overall HRQOL (adj. R = 0.41, P < .0001). Social support moderated the relationship between perceived stress and HRQOL, controlling for fatigue (R = 0.49, P < .001). Individuals living with left ventricular assist device with high perceived stress have worse depressive symptoms, fatigue, and coping. The influence of high social support to improve the relationship between stress and HRQOL underscores the importance of a comprehensive plan to address psychosocial factors.

  2. Physical activity and its correlation to diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Praidou, Anna; Harris, Martin; Niakas, Dimitrios; Labiris, Georgios

    2017-02-01

    The lack of physical activity, along with obesity, smoking, hypertension and hyperglycaemia are considered as risk factors for the occurrence of diseases such as diabetes. Primary objective of the study was to investigate potential correlation between physical activity and diabetic retinopathy. Three hundred and twenty patients were included in the study: 240 patients with diabetes type 2 (80 patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, 80 patients with severe to very severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and 80 ones with proliferative diabetic retinopathy) were compared with 80 non-diabetic patients (control group). Physical activity of patients was assessed by the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ, 2002). HbA1c and BMI were also measured in diabetic patients. Group comparisons were attempted for levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Total physical activity was decreased in patients with severe to very severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy as compared to patients with mild to moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and to the control group (p<0.05). Significant negative correlation was detected between HbA1c levels, BMI and physical activity (both p<0.05). Moreover, significant negative correlation between the severity of diabetic retinopathy and physical activity has been demonstrated (p<0.05). Increased physical activity is associated with less severe levels of diabetic retinopathy, independent of the effects of HbA1c and BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Further Evidence That Cannabis Moderates Familial Correlation of Psychosis-Related Experiences

    PubMed Central

    van Winkel, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    Background Familial correlations underlie heritability estimates of psychosis. If gene-environment interactions are important, familial correlation will vary as a function of environmental exposure. Methods Associations between sibling and parental schizotypy (n = 669 pairs, n = 1222 observations), and between sibling schizotypy and patient CAPE psychosis (n = 978 pairs, n = 1723 observations) were examined as a function of sibling cannabis use. This design is based on the prediction that in unaffected siblings who are not exposed, vulnerability for psychosis will remain latent, whereas in case of exposure, latent psychosis vulnerability may become expressed, at the level of schizotypal symptoms, causing the phenotypic correlation between relatives to become “visible” under the influence of cannabis. Results Siblings exposed to recent cannabis use resembled their patient-relative more closely in terms of positive schizotypy (urinalysis(+):B = 0.30, P<.001; urinalysis(-):B = 0.10, p<0.001; p-interaction = 0.0135). Similarly, the familial correlation in positive schizotypy between parent and sibling was significantly greater in siblings recently exposed to cannabis (urinalysis(+):B = 0.78, P<.001; urinalysis(-):B = 0.43, p<0.001; p interaction = 0.0017). Results were comparable when using lifetime cannabis frequency of use as exposure instead of recent use. Parental schizotypy did not predict cannabis use in the healthy sibling, nor in the patient. Similarly, parental cannabis use was not associated with level of schizotypy in the sibling, nor with psychotic symptoms in the patient, making gene-environment correlation unlikely. Conclusion Familial correlation of psychosis-related experiences varies considerably as a function of exposure to cannabis, confirming the importance of gene-cannabis interaction in shifts of expression of psychosis-related experiences. PMID:26384217

  4. Psychometric properties of the Itch Numeric Rating Scale in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kimball, A B; Naegeli, A N; Edson-Heredia, E; Lin, C-Y; Gaich, C; Nikaï, E; Wyrwich, K; Yosipovitch, G

    2016-07-01

    Itching is a profoundly distressing symptom for many patients with psoriasis, but it has not been rigorously studied using validated tools for this condition. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Itch Numeric Rating Scale (Itch NRS), a single-item patient-reported outcome (PRO) measuring the worst itching severity due to psoriasis in the past 24 h. Using disease-specific clinician-rated and PRO data from one phase II and three phase III randomized clinical studies of subjects with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, the Itch NRS was evaluated for test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness. A responder definition was explored using anchor- and distribution-based methods. Test-retest reliability analyses supported the reproducibility of the measure (intraclass correlation coefficient range 0·71-0·74). To support the construct validity of the Itch NRS, large cross-sectional correlations with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) Symptoms and Feelings domain (r ≥ 0·60 at baseline and r ≥ 0·80 at week 12) supported a priori hypotheses, while large correlations (r ≥ 0·71) between changes in Itch NRS scores and changes in DLQI Symptoms and Feelings domain scores from baseline to week 12 established responsiveness. A 4-point change was optimal for demonstrating a level of clinically meaningful improvement in itch severity after 12 weeks of treatment, which corresponds with marked clinical improvements in plaque psoriasis. The Itch NRS demonstrated sufficient reliability, validity and responsiveness, and appropriate interpretation standards for evaluating change over time in itch severity among patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis when validated using clinical trial data for this condition. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Moderating the Covariance Between Family Member’s Substance Use Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Eaves, Lindon J.; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Twin and family studies implicitly assume that the covariation between family members remains constant across differences in age between the members of the family. However, age-specificity in gene expression for shared environmental factors could generate higher correlations between family members who are more similar in age. Cohort effects (cohort × genotype or cohort × common environment) could have the same effects, and both potentially reduce effect sizes estimated in genome-wide association studies where the subjects are heterogeneous in age. In this paper we describe a model in which the covariance between twins and non-twin siblings is moderated as a function of age difference. We describe the details of the model and simulate data using a variety of different parameter values to demonstrate that model fitting returns unbiased parameter estimates. Power analyses are then conducted to estimate the sample sizes required to detect the effects of moderation in a design of twins and siblings. Finally, the model is applied to data on cigarette smoking. We find that (1) the model effectively recovers the simulated parameters, (2) the power is relatively low and therefore requires large sample sizes before small to moderate effect sizes can be found reliably, and (3) the genetic covariance between siblings for smoking behavior decays very rapidly. Result 3 implies that, e.g., genome-wide studies of smoking behavior that use individuals assessed at different ages, or belonging to different birth-year cohorts may have had substantially reduced power to detect effects of genotype on cigarette use. It also implies that significant special twin environmental effects can be explained by age-moderation in some cases. This effect likely contributes to the missing heritability paradox. PMID:24647834

  6. Executive functions, parental punishment, and aggression: Direct and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Shameem; Sharif, Imran

    2017-12-01

    The main focus of the current study was to assess whether executive functions (EFs) moderate the effect of parental punishment on adolescent aggression. The sample were 370 participants (53% girls, 47% boys) enrolled at secondary and higher secondary levels and ranged in age between 13-19 years (M = 15.5, SD = 1.3). Participants were assessed on a self-report measure of aggression and two punishment measures, in addition to a demographic sheet. Then, they were individually assessed on four tests taken from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS) namely Trial Making Test (TMT), Design Fluency Test (DFT), Color Word Interference Test (CWIT), and Card Sorting Test (CST) to assess cognitive flexibility, nonverbal fluency, inhibition, and problem-solving ability, respectively. Correlation coefficients indicated that all four executive functioning measures and the two punishment measures were significantly correlated with aggression. Moderation analysis indicated that all EFs moderated the relationship between physical punishment and aggression, and only inhibition and problem-solving ability, but not cognitive flexibility and nonverbal fluency, moderated the relations between symbolic punishment and aggression. The findings support the hypothesis that EFs are protective personal factors that promote healthy adolescent adjustment in the presence of challenging environmental factors.

  7. Reliability, validity, and interpretation of the dependence scale in mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lenderking, William R; Wyrwich, Kathleen W; Stolar, Marilyn; Howard, Kellee A; Leibman, Chris; Buchanan, Jacqui; Lacey, Loretto; Kopp, Zoe; Stern, Yaakov

    2013-12-01

    The Dependence Scale (DS) was designed to measure dependence on others among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objectives of this research were primarily to strengthen the psychometric evidence for the use of the DS in AD studies. Patients with mild to moderately severe AD were examined in 3 study databases. Within each data set, internal consistency, validity, and responsiveness were examined, and structural equation models were fit. The DS has strong psychometric properties. The DS scores differed significantly across known groups and demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with measures hypothesized to be related to dependence (|r| ≥ .31). Structural equation modeling supported the validity of the DS concept. An anchor-based DS responder definition to interpret a treatment benefit over time was identified. The DS is a reliable, valid, and interpretable measure of dependence associated with AD and is shown to be related to--but provides information distinct from--cognition, functioning, and behavior.

  8. Everything in Moderation: Moderate Use of Screens Unassociated with Child Behavior Problems.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    The impact of children's use of "screen" media including television and computer games, continues to be debated. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) until recently recommended a relatively restrictive screen time diet of 2 h or less for most youth. A representative correlational sample of youth were assessed for links between screen time and risky behavioral outcomes. Data collection occurred in 2013 conducted by the State of Florida. Use of screens that was moderately high, in excess of the AAP's former recommendations, but not excessive (1 SD or higher than average), was not associated with delinquency, risky behaviors, sexual behaviors, substance abuse, reduced grades or mental health problems. Even excessive screen use (1 SD or higher) was only weakly associated with negative outcomes related to delinquency, grades and depression only, and at levels unlikely to be practically significant. Results conceptually replicate those of Przybylski (2014) with a US sample for depression and delinquency as outcomes. Moderate use of screens, though in excess of the AAP's historical recommendations, are unassociated with problem outcomes. Excessive use of screens is only weakly associated with negative outcomes, and only those related to depression and delinquency as well as reduced grades, but not risky driving, substance use, risky sex or disordered eating. Although an "everything in moderation" message when discussing screen time with parents may be most productive, results do not support a strong focus on screen time as a preventative measure for youth problem behaviors.

  9. Tests of Dorsolateral Frontal Function Correlate with Objective Tests of Postural Stability in Early to Moderate Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nocera, Joe R.; Price, Catherine; Fernandez, Hubert H.; Amano, Shinichi; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Okun, Michael S.; Hwynn, Nelson; Hass, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    A substantial number of individuals with Parkinson’s disease who display impaired postural stability experience accelerated cognitive decline and an increased prevalence of dementia. To date, studies suggest that this relationship, believed to be due to involvement of nondopaminergic circuitry, occurs later in the disease process. Research has yet to adequately investigate this cognitive-posturomotor relationship especially when examining earlier disease states. To gain greater understanding of the relationship between postural stability and cognitive function/dysfunction we evaluated a more stringent, objective measure of postural stability (center of pressure displacement), and also more specific measures of cognition in twenty-two patients with early to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease. The magnitude of the center of pressure displacement in this cohort was negatively correlated with performance on tests known to activate dorsolateral frontal regions. Additionally, the postural stability item of the UPDRS exhibited poor correlation with the more objective measure of center of pressure displacement and all specific measures of cognition. These results may serve as rationale for a more thorough evaluation of postural stability and cognition especially in individuals with mild Parkinson’s disease. Greater understanding of the relationship between motor and cognitive processes in Parkinson’s disease will be critical for understanding the disease process and its potential therapeutic possibilities. PMID:20829093

  10. How can acute mountain sickness be quantified at moderate altitude?

    PubMed

    Roeggla, G; Roeggla, M; Podolsky, A; Wagner, A; Laggner, A N

    1996-03-01

    Reports of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at moderate altitude show a wide variability, possibly because of different investigation methods. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of investigation methods on AMS incidence. Hackett's established AMS score (a structured interview and physical examination), the new Lake Louise AMS score (a self-reported questionnaire) and oxygen saturation were determined in 99 alpinists after ascent to 2.94 km altitude. AMS incidence was 8% in Hackett's AMS score and 25% in the Lake Louise AMS score. Oxygen saturation correlated inversely with Hackett's AMS score with no significant correlation with the Lake Louise AMS score. At moderate altitude, the new Lake Louise AMS score overestimates AMS incidence considerably. Hackett's AMS score remains the gold standard for evaluating AMS incidence.

  11. How can acute mountain sickness be quantified at moderate altitude?

    PubMed Central

    Roeggla, G; Roeggla, M; Podolsky, A; Wagner, A; Laggner, A N

    1996-01-01

    Reports of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at moderate altitude show a wide variability, possibly because of different investigation methods. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of investigation methods on AMS incidence. Hackett's established AMS score (a structured interview and physical examination), the new Lake Louise AMS score (a self-reported questionnaire) and oxygen saturation were determined in 99 alpinists after ascent to 2.94 km altitude. AMS incidence was 8% in Hackett's AMS score and 25% in the Lake Louise AMS score. Oxygen saturation correlated inversely with Hackett's AMS score with no significant correlation with the Lake Louise AMS score. At moderate altitude, the new Lake Louise AMS score overestimates AMS incidence considerably. Hackett's AMS score remains the gold standard for evaluating AMS incidence. PMID:8683517

  12. Optical Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotariu, Steven S.

    1991-01-01

    Pattern recognition may supplement or replace certain navigational aids on spacecraft in docking or landing activities. The need to correctly identify terrain features remains critical in preparation of autonomous planetary landing. One technique that may solve this problem is optical correlation. Correlation has been successfully demonstrated under ideal conditions; however, noise significantly affects the ability of the correlator to accurately identify input signals. Optical correlation in the presence of noise must be successfully demonstrated before this technology can be incorporated into system design. An optical correlator is designed and constructed using a modified 2f configuration. Liquid crystal televisions (LCTV) are used as the spatial light modulators (SLM) for both the input and filter devices. The filter LCTV is characterized and an operating curve is developed. Determination of this operating curve is critical for reduction of input noise. Correlation of live input with a programmable filter is demonstrated.

  13. Optical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotariu, Steven S.

    1991-12-01

    Pattern recognition may supplement or replace certain navigational aids on spacecraft in docking or landing activities. The need to correctly identify terrain features remains critical in preparation of autonomous planetary landing. One technique that may solve this problem is optical correlation. Correlation has been successfully demonstrated under ideal conditions; however, noise significantly affects the ability of the correlator to accurately identify input signals. Optical correlation in the presence of noise must be successfully demonstrated before this technology can be incorporated into system design. An optical correlator is designed and constructed using a modified 2f configuration. Liquid crystal televisions (LCTV) are used as the spatial light modulators (SLM) for both the input and filter devices. The filter LCTV is characterized and an operating curve is developed. Determination of this operating curve is critical for reduction of input noise. Correlation of live input with a programmable filter is demonstrated.

  14. Relationship of moderate and low isometric lumbar extension through architectural and muscular activity variables: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background No study relating the changes obtained in the architecture of erector spinae (ES) muscle were registered with ultrasound and different intensities of muscle contraction recorded by surface EMG (electromyography) on the ES muscle was found. The aim of this study was analyse the relationship in the response of the ES muscle during isometric moderate and light lumbar isometric extension considering architecture and functional muscle variables. Methods Cross-sectional study. 46 subjects (52% men) with a group mean age of 30.4 (±7.78). The participants developed isometric lumbar extension while performing moderate and low isometric trunk and hip extension in a sitting position with hips flexed 90 degrees and the lumbar spine in neutral position. During these measurements, electromyography recordings and ultrasound images were taken bilaterally. Bilaterally pennation angle, muscle thickness, torque and muscle activation were measured. This study was developed at the human movement analysis laboratory of the Health Science Faculty of the University of Malaga (Spain). Results Strong and moderate correlations were found at moderate and low intensities contraction between the variable of the same intensity, with correlation values ranging from 0.726 (Torque Moderate – EMG Left Moderate) to 0.923 (Angle Left Light – Angle Right Light) (p < 0.001). This correlation is observed between the variables that describe the same intensity of contraction, showing a poor correlation between variables of different intensities. Conclusion There is a strong relationship between architecture and function variables of ES muscle when describe an isometric lumbar extension at light or moderate intensity. PMID:24252273

  15. Treatment of Social Phobia: Potential Mediators and Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2006-01-01

    Although the efficacy of numerous psychosocial interventions for social phobia has been clearly demonstrated, little is known about the mediators and moderators of treatment change. Three potential mediators are discussed that are derived from prominent psychological theories: negative cognitive appraisal (estimated social costs), perceived self-efficacy (perceived social skills), and perceived emotional control. Furthermore, the generalized subtype of social phobia and the additional diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder are considered as potential treatment moderators. PMID:16799697

  16. Volumetric correlates of memory and executive function in normal elderly, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Audrey; Hayasaka, Satoru; Du, Antao; Schuff, Norbert; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Kramer, Joel; Miller, Bruce; Weiner, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), atrophy negatively impacts cognition while in healthy adults, inverse relationships between brain volume and cognition may occur. We investigated correlations between gray matter volume and cognition in elderly controls, AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients with memory and executive deficits. AD demonstrated substantial loss in temporal, parietal and frontal regions while MCI exhibited moderate volume loss in temporal and frontal regions. In controls, memory and executive function were negatively correlated with frontal regions, while in AD, memory was positively correlated with temporal and frontal gyri, and executive function with frontal regions. The combination of the two patterns may explain the lack of correlations in MCI. Developmental versus pathological contributions to these relationships are discussed. PMID:16904823

  17. The sociocultural model of eating disorders in Mexican American women: behavioral acculturation and cognitive marginalization as moderators.

    PubMed

    Warren, Cortney S; Castillo, Linda G; Gleaves, David H

    2010-01-01

    White American cultural values of appearance are implicated in the development of body dissatisfaction. This study examined whether the relationships between awareness of White American appearance ideals, internalization of such ideals, and body dissatisfaction are moderated by behavioral acculturation and attitudinal marginalization in a sample of 94 Mexican American women. Results indicated that behavioral acculturation moderated the relationship between awareness and internalization and cognitive marginalization moderated the relationship between internalization and body dissatisfaction. Body size was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and negatively correlated with behavioral acculturation. These findings have important implications for clinical practice and research with Mexican American women.

  18. Impulse Oscillometry and Spirometry Small-Airway Parameters in Mild to Moderate Bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Yuan, Jing-Jing; Gao, Yong-Hua; Li, Hui-Min; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Chen, Rong-Chang; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2016-11-01

    Both impulse oscillometry and spirometry can reflect small-airway disorders. The objective of this work was to investigate the diagnostic value of impulse oscillometry and spirometry small-airway parameters and their correlation with radiology, disease severity, and sputum bacteriology in mild to moderate bronchiectasis (bronchiectasis severity index <9) and to validate these findings in sensitivity analyses (mild bronchiectasis). We recruited 94 subjects with mild to moderate bronchiectasis and 26 healthy subjects. The diagnostic value of small-airway parameters was compared using the receiver operating characteristic curve. Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), impulse oscillometry measurement, spirometry, and sputum culture were performed. Correlation between small-airway parameters and clinical indices was determined, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking history. Sensitivity analyses were repeated when excluding subjects with bronchiectasis severity index ≥9 or HRCT score ≥13. Impulse oscillometry and spirometry small-airway parameters could discriminate mild to moderate bronchiectasis from healthy subjects and correlated significantly with HRCT score and the number of bronchiectatic lobes and the bronchiectasis severity index (all P < .01). Small-airway parameters were more aberrant in subjects with dyshomogeneity and cystic bronchiectasis but were independent of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolation or the location of predominant bronchiectatic lobes. Spirometry, but not impulse oscillometry, small-airway parameters differed statistically between subjects with isolated peripheral-airway bronchiectasis and those with peripheral plus central-airway bronchiectasis (all P < .01). Subgroup analyses yielded similar findings, except for the lack of correlation between small-airway parameters and clinical parameters in subjects with HRCT score ≤6. Impulse oscillometry and spirometry small-airway parameters have similar diagnostic value in

  19. Anomalous spectral correlations between SERS enhancement and far-field optical responses in roughened Au mesoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Weixiang; Yang, Zhengxuan; Wang, Lingling

    2018-04-01

    Depending on the experimental conditions and plasmonic systems, the correlations between near-field surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) behaviors and far-field optical responses have sometimes been accepted directly, or argued, or explored. In this work, we have numerically demonstrated the anomalous spectral correlations between the near- and far-field properties for roughened Au mesoparticles. As a counterexample, it is witnessed that the dipole extinction peak of the mesoparticles may mislead us in seeking favorable SERS performance. The simple Rayleigh scattering spectra can also be misguided in the presence of dark modes. For roughened mesoparticles with a moderate size here, the huge near-field enhancement is a synergistic result of the overall dark quadrupole mode and the substructural bonding dipole coupling. The conclusions demonstrated here would be of general interest to the field of plasmonics, especially the optimization of single-particle SERS substrates.

  20. Effects of platelet and plasma transfusion on outcome in traumatic brain injury patients with moderate bleeding diatheses.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Catherine O; Spence, Jeffrey S; Warner, Matthew A; Paliotta, Christopher; Harper, Caryn; Moore, Carol; Sarode, Ravi; Madden, Christopher; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2013-03-01

    Object Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet transfusion thresholds for mildly to moderately abnormal ranges of international normalized ratio and platelet count remain controversial. This study evaluates associations between fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions with long-term functional outcome and survival in TBI patients with moderate hemostatic laboratory abnormalities. Methods This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of patients with mild to severe TBI. Data include patient demographics, several initial injury severity metrics, daily laboratory values, Glasgow Outcome Score- Extended (GOSE) scores, Functional Status Examination (FSE) scores, and survival to 6 months. Correlations were evaluated between these variables and transfusion of FFP, platelets, packed red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, recombinant factor VIIa, and albumin. Ordinal regression was performed to account for potential confounding variables to further define relationships between transfusion status and long-term outcome. By analyzing collected data, mild to moderate coagulopathy was defined as an international normalized ratio 1.4-2.0, moderate thrombocytopenia as platelet count 50 × 10(9)/L to 107 × 10(9)/L, and moderate anemia as 21%-30% hematocrit. Results In patients with mild to moderate laboratory hematological abnormalities, univariate analysis shows significant correlations between poor outcome scores and FFP, platelet, or packed RBC transfusion; the volume of FFP or packed RBCs transfused also correlated with poor outcome. Several measures of initial injury and laboratory abnormalities also correlated with poor outcome. Patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and highest recorded serum sodium were included in the ordinal regression model using backward variable selection. In the moderate coagulopathy subgroup, patients transfused with FFP were more likely to have a lower GOSE

  1. Correlation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scores with legacy patient-reported outcome scores in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brendan M; Orvets, Nathan D; Aleem, Alexander W; Keener, Jay D; Calfee, Ryan P; Nixon, Devon C; Chamberlain, Aaron M

    2018-06-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is being used to assess outcomes in many patient populations despite limited validation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores and PROMIS Physical Function (PF) and Upper Extremity (UE) function scores collected preoperatively in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair. This cross-sectional study analyzed 164 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Study inclusion required preoperative completion of the ASES and SST evaluations, as well as the PROMIS PF, UE, and Pain Interference computerized adaptive tests. Descriptive statistics were produced, and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the outcome measures. Average PROMIS UE scores indicated greater impairment than PROMIS PF scores (34 vs 44). Three percent of patients reached the PROMIS UE ceiling score of 56. PROMIS PF scores demonstrated a weak correlation with ASES scores (r = 0.43, P < .001) and a moderate correlation with SST scores (r = 0.51, P < .001). PROMIS UE scores demonstrated a moderate correlation with both ASES scores (r = 0.59, P < .001) and SST scores (r = 0.62, P < .001). PROMIS Pain Interference scores demonstrated weak negative correlations with both ASES scores (r = -0.43, P < .001) and SST scores (r = -0.41, P < .001). Patients answered fewer questions on average using the PROMIS PF and UE instruments as compared with the ASES and SST instruments. PROMIS UE scores indicate greater impairment and demonstrate a stronger correlation with the legacy shoulder scores than PROMIS PF scores in patients with symptomatic rotator cuff tears. PROMIS computerized adaptive tests allow for more efficient patient-reported outcome data collection compared with traditional outcome scores. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and

  2. Attitude importance as a moderator of the relationship between implicit and explicit attitude measures.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Andrew; Steinman, Ross B; Hilton, James L

    2005-07-01

    The authors examined attitude importance as a moderator of the relationship between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit attitude measures. In Study 1 (N = 194), as ratings of attitude importance regarding the 2000 presidential election increased, the strength of the relationship between a Bush-Gore IAT and explicit attitude measures also increased. Study 2 provided a conceptual replication of these results using attitudes toward Coke and Pepsi (N = 112). In addition, across both studies, explicit attitude measures were better predictors of deliberative behaviors than IAT scores. In Study 3 (N = 77), the authors examined the role of elaboration as a mechanism by which attitude importance may moderate IAT-explicit attitude correlations. As predicted, increased elaboration resulted in stronger IAT-explicit attitude correlations. Other possible mechanisms by which attitude importance may moderate the IAT-explicit attitude relationship also are discussed.

  3. Oedema of gallbladder wall: correlation with chronic hepatitis B on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian; Zhao, Jian Nong; Han, Fu Gang; Tang, Guang Cai; Luo, Yin Deng; Chen, Xin; Luo, Li

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise gallbladder wall oedema and correlate it with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sixty-seven patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with CHB and 18 healthy individuals without any history of liver disease underwent abdominal MR imaging. Hepatic inflammation (grade 0-4) and fibrosis (stage 0-4) for patients were assessed histologically. Gallbladder wall oedema was noted. Twelve patients showed gallbladder wall oedema on MR imaging, including six with grade 3 and six with grade 4 disease. There was a statistically significant difference for the presence of gallbladder wall oedema among groups with grade 0-4 (p=0.000), but not between groups with grades 3 and 4 (p=0.729). Gallbladder wall oedema was related to moderate-severe inflammatory activity (p<0.05), alanine transaminase (ALT) (p=0.012) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p=0.027) levels but not to fibrosis or other laboratory data, including serum quantitative DNA for hepatitis B virus (HBV), with the p=0.105-0.846. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of hepatic moderate-severe inflammation using gallbladder wall oedema were 33.33% and 100%, respectively. Gallbladder wall oedema for patients with CHB can be specifically demonstrated on MR imaging and is correlated with hepatic moderate-severe inflammatory activity, elevated ALT and AST levels but not with fibrosis or other laboratory data, including viremia.

  4. Psychosocial and environmental correlates of adolescent sedentary behaviors.

    PubMed

    Norman, Gregory J; Schmid, Béatrice A; Sallis, James F; Calfas, Karen J; Patrick, Kevin

    2005-10-01

    To determine correlates of sedentary behaviors in adolescents through the examination of psychosocial and environmental variables. The study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate an ethnically diverse clinic-based sample of 878 adolescents who were 11 to 15 years old. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were stratified by gender to assess correlates of sedentary behaviors occurring on the most recent nonschool day (television viewing, computer video games, sitting listening to music, and talking on the phone). For girls, age, family support, television/video rules, and hills in the neighborhood were associated with sedentary behaviors. Furthermore, psychological constructs such as self-efficacy, enjoyment, change strategies, and pros and cons of change emerged as correlates of sedentary behaviors. A moderator effect revealed that the proportion of girls in the low-BMI group decreased with increased self-efficacy, whereas the proportion of girls in the high-BMI group did not vary significantly by self-efficacy. For boys, age, ethnicity, BMI, cons of change, and self-efficacy were associated with sedentary behaviors. This study provides evidence of factors associated and not associated with adolescent sedentary behaviors. Similar to physical activity, measures of specific psychosocial constructs of sedentary behavior demonstrated important associations. The results highlight the need for additional examination of the correlates of sedentary behavior to determine which correlates are mechanisms of behavior change.

  5. Dropouts In Two-Year Colleges: Better Prediction With The Use Of Moderator Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capoor, Madan; Eagle, Norman

    1977-01-01

    This article demonstrates, through a case study, the use of pre-existing subgroups as moderator variables to increase the predictive effectiveness of educational research. Use of moderator variables in this study increased the amount of explained variance by 460 percent. (JDS)

  6. Assessment of balance in mild and moderate stages of Alzheimer's disease: implications on falls and functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Kato-Narita, Eliane Mayumi; Nitrini, Ricardo; Radanovic, Marcia

    2011-04-01

    To analyze the correlation between balance, falls and loss of functional capacity in mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease(AD). 40 subjects without cognitive impairment (control group) and 48 AD patients (25 mild, 23 moderate) were evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD). Subjects answered a questionnaire about falls occurrence in the last twelve months. Moderate AD patients showed poorer balance (p=0.001) and functional capacity (p <0.0001) and it was observed a correlation between falls and balance (r= -0.613; p=0.045). There is a decline of balance related to AD which is a factor associated to the occurrence of falls, albeit not the most relevant one. The loss of functional capacity is associated with the disease's progress but not to a higher occurrence of falls. The balance impairment did not correlate with functional decline in AD patients.

  7. Correlates and moderators of child pornography consumption in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Ray, James V; Kimonis, Eva R; Seto, Michael C

    2014-12-01

    This study compares pornography users who report child pornography (CP) consumption with those who do not on demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, and education level), psychological characteristics (e.g., loneliness, attachment style, anxiety, and sensation seeking), frequency of pornography use, and intentions to engage in contact sexual abuse. Participants were recruited on the Internet to complete an online anonymous survey about "problematic pornography use." Approximately, one fifth of the recruited male pornography users (21%, n = 37) reported consuming CP. The two groups were similar on all demographic and psychological characteristics. However, the probability of CP consumption was the greatest among men scoring high on a measure of sensation seeking who reported frequent pornography use (i.e., statistical moderation). CP consumers also reported a greater interest in engaging in sexual contact with a minor than non-CP consumers. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Moderation: an alternative to restraint as a mode of weight self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Stotland, S

    2012-12-01

    This study considered two types of eating and weight self-regulation, in five groups, including four types of weight controllers and one non-dieting group. New scales were developed to measure eating moderation and restraint. Moderation was largely uncorrelated with restraint in 4 groups and had a fairly strong positive relation in 1 group. The moderation scale was unrelated to the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) restraint scale and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) rigid restraint subscale and weakly positively related to TFEQ flexible restraint. The restraint scale was strongly correlated to the DEBQ restraint scale, and to both flexible and rigid restraint subscales of the TFEQ. Across the five groups, moderation had exclusively positive relationships with attitude, behavior and emotion variables, while restraint had primarily negative relationships. The study supports moderation as a new dimension of weight self-regulation, independent of restraint. The new measures of moderation and restraint can be used together in research on the processes of change in weight management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  10. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children-Psychological Correlates of PA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-10-13

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8-13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA ( r : 0.22-0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures.

  11. Cerebral malaria in mice: demonstration of cytoadherence of infected red blood cells and microrheologic correlates.

    PubMed

    Kaul, D K; Nagel, R L; Llena, J F; Shear, H L

    1994-04-01

    To understand the microcirculatory events during cerebral malaria, we have studied the lethal strain of rodent Plasmodia, Plasmodium yoelii 17XL, originally described by Yoeli and Hargreaves in 1974. The virulence of P. yoelii 17XL is caused by intravascular sequestration of infected red blood cells (IRBCs), especially in the brain vessels and capillaries. This mouse model resembles human P. falciparum infection more closely than P. berghei ANKA infection since it shows little, if any, inflammation of the brain. In vivo microcirculatory studies on cytoadherence of IRBCs were performed using the cremaster muscle preparation, which is an easily accessible vasculature for intravital observations. Ex vivo assay of cytoadherence was carried out in the artificially perfused mesocecum preparation of the rat. The results in either preparation demonstrated cytoadherence of IRBCs that was restricted to postcapillary venules. Furthermore, the in vivo measurements showed the prevalence of cytoadherence in small-diameter (< 40 microns) venules in accordance with the local wall shear rates. The parasitized animals demonstrated significantly reduced red blood cell velocities and wall shear rates in the small-diameter postcapillary venules of the cremaster. The relationship between cytoadherence and venular wall shear rates was also reflected in the inverse correlation between the number of adhered cells and the venular diameter in the ex vivo mesocecum preparation. In the ex vivo preparation, cytoadherence of IRBCs was accompanied by a higher peripheral resistance. Transmission electron microscopy of the cremaster muscle and brain tissues showed a tight association of IRBCs with the endothelium of small venules. These observations demonstrate that cytoadherence of P. yoelii 17XL-infected mouse red blood cells is very similar to that of P. falciparum-infected cells. Thus, this model should allow a detailed analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of cerebral

  12. Super-leadership and work enjoyment: direct and moderated influences.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter F; Georgianna, Sibylle; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Roth, Anne C; Schreiber, Walter A; Sauerland, Martin; Muessigmann, Michael J; Jilg, Franziska

    2013-12-01

    Super-leadership is part of an approach called 'empowering leadership.' Within this approach, super-leadership is assumed to enable subordinates to lead themselves. The current study examined correlates of super-leadership. A questionnaire measuring two dimensions of super-leadership was used to analyze relationships between super-leadership and subordinates' work enjoyment, i.e., job satisfaction, subjective well-being, and emotional organizational commitment. In addition, moderating effects of the organizational context, i.e., organizational decentralization, on the relationships between super-leadership and work enjoyment were explored. 198 German employees from different occupations participated in the study. Latent moderator structural equation analysis revealed that the two factors of super-leadership, "coaching and communicative support" and "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility," had direct positive effects on subordinates' work enjoyment. Organizational decentralization moderated the effect of "coaching and communicative support" on work enjoyment but not the relations involving "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility." Conclusions for further research and practical applications were discussed.

  13. Imaging Correlations in Heterodyne Spectra for Quantum Displacement Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontin, A.; Lang, J. E.; Chowdhury, A.; Vezio, P.; Marino, F.; Morana, B.; Serra, E.; Marin, F.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2018-01-01

    The extraordinary sensitivity of the output field of an optical cavity to small quantum-scale displacements has led to breakthroughs such as the first detection of gravitational waves and of the motions of quantum ground-state cooled mechanical oscillators. While heterodyne detection of the output optical field of an optomechanical system exhibits asymmetries which provide a key signature that the mechanical oscillator has attained the quantum regime, important quantum correlations are lost. In turn, homodyning can detect quantum squeezing in an optical quadrature but loses the important sideband asymmetries. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a new technique, subjecting the autocorrelators of the output current to filter functions, which restores the lost heterodyne correlations (whether classical or quantum), drastically augmenting the useful information accessible. The filtering even adjusts for moderate errors in the locking phase of the local oscillator. Hence we demonstrate the single-shot measurement of hundreds of different field quadratures allowing the rapid imaging of detailed features from a simple heterodyne trace. We also obtain a spectrum of hybrid homodyne-heterodyne character, with motional sidebands of combined amplitudes comparable to homodyne. Although investigated here in a thermal regime, the method's robustness and generality represents a promising new approach to sensing of quantum-scale displacements.

  14. Imaging Correlations in Heterodyne Spectra for Quantum Displacement Sensing.

    PubMed

    Pontin, A; Lang, J E; Chowdhury, A; Vezio, P; Marino, F; Morana, B; Serra, E; Marin, F; Monteiro, T S

    2018-01-12

    The extraordinary sensitivity of the output field of an optical cavity to small quantum-scale displacements has led to breakthroughs such as the first detection of gravitational waves and of the motions of quantum ground-state cooled mechanical oscillators. While heterodyne detection of the output optical field of an optomechanical system exhibits asymmetries which provide a key signature that the mechanical oscillator has attained the quantum regime, important quantum correlations are lost. In turn, homodyning can detect quantum squeezing in an optical quadrature but loses the important sideband asymmetries. Here we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a new technique, subjecting the autocorrelators of the output current to filter functions, which restores the lost heterodyne correlations (whether classical or quantum), drastically augmenting the useful information accessible. The filtering even adjusts for moderate errors in the locking phase of the local oscillator. Hence we demonstrate the single-shot measurement of hundreds of different field quadratures allowing the rapid imaging of detailed features from a simple heterodyne trace. We also obtain a spectrum of hybrid homodyne-heterodyne character, with motional sidebands of combined amplitudes comparable to homodyne. Although investigated here in a thermal regime, the method's robustness and generality represents a promising new approach to sensing of quantum-scale displacements.

  15. The influence of affective and cognitive arguments on message judgement and attitude change: The moderating effects of meta-bases and structural bases.

    PubMed

    Keer, Mario; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter; de Wit, John

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether the efficacy of affective vs. cognitive persuasive messages was moderated by (1) individuals' subjective assessments of whether their attitudes were based on affect or cognition (i.e. meta-bases) and (2) the degree individuals' attitudes were correlated with affect and cognition (i.e. structural bases). Participants (N = 97) were randomly exposed to a message containing either affective or cognitive arguments discouraging binge drinking. The results demonstrated that meta-bases and not structural bases moderated the influence of argument type on message judgement. Affective (cognitive) messages were judged more positively when individuals' meta-bases were more affective (cognitive). In contrast, structural bases and not meta-bases moderated the influence of argument type on attitude and intention change following exposure to the message. Surprisingly, change was greater among individuals who read a message that mismatched their structural attitude base. Affective messages were more effective as attitudes were more cognition-based, and vice versa. Thus, although individuals prefer messages that match their meta-base, attitude and intention change regarding binge drinking are best established by mismatching their structural base.

  16. Gender-Moderated Links between Urgency, Binge Drinking, and Excessive Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Erin E.; Dmochowski, Sasha; Schaumberg, Katherine; Earleywine, Mitch; Anderson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exercise correlates with alcohol use, but the nature of this relation and the extent to which it is maladaptive remains unclear. Urgency and motives for engaging in drinking and exercise might indicate when these behaviors are problematic. The current study examined whether urgency moderated the association between exercise motivated by…

  17. The Virtuous Drinker: Character Virtues as Correlates and Moderators of College Student Drinking and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Diane E.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the relationship between alcohol use and positive psychology's character virtues in a college student sample. Each of the virtues of wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence were examined as protective factors and moderators of drinking consequences. Participants: This sample included…

  18. Quantitative HRMAS proton total correlation spectroscopy applied to cultured melanoma cells treated by chloroethyl nitrosourea: demonstration of phospholipid metabolism alterations.

    PubMed

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aicha; Papon, Janine; Madelmont, Jean Claude

    2003-02-01

    Recent NMR spectroscopy developments, such as high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) probes and correlation-enhanced 2D sequences, now allow improved investigations of phospholipid (Plp) metabolism. Using these modalities we previously demonstrated that a mouse-bearing melanoma tumor responded to chloroethyl nitrosourea (CENU) treatment in vivo by altering its Plp metabolism. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether HRMAS proton total correlation spectroscopy (TOCSY) could be used as a quantitative technique to probe Plp metabolism, and to determine the Plp metabolism response of cultured B16 melanoma cells to CENU treatment in vitro. The exploited TOCSY signals of Plp derivatives arose from scalar coupling among the protons of neighbor methylene groups within base headgroups (choline and ethanolamine). For strongly expressed Plp derivatives, TOCSY signals were compared to saturation recovery signals and demonstrated a linear relationship. HRMAS proton TOCSY was thus used to provide concentrations of Plp derivatives during long-term follow-up of CENU-treated cell cultures. Strong Plp metabolism alteration was observed in treated cultured cells in vitro involving a down-regulation of phosphocholine, and a dramatic and irreversible increase of phosphoethanolamine. These findings are discussed in relation to previous in vivo data, and to Plp metabolism enzymatic involvement. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Breast MRI background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) correlates with the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Moschetta, Marco

    2016-02-01

    To investigate whether background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) and breast cancer would correlate searching for any significant difference of BPE pattern distribution in case of benign or malignant lesions. 386 patients, including 180 pre-menopausal (group 1) and 206 post-menopausal (group 2), underwent MR examination. Two radiologists evaluated MR images classifying normal BPE as minimal, mild, moderate or marked. The two groups of patients were subdivided into 3 categories based on MRI findings (negative, benign and malignant lesions). The distribution of BPE patterns within the two groups and within the three MR categories was calculated. The χ2 test was used to evaluate BPE type distribution in the three patient categories and any statistically significant correlation of BPE with lesion type was calculated. The Student t test was applied to search for any statistically significant difference between BPE type rates in group 1 and 2. The χ2 test demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the distribution of BPE types in negative patients and benign lesions as compared with malignant ones (p<0.05). A significantly higher prevalence of moderate and marked BPE was found among malignant lesions (group 1: 32% and 42%, respectively; group 2: 31% and 46%, respectively) while a predominance of minimal and mild BPE among negative patients (group 1: 60% and 36%, respectively; group 2: 68% and 32%, respectively) and benign lesions (group 1: 54% and 38%, respectively; group 2: 75% and 17%, respectively) was found. The Student t test did not show a statistically significant difference between BPE type rates in group 1 and 2 (p>0.05). Normal BPE could correlate with the risk of breast cancer being such BPE patterns as moderate and marked associated with patients with malignant lesions in both pre and post-menopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapidity dependence of proton cumulants and correlation functions

    DOE PAGES

    Bzdak, Adam; Koch, Volker

    2017-11-13

    The dependence of multiproton correlation functions and cumulants on the acceptance in rapidity and transverse momentum is studied. Here, we found that the preliminary data of various cumulant ratios are consistent, within errors, with rapidity and transverse momentum-independent correlation functions. But, rapidity correlations which moderately increase with rapidity separation between protons are slightly favored. We propose to further explore the rapidity dependence of multiparticle correlation functions by measuring the dependence of the integrated reduced correlation functions as a function of the size of the rapidity window.

  1. Rapidity dependence of proton cumulants and correlation functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bzdak, Adam; Koch, Volker

    The dependence of multiproton correlation functions and cumulants on the acceptance in rapidity and transverse momentum is studied. Here, we found that the preliminary data of various cumulant ratios are consistent, within errors, with rapidity and transverse momentum-independent correlation functions. But, rapidity correlations which moderately increase with rapidity separation between protons are slightly favored. We propose to further explore the rapidity dependence of multiparticle correlation functions by measuring the dependence of the integrated reduced correlation functions as a function of the size of the rapidity window.

  2. Under-humidification and over-humidification during moderate induced hypothermia with usual devices.

    PubMed

    Lellouche, François; Qader, Siham; Taille, Solenne; Lyazidi, Aissam; Brochard, Laurent

    2006-07-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients with induced hypothermia, the efficacy of heat and moisture exchangers and heated humidifiers to adequately humidify the airway is poorly known. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of different humidification devices during moderate hypothermia. Prospective, cross-over randomized study. Medical Intensive Care Unit in a University Hospital. Nine adult patients hospitalized after cardiac arrest in whom moderate hypothermia was induced (33 degrees C for 24[Symbol: see text]h). Patients were ventilated at admission (period designated "normothermia") with a heat and moisture exchanger, and were randomly ventilated during hypothermia with a heat and moisture exchanger, a heated humidifier, and an active heat and moisture exchanger. Core temperature, inspired and expired gas absolute and relative humidity were measured. Each system demonstrated limitations in its ability to humidify gases in the specific situation of hypothermia. Performances of heat and moisture exchangers were closely correlated to core temperature (r (2)[Symbol: see text]=[Symbol: see text]0.84). During hypothermia, heat and moisture exchangers led to major under-humidification, with absolute humidity below 25[Symbol: see text]mgH(2)O/l. The active heat and moisture exchanger slightly improved humidification. Heated humidifiers were mostly adequate but led to over-humidification in some patients, with inspiratory absolute humidity higher than maximal water content at 33 degrees C with a positive balance between inspiratory and expiratory water content. These results suggest that in the case of moderate hypothermia, heat and moisture exchangers should be used cautiously and that heated humidifiers may lead to over-humidification with the currently recommended settings.

  3. Excessive daytime sleepiness does not correlate with sympathetic nervous system activation and arterial stiffening in patients with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnoea: A proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Bisogni, Valeria; Pengo, Martino F; Drakatos, Panagis; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Kent, Brian; Rossitto, Giacomo; Steier, Joerg; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Increased arterial stiffness and sympathetic nervous system activity, independent markers of cardiovascular risk, are common in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnoea, who have excessive daytime sleepiness. Among patients with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnoea, however, it remains unknown whether arterial stiffness and/or increased sympathetic nervous system activity correlate with excessive daytime sleepiness. We measured heart rate variability, as an index of autonomic nervous system activity, and arterial stiffness index, as a marker of vascular damage and cardiovascular risk, in 56 men aged 18 to 75years, with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnoea, and matched into two groups, "sleepy" (Epworth Sleepiness Scale≥10) and "non-sleepy" (Epworth Sleepiness Scale<10). We found no association of excessive daytime sleepiness with sympathetic nervous system activation (very low frequency power 18,947±11,207ms 2 vs 15,893±8,272ms 2 , p=0.28; low frequency (LH) power 17,753±8,441ms 2 vs 15,414±5,666ms 2 , p=0.26; high frequency (HF) power 7,527±1,979ms 2 vs 8,257±3,416ms 2 , p=0.36; LF/HF ratio 3.04±1.37 vs 2.55±1.01, p=0.15) and mean arterial stiffness index (6.97±0.83 vs 7.26±0.66, p=0.18) in mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness are not associated with sympathetic nervous system activation and arterial stiffness in male subjects with mild-to-moderate obstructive sleep apnoea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. From micro-correlations to macro-correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: iddo.eliazar@intel.com

    2016-11-15

    Random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure share a common value of pair-wise correlation between their different components. The symmetric correlation structure appears in a multitude of settings, e.g. mixture models. In a mixture model the components of the random vector are drawn independently from a general probability distribution that is determined by an underlying parameter, and the parameter itself is randomized. In this paper we study the overall correlation of high-dimensional random vectors with a symmetric correlation structure. Considering such a random vector, and terming its pair-wise correlation “micro-correlation”, we use an asymptotic analysis to derive the random vector’smore » “macro-correlation” : a score that takes values in the unit interval, and that quantifies the random vector’s overall correlation. The method of obtaining macro-correlations from micro-correlations is then applied to a diverse collection of frameworks that demonstrate the method’s wide applicability.« less

  5. CHF considerations for highly moderated 100% MOX fuels PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Saphier, D.; Raymond, P.

    1995-09-01

    A feasibility study on using 100% MOX fuel in a PWR with increased moderating ratio, RMA, was initiated. In the proposed design all the parameters were chosen identical to the French 1450MW PWR, except the fuel pin diameter which was reduced to achieve higher moderating ratios, V{sub M}/V{sub F}, where V{sub M} and V{sub F} are the moderator and fuel volume respectively. Moderating ratios from 2 to 4 were considered. In the present study the thermal-hydraulic feasibility of using fuel assemblies with smaller diameter fuel pins was investigated. The major design constrain in this study was the critical heat fluxmore » (CHF). In order to maintain the fuel pin integrity under nominal operating and transient conditions, the minimum DNBR, (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio given by CHF/q{close_quotes}{sub local}, where q{close_quotes}{sub local} is the local heat flux), has to be above a given value. The limitations of the existing CHF correlations for the present study are outlined. Two designs based on the conventional 17x17 fuel assembly and on the advanced 19x19 assembly meeting the MDNBR criteria and satisfying the control margin requirements, are proposed.« less

  6. Mediating and/or moderating roles of psychological empowerment.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lina; Jin, Yi; Guo, Jiajia

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the mediating and/or moderating effects of psychological empowerment in the relationship between structural empowerment and burnout among nurses in China. Burnout is prevalent among nurses. Previous studies have found that empowering organizational structures contribute to reduce nurses' burnout. However, little is known about the mediating or moderating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between structural empowerment and burnout among nurses in China. A cross-sectional design was conducted. A total of 244 nurses participated in this study. The data were collected in March 2013. Multiple regressions were used to test the hypothesized models. Psychological empowerment was found to be a significant mediator of the relationship between structural empowerment and burnout (standardized β=-0.553, Sobel test: z=7.79, p<0.001). The moderating effect of psychological empowerment in that relationship was not verified. Both structural and psychological empowerment negatively correlated with burnout. The psychological empowerment had a mediating effect on burnout. It is important for nurse managers to develop strategies to ensure that empowering structures are in place and to facilitate nurses' perception of psychological empowerment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sns Moderator Poison Design and Experiment Validation of the Moderator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Iverson, E. B.; Ferguson, P. D.; Crabtree, J. A.; Gallmeier, F. X.; Remec, I.; Baxter, D. V.; Lavelle, C. M.

    2009-08-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory reached 180 kW in August 2007, becoming the brightest pulsed neutron source in the world. At its full power of 1.4 MW, SNS will have thermal neutron fluxes approximately an order of magnitude greater than any existing pulsed spallation source. It thus brings a serious challenge to the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The SNS moderators are integrated with the inner reflector plug (IRP) at a cost of $2 million a piece. A replacement of the IRP presents a significant drawback to the facility due to the activation and the operation cost. Although there are many factors limiting the lifetime of the IRP, such as radiation damage to the structural material and helium production in beryllium, the limiting factor is the lifetime of the moderator poison sheets. The current operating target system of SNS was built with thick Gd poison sheets at a projected lifetime of 3 years. A recent design based on the MCNPX calculation proposed to replace the Gd poison sheets with even thicker Cd poison sheets, aiming to extend the poison sheet lifetime from 3 to 4 years accompanied by an approximate 5% gain of the moderator performance. An experiment was carried out to verify the calculated moderator performance at the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS), Indiana University, where the spectra of two polyethylene moderators were measured. The moderators are Cd-decoupled and are poisoned with 0.8 mm Gd and 1.2 mm Cd, respectively. The preliminary analysis of the experiment data shows that the characteristics of the measured spectra of the Gd- and Cd-poisoned moderators agree well with what the calculation predicted. A better moderator performance is observed in the Cd-poisoned moderator. The measured ratio of Cd over Gd on the moderator performance is in a reasonable agreement with the calculation. Further investigation is underway for a better understanding of the difference between the experiment and the

  8. An Improved Correction for Range Restricted Correlations Under Extreme, Monotonic Quadratic Nonlinearity and Heteroscedasticity.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Steven Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Standardized tests are frequently used for selection decisions, and the validation of test scores remains an important area of research. This paper builds upon prior literature about the effect of nonlinearity and heteroscedasticity on the accuracy of standard formulas for correcting correlations in restricted samples. Existing formulas for direct range restriction require three assumptions: (1) the criterion variable is missing at random; (2) a linear relationship between independent and dependent variables; and (3) constant error variance or homoscedasticity. The results in this paper demonstrate that the standard approach for correcting restricted correlations is severely biased in cases of extreme monotone quadratic nonlinearity and heteroscedasticity. This paper offers at least three significant contributions to the existing literature. First, a method from the econometrics literature is adapted to provide more accurate estimates of unrestricted correlations. Second, derivations establish bounds on the degree of bias attributed to quadratic functions under the assumption of a monotonic relationship between test scores and criterion measurements. New results are presented on the bias associated with using the standard range restriction correction formula, and the results show that the standard correction formula yields estimates of unrestricted correlations that deviate by as much as 0.2 for high to moderate selectivity. Third, Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrate that the new procedure for correcting restricted correlations provides more accurate estimates in the presence of quadratic and heteroscedastic test score and criterion relationships.

  9. Observations of Laughing and Smiling in a Group of Moderately Intellectually Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Paul; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Laughing and smiling responses of 12 moderately retarded adolescents were significantly correlated with mental age and with the teacher's prediction of student responses in both situations, with the latter measure providing ecological validity to the findings. (Author)

  10. Management for CBD stone-related mild to moderate acute cholangitis: urgent versus elective ERCP.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sang Eon; Park, Sang Wook; Lee, Ban Seok; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Sang Hyub; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Dong Ho; Park, Joo Kyung; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

    2013-07-01

    There is no doubt that urgent biliary decompression needs to be done in case of severe acute cholangitis. However, it remains to be determined how early biliary decompression should be performed and elective intervention would be comparable to urgent intervention, in case of mild to moderate choledocholithiasis associated cholangitis. One hundred ninety-five patients were enrolled who were diagnosed with mild to moderate cholangitis with common bile duct (CBD) stones between January 2006 and August 2010. They were divided into two groups according to door to intervention time, and urgent (≤24 h, n = 130) versus elective (>24 h, n = 82). Primary outcomes of this study were technical success rate (CBD stones removal) and clinical success rate (improvement of cholangitis) between the two groups. Hospital stay and intervention-related complications were also evaluated. There was no statistically significant difference in technical, clinical success rate and intervention-related complications between the urgent and elective groups (P = 0.737, 0.285, 0.398, respectively). Patients in the urgent group had significantly shorter hospitalization than in the elective group (6.8 vs. 9.2 days, P < 0.001), and furthermore, intervention to discharge time was also significantly shorter by 1.1 days in the urgent group (P = 0.035). In terms of laboratory parameters, initial CRP level was the only factor correlated with hospital stay and intervention to discharge time. This study demonstrates that urgent ERCP would be recommended in the management of patients with CBD stone-related mild to moderate acute cholangitis because of the advantage of short hospital stay and intervention to discharge time.

  11. On the Reduced Geoeffectiveness of Solar Cycle 24: A Moderate Storm Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selvakumaran, R.; Veenadhari, B.; Akiyama, S.; Pandya, Megha; Gopalswamy, N,; Yashiro, S.; Kumar, Sandeep; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2016-01-01

    The moderate and intense geomagnetic storms are identified for the first 77 months of solar cycles 23 and 24. The solar sources responsible for the moderate geomagnetic storms are indentified during the same epoch for both the cycles. Solar cycle 24 has shown nearly 80% reduction in the occurrence of intense storms whereas it is only 40% in case of moderate storms when compared to previous cycle. The solar and interplanetary characteristics of the moderate storms driven by coronal mass ejection (CME) are compared for solar cycles 23 and 24 in order to see reduction in geoeffectiveness has anything to do with the occurrence of moderate storm. Though there is reduction in the occurrence of moderate storms, the Dst distribution does not show much difference. Similarly, the solar source parameters like CME speed, mass, and width did not show any significant variation in the average values as well as the distribution. The correlation between VBz and Dst is determined, and it is found to be moderate with value of 0.68 for cycle 23 and 0.61 for cycle 24. The magnetospheric energy flux parameter epsilon (epsilon) is estimated during the main phase of all moderate storms during solar cycles 23 and 24. The energy transfer decreased in solar cycle 24 when compared to cycle 23. These results are significantly different when all geomagnetic storms are taken into consideration for both the solar cycles.

  12. Internalized societal attitudes moderate the impact of weight stigma on avoidance of exercise.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Novak, Sarah A

    2011-04-01

    Experiences with weight stigma negatively impact both psychological outcomes (e.g., body dissatisfaction, depression) and behavioral outcomes (e.g., dieting, exercise). However, not everyone is equally affected by experiences with weight stigma. This study examined whether internalized societal attitudes about weight moderated the impact of weight stigma. Adult participants (n = 111) completed measures of experiences with weight stigma, as well as two indexes of internalized societal attitudes (the moderators): Internalized anti-fat attitudes and internalization of societal standards of attractiveness. Psychological outcomes included self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms; behavioral outcomes included avoidance of exercise and self-reported exercise behavior. Weight stigma was positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimic symptoms, and was negatively correlated with state and trait self-esteem. Both indexes of internalized attitudes moderated the association between weight stigma and avoidance of exercise: Individuals high in anti-fat attitudes and high in internalization of societal standards of attractiveness were more motivated to avoid exercise if they also experienced a high degree of weight stigma; individuals low in anti-fat attitudes and low in internalization were relatively unaffected. Avoidance of exercise was negatively correlated with self-reported strenuous exercise. These findings suggest that weight stigma can negatively influence motivation to exercise, particularly among individuals who have internalized societal attitudes about weight. Reducing internalization might be a means of minimizing the negative impact of weight stigma and of facilitating healthy weight management efforts.

  13. Moderators and mediators of the effects of interparental conflict on children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kerig, P K

    1998-06-01

    Moderational and mediational models of the relationships among appraisals, interparental conflict, and children's adjustment were tested in a sample of 174 families with a school-age child. Parents rated children's exposure to interparental conflict and internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems. Children completed questionnaires regarding their appraisals of their parents' conflicts, including frequency and intensity, perceived threat, control, and self-blame, as well as measures of anxiety and depression. Results overall demonstrated more consistent support for the moderational than mediational hypotheses. Appraisals of conflict properties, threat, self-blame, and perceived control moderated the effects of interparental conflict on externalizing, total problems, and anxiety in boys. Conflict properties, threat, self-blame, perceived control, and self-calming acted as moderators of internalizing in girls.

  14. Identification of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers for Knee Osteoarthritis and Correlation with Radiographic Assessment.

    PubMed

    Monibi, Farrah; Roller, Brandon L; Stoker, Aaron; Garner, Bridget; Bal, Sonny; Cook, James L

    2016-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a costly and debilitating condition that is typically not diagnosed early enough to prevent progression of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate synovial fluid from knees with and without OA for potential markers of joint inflammation and degradation and to correlate these findings with radiographic severity of disease. With Institutional Review Board approval, synovial fluid samples were collected before the patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Control knees (n = 3) were patients younger than 30 years of age with no history of anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, or meniscal injury, and no surgical history for either knee. Weight-bearing, anterior-posterior radiographic views were used to determine radiographic OA severity using the modified Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Synovial fluid samples from 18 patients (21 knees) were analyzed using a multiplex assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (p < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.013), IL-8 (p < 0.024), and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) (p < 0.006) were significantly higher in the synovial fluid of OA patients compared with normal patients. The radiographic score was significantly higher in patients with OA compared with normal knees (p < 0.002). MMP-1 had a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL5. IL-6 had a strong positive correlation with IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 had a moderate positive correlation with IL-6 and a strong positive correlation with IL-8. Radiographic scores had a strong positive correlation with IL-6 and IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MCP-1. These data provide novel and clinically relevant information for the investigation of synovial fluid biomarkers for knee OA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. The Kuder Occupational Interest Inventory as a Moderator of Its Predictive Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Chris J.; Zytowski, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    A measure of the extent to which the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS) was predictive of occupational membership for an individual was correlated with KOIS item and scale scores. Results indicated that the KOIS was a moderator of its own predictive validity. (Author/JKS)

  16. Anaerobic consumers of monosaccharides in a moderately acidic fen.

    PubMed

    Hamberger, Alexandra; Horn, Marcus A; Dumont, Marc G; Murrell, J Colin; Drake, Harold L

    2008-05-01

    16S rRNA-based stable isotope probing identified active xylose- and glucose-fermenting Bacteria and active Archaea, including methanogens, in anoxic slurries of material obtained from a moderately acidic, CH(4)-emitting fen. Xylose and glucose were converted to fatty acids, CO(2), H(2), and CH(4) under moderately acidic, anoxic conditions, indicating that the fen harbors moderately acid-tolerant xylose- and glucose-using fermenters, as well as moderately acid-tolerant methanogens. Organisms of the families Acidaminococcaceae, Aeromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae and the order Actinomycetales, including hitherto unknown organisms, utilized xylose- or glucose-derived carbon, suggesting that highly diverse facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes contribute to the flow of carbon in the fen under anoxic conditions. Uncultured Euryarchaeota (i.e., Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriaceae) and Crenarchaeota species were identified by 16S rRNA analysis of anoxic slurries, demonstrating that the acidic fen harbors novel methanogens and Crenarchaeota organisms capable of anaerobiosis. Fermentation-derived molecules are conceived to be the primary drivers of methanogenesis when electron acceptors other than CO(2) are absent, and the collective findings of this study indicate that fen soils harbor diverse, acid-tolerant, and novel xylose-utilizing as well as glucose-utilizing facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes that form trophic links to novel moderately acid-tolerant methanogens.

  17. Correlates of light and moderate-to-vigorous objectively measured physical activity in four-year-old children.

    PubMed

    van Sluijs, Esther M F; McMinn, Alison M; Inskip, Hazel M; Ekelund, Ulf; Godfrey, Keith M; Harvey, Nicholas C; Griffin, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Correlates of physical activity (PA) are hypothesized to be context and behaviour specific, but there is limited evidence of this in young children. The aim of the current study is to investigate associations between personal, social and environmental factors and objectively measured light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (LPA and MVPA, respectively) in four-year-old children. Cross-sectional data were used from the Southampton Women's Survey, a UK population-based longitudinal study. Four-year old children (n = 487, 47.0% male) had valid PA data assessed using accelerometry (Actiheart) and exposure data collected with a validated maternal questionnaire (including data on child personality, family demographics, maternal behaviour, rules and restrictions, and perceived local environment). Linear regression modelling was used to analyse associations with LPA and MVPA separately, interactions with sex were explored. LPA minutes were greater in children whose mothers reported more PA (vs. inactive: regression coefficient±standard error: 6.70±2.94 minutes), and without other children in the neighbourhood to play with (-6.33±2.44). MVPA minutes were greater in children with older siblings (vs. none: 5.81±2.80) and those whose mothers used active transport for short trips (vs. inactive: 6.24±2.95). Children accumulated more MVPA in spring (vs. winter: 9.50±4.03) and, in boys only, less MVPA with availability of other children in the neighbourhood (-3.98±1.70). Young children's LPA and MVPA have differing associations with a number of social and environmental variables. Interventions targeting PA promotion in young children outside of formal care settings should consider including intensity specific factors.

  18. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  19. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: Prototype moderately concentrating grooved collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Prototypes of moderately concentrating grooved collectors were tested with a solar simulator for varying inlet temperature, flux level, and incident angle. Collector performance is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  20. Mood Moderates the Effect of Self-Generation during Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schindler, Julia; Richter, Tobias; Eyßer, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    Generating information, compared to reading, improves learning and enhances long-term retention of the learned content. This so-called generation effect has been demonstrated repeatedly for recall and recognition of single words. However, before adopting generating as a learning strategy in educational contexts, conditions moderating the effect…

  1. 500-m and 1000-m moderate walks equally assess cardiorespiratory fitness in male outpatients with cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Gianni; Chiaranda, Giorgio; Myers, Jonathan; Sassone, Biagio; Pasanisi, Giovanni; Mandini, Simona; Volpato, Stefano; Conconi, Francesco; Grazzi, Giovanni

    2017-09-29

    The walking speed maintained during a moderate 1-km treadmill walk (1k-TWT) has been demonstrated to be a valid tool for estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and to be inversely related to long-term survival and hospitalization in outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine whether 500-m and 1-k moderate treadmill-walking tests equally estimate VO2peak in male outpatients with CVD. 142 clinically stable male outpatients with CVD, aged 34-92 years, referred to an exercise-based secondary prevention program, performed a moderate and perceptually-regulated (11-13/20 on the Borg scale) 1k- TWT. Age, height, weight, time to walk 500-m and the entire 1000-m, and the corresponding heart rates were entered into validated equations to estimate VO2peak. VO2peak estimated from the 500-m test was not different from that estimated from the 1k test (25.2±5.1 vs 25.1±5.2 mL/kg/min). The correlation coefficient between the two was 0.98. The slope and the intercept of the relationship between the 500-m and 1k tests were not different from the line of identity. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that 96% of the data points were within two standard deviations (from -1.9 to 1.7 mL/kg/min). The 500-m treadmill-walking test is a reliable method for estimating VO2peak in stable male outpatients with CVD. A shorter version of the test, 500-m, provides similar information as that from the original 1k test, but is more time efficient. These findings have practical implications in the context of transitioning patients from clinically based and supervised programs to fitness facilities or self-guided exercise programs.

  2. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.

  3. Posttraumatic growth and adjustment to spinal cord injury: Moderated by posttraumatic depreciation?

    PubMed

    Kunz, Simon; Joseph, Stephen; Geyh, Szilvia; Peter, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    Findings on the relationship of posttraumatic growth (PTG) with adjustment to potentially traumatic events are inconsistent, whereupon posttraumatic depreciation (PTD) has been suggested as a possible moderator. The objective of this study is to investigate the associations between PTG and PTD on one side and life satisfaction and indicators of mental and physical health on the other side in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The primary study aim is to test whether PTD moderates the relationships of PTG and different adjustment indicators. A total of 141 patients administered to one of the four Swiss SCI rehabilitation centers completed questionnaires assessing PTG and PTD and different indicators of mental and physical health as well as life satisfaction at discharge from first rehabilitation. Correlational and regression methods were used to examine the research question. PTG and PTD were significantly positively correlated (rs = .47). PTD was significantly associated with lower mental and physical health and lower life satisfaction, with small to large effect sizes. PTD moderated the associations of PTG with symptoms of depression and life satisfaction (β of interaction term = -.18 and .24, respectively). PTG was significantly related to lower levels of symptoms of depression and higher life satisfaction in individuals experiencing moderate to high levels of PTD. In contrast, PTG was not significantly related to these outcomes in individuals with low PTD levels. The neglect of PTD in research partially explains mixed findings on the relationship of PTG and adjustment to potentially traumatic events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. How do people define moderation?

    PubMed

    vanDellen, Michelle R; Isherwood, Jennifer C; Delose, Julie E

    2016-06-01

    Eating in moderation is considered to be sound and practical advice for weight maintenance or prevention of weight gain. However, the concept of moderation is ambiguous, and the effect of moderation messages on consumption has yet to be empirically examined. The present manuscript examines how people define moderate consumption. We expected that people would define moderate consumption in ways that justified their current or desired consumption rather than view moderation as an objective standard. In Studies 1 and 2, moderate consumption was perceived to involve greater quantities of an unhealthy food (chocolate chip cookies, gummy candies) than perceptions of how much one should consume. In Study 3, participants generally perceived themselves to eat in moderation and defined moderate consumption as greater than their personal consumption. Furthermore, definitions of moderate consumption were related to personal consumption behaviors. Results suggest that the endorsement of moderation messages allows for a wide range of interpretations of moderate consumption. Thus, we conclude that moderation messages are unlikely to be effective messages for helping people maintain or lose weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Methods for synthesizing findings on moderation effects across multiple randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Brown, C Hendricks; Sloboda, Zili; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Teasdale, Brent; Keller, Ferdinand; Burkhart, Gregor; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Howe, George; Masyn, Katherine; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Bengt; Stephens, Peggy; Grey, Scott; Perrino, Tatiana

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents new methods for synthesizing results from subgroup and moderation analyses across different randomized trials. We demonstrate that such a synthesis generally results in additional power to detect significant moderation findings above what one would find in a single trial. Three general methods for conducting synthesis analyses are discussed, with two methods, integrative data analysis and parallel analyses, sharing a large advantage over traditional methods available in meta-analysis. We present a broad class of analytic models to examine moderation effects across trials that can be used to assess their overall effect and explain sources of heterogeneity, and present ways to disentangle differences across trials due to individual differences, contextual level differences, intervention, and trial design.

  6. Methods for integrating moderation and mediation: a general analytical framework using moderated path analysis.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2007-03-01

    Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Liver Fat Scores Moderately Reflect Interventional Changes in Liver Fat Content by a Low-Fat Diet but Not by a Low-Carb Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kabisch, Stefan; Bäther, Sabrina; Dambeck, Ulrike; Kemper, Margrit; Gerbracht, Christiana; Honsek, Caroline; Sachno, Anna

    2018-01-01

    strong correlations between ΔIHL and changes of measures of obesity, ΔTG, and ΔALT (all low-fat, only) and between ΔIHL and ΔGGT (low-carb, only). With exception for a stronger decrease of triglycerides (TG) levels in the low-carb diet, there is no statistically significant difference in the effect of the diets on anthropometric or serum-based score parameters. Conclusion: While liver fat indices have proved useful in the early detection of NAFLD and may serve as a cost-saving substitute for expensive MR measurements in the cross-sectional evaluation of liver status, their capability to represent interventional changes of liver fat content appears to be diet-specific and lacks accuracy. Liver fat reduction by low-fat diets can be monitored with moderate precision, while low-carb diets require different measuring techniques to demonstrate the same dietary effect. PMID:29385034

  8. Liver Fat Scores Moderately Reflect Interventional Changes in Liver Fat Content by a Low-Fat Diet but Not by a Low-Carb Diet.

    PubMed

    Kabisch, Stefan; Bäther, Sabrina; Dambeck, Ulrike; Kemper, Margrit; Gerbracht, Christiana; Honsek, Caroline; Sachno, Anna; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2018-01-31

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic disorder all over the world, mainly being associated with a sedentary lifestyle, adiposity, and nutrient imbalance. The increasing prevalence of NAFLD accommodates similar developments for type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related comorbidities and complications. Therefore, early detection of NAFLD is an utmost necessity. Potentially helpful tools for the prediction of NAFLD are liver fat indices. The fatty liver index (FLI) and the NAFLD-liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS) have been recently introduced for this aim. However, both indices have been shown to correlate with liver fat status, but there is neither sufficient data on the longitudinal representation of liver fat change, nor proof of a diet-independent correlation between actual liver fat change and change of index values. While few data sets on low-fat diets have been published recently, low-carb diets have not been yet assessed in this context. We aim to provide such data from a highly effective short-term intervention to reduce liver fat, comparing a low-fat and a low-carb diet in subjects with prediabetes. Anthropometric measurements, magnetic resonance (MR)-based intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content, and several serum markers for liver damage have been collected in 140 subjects, completing the diet phase in this trial. Area-under-the-responder-operator-curves (AUROC) calculations as well as cross-sectional and longitudinal Spearman correlations were used. Both FLI and NAFLD-LFS predict liver fat with moderate accuracy at baseline (AUROC 0.775-0.786). These results are supported by correlation analyses. Changes in liver fat, achieved by the dietary intervention, correlate moderately with changes in FLI and NAFLD-LFS in the low-fat diet, but not in the low-carb diet. A correlation analysis between change of actual IHL content and change of single elements of the liver fat indices revealed diet-specific moderate to strong correlations between ΔIHL and

  9. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Tomasz; Chuderski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Fluid intelligence (Gf) is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM). We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load) in a Gf-test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed) are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf-test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf-test, the Raven-test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any) in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  10. The IDEA Assessment Tool: Assessing the Reporting, Diagnostic Reasoning, and Decision-Making Skills Demonstrated in Medical Students' Hospital Admission Notes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Elizabeth A; Ledford, Cynthia H; Fogg, Louis; Way, David P; Park, Yoon Soo

    2015-01-01

    Construct: Clinical skills are used in the care of patients, including reporting, diagnostic reasoning, and decision-making skills. Written comprehensive new patient admission notes (H&Ps) are a ubiquitous part of student education but are underutilized in the assessment of clinical skills. The interpretive summary, differential diagnosis, explanation of reasoning, and alternatives (IDEA) assessment tool was developed to assess students' clinical skills using written comprehensive new patient admission notes. The validity evidence for assessment of clinical skills using clinical documentation following authentic patient encounters has not been well documented. Diagnostic justification tools and postencounter notes are described in the literature (1,2) but are based on standardized patient encounters. To our knowledge, the IDEA assessment tool is the first published tool that uses medical students' H&Ps to rate students' clinical skills. The IDEA assessment tool is a 15-item instrument that asks evaluators to rate students' reporting, diagnostic reasoning, and decision-making skills based on medical students' new patient admission notes. This study presents validity evidence in support of the IDEA assessment tool using Messick's unified framework, including content (theoretical framework), response process (interrater reliability), internal structure (factor analysis and internal-consistency reliability), and relationship to other variables. Validity evidence is based on results from four studies conducted between 2010 and 2013. First, the factor analysis (2010, n = 216) yielded a three-factor solution, measuring patient story, IDEA, and completeness, with reliabilities of .79, .88, and .79, respectively. Second, an initial interrater reliability study (2010) involving two raters demonstrated fair to moderate consensus (κ = .21-.56, ρ =.42-.79). Third, a second interrater reliability study (2011) with 22 trained raters also demonstrated fair to moderate agreement

  11. Moderate resolution remote sensing alternatives: a review of Landsat-like sensors and their applications

    Treesearch

    Scott L. Powell; Dirk Pflugmacher; Alan A. Kirschbaum; Yunsuk Kim; Warren B. Cohen

    2007-01-01

    Earth observation with Landsat and other moderate resolution sensors is a vital component of a wide variety of applications across disciplines. Despite the widespread success of the Landsat program, recent problems with Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 create uncertainty about the future of moderate resolution remote sensing. Several other Landsat-like sensors have demonstrated...

  12. Do fish growth rates correlate with PCB body burdens?

    Treesearch

    Andrew L. Rypel; David R. Bayne

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether growth rates of six fish species correlated with PCB concentrations in a moderately-to-heavily polluted freshwater ecosystem. Using a large dataset (n ¼ 984 individuals), and after accounting for growth effects related to fish age, habitat, sex, and lipids, growth correlated significantly, but positively with lipid-corrected PCB concentrations for...

  13. Perceived Competence Moderates the Relation between Performance-Approach and Performance-Avoidance Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wilbert; Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou

    2012-01-01

    In the present research, we conducted 4 studies designed to examine the hypothesis that perceived competence moderates the relation between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. Each study yielded supportive data, indicating that the correlation between the 2 goals is lower when perceived competence is high. This pattern was…

  14. Exact thermal density functional theory for a model system: Correlation components and accuracy of the zero-temperature exchange-correlation approximation

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, J. C.; Pribram-Jones, A.; Burke, K.

    2016-06-14

    Thermal density functional theory calculations often use the Mermin-Kohn-Sham scheme, but employ ground-state approximations to the exchange-correlation (XC) free energy. In the simplest solvable nontrivial model, an asymmetric Hubbard dimer, we calculate the exact many-body energies and the exact Mermin-Kohn-Sham functionals for this system and extract the exact XC free energy. For moderate temperatures and weak correlation, we find this approximation to be excellent. Here we extract various exact free-energy correlation components and the exact adiabatic connection formula.

  15. Exact thermal density functional theory for a model system: Correlation components and accuracy of the zero-temperature exchange-correlation approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. C.; Pribram-Jones, A.; Burke, K.

    Thermal density functional theory calculations often use the Mermin-Kohn-Sham scheme, but employ ground-state approximations to the exchange-correlation (XC) free energy. In the simplest solvable nontrivial model, an asymmetric Hubbard dimer, we calculate the exact many-body energies and the exact Mermin-Kohn-Sham functionals for this system and extract the exact XC free energy. For moderate temperatures and weak correlation, we find this approximation to be excellent. Here we extract various exact free-energy correlation components and the exact adiabatic connection formula.

  16. Non-isotropic noise correlation in PET data reconstructed by FBP but not by OSEM demonstrated using auto-correlation function.

    PubMed

    Razifar, Pasha; Lubberink, Mark; Schneider, Harald; Långström, Bengt; Bengtsson, Ewert; Bergström, Mats

    2005-05-13

    BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful imaging technique with the potential of obtaining functional or biochemical information by measuring distribution and kinetics of radiolabelled molecules in a biological system, both in vitro and in vivo. PET images can be used directly or after kinetic modelling to extract quantitative values of a desired physiological, biochemical or pharmacological entity. Because such images are generally noisy, it is essential to understand how noise affects the derived quantitative values. A pre-requisite for this understanding is that the properties of noise such as variance (magnitude) and texture (correlation) are known. METHODS: In this paper we explored the pattern of noise correlation in experimentally generated PET images, with emphasis on the angular dependence of correlation, using the autocorrelation function (ACF). Experimental PET data were acquired in 2D and 3D acquisition mode and reconstructed by analytical filtered back projection (FBP) and iterative ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OSEM) methods. The 3D data was rebinned to a 2D dataset using FOurier REbinning (FORE) followed by 2D reconstruction using either FBP or OSEM. In synthetic images we compared the ACF results with those from covariance matrix. The results were illustrated as 1D profiles and also visualized as 2D ACF images. RESULTS: We found that the autocorrelation images from PET data obtained after FBP were not fully rotationally symmetric or isotropic if the object deviated from a uniform cylindrical radioactivity distribution. In contrast, similar autocorrelation images obtained after OSEM reconstruction were isotropic even when the phantom was not circular. Simulations indicated that the noise autocorrelation is non-isotropic in images created by FBP when the level of noise in projections is angularly variable. Comparison between 1D cross profiles on autocorrelation images obtained by FBP reconstruction and covariance

  17. Moderate/Severe hyponatremia increases the risk of death among hospitalized Chinese human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Ye, Hanhui; Huang, Fan; Yang, Zongxing; Zhu, Biao; Xu, Yan; Qiu, Yunqing; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether the serum sodium concentration is associated with the progression and long-term prognosis of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients. Three hundred and eighty seven hospitalized patients were recruited into this retrospective cohort study. The strata of serum sodium concentration were moderate/severe hyponatremia, mild hyponatremia and normonatremia. Disease progression was estimated using CD4 counts and the WHO clinical stage. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the serum sodium concentration with disease progression. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the effect of different serum sodium levels on survival. In this study 206 patients (53.2%) had hyponatremia, including 10.6% patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia and 42.6% with mild hyponatremia. The serum sodium concentration was significantly correlated with the HIV/AIDS progression (P<0.001). During the follow-up, 100 patients (25.6%) died. The cumulative survival rates of HIV/AIDS patients were 47.8% ± 8.5% in patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia, 59.8% ± 5.0% with mild hyponatremia and 79.9% ± 3.4% with normonatremia (log-rank P<0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, WHO stage, CD4 count, hemoglobin and albumin, the relative hazard was 3.5 (95% CI: 1.9-6.5) for patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia (P<0.001), and 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9-2.4) for those with mild hyponatremia (P = 0.161), compared with normonatremic patients. The serum sodium level is closely correlated with the severity of patients. Only moderate/severe hyponatremia affects the prognosis of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients. Earlier intensive medical managements(including HAART)are necessary to increase the survival rates of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia.

  18. Moderate/Severe Hyponatremia Increases the Risk of Death among Hospitalized Chinese Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijun; Ye, Hanhui; Huang, Fan; Yang, Zongxing; Zhu, Biao; Xu, Yan; Qiu, Yunqing; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether the serum sodium concentration is associated with the progression and long-term prognosis of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients. Methods Three hundred and eighty seven hospitalized patients were recruited into this retrospective cohort study. The strata of serum sodium concentration were moderate/severe hyponatremia, mild hyponatremia and normonatremia. Disease progression was estimated using CD4 counts and the WHO clinical stage. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the serum sodium concentration with disease progression. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the effect of different serum sodium levels on survival. Results In this study 206 patients (53.2%) had hyponatremia, including 10.6% patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia and 42.6% with mild hyponatremia. The serum sodium concentration was significantly correlated with the HIV/AIDS progression (P<0.001). During the follow-up, 100 patients (25.6%) died. The cumulative survival rates of HIV/AIDS patients were 47.8%±8.5% in patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia, 59.8%±5.0% with mild hyponatremia and 79.9%±3.4% with normonatremia (log-rank P<0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, WHO stage, CD4 count, hemoglobin and albumin, the relative hazard was 3.5 (95% CI: 1.9–6.5) for patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia (P<0.001), and 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9–2.4) for those with mild hyponatremia (P = 0.161), compared with normonatremic patients. Conclusions The serum sodium level is closely correlated with the severity of patients. Only moderate/severe hyponatremia affects the prognosis of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients. Earlier intensive medical managements(including HAART)are necessary to increase the survival rates of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia. PMID:25360785

  19. Predictors of patient dependence in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Benke, Thomas; Sanin, Günter; Lechner, Anita; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Ransmayr, Gerhard; Uranüs, Margarete; Marksteiner, Josef; Gaudig, Maren; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    Patient dependence has rarely been studied in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). To identify factors which predict patient dependence in mild-to-moderate AD. We studied 398 non-institutionalized AD patients (234 females) of the ongoing Prospective Registry on Dementia (PRODEM) in Austria. The Dependence Scale (DS) was used to assess patient dependence. Patient assessment comprised functional abilities, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive functions. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of patient dependence. AD patients were mildly-to-moderately impaired (mean scores and SDs were: CDR 0.84 ± 0.43; DAD 74.4 ± 23.3, MMSE = 22.5 ± 3.6). Psychopathology and caregiver burden were in the low range (mean NPI score 13.2, range 0 to 98; mean ZBI score 18, range 0-64). Seventy five percent of patients were classified as having a mild level of patient dependence (DS sum score 0 to 6). Patient dependence correlated significantly and positively with age, functional measures, psychopathology and depression, disease duration, and caregiver burden. Significant negative, but low correlations were found between patient dependence, cognitive variables, and global cognition. Activities of daily living, patient age, and disease severity accounted for 63% of variance in patient dependence, whereas cognitive variables accounted for only 11%. Dependence in this cohort was mainly related to age and functional impairment, and less so to cognitive and neuropsychiatric variables. This differs from studies investigating patients in more advanced disease stages which found abnormal behavior and impairments of cognition as main predictors of patient dependence.

  20. Do neighborhood attributes moderate the relationship between alcohol establishment density and crime?

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Carlin, Bradley P.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Quick, Harrison S.; Harwood, Eileen M.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have found a positive association between density of alcohol establishments and various types of crime, few have examined how neighborhood attributes (e.g., schools, parks) could moderate this association. We used data from Minneapolis, Minnesota with neighborhood as the unit of analysis (n = 83). We examined eight types of crime (assault, rape, robbery, vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, underage alcohol possession/consumption) and measured density as total number of establishments per roadway mile. Neighborhood attributes assessed as potential moderators included non-alcohol businesses, schools, parks, religious institutions, neighborhood activism, neighborhood quality, and number of condemned houses. Using Bayesian techniques, we created a model for each crime outcome (accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant demographics) with an interaction term (moderator × density) to test each potential moderating effect. Few interaction terms were statistically significant. Presence of at least one college was the only neighborhood attribute that consistently moderated the density-crime association, with presence of a college attenuating the association between density and three types of crime (assaults, nuisance crime, and public consumption). However, caution should be used when interpreting the moderating effect of college presence because of the small number of colleges in our sample. The lack of moderating effects of neighborhood attributes except for presence of a college suggests that the addition of alcohol establishments to any neighborhood regardless of its other attributes could result in an increase in a wide range of crime. PMID:24337980

  1. Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis: correlation with Oswestry Disability Index and MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Sirvanci, Mustafa; Bhatia, Mona; Ganiyusufoglu, Kursat Ali; Duran, Cihan; Tezer, Mehmet; Ozturk, Cagatay; Aydogan, Mehmet; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2008-05-01

    Because neither the degree of constriction of the spinal canal considered to be symptomatic for lumbar spinal stenosis nor the relationship between the clinical appearance and the degree of a radiologically verified constriction is clear, a correlation of patient's disability level and radiographic constriction of the lumbar spinal canal is of interest. The aim of this study was to establish a relationship between the degree of radiologically established anatomical stenosis and the severity of self-assessed Oswestry Disability Index in patients undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Sixty-three consecutive patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis who were scheduled for elective surgery were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and completed a self-assessment Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire. Quantitative image evaluation for lumbar spinal stenosis included the dural sac cross-sectional area, and qualitative evaluation of the lateral recess and foraminal stenosis were also performed. Every patient subsequently answered the national translation of the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire and the percentage disability was calculated. Statistical analysis of the data was performed to seek a relationship between radiological stenosis and percentage disability recorded by the Oswestry Disability Index. Upon radiological assessment, 27 of the 63 patients evaluated had severe and 33 patients had moderate central dural sac stenosis; 11 had grade 3 and 27 had grade 2 nerve root compromise in the lateral recess; 22 had grade 3 and 37 had grade 2 foraminal stenosis. On the basis of the percentage disability score, of the 63 patients, 10 patients demonstrated mild disability, 13 patients moderate disability, 25 patients severe disability, 12 patients were crippled and three patients were bedridden. Radiologically, eight patients with severe central stenosis and nine patients with moderate

  2. Methods for Synthesizing Findings on Moderation Effects Across Multiple Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C Hendricks; Sloboda, Zili; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Teasdale, Brent; Keller, Ferdinand; Burkhart, Gregor; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Howe, George; Masyn, Katherine; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Bengt; Stephens, Peggy; Grey, Scott; Perrino, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents new methods for synthesizing results from subgroup and moderation analyses across different randomized trials. We demonstrate that such a synthesis generally results in additional power to detect significant moderation findings above what one would find in a single trial. Three general methods for conducting synthesis analyses are discussed, with two methods, integrative data analysis, and parallel analyses, sharing a large advantage over traditional methods available in meta-analysis. We present a broad class of analytic models to examine moderation effects across trials that can be used to assess their overall effect and explain sources of heterogeneity, and present ways to disentangle differences across trials due to individual differences, contextual level differences, intervention, and trial design. PMID:21360061

  3. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753

  4. Testing Moderator and Mediator Effects in Counseling Psychology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Patricia A.; Tix, Andrew P.; Barron, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this article are to (a) describe differences between moderator and mediator effects; (b) provide nontechnical descriptions of how to examine each type of effect, including study design, analysis, and interpretation of results; (c) demonstrate how to analyze each type of effect; and (d) provide suggestions for further reading. The…

  5. Mathematical modeling of the moderate storm on 28 February 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Emre

    2018-04-01

    The sun is an active star with plasma-filled prominences. The sudden ejection of the solar plasma creates storms in the form of bursting or spraying. A magnetospheric storm is a typical phenomenon that lasts 1-3 days and involves all magnetosphere from the earth's ionosphere to the magnetotail. The storms are known by different categorical names such as weak, moderate, strong, intense. One of these is the moderate geomagnetic storm on February 28, 2008, which occurred in the 24th solar cycle. The reason for discussing this storm is that it is the first moderate storm in the 24th solar cycle. In this study, we investigate the storm and entered the 24th solar cycle. The correlation among the parametres has been investigated via statistics. The solar wind parameters and the zonal geomagnetic indices have been analyzed separately and then the interaction with each other has been exhibited. The author has concluded the work with two new nonlinear mathematical models. These explain the storm with 79.1% and 87.5% accuracy.

  6. Demonstration of the Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) modeling application

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) modeling application is available to the risk assessment community through a user-friendly internet platform (http://epa.gov/ceampubl/fchain/webice/). ICE models are log-linear least square regressions that predict acute...

  7. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  8. The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Lai, Mark H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a) To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b) To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC) and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions) for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (non)invariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended. PMID:29867692

  9. The Impact of Partial Measurement Invariance on Testing Moderation for Single and Multi-Level Data.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Lai, Mark H C

    2018-01-01

    Moderation effect is a commonly used concept in the field of social and behavioral science. Several studies regarding the implication of moderation effects have been done; however, little is known about how partial measurement invariance influences the properties of tests for moderation effects when categorical moderators were used. Additionally, whether the impact is the same across single and multilevel data is still unknown. Hence, the purpose of the present study is twofold: (a) To investigate the performance of the moderation test in single-level studies when measurement invariance does not hold; (b) To examine whether unique features of multilevel data, such as intraclass correlation (ICC) and number of clusters, influence the effect of measurement non-invariance on the performance of tests for moderation. Simulation results indicated that falsely assuming measurement invariance lead to biased estimates, inflated Type I error rates, and more gain or more loss in power (depends on simulation conditions) for the test of moderation effects. Such patterns were more salient as sample size and the number of non-invariant items increase for both single- and multi-level data. With multilevel data, the cluster size seemed to have a larger impact than the number of clusters when falsely assuming measurement invariance in the moderation estimation. ICC was trivially related to the moderation estimates. Overall, when testing moderation effects with categorical moderators, employing a model that accounts for the measurement (non)invariance structure of the predictor and/or the outcome is recommended.

  10. Moderating effect of age on the association between future time perspective and preventive coping.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Lu-Lu; Cui, Ji-Fang; Chen, Xing-Jie; Shi, Hai-Song; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the moderating effect of age on the relationship between future time perspective (FTP) and future-oriented coping. A total of 1,915 participants aged 9-84 years completed measures of FTP and future-oriented coping. Moderation analyses were conducted to examine whether age played a role in the association between FTP and future-oriented coping (proactive and preventive). Results showed that proactive and preventive coping were negatively correlated with age, and age moderated the association between FTP and preventive coping but not proactive coping. Furthermore, the strength of the positive association between FTP and preventive coping was strongest among the older participants, moderate among the middle-aged participants, and weakest among the younger participants. These results suggest that the association between FTP and preventive coping varies across the lifespan. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. How functional connectivity between emotion regulation structures can be disrupted: preliminary evidence from adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Mary R; Scheibel, Randall S; Mayer, Andrew R; Chu, Zili D; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Hanten, Gerri; Steinberg, Joel L; Lin, Xiaodi; Li, Xiaoqi; Merkley, Tricia L; Hunter, Jill V; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori; Lu, Hanzhang; Vinton, Kami; Levin, Harvey S

    2013-09-01

    Outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes impaired emotion regulation. Emotion regulation has been associated with amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC). However, functional connectivity between the two structures after injury has not been reported. A preliminary examination of functional connectivity of rACC and right amygdala was conducted in adolescents 2 to 3 years after moderate to severe TBI and in typically developing (TD)control adolescents, with the hypothesis that the TBI adolescents would demonstrate altered functional connectivity in the two regions. Functional connectivity was determined by correlating fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent(BOLD) signal of the rACC and right amygdala with that of other brain regions. In the TBI adolescents, the rACC was found to be significantly less functionally connected to medial prefrontal cortices and to right temporal regions near the amygdala (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p < .05, FDR corrected), while the right amygdala showed a trend in reduced functional connectivity with the rACC (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p = .06, FDR corrected). Data suggest disrupted functional connectivity in emotion regulation regions. Limitations include small sample sizes. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to characterize the persistent neural damage resulting from moderate to severe TBI during development.

  12. Moderators and determinants of satisfaction with diet counseling for patients consuming a therapeutic diet.

    PubMed

    Trudeau, E; Dubé, L

    1995-01-01

    To identify moderators and key determinants of patient satisfaction with diet counseling. Survey questionnaire. A French-Canadian acute-care urban hospital. Population of eligible patients hospitalized for a minimum stay of 5 days. Patients excluded from the study were those with notable physical, cognitive, or emotional limitations; those receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition; and those from long-term-care units. Analyses were performed on 49 patients who consumed a therapeutic diet and who received diet counseling during their current hospital stay. Overall satisfaction with diet counseling, compliance intentions, and satisfaction with four components of diet counseling. Measures were taken on seven-point graphic scales and five-point semantic scales. Reliability estimates with Cronbach's alpha correlation coefficient, stepwise multiple regression analyses, t tests, and one-way analyses of variance. Facilitation skills and knowledge components of diet counseling were the key determinants of patient satisfaction. Among the moderators of patient satisfaction with diet counseling, women and patients with a good appetite were more satisfied with the knowledge components and had stronger compliance intentions. Patients who spent more than 50% of the time at rest were less satisfied than more active patients. Enhancing patient satisfaction implies having a good understanding of a patient's social and cultural context, developing problem-solving skills, and demonstrating greater flexibility and creativity about the means of providing diet counseling.

  13. Do neighborhood attributes moderate the relationship between alcohol establishment density and crime?

    PubMed

    Erickson, Darin J; Carlin, Bradley P; Lenk, Kathleen M; Quick, Harrison S; Harwood, Eileen M; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-02-01

    Although numerous studies have found a positive association between the density of alcohol establishments and various types of crime, few have examined how neighborhood attributes (e.g., schools, parks) could moderate this association. We used data from Minneapolis, MN with neighborhood as the unit of analysis (n = 83). We examined eight types of crime (assault, rape, robbery, vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, underage alcohol possession/consumption) and measured density as the total number of establishments per roadway mile. Neighborhood attributes assessed as potential moderators included non-alcohol businesses, schools, parks, religious institutions, neighborhood activism, neighborhood quality, and number of condemned houses. Using Bayesian techniques, we created a model for each crime outcome (accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant demographics) with an interaction term (moderator × density) to test each potential moderating effect. Few interaction terms were statistically significant. The presence of at least one college was the only neighborhood attribute that consistently moderated the density-crime association, with the presence of a college attenuating the association between the density and three types of crime (assaults, nuisance crime, and public consumption). However, caution should be used when interpreting the moderating effect of college presence because of the small number of colleges in our sample. The lack of moderating effects of neighborhood attributes, except for presence of a college, suggests that the addition of alcohol establishments to any neighborhood, regardless of its other attributes, could result in an increase in a wide range of crime.

  14. An Open-Label Exploratory Study with Memantine: Correlation between Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Cognition in Patients with Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Marc L.; Kingsley, Peter B.; Goldberg, Terry E.; Koppel, Jeremy; Christen, Erica; Keehlisen, Lynda; Kohn, Nina; Davies, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim To characterize progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Methods Eleven subjects with mild to moderate AD underwent neurocognitive testing and single-voxel 1H MRS from the precuneus and posterior cingulate region at baseline, after 24 weeks of monotherapy with a cholinesterase inhibitor, and after another 24 weeks of combination therapy with open-label memantine and a cholinesterase inhibitor. Baseline metabolites [N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr)] and their ratios in AD subjects were compared with those of an age-matched control group of 28 cognitively normal subjects. Results AD subjects had significantly higher mI/Cr and lower NAA, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and NAA/mI. Baseline Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL) scores significantly correlated with NAA/Cr, mI/Cr, and NAA/mI. There was an increase in mI and a decrease in NAA/mI, but no significant change in other metabolites or ratios, or neurocognitive measures, when memantine was added to a cholinesterase inhibitor. Conclusion Metabolite ratios significantly differed between AD and control subjects. Baseline metabolite ratios correlated with function (ADCS-ADL). There was an increase in mI and a decrease in NAA/mI, but no changes in other metabolites, ratios, or cognitive measures, when memantine was added to a cholinesterase inhibitor. PMID:22962555

  15. Demonstration of spectral correlation control in a source of polarization-entangled photon pairs at telecom wavelength.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Thomas; Kolenderski, Piotr; Jennewein, Thomas

    2014-03-15

    Spectrally correlated photon pairs can be used to improve the performance of long-range fiber-based quantum communication protocols. We present a source based on spontaneous parametric downconversion, which allows one to control spectral correlations within the entangled photon pair without spectral filtering by changing the pump-pulse duration or the characteristics of the coupled spatial modes. The spectral correlations and polarization entanglement are characterized. We find that the generated photon pairs can feature both positive spectral correlations, decorrelation, or negative correlations at the same time as polarization entanglement with a high fidelity of 0.97 (no background subtraction) with the expected Bell state.

  16. Carcass traits of young bulls in dual-purpose cattle: genetic parameters and genetic correlations with veal calf, type and production traits.

    PubMed

    Croué, I; Fouilloux, M N; Saintilan, R; Ducrocq, V

    2017-06-01

    The profitability of dual-purpose breeding farms can be increased through genetic improvement of carcass traits. To develop a genetic evaluation of carcass traits of young bulls, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated in three French dual-purpose breeds. Genetic correlations between these traits and veal calf, type and milk production traits were also estimated. Slaughter performances of 156 226 Montbeliarde, 160 361 Normande and 8691 Simmental young bulls were analyzed with a multitrait animal model. In the three breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (0.12 to 0.19±0.01 to 0.04) and carcass conformation (0.21 to 0.26±0.01 to 0.04) and slightly lower for age at slaughter (0.08 to 0.17±0.01 to 0.03). For all three breeds, genetic correlations between carcass weight and carcass conformation were moderate and favorable (0.30 to 0.52±0.03 to 0.13). They were strong and favorable (-0.49 to -0.71±0.05 to 0.15) between carcass weight and age at slaughter. Between age at slaughter and carcass conformation, they were low and unfavorable to moderate and favorable (-0.25 to 0.10±0.06 to 0.18). Heavier young bulls tend to be better conformed and slaughtered earlier. Genetic correlations between corresponding young bulls and veal production traits were moderate and favorable (0.32 to 0.70±0.03 to 0.09), implying that selecting sires for veal calf production leads to select sires producing better young bulls. Genetic correlations between young bull carcass weight and cow size were moderately favorable (0.22 to 0.45±0.04 to 0.10). Young bull carcass conformation had moderate and favorable genetic correlations (0.11 to 0.24±0.04 to 0.10) with cow width but moderate and unfavorable genetic correlations (-0.21 to -0.36±0.03 to 0.08) with cow height. Taller cows tended to produce heavier young bulls and thinner cows to produce less conformed ones. Genetic correlations between carcass traits of young bulls and cow muscularity traits were low to

  17. Unemployment, Parental Distress and Youth Emotional Well-Being: The Moderation Roles of Parent-Youth Relationship and Financial Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Marques, Adilson; Neville, Fergus G; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas-de-Almeida, J M

    2016-10-01

    We investigated, in a sample of 112 unemployed parents of adolescents aged 10-19 years, the links between parental distress and change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment, and the moderation roles of parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. Further, simple moderation, additive moderation, and moderated moderation models of regression were performed to analyze the effects of parental distress, parent-youth relationship and financial deprivation in predicting change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. Results show that parental distress moderated by parent-youth relationship predicted levels of change in youth emotional problems related to parental unemployment. This study provides evidence that during job loss, parental distress is linked to youth emotional well-being and that parent-youth relationships play an important moderation role. This raises the importance of further researching parental distress impacts on youth well-being, especially during periods of high unemployment rates.

  18. Dementia quality of life instrument--construct and concurrent validity in patients with mild to moderate dementia.

    PubMed

    Voigt-Radloff, S; Leonhart, R; Schützwohl, M; Jurjanz, L; Reuster, T; Gerner, A; Marschner, K; van Nes, F; Graff, M; Vernooij-Dassen, M; Rikkert, M O; Holthoff, V; Hüll, M

    2012-03-01

    To translate the Dementia quality of life instrument (DQoL) into German and assess its construct and concurrent validity in community-dwelling people with mild to moderate dementia. Dementia quality of life instrument data of two pooled samples (n=287) were analysed regarding ceiling and floor effects, internal consistency, factor reliability and correlations with corresponding scales on quality of life (Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease and SF-12), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive), depression (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia) and activities of daily living (Interview of Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia). We found no floor effects (<2%), minor ceiling effects (1-11%), moderate to good internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.6-0.8) and factor reliability (0.6-0.8), moderate correlations with self-rated scales of quality of life (Spearman coefficient: 0.3-0.6) and no or minor correlations with scores for cognition, depression or activities of daily living (r<0.3). The original five-factor model could not be confirmed. The DQoL can be used in dementia research for assessing positive and negative affect, feelings of belonging and self-esteem. The findings suggest further research to improve the structure of the scales aesthetics, feelings of belonging and self-esteem. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  19. Nonlinearities in reservoir engineering: Enhancing quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiangming; Hu, Qingping; Li, Lingchao; Huang, Chen; Rao, Shi

    2017-12-01

    There are two decisive factors for quantum correlations in reservoir engineering, but they are strongly reversely dependent on the atom-field nonlinearities. One is the squeezing parameter for the Bogoliubov modes-mediated collective interactions, while the other is the dissipative rates for the engineered collective dissipations. Exemplifying two-level atomic ensembles, we show that the moderate nonlinearities can compromise these two factors and thus enhance remarkably two-mode squeezing and entanglement of different spin atomic ensembles or different optical fields. This suggests that the moderate nonlinearities of the two-level systems are more advantageous for applications in quantum networks associated with reservoir engineering.

  20. Child anger proneness moderates associations between child-mother attachment security and child behavior with mothers at 33 months.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Nancy L; Holland, Ashley S; Engle, Jennifer M; Wong, Maria S

    2012-02-01

    Child-mother attachment security, assessed via a modified Strange Situation procedure (Cassidy & Marvin, with the MacArthur Attachment Working Group, 1992), and parent-reported child proneness to anger were examined as correlates of observed child behavior toward mothers during a series of interactive tasks (N = 120, 60 girls). Controlling for maternal sensitivity and child gender and expressive language ability, greater attachment security, and lower levels of anger proneness were related to more child responsiveness to maternal requests and suggestions during play and snack sessions. As hypothesized, anger proneness also moderated several security-behavior associations. Greater attachment security was related to (a) more committed compliance during clean-up and snack-delay tasks for children high on anger proneness, (b) more self-assertiveness during play and snack for children moderate or high on anger proneness, and (c) more help-seeking during play and snack for children moderate or low on anger proneness. Findings further our understanding of the behavioral correlates of child-mother attachment security assessed during late toddlerhood via the Cassidy-Marvin system and underscore child anger proneness as a moderator of attachment-related differences in child behavior during this developmental period.

  1. Neuropsychiatric Predictors of Post-Injury Headache After Mild-Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury in Veterans.

    PubMed

    Bomyea, Jessica; Lang, Ariel J; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Jak, Amy; Hanson, Karen L; Sorg, Scott; Clark, Alexandra L; Schiehser, Dawn M

    2016-04-01

    To determine differences in neuropsychiatric complaints between Veterans with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI), with and without headache, compared with Veteran controls, and to identify neuropsychiatric predictors of headache severity. Mild to moderate TBI is a common occurrence in Veterans, and is frequently associated with complaints of headache. Neuropsychiatric complaints are also common among individuals who have sustained head injury, although the relationship between these factors and headache after injury is unclear. Research is needed to comprehensively determine differences between individuals with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury who differ with respect to headache, and which injury, psychological, or sleep and fatigue factors predict headache severity. A cross-sectional study compared 85 Veterans in three groups (positive for TBI and headache, positive for TBI without significant headache, and a control group) on a set of injury characteristics and neuropsychiatric variables. Correlates of headache severity were examined, and a regression model was used to identify significant independent predictors of headache severity. Individuals with mild to moderate TBI and headache endorsed significantly greater neuropsychiatric symptoms than participants in the other groups (η(p)2  = .23-.36) Neuropsychiatric complaints, as well as presence of posttraumatic amnesia, were correlated with headache in the subsample with TBI (rs = .44-.57). When entering all predictors into a regression model, only fatigue represented a significant independent predictor of headache severity (β = .59, R2 = .35). Rather than being a global risk factor, mild to moderate TBI was associated with poorer mental health outcomes, particularly for those who endorse headache. Findings underscore the possibility that Veterans with history of TBI who present with complaints of headache may represent a particularly vulnerable subgroup. Additionally, our findings

  2. Correlations between quantitative fat–water magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, Aliya; Walker, Ronald C.; Towse, Theodore F.; Brian Welch, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Beyond estimation of depot volumes, quantitative analysis of adipose tissue properties could improve understanding of how adipose tissue correlates with metabolic risk factors. We investigated whether the fat signal fraction (FSF) derived from quantitative fat–water magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at 3.0 T correlates to CT Hounsfield units (HU) of the same tissue. These measures were acquired in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) at the umbilical level of 21 healthy adult subjects. A moderate correlation exists between MRI- and CT-derived WAT values for all subjects, R2=0.54, p<0.0001, with a slope of −2.6, (95% CI [−3.3,−1.8]), indicating that a decrease of 1 HU equals a mean increase of 0.38% FSF. We demonstrate that FSF estimates obtained using quantitative fat–water MRI techniques correlate with CT HU values in subcutaneous WAT, and therefore, MRI-based FSF could be used as an alternative to CT HU for assessing metabolic risk factors. PMID:26702407

  3. Prognosis moderates the engagement-outcome relationship in unguided cCBT for depression: A proof of concept for the prognosis moderation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Forand, Nicholas R; Huibers, Marcus J H; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how treatments work is a goal of psychotherapy research, however the strength of relationships between therapy processes and outcomes is inconsistent. DeRubeis, Cohen, et al. (2014) proposed that process-outcome relationships are moderated by patient characteristics. These "patient response patterns" (PRPs) indicate individuals' responsiveness to the active ingredients of treatment. Given the same quality of therapy, one individual may receive more benefit than another depending on their PRP. The "prognosis moderation hypothesis" states that PRPs can be defined by pretreatment prognostic indicators. Medium prognosis groups ("pliant-like") will have stronger process-outcome relationships than good ("easy-like") or poor ("challenging-like") groups. N = 190 individuals received unguided computerized CBT. They were 58% women, aged 44.7 years. Engagement with the cCBT program was the process variable. PRPs were defined by predicted scores from a prognostic regression model. Outcomes were BDI scores at 3, 6, and 12 months. "Easy-like," "pliant-like" and "challenging-like" groups were created and the engagement-outcome relationship was assessed as a function of group. Engagement-outcome correlations by PRP were: easy-like, r = -.27 (p < .05); pliant-like, r = -.36 (p < .01); and challenging-like, r = .05 (p = .70). The pliant-like group was found to be the only moderator of the engagement-outcome relationship. Results were similar at 6 months but faded at 12. The engagement-outcome relationship varied as a function of prognosis, providing support for the prognosis moderation hypothesis. The "pliant-like" group appeared most sensitive to treatment procedures. Future research is needed to refine the methods for identifying PRPs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Influence of mandibular morphology on the hyoid bone in atypical deglutition: a correlational study.

    PubMed

    Machado, Almiro J; Crespo, Agrício N

    2011-11-01

    evaluate the possible correlation with the radiographic position of the hyoid bone and mandibular angle in lateral radiographs of children with atypical deglutition. This was an observational study using cephalometric analysis of lateral teleradiographs for the distances of H-MP (hyoid to mandibular plane). Spearman's correlation analysis was performed with MA (mandibular angle) in two groups: the experimental group with atypical deglutition and the control group normal deglutition. Both groups included subjects in mixed dentition stage. there was a significant moderate negative correlation between MA (mandibular angle) and hyoid bone (H-MP) in the normal group (R = -0.406, p = 0.021). However, there was no significant correlation between the MA and H-MP (R = 0.029, p = 0.83) in the group with atypical deglutition. there is a moderate negative correlation between the position of the hyoid bone and mandibular angle in the group of normal swallowing and there is no correlation between variables H-MP and MA in the group of atypical swallowing.

  5. Depression among female psychiatric nurses in southern Taiwan: main and moderating effects of job stress, coping behaviour and social support.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huey-S; Probst, Janice C; Hsu, Yu-C

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we tested the following hypotheses among psychiatric nurses: (1) job stress would be positively correlated with depression; (2) coping behaviour would be significantly correlated with depression and moderate the relationship between job stress and depression; (3) social support would be significantly negatively correlated with depression and was a significant moderator on the relationship between job stress and depression. Most studies in Taiwan related to depression have focused on the general public rather than nurses. The main effect of job stress (coping behaviour, social support) on level of depression has been documented in some population, but the moderating effects of coping behaviours and social support on the relationship between job stress and depression have not been well studied among nurses, especially among psychiatric nurses. A cross-sectional research design was employed. A self-report questionnaire was adopted to measure personal characteristics, depression (Beck Depression Inventory), job stress (Taiwanese Nurse Stress Checklist), coping behaviour (Jalowiec Coping Scale) and social support (short form, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List). Eligible subjects were female, non-supervisory, inpatient ward nurses in a psychiatric hospital in southern Taiwan. One hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were distributed, and the response rate was 91.6%. After adjusting for covariates, we found that: (1) Job stress and affective-oriented coping were significantly positively correlated with BDI-II scores. (2) Coping behaviour was not a significant moderator on the relationship between job stress and depression scores among psychiatric nurses, but social support was. Depression scores were correlated with job stress and affective-oriented coping, but social support could work to reduce the effect of stress on depression among psychiatric nurses. Nursing managers should explore both ways of reducing job stress and techniques for building

  6. What to Do With "Moderate" Reliability and Validity Coefficients?

    PubMed

    Post, Marcel W

    2016-07-01

    Clinimetric studies may use criteria for test-retest reliability and convergent validity such that correlation coefficients as low as .40 are supportive of reliability and validity. It can be argued that moderate (.40-.60) correlations should not be interpreted in this way and that reliability coefficients <.70 should be considered as indicative of unreliability. Convergent validity coefficients in the .40 to .60 or .40 to .70 range should be considered as indications of validity problems, or as inconclusive at best. Studies on reliability and convergent should be designed in such a way that it is realistic to expect high reliability and validity coefficients. Multitrait multimethod approaches are preferred to study construct (convergent-divergent) validity. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Abstinence versus Moderation Goals in Brief Motivational Treatment for Pathological Gambling.

    PubMed

    Stea, Jonathan N; Hodgins, David C; Fung, Tak

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the nature and impact of participant goal selection (abstinence versus moderation) in brief motivational treatment for pathological gambling via secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. The results demonstrated that the pattern of goal selection over time could be characterized by both fluidity and stability, whereby almost half of participants switched their goal at least one time, over 25% of participants selected an unchanging goal of 'quit most problematic type of gambling', almost 20% selected an unchanging goal of 'quit all types of gambling', and approximately 10% selected an unchanging goal of 'gamble in a controlled manner.' The results also demonstrated that pretreatment goal selection was uniquely associated with three variables, whereby compared to participants who selected the goal to 'cut back on problem gambling', those who selected the goal to 'quit problem gambling' were more likely to have greater gambling problem severity, to have identified video lottery terminal play as problematic, and to have greater motivation to overcome their gambling problem. Finally, the results demonstrated that goal selection over time had an impact on the average number of days gambled over the course of treatment, whereby those with abstinence-based goals gambled significantly fewer days than those with moderation-based goals. Nevertheless, goal selection over time was not related to dollars gambled, dollars per day gambled, or perceived goal achievement. The findings do not support the contention that abstinence-based goals are more advantageous than moderation goals and are discussed in relation to the broader alcohol treatment literature.

  8. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students' Academic Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li

    2012-08-01

    Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri in J Pers Assess 57:110-119, 1991). Academic achievement is measured based on the students' performance in the Lower Secondary Assessment. Data were analyzed using structural equation modelling. Results demonstrated that model of authoritative and model of authoritarian fit the data of this study well. Both authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles are the most common practice of the parents. Parenting styles have been found to be a moderator of this study. The results indicated that parenting styles moderated the effect of academic self-concept on academic achievement. The impact of academic self-concept on academic achievement is found to be greater for the authoritative than the authoritarian parenting style.

  9. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  10. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination.

    PubMed

    Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop

    2015-04-01

    Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Correlation between knee and hindfoot alignment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: The effects of subtalar joint destruction.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Izumi; Nakamura, Ichiro; Juji, Takuo; Ito, Katsumi; Matsumoto, Takumi

    2015-09-01

    Compensatory hindfoot alignment for deformities at the knee level has been demonstrated in patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, this phenomenon has not been elucidated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between knee deformity and hindfoot alignment and the effect of subtalar joint destruction in patients with RA. We retrospectively investigated RA patients (110 patients, 205 limbs) using radiographs in the standing anteroposterior knee, standing lateral foot, and hindfoot alignment views. The grade of destruction at the knee and subtalar joints was assigned using Larsen's grading system. The correlation between the femorotibial and tibiocalcaneal angles and the effect of joint destruction on this correlation were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. There was moderate correlation between the femorotibial and tibiocalcaneal angles in a group of knees with a Larsen grade of ≥ 4 (r = 0.544, p = 0.0239). This correlation was stronger in a group with less damaged subtalar joints with a Larsen grade of ≤ 3 (r = 0.705, p = 0.0049). These findings emphasized the importance of examining foot and ankles in patients with RA who undergo total knee arthroplasty.

  12. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Lability, and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults At-Risk for ADHD: Testing Moderation and Moderated Moderation.

    PubMed

    Bunford, Nóra; Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Shorey, Ryan C

    2017-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems are common among young adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about the degree to which maltreatment and alcohol problems are associated; potential pertinent mediating or moderating mechanisms, such as emotional lability; and whether this association varies by sex. We examined, in a sample of adults at risk for ADHD (N = 122, 37% male), the association between childhood maltreatment and alcohol problems, whether emotional lability mediated or moderated this association, and whether either role of emotional lability differed between men and women. Emotional lability moderated the association between emotional neglect and alcohol problems; maltreatment increased risk for alcohol problems for those scoring high tovery high on emotional lability, but not for those with very low-moderate levels. The association between emotional abuse and alcohol problems depended both on emotional lability and sex; emotional abuse decreased the risk for alcohol problems among men very low/low on emotional lability, but not for men who were moderate to very high on emotional lability, or for women. These findings have implications for the way in which targeting maltreatment and emotional lability may be incorporated into prevention and intervention programs to prevent alcohol problems among men and women at risk for ADHD.

  13. Evaluating Mediation and Moderation Effects in School Psychology: A Presentation of Methods and Review of Current Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2010-01-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described…

  14. 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT of the brain in mild to moderate traumatic brain injury patients: compared with CT--a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Nedd, K; Sfakianakis, G; Ganz, W; Uricchio, B; Vernberg, D; Villanueva, P; Jabir, A M; Bartlett, J; Keena, J

    1993-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Technetium-99m hexamethyl propylenamine oxime (Tc-99m-HMPAO) was used in 20 patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) to evaluate the effects of brain trauma on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). SPECT scan was compared with CT scan in 16 patients. SPECT showed intraparenchymal differences in rCBF more often than lesions diagnosed with CT scans (87.5% vs. 37.5%). In five of six patients with lesions in both modalities, the area of involvement was relatively larger on SPECT scans than on CT scans. Contrecoup changes were seen in five patients on SPECT alone, two patients with CT alone and one patient had contrecoup lesions on CT and SPECT. Of the eight patients (50%) with skull fractures, seven (43.7%) had rCBF findings on SPECT scan and five (31.3%) demonstrated decrease in rCBF in brain underlying the fracture. All these patients with fractures had normal brain on CT scans. Conversely, extra-axial lesions and fractures evident on CT did not visualize on SPECT, but SPECT demonstrated associated changes in rCBF. Although there is still lack of clinical and pathological correlation, SPECT appears to be a promising method for a more sensitive evaluation of axial lesions in patients with mild to moderate TBI.

  15. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  16. Methods for Integrating Moderation and Mediation: A General Analytical Framework Using Moderated Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jeffrey R.; Lambert, Lisa Schurer

    2007-01-01

    Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated…

  17. Controlled impact demonstration airframe bending bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltis, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The calibration of the KRASH and DYCAST models for transport aircraft is discussed. The FAA uses computer analysis techniques to predict the response of controlled impact demonstration (CID) during impact. The moment bridges can provide a direct correlation between the predictive loads or moments that the models will predict and what was experienced during the actual impact. Another goal is to examine structural failure mechanisms and correlate with analytical predictions. The bending bridges did achieve their goals and objectives. The data traces do provide some insight with respect to airframe loads and structural response. They demonstrate quite clearly what's happening to the airframe. A direct quantification of metal airframe loads was measured by the moment bridges. The measured moments can be correlated with the KRASH and DYCAST computer models. The bending bridge data support airframe failure mechanisms analysis and provide residual airframe strength estimation. It did not appear as if any of the bending bridges on the airframe exceeded limit loads. (The observed airframe fracture was due to the fuselage encounter with the tomahawk which tore out the keel beam.) The airframe bridges can be used to estimate the impact conditions and those estimates are correlating with some of the other data measurements. Structural response, frequency and structural damping are readily measured by the moment bridges.

  18. Peer Moderation of Asynchronous Online Discussions: An Exploratory Study of Peer E-Moderating Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadirian, Hajar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd

    2017-01-01

    This study explored patterns of e-moderating behaviour students performed when they were assigned as peer moderators of asynchronous online discussions in a reciprocal manner. Eighty-four students from an undergraduate blended course were observed during a 7-week-long online discussions. Using quantitative content analysis peer moderators'…

  19. Correlation between Cognition and Function across the Spectrum of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Liu-Seifert, H; Siemers, E; Selzler, K; Sundell, K; Aisen, P; Cummings, J; Raskin, J; Mohs, R

    2016-01-01

    Both cognitive and functional deterioration are characteristic of the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To systematically assess correlations between widely used measures of cognition and function across the spectrum of AD. Spearman rank correlations were calculated for cognitive and functional measures across datasets from various AD patient populations. Post-hoc analysis from existing databases. Pooled data from placebo-treated patients with mild (MMSE score ≥20 and ≤26) and moderate (MMSE score ≥16 and ≤19) AD dementia from two Phase 3 solanezumab (EXPEDITION/2) and two semagecesatat (IDENTITY/2) studies and normal, late mild cognitive impairment (LMCI) and mild AD patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2-Grand Opportunity (ADNI-2/GO). Intervention (if any): Placebo (EXPEDITION/2 and IDENTITY/2 subjects). Cognitive and functional abilities were measured in all datasets. Data were collected at baseline and every three months for 18 months in EXPEDITION and IDENTITY studies; and at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months in the ADNI dataset. The relationship of cognition and function became stronger over time as AD patients progressed from preclinical to moderate dementia disease stages, with the magnitude of correlations dependent on disease stage and the complexity of functional task. The correlations were minimal in the normal control population, but became stronger with disease progression. This analysis found that measures of cognition and function become more strongly correlated with disease progression from preclinical to moderate dementia across multiple datasets. These findings improve the understanding of the relationship between cognitive and functional clinical measures during the course of AD progression and how cognition and function measures relate to each other in AD clinical trials.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of resistance training skill competence in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan J; DeMarco, Matthew; Kennedy, Sarah G; Kelson, Mark; Barnett, Lisa M; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lubans, David R

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and correlates of adolescents' resistance training (RT) skill competence. Participants were 548 adolescents (14.1 ± 0.5 years) from 16 schools in New South Wales, Australia. RT skills were assessed using the Resistance Training Skills Battery. Demographics, BMI, muscular fitness, perceived strength, RT self-efficacy, and motivation for RT were also assessed. The proportion demonstrating "competence" and "near competence" in each of the six RT skills were calculated and sex differences explored. Associations between the combined RT skill score and potential correlates were examined using multi-level linear mixed models. Overall, the prevalence of competence was low (range = 3.3% to 27.9%). Females outperformed males on the squat, lunge and overhead press, whereas males performed better on the push-up (p < .05). Significant associations were seen for a number of correlates, which largely differed by sex. Muscular fitness was moderately and positively associated with RT skills among both males (β = 0.34, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.46) and females (β = 0.36, 95%CIs = 0.23 to 0.48). Our findings support a link between RT skills and muscular fitness. Other associations were statistically significant but small in magnitude, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously.

  1. Sociotropic cognition moderates stress-induced cardiovascular responsiveness in college women.

    PubMed

    Sauro, M D; Jorgensen, R S; Larson, C A; Frankowski, J J; Ewart, C K; White, J

    2001-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of sociotropic cognition (SC), a nondefensive need for approval, on stress-induced cardiovascular responsiveness (CVR) in women. Sixty-seven college-age females had blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitored during baseline, anticipation, story-telling (where participants were randomly assigned to a low or high threat condition), and recovery periods. SC showed a positive association with CVR only in the high interpersonal threat context during task and early stages of the recovery periods. SC was positively correlated with such variables as anxiety, ruminative style, dysphoria, and anger. This is the first report examining the moderating effects of SC on interpersonal stress-induced CVR prior to, during, and following a task, using an explicit manipulation of social evaluation. The data help define risk factors for CVR in women, which may aid in the understanding of how emotions and stress affect physical health and well-being.

  2. Gender-moderated links between urgency, binge drinking, and excessive exercise.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Erin E; Dmochowski, Sasha; Schaumberg, Katherine; Earleywine, Mitch; Anderson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    Exercise correlates with alcohol use, but the nature of this relation and the extent to which it is maladaptive remains unclear. Urgency and motives for engaging in drinking and exercise might indicate when these behaviors are problematic. The current study examined whether urgency moderated the association between exercise motivated by weight loss and drinking. College students (N = 589, 45.7% male) completed the study during the spring of 2012. Participants completed self-report assessment measures, including frequency/quantity of alcohol consumption, exercise for weight loss, and urgency, during a single session. Negative urgency moderated the relation between exercise and alcohol consumption in men but not women; the link between excessive exercise and alcohol use was stronger for men with higher levels of urgency. Further clarification of the mechanisms underlying alcohol use and physical activity-particularly maladaptive approaches to exercise-will inform health interventions among college students.

  3. Experimental demonstration of a compact epithermal neutron source based on a high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirfayzi, S. R.; Alejo, A.; Ahmed, H.; Raspino, D.; Ansell, S.; Wilson, L. A.; Armstrong, C.; Butler, N. M. H.; Clarke, R. J.; Higginson, A.; Kelleher, J.; Murphy, C. D.; Notley, M.; Rusby, D. R.; Schooneveld, E.; Borghesi, M.; McKenna, P.; Rhodes, N. J.; Neely, D.; Brenner, C. M.; Kar, S.

    2017-07-01

    Epithermal neutrons from pulsed-spallation sources have revolutionised neutron science allowing scientists to acquire new insight into the structure and properties of matter. Here, we demonstrate that laser driven fast (˜MeV) neutrons can be efficiently moderated to epithermal energies with intrinsically short burst durations. In a proof-of-principle experiment using a 100 TW laser, a significant epithermal neutron flux of the order of 105 n/sr/pulse in the energy range of 0.5-300 eV was measured, produced by a compact moderator deployed downstream of the laser-driven fast neutron source. The moderator used in the campaign was specifically designed, by the help of MCNPX simulations, for an efficient and directional moderation of the fast neutron spectrum produced by a laser driven source.

  4. The correlation between symptomatic fatigue to definite measures of gait in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kalron, Alon

    2016-02-01

    There is a general consensus relating to the multidimensional aspects of fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), however, the exact impact of this symptom on gait is not fully understood. Our primary aim was to examine the relationship between definite parameters of gait with self-reported symptomatic fatigue in PwMS according to their level of neurological impairment. Spatio-temporal parameters of gait were studied using an electronic walkway. The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) questionnaire, a patient-rated measure of walking ability was collected. The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) questionnaire was used to determine the level of symptomatic fatigue. One hundred and one PwMS (61 women) were included in the study analysis. Subjects were divided into mild and moderate neurological impaired groups. Fatigue was correlated with 5 (out of 14) spatiotemporal parameters. However, correlation scores were all <0.35, thus considered as weak correlations. In the mild group, the double support period was the only variable positively correlated to fatigue (Spearman's rho=0.28, P=0.05). In the moderate group, step and stride length were solely negatively correlated to fatigue (Spearman's rho=0.32, P=0.03). In contrast to the definite gait parameters, the MSWS-12 self-questionnaire was moderately positively correlated to the level of fatigue. Scores for the total, mild and moderate groups were 0.54, 0.57 and 0.51; P<0.01, respectively. The present results indicate that modifications in spatio-temporal parameters of gait are not closely related to symptomatic fatigue in PwMS. On the contrary, the self-reported MSWS-12 questionnaire is predisposed to level of fatigue in PwMS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stability Impact on Wake Development in Moderately Complex Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Infield, D.; Zorzi, G.

    2017-05-01

    This paper uses a year of SCADA data from Whitelee Wind Farm near Glasgow to investigate wind turbine wake development in moderately complex terrain. Atmospheric stability measurements in terms of Richardson number from a met mast at an adjoining site have been obtained and used to assess the impact of stability on wake development. Considerable filtering of these data has been undertaken to ensure that all turbines are working normally and are well aligned with the wind direction. A group of six wind turbines, more or less in a line, have been selected for analysis, and winds within a 2 degree direction sector about this line are used to ensure, as far as possible, that all the turbines investigated are fully immersed in the wake/s of the upstream turbine/s. Results show how the terrain effects combine with the wake effects, with both being of comparable importance for the site in question. Comparison has been made with results from two commercial CFD codes for neutral stability, and reasonable agreement is demonstrated. Richardson number has been plotted against wind shear and turbulence intensity at a met mast on the wind farm that for the selected wind direction is not in the wake of any turbines. Good correlations are found indicating that the Richardson numbers obtained are reliable. The filtered data used for wake analysis were split according to Richardson number into two groups representing slightly stable to neutral, and unstable conditions. Very little difference in wake development is apparent. A greater difference can be observed when the data are separated simply by turbulence intensity, suggesting that, although turbulence intensity is correlated with stability, of the two it is the parameter that most directly impacts on wake development through mixing of ambient and wake flows.

  6. Differential Susceptibility Experiments: Going beyond Correlational Evidence--Comment on beyond Mental Health, Differential Susceptibility Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2012-01-01

    Reviewing the studies on differential susceptibility presented in this section, we argue that the time is ripe to go beyond correlational designs to differential susceptibility experiments. In such experiments, randomization prevents hidden moderator effects on the environment and guarantees the independence of moderator and outcome, while the…

  7. Moderators, mediators, and other predictors of risperidone response in children with autistic disorder and irritability.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L Eugene; Farmer, Cristan; Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Davies, Mark; Witwer, Andrea; Chuang, Shirley; DiSilvestro, Robert; McDougle, Christopher J; McCracken, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Aman, Michael G; Scahill, Lawrence; Posey, David J; Swiezy, Naomi B

    2010-04-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network found an effect size of d = 1.2 in favor of risperidone on the main outcome measure in an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial for irritability in autistic disorder. This paper explores moderators and mediators of this effect. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were conducted with suspected moderators and mediators entered into the regression equations. MacArthur Foundation Network subgroup guidelines were followed in the evaluation of the results. Only baseline severity moderated treatment response: Higher severity showed greater improvement for risperidone but not for placebo. Weight gain mediated treatment response negatively: those who gained more weight improved less with risperidone and more with placebo. Compliance correlated with outcome for risperidone but not placebo. Higher dose correlated with worse outcome for placebo, but not risperidone. Of nonspecific predictors, parent education, family income, and low baseline prolactin positively predicted outcome; anxiety, bipolar symptoms, oppositional-defiant symptoms, stereotypy, and hyperactivity negatively predicted outcome. Risperidone moderated the effect of change in 5'-nucleotidase, a marker of zinc status, for which decrease was associated with improvement only with risperidone, not with placebo. The benefit-risk ratio of risperidone is better with greater symptom severity. Risperidone can be individually titrated to optimal dosage for excellent response in the majority of children. Weight gain is not necessary for risperidone benefit and may even detract from it. Socioeconomic advantage, low prolactin, and absence of co-morbid problems nonspecifically predict better outcome. Mineral interactions with risperidone deserve further study.

  8. Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men's attitudes toward seeking psychological help.

    PubMed

    Levant, Ronald F; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Rankin, Thomas J; Halter, Margaret J; Mellinger, Chris; Williams, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of one mediator and 4 moderators of the relationships between 2 masculinity variables (Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Gender Role Conflict) and Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Services (Attitudes). Self-stigma was the hypothesized mediator, and the hypothesized moderators were (a) Depression, (b) General Self-efficacy, (c) Precontemplation, and (d) Barriers to Help-seeking. A sample of 654 men responded to an online survey of 9 questionnaires. After evaluating mediation in the absence of moderation, moderated path analyses were conducted for each moderator. The relationship between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes was partially mediated by Self-stigma, whereas that between Gender Role Conflict and Attitudes was completely mediated. No indirect or direct paths involving Gender Role Conflict were moderated by any moderators. Both Depression and Barriers to Help-seeking demonstrated mediated moderation by moderating both Stage 1 (the path from Traditional Masculinity Ideology to Self-stigma) of the mediated relationships and the direct effects between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. Precontemplation moderated the direct effect between Traditional Masculinity Ideology and Attitudes. The findings suggest that the relationships between masculinity variables and men's negative help-seeking attitudes may be better understood through their relationships with other variables that serve as mediators and moderators. Findings from the present study may offer some direction in the design of interventions to remediate men's negative help-seeking attitudes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Assessing moderated mediation in linear models requires fewer confounding assumptions than assessing mediation.

    PubMed

    Loeys, Tom; Talloen, Wouter; Goubert, Liesbet; Moerkerke, Beatrijs; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2016-11-01

    It is well known from the mediation analysis literature that the identification of direct and indirect effects relies on strong no unmeasured confounding assumptions of no unmeasured confounding. Even in randomized studies the mediator may still be correlated with unobserved prognostic variables that affect the outcome, in which case the mediator's role in the causal process may not be inferred without bias. In the behavioural and social science literature very little attention has been given so far to the causal assumptions required for moderated mediation analysis. In this paper we focus on the index for moderated mediation, which measures by how much the mediated effect is larger or smaller for varying levels of the moderator. We show that in linear models this index can be estimated without bias in the presence of unmeasured common causes of the moderator, mediator and outcome under certain conditions. Importantly, one can thus use the test for moderated mediation to support evidence for mediation under less stringent confounding conditions. We illustrate our findings with data from a randomized experiment assessing the impact of being primed with social deception upon observer responses to others' pain, and from an observational study of individuals who ended a romantic relationship assessing the effect of attachment anxiety during the relationship on mental distress 2 years after the break-up. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Quantitative Characterization of Major Hepatic UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzymes in Human Liver Microsomes: Comparison of Two Proteomic Methods and Correlation with Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Achour, Brahim; Dantonio, Alyssa; Niosi, Mark; Novak, Jonathan J; Fallon, John K; Barber, Jill; Smith, Philip C; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Goosen, Theunis C

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes is valuable in glucuronidation reaction phenotyping, predicting metabolic clearance and drug-drug interactions using extrapolation exercises based on pharmacokinetic modeling. Different quantitative proteomic workflows have been employed to quantify UGT enzymes in various systems, with reports indicating large variability in expression, which cannot be explained by interindividual variability alone. To evaluate the effect of methodological differences on end-point UGT abundance quantification, eight UGT enzymes were quantified in 24 matched liver microsomal samples by two laboratories using stable isotope-labeled (SIL) peptides or quantitative concatemer (QconCAT) standard, and measurements were assessed against catalytic activity in seven enzymes ( n = 59). There was little agreement between individual abundance levels reported by the two methods; only UGT1A1 showed strong correlation [Spearman rank order correlation (Rs) = 0.73, P < 0.0001; R 2 = 0.30; n = 24]. SIL-based abundance measurements correlated well with enzyme activities, with correlations ranging from moderate for UGTs 1A6, 1A9, and 2B15 (Rs = 0.52-0.59, P < 0.0001; R 2 = 0.34-0.58; n = 59) to strong correlations for UGTs 1A1, 1A3, 1A4, and 2B7 (Rs = 0.79-0.90, P < 0.0001; R 2 = 0.69-0.79). QconCAT-based data revealed generally poor correlation with activity, whereas moderate correlations were shown for UGTs 1A1, 1A3, and 2B7. Spurious abundance-activity correlations were identified in the cases of UGT1A4/2B4 and UGT2B7/2B15, which could be explained by correlations of protein expression between these enzymes. Consistent correlation of UGT abundance with catalytic activity, demonstrated by the SIL-based dataset, suggests that quantitative proteomic data should be validated against catalytic activity whenever possible. In addition, metabolic reaction phenotyping exercises should consider spurious abundance-activity correlations

  11. Facial morphology in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and moderate to severe temporomandibular joint involvement.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yuh-Jia; Darvann, Tron A; Hermann, Nuno V; Larsen, Per; Liao, Yu-Fang; Bjoern-Joergensen, Jens; Kreiborg, Sven

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) assess lateral facial morphology in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and moderate to severe temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement, (2) compare the lateral facial morphology of these subjects with and without TMJ involvement using cephalograms and 3-dimensional (3D) facial photographs, and (3) compare and correlate the results of the 3D photographic and cephalometric analyses. Sixty patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis were included and grouped as follows: group 1, juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients without TMJ involvement; group 2, juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients with moderate to severe unilateral TMJ involvement; and group 3, juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients with moderate to severe bilateral TMJ involvement. Lateral cephalograms were used to assess and compare lateral facial morphologies between the groups. Lateral projections of oriented 3D photographs were superimposed on the lateral cephalograms. The results of the lateral 3D photographic analysis were correlated with those of lateral cephalometric analysis. Group 3 showed the most severe growth disturbances, including more retrognathic mandible and retruded chin, steep occlusal and mandibular planes, and more hyperdivergent type (P <0.01). Group 2 showed similar growth disturbances, but to a lesser extent than did group 3. Photographic variables were significantly correlated with the soft tissue and skeletal variables of cephalograms (0.5 < r < 0.9; P <0.001). Subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and unilateral or bilateral moderate to severe TMJ involvement had significant growth disturbances. Early intervention is recommended for these patients to prevent unfavorable facial development. Furthermore, with proper orientation, 3D photographs can be used as an alternative to conventional lateral cephalograms and 2-dimensional photographs. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier

  12. Employing moderate resolution sensors in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andrew J.

    Organizations concerned with human rights are increasingly using remote sensing as a tool to improve their detection of human rights and international humanitarian law violations. However, as these organizations have transitioned to human rights monitoring campaigns conducted over large regions and extended periods of time, current methods of using fine- resolution sensors and manpower-intensive analyses have become cost- prohibitive. To support the continued growth of remote sensing in human rights and international humanitarian law monitoring campaigns, this study researches how moderate resolution land observatories can provide complementary data to operational human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates the capacity of moderate resolutions to provide data to monitoring efforts by developing an approach that uses Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) as part of a system for the detection of village destruction in Darfur, Sudan. Village destruction is an indicator of a human rights or international humanitarian law violations in Darfur during the 2004 study period. This analysis approach capitalizes on Landsat's historical archive and systematic observations by constructing a historic spectral baseline for each village in the study area that supports automated detection of a potentially destroyed village with each new overpass of the sensor. Using Landsat's near-infrared band, the approach demonstrates high levels of accuracy when compared with a U.S. government database documenting destroyed villages. This approach is then applied to the Darfur conflict from 2002 to 2008, providing new data on when and where villages were destroyed in this widespread and long-lasting conflict. This application to the duration of a real-world conflict illustrates the abilities and shortcomings of moderate resolution sensors in human rights monitoring efforts. This study demonstrates that moderate resolution satellites have the capacity to contribute

  13. Misophonia: incidence, phenomenology, and clinical correlates in an undergraduate student sample.

    PubMed

    Wu, Monica S; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with misophonia display extreme sensitivities to selective sounds, often resulting in negative emotions and subsequent maladaptive behaviors, such as avoidance and anger outbursts. While there has been increasing interest in misophonia, few data have been published to date. This study investigated the incidence, phenomenology, correlates, and impairment associated with misophonia symptoms in 483 undergraduate students through self-report measures. Misophonia was a relatively common phenomenon, with nearly 20% of the sample reporting clinically significant misophonia symptoms. Furthermore, misophonia symptoms demonstrated strong associations with measures of impairment and general sensory sensitivities, and moderate associations with obsessive-compulsive, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Anxiety mediated the relationship between misophonia and anger outbursts. This investigation contributes to a better understanding of misophonia and indicates potential factors that may co-occur and influence the clinical presentation of a person with misophonia symptoms. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Tudor, J.J.

    1963-08-01

    An improved moderator structure for nuclear reactors consists of moderator blocks arranged in horizontal layers to form a multiplicity of vertically stacked columns of blocks. The blocks in each vertical column are keyed together, and a ceramic grid is disposed between each horizontal layer of blocks. Pressure plates cover- the lateral surface of the moderator structure in abutting relationship with the peripheral terminal lengths of the ceramic grids. Tubular springs are disposed between the pressure plates and a rigid external support. The tubular springs have their axes vertically disposed to facilitate passage of coolant gas through the springs and are spaced apart a selected distance such that at sonae preselected point of spring deflection, the sides of the springs will contact adjacent springs thereby causing a large increase in resistance to further spring deflection. (AEC)

  15. Mediated moderation or moderated mediation: relationship between length of unemployment, resilience, coping and health.

    PubMed

    Sojo, Víctor; Guarino, Leticia

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate a model of mediated moderation vs. moderated mediation that could explain the relationship between length of unemployment, dispositional resilience, coping styles and depression and social functioning of Venezuelan unemployed individuals. Self-report measures were administered to a sample of 328 unemployed residents in Caracas, Venezuela. Results indicated that emotional coping acted as a mediator in the relationship between resilience and depression. Individuals with greater resilience used more detachment coping when unemployment was longer, while individuals with poorer resilience in the same situation used less avoidance coping. Resilience acted as a protective moderating factor between longer periods of unemployment and social functioning, a process mediated by detachment coping. Overall, results supported a mediated moderation model, with resilience as the moderating factor and coping as the mediator in the relation between stress due to the length of unemployment and well-being.

  16. Evaluation of quality of life questionnaires for adult patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Zhao, Yu; Zheng, YongBo; An, Ping; Wang, LiHong; Qiao, XiaoMing; Wang, DeYun

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of instruments to assess quality of life (QoL) in patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) vs intermittent allergic rhinitis (IAR). There were 106 patients with PAR and 99 with IAR and 50 healthy subjects in the control group. Questionnaire results were obtained using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36), a visual analog scale (VAS), and the rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ) and were analyzed using correlational analysis. Correlations between the total scores and most domains of the 3 questionnaires were stronger in patients with PAR than in those with IAR, although the difference between groups was significant only for the RQLQ (P < .01). The QoL was worse in the PAR subgroup than in the IAR subgroup in the domains of social functioning in the SF-36 and for items of sleeping problems and activity limitations in the RQLQ. There were significant correlations between RQLQ and VAS-eye symptoms in the PAR subgroup but not in the IAR subgroup. The 3 questionnaires differentiated patients with AR from the healthy population, with significant but weak correlation with each other. The correlations were higher in patients with PAR than in those with IAR. The moderate to severe PAR has a greater effect on quality of life than IAR. Eye symptoms affected the QoL more in patients with PAR than in those with IAR. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring moderators of the relationship between physical activity behaviors and television viewing in elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicole E I; Rhodes, Ryan E; Naylor, Patti-Jean; McKay, Heather A

    2008-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is limited evidence to support a negative association between physical activity (PA) behaviors and television (TV) viewing time in children. The purpose of this study was to extend the research involving PA-TV viewing relationships and to explore potential moderators, including gender, ethnicity, weekday/ weekend behaviors, structured/unstructured activities, and seasonal variability. A 9-month longitudinal design, across one school year, with assessments every 3 months. Elementary schools in the Vancouver and Richmond districts of British Columbia, Canada. Subjects. Subjects (N = 344; 47% female) were 9- to 11-year-old children who participated in a school-based PA initiative from September 2003 to June 2004. Not applicable. Assessments of PA were measured using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. TV viewing time and structured PA were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Basic descriptives, Pearson r bivariate correlations and moderated multiple regressions with mean centered variables. No significant interaction effects were found for any of the proposed moderators. Null bivariate correlations are supportive of findings in previous literature. Our results did not find support for PA-TV viewing relations, regardless of gender, ethnicity, structured PA, and seasonal variability. PA interventions aimed at modifying sedentary behaviors, such as TV viewing, may not be warranted.

  18. Cumulative risk exposure moderates the association between parasympathetic reactivity and inhibitory control in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Ryan J; Roos, Leslie E; Farrar, Jessica D; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-01

    A child's cumulative risk for early exposure to stress has been linked to alterations of self-regulation outcomes, including neurobiological correlates of inhibitory control (IC). We examined whether children's ability to engage the parasympathetic nervous system impacts how risk affects IC. Children ages 3-5 years completed two laboratory measures of IC while respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured, indexing parasympathetic activity. Children with greater risk demonstrated lower IC; risk also moderated associations between RSA reactivity and IC. For children with less risk, greater RSA withdrawal during IC tasks was associated with better IC. In contrast, greater risk was associated with poor IC, regardless of RSA withdrawal. Effects of risk were more pronounced for cumulative than individual measures. Results suggest that cumulative risk exposure disrupts connectivity between physiological and behavioral components of self-regulation in early childhood. Parasympathetic withdrawal to cognitive tasks may be less relevant for performance in developmental samples experiencing greater life stress. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluating mediation and moderation effects in school psychology: a presentation of methods and review of current practice.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Amanda J; McQuillin, Samuel D

    2010-02-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are presented, and different effect size measures for the models are provided. Extensions of the basic moderator and mediator models are also described.

  20. Unidimensional factor models imply weaker partial correlations than zero-order correlations.

    PubMed

    van Bork, Riet; Grasman, Raoul P P P; Waldorp, Lourens J

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we present a new implication of the unidimensional factor model. We prove that the partial correlation between two observed variables that load on one factor given any subset of other observed variables that load on this factor lies between zero and the zero-order correlation between these two observed variables. We implement this result in an empirical bootstrap test that rejects the unidimensional factor model when partial correlations are identified that are either stronger than the zero-order correlation or have a different sign than the zero-order correlation. We demonstrate the use of the test in an empirical data example with data consisting of fourteen items that measure extraversion.

  1. Analyses of the correlation between dermal and blood carotenoids in female cattle by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julia; Darvin, Maxim E.; Meinke, Martina C.; Schweigert, Florian J.; Müller, Kerstin E.; Lademann, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    Herd health programs for the maintenance of welfare and productivity in cattle need efficient tools for monitoring the health of individual animals. Recent reports demonstrate that the oxidative status is related to various stress conditions in dairy cows. Biomarkers, among other carotenoids, could serve as indicators of stress originating from the environment (e.g., heat stress or sun radiation) or from the animal itself (e.g., disease). To date, only invasive in vitro tests are available to assess the oxidative status in cattle. The present study compares the results of optical noninvasive in vivo measurements of dermal carotenoids in cattle udder skin using an LED-based miniaturized spectroscopic system (MSS) with those obtained by photometric analysis of beta carotene in whole blood samples using a portable device. Correlations between the concentrations of dermal and blood carotenoids were calculated under consideration of the nutritional status of the animals. Significant correlation (R=0.86) was found for cattle with a moderate to obese body condition. Thus, the blood and skin concentrations of the marker substance beta carotene are comparable under stable stress conditions of the cattle. This demonstrates that the MSS is suitable for noninvasive assessment of dermal carotenoid concentrations in cattle.

  2. Acute toxicity and its dosimetric correlates for high-risk prostate cancer treated with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arunsingh, Moses; Mallick, Indranil, E-mail: imallick@gmail.com; Prasath, Sriram

    Aims: To report the acute toxicity and the dosimetric correlates after moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods: A total of 101 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Patients were treated to 65 Gy/25 Fr/5 weeks (n = 18), or 60 Gy/20 Fr/4 weeks (n = 83). Most (82.2%) had high-risk or pelvic node-positive disease. Acute toxicity was assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute morbidity scoring criteria. Dose thresholds for acute rectal and bladder toxicity were identified. Results: The incidence of acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 20.8%, and grade 2more » genitourinary (GU) toxicity was 6.9%. No Grade 3 to 4 toxicity occurred. Small bowel toxicity was uncommon (Gr 2 = 4%). The 2 Gy equivalent doses (EQD2) to the rectum and bladder (α/β = 3) calculated showed that the absolute doses were more consistent predictors of acute toxicities than the relative volumes. Those with grade 2 or more GI symptoms had significantly higher V{sub EQD2-60} {sub Gy} (13.2 vs 9.9 cc, p = 0.007) and V{sub EQD2-50} {sub Gy} (20.6 vs 15.4 cc, p = 0.005). Those with grade 2 or more GU symptoms had significantly higher V{sub EQD2-70} {sub Gy} (30.4 vs 18.4 cc, p = 0.001) and V{sub EQD2-65} {sub Gy} (44.0 vs 28.8 cc, p = 0.001). The optimal cutoff value for predicting grade 2 acute proctitis, for V{sub EQD2-60} {sub Gy} was 9.7 cc and for V{sub EQD2-50} {sub Gy} was 15.9 cc. For grade 2 GU symptoms, the threshold values were 23.6 cc for V{sub EQD2-70} {sub Gy} and 38.1 cc for V{sub EQD2-65} {sub Gy}. Conclusions: Hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer is well tolerated and associated with manageable acute side effects. The absolute dose-volume parameters of rectum and bladder predict for acute toxicities.« less

  3. Single cross-sectional area of pectoralis muscle by computed tomography - correlation with bioelectrical impedance based skeletal muscle mass in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Saing; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Shin Myung; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2017-09-01

    Skeletal muscle depletion is an important prognostic factor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); a recent study demonstrated significant correlations between pectoralis muscle area on an axial CT image and COPD-related traits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between pectoralis muscle areas on CT scans and total body skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in healthy subjects. For 434 subjects that underwent a low-dose chest CT and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) during health screening from January to June of 2014, cross-sectional area of pectoralis muscles were measured in CT scans. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between cross-sectional CT areas of pectoralis muscles and BIA-assessed SMMs. Mean age was 50 ± 10 years (78·8% were male). The mean cross-sectional area of pectoralis muscles was 24·1 cm 2  ± 6·8. A moderate correlation was observed between pectoralis muscle area and BIA-based SMM (r = 0·665, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed CT determined pectoralis muscle area was significantly associated with BIA-assessed SMM after adjusting for gender, weight, height and age (β = 0·14 ± 0·02, P<0·001). Cross-sectional area of the pectoralis muscles on single axial CT images shows moderate correlation with total body SMM determined by BIA in healthy subjects. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Children's Mathematics and Verbal Self-concepts and Externalizing Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Peer Rejection at School.

    PubMed

    Passiatore, Ylenia; Grimaldi Capitello, Teresa; De Stasio, Simona; Millioni, Michela; Gentile, Simonetta; Fiorilli, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has found a strong correlation between children's academic self-concept and their behavioral problems. The present study examined whether children's peer rejection moderated the relationship between children's math and verbal self-concepts and their behavioral problems at school. We expected that children's social competence, as measured by peer rejection, moderated the negative effect of low self-concept on children's externalizing behaviors. Participants were 173 children (males = 93, M age = 10.31 years, SD = 1.43). The main findings showed that peer rejection moderated the effect of both low verbal and math self-concepts on children's externalizing behavior. The results are discussed in terms of the protective factor played by children's social competence reducing the impact of low self-concept on children's externalizing behaviors.

  5. Effect of inhaled corticosteroid use on weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Han, Jennifer; Nguyen, John; Kim, Yuna; Geng, Bob; Romanowski, Gale; Alejandro, Lawrence; Proudfoot, James; Xu, Ronghui; Leibel, Sydney

    2018-04-19

    Assess the relationship between inhaled corticosteroid use (ICS) and weight (BMI) in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma. Assess if the number of emergency department (ED) visits correlates with overall BMI trajectory. Assess the trend of prescribing biologic therapy in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma and determine its relationship with weight (BMI). A retrospective chart review was performed on 93 pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma to determine the relationship between ICS use and weight (BMI), biologic therapy and BMI, and number of ED visits and BMI trajectory. A mixed effects model was employed with the correlation between repeated measures accounted for through the random effects. There is a statistically significant increase of 0.369 kg/m 2 in BMI trajectory per year in subjects on high-dose steroids compared to an increase of 0.195 kg/m 2 in the low dose group (p < 0.05). The BMI of subjects initiated on biologic therapy (omalizumab or mepolizumab) had a statistically significant decrease in BMI trajectory of 0.818 kg/m 2 per year (p < 0.05). Subjects with ≥5 ED visits due to asthma exacerbations had a significantly higher BMI trajectory (p < 0.05). The potency of ICS use in pediatric patients with moderate-severe asthma affects BMI trajectory; the higher the dose, the greater the projected BMI increase per year. Initiation of biologic therapy decreased BMI trajectory over time. Lastly, those with frequent ED visits had a higher BMI trend. Future prospective studies are warranted that further evaluate the potential metabolic impacts of ICS and assess the effects of biologic therapy on BMI.

  6. Morphological adaptation and protein modulation of myotendinous junction following moderate aerobic training.

    PubMed

    Curzi, Davide; Baldassarri, Valentina; De Matteis, Rita; Salamanna, Francesca; Bolotta, Alessandra; Frizziero, Antonio; Fini, Milena; Marini, Marina; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2015-04-01

    Myotendinous junction is the muscle-tendon interface through which the contractile force can be transferred from myofibrils to the tendon extracellular matrix. At the ultrastructural level, aerobic training can modify the distal myotendinous junction of rat gastrocnemius, increasing the contact area between tissues. The aim of this work is to investigate the correlation between morphological changes and protein modulation of the myotendinous junction following moderate training. For this reason, talin, vinculin and type IV collagen amount and spatial distribution were investigated by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. The images were then digitally analyzed by evaluating fluorescence intensity. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant increased thickening of muscle basal lamina in the trained group (53.1 ± 0.4 nm) with respect to the control group (43.9 ± 0.3 nm), and morphological observation showed the presence of an electron-dense area in the exercised muscles, close to the myotendinous junction. Protein concentrations appeared significantly increased in the trained group (talin +22.2%; vinculin +22.8% and type IV collagen +11.8%) with respect to the control group. Therefore, our findings suggest that moderate aerobic training induces/causes morphological changes at the myotendinous junction, correlated to the synthesis of structural proteins of the muscular basal lamina and of the cytoskeleton.

  7. The moderating role of socially desirable responding in implicit-explicit attitudes toward asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Joel R

    2017-07-04

    Implicit and explicit attitudes correlate under certain conditions and researchers are interested in the moderating factors of this relationship. This paper explored the role of socially desirable responding in this relationship by testing the hypothesis that impression management (IM; i.e., deliberate response modification) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE; i.e., positive self-bias) play moderating roles in the relationship of implicit-explicit attitudes toward asylum seekers in Australia. Seventy-four students responded to a battery of measures and the results revealed that IM (but not SDE) moderated this relationship to the extent that higher IM scores weakened the correspondence between implicit and explicit attitude scores. This suggests that attitudes toward asylum seekers might be susceptible to socially desirable response tendencies and in combination with the finding that IM was negatively related to explicit attitudes, it is argued that self-presentation concerns result in the deliberate attenuation of reported negative explicit attitudes. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. The Eysenckian personality factors and their correlations with academic performance.

    PubMed

    Poropat, Arthur E

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. The relationship between personality and academic performance has long been explored, and a recent meta-analysis established that measures of the five-factor model (FFM) dimension of Conscientiousness have similar validity to intelligence measures. Although currently dominant, the FFM is only one of the currently accepted models of personality, and has limited theoretical support. In contrast, the Eysenckian personality model was developed to assess a specific theoretical model and is still commonly used in educational settings and research. AIMS. This meta-analysis assessed the validity of the Eysenckian personality measures for predicting academic performance. SAMPLE. Statistics were obtained for correlations with Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism (20-23 samples; N from 8,013 to 9,191), with smaller aggregates for the Lie scale (7 samples; N= 3,910). METHODS. The Hunter-Schmidt random effects method was used to estimate population correlations between the Eysenckian personality measures and academic performance. Moderating effects were tested using weighted least squares regression. RESULTS. Significant but modest validities were reported for each scale. Neuroticism and Extraversion had relationships with academic performance that were consistent with previous findings, while Psychoticism appears to be linked to academic performance because of its association with FFM Conscientiousness. Age and educational level moderated correlations with Neuroticism and Extraversion, and gender had no moderating effect. Correlations varied significantly based on the measurement instrument used. CONCLUSIONS. The Eysenckian scales do not add to the prediction of academic performance beyond that provided by FFM scales. Several measurement problems afflict the Eysenckian scales, including low to poor internal reliability and complex factor structures. In particular, the measurement and validity problems of Psychoticism mean its continued use in academic

  9. Mediation and moderation effect of the big five personality traits on the relationship between self-perceived malocclusion and psychosocial impact of dental esthetics.

    PubMed

    Spalj, Stjepan; Novsak, Alenka; Bilobrk, Philipp; Katic, Visnja; Zrinski, Magda Trinajstic; Pavlic, Andrej

    2016-05-01

    To explore the mediation and moderation effects of personality traits on the relationship between self-perceived malocclusion and the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics. The sample included 252 subjects (62% female) aged 12-39 years. Self-perceived malocclusion was estimated using the 10-point scale Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire was used to assess the psychological impact and the Big Five Inventory for personality traits. Moderation and mediation effects were evaluated with Pearson correlations and stepwise regression analysis, respectively. Self-perceived malocclusion ranged from 1 to 8 and was the most significant predictor of psychosocial impact of dental esthetics, whose unique contribution accounted for 11%-36.4% of variability, while age and sex accounted for 1.2%-2.5%. Personality traits had no mediating effect on this relationship. The moderating effect of agreeableness was present in the relationship between self-perceived degree of malocclusion and Social Impact (SI), Psychological Impact (PI), and Aesthetic Concern (AC) (ΔR2  =  0.035, 0.020, and 0.013, respectively; P < .001), while conscientiousness affected the relationship between perception of malocclusion and SI and PI (ΔR2  =  0.018 and 0.016, respectively; P < .05). In people with lower agreeableness and conscientiousness, increasing the severity of self-perceived malocclusion leads to less increase in SI and PI. In people with lower agreeableness, the increase influences AC in a similar manner. Extraversion, neuroticism, and openness do not have a moderating effect. The relationship between self-perceived malocclusion and the psychosocial impact of dental esthetics appears to be moderated and not mediated by personality traits. Adolescents and young adults with lower agreeableness and conscientiousness seem to be less affected by the increased severity of self-perceived malocclusion, as

  10. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits

    PubMed Central

    Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value), habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt), and propagule pressure (frequency) were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties. PMID:27187616

  11. A Source Area Approach Demonstrates Moderate Predictive Ability but Pronounced Variability of Invasive Species Traits.

    PubMed

    Klonner, Günther; Fischer, Stefan; Essl, Franz; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The search for traits that make alien species invasive has mostly concentrated on comparing successful invaders and different comparison groups with respect to average trait values. By contrast, little attention has been paid to trait variability among invaders. Here, we combine an analysis of trait differences between invasive and non-invasive species with a comparison of multidimensional trait variability within these two species groups. We collected data on biological and distributional traits for 1402 species of the native, non-woody vascular plant flora of Austria. We then compared the subsets of species recorded and not recorded as invasive aliens anywhere in the world, respectively, first, with respect to the sampled traits using univariate and multiple regression models; and, second, with respect to their multidimensional trait diversity by calculating functional richness and dispersion metrics. Attributes related to competitiveness (strategy type, nitrogen indicator value), habitat use (agricultural and ruderal habitats, occurrence under the montane belt), and propagule pressure (frequency) were most closely associated with invasiveness. However, even the best multiple model, including interactions, only explained a moderate fraction of the differences in invasive success. In addition, multidimensional variability in trait space was even larger among invasive than among non-invasive species. This pronounced variability suggests that invasive success has a considerable idiosyncratic component and is probably highly context specific. We conclude that basing risk assessment protocols on species trait profiles will probably face hardly reducible uncertainties.

  12. The drink remains the same: implicit positive associations in high but not moderate or non-caffeine users.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Wright, Claire; Yeomans, Martin R

    2010-06-01

    Research has demonstrated that high, but not low caffeine users exhibit an attentional bias to caffeine related stimuli. Separately, the Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) has been used to investigate the valence of implicit cognitions to drugs with some contradictory findings, though no work has addressed this issue with respect to caffeine. Here, we examined whether attentional bias would be found in high and moderate caffeine users using a pictorial version of the dot-probe task. A second aim was to explore differences in implicit cognitions between users and non-users. Fifteen high, moderate and non-caffeine users completed a picture dot-probe, IAT, and mood questionnaire following overnight caffeine deprivation. In the IAT, results demonstrated positive associations to caffeine related words for high but not moderate or non-users. Lower ratings for calmness were evident in both groups of caffeine compared to non-users. Dot-probe findings revealed an attentional bias among moderate caffeine users and non-users but not heavy users. The observed positive implicit associations to caffeine suggest that drug acceptability is the key in such perceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. German version, inter- and intrarater reliability and internal consistency of the "Agitated Behavior Scale" (ABS-G) in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hellweg, Stephanie; Schuster-Amft, Corina

    2016-07-19

    Agitation is frequently observed during early recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Agitated behaviour often interferes with a goal-orientated rehabilitation and can be a substantial hindrance to therapy. Despite the relatively high occurance of agitation in TBI population there is no objective assessement in German (G) available. An existing scale with excellent psychometric properties is the "Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS)" developed by Corrigan in 1989. The aim of the study was to translate the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS) into German (ABS-G) and investigate the inter- and intrarater reliability and internal consistency in patients with moderate to severe TBI. A formal nine-step translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure (TCCA) was applied. Subsequently a prospective observational patient study was conducted. To examine the interrater reliability and internal consistency, two therapists rated 20 patients independently after a therapy session. This procedure was repeated twice on a weekly basis. The intrarater reliability was assessed through video recordings from three patients. Nine raters scored the demonstrated behaviour on the videotape with the ABS-G independently twice within one month. The inter- and intrarater reliability were evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the quadratic weighted kappa. The internal consistency was tested with Cronbach's alpha. Behaviour of 20 patients (18 males; mean age 41 ± 20.7; mean Functional Independence Measure (FIM) cognitive score on admission 7.1 ± 4.04; mean ABS-G score at first observation 17.3 ± 2.83) was assessed threefold. Interrater reliability yielded a correlation coefficient for ABS-G total score of all 60 paired observations of r s 0.845 and a weighted Kappa of 0.738. Intrarater reliability for ABS-G total score ranged between r s 0.719 and 0.953 and showed a weighted Kappa between 0.871 and 0.953. Cronbach's alpha indicated moderate internal consistency

  14. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    DOE PAGES

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; ...

    2016-06-14

    We identified candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared tomore » the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm 2 to 20 × 20 mm 2. Furthermore, this increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. Our first effort decoupled group moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.« less

  15. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments' sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  16. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.

    We identified candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared tomore » the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm 2 to 20 × 20 mm 2. Furthermore, this increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. Our first effort decoupled group moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.« less

  17. Gambling Outcome Expectancies and Gambling Behavior Among African-American Adolescents: Gender as a Moderating Variable.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jessica L; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W; Wickwire, Emerson M

    2016-03-01

    Most high school adolescents have reported past year gambling, and males gamble more frequently and problematically than females. Ethnic minority adolescents appear to be gambling at a higher rate than Caucasian adolescents. There is evidence indicating that adolescent gambling outcome expectancies are correlated with gambling behavior, but limited evidence that this relation differs by gender. In the present study gender was evaluated as a moderator in the relation between gambling outcome expectancies and gambling behaviors in an African-American high school sample. Males gambled more frequently, gambled more problematically and held more positive gambling outcome expectancies than females. Gender was found to moderate the relations between gambling frequency and the expectations of material gain, affect, self-evaluation and parental approval. Gender also moderated the relations between gambling problems and expectations of affect and self-evaluation. These findings should inform future adolescent gambling prevention and intervention programs.

  18. Parasympathetic Nervous System Reactivity Moderates Associations Between Children's Executive Functioning and Social and Academic Competence.

    PubMed

    McQuade, Julia D; Penzel, Taylor E; Silk, Jennifer S; Lee, Kyung Hwa

    2017-10-01

    This study examined whether children with poor executive functioning (EF) evidenced less social and academic impairments, compared to other children, if they demonstrated adaptive parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) regulation during experiences of failure. Participants with and without clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms (N = 61; 9-13 years; 48% male; 85% Caucasian) were administered a battery of EF tests and completed manipulated social and cognitive failure tasks. While participants completed failure tasks, respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA-R) was measured as an indicator of PNS reactivity. Children's social and academic impairment in daily life was assessed based on parent and teacher report on multiple measures. RSA-R during social failure moderated the association between poor EF and adult-rated social impairment and RSA-R during cognitive failure moderated the association between poor EF and adult-rated academic impairment. Simple effects indicated that poor EF was significantly associated with impairment when children demonstrated RSA activation (increased PNS activity) but not when children demonstrated RSA withdrawal (decreases in PNS activity). Domain-crossed models (e.g., reactivity to social failure predicting academic impairment) were not significant, suggesting that the moderating effect of RSA-R was domain-specific. Results suggest that not all children with poor EF evidence social and academic impairment; RSA withdrawal during experiences of failure may be protective specifically for children with impaired EF skills.

  19. Correlation between disease severity and brain electric LORETA tomography in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Lorena R R; Künig, Gabriella; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Kochi, Kieko; Schreiter-Gasser, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    To compare EEG power spectra and LORETA-computed intracortical activity between Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with cognitive performance in the AD group. Nineteen channel resting EEG was recorded in 21 mild to moderate AD patients and in 23 controls. Power spectra and intracortical LORETA tomography were computed in seven frequency bands and compared between groups. In the AD patients, the EEG results were correlated with cognitive performance (Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE). AD patients showed increased power in EEG delta and theta frequency bands, and decreased power in alpha2, beta1, beta2 and beta3. LORETA specified that increases and decreases of power affected different cortical areas while largely sparing prefrontal cortex. Delta power correlated negatively and alpha1 power positively with the AD patients' MMSE scores; LORETA tomography localized these correlations in left temporo-parietal cortex. The non-invasive EEG method of LORETA localized pathological cortical activity in our mild to moderate AD patients in agreement with the literature, and yielded striking correlations between EEG delta and alpha1 activity and MMSE scores in left temporo-parietal cortex. The present data support the hypothesis of an asymmetrical progression of the Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Improving correlations between MODIS aerosol optical thickness and ground-based PM 2.5 observations through 3D spatial analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Faruqui, Shazia J.; Smith, Solar

    The Center for Space Research (CSR) continues to focus on developing methods to improve correlations between satellite-based aerosol optical thickness (AOT) values and ground-based, air pollution observations made at continuous ambient monitoring sites (CAMS) operated by the Texas commission on environmental quality (TCEQ). Strong correlations and improved understanding of the relationships between satellite and ground observations are needed to formulate reliable real-time predictions of air quality using data accessed from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) at the CSR direct-broadcast ground station. In this paper, improvements in these correlations are demonstrated first as a result of the evolution in the MODIS retrieval algorithms. Further improvement is then shown using procedures that compensate for differences in horizontal spatial scales between the nominal 10-km MODIS AOT products and CAMS point measurements. Finally, airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) observations, collected during the Texas Air Quality Study of 2000, are used to examine aerosol profile concentrations, which may vary greatly between aerosol classes as a result of the sources, chemical composition, and meteorological conditions that govern transport processes. Further improvement in correlations is demonstrated with this limited dataset using insights into aerosol profile information inferred from the vertical motion vectors in a trajectory-based forecast model. Analyses are ongoing to verify these procedures on a variety of aerosol classes using data collected by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite (Calipso) lidar.

  1. Combinatorial Algorithms for Portfolio Optimization Problems - Case of Risk Moderate Investor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarna, A.

    2017-03-01

    Portfolio optimization problem is a problem of finding optimal combination of n stocks from N ≥ n available stocks that gives maximal aggregate return and minimal aggregate risk. In this paper given N = 43 from the IDX (Indonesia Stock Exchange) group of the 45 most-traded stocks, known as the LQ45, with p = 24 data of monthly returns for each stock, spanned over interval 2013-2014. This problem actually is a combinatorial one where its algorithm is constructed based on two considerations: risk moderate type of investor and maximum allowed correlation coefficient between every two eligible stocks. The main outputs resulted from implementation of the algorithms is a multiple curve of three portfolio’s attributes, e.g. the size, the ratio of return to risk, and the percentage of negative correlation coefficient for every two chosen stocks, as function of maximum allowed correlation coefficient between each two stocks. The output curve shows that the portfolio contains three stocks with ratio of return to risk at 14.57 if the maximum allowed correlation coefficient between every two eligible stocks is negative and contains 19 stocks with maximum allowed correlation coefficient 0.17 to get maximum ratio of return to risk at 25.48.

  2. Luck, come here! Automatic approach tendencies toward gambling cues in moderate- to high-risk gamblers.

    PubMed

    Boffo, Marilisa; Smits, Ruby; Salmon, Joshua P; Cowie, Megan E; de Jong, David T H A; Salemink, Elske; Collins, Pam; Stewart, Sherry H; Wiers, Reinout W

    2018-02-01

    Similar to substance addictions, reward-related cognitive motivational processes, such as selective attention and positive memory biases, have been found in disordered gambling. Despite findings that individuals with substance use problems are biased to approach substance-related cues automatically, no study has yet focused on automatic approach tendencies for motivationally salient gambling cues in problem gamblers. We tested if moderate- to high-risk gamblers show a gambling approach bias and whether this bias was related prospectively to gambling behaviour and problems. Cross-sectional assessment study evaluating the concurrent and longitudinal correlates of gambling approach bias in moderate- to high-risk gamblers compared with non-problem gamblers. Online study throughout the Netherlands. Twenty-six non-treatment-seeking moderate- to high-risk gamblers and 26 non-problem gamblers community-recruited via the internet. Two online assessment sessions 6 months apart, including self-report measures of gambling problems and behaviour (frequency, duration and expenditure) and the gambling approach avoidance task, with stimuli tailored to individual gambling habits. Relative to non-problem gamblers, moderate- to high-risk gamblers revealed a stronger approach bias towards gambling-related stimuli than neutral stimuli (P = 0.03). Gambling approach bias was correlated positively with past-month gambling expenditure at baseline (P = 0.03) and with monthly frequency of gambling at follow-up (P = 0.02). In multiple hierarchical regressions, baseline gambling approach bias predicted monthly frequency positively (P = 0.03) and total duration of gambling episodes (P = 0.01) 6 months later, but not gambling problems or expenditure. In the Netherlands, relative to non-problem gamblers, moderate- to high-risk gamblers appear to have a stronger tendency to approach rather than to avoid gambling-related pictures compared with neutral ones. This gambling approach bias is

  3. Nutritional status and physical inactivity in moderated asthmatics: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Andreina; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Barazzoni, Rocco; Ballacchino, Antonella; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Pace, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    Preservation of nutritional status and of fat-free mass (FFM) and/or preventing of fat mass (FM) accumulation have a positive impact on well-being and prognosis in asthma patients. Physical inactivity is identified by World Health Organization as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Physical activity (PA) may contribute to limit FM accumulation, but little information is available on the interactions between habitual PA and body composition and their association with disease severity in asthma severity.Associations between habitual PA, FM, FFM, and pulmonary function were investigated in 42 subjects (24 patients with mild-moderate asthma and 18 matched control subjects). Sensewear Armband was used to measure PA and metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs) continuously over 4 days, while body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Respiratory functions were also assessed in all study participants.FM and FFM were comparable in mild-moderate asthmatics and controls, but PA was lower in asthmatics and it was negatively correlated with FM and positively with the FFM marker body cell mass in all study subjects (P < 0.05). Among asthmatics, treated moderate asthmatics (ICS, n = 12) had higher FM and lower PA, METs, steps number/die, and forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) than in untreated intermittent asthmatics (UA, n = 12).This pilot study assesses that in mild-moderate asthma patients, lower PA is associated with higher FM and higher disease severity. The current results support enhancement of habitual PA as a potential tool to limit FM accumulation and potentially contribute to preserve pulmonary function in moderate asthma, considering the physical inactivity a strong risk factor for asthma worsening.

  4. Moderate traumatic brain injury increases the vulnerability to neurotoxicity induced by systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine in mice.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Ben, Juliana; Matheus, Filipe Carvalho; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Moreira, Eduardo Luiz Gasnhar; Rial, Daniel; Walz, Roger; Prediger, Rui Daniel

    2017-05-15

    Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) might increase the vulnerability to neuronal neurodegeneration, but the basis of such selective neuronal susceptibility has remained elusive. In keeping with the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) caused by TBI, changes in BBB permeability following brain injury could facilitate the access of xenobiotics into the brain. To test this hypothesis, here we evaluated whether TBI would increase the susceptibility of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers to the systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a classic neurotoxin used to trigger a PD-like phenotype in mice, but that in normal conditions is unable to cross the BBB. Adult Swiss mice were submitted to a moderate TBI using a free weight-drop device and, 5h later, they were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 6-OHDA (100mg/kg). Afterwards, during a period of 4weeks, the mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests, including the neurological severity score (NSS), the open field and the rotarod. Animals from the TBI plus 6-OHDA group displayed significant motor and neurological impairments that were improved by acute l-DOPA administration (25mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the observation of the motor deficits correlates with (i) a significant decrease in the tyrosine hydroxylase levels mainly in the rostral striatum and (ii) a significant increase in the levels of striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels. On the whole, the present findings demonstrate that a previous moderate TBI event increases the susceptibility to motor, neurological and neurochemical alterations induced by systemic administration of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 6-OHDA in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Parental Education Moderates Genetic Influences on Reading Disability

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Angela; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental moderation of the level of genetic influence on children's reading disabilities (RD) was explored in a sample of 545 identical and fraternal twins (mean age = 11.5 years). Parents' years of education, which are correlated with a broad range of environmental factors related to reading development, were significantly related to the level of genetic influence on reading disability (t = 3.23, Prep = .99). Genetic influence was higher and environmental influence was lower among children with higher compared to children with lower parent education. We discuss the implications of these results for behavior- and molecular-genetic research, for the diagnosis and remediation of RD, and for policy in public education. PMID:19076484

  6. Ultrasound Thickness of Bladder Wall in Continent and Incontinent Women and Its Correlation with Cystometry

    PubMed Central

    Otsuki, Edney Norio; Oliveira, Emerson; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castelo; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare bladder wall thickness in two kinds of urinary incontinent women—stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) with urodynamic detrusor overactivity (DO), and to compare them with continent patients by ultrasound, also, correlate with cystometric results in incontinent women. Methods. 91 women were divided into the following groups: continent (n = 31), SUI (n = 30), and DO (n = 30) groups after clinical evaluation and urodynamic test (only in incontinent women). Transvaginal ultrasound was performed to the bladder wall thickness (BWT) measurement. The mean of BWT was calculated and data were analyzed with ANOVA and Turkey's multiple comparison tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used to compare two variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to study BWT as a diagnostic parameter. Results. BWT in DO group was significantly higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.005). A moderate positive correlation was found between BWT and maximum bladder pressure during involuntary bladder contraction. There was no difference in BWT between SUI and continent groups. DO group had lower first desire to void and cystometric capacity. Maximum bladder pressure at detrusor contraction had a moderate positive correlation with BWT. The ROC revealed an area under the curve of 0.962 (95% CI, 0.90–1.01). Conclusions. DO patients have increased bladder wall thickness, lower first desire to void, and lower cystometric capacity. There was a moderate correlation between BWT and maximum bladder pressure during involuntary bladder contraction. PMID:25538959

  7. Moderation for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Moderation is put forward as they key strategy for improving the reliability of teacher assessment. However, for many teachers the word "moderation" conjures up ideas of uncomfortable situations in which marking is being checked by others and there are prolonged arguments about tiny features of individual work. In this article, the…

  8. Lesional perfusion abnormalities in Leigh disease demonstrated by arterial spin labeling correlate with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Matthew T; Lee, Bonmyong; Gropman, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Leigh disease is a metabolic disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory chain culminating in symmetrical necrotizing lesions in the deep gray nuclei or brainstem. Apart from classic gliotic/necrotic lesions, small-vessel proliferation is also characteristic on histopathology. We have observed lesional hyperperfusion on arterial spin-labeling (ASL) sequence in children with Leigh disease. In this cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated lesional ASL perfusion characteristics in children with Leigh syndrome. We searched the imaging database from an academic children's hospital for "arterial spin labeling, perfusion, necrosis, lactate, and Leigh" to build a cohort of children for retrospective analysis. We reviewed each child's medical record to confirm a diagnosis of Leigh disease, excluding exams with artifact, technical limitations, and without ASL images. We evaluated the degree and extent of cerebral blood flow and relationship to brain lesions. Images were compared to normal exams from an aged-matche cohort. The database search yielded 45 exams; 30 were excluded. We evaluated 15 exams from 8 children with Leigh disease and 15 age-matched normal exams. In general, Leigh brain perfusion ranged from hyperintense (n=10) to hypointense (n=5). Necrotic lesions appeared hypointense/hypoperfused. Active lesions with associated restricted diffusion demonstrated hyperperfusion. ASL perfusion patterns differed significantly from those on age-matched normal studies (P=<.0001). Disease activity positively correlated with cerebral deep gray nuclei hyperperfusion (P=0.0037) and lesion grade (P=0.0256). Children with Leigh disease have abnormal perfusion of brain lesions. Hyperperfusion can be found in active brain lesions, possibly associated with small-vessel proliferation characteristic of the disease.

  9. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-12-14

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring.

  10. Novel prediction of anticancer drug chemosensitivity in cancer cell lines: evidence of moderation by microRNA expressions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to develop a novel "moderation" model of drug chemosensitivity and (2) to investigate if miRNA expression moderates the relationship between gene expression and drug chemosensitivity, specifically for HSP90 inhibitors applied to human cancer cell lines. A moderation model integrating the interaction between miRNA and gene expressions was developed to examine if miRNA expression affects the strength of the relationship between gene expression and chemosensitivity. Comprehensive datasets on miRNA expressions, gene expressions, and drug chemosensitivities were obtained from National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell lines including nine different cancer types. A workflow including steps of selecting genes, miRNAs, and compounds, correlating gene expression with chemosensitivity, and performing multivariate analysis was utilized to test the proposed model. The proposed moderation model identified 12 significantly-moderating miRNAs: miR-15b*, miR-16-2*, miR-9, miR-126*, miR-129*, miR-138, miR-519e*, miR-624*, miR-26b, miR-30e*, miR-32, and miR-196a, as well as two genes ERCC2 and SF3B1 which affect chemosensitivities of Tanespimycin and Alvespimycin - both HSP90 inhibitors. A bootstrap resampling of 2,500 times validates the significance of all 12 identified miRNAs. The results confirm that certain miRNA and gene expressions interact to produce an effect on drug response. The lack of correlation between miRNA and gene expression themselves suggests that miRNA transmits its effect through translation inhibition/control rather than mRNA degradation. The results suggest that miRNAs could serve not only as prognostic biomarkers for cancer treatment outcome but also as interventional agents to modulate desired chemosensitivity.

  11. Evaluating mediation and moderation effects in school psychology: A presentation of methods and review of current practice

    PubMed Central

    Fairchild, Amanda J.; McQuillin, Samuel D.

    2017-01-01

    Third variable effects elucidate the relation between two other variables, and can describe why they are related or under what conditions they are related. This article demonstrates methods to analyze two third-variable effects: moderation and mediation. The utility of examining moderation and mediation effects in school psychology is described and current use of the analyses in applied school psychology research is reviewed and evaluated. Proper statistical methods to test the effects are presented, and different effect size measures for the models are provided. Extensions of the basic moderator and mediator models are also described. PMID:20006988

  12. The moderating role of stakeholder management and societal characteristics in the relationship between corporate environmental and financial performance.

    PubMed

    Dal Maso, Lorenzo; Mazzi, Francesco; Soscia, Manuel; Terzani, Simone

    2018-07-15

    This study contributes to the debate about the moderating factors that affect the relationship between environmental and financial performance. Combining stakeholder theory, stakeholder salience, and legitimacy theory, and based on a large international sample, we demonstrate that stakeholder prioritization and engagement jointly positively moderate the relationship between environmental and financial performance. However, this moderating effect is only found when both formal and informal societal characteristics are strong and support the business environment surrounding the firm and its stakeholders. Contributions and implications for managers and regulators are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Multidetector-row computed tomography enterographic assessment of the ileal-anal pouch: descriptive radiologic analysis with endoscopic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Liszewski, Mark C; Sahni, V Anik; Shyn, Paul B; Friedman, Sonia; Hornick, Jason L; Erturk, Sukru M; Mortele, Koenraad J

    2012-01-01

    To describe the multidetector-row computed tomography enterographic (MD-CTE) features of the ileal-anal pouch after ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery and correlate them with pouch endoscopy and histopathologic findings. All MD-CTE examinations performed on patients who underwent IPAA from July 1, 2005 to December 1, 2010 (n = 35; 16 [45.7%] men; mean age, 37.7 years; age range, 22-72 years) were retrospectively evaluated in consensus by 2 radiologists. All studies were evaluated for the presence of multiple imaging features. Two radiographic scores were then calculated: a total radiographic score and a radiographic active inflammation score. In patients who underwent MD-CTE, pouch endoscopy, and biopsy within 30 days (n = 13), both scores were correlated with findings on pouch endoscopy and histopathology. Of the 35 patients, 33 (94%) had at least one MD-CTE finding of active or chronic pouch inflammation and 27 patients (77%) had at least one MD-CTE finding of active pouch inflammation. Of the 13 patients who underwent endoscopy and biopsy, the total radiographic score demonstrated a strong positive correlation with endoscopic score (r = 0.81; P = 0.001) and a moderate positive correlation with histopathologic score (r = 0.56; P = 0.047). The radiographic active inflammation score demonstrated a strong positive correlation with endoscopic score (r = 0.83; P = 0.0004), but only a weak nonsignificant positive correlation with histopathologic score (r = 0.492, P = 0.087). In patients who had IPAA surgery, findings on MD-CTE correlate positively with findings on pouch endoscopy and histopathology and are sensitive measures for pouch inflammation with high positive predictive value. Thus, MD-CTE can be a useful noninvasive test in the early evaluation of symptomatic patients.

  14. SOLAR CYCLE 25: ANOTHER MODERATE CYCLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M.; Jiang, J., E-mail: cameron@mps.mpg.de

    2016-06-01

    Surface flux transport simulations for the descending phase of Cycle 24 using random sources (emerging bipolar magnetic regions) with empirically determined scatter of their properties provide a prediction of the axial dipole moment during the upcoming activity minimum together with a realistic uncertainty range. The expectation value for the dipole moment around 2020 (2.5 ± 1.1 G) is comparable to that observed at the end of Cycle 23 (about 2 G). The empirical correlation between the dipole moment during solar minimum and the strength of the subsequent cycle thus suggests that Cycle 25 will be of moderate amplitude, not muchmore » higher than that of the current cycle. However, the intrinsic uncertainty of such predictions resulting from the random scatter of the source properties is considerable and fundamentally limits the reliability with which such predictions can be made before activity minimum is reached.« less

  15. Low to moderate temperature nanolaminate heater

    DOEpatents

    Eckels, J Del [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Hau-Riege, Stefan [Fremont, CA; Walton, Chris [Oakland, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2011-01-11

    A low to moderate temperature heat source comprising a high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures wherein the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is positioned between two thin pieces to form a close contact sheath. In one embodiment the high temperature energy source modified to output low to moderate temperatures is a nanolaminate multilayer foil of reactive materials that produces a heating level of less than 200.degree. C.

  16. Influence of Chronic Moderate Sleep Restriction and Exercise Training on Anxiety, Spatial Memory, and Associated Neurobiological Measures in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Mark R.; Davis, J. Mark; Fadel, James R.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep deprivation can have deleterious effects on cognitive function and mental health. Moderate exercise training has myriad beneficial effects on cognition and mental health. However, physiological and behavioral effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and its interaction with common activities, such as moderate exercise training, have received little investigation. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and moderate exercise training on anxiety-related behavior, spatial memory, and neurobiological correlates in mice. Male mice were randomized to one of four 11-week treatments in a 2 [sleep restriction (~4 h loss/day) vs. ad libitum sleep] × 2 [exercise (1 h/day/6 d/wk) vs. sedentary activity] experimental design. Anxiety-related behavior was assessed with the elevated-plus maze, and spatial learning and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze. Chronic moderate sleep restriction did not alter anxiety-related behavior, but exercise training significantly attenuated anxiety-related behavior. Spatial learning and recall, hippocampal cell activity (i.e., number of c-Fos positive cells), and brain derived neurotrophic factor were significantly lower after chronic moderate sleep restriction, but higher after exercise training. Further, the benefit of exercise training for some memory variables was evident under normal sleep, but not chronic moderate sleep restriction conditions. These data indicate clear detrimental effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction on spatial memory and that the benefits of exercise training were impaired after chronic moderate sleep restriction. PMID:23644185

  17. Influence of chronic moderate sleep restriction and exercise training on anxiety, spatial memory, and associated neurobiological measures in mice.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Mark R; Davis, J Mark; Fadel, James R; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2013-08-01

    Sleep deprivation can have deleterious effects on cognitive function and mental health. Moderate exercise training has myriad beneficial effects on cognition and mental health. However, physiological and behavioral effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and its interaction with common activities, such as moderate exercise training, have received little investigation. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction and moderate exercise training on anxiety-related behavior, spatial memory, and neurobiological correlates in mice. Male mice were randomized to one of four 11-week treatments in a 2 [sleep restriction (∼4h loss/day) vs. ad libitum sleep] × 2 [exercise (1h/day/6 d/wk) vs. sedentary activity] experimental design. Anxiety-related behavior was assessed with the elevated-plus maze, and spatial learning and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze. Chronic moderate sleep restriction did not alter anxiety-related behavior, but exercise training significantly attenuated anxiety-related behavior. Spatial learning and recall, hippocampal cell activity (i.e., number of c-Fos positive cells), and brain derived neurotrophic factor were significantly lower after chronic moderate sleep restriction, but higher after exercise training. Further, the benefit of exercise training for some memory variables was evident under normal sleep, but not chronic moderate sleep restriction conditions. These data indicate clear detrimental effects of chronic moderate sleep restriction on spatial memory and that the benefits of exercise training were impaired after chronic moderate sleep restriction. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. EEG Correlates of the Flow State: A Combination of Increased Frontal Theta and Moderate Frontocentral Alpha Rhythm in the Mental Arithmetic Task.

    PubMed

    Katahira, Kenji; Yamazaki, Yoichi; Yamaoka, Chiaki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Sayaka; Nagata, Noriko

    2018-01-01

    Flow experience is a subjective state experienced during holistic involvement in a certain activity, which has been reported to function as a factor promoting motivation, skill development, and better performance in the activity. To verify the positive effects of flow and develop a method to utilize it, the establishment of a reliable measurement of the flow state is essential. The present study utilized an electroencephalogram (EEG) during an experimentally evoked flow state and examined the possibility of objective measurement of immediate flow. A total of 16 participants (10 males, 6 females) participated in the experiment that employed a mental arithmetic task developed in a previous study. Post-trial self-report of the flow state and EEG during task execution were measured and compared among three conditions (Boredom, Flow, and Overload) that had different levels of task difficulty. Furthermore, the correlations between subjective flow items and EEG activity were examined. As expected, the ratings on the subjective evaluation items representing the flow state were the highest in the Flow condition. Regarding the EEG data, theta activities in the frontal areas were higher in the Flow and the Overload conditions than in the Boredom condition, and alpha activity in the frontal areas and the right central area gradually increased depending on the task difficulty. These EEG activities correlated with self-reported flow experience, especially items related to the concentration on the task and task difficulty. From the results, the flow state was characterized by increased theta activities in the frontal areas and moderate alpha activities in the frontal and central areas. The former may be related to a high level of cognitive control and immersion in task, and the latter suggests that the load on the working memory was not excessive. The findings of this study suggest the possibility of distinguishing the flow state from other states using multiple EEG activities

  19. EEG Correlates of the Flow State: A Combination of Increased Frontal Theta and Moderate Frontocentral Alpha Rhythm in the Mental Arithmetic Task

    PubMed Central

    Katahira, Kenji; Yamazaki, Yoichi; Yamaoka, Chiaki; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Sayaka; Nagata, Noriko

    2018-01-01

    Flow experience is a subjective state experienced during holistic involvement in a certain activity, which has been reported to function as a factor promoting motivation, skill development, and better performance in the activity. To verify the positive effects of flow and develop a method to utilize it, the establishment of a reliable measurement of the flow state is essential. The present study utilized an electroencephalogram (EEG) during an experimentally evoked flow state and examined the possibility of objective measurement of immediate flow. A total of 16 participants (10 males, 6 females) participated in the experiment that employed a mental arithmetic task developed in a previous study. Post-trial self-report of the flow state and EEG during task execution were measured and compared among three conditions (Boredom, Flow, and Overload) that had different levels of task difficulty. Furthermore, the correlations between subjective flow items and EEG activity were examined. As expected, the ratings on the subjective evaluation items representing the flow state were the highest in the Flow condition. Regarding the EEG data, theta activities in the frontal areas were higher in the Flow and the Overload conditions than in the Boredom condition, and alpha activity in the frontal areas and the right central area gradually increased depending on the task difficulty. These EEG activities correlated with self-reported flow experience, especially items related to the concentration on the task and task difficulty. From the results, the flow state was characterized by increased theta activities in the frontal areas and moderate alpha activities in the frontal and central areas. The former may be related to a high level of cognitive control and immersion in task, and the latter suggests that the load on the working memory was not excessive. The findings of this study suggest the possibility of distinguishing the flow state from other states using multiple EEG activities

  20. Intervention to induce short-term increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to determine if a short-term pedometer-based educational intervention results in short-term increases in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to an education-only intervention, and whether increases in the number of steps taken per day correlate with...

  1. Patient Satisfaction with Treatments for Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, J.; Krueger, G.G.; Robertson, A.D.; Troxel, A.B.; Shin, D.B.; Van Voorhees, A.S.; Gelfand, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment satisfaction among moderate-to-severe psoriasis patients has not been studied and compared across treatments using a validated instrument. Objectives To assess patient-reported satisfaction with systemic and phototherapy treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis in clinical practice and to correlate satisfaction with disease severity and quality of life measures. Methods Cross-sectional study of 1182 patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the Dermatology Clinical Effectiveness Research Network in the United States. Patients receiving either topical therapies only; monotherapy with oral systemic therapies, biologics, or narrowband ultraviolet B phototherapy; or combination therapy with biologics and methotrexate completed the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication version II. Results Median unadjusted Overall Satisfaction scores were highest for patients receiving biologic monotherapies, biologic-methotrexate combinations, or phototherapy (83.3); scores were lowest for those receiving topical therapies only or acitretin (66.7). In fully adjusted models, compared to patients receiving methotrexate monotherapy, those receiving adalimumab, etanercept, ustekinumab, phototherapy, or adalimumab with methotrexate had significantly higher median Overall Satisfaction scores by 7.2 to 8.3 points, while those receiving topical therapies only had significantly lower Overall Satisfaction by 8.9 points. Adjusted Convenience scores were the lowest for patients receiving topical therapies only or infliximab. Modest but significant correlations were found between Overall Satisfaction and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (ρ = −0.36, p < 0.001) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (−0.47, p < 0.001). Conclusions Discernable differences were found in treatment satisfaction among therapies, particularly regarding treatment effectiveness and convenience. Further application of treatment satisfaction measures may inform treatment decisions

  2. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X., E-mail: gallmeierfz@ornl.gov; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis comparedmore » to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm{sup 2} to 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.« less

  3. Poor sleep moderates the relationship between daytime napping and inflammation in Black and White men.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Karen P; Boylan, Jennifer M; Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-10-01

    To test whether napping was associated with 2 inflammatory markers with known relationships to cardiovascular disease: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Because IL-6 is known to impact central inflammatory processes that relate to sleep regulation, including subjective fatigue, we tested whether this relationship was moderated by sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and self-reported sleep quality. Cross-sectional. A community sample of Black and White men (N=253) completed a week of actigraphy and diary measures of sleep and napping and provided a fasting blood sample. Napping was measured as the proportion of days with at least 30 minutes napped and the average minutes napped per day. Linear regressions adjusted for race, socioeconomic status, employment, body mass index, smoking, medications that affect sleep or inflammation, working the nightshift, and day-sleeping status, followed by interaction terms between napping and sleep duration, efficiency, and quality, respectively. There were no significant main effects of actigraphy- or diary-measured napping on IL-6 or hsCRP. Moderation analyses indicated elevated IL-6 values among men who napped more days (by actigraphy) and demonstrated short sleep duration (P=.03). Moderation analyses also indicated elevated IL-6 among men who demonstrated greater average minutes napped (by actigraphy) and short sleep duration (P<.001), low efficiency (P=.03), and poor quality (P=.03). Moderation analyses involving diary napping or hsCRP were not significant. Actigraphy-assessed daytime napping is related to higher IL-6 in men who demonstrate worse sleep characteristics. Daytime napping may pose additional risk for inflammation beyond the known risk conferred by short sleep. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Moderate point: Balanced entropy and enthalpy contributions in soft matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Baoji; Wang, Yanting

    2017-03-01

    Various soft materials share some common features, such as significant entropic effect, large fluctuations, sensitivity to thermodynamic conditions, and mesoscopic characteristic spatial and temporal scales. However, no quantitative definitions have yet been provided for soft matter, and the intrinsic mechanisms leading to their common features are unclear. In this work, from the viewpoint of statistical mechanics, we show that soft matter works in the vicinity of a specific thermodynamic state named moderate point, at which entropy and enthalpy contributions among substates along a certain order parameter are well balanced or have a minimal difference. Around the moderate point, the order parameter fluctuation, the associated response function, and the spatial correlation length maximize, which explains the large fluctuation, the sensitivity to thermodynamic conditions, and mesoscopic spatial and temporal scales of soft matter, respectively. Possible applications to switching chemical bonds or allosteric biomachines determining their best working temperatures are also briefly discussed. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB932804) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274319 and 11421063).

  5. The Effect of Descriptive Norms on Pregaming Frequency: Tests of Five Moderators.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Kenney, Shannon R; Carey, Kate B

    2016-07-02

    Pregaming is highly prevalent on college campuses and associated with heightened levels of intoxication and risk of alcohol consequences. However, research examining the correlates of pregaming behavior is limited. Descriptive norms (i.e., perceptions about the prevalence or frequency of a behavior) are reliable and comparatively strong predictors of general drinking behavior, with recent evidence indicating that they are also associated with pregaming. We tested the hypothesis that higher descriptive norms for pregaming frequency would be associated with personal pregaming frequency. We also tested whether this effect would be stronger in the context of several theory-based moderators: female gender, higher injunctive norms (i.e., perceptions of others' attitudes toward a particular behavior), a more positive attitude toward pregaming, a stronger sense of identification with the drinking habits of other students, and stronger social comparison tendencies. College student drinkers (N = 198, 63% female) participated in an online survey assessing frequency of pregaming, descriptive norms, and hypothesized moderators. A multiple regression model revealed that higher descriptive norms, a more positive attitude toward pregaming, and stronger peer identification were significantly associated with greater pregaming frequency among drinkers. However, no moderators of the association between descriptive norms and pregaming frequency were observed. Descriptive norms are robust predictors of pregaming behavior, for both genders and across levels of several potential moderators. Future research seeking to understand pregaming behavior should consider descriptive norms, as well as personal attitudes and identification with student peers, as targets of interventions designed to reduce pregaming.

  6. Revisiting Interpretation of Canonical Correlation Analysis: A Tutorial and Demonstration of Canonical Commonality Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.; Gates, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In the face of multicollinearity, researchers face challenges interpreting canonical correlation analysis (CCA) results. Although standardized function and structure coefficients provide insight into the canonical variates produced, they fall short when researchers want to fully report canonical effects. This article revisits the interpretation of…

  7. Service with a smile: do emotional intelligence, gender, and autonomy moderate the emotional labor process?

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hazel-Anne M; Spector, Paul E

    2007-10-01

    This survey study of 176 participants from eight customer service organizations investigated how individual factors moderate the impact of emotional labor strategies on employee well-being. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that gender and autonomy were significant moderators of the relationships between emotional labor strategies and the personal outcomes of emotional exhaustion, affective well-being, and job satisfaction. Females were more likely to experience negative consequences when engaging in surface acting. Autonomy served to alleviate negative outcomes for individuals who used emotional labor strategies often. Contrary to our hypotheses, emotional intelligence did not moderate the relationship between the emotional labor strategies and personal outcomes. Results demonstrated how the emotional labor process can influence employee well-being. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Correlation, Cost Risk, and Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1992-01-01

    The geometric viewpoint identifies the choice of a correlation matrix for the simulation of cost risk with the pairwise choice of data vectors corresponding to the parameters used to obtain cost risk. The correlation coefficient is the cosine of the angle between the data vectors after translation to an origin at the mean and normalization for magnitude. Thus correlation is equivalent to expressing the data in terms of a non orthogonal basis. To understand the many resulting phenomena requires the use of the tensor concept of raising the index to transform the measured and observed covariant components into contravariant components before vector addition can be applied. The geometric viewpoint also demonstrates that correlation and covariance are geometric properties, as opposed to purely statistical properties, of the variates. Thus, variates from different distributions may be correlated, as desired, after selection from independent distributions. By determining the principal components of the correlation matrix, variates with the desired mean, magnitude, and correlation can be generated through linear transforms which include the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of the correlation matrix. The conversion of the data to a non orthogonal basis uses a compound linear transformation which distorts or stretches the data space. Hence, the correlated data does not have the same properties as the uncorrelated data used to generate it. This phenomena is responsible for seemingly strange observations such as the fact that the marginal distributions of the correlated data can be quite different from the distributions used to generate the data. The joint effect of statistical distributions and correlation remains a fertile area for further research. In terms of application to cost estimating, the geometric approach demonstrates that the estimator must have data and must understand that data in order to properly choose the correlation matrix appropriate for a given estimate

  9. A study of correlations in the stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Chandradew; Banerjee, Kinjal

    2015-08-01

    We study the various sectors of the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) for a period of 8 years from April 2006 to March 2014. Using the data of daily returns of a period of eight years we make a direct model free analysis of the pattern of the sectorial indices movement and the correlations among them. Our analysis shows significant auto correlation among the individual sectors and also strong cross-correlation among sectors. We also find that auto correlations in some of the sectors persist in time. This is a very significant result and has not been reported so far in Indian context. These findings will be very useful in model building for prediction of price movement of equities, derivatives and portfolio management. We show that the Random Walk Hypothesis is not applicable in modeling the Indian market and mean-variance-skewness-kurtosis based portfolio optimization might be required. We also find that almost all sectors are highly correlated during large fluctuation periods and have only moderate correlation during normal periods.

  10. Lessons Learned for Online Health Community Moderator Roles: A Mixed-Methods Study of Moderators Resigning From WebMD Communities

    PubMed Central

    Marmor, Rebecca; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    Background Online health community (OHC) moderators help facilitate conversations and provide information to members. However, the necessity of the moderator in helping members achieve goals by providing the support they need remains unclear, with some prior research suggesting that moderation is unnecessary or even harmful for close-knit OHCs. Similarly, members’ perceptions of moderator roles are underexplored. Starting January of 2013, WebMD moderators stopped working for WebMD communities. This event provided an opportunity for us to study the perceived role of moderators in OHCs. Objective We examine the OHC members’ perception on OHC moderators by studying their reactions toward the departure of moderators in their communities. We also analyzed the relative posting activity on OHCs before and after the departure of moderators from the communities among all members and those who discussed moderators’ departures. Methods We applied a mixed-methods approach to study the posts of all 55 moderated WebMD communities by querying the terms relating to discussions surrounding moderators’ disappearance from the WebMD community. We performed open and axial coding and affinity diagramming to thematically analyze patients’ reactions to the disappeared moderators. The number of posts and poster groups (members and moderators) were analyzed over time to understand posting patterns around moderators’ departure. Results Of 821 posts retrieved under 95 threads, a total of 166 open codes were generated. The codes were then grouped into 2 main themes with 6 total subthemes. First, patients attempted to understand why moderators had left and what could be done to fill the void left by the missing moderators. During these discussions, the posts revealed that patients believed that moderators played critical roles in the communities by making the communities vibrant and healthy, finding solutions, and giving medical information. Some patients felt personally attached

  11. 40 CFR 51.908 - What modeling and attainment demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... classified as moderate or higher under subpart 2 pursuant to § 51.903? An area classified as moderate or... area subject only to subpart 1 in accordance with § 51.902(b)? An area subject to § 51.902(b) shall be... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of...

  12. 40 CFR 51.908 - What modeling and attainment demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... classified as moderate or higher under subpart 2 pursuant to § 51.903? An area classified as moderate or... area subject only to subpart 1 in accordance with § 51.902(b)? An area subject to § 51.902(b) shall be... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of...

  13. 40 CFR 51.908 - What modeling and attainment demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... classified as moderate or higher under subpart 2 pursuant to § 51.903? An area classified as moderate or... area subject only to subpart 1 in accordance with § 51.902(b)? An area subject to § 51.902(b) shall be... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of...

  14. 40 CFR 51.908 - What modeling and attainment demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... classified as moderate or higher under subpart 2 pursuant to § 51.903? An area classified as moderate or... area subject only to subpart 1 in accordance with § 51.902(b)? An area subject to § 51.902(b) shall be... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of...

  15. 40 CFR 51.908 - What modeling and attainment demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... classified as moderate or higher under subpart 2 pursuant to § 51.903? An area classified as moderate or... area subject only to subpart 1 in accordance with § 51.902(b)? An area subject to § 51.902(b) shall be... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of...

  16. Early Retirement: A Meta-Analysis of Its Antecedent and Subsequent Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Topa, Gabriela; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Early or voluntary retirement (ER) can be defined as the full exit from an organizational job or career path of long duration, decided by individuals of a certain age at the mid or late career before mandatory retirement age, with the aim of reducing their attachment to work and closing a process of gradual psychological disengagement from working life. Given the swinging movements that characterize employment policies, the potential effects of ER—both for individuals and society—are still controversial. This meta-analysis examined the relationships between ER and its antecedent and subsequent correlates. Our review of the literature was generated with 151 empirical studies, containing a total number of 706,937 participants, with a wide range of sample sizes (from N = 27 to N = 127,384 participants) and 380 independent effect sizes (ESs), which included 171 independent samples. A negligible ES value for antecedent correlates of early retirement (family pull, job stress, job satisfaction, and income) was obtained (which ranged from r = −0.13 to 0.19), while a fair ES was obtained for workplace timing for retirement, organizational pressures, financial security, and poor physical and mental health, (ranging from r = 0.28 to 0.25). Regarding ER subsequent correlates, poor ESs were obtained, ranging from r = 0.08 to 0.18 for the relationships with subsequent correlates, and fair ESs only for social engagement (r = −0.25). Examination of the potential moderator variables has been conducted. Only a reduced percentage of variability of primary studies has been explained by moderators. Although potential moderator factors were examined, there are several unknown or not measurable factors which contribute to ER and about which there are very little data available. The discussion is aimed to offer theoretical and empirical implications suggestion in order to improve employee's well-being. PMID:29354075

  17. RVUs poorly correlate with measures of surgical effort and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Dhruvil R.; Bold, Richard J.; Yang, Anthony D.; Khatri, Vijay P.; Martinez, Steve R.; Canter, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between procedural relative value units (RVUs) for surgical procedures and other measures of surgeon effort are poorly characterized. We hypothesized that RVUs would poorly correlate with quantifiable metrics of surgeon effort. Methods Using the 2010 ACS-NSQIP database, we selected 11 primary CPT codes associated with high volume surgical procedures. We then identified all patients with a single reported procedural RVU who underwent non-emergent, inpatient general surgical operations. We used linear regression to correlate length of stay, operative time, overall morbidity, frequency of serious adverse events (SAEs), and mortality with RVUs. We used multivariable logistic regression using all pre-operative NSQIP variables to determine other significant predictors of our outcome measures. Results Among 14,481 patients, RVUs poorly correlated with individual length of stay (R2=0.05), operative time (R2=0.10), and mortality (R2=0.35). There was a moderate correlation between RVUs and SAEs (R2 =0.79), and RVUs and overall morbidity (R2=0.75). However, among low to mid-level RVU procedures (11 to 35) there was a poor correlation between SAEs (R2=0.15), overall morbidity (R2=0.05), and RVUs. On multivariable analysis, RVUs were significant predictors of operative time, length of stay, and SAEs (OR 1.06, 95%CI: 1.05–1.07), but RVUs were not a significant predictor of mortality (OR 1.02, 95%CI: 0.99–1.05) Conclusion For common, index general surgery procedures, the current RVU assignments poorly correlate with certain metrics of surgeon work, while moderately correlating with others. Given the increasing emphasis on measuring and tracking surgeon productivity, more objective measures of surgeon work and productivity should be developed. PMID:24953983

  18. Cortisol Covariation Within Parents of Young Children: Moderation by Relationship Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Adam, Emma K.; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Guardino, Christine M.; Simon, Clarissa; McKinney, Chelsea O.; Shalowitz, Madeleine U.; Shriver, Eunice Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Covariation in diurnal cortisol has been observed in several studies of cohabiting couples. In two such studies (Liu et al, 2013, Saxbe & Repetti, 2010), relationship distress was associated with stronger within-couple correlations, suggesting that couples’ physiological linkage with each other may indicate problematic dyadic functioning. Although intimate partner aggression has been associated with dysregulation in women’s diurnal cortisol, it has not yet been tested as a moderator of within-couple covariation. This study reports on a diverse sample of 122 parents who sampled salivary cortisol on matched days for two years following the birth of an infant. Partners showed strong positive cortisol covariation. In couples with higher levels of partner-perpetrated aggression reported by women at one year postpartum, both women and men had a flatter diurnal decrease in cortisol and stronger correlations with partners’ cortisol sampled at the same timepoints. In other words, relationship aggression was linked both with indices of suboptimal cortisol rhythms in both members of the couples and with stronger within-couple covariation coefficients. These results persisted when relationship satisfaction and demographic covariates were included in the model. During some of the sampling days, some women were pregnant with a subsequent child, but pregnancy did not significantly moderate cortisol levels or within-couple covariation. The findings suggest that couples experiencing relationship aggression have both suboptimal neuroendocrine profiles and stronger covariation. Cortisol covariation is an understudied phenomenon with potential implications for couples’ relationship functioning and physical health. PMID:26298691

  19. Coping as a mediator and moderator between intimate partner violence and symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Corral, Susana; Estévez, Ana

    2008-08-01

    This study examines the role of coping as both a moderator and a mediator of the association between intimate partner violence and women's mental health. A sample of 298 women who had suffered physical aggression completed measures of physical and psychological abuse, coping responses, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Tests of moderation consistently indicated that coping responses did not moderate the impact of intimate partner violence on symptoms of anxiety and depression, whereas tests of mediation demonstrated that disengagement coping mediated the impact of psychological abuse on distress. Thus, findings support the hypothesis that coping responses are influenced by violence itself and underline the dysfunctional nature of disengagement coping among victims.

  20. Regular moderate intake of red wine is linked to a better women's sexual health.

    PubMed

    Mondaini, Nicola; Cai, Tommaso; Gontero, Paolo; Gavazzi, Andrea; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Boddi, Vieri; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2009-10-01

    While some evidence does exist for a positive correlation between moderate wine intake and men's sexual health, there is no study addressing the potential correlation between red wine intake and women's sexual function. The aim of our study was to assess whether there is a tie between daily red wine intake and sexual function in a sample of healthy Italian women, living in the Chianti area (Tuscany) not complaining of any sexual disorders. We recruited 798 women (age 18-50), living in the Chianti area (Tuscany), not complaining of any sexual disorders. We divided the participants into three groups: daily moderate (one to two glasses) red wine intake (group 1); teetotallers (group 2); and daily intake of more than two glasses of red wine and/or other types of alcoholic drinks (including white wine), as well as of those reporting occasional drinking (group 3). All participants completed anonymously the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire and were asked to report on their amount and type of alcohol consumption. Group 1 had significantly higher total (P = 0.001), as well as desire and lubrication domain (P = 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively) FSFI scores than participants in groups 2 and 3. No significant differences between the groups were observed concerning sexual arousal, satisfaction, pain, and orgasm. Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation between age, alcohol consumption (P = 0.009), and a better score at questionnaire examination. During multivariate analysis, alcohol consumption was identified as an independent prognostic parameter (P = 0.002) in predicting the better score at questionnaire examination. The finding that regular moderate intake of red wine is associated with higher FSFI scores for both sexual desire, lubrication, and overall sexual function as compared to the teetotaller status is intriguing. While this finding needs to be interpreted with some caution, because of the small sample size, self-reported data, and the

  1. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    PubMed Central

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  2. Body Mass Index and Phenotype in Mild-to-Moderate Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, E. Rand; Lehman, Erik B.; Teodorescu, Mihaela; Wechsler, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Background While obesity has been hypothesized to worsen asthma, data from studies of well-characterized asthmatics are lacking. Objective Evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI), asthma impairment and response to therapy. Methods BMI (kg/m2) and asthma phenotypic and treatment response data were extracted from Asthma Clinical Research Network (ACRN) studies. The cross-sectional relationship between BMI and asthma impairment was analyzed, as was the longitudinal relationship between BMI and response to asthma controller therapies. Results 1,265 subjects with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma were evaluated. Analyses of lean vs. overweight/obese asthmatics demonstrated small differences in FEV1 (3.05 vs. 2.91 L, p=0.001), FEV1/FVC (mean 83.5% vs. 82.4%, p=0.01), rescue albuterol use (1.1 vs. 1.2 puffs/day, p=0.03) and asthma-related quality of life (5.77 vs. 5.59, p=0.0004). Overweight/obese asthmatics demonstrated a smaller improvement in exhaled nitric oxide with inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment than did lean asthmatics (3.6 vs. 6.5ppb, p=0.04). With ICS/long-acting beta agonist treatment, overweight/obese asthmatics demonstrated smaller improvements in lung function than lean asthmatics, with an 80mL (p=0.04) and 1.7% (p=0.02) lesser improvement in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio, respectively. Significant differences in therapeutic response to leukotriene modifiers between BMI categories were not observed. Conclusions Elevated BMI is not associated with clinically-significant worsening of impairment in patients with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma. There is a modest association between elevated BMI and reduced therapeutic effect of ICS-containing regimens in this patient population. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of overweight and obesity on treatment response in asthma are warranted. Clinical Implications In individuals with mild to moderate persistent asthma, being overweight or obese does not appear to modify indices of asthma

  3. Interest Congruency as a Moderator of the Relationships between Job Tenure and Job Satisfaction and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Kenneth; Wiener, Yoash

    1977-01-01

    In a sample of 54 middle managers, significant moderator effects were found for the mental health indices of self-esteem, life-satisfaction, and overall mental health and for satisfaction with supervision. These indices correlated positively with job tenure for high congruency individuals. For low congruency individuals, the obtained correlations…

  4. Acquisition, Maintenance and Generalization of Vending Machine Purchasing Skills by Moderately Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nietupski, John; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four elementary age moderately disabled students were taught to use a picture-prompt prosthetic to make vending machine purchases. All students reached criterion on the vending machine use task, demonstrated partial generalization to untrained machines, and three Ss exhibited maintenance as much as six weeks beyond the termination of instruction.…

  5. Towards Assisted Moderation in Online Healthcare Social Networks: Improving Trust in YouTube Searches.

    PubMed

    Cañon, Daniel E; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Moderation of content in online Health Social Networks (HSN) is critical because information is not only published and produced by experts or health professionals, but also by users of that information. The objective of this paper is to propose a semi-automatic moderation Web Service for assessing the quality (trustworthiness) of health-related videos published on the YouTube social network. The service is relevant for moderators or community managers, who get enabled to control the quality of videos published on their online HSN sites. The HealthTrust metric was selected as the metric to be implemented in the service in order to support the assessment of trustworthiness of videos in Online HSN. The service is a RESTful service which can be integrated into open source Virtual Social Network Platforms, therefore improving trust in the process of searching and publishing content extracted from YouTube. A preliminary pilot evaluation in a simple use case demonstrated that the relevance of videos retrieved using the moderation service was higher compared to the relevance of the videos retrieved using the YouTube search engine.

  6. IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY TRANSPORTATION TASK REPORT ON ACHIEVING MODERATOR EXCLUSION AND SUPPORTING STANDARDIZED TRANSPORTATION

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    Following the defunding of the Yucca Mountain Project, it is reasonable to assume that commercial used fuel will remain in storage for the foreseeable future. This report proposes supplementing the ongoing research and development work related to potential degradation of used fuel, baskets, poisons, and storage canisters during an extended period of storage with a parallel path. This parallel path can assure criticality safety during transportation by implementing a concept that achieves moderator exclusion (no in-leakage of moderator into the used fuel cavity). Using updated risk assessment insights for additional technical justification and relying upon a component inside of themore » transportation cask that provides a watertight function, a strong argument can be made that moderator intrusion is not credible and should not be a required assumption for criticality evaluations during normal conditions of transportation. A demonstrating testing program supporting a detailed analytical effort as well as updated risk assessment insights can provide the basis for moderator exclusion during hypothetical accident conditions. This report also discusses how this engineered concept can support the goal of standardized transportation.« less

  7. Attachment styles, grief responses, and the moderating role of coping strategies in parents bereaved by the Sewol ferry accident

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous studies on the influence of different types of attachment on grief responses have yielded contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted to identify the psychological processes that moderate the relationship between attachment representations and patterns of grief in disaster-related grief. Objective: The present study examines the effects of different attachment types on the grief responses of parents bereaved by loss of a child in a ferry accident, along with the moderating role of coping strategies. Methods: Bereaved parents (n = 81) completed self-report questionnaires evaluating attachment, coping strategies, complicated grief, and shame/guilt. We performed correlational analyses to examine the associations among variables. We also conducted hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses to examine the moderation effects of coping strategies. Results: Anxious attachment was associated with severe shame/guilt, and avoidant attachment correlated with complicated grief. Anxious attachment was positively associated with all types of coping strategies, and avoidant attachment was negatively related to problem- and emotion-focused coping. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was a significant moderator of the relationship between the avoidant attachment dimension and shame/guilt. Avoidant attachment had a significant effect on shame/guilt in groups with a high level of problem-focused coping. In contrast, none of the coping strategies significantly moderated the relationship between anxious attachment and grief response. Conclusions: The results suggest that people with highly avoidant attachment might be overwhelmed by shame and guilt when they try to use problem-focused coping strategies. This finding suggests that grief interventions should be organized with consideration of individual differences in attachment representations. PMID:29372009

  8. Attachment styles, grief responses, and the moderating role of coping strategies in parents bereaved by the Sewol ferry accident.

    PubMed

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous studies on the influence of different types of attachment on grief responses have yielded contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted to identify the psychological processes that moderate the relationship between attachment representations and patterns of grief in disaster-related grief. Objective : The present study examines the effects of different attachment types on the grief responses of parents bereaved by loss of a child in a ferry accident, along with the moderating role of coping strategies. Methods : Bereaved parents ( n  = 81) completed self-report questionnaires evaluating attachment, coping strategies, complicated grief, and shame/guilt. We performed correlational analyses to examine the associations among variables. We also conducted hierarchical regression analyses and simple slope analyses to examine the moderation effects of coping strategies. Results : Anxious attachment was associated with severe shame/guilt, and avoidant attachment correlated with complicated grief. Anxious attachment was positively associated with all types of coping strategies, and avoidant attachment was negatively related to problem- and emotion-focused coping. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was a significant moderator of the relationship between the avoidant attachment dimension and shame/guilt. Avoidant attachment had a significant effect on shame/guilt in groups with a high level of problem-focused coping. In contrast, none of the coping strategies significantly moderated the relationship between anxious attachment and grief response. Conclusions : The results suggest that people with highly avoidant attachment might be overwhelmed by shame and guilt when they try to use problem-focused coping strategies. This finding suggests that grief interventions should be organized with consideration of individual differences in attachment representations.

  9. Jumping and hopping in elite and amateur orienteering athletes and correlations to sprinting and running.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Jensen, Kurt; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-11-01

    Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening-cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlations with sprinting and/or running have been examined in orienteering athletes. The authors investigated squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), and hopping performed by 8 elite and 8 amateur male foot-orienteering athletes (29 ± 7 y, 183 ± 5 cm, 73 ± 7 kg) and possible correlations to road, path, and forest running and sprinting performance, as well as running economy, velocity at anaerobic threshold, and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) from treadmill assessments. During SJs and CMJs, elites demonstrated superior relative peak forces, times to peak force, and prestretch augmentation, albeit lower SJ heights and peak powers. Between-groups differences were unclear for CMJ heights, hopping stiffness, and most SLJ parameters. Large pairwise correlations were observed between relative peak and time to peak forces and sprinting velocities; time to peak forces and running velocities; and prestretch augmentation and forest-running velocities. Prestretch augmentation and time to peak forces were moderately correlated to VO(2peak). Correlations between running economy and jumping or hopping were small or trivial. Overall, the elites exhibited superior stretch-shortening-cycle utilization and rapid generation of high relative maximal forces, especially vertically. These functional measures were more closely related to sprinting and/or running abilities, indicating benefits of lower-body training in orienteering.

  10. Do Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears Correlate With Sleep Disturbance?

    PubMed

    Reyes, Bryan A; Hull, Brandon R; Kurth, Alexander B; Kukowski, Nathan R; Mulligan, Edward P; Khazzam, Michael S

    2017-11-01

    Many patients with rotator cuff tears suffer from nocturnal shoulder pain, resulting in sleep disturbance. To determine whether rotator cuff tear size correlated with sleep disturbance in patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with a diagnosis of unilateral full-thickness rotator cuff tears (diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a visual analog scale (VAS) quantifying their shoulder pain, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) questionnaire. Shoulder MRI scans were analyzed for anterior-posterior tear size (mm), tendon retraction (mm), Goutallier grade (0-4), number of tendons involved (1-4), muscle atrophy (none, mild, moderate, or severe), and humeral head rise (present or absent). Bivariate correlations were calculated between the MRI characteristics and baseline survey results. A total of 209 patients with unilateral full-thickness rotator cuff tears were included in this study: 112 (54%) female and 97 (46%) male (mean age, 64.1 years). On average, shoulder pain had been present for 24 months. The mean PSQI score was 9.8, and the mean VAS score was 5.0. No significant correlations were found between any of the rotator cuff tear characteristics and sleep quality. Only tendon retraction had a significant correlation with pain. Although rotator cuff tears are frequently associated with nocturnal pain and sleep disruption, this study demonstrated that morphological characteristics of full-thickness rotator cuff tears, such as size and tendon retraction, do not correlate with sleep disturbance and have little to no correlation with pain levels.

  11. Tumble Graphs: Avoiding Misleading End Point Extrapolation When Graphing Interactions From a Moderated Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Todd E.

    2016-01-01

    This article revisits how the end points of plotted line segments should be selected when graphing interactions involving a continuous target predictor variable. Under the standard approach, end points are chosen at ±1 or 2 standard deviations from the target predictor mean. However, when the target predictor and moderator are correlated or the…

  12. A Prospective Randomized Study of Brain Tissue Oxygen Pressure-Guided Management in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Min; Lin, Ming-Chin; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chao, Dan-Ping; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Ma, Hsin-I; Liu, Ming-Ying; Chung, Wen-Yuh; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Tsai, Shin-Han; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Lin, Mau-Roung; Jen, Sen-Li; Wei, Li; Wu, Chung-Che; Lin, En-Yuan; Liao, Kuo-Hsing; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Jia-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of PbtO2-guided therapy with traditional intracranial pressure- (ICP-) guided treatment on the management of cerebral variables, therapeutic interventions, survival rates, and neurological outcomes of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. From 2009 to 2010, TBI patients with a Glasgow coma scale <12 were recruited from 6 collaborative hospitals in northern Taiwan, excluding patients with severe systemic injuries, fixed and dilated pupils, and other major diseases. In total, 23 patients were treated with PbtO2-guided management (PbtO2 > 20 mmHg), and 27 patients were treated with ICP-guided therapy (ICP < 20 mmHg and CPP > 60 mmHg) in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NICU); demographic characteristics were similar across groups. The survival rate in the PbtO2-guided group was also significantly increased at 3 and 6 months after injury. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between the PbtO2 signal and Glasgow outcome scale-extended in patients from 1 to 6 months after injury. This finding demonstrates that therapy directed by PbtO2 monitoring is valuable for the treatment of patients with moderate and severe TBI and that increasing PaO2 to 150 mmHg may be efficacious for preventing cerebral hypoxic events after brain trauma.

  13. Self-Efficacy and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Heart Failure Patients in Singapore: A Descriptive Correlational Study.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Rajasekaram; Wang, Wenru; Koh, Karen W L; Shorey, Shefaly; Lopez, Violeta

    2018-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) accounts for 30% of all global deaths and Asians are likely to suffer from HF 10 years earlier than their Western counterparts. Low self-efficacy and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have been reported in patients with HF. A descriptive correlational design was adopted to investigate the associations between self-efficacy and HRQoL in 91 patients with HF in Singapore. Patients with HF demonstrated moderately good self-efficacy ( M = 3.05, SD = 0.61) and HRQoL ( M = 22.48, SD = 18.99). Significant differences were found between total self-efficacy scores and education levels ( p = .05), and between overall HRQoL and smoking status ( p < .05). Self-efficacy was not significantly correlated to HRQoL. Smoking status, HF classification, and self-efficacy in maintaining function predicted HRQoL. Health care professionals should assess each patient's demographics, smoking status, and clinical condition before delivering individualized education to enhance their self-efficacy and, in turn, overall HRQoL.

  14. Lubricant shear thinning behavior correlated with variation of radius of gyration via molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pinzhi; Lu, Jie; Yu, Hualong; Ren, Ning; Lockwood, Frances E.; Wang, Q. Jane

    2017-08-01

    The shear thinning of a lubricant significantly affects lubrication film generation at high shear rates. The critical shear rate, defined at the onset of shear thinning, marks the transition of lubricant behaviors. It is challenging to capture the entire shear-thinning curve by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations owing to the low signal-to-noise ratio or long calculation time at comparatively low shear rates (104-106 s-1), which is likely coincident with the shear rates of interest for lubrication applications. This paper proposes an approach that correlates the shear-thinning phenomenon with the change in the molecular conformation characterized by the radius of gyration of the molecule. Such a correlation should be feasible to capture the major mechanism of shear thinning for small- to moderate-sized non-spherical molecules, which is shear-induced molecular alignment. The idea is demonstrated by analyzing the critical shear rate for squalane (C30H62) and 1-decene trimer (C30H62); it is then implemented to study the behaviors of different molecular weight poly-α-olefin (PAO) structures. Time-temperature-pressure superpositioning (TTPS) is demonstrated and it helps further extend the ranges of the temperature and pressure for shear-thinning behavior analyses. The research leads to a relationship between molecular weight and critical shear rate for PAO structures, and the results are compared with those from the Einstein-Debye equation.

  15. Correlational Study of Diabetic Retinopathy and Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Ooley, Caroline; Jun, Weon; Le, Kim; Kim, Allen; Rock, Nathan; Cardenal, Molly; Kline, Rebecca; Aldrich, Drew; Hayes, John

    2017-03-01

    Our research goal was to complete a retrospective chart review to determine if there is a correlation between the level of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic neurosensory hearing loss. A retrospective analysis of 175 Department of Veterans Affairs Computerized Patient Record System charts was completed at the VA Portland Health Care System. Subjects were classified by degree of diabetic retinopathy as follows: no diabetic retinopathy (n = 80), mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 51), moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (n = 25), and combined severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 17). Degree of sensorineural hearing was collected for each ear. Additionally, measures of diabetic control, including hemoglobin A1C, and creatinine, were recorded. After controlling for diabetic control, as measured by HbA1C and creatinine, level of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with hearing loss severity in both ears (right ear, P = .018 and left ear, P = .007). When adjusted to include diabetes control, the severity of diabetic retinopathy showed a correlation with degree of hearing loss at most levels. Because of this association, recommendation for hearing evaluations may be considered for those with mild, moderate, or severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Cortical Correlates of Binaural Temporal Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Eddins, Ann Clock; Eddins, David A

    This study was designed to evaluate binaural temporal processing in young and older adults using a binaural masking level difference (BMLD) paradigm. Using behavioral and electrophysiological measures within the same listeners, a series of stimulus manipulations was used to evaluate the relative contribution of binaural temporal fine-structure and temporal envelope cues. We evaluated the hypotheses that age-related declines in the BMLD task would be more strongly associated with temporal fine-structure than envelope cues and that age-related declines in behavioral measures would be correlated with cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) measures. Thirty adults participated in the study, including 10 young normal-hearing, 10 older normal-hearing, and 10 older hearing-impaired adults with bilaterally symmetric, mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Behavioral and CAEP thresholds were measured for diotic (So) and dichotic (Sπ) tonal signals presented in continuous diotic (No) narrowband noise (50-Hz wide) maskers. Temporal envelope cues were manipulated by using two different narrowband maskers; Gaussian noise (GN) with robust envelope fluctuations and low-noise noise (LNN) with minimal envelope fluctuations. The potential to use temporal fine-structure cues was controlled by varying the signal frequency (500 or 4000 Hz), thereby relying on the natural decline in phase-locking with increasing frequency. Behavioral and CAEP thresholds were similar across groups for diotic conditions, while the masking release in dichotic conditions was larger for younger than for older participants. Across all participants, BMLDs were larger for GN than LNN and for 500-Hz than for 4000-Hz conditions, where envelope and fine-structure cues were most salient, respectively. Specific age-related differences were demonstrated for 500-Hz dichotic conditions in GN and LNN, reflecting reduced binaural temporal fine-structure coding. No significant age effects were observed for 4000

  17. ModerateDrinking.com and Moderation Management: Outcomes of a Randomized Clinical Trial with Non-Dependent Problem Drinkers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Reid K.; Delaney, Harold D.; Campbell, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based protocol, ModerateDrinking.com (MD; "www.moderatedrinking.com") combined with use of the online resources of Moderation Management (MM; "www.moderation.org") as opposed to the use of the online resources of MM alone. Method: We randomly assigned 80 problem drinkers to…

  18. Children’s Mathematics and Verbal Self-concepts and Externalizing Behaviors: The Moderating Role of Peer Rejection at School

    PubMed Central

    Passiatore, Ylenia; Grimaldi Capitello, Teresa; De Stasio, Simona; Millioni, Michela; Gentile, Simonetta; Fiorilli, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has found a strong correlation between children’s academic self-concept and their behavioral problems. The present study examined whether children’s peer rejection moderated the relationship between children’s math and verbal self-concepts and their behavioral problems at school. We expected that children’s social competence, as measured by peer rejection, moderated the negative effect of low self-concept on children’s externalizing behaviors. Participants were 173 children (males = 93, Mage = 10.31 years, SD = 1.43). The main findings showed that peer rejection moderated the effect of both low verbal and math self-concepts on children’s externalizing behavior. The results are discussed in terms of the protective factor played by children’s social competence reducing the impact of low self-concept on children’s externalizing behaviors. PMID:29163290

  19. Evaluation of the Ganglion Cell Complex and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Low, Moderate, and High Myopia: A Study by RTVue Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Sezgin Akcay, Betul Ilkay; Gunay, Betul Onal; Kardes, Esra; Unlu, Cihan; Ergin, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effect of low, moderate, and high myopia on the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and Ganglion cell complex (GCC) measured by Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in non-glaucomatous subjects. The subjects were divided into three groups: low (n = 81, 35.6%), moderate (n = 79, 34.8%), and highly myopic eyes (n = 67, 29.5%). The RNFL thickness profile, including the average, superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal quadrant and each of the eight directional thicknesses, was measured. GCC parameters, including the average, superior, and inferior values, the focal loss volume (FLV), and the global loss volume (GLV), were measured. The correlation between the OCT measurements and the axial length was evaluated. The average, superior, inferior, and nasal RNFL thicknesses of low and moderate myopic eyes were found to be significantly higher than those of highly myopic eyes. The temporal RNFL thicknesses were not different among the three groups. The average, superior, and inferior ganglion cell complex values of low and moderate myopic eyes were significantly higher than those of highly myopic eyes. The FLV and GLV of low and moderate myopic eyes were significantly higher than those of highly myopic eyes (p = 0.001 for all). In the moderate and high myopia groups, the average RNFL thickness and GCC thickness were both negatively correlated with the axial length. Highly myopic subjects tend to have thinner RNFL and GCC thicknesses than subjects with low and moderate myopia.

  20. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-03

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging.

  1. Correlation Plenoptic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Milena; Pepe, Francesco V.; Garuccio, Augusto; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2016-06-01

    Plenoptic imaging is a promising optical modality that simultaneously captures the location and the propagation direction of light in order to enable three-dimensional imaging in a single shot. However, in standard plenoptic imaging systems, the maximum spatial and angular resolutions are fundamentally linked; thereby, the maximum achievable depth of field is inversely proportional to the spatial resolution. We propose to take advantage of the second-order correlation properties of light to overcome this fundamental limitation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that the correlation in both momentum and position of chaotic light leads to the enhanced refocusing power of correlation plenoptic imaging with respect to standard plenoptic imaging.

  2. Parental and emerging adult psychopathology: Moderated mediation by gender and affect toward parents.

    PubMed

    Walker, Courtney S; McKinney, Cliff

    2015-10-01

    Current research indicates that children tend to view parents with psychopathology more negatively and children who hold negative perceptions of parents are at a greater risk for psychopathology. Yet, less research examines how parental psychopathology influences offspring psychopathology through affect toward parents. The current study tested a model that examined the associations among parental psychopathology, positive affect toward parents, and emerging adult psychopathology. Associations were expected to be partly indirect via positive affect toward parents and emerging adult gender was expected to moderate these associations. Results indicated gender-moderated mediation with significant effects found for males but not females. Results from the current study emphasize the importance of examining affect toward parents as a risk factor for emerging adult psychopathology. Additionally, results of the current study demonstrate the importance of examining the role of emerging adult gender as a potential moderator in these relationships. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impulsivity as a Moderator and Mediator between Life Stress and Pathological Gambling among Chinese Treatment-Seeking Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum; Wu, Anise M. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of impulsivity and its interplay with gambling correlates in influencing the severity of pathological gambling in Chinese societies. It also investigated the extent to which impulsivity would moderate and/or mediate the relationship between life stress and pathological gambling in 94 Chinese treatment-seeking gamblers.…

  4. Using the Graded Response Model to Control Spurious Interactions in Moderated Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Brendan J.; Johanson, George A.; Griffeth, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent simulation research has demonstrated that using simple raw score to operationalize a latent construct can result in inflated Type I error rates for the interaction term of a moderated statistical model when the interaction (or lack thereof) is proposed at the latent variable level. Rescaling the scores using an appropriate item response…

  5. Cardiac Vagal Control and Depressive Symptoms: The Moderating Role of Sleep Quality

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2017-01-01

    Lower cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to greater depression. However, this link has not been consistently demonstrated, suggesting the presence of key moderators. Sleep plausibly is one such factor. Therefore, we investigated whether sleep quality moderates the link between CVC (quantified by high-frequency heart rate variability, HF-HRV) and depressive symptoms (assessed using established questionnaires) in 29 healthy women. Results revealed a significant interaction between HF-HRV and sleep quality in predicting depressive symptoms: participants with lower HF-HRV reported elevated depressive symptoms only when sleep quality was also low. In contrast, HF-HRV was not associated with depressive symptoms when sleep quality was high, suggesting a protective function of high sleep quality in the context of lower CVC. PMID:27149648

  6. Moderation of age, sex, and ethnicity on psychosocial predictors of increased exercise and improved eating.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2013-01-01

    Although research indicates that treatment-induced improvements in self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy significantly predict increased exercise and improved eating, moderation by participants' personal characteristics is largely unknown. Severely obese adults (N = 414; 47% White, 53% African American) volunteered for a behavioral exercise and nutrition treatment and demonstrated significant within-group improvements in self-efficacy for exercise, self-regulation for exercise, mood, self-efficacy for controlled eating, self-regulation for controlled eating, exercise volume, and fruit and vegetable intake over 26 weeks. After testing age, sex, and race/ethnicity as possible moderators of the prediction of changes in exercise volume and fruit and vegetable consumption by changes in self-regulation, mood, and self-efficacy, only age significantly moderated change in volume of exercise. Implications for theory and treatment were discussed.

  7. Correlation and comparative analysis of the CPQ8-10 and child-OIDP indexes for dental caries and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Rodrigues, Lucas; Ramos-Jorge, Joana; Drumond, Clarissa Lopes; Diniz, Priscilla Barboza; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2017-12-18

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the Child Perceptions Questionnaire 8 to 10 (CPQ8-10) and child-Oral Impact on Daily Performances (child-OIDP) indexes according to their total and item scores, as well as assess the discriminative validity of these assessment tools regarding dental caries and malocclusion among schoolchildren. A sample of 300 children aged between 8 and 10 years answered the questionnaires in two distinct steps. First, half of the sample (G1 = 150) answered the CPQ8-10 and the other half (G2 = 150) answered the child-OIDP. A week after, G1 answered the child-OIDP and G2 answered the CPQ8-10. Dental Aesthetic Index and WHO criteria were used to categorize malocclusion and dental caries, respectively. Descriptive analysis, Spearman's correlation and Mann-Whitney test were performed in this study. The CPQ8-10 and child-OIDP demonstrated a statistically significant and moderate correlation between their total scores. Regarding the discriminative validity, CPQ8-10 demonstrated a significant association between the "emotional status" daily activity and dental caries, and between the "eating", "sleeping", and "studying" daily activities and malocclusion. Concerning the child-OIDP, a significant difference was found only between the "social contact" activity and presence of dental caries. Both instruments were not capable of distinguishing children with and without dental caries and/or malocclusion by their total scores. However, the instruments were able to discriminate between children with and without those oral disorders in different dimensions. Thus, the CPQ8-10 and the child-OIDP demonstrated a different capacity to assess the impact on OHRQoL among schoolchildren.

  8. Relationship Functioning Moderates the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Life Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Trombello, Joseph M.; Schoebi, Dominik; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2017-01-01

    Data from 172 newlywed couples were collected over the first 4 years of marriage to test how behaviors demonstrated during marital interactions moderate associations between depressive symptoms and subsequent life stressors. Depressive symptoms and behaviors coded from problem-solving and social support interactions were analyzed as predictors of nonmarital stressors that were interpersonal and dependent on the participant's actions. Behavioral codes were found to moderate 3 of 16 symptom-to-life event associations for husbands. Husbands' reports of more depressive symptoms predicted greater levels of stress when husbands' positive affect and hard negative affect during problem-solving were relatively infrequent and when wives made frequent displays of positive behaviors during husbands' support topics. These effects remained after controlling for marital satisfaction. For wives, behavioral moderators did not interact with depressive symptoms to predict changes in stress, but marital satisfaction consistently interacted with depressive symptoms to predict future stressors beyond interpersonal behaviors. Specifically, for wives, stress generation was more evident when relationship satisfaction was low than when it was high. Our results, though different for men and women, suggest that relationship functioning can alter associations between depressive symptoms and life stress in the early years of marriage. PMID:21355647

  9. Motivational Basis of Personality Traits: A Meta-Analysis of Value-Personality Correlations.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald; Boer, Diana

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the relationships between personality traits and basic value dimensions. Furthermore, we developed novel country-level hypotheses predicting that contextual threat moderates value-personality trait relationships. We conducted a three-level v-known meta-analysis of correlations between Big Five traits and Schwartz's (1992) 10 values involving 9,935 participants from 14 countries. Variations in contextual threat (measured as resource threat, ecological threat, and restrictive social institutions) were used as country-level moderator variables. We found systematic relationships between Big Five traits and human values that varied across contexts. Overall, correlations between Openness traits and the Conservation value dimension and Agreeableness traits and the Transcendence value dimension were strongest across all samples. Correlations between values and all personality traits (except Extraversion) were weaker in contexts with greater financial, ecological, and social threats. In contrast, stronger personality-value links are typically found in contexts with low financial and ecological threats and more democratic institutions and permissive social context. These effects explained on average more than 10% of the variability in value-personality correlations. Our results provide strong support for systematic linkages between personality and broad value dimensions, but they also point out that these relations are shaped by contextual factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Relationship between Academic Achievement and the Emotional Well-Being of Elementary School Children in China: The Moderating Role of Parent-School Communication

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between academic achievement and the subjective well-being of elementary school children has received increasing attention. However, previous research on the relationship between these variables has yielded inconsistent conclusions – possibly due to the presence of potential moderating variables. This study investigated the relationship between the academic achievement and the emotional well-being (positive and negative affect) of elementary school children in China and the moderating effect of parent–school communication on this relationship. A total of 419 elementary school students and their parents participated. The elementary students’ positive and negative affect, their academic achievement on both midterm and final examinations of the most recent semester, and the frequency of parent–school communication were assessed. Academic achievement of elementary students was positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative affect. Parent–school communication significantly moderated this relationship. Regardless of positive or negative affect, the correlation was only significant in the high parent–school communication group (one standard deviation higher than the mean) and in the mean group, whereas in the low parent–school communication group, no association was observed. These results indicate that parental engagement with school impacts both the academic achievements and subjective well-being of children in China. PMID:27445915

  11. The Relationship between Academic Achievement and the Emotional Well-Being of Elementary School Children in China: The Moderating Role of Parent-School Communication.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bo; Zhou, Huan; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between academic achievement and the subjective well-being of elementary school children has received increasing attention. However, previous research on the relationship between these variables has yielded inconsistent conclusions - possibly due to the presence of potential moderating variables. This study investigated the relationship between the academic achievement and the emotional well-being (positive and negative affect) of elementary school children in China and the moderating effect of parent-school communication on this relationship. A total of 419 elementary school students and their parents participated. The elementary students' positive and negative affect, their academic achievement on both midterm and final examinations of the most recent semester, and the frequency of parent-school communication were assessed. Academic achievement of elementary students was positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative affect. Parent-school communication significantly moderated this relationship. Regardless of positive or negative affect, the correlation was only significant in the high parent-school communication group (one standard deviation higher than the mean) and in the mean group, whereas in the low parent-school communication group, no association was observed. These results indicate that parental engagement with school impacts both the academic achievements and subjective well-being of children in China.

  12. The correlation between highly sensitive C-reactive protein levels and erectile function among men with late-onset hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Ijima, Masashi; Nohara, Takahiro; Narimoto, Kazutaka; Izumi, Koji; Kadono, Yoshifumi; Kitagawa, Yasuhide; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the correlation between highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and erectile function, and assessed the clinical role of hs-CRP levels in men with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) syndrome. For 77 participants, we assessed Sexual Health Inventory for men (SHIM) score, Aging Male Symptoms (AMS) score and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). We also evaluated free testosterone (FT), hs-CRP, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, waist size and blood pressure. We attempted to identify parameters correlated with SHIM score and to determine the factors affecting cardiovascular risk based on hs-CRP levels. A Spearman rank correlation test revealed that age, AMS score, IPSS and hs-CRP levels were significantly correlated with SHIM score. Age-adjusted analysis revealed that hs-CRP and IPSS were the independent factors affecting SHIM score (r= -0.304 and -0.322, respectively). Seventeen patients belonged to the moderate to high risk group for cardiovascular disease, whereas the remaining 60 belonged to the low risk group. Age, FT value and SHIM score showed significant differences between the two groups. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that SHIM score was an independent factor affecting cardiovascular risk (OR: 0.796; 95%CI: 0.637-0.995).

  13. The Virtuous Drinker: Character Virtues as Correlates and Moderators of College Student Drinking and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Diane E.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the relationship between alcohol use and positive psychology’s character virtues1 in a college student sample. Each of the virtues of wisdom, courage, humanity, justice, temperance, and transcendence were examined as protective factors and moderators of drinking consequences. Participants This sample included 425 undergraduate students at a large Northwest University (69% female; 52% Caucasian, 34% Asian). Methods Participants completed paper and pencil questionnaires during October and November 2006 in exchange for extra credit in psychology classes. Results Higher temperance scores were associated with abstinence, lower risk drinking, and fewer consequences among heavy drinkers; both increased justice and transcendence were independently associated with abstinence only; and wisdom, courage, and humanity were not associated with any outcomes. Conclusions The associations between virtues and college student drinking support a collaboration between addictive behaviors and positive psychology to address college student drinking and minimize consequences. PMID:20159755

  14. Body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents: the moderating role of self-compassion.

    PubMed

    Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Taephant, Nattasuda; Attasaranya, Ploychompoo

    2014-01-01

    Body image satisfaction significantly influences self-esteem in female adolescents. Increased reports of lowered satisfaction in this population have raised concerns regarding their compromised self-esteem. This research study, therefore, sought to identify a culturally significant moderator of the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem in Thai female adolescents. Orientation toward self-compassion, found to be particularly high in Thailand, was examined. A total of 302 Thai female undergraduates from three large public and private universities in the Bangkok metropolitan area responded to a set of questionnaires, which measured demographic information, body image satisfaction, self-compassion, and self-esteem. Data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Self-compassion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. Although its effect was relatively small, self-compassion significantly moderated the positive relationship between body image satisfaction and self-esteem. The relationship became less stringent for those with high self-compassion. The cultivation of self-compassion was recommended in female adolescents. In addition to moderating the association between body image satisfaction and self-esteem, the benefits to health and well-being of generalizing this cultivation are discussed.

  15. Unique effects and moderators of effects of sources on self-efficacy: A model-based meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Diestelmann, Jacob; Savoy, Julia N; Hoyt, William T

    2017-11-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs are strong predictors of academic pursuits, performance, and persistence, and in theory are developed and maintained by 4 classes of experiences Bandura (1986) referred to as sources: performance accomplishments (PA), vicarious learning (VL), social persuasion (SP), and affective arousal (AA). The effects of sources on self-efficacy vary by performance domain and individual difference factors. In this meta-analysis (k = 61 studies of academic self-efficacy; N = 8,965), we employed B. J. Becker's (2009) model-based approach to examine cumulative effects of the sources as a set and unique effects of each source, controlling for the others. Following Becker's recommendations, we used available data to create a correlation matrix for the 4 sources and self-efficacy, then used these meta-analytically derived correlations to test our path model. We further examined moderation of these associations by subject area (STEM vs. non-STEM), grade, sex, and ethnicity. PA showed by far the strongest unique association with self-efficacy beliefs. Subject area was a significant moderator, with sources collectively predicting self-efficacy more strongly in non-STEM (k = 14) compared with STEM (k = 47) subjects (R2 = .37 and .22, respectively). Within studies of STEM subjects, grade level was a significant moderator of the coefficients in our path model, as were 2 continuous study characteristics (percent non-White and percent female). Practical implications of the findings and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The Effect of Descriptive Norms on Pregaming Frequency: Tests of Five Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Carey, Kate B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregaming is highly prevalent on college campuses and associated with heightened levels of intoxication and risk of alcohol consequences. However, research examining the correlates of pregaming behavior is limited. Descriptive norms (i.e., perceptions about the prevalence or frequency of a behavior) are reliable and comparatively strong predictors of general drinking behavior, with recent evidence indicating that they are also associated with pregaming. Objectives We tested the hypothesis that higher descriptive norms for pregaming frequency would be associated with personal pregaming frequency. We also tested whether this effect would be stronger in the context of several theory-based moderators: female gender, higher injunctive norms (i.e., perceptions of others' attitudes toward a particular behavior), a more positive attitude toward pregaming, a stronger sense of identification with the drinking habits of other students, and stronger social comparison tendencies. Methods College student drinkers (N=198, 63% female) participated in an online survey assessing frequency of pregaming, descriptive norms, and hypothesized moderators. Results A multiple regression model revealed that higher descriptive norms, a more positive attitude toward pregaming, and stronger peer identification were significantly associated with greater pregaming frequency among drinkers. However, no moderators of the association between descriptive norms and pregaming frequency were observed. Conclusions/Importance Descriptive norms are robust predictors of pregaming behavior, for both genders and across levels of several potential moderators. Future research seeking to understand pregaming behavior should consider descriptive norms, as well as personal attitudes and identification with student peers, as targets of interventions designed to reduce pregaming. PMID:27070494

  17. Inhaled therapies in patients with moderate COPD in clinical practice: current thinking

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, Amnon; Altraja, Alan; Belevskiy, Andrey; Boros, Piotr W; Danila, Edvardas; Fležar, Matjaz; Koblizek, Vladimir; Fridlender, Zvi G; Kostov, Kosta; Krams, Alvils; Milenkovic, Branislava; Somfay, Attila; Tkacova, Ruzena; Tudoric, Neven; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Valipour, Arschang

    2018-01-01

    COPD is a complex, heterogeneous condition. Even in the early clinical stages, COPD carries a significant burden, with breathlessness frequently leading to a reduction in exercise capacity and changes that correlate with long-term patient outcomes and mortality. Implementation of an effective management strategy is required to reduce symptoms, preserve lung function, quality of life, and exercise capacity, and prevent exacerbations. However, current clinical practice frequently differs from published guidelines on the management of COPD. This review focuses on the current scientific evidence and expert opinion on the management of moderate COPD: the symptoms arising from moderate airflow obstruction and the burden these symptoms impose, how physical activity can improve disease outcomes, the benefits of dual bronchodilation in COPD, and the limited evidence for the benefits of inhaled corticosteroids in this disease. We emphasize the importance of maximizing bronchodilation in COPD with inhaled dual-bronchodilator treatment, enhancing patient-related outcomes, and enabling the withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD in well-defined patient groups. PMID:29317810

  18. Structural assembly demonstration experiment, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, David L.; Bowden, Mary L.; Miller, Rene H.

    1983-03-01

    The goal of this phase of the structural assembly and demonstration experiment (SADE) program was to begin to define a shuttle flight experiment that would yield data to compare on-orbit assembly operations of large space structures with neutral buoyancy simulations. In addition, the experiment would be an early demonstration of structural hardware and human capabilities in extravehicular activity (EVA). The objectives of the MIT study, as listed in the statement of work, were: to provide support in establishing a baseline neutral buoyancy testing data base, to develop a correlation technique between neutral buoyancy test results and on-orbit operations, and to prepare the SADE experiment plan (MSFC-PLAN-913).

  19. Place your bets: psychophysiological correlates of decision-making under risk.

    PubMed

    Studer, Bettina; Clark, Luke

    2011-06-01

    Emotions and their psychophysiological correlates are thought to play an important role in decision-making under risk. We used a novel gambling task to measure psychophysiological responses during selection of explicitly presented risky options and feedback processing. Active-choice trials, in which the participant had to select the size of bet, were compared to fixed-bet, no-choice trials. We further tested how the chances of winning and bet size affected choice behavior and psychophysiological arousal. Individual differences in impulsive and risk-taking traits were assessed. The behavioral results showed sensitivity to the choice requirement and to the chances of winning: Participants were faster to make a response on no-choice trials and when the chances of winning were high. In active-choice trials, electrodermal activity (EDA) increased with bet size during both selection and processing of losses. Cardiac responses were sensitive to choice uncertainty: Stronger selection-related heart rate (HR) decelerations were observed in trials with lower chances of winning, particularly on active-choice trials. Finally, betting behavior and psychophysiological responsiveness were moderately correlated with self-reported impulsivity-related traits. In conclusion, we demonstrate that psychophysiological arousal covaries with risk-sensitive decision-making outside of a learning context. Our results further highlight the differential sensitivities of EDA and HR to psychological features of the decision scenario.

  20. Dark chocolate supplementation reduces the oxygen cost of moderate intensity cycling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rishikesh Kankesh; Brouner, James; Spendiff, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Dark chocolate (DC) is abundant in flavanols which have been reported to increase the bioavailability and bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO). Increasing NO bioavailability has often demonstrated reduced oxygen cost and performance enhancement during submaximal exercise. Nine moderately-trained male participants volunteered to undertake baseline (BL) measurements that comprised a cycle V̇O(2max) test followed by cycling at 80% of their established gas exchange threshold (GET) for 20-min and then immediately followed by a two-minute time-trial (TT). Using a randomised crossover design participants performed two further trials, two weeks apart, with either 40 g of DC or white chocolate (WC) being consumed daily. Oxygen consumption, RER, heart rate and blood lactate (BLa) were measured during each trial. DC consumption increased GET and TT performance compared to both BL and WC (P < 0.05). DC consumption increased V̇O(2max) by 6% compared to BL (P < 0.05), but did not reach statistical significance compared to WC. There were no differences in the moderate-intensity cycling for V̇O₂, RER, BLa and heart rate between conditions, although, V̇O₂ and RER exhibited consistently lower trends following DC consumption compared to BL and WC, these did not reach statistical significance. Chronic supplementation with DC resulted in a higher GET and enhanced TT performance. Consequently, ingestion of DC reduced the oxygen cost of moderate intensity exercise and may be an effective ergogenic aid for short-duration moderate intensity exercise.

  1. Materialism Moderates the Effect of Accounting for Time on Prosocial Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibo; Chen, Yingying; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for time is defined as putting a price on time. Researchers have demonstrated that accounting for time reduces the time individuals spend on others; however, its association with monetary donations has not been examined. We hypothesized that accounting for time will activate a utility mindset that would affect one's allocation of time and money. In Study 1, the mediating effect of utility mindsets on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior was examined. In Study 2, we examined the effect of accounting for time on time spent helping and donating money, and the moderating role of material values on the relationship between accounting for time and prosocial behavior. Results showed that accounting for time activated a mindset of utility maximization that, in turn, reduced participants' prosocial behavior; moreover, materialism moderated the effect of accounting for time on prosocial behavior.

  2. Correlations between different tonometries and ocular biometric parameters in patients with primary congenital glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcio Henrique; Betinjane, Alberto Jorge; Quiroga, Veronica Andrea

    2013-01-01

    To identify the correlation between the difference of intraocular pressure measurements (IOP) obtained using the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) and three others tonometers (Handheld applanation tonometer - HAT, Dynamic contour tonometer - DCT and Tono-Pen®) with biometric characteristics (corneal diameter, pachymetry, keratometry and axial length) in patients with congenital glaucoma. A cross-sectional study was performed on 46 eyes from 46 patients with congenital glaucoma. IOP measurements were obtained in all patients using GAT, HAT, DCT and Tono-Pen®. Keratometry, pachymetry, biometry and corneal diameter measurements were performed after the IOP measurement. The order of the tonometries was randomized. The correlations between the differences of IOP values of GAT and the other tonometers (Delta-IOP), and the different biometric parameters were studied. Tono-Pen® Delta IOP revealed moderate positive correlation to keratometry (r=0.41, p=0.004). The other Delta-IOPs showed no correlation with any of the biometric characteristics evaluated. IOP differences between GAT (gold standard) and GAT, HAT, DCT or Tono-Pen tonometers seem not to correlate with majority of ocular biometric characteristics. The only exception was the keratometry, which correlated in a positive and moderate way with Tono-Pen® Delta-IOP. This result suggests that the differences of IOP values of Tono-Pen® and GAT increase with the steepness of the cornea.

  3. Self-calibrated correlation imaging with k-space variant correlation functions.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Edalati, Masoud; Du, Xingfu; Wang, Hui; Cao, Jie J

    2018-03-01

    Correlation imaging is a previously developed high-speed MRI framework that converts parallel imaging reconstruction into the estimate of correlation functions. The presented work aims to demonstrate this framework can provide a speed gain over parallel imaging by estimating k-space variant correlation functions. Because of Fourier encoding with gradients, outer k-space data contain higher spatial-frequency image components arising primarily from tissue boundaries. As a result of tissue-boundary sparsity in the human anatomy, neighboring k-space data correlation varies from the central to the outer k-space. By estimating k-space variant correlation functions with an iterative self-calibration method, correlation imaging can benefit from neighboring k-space data correlation associated with both coil sensitivity encoding and tissue-boundary sparsity, thereby providing a speed gain over parallel imaging that relies only on coil sensitivity encoding. This new approach is investigated in brain imaging and free-breathing neonatal cardiac imaging. Correlation imaging performs better than existing parallel imaging techniques in simulated brain imaging acceleration experiments. The higher speed enables real-time data acquisition for neonatal cardiac imaging in which physiological motion is fast and non-periodic. With k-space variant correlation functions, correlation imaging gives a higher speed than parallel imaging and offers the potential to image physiological motion in real-time. Magn Reson Med 79:1483-1494, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Temporal evolution of financial-market correlations.

    PubMed

    Fenn, Daniel J; Porter, Mason A; Williams, Stacy; McDonald, Mark; Johnson, Neil F; Jones, Nick S

    2011-08-01

    We investigate financial market correlations using random matrix theory and principal component analysis. We use random matrix theory to demonstrate that correlation matrices of asset price changes contain structure that is incompatible with uncorrelated random price changes. We then identify the principal components of these correlation matrices and demonstrate that a small number of components accounts for a large proportion of the variability of the markets that we consider. We characterize the time-evolving relationships between the different assets by investigating the correlations between the asset price time series and principal components. Using this approach, we uncover notable changes that occurred in financial markets and identify the assets that were significantly affected by these changes. We show in particular that there was an increase in the strength of the relationships between several different markets following the 2007-2008 credit and liquidity crisis.

  5. Temporal evolution of financial-market correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; Williams, Stacy; McDonald, Mark; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate financial market correlations using random matrix theory and principal component analysis. We use random matrix theory to demonstrate that correlation matrices of asset price changes contain structure that is incompatible with uncorrelated random price changes. We then identify the principal components of these correlation matrices and demonstrate that a small number of components accounts for a large proportion of the variability of the markets that we consider. We characterize the time-evolving relationships between the different assets by investigating the correlations between the asset price time series and principal components. Using this approach, we uncover notable changes that occurred in financial markets and identify the assets that were significantly affected by these changes. We show in particular that there was an increase in the strength of the relationships between several different markets following the 2007-2008 credit and liquidity crisis.

  6. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior in a non-clinical sample of women: a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Makeda; Masuda, Akihiko; Hill, Mary L; Goodnight, Bradley L

    2014-12-01

    Body image flexibility, a regulation process of openly and freely experiencing disordered eating thoughts and body dissatisfaction, has been found to be a buffering factor against disordered eating symptomatology. The present cross-sectional study investigates whether body image flexibility accounts for disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility in a sample of nonclinical women, and whether body image flexibility moderates the associations between these correlates and disordered eating behavior. Participants were 421 women, age 21±5.3 years old on average, who completed a web-based survey that included the self-report measures of interest. Results demonstrate the incremental effects of body image flexibility on disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility. Women with greater body image flexibility endorse disordered eating behavior less so than those with lower body image flexibility. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior; for women with greater body image flexibility, disordered eating cognition is not positively associated with disordered eating behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Guselkumab for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eric J; Sanchez, Isabelle M; Beck, Kristen; Sekhon, Sahil; Wu, Jashin J; Bhutani, Tina

    2018-04-01

    Guselkumab is a human monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of IL-23 that has been approved for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. This medication blocks the IL-23/IL-17 axis, which has been implicated in playing a key role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Areas covered: This review outlines the pharmacologic properties, safety, and efficacy of guselkumab for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Expert commentary: Guselkumab is the first IL-23 specific inhibitor to be approved for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Phase II and III clinical trial results have demonstrated excellent safety and efficacy of guselkumab. IL-23 inhibitors may offer potential benefits over existing therapies for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in terms of safety, frequency of administration, and efficacy. Long-term safety data will be critical in evaluating the role of guselkumab in the treatment of psoriasis.

  8. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. 77 FR 60914 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Demonstration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for the Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA-NJ- MD-DE moderate...).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Demonstration for the 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

  10. Correlation between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Lekha Mary; Kuriakose, Thomas; Sivanandam, Viswanathan; Venkatesan, Nithya; Thomas, Ravi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To study the relationship between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation (AA) in the peri-presbyopic age group (35–50 years). Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of consecutive patients in the age group 35–50 years, who attended our outpatient clinic, were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20, J1 in both eyes were included. The AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation. The axial length (AL), central anterior chamber depth (CACD) and lens thickness (LT) were also measured. Results: There was moderate correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = 0.56) between AL and AA as well as between CACD and AA (r = 0.53) in myopes in the age group 35–39 years. In the other age groups and the groups taken as a whole, there was no correlation. In hypermetropes and emmetropes, there was no correlation between AA and the above ocular parameters. No significant correlation existed between LT and AA across different age groups and refractive errors. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between AA and ocular parameters like anterior chamber depth, AL and LT. PMID:20952831

  11. Cortisol covariation within parents of young children: Moderation by relationship aggression.

    PubMed

    Saxbe, Darby E; Adam, Emma K; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Guardino, Christine M; Simon, Clarissa; McKinney, Chelsea O; Shalowitz, Madeleine U

    2015-12-01

    Covariation in diurnal cortisol has been observed in several studies of cohabiting couples. In two such studies (Liu et al., 2013; Saxbe and Repetti, 2010), relationship distress was associated with stronger within-couple correlations, suggesting that couples' physiological linkage with each other may indicate problematic dyadic functioning. Although intimate partner aggression has been associated with dysregulation in women's diurnal cortisol, it has not yet been tested as a moderator of within-couple covariation. This study reports on a diverse sample of 122 parents who sampled salivary cortisol on matched days for two years following the birth of an infant. Partners showed strong positive cortisol covariation. In couples with higher levels of partner-perpetrated aggression reported by women at one year postpartum, both women and men had a flatter diurnal decrease in cortisol and stronger correlations with partners' cortisol sampled at the same timepoints. In other words, relationship aggression was linked both with indices of suboptimal cortisol rhythms in both members of the couples and with stronger within-couple covariation coefficients. These results persisted when relationship satisfaction and demographic covariates were included in the model. During some of the sampling days, some women were pregnant with a subsequent child, but pregnancy did not significantly moderate cortisol levels or within-couple covariation. The findings suggest that couples experiencing relationship aggression have both suboptimal neuroendocrine profiles and stronger covariation. Cortisol covariation is an understudied phenomenon with potential implications for couples' relationship functioning and physical health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex knowledge and attitudes of moderately retarded males.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, B; Wish, J

    1975-09-01

    In semistructured interview sessions, 18 moderately retarded men undergoing deinstitutional training, were questioned to determine their understanding of pictures of homosexual embrace, masturbation, dating, marriage, intercourse, pregnancy, childbirth, drunkenness, and their knowledge of anatomical terminology. The frequencies of various response categories revealed a range of comprehension, the lowest answering only 10 percent correctly, the median consisting of 28 percent correct, and only 1 subject correctly answering as many as one-half of the items. Correct conceptual responses significantly correlated with WAIS Full Scale and Verbal IQs and were also significantly related to the Adaptive Behavior Scale domains of Language, Socialization, and Responsibility. Serious errors of fact and conceptual confusion, though most prevalent in responses by the low comprehenders, were found in at least some responses by all of the men.

  13. Results of a Study Demonstrating Automated Techniques for Waveform Correlation Applied to Regional Monitoring of Eastern Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundermier, A.; Slinkard, M.; Perry, J.; Schaff, D. P.; Young, C. J.; Richards, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    Waveform correlation techniques have proven effectiveness detecting repeated events from large aftershock sequences; however, application for monitoring a large region over a long time period has yet to be adequately explored. We applied waveform correlation to six years of continuous waveform data at eleven stations spread through Eastern Asia, using automatically generated templates from historical archives going back to the time of station installation, in some cases as far back as 1986. Our study region includes the countries of China, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and parts of Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. We used nine China Digital Network (CD/IC) and two other available stations which had continuous coverage from 2006-2012; this yielded 11 stations which spanned 40 degrees in latitude and 70 degrees in longitude with an average nearest-neighbor distance between stations of 842 km. To declare a detected event, we require coincident correlations at 2 or more stations, so station spacing has a strong effect on our detection threshold. We compare our detection results to the ISC catalog to analyze the effectiveness and challenges associated with applying waveform correlation on a broad regional and multi-year scale. Our best results were obtained in the vicinity of the 2008 Wenchuan aftershock sequence where each station had two other stations within a 1000 km radius. We include analysis of the impact of network geometry, historical template library span and size, and template phase to provide direction for future regional studies using waveform correlation.

  14. Meaningful work and mental health: job satisfaction as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Allan, Blake A; Dexter, Chelsea; Kinsey, Rebecca; Parker, Shelby

    2018-02-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress are common problems for modern workers. Although having meaningful work, or work that is significant, facilitates personal growth, and contributes to the greater good, has been linked to better mental health, people's work might also need to be satisfying or enjoyable to improve outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to examine meaningful work's relation to mental health (i.e. depression, anxiety and stress) and investigate job satisfaction as a moderator of this relation. The study hypotheses were tested with a large, diverse sample recruited from an online source. Partially supporting hypotheses, when controlling for job satisfaction, meaningful work negatively correlated with depression but did not have a significant relation with anxiety and stress. Similarly, job satisfaction negatively predicted depression and stress. Furthermore, the relations between meaningful work and both anxiety and stress were moderated by job satisfaction. Specifically, only people perceiving their work as meaningful and satisfying reported less anxiety and stress. Although continued research is needed, employers and employees may have to target both the meaningfulness and job satisfaction to address the issues of stress and anxiety among working adults.

  15. Physical Activity and Psychological Correlates during an After-School Running Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: After-school programs (ASPs) have the potential to contribute to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), but there is limited empirical evidence to guide their development and implementation. Purpose: This study assessed the replication of an elementary school running program and identified psychological correlates of children's…

  16. What's the Point of Moderation? A Discussion of the Purposes Achieved through Contemporary Moderation Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Hughes, Clair; Adie, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    An increasingly regulated higher education sector is renewing its attention to those activities referred to as "moderation" in its efforts to ensure that judgements of student achievement are based on appropriate standards. Moderation practices conducted throughout the assessment process can result in purposes identified as equity,…

  17. Comprehensive evaluation of immunomodulation by moderate hypoxia in S. agalactiae vaccinated Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Gallage, Sanchala; Katagiri, Takayuki; Endo, Masato; Maita, Masashi

    2017-07-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major bacterial pathogen in tilapia aquaculture. Vaccines are known to provide protection but S. agalactiae clearance in tilapia can be reduced by marginal environmental conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine S. agalactiae clearance in vaccinated Nile tilapia under moderate hypoxic (55± 5% DO) and normoxic (85 ± 5%DO) conditions. Fish were acclimatized to either moderate hypoxia or normoxia and immunized with formalin-inactivated S. agalactiae. Fish were experimentally challenged with S. agalactiae at 30 days post-vaccination. Serum antibody titer was significantly higher in vaccinated fish kept under normoxic condition compared to the moderate hypoxic condition at fifteen and thirty days post-vaccination. The cumulative mortality following challenge was significantly reduced in vaccinated fish kept under normoxic condition compared to those in moderate hypoxic condition reflecting that pre-challenge antibody titer may correlate with survival of fish. Blood and tissue pathogen burden detection of S. agalactiae studies revealed that culturable S. agalactiae cells could not be detected in the blood of normoxic vaccinated fish at all the sampling points. In contrast, fish vaccinated in moderate hypoxic condition had considerable number of culturable S. agalactiae cells in their blood up to 5 days following challenge. Phagocytosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were lowered by moderate hypoxia in vitro. Furthermore, presence of specific antibodies and higher specific antibody level in the serum increased phagocytosis, ROS production and lowered intracellular survival of S. agalactiae in head kidney leukocytes. Overall this study has highlighted that S. agalactiae clearance in vaccinated Nile tilapia is modulated by moderate hypoxia. One of the possible explanations for this might be less efficient phagocytic activities due to low oxygen availability and lower specific

  18. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Statton, Matthew A; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise-resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  19. A Single Bout of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Improves Motor Skill Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Statton, Matthew A.; Encarnacion, Marysol; Celnik, Pablo; Bastian, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exercise is associated with improved performance on a variety of cognitive tasks including attention, executive function, and long-term memory. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that even a single bout of aerobic exercise can lead to immediate improvements in declarative learning and memory, but less is known about the effect of exercise on motor learning. Here we sought to determine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on motor skill learning. In experiment 1, we investigated the effect of moderate aerobic exercise on motor acquisition. 24 young, healthy adults performed a motor learning task either immediately after 30 minutes of moderate intensity running, after running followed by a long rest period, or after slow walking. Motor skill was assessed via a speed-accuracy tradeoff function to determine how exercise might differentially affect two distinct components of motor learning performance: movement speed and accuracy. In experiment 2, we investigated both acquisition and retention of motor skill across multiple days of training. 20 additional participants performed either a bout of running or slow walking immediately before motor learning on three consecutive days, and only motor learning (no exercise) on a fourth day. We found that moderate intensity running led to an immediate improvement in motor acquisition for both a single session and on multiple sessions across subsequent days, but had no effect on between-day retention. This effect was driven by improved movement accuracy, as opposed to speed. However, the benefit of exercise was dependent upon motor learning occurring immediately after exercise–resting for a period of one hour after exercise diminished the effect. These results demonstrate that moderate intensity exercise can prime the nervous system for the acquisition of new motor skills, and suggest that similar exercise protocols may be effective in improving the outcomes of movement rehabilitation

  20. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in adolescents with haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, N P; Ponce, M; Saidi, P; Michaels, L A

    2010-07-01

    Boys with haemophilia are now encouraged to exercise and take part in physical activities, but actual measures of time spent in active participation is lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain an objective measure of daily physical activity in boys with haemophilia as compared with healthy controls. The study also aimed to ascertain the social and cognitive factors associated with exercise in this population. Seventeen patients (aged 11-18 years) with haemophilia were studied and compared with 44 healthy controls (aged 10-16.5 years). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Psychosocial correlates were assessed using validated questionnaires. Measured physical activity levels in subjects with haemophilia were slightly higher than for the control group. Both groups spent 70% of the day inactive, with similar proportions of time in moderate and vigorous activity. Subjects with haemophilia had a favourable self-image and similar levels of anxiety as peers without a bleeding disorder. Self-efficacy scores were lower than for controls suggesting increased sensitivity to barriers and lack of acceptance of alternatives. Health beliefs did not influence physical activity, but a negative correlation of time spent in high or vigorous activity with scores for support-seeking was observed. The data demonstrate that in the appropriate social environment and with medical support, patients with haemophilia may be as physically active as their peers without a bleeding disorder. Further investigation into the psychosocial barriers of physical activity in patients with haemophilia is needed to more effectively encourage healthy behaviours.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Triplet Correlation Approximations for Fluid Water.

    PubMed

    Pallewela, Gayani N; Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Smith, Paul E

    2018-08-25

    Triplet correlations play a central role in our understanding of fluids and their properties. Of particular interest is the relationship between the pair and triplet correlations. Here we use a combination of Fluctuation Solution Theory and experimental pair radial distribution functions to investigate the accuracy of the Kirkwood Superposition Approximation (KSA), as given by integrals over the relevant pair and triplet correlation functions, at a series of state points for pure water using only experimental quantities. The KSA performs poorly, in agreement with a variety of other studies. Several additional approximate relationships between the pair and triplet correlations in fluids are also investigated and generally provide good agreement for the fluid thermodynamics for regions of the phase diagram where the compressibility is small. A simple power law relationship between the pair and triplet fluctuations is particularly successful for state points displaying low to moderately high compressibilities.

  2. Correlation between the pain numeric rating scale and the 12-item WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

    PubMed

    Saltychev, Mikhail; Bärlund, Esa; Laimi, Katri

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between pain severity measured on a numeric rating scale and restrictions of functioning measured with the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). This was a cross-sectional study of 1207 patients with musculoskeletal pain conditions. Correlation was assessed using Spearman's and Pearson tests. Although all the Spearman's rank correlations between WHODAS 2.0 items and pain severity were statistically significant, they were mostly weak, with only a few moderate associations for 'S2 household responsibilities', 'S8 washing', 'S9 dressing', and 'S12 day-to-day work'. The correlation between the WHODAS 2.0 total score and pain severity was also moderate: 0.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36-0.45] for average pain and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.37-0.46) for worst pain. The correlation between the WHODAS 2.0 total score and pain level was also assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation, yielding figures that were similar to Spearman's correlation: 0.42 (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 0.37-0.46) for average pain and 0.39 (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 0.34-0.44) for worst pain. Among patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, the correlation between pain severity measured by numeric rating scale and functioning level measured by WHODAS 2.0 was weak to moderate, with slightly stronger associations in physical domains of functioning.

  3. A process-oriented measure of habit strength for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Grove, J. Robert; Zillich, Irja; Medic, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Habitual action is an important aspect of health behaviour, but the relevance of various habit strength indicators continues to be debated. This study focused specifically on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and evaluated the construct validity of a framework emphasizing patterned action, stimulus-response bonding, automaticity, and negative consequences for nonperformance as indicators of habit strength for this form of exercise. Methods: Upper-level undergraduates (N = 124) provided demographic information and responded to questionnaire items assessing historical MVPA involvement, current MVPA involvement, and the four proposed habit strength dimensions. Factor analyses were used to examine the latent structure of the habit strength indicators, and the model's construct validity was evaluated via an examination of relationships with repetition history and current behaviour. Results: At a measurement level, findings indicated that the proposed four-component model possessed psychometric integrity as a coherent set of factors. Criterion-related validity was also demonstrated via significant changes in three of the four factors as a function of past involvement in MVPA and significant correlations with the frequency, duration, and intensity of current MVPA. Conclusions: These findings support the construct validity of this exercise habit strength model and suggest that it could provide a template for future research on how MVPA habits are developed and maintained. PMID:25750789

  4. A process-oriented measure of habit strength for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

    PubMed

    Grove, J Robert; Zillich, Irja; Medic, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : Habitual action is an important aspect of health behaviour, but the relevance of various habit strength indicators continues to be debated. This study focused specifically on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and evaluated the construct validity of a framework emphasizing patterned action, stimulus-response bonding, automaticity, and negative consequences for nonperformance as indicators of habit strength for this form of exercise. Methods : Upper-level undergraduates ( N  = 124) provided demographic information and responded to questionnaire items assessing historical MVPA involvement, current MVPA involvement, and the four proposed habit strength dimensions. Factor analyses were used to examine the latent structure of the habit strength indicators, and the model's construct validity was evaluated via an examination of relationships with repetition history and current behaviour. Results : At a measurement level, findings indicated that the proposed four-component model possessed psychometric integrity as a coherent set of factors. Criterion-related validity was also demonstrated via significant changes in three of the four factors as a function of past involvement in MVPA and significant correlations with the frequency, duration, and intensity of current MVPA. Conclusions : These findings support the construct validity of this exercise habit strength model and suggest that it could provide a template for future research on how MVPA habits are developed and maintained.

  5. Why should we bother with assessment moderation?

    PubMed

    Smith, Colleen

    2012-08-01

    Assessment moderation is a significant component of a quality education system. How this practice is conceptualised, applied to the assessment process and embedded in teaching and learning, influence the quality of nurse education programmes. This paper challenges the traditional view that moderation is confined to what happens at the time of assessment which is evident in the use of language such as pre-moderation and post-moderation practice. It critiques traditional moderation practices such as double marking, applying assessment criteria and standards and assigning marks and grades and argues that these practices don't do justice to the complexity of assessment. It calls for a whole of course approach to moderation based on a set of principles which encompass constructive alignment, a community of practice group, the subjective nature of assessment and a reflective quality improvement cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation Between the Magnetic Field and Plasma Parameters at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zicai; Shen, Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Yi; Feng, Xueshang; Richardson, Ian G.

    2018-02-01

    The physical parameters of the solar wind observed in-situ near 1 AU have been studied for several decades, and relationships between them, such as the positive correlation between the solar wind plasma temperature, T, and velocity, V, and the negative correlation between density, N, and velocity, V, are well known. However, the magnetic field intensity, B, does not appear to be well correlated with any individual plasma parameter. In this article, we discuss previously under-reported correlations between B and the combined plasma parameters √{N V2} as well as between B and √{NT}. These two correlations are strong during periods of corotating interaction regions and high-speed streams, and moderate during intervals of slow solar wind. The results indicate that the magnetic pressure in the solar wind is well correlated both with the plasma dynamic pressure and the thermal pressure.

  7. Flowing of supersonic underexpanded micro-jets in the range of moderate Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, S. G.; Aniskin, V. M.; Maslov, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents new experimental results on the simulation of supersonic underexpanded micro-jets by macro-jet in the range of moderate Reynolds numbers of air outflow from the nozzle. A correlation is shown between the variations in the Pitot pressure in the model micro-jet with variations in the length of the supersonic core of real the micro-jets. The results of experiments on the effect of humidity on the pulsation of mass flow rate in a micro-jet are presented.

  8. Vulnerability to Peer Influence: A Moderated Mediation Study of Early Adolescent Alcohol Use Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2011-01-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is a correlate of adolescent alcohol use; however, the mechanism accounting for this association remains unclear, particularly with respect to initiation of alcohol use in early adolescence. This prospective study examines perceived peer attitudes and use as a mediator between peer delinquency and initiation of alcohol use, and how parenting may moderate vulnerability to this risk pathway. Participants included 371 11–13 year-old adolescents (55.5% female, 83.0% Caucasian). Results suggested that high levels of peer delinquency prospectively predicted perceived peer approval and use of alcohol and that peer approval and use of alcohol prospectively predicted initiation of alcohol use. Thus, reinforcement and modeling alcohol use appear to be important mechanisms by which delinquent peers influence the initiation of drinking. There was no support for parental warmth or control as moderators of peer influence. PMID:21420241

  9. Coding stimulus amplitude by correlated neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzen, Michael G.; Ávila-Åkerberg, Oscar; Chacron, Maurice J.

    2015-04-01

    While correlated activity is observed ubiquitously in the brain, its role in neural coding has remained controversial. Recent experimental results have demonstrated that correlated but not single-neuron activity can encode the detailed time course of the instantaneous amplitude (i.e., envelope) of a stimulus. These have furthermore demonstrated that such coding required and was optimal for a nonzero level of neural variability. However, a theoretical understanding of these results is still lacking. Here we provide a comprehensive theoretical framework explaining these experimental findings. Specifically, we use linear response theory to derive an expression relating the correlation coefficient to the instantaneous stimulus amplitude, which takes into account key single-neuron properties such as firing rate and variability as quantified by the coefficient of variation. The theoretical prediction was in excellent agreement with numerical simulations of various integrate-and-fire type neuron models for various parameter values. Further, we demonstrate a form of stochastic resonance as optimal coding of stimulus variance by correlated activity occurs for a nonzero value of noise intensity. Thus, our results provide a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon by which correlated but not single-neuron activity can code for stimulus amplitude and how key single-neuron properties such as firing rate and variability influence such coding. Correlation coding by correlated but not single-neuron activity is thus predicted to be a ubiquitous feature of sensory processing for neurons responding to weak input.

  10. Fast Face-Recognition Optical Parallel Correlator Using High Accuracy Correlation Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2005-11-01

    We designed and fabricated a fully automatic fast face recognition optical parallel correlator [E. Watanabe and K. Kodate: Appl. Opt. 44 (2005) 5666] based on the VanderLugt principle. The implementation of an as-yet unattained ultra high-speed system was aided by reconfiguring the system to make it suitable for easier parallel processing, as well as by composing a higher accuracy correlation filter and high-speed ferroelectric liquid crystal-spatial light modulator (FLC-SLM). In running trial experiments using this system (dubbed FARCO), we succeeded in acquiring remarkably low error rates of 1.3% for false match rate (FMR) and 2.6% for false non-match rate (FNMR). Given the results of our experiments, the aim of this paper is to examine methods of designing correlation filters and arranging database image arrays for even faster parallel correlation, underlining the issues of calculation technique, quantization bit rate, pixel size and shift from optical axis. The correlation filter has proved its excellent performance and higher precision than classical correlation and joint transform correlator (JTC). Moreover, arrangement of multi-object reference images leads to 10-channel correlation signals, as sharply marked as those of a single channel. This experiment result demonstrates great potential for achieving the process speed of 10000 face/s.

  11. Distributive justice, procedural justice, and psychological distress: the moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Vincent; Salek, Salwa; Aubé, Caroline; Morin, Estelle M

    2009-07-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that the perception of injustice at work may increase psychological health-related problems. The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of coworker support and work autonomy on the relationships between both distributive and procedural justice and psychological distress. Results, on the basis of responses to questionnaires given to 248 prison employees, show that coworker support moderates the relationships between both forms of justice and psychological distress. Specifically, these relationships are weakened when employees benefit from a high level of coworker support. Furthermore, work autonomy moderates the relationship between procedural justice and psychological distress but not the relationship between distributive justice and psychological distress. Thus, procedural injustice is less likely to increase psychological distress when the level of work autonomy is high. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Can a Mediator Moderate? Considering the Role of Time and Change in the Mediator-Moderator Distinction.

    PubMed

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Berlin, Kristoffer S

    2018-01-01

    The concepts of mediation and moderation are important for specifying ways in which psychological treatments work and for whom they are most beneficial. Historically, the terms were confused and used interchangeably, so a rich body of scholarly literature makes clear their distinction. Researchers are also becoming increasingly aware that mediation and moderation can be integrated and that such integration can advance theory development and testing. One question that has not received sufficient attention is whether a mediator can simultaneously moderate. We tackle this question in this paper, and in doing so we expand on the MacArthur conceptualizations of mediation and moderation. The result is a presentation of a meta-theoretical model that illustrates how a construct that is initially a mediator can, not simultaneously but over time, evolve into a construct that moderates. When this occurs, a construct that changed for the better as a result of an intervention can later promote more positive change during a later intervention. Various implications of this novel paradigm for future research are discussed, including the importance of this model in the emerging context of managed health care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Measuring correlations in non-separable vector beams using projective measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Keerthan; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-09-01

    Doubts regarding the completeness of quantum mechanics as raised by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen(EPR) have predominantly been resolved by resorting to a measurement of correlations between entangled photons which clearly demonstrate violation of Bell's inequality. This article is an attempt to reconcile incompatibility of hidden variable theories with reality by demonstrating experimentally a violation of Bell's inequality in locally correlated systems whose two degrees of freedom, the spin and orbital angular momentum, are maximally correlated. To this end we propose and demonstrate a linear, achromatic modified Sagnac interferometer to project orbital angular momentum states which we combine with spin projections to measure correlations.

  14. The genetics of music accomplishment: evidence for gene-environment correlation and interaction.

    PubMed

    Hambrick, David Z; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-02-01

    Theories of skilled performance that emphasize training history, such as K. Anders Ericsson and colleagues' deliberate-practice theory, have received a great deal of recent attention in both the scientific literature and the popular press. Twin studies, however, have demonstrated evidence for moderate-to-strong genetic influences on skilled performance. Focusing on musical accomplishment in a sample of over 800 pairs of twins, we found evidence for gene-environment correlation, in the form of a genetic effect on music practice. However, only about one quarter of the genetic effect on music accomplishment was explained by this genetic effect on music practice, suggesting that genetically influenced factors other than practice contribute to individual differences in music accomplishment. We also found evidence for gene-environment interaction, such that genetic effects on music accomplishment were most pronounced among those engaging in music practice, suggesting that genetic potentials for skilled performance are most fully expressed and fostered by practice.

  15. Mediators and moderators in early intervention research

    PubMed Central

    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Srihari, Vinod H.; Pollard, Jessica M.; Addington, Donald N.; Woods, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. Methods We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Results Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches (‘pick-a-point’ and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Conclusion Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness. PMID:20536970

  16. Mediators and moderators in early intervention research.

    PubMed

    Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Srihari, Vinod H; Pollard, Jessica M; Addington, Donald N; Woods, Scott W

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches ('pick-a-point' and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness.

  17. Self-transcendence and correlates in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Coward, D D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the presence of self-transcendence perspectives in a healthy population and to compare self-transcendence and related concepts with previous findings in elderly well persons and in those with life-threatening illness. Levels of self-transcendence, as assessed by the Self-Transcendence Scale and the Purpose-in-Life Test in a sample of 152 persons (mean age = 46 years), were similar to those found in other populations. Moderate correlations with self-transcendence and female gender; older age, and higher self-report of health status were found. Self-transcendence was strongly correlated with sense of coherence, self-esteem, hope, and variables assessing emotional well-being.

  18. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use: the moderating role of executive control.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of athlete narcissism in moderating the relationship between coaches' transformational leader behaviors and athlete motivation.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Calum Alexander; Woodman, Tim; Ong, Chin Wei; Hardy, Lew; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2011-02-01

    Leadership research that examines follower characteristics as a potential moderator of leadership effectiveness is lacking. Within Bass's (1985) transformational leadership framework, we examined follower narcissism as a moderator of the coach behavior-coach effectiveness relationship. Youth athletes (male = 103, female = 106) from the Singapore Sports Academy (mean age = 14.28, SD = 1.40 years) completed the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988), and indices of follower effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that athlete narcissism moderated the relationship between fostering acceptance of group goals and athlete effort and between high performance expectations and athlete effort. All the other transformational leader behaviors demonstrated main effects on follower effort, except for inspirational motivation.

  20. Time perception impairment in early-to-moderate stages of Huntington's disease is related to memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Righi, Stefania; Galli, Luca; Paganini, Marco; Bertini, Elisabetta; Viggiano, Maria Pia; Piacentini, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) primarily affects striatum and prefrontal dopaminergic circuits which are fundamental neural correlates of the timekeeping mechanism. The few studies on HD mainly investigated motor timing performance in second durations. The present work explored time perception in early-to-moderate symptomatic HD patients for seconds and milliseconds with the aim to clarify which component of the scalar expectancy theory (SET) is mainly responsible for HD timing defect. Eleven HD patients were compared to 11 controls employing two separate temporal bisection tasks in second and millisecond ranges. Our results revealed the same time perception deficits for seconds and milliseconds in HD patients. Time perception impairment in early-to-moderate stages of Huntington's disease is related to memory deficits. Furthermore, both the non-systematical defect of temporal sensitivity and the main impairment of timing performance in the extreme value of the psychophysical curves suggested an HD deficit in the memory component of the SET. This result was further confirmed by the significant correlations between time perception performance and long-term memory test scores. Our findings added important preliminary data for both a deeper comprehension of HD time-keeping deficits and possible implications on neuro-rehabilitation practices.

  1. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure alters behavior and neuroglial parameters in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Brolese, Giovana; Lunardi, Paula; Broetto, Núbia; Engelke, Douglas S; Lírio, Franciane; Batassini, Cristiane; Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption by women during gestation has become increasingly common. Although it is widely accepted that exposure to high doses of ethanol has long-lasting detrimental effects on brain development, the case for moderate doses is underappreciated, and benchmark studies have demonstrated structural and behavioral defects associated with moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in humans and animal models. This study aimed to investigate the influence of in utero exposure to moderate levels of ethanol throughout pregnancy on learning/memory, anxiety parameters and neuroglial parameters in adolescent offspring. Female rats were exposed to an experimental protocol throughout gestation up to weaning. After mating, the dams were divided into three groups and treated with only water (control), non-alcoholic beer (vehicle) or 10% (vv) beer solution (moderate prenatal alcohol exposure - MPAE). Adolescent male offspring were subjected to the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task to evaluate learning/memory and anxiety-like behavior. Hippocampi were dissected and slices were obtained for immunoquantification of GFAP, NeuN, S100B and the NMDA receptor. The MPAE group clearly presented anxiolytic-like behavior, even though they had learned how to avoid the aversive arm. S100B protein was increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the group treated with alcohol, and alterations in GFAP expression were also shown. This study indicates that moderate ethanol doses administered during pregnancy could induce anxiolytic-like effects, suggesting an increase in risk-taking behavior in adolescent male offspring. Furthermore, the data show the possibility that glial cells are involved in the altered behavior present after prenatal ethanol treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anisotropy of critical correlations in moderately delocalized cerium and actinide systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioussis, Nicholas; Cooper, Bernard R.

    1986-09-01

    The equilibrium and excitation magnetic behavior of a class of cerium and light actinide compounds have been explained previously, in a theory first developed by Siemann and Cooper, in terms of a band-f-electron anisotropic hybridization-mediated two-ion interaction of the Coqblin-Schrieffer type. Using the same theory, we present here a calculation, within the random-phase approximation, of the longitudinal component of the static wave-vector-dependent susceptibility in the paramagnetic phase. The calculations have been performed in the presence of a cubic crystal field (CF) and yield results for the ratio of inverse critical correlation lengths, κ/κ⊥, parallel and perpendicular to the moment direction, that compare well with those of diffuse critical neutron scattering experiments. In Ce3+ (f1) compounds, we find that as the CF interaction (Γ7 ground state) predominates over the two-ion interaction, the relative strength of the coupling within the ferromagnetic \\{001\\} planes (with moments perpendicular to the planes) and that between the \\{001\\} planes is gradually reversed, resulting in a ratio κ/κ⊥ smaller than unity, as is experimentally observed. We also present results for the effect of differing intraionic (L-S, intermediate, and j-j) coupling on κ/κ⊥ for the case of Pu3+(f5) and U3+(f3) compounds.

  3. 77 FR 50966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maryland; Attainment Demonstration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... moderate 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? In 1997, EPA revised the health-based NAAQS for ozone, setting it... standard based on scientific evidence demonstrating that ozone causes adverse health effects at lower ozone... was set. EPA determined that the 1997 8-hour standard would be more protective of human health...

  4. Comparison of Methods for Demonstrating Passage of Time When Using Computer-Based Video Prompting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Linda C.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Spencer, Galen P.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Two different video-based procedures for presenting the passage of time (how long a step lasts) were examined. The two procedures were presented within the framework of video prompting to promote independent multi-step task completion across four young adults with moderate intellectual disability. The two procedures demonstrating passage of the…

  5. Effects of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior: A moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Qu, Weina

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking.

  7. Psychological morbidity as a moderator of intention to quit smoking: a study of smokers and former smokers*

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, Maria Fernanda Besteiro; Alves, Maria Graça Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze psychological morbidity as a moderator of the relationship between smoking representations and quality of life in smokers and former smokers, as well as to determine which psychological variables discriminate between smokers with and without the intention to quit smoking. METHODS: This was a quantitative, correlational cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of 224 smokers and 169 former smokers. RESULTS: In smokers and former smokers, psychological morbidity had a moderating effect on the relationship between mental/physical quality of life and smoking representations (cognitive representations, emotional representations, and comprehensibility). Smokers with the intention to quit smoking more often presented with low comprehensibility, threatening emotional representations, behavioral beliefs, and perceived behavioral control, as well as with normative/control beliefs, than did those without the intention to quit. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study underscore the importance of the moderating effect exerted by psychological morbidity, as well as that of sociocognitive variables, among smokers who have the intention to quit smoking. PMID:24068268

  8. Examining the Distinctiveness and the Socio-Emotional Correlates of Anxious-Withdrawal and Unsociability during Early Adolescence in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle; Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the distinctiveness of and the correlates associated with anxious-withdrawal and unsociability during early adolescence in Finland (N = 384; 12-14 years; 53% girls). As expected, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that anxious-withdrawal and unsociability were distinct and moderately positively correlated constructs. Only…

  9. Brief report: emotion regulation and coping as moderators in the relationship between personality and self-injury.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope A; Coric, Sarah J; Swannell, Sarah; Martin, Graham; Thompson, Holly Knox; Frost, Aaron D J

    2010-10-01

    Self-injury without conscious suicidal intent is an increasingly prevalent phenomenon particularly among adolescent populations. This pilot study examined the extent and correlates of self-injurious behaviour in a school population sample of 393 adolescents (aged 13-18 years) using a self-report questionnaire. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether personality was related to self-injury and whether this relationship was moderated by emotion regulation or coping strategies. Few personality and coping variables were directly related to self-injury after controlling for age and psychopathology. However the relationship between personality and self-injury was moderated by coping skills and emotion regulation. We suggest future research explore these relationships in order to determine the role of coping skills and emotional regulation training in prevention of self-injury.

  10. Utility of texture analysis for quantifying hepatic fibrosis on proton density MRI.

    PubMed

    Yu, HeiShun; Buch, Karen; Li, Baojun; O'Brien, Michael; Soto, Jorge; Jara, Hernan; Anderson, Stephan W

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the potential utility of texture analysis of proton density maps for quantifying hepatic fibrosis in a murine model of hepatic fibrosis. Following Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approval, a dietary model of hepatic fibrosis was used and 15 ex vivo murine liver tissues were examined. All images were acquired using a 30 mm bore 11.7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner with a multiecho spin-echo sequence. A texture analysis was employed extracting multiple texture features including histogram-based, gray-level co-occurrence matrix-based (GLCM), gray-level run-length-based features (GLRL), gray level gradient matrix (GLGM), and Laws' features. Texture features were correlated with histopathologic and digital image analysis of hepatic fibrosis. Histogram features demonstrated very weak to moderate correlations (r = -0.29 to 0.51) with hepatic fibrosis. GLCM features correlation and contrast demonstrated moderate-to-strong correlations (r = -0.71 and 0.59, respectively) with hepatic fibrosis. Moderate correlations were seen between hepatic fibrosis and the GLRL feature short run low gray-level emphasis (SRLGE) (r = -0. 51). GLGM features demonstrate very weak to weak correlations with hepatic fibrosis (r = -0.27 to 0.09). Moderate correlations were seen between hepatic fibrosis and Laws' features L6 and L7 (r = 0.58). This study demonstrates the utility of texture analysis applied to proton density MRI in a murine liver fibrosis model and validates the potential utility of texture-based features for the noninvasive, quantitative assessment of hepatic fibrosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mobility and Balance and Their Correlation with Physiological Factors in Elderly with Different Foot Postures

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Said, Aisyah; Bukry, Saiful Adli

    2015-01-01

    This study determines (1) the correlation between mobility and balance performances with physiological factors and (2) the relationship between foot postures with anthropometric characteristics and lower limb characteristics among elderly with neutral, pronated, and supinated foot. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in community-dwelling elderly (age: 69.86 ± 5.62 years). Participants were grouped into neutral (n = 16), pronated (n = 14), and supinated (n = 14) foot based on the foot posture index classification. Anthropometric data (height, weight, and BMI), lower limb strength (5-STS) and endurance (30 s chair rise test), mobility (TUG), and balance (FSST) were determined. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Body weight was negatively and moderately correlated (r s = −0.552, P < 0.05) with mobility in supinated foot; moderate-to-high positive linear rank correlation was found between lower limb strength and mobility (r s = 0.551 to 0.804, P < 0.05) for pronated and neutral foot. Lower limb endurance was negatively and linearly correlated with mobility in pronated (r s = −0.699) and neutral (r s = −0.573) foot. No correlation was observed in balance performance with physiological factors in any of the foot postures. We can conclude that muscle function may be the most important feature to make movement possible in older persons regardless of the type of foot postures. PMID:26583104

  12. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  13. Reduced ventral cingulum integrity and increased behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Webb, Emma A; O'Reilly, Michelle A; Clayden, Jonathan D; Seunarine, Kiran K; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A; Dattani, Mehul T

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia, mild to moderate or no visual impairment, and no developmental delay. To identify white matter abnormalities that may provide neural correlates for any behavioral abnormalities identified. Eleven children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia (mean age 5.9 years) underwent behavioral assessment and brain diffusion tensor imaging, Twenty four controls with isolated short stature (mean age 6.4 years) underwent MRI, 11 of whom also completed behavioral assessments. Fractional anisotropy images were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Partial correlation between ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy, and child behavioral checklist scores (controlled for age at scan and sex) was performed. Children with optic nerve hypoplasia had significantly higher scores on the child behavioral checklist (p<0.05) than controls (4 had scores in the clinically significant range). Ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy were significantly reduced in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Right ventral cingulum fractional anisotropy correlated with total and externalising child behavioral checklist scores (r = -0.52, p<0.02, r = -0.46, p<0.049 respectively). There were no significant correlations between left ventral cingulum, corpus callosum or optic radiation fractional anisotropy and behavioral scores. Our findings suggest that children with optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment require behavioral assessment to determine the presence of clinically significant behavioral problems. Reduced structural integrity of the ventral cingulum correlated with behavioral scores, suggesting that these white matter abnormalities may be clinically significant. The presence of reduced fractional anisotropy in the optic radiations of children with mild to moderate or no visual impairment raises

  14. Assessment of adult psychopathology: meta-analyses and implications of cross-informant correlations.

    PubMed

    Achenbach, Thomas M; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Dumenci, Levent; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2005-05-01

    Assessment of adult psychopathology relies heavily on self-reports. To determine how well self-reports agree with reports by "informants" who know the person being assessed, the authors examined 51,000 articles published over 10 years in 52 peer-reviewed journals for correlations between self-reports and "informants" reports. Qualifying correlations were found in 108 (0.2%) of the articles. When self-reports and informant reports were obtained with parallel instruments, mean cross-informant correlations were .681 for substance use, .428 for internalizing, and .438 for externalizing problems. When based on different instruments, the mean cross-informant correlation was .304. The moderate sizes of the correlations argue for systematically obtaining multi-informant data. National survey findings were used to illustrate practical ways to obtain and use such data.

  15. The grammatical morpheme deficit in moderate hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    McGuckian, Maria; Henry, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Much remains unknown about grammatical morpheme (GM) acquisition by children with moderate hearing impairment (HI) acquiring spoken English. To investigate how moderate HI impacts on the use of GMs in speech and to provide an explanation for the pattern of findings. Elicited and spontaneous speech data were collected from children with moderate HI (n = 10; mean age = 7;4 years) and a control group of typically developing children (n = 10; mean age = 3;2 years) with equivalent mean length of utterance (MLU). The data were analysed to determine the use of ten GMs of English. Comparisons were made between the groups for rates of correct GM production, for types and rates of GM errors, and for order of GM accuracy. The findings revealed significant differences between the HI group and the control group for correct production of five GMs. The differences were not all in the same direction. The HI group produced possessive -s and plural -s significantly less frequently than the controls (this is not simply explained by the perceptual saliency of -s) and produced progressive -ing, articles and irregular past tense significantly more frequently than the controls. Moreover, the order of GM accuracy for the HI group did not correlate with that observed for the control group. Various factors were analysed in an attempt to explain order of GM accuracy for the HI group (i.e. perceptual saliency, syntactic category, semantics and frequency of GMs in input). Frequency of GMs in input was the most successful explanation for the overall pattern of GM accuracy. Interestingly, the order of GM accuracy for the HI group (acquiring spoken English as a first language) was characteristic of that reported for individuals learning English as a second language. An explanation for the findings is drawn from a factor that connects these different groups of language learners, i.e. limited access to spoken English input. It is argued that, because of hearing factors, the children with HI are

  16. Pharmacokinetics and safety of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment
.

    PubMed

    Kulmatycki, Kenneth M; Langenickel, Thomas; Ng, Wai Hong; Pal, Parasar; Zhou, Wei; Lin, Tsu-Han; Rajman, Iris; Chandra, Priyamvada; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2017-09-01

    To assess the protein binding and pharmacokinetics of sacubitril/valsartan analytes (sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan) in an open-label, single oral dose (200 mg), parallel-group study in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A and B) and matched healthy subjects. This study enrolled 32 subjects (n = 8 in each hepatic impairment and matched healthy subjects groups). Blood samples were collected at pre-determined time points to assess pharmacokinetics of sacubitril, sacubitrilat, and valsartan. Subjects with severe hepatic impairment were excluded as valsartan exposure is expected to be substantially increased in these patients. Sacubitril exposure (AUC) increased by 53% and 245% while the exposure to sacubitrilat was increased by 48% and 90% in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment, respectively. Sacubitril Cmax increased by 57% and 210% in mild and moderate hepatic impairment; however, for both sacubitrilat and valsartan, Cmax was unchanged. Valsartan AUC increased in patients with mild and moderate hepatic impairment by 19 - 109%, respectively. The increase in systemic exposures to all sacubitril/valsartan analytes correlated with the severity of liver disease. The plasma unbound fraction of sacubitrilat in patients with moderate hepatic impairment was slightly higher than in matched healthy subjects. This difference was not considered clinically significant. Safety assessments showed that sacubitril/valsartan was safe and well tolerated across all the study groups.
.

  17. M30 expression demonstrates apoptotic cells, correlates with in situ end-labeling, and is associated with Ki-67 expression in large intestinal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Carr, N J

    2000-12-01

    The monoclonal antibody M30 recognizes a neoepitope of cytokeratin 18 produced during apoptosis. It is reactive in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and has great potential in the study of apoptosis in clinical and experimental material. To compare the results of M30 immunoexpression with a more established technique of demonstrating apoptosis in tissue sections, in situ end-labeling. A secondary objective was to compare the results with immunoexpression of the proliferation-associated antigen Ki-67. Retrospective analysis of adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the large intestine. Immunohistochemistry for M30 and Ki-67, and in situ end-labeling. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was used. The number of cells positive for M30, Ki-67, and in situ end-labeling, expressed as a proportion of the total number of cells counted. A strong positive correlation was found between in situ end-labeling and expression of M30, although the counts were widely scattered around the regression line. Counts of Ki-67 were strongly correlated with both M30 expression and in situ end-labeling. Immunoexpression of M30 was generally easier to interpret than in situ end-labeling, and the procedures for M30 immunohistochemistry were technically less exacting. These findings support the application of M30 immunoreactivity in the study of apoptosis.

  18. Effect of correlations on controllability transition in network control

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Sen; Wang, Xu-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong; Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2016-01-01

    The network control problem has recently attracted an increasing amount of attention, owing to concerns including the avoidance of cascading failures of power-grids and the management of ecological networks. It has been proven that numerical control can be achieved if the number of control inputs exceeds a certain transition point. In the present study, we investigate the effect of degree correlation on the numerical controllability in networks whose topological structures are reconstructed from both real and modeling systems, and we find that the transition point of the number of control inputs depends strongly on the degree correlation in both undirected and directed networks with moderately sparse links. More interestingly, the effect of the degree correlation on the transition point cannot be observed in dense networks for numerical controllability, which contrasts with the corresponding result for structural controllability. In particular, for directed random networks and scale-free networks, the influence of the degree correlation is determined by the types of correlations. Our approach provides an understanding of control problems in complex sparse networks. PMID:27063294

  19. Does asymmetric correlation affect portfolio optimization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryd, Lukas

    2017-07-01

    The classical portfolio optimization problem does not assume asymmetric behavior of relationship among asset returns. The existence of asymmetric response in correlation on the bad news could be important information in portfolio optimization. The paper applies Dynamic conditional correlation model (DCC) and his asymmetric version (ADCC) to propose asymmetric behavior of conditional correlation. We analyse asymmetric correlation among S&P index, bonds index and spot gold price before mortgage crisis in 2008. We evaluate forecast ability of the models during and after mortgage crisis and demonstrate the impact of asymmetric correlation on the reduction of portfolio variance.

  20. Conformational analysis of processivity clamps in solution demonstrates that tertiary structure does not correlate with protein dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jing; Nevin, Philip; Kairys, Visvaldas; Venclovas, Česlovas; Engen, John R; Beuning, Penny J

    2014-04-08

    The relationship between protein sequence, structure, and dynamics has been elusive. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis using an in-solution experimental approach to study how the conservation of tertiary structure correlates with protein dynamics. Hydrogen exchange measurements of eight processivity clamp proteins from different species revealed that, despite highly similar three-dimensional structures, clamp proteins display a wide range of dynamic behavior. Differences were apparent both for structurally similar domains within proteins and for corresponding domains of different proteins. Several of the clamps contained regions that underwent local unfolding with different half-lives. We also observed a conserved pattern of alternating dynamics of the α helices lining the inner pore of the clamps as well as a correlation between dynamics and the number of salt bridges in these α helices. Our observations reveal that tertiary structure and dynamics are not directly correlated and that primary structure plays an important role in dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is Disgust Proneness Associated With Anxiety and Related Disorders? A Qualitative Review and Meta-Analysis of Group Comparison and Correlational Studies.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Armstrong, Thomas; Elwood, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that disgust may be linked to the etiology of some anxiety-related disorders. The present investigation reviews this literature and employs separate meta-analyses of clinical group comparison and correlational studies to examine the association between disgust proneness and anxiety-related disorder symptoms. Meta-analysis of 43 group comparison studies revealed those high in anxiety disorder symptoms reported significantly more disgust proneness than those low in anxiety symptoms. Although this effect was not moderated by clinical versus analogue studies or type of disorder, larger group differences were observed for those high in anxiety symptoms associated with contagion concerns compared to those high in anxiety symptoms not associated with contagion concerns. Similarly, meta-analysis of correlational data across 83 samples revealed moderate associations between disgust proneness and anxiety-related disorder symptoms. Moderator analysis revealed that the association between disgust proneness and anxiety-related disorder symptoms was especially robust for anxiety symptoms associated with contagion concerns. After controlling for measures of negative affect, disgust proneness continued to be moderately correlated with anxiety-related disorder symptoms. However, negative affect was no longer significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety-related disorders when controlling for disgust proneness. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of a novel transdiagnostic model.

  2. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  3. Correlates of Parental Differential Treatment: Parental and Contextual Factors during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Pike, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined whether parental and contextual risk factors contribute to mothers' and fathers' differential treatment (MDT/FDT) when accounting for sibling dyad characteristics. Also explored was whether family type (single mothers vs. 2 parents) moderated the links between the parental and contextual correlates and MDT. One hundred…

  4. Measuring Quadriceps strength in adults with severe or moderate intellectual and visual disabilities: Feasibility and reliability.

    PubMed

    Dijkhuizen, Annemarie; Douma, Rob K; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Waninge, Aly

    2018-05-30

    A feasible and reliable instrument to measure strength in persons with severe intellectual and visual disabilities (SIVD) is lacking. The aim of our study was to determine feasibility, learning period and reliability of three strength tests. Twenty-nine participants with SIVD performed the Minimum Sit-to-Stand Height test (MSST), the Leg Extension test (LE) and the 30 seconds Chair-Stand test (30sCS), once per week for 5 weeks. Feasibility was determined by the percentage of successful measurements; learning effect by using paired t test between two consecutive measurements; test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient and Limits of Agreement and, correlations by Pearson correlations. A sufficient feasibility and learning period of the tests was shown. The methods had sufficient test-retest reliability and moderate-to-sufficient correlations. The MSST, the LE, and the 30sCS are feasible tests for measuring muscle strength in persons with SIVD, having sufficient test re-test reliability. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The moderating role of dysphoria in the relationship between intrusions and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Ateka A; Presseau, Candice; Capone, Christy; Reddy, Madhavi K; Shea, M Tracie

    2016-04-01

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is frequently comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUD; Calabrese et al., 2011; McFall, Mackay, & Donovan, 1992). Among several explanations for this comorbidity, the most empirically supported is the self-medication theory which postulates that substances are used to medicate PTSD-related distress (Keane & Wolfe, 1990; Khantzian, 1985; Stewart, 1996). The current study examines the effects of trauma-related distress on alcohol use (total drinking days, drinks per drinking day, heavy drinking days) in a sample of 127 trauma-exposed Veterans following deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. The dysphoria symptoms of PTSD were used as an indicator of distress, and examined as a moderator in the relationship between intrusion symptoms of PTSD and alcohol use. The proposed moderation model was tested using cross-sectional data from the first month following return from deployment, and at 6 months and at 12 months post-deployment. Results showed that dysphoria symptoms significantly moderated relations between intrusions and total drinking days and heavy drinking days at one month post-deployment; however, a significant pattern was not demonstrated at 6 months and 12 months. Further, dysphoria did not moderate the relation between intrusion symptoms and drinks per drinking day at the three time points. Theoretical and clinical implications are subsequently discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescent Physical Activity: Moderation of Individual Factors by Neighborhood Environment.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Heather; Fowler, Stephanie L; Nebeling, Linda C; Oh, April Y

    2017-06-01

    Less than a third of U.S. adolescents meet federal physical activity (PA) guidelines. Understanding correlates of PA at multiple levels of the Social Ecological Model could improve PA interventions among youth. This study examines (1) associations between factors across the Social Ecological Model including psychosocial factors, perceived neighborhood physical and social environment characteristics, and adolescent moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and (2) whether perceived neighborhood characteristics moderate associations between psychosocial factors and MVPA. A national sample of adolescents (aged 12-17 years) in the 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study was used to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics, perceived neighborhood social and physical characteristics, and self-reported weekly minutes of MVPA. Analyses were conducted in 2015. Interaction terms between psychosocial and neighborhood variables were added to multiple linear regression models to examine moderation hypotheses. Significant two-way interactions revealed that neighborhoods with features perceived as supportive of PA strengthened several psychosocial-MVPA associations. The positive associations between MVPA and friend norms, friend support, and attitudes were strengthened for adolescents living in neighborhoods with high versus low PA resource availability (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the association between controlled and autonomous motivation and MVPA was strengthened under conditions of shops/stores near (versus distant from) adolescents' homes (p<0.05). The association between some psychosocial factors and adolescent MVPA may be environment dependent. Neighborhood physical and social environments supportive of PA are important to consider when developing targeted PA interventions and may strengthen the association between psychosocial-level factors and adolescent MVPA. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Recovery of Visual Search following Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Robertson, Kayela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Deficits in attentional abilities can significantly impact rehabilitation and recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study investigated the nature and recovery of pre-attentive (parallel) and attentive (serial) visual search abilities after TBI. Methods Participants were 40 individuals with moderate to severe TBI who were tested following emergence from post-traumatic amnesia and approximately 8-months post-injury, as well as 40 age and education matched controls. Pre-attentive (automatic) and attentive (controlled) visual search situations were created by manipulating the saliency of the target item amongst distractor items in visual displays. The relationship between pre-attentive and attentive visual search rates and follow-up community integration were also explored. Results The results revealed intact parallel (automatic) processing skills in the TBI group both post-acutely and at follow-up. In contrast, when attentional demands on visual search were increased by reducing the saliency of the target, the TBI group demonstrated poorer performances compared to the control group both post-acutely and 8-months post-injury. Neither pre-attentive nor attentive visual search slope values correlated with follow-up community integration. Conclusions These results suggest that utilizing intact pre-attentive visual search skills during rehabilitation may help to reduce high mental workload situations, thereby improving the rehabilitation process. For example, making commonly used objects more salient in the environment should increase reliance or more automatic visual search processes and reduce visual search time for individuals with TBI. PMID:25671675

  8. Openness to Experience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Intelligence and Creative Thinking: A Study of Chinese Children in Urban and Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoguo; Dai, David Y; Lu, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Using testing and questionnaire methods, this study investigated the relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. This study focused on the moderating effects of openness to experience on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking in a sample of 831 primary school students in China. The findings showed significant positive relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. In relation to the focus of this study, openness to experience moderated the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. However, the correlation between openness to experience and creative thinking was stronger for urban children than for rural children, and the moderating effect existed only in urban settings.

  9. Openness to Experience as a Moderator of the Relationship between Intelligence and Creative Thinking: A Study of Chinese Children in Urban and Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Baoguo; Dai, David Y.; Lu, Yongli

    2016-01-01

    Using testing and questionnaire methods, this study investigated the relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. This study focused on the moderating effects of openness to experience on the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking in a sample of 831 primary school students in China. The findings showed significant positive relationships among openness to experience, intelligence and creative thinking. In relation to the focus of this study, openness to experience moderated the relationship between intelligence and creative thinking. However, the correlation between openness to experience and creative thinking was stronger for urban children than for rural children, and the moderating effect existed only in urban settings. PMID:27199866

  10. Romantic Relationship Satisfaction Moderates the Etiology of Adult Personality

    PubMed Central

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Elkins, Irene; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene x environment interaction (GxE) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of GxE were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: Well-Being, Social Potency, Negative Emotionality, Alienation, Aggression, Constraint, Traditionalism, and Absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait. PMID:26581694

  11. Romantic Relationship Satisfaction Moderates the Etiology of Adult Personality.

    PubMed

    South, Susan C; Krueger, Robert F; Elkins, Irene J; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The heritability of major normative domains of personality is well-established, with approximately half the proportion of variance attributed to genetic differences. In the current study, we examine the possibility of gene × environment interaction (G×E) for adult personality using the environmental context of intimate romantic relationship functioning. Personality and relationship satisfaction are significantly correlated phenotypically, but to date no research has examined how the genetic and environmental components of variance for personality differ as a function of romantic relationship satisfaction. Given the importance of personality for myriad outcomes from work productivity to psychopathology, it is vital to identify variables present in adulthood that may affect the etiology of personality. In the current study, quantitative models of G×E were used to determine whether the genetic and environmental influences on personality differ as a function of relationship satisfaction. We drew from a sample of now-adult twins followed longitudinally from adolescence through age 29. All participants completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) and an abbreviated version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Biometric moderation was found for eight of the eleven MPQ scales examined: well-being, social potency, negative emotionality, alienation, aggression, constraint, traditionalism, and absorption. The pattern of findings differed, suggesting that the ways in which relationship quality moderates the etiology of personality may depend on the personality trait.

  12. Using an In-Class Demonstration To Enhance Understanding of Product-Costing Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Marianne L.; Blaszcynski, Carol

    2002-01-01

    To help accounting students understand product costing, a class demonstration of the transformation of raw materials into finished goods was conducted. A survey of 55 students found the demonstration was highly correlated with enjoyment, concept usefulness, and improved understanding. (SK)

  13. Measurement Properties of the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory Electronic Daily Diary in Patients with Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Hema N; Mutebi, Alex; Milmont, Cassandra E; Gordon, Kenneth; Wilson, Hilary; Zhang, Hao; Klekotka, Paul A; Revicki, Dennis A; Augustin, Matthias; Kricorian, Gregory; Nirula, Ajay; Strober, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    The Psoriasis Symptom Inventory (PSI) is a patient-reported outcome instrument that measures the severity of psoriasis signs and symptoms. This study evaluated measurement properties of the PSI in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. This secondary analysis used pooled data from a phase 3 brodalumab clinical trial (AMAGINE-1). Outcome measures included the PSI, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), static Physician's Global Assessment (sPGA), psoriasis-affected body surface area, 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The PSI was evaluated for dimensionality, item performance, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct validity, ability to detect change, and agreement between PSI response and response measures based on the PASI, sPGA, and DLQI. Results supported unidimensionality, good item fit, ordered responses, and PSI scoring. The PSI demonstrated reliability: baseline Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95. Correlations between PSI total score and DLQI item 1 (r = 0.86), DLQI symptoms and feelings (r = 0.87), and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 bodily pain (r = -0.61) supported convergent validity. PSI scores differed significantly (P < 0.001) among severity groups based on the PASI (< 12/≥ 12), sPGA (0-1/2-3/4-5), body surface area (< 5%/5%-10%/> 10%), and DLQI (≤ 5/> 5) at weeks 8 and 12. At week 12, the PSI detected significant changes in severity based on PASI responses (< 50/50- < 75/≥ 75) and sPGA (0-1/≥ 2), and showed good agreement (k ≥ 0.66) between PSI response and PASI, sPGA, and DLQI responses. The PSI demonstrated excellent validity, reliability, and ability to detect change in the severity of psoriasis signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Longitudinal Development of Phonology and Morphology in Children with Late-Identified Mild-Moderate Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Mary Pat; McCleary, Elizabeth; Putman, Coille; Tyler-Krings, Amy; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    children with hearing loss demonstrated language delays, with pronounced delays in phonological development. Three of the four children demonstrated rapid progress with development and interventions, and performed within the average range on standardized speech and language measures compared to age-matched children by 60-months of age. However, persistent differences from children with normal hearing were observed in the areas of morphosyntax, speech intelligibility in conversation, and production of fricatives. Children with mild-moderate hearing loss demonstrated later than typical emergence of certain verb tense markers, which may be related to reduced or inconsistent audibility. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that early communication delays will resolve for children with late-identified mild-moderate hearing loss, given appropriate amplification and intervention services. A positive result is that three of four children demonstrated normalization of broad language behaviors by 60-months of age, in spite of significant delays at baseline. However, these children are at risk for persistent delays in phonology at the conversational level and for accuracy in use of morphological markers. The ways in which reduced auditory experiences and audibility may contribute to these delays are explored, along with implications for evaluation of outcomes. PMID:20548239

  15. [Subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children in Akita prefecture].

    PubMed

    Sato, Teruyuki; Nakazawa, Misao; Takahashi, Shin; Ishikawa, Kazuo

    2013-06-01

    The dissemination of newborn hearing screening has detected children with mild-moderate hearing impairment at an early age. However, there is no nation-wide welfare system for children with mild-moderate hearing impairment in Japan. Under these kinds of social conditions, a subsidized project of hearing aid purchase for mild-moderate hearing impaired children has come into force from April 2010 in Akita prefecture. All 18 candidates who applied for this project were subsidized in Akita prefecture. Eighteen children purchased their hearing aids using this subsidy. The feature of this project was that every child could have access to subsidies as long as their doctor recognized the effectiveness of hearing aids because children with hearing impairment need to learn language. They contacted the hospital, prefectural government and institutes related to hearing loss before this project come into force. We recognized parents who are raising a child with mild-moderate hearing impairment have high interest in this project. Hearing aids can represent a considerable expense for young parents who are raising a child. We encountered some children who had to give up the idea of hearing aids due to their parents' economic circumstances before this project become effective. These situations were completely avoided after this project came into being. This administrative purpose was of demonstrated value in children with mild-moderate hearing impairment.

  16. Kinoform optics applied to X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sandy, A R; Narayanan, S; Sprung, M; Su, J-D; Evans-Lutterodt, K; Isakovic, A F; Stein, A

    2010-05-01

    Moderate-demagnification higher-order silicon kinoform focusing lenses have been fabricated to facilitate small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments. The geometric properties of such lenses, their focusing performance and their applicability for XPCS measurements are described. It is concluded that one-dimensional vertical X-ray focusing via silicon kinoform lenses significantly increases the usable coherent flux from third-generation storage-ring light sources for small-angle XPCS experiments.

  17. Predictive factors for the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C and moderate alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Vădan, Roxana; Gheorghe, Liana; Becheanu, Gabriel; Iacob, Răzvan; Iacob, Speranţa; Gheorghe, Cristian

    2003-09-01

    Among the histological lesions seen in chronic hepatitis C (CHC), the presence of steatosis, bile duct lesions and lymphoid aggregates are characteristic. Recent reports suggest that steatosis is an independent risk factor for liver fibrosis in CHC. The aim of our study was to determine the relative contribution of steatosis and moderate alcohol consumption to the severity of liver fibrosis in patients infected with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. We evaluated the patients with biopsy proven CHC and no or only moderate alcohol intake (<40 g/day). The demographical parameters of the study population, the indices of alcohol consumption: erythrocyte median corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), the histological characteristics were noted and a statistical analysis was performed in order to determine the factors independently associated with severe fibrosis and with severe steatosis. From the 200 patients included in the study, 82 were males and 118 females, with a mean age of 47.75+/-10.42 years. At univariate analysis, advanced (grade 2, 3) fibrosis correlated with: the age at the time of biopsy, increased inflammatory activity (HAI), moderate/severe steatosis, alcohol intake, elevated GGT and MCV values. After multivariate logistic regression only age, HAI and steatosis were independently associated with advanced fibrosis stage. Regarding hepatic steatosis, from the factors found to correlate with severe steatosis at univariate analysis (alcohol intake, elevated GGT and MCV levels, severe fibrosis), after multivariate logistic regression only the elevated level of GGT was an independent prognostic factor for severe steatosis. Steatosis is an important risk factor for the severity of liver disease in CHC patients. Among patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection and moderate alcohol intake, those with serum levels of GGT over two times the normal value are at high risk for severe steatosis.

  18. Workplace spirituality as a moderator in relation between stress and health: An exploratory empirical assessment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vineet; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-06-01

    The present study explores the role of workplace spirituality in moderating the relationship between occupational stress and the health of managerial personnel in India. A sample of 150 managers working in different public and private organizations was used to measure workplace spirituality, occupational stress, and health using the Spirituality at Work scale, the Occupational Stress Index and the 28-item General Health Questionnaire, respectively. The findings reveal that workplace spirituality moderates the negative relationship of stress and health. The study also found that stress has a negative impact on health while workplace spirituality positively correlated with health. The findings also support the practical importance of spirituality in the workplace for improving health conditions by providing a healthy atmosphere and meaningful work for employees. This exploratory study encourages future research to understand the role of spirituality in the workplace.

  19. Family cohesion moderates the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in Japanese adolescent temporary residents.

    PubMed

    Roley, Michelle E; Kawakami, Ryoko; Baker, Jessica; Hurtado, Gabriela; Chin, Andrew; Hovey, Joseph D

    2014-12-01

    Acculturative stress is a risk factor for depression, and may be important in the risk for depression among acculturating Japanese adolescents. However, little to no research has been published on the mental health of acculturating Japanese adolescents. Further, although family cohesion has been shown to be protective against depression across ethnic groups, no prior research has examined family cohesion as a protective factor for Japanese adolescents. To examine these relationships, 26 Japanese temporary resident adolescents and 76 parents in the Midwest were recruited to participate. Moderate to strong correlations between acculturative stress, depression, likelihood for and seriousness of family conflict were found. A regression analysis found that likelihood for family conflict moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Findings broaden our understanding of the role of acculturative stress and family conflict on depression risk for Japanese adolescent immigrants.

  20. Correlation between hippocampal volumes and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dhikav, Vikas; Duraiswamy, Sharmila; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampus undergoes atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calculation of hippocampal volumes can be done by a variety of methods using T1-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Medial temporal lobes atrophy (MTL) can be rated visually using T1-weighted MRI brain images. The present study was done to see if any correlation existed between hippocampal volumes and visual rating scores of the MTL using Scheltens Visual Rating Method. We screened 84 subjects presented to the Department of Neurology of a Tertiary Care Hospital and enrolled forty subjects meeting the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, AD related Disease Association criteria. Selected patients underwent MRI brain and T1-weighted images in a plane perpendicular to long axis of hippocampus were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were calculated manually using a standard protocol. The calculated hippocampal volumes were correlated with Scheltens Visual Rating Method for Rating MTL. A total of 32 cognitively normal age-matched subjects were selected to see the same correlation in the healthy subjects as well. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods was calculated and compared. There was an insignificant correlation between the hippocampal volumes and MTL rating scores in cognitively normal elderly ( n = 32; Pearson Correlation coefficient = 0.16, P > 0.05). In the AD Group, there was a moderately strong correlation between measured hippocampal volumes and MTL Rating (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.54; P < 0.05. There was a moderately strong correlation between hippocampal volume and Mini-Mental Status Examination in the AD group. Manual delineation was superior compared to the visual method ( P < 0.05). Good correlation was present between manual hippocampal volume measurements and MTL scores. Sensitivity and specificity of manual measurement of hippocampus was higher compared to visual rating scores for MTL in patients

  1. Correlation between hippocampal volumes and medial temporal lobe atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Dhikav, Vikas; Duraiswamy, Sharmila; Anand, Kuljeet Singh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hippocampus undergoes atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Calculation of hippocampal volumes can be done by a variety of methods using T1-weighted images of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Medial temporal lobes atrophy (MTL) can be rated visually using T1-weighted MRI brain images. The present study was done to see if any correlation existed between hippocampal volumes and visual rating scores of the MTL using Scheltens Visual Rating Method. Materials and Methods: We screened 84 subjects presented to the Department of Neurology of a Tertiary Care Hospital and enrolled forty subjects meeting the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke, AD related Disease Association criteria. Selected patients underwent MRI brain and T1-weighted images in a plane perpendicular to long axis of hippocampus were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were calculated manually using a standard protocol. The calculated hippocampal volumes were correlated with Scheltens Visual Rating Method for Rating MTL. A total of 32 cognitively normal age-matched subjects were selected to see the same correlation in the healthy subjects as well. Sensitivity and specificity of both methods was calculated and compared. Results: There was an insignificant correlation between the hippocampal volumes and MTL rating scores in cognitively normal elderly (n = 32; Pearson Correlation coefficient = 0.16, P > 0.05). In the AD Group, there was a moderately strong correlation between measured hippocampal volumes and MTL Rating (Pearson's correlation coefficient = −0.54; P < 0.05. There was a moderately strong correlation between hippocampal volume and Mini-Mental Status Examination in the AD group. Manual delineation was superior compared to the visual method (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Good correlation was present between manual hippocampal volume measurements and MTL scores. Sensitivity and specificity of manual measurement of hippocampus was

  2. Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: testing a moderated, multiple mediator model.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Ryan D; Bott, Elizabeth M; Allan, Blake A; Torrey, Carrie L; Dik, Bryan J

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated the relations of perceiving a calling with career commitment and work meaning, such that these relations were more robust for those with a stronger sense they were living their calling. Additionally, a moderated, multiple mediator model was run to examine the mediating role of career commitment and work meaning in the relation of perceiving a calling and job satisfaction, while accounting for the moderating role of living a calling. Results indicated that work meaning and career commitment fully mediated the relation between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. However, the indirect effects of work meaning and career commitment were only significant for individuals with high levels of living a calling, indicating the importance of living a calling in the link between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The role of dispositional factors in moderating message framing effects.

    PubMed

    Covey, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Health messages can be framed in terms of the benefits of adopting a recommendation (gain frame) or the costs of not adopting a recommendation (loss frame). In recent years, research has demonstrated that the relative persuasiveness of gain and loss frames can depend on a variety of dispositional factors. This article synthesizes this growing literature to develop our understanding of the moderators of framing. A systematic review of published literature on gain and loss framing was conducted. Articles were retrieved that tested the interaction between framing and moderators representing individual differences in how people are predisposed to think, feel, and behave. The significance and direction of framing main effects and interactions were noted and effect size data extracted where available. Forty-seven reports published between January 1990 and January 2012 were retrieved that reported on 50 unique experiments testing 23 different moderators. Significant interactions with typically small to medium simple main effect sizes were found in 37 of the 50 studies. Consistent interactions were found for factors such as ambivalence, approach-avoidance motivation, regulatory focus, need for cognition, and self-efficacy beliefs. Less consistent effects were found for perceived riskiness of activity, issue involvement, and perceived susceptibility/severity. The relative effectiveness of gain- or loss-framed messages can depend on the disposition of the message recipient. Tailoring the frame to the individual therefore has the potential to maximize message persuasiveness. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Geometric representation of spin correlations and applications to ultracold systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Rick; Mirasola, Anthony E.; Hollingsworth, Jacob; White, Ian G.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.

    2018-04-01

    We provide a one-to-one map between the spin correlations and certain three-dimensional shapes, analogous to the map between single spins and Bloch vectors, and demonstrate its utility. Much as one can reason geometrically about dynamics using a Bloch vector—e.g., a magnetic field causes it to precess and dissipation causes it to shrink—one can reason similarly about the shapes we use to visualize correlations. This visualization demonstrates its usefulness by unveiling the hidden structure in the correlations. For example, seemingly complex correlation dynamics can be described as simple motions of the shapes. We demonstrate the simplicity of the dynamics, which is obscured in conventional analyses, by analyzing several physical systems of relevance to cold atoms.

  5. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Addiction in Chinese College Students: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of Meaning in Life and Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Mei, Songli; Li, Li; Chai, Jingxin; Li, Jiaomeng; Du, Hongyang

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has increasingly been recognized as a serious psychological malady among college students. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated to addictive behaviors, also to IA, and that the purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not there are variables modulating the relation between impulsivity and IA. "Meaning in life" is regarded as a desirable attribute, with positive mental health outcomes. "Self-esteem" is often regarded as an important component of psychological health which has relation to IA. Therefore, we examined meaning in life and self-esteem's possible effects in this relationship. A total of 1068 Chinese college students ranging in age from 18 to 25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional survey study. Correlations and multivariate regressions were used to calculate the possible mediation and moderation relationship among the variables of meaning in life, self-esteem, impulsivity, and IA. In the analyses that we conducted, IA was shown to be prevalent among Chinese university students. The relationship between impulsivity and IA was partially mediated by meaning in life, and the relationship between meaning in life and IA was moderated by self-esteem. Our findings demonstrate that meaning in life and self-esteem can be useful buffers to IA for highly impulsive individuals. Further randomized trials to confirm these results are needed.

  6. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Addiction in Chinese College Students: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of Meaning in Life and Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Mei, Songli; Li, Li; Chai, Jingxin; Li, Jiaomeng; Du, Hongyang

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has increasingly been recognized as a serious psychological malady among college students. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated to addictive behaviors, also to IA, and that the purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not there are variables modulating the relation between impulsivity and IA. “Meaning in life” is regarded as a desirable attribute, with positive mental health outcomes. “Self-esteem” is often regarded as an important component of psychological health which has relation to IA. Therefore, we examined meaning in life and self-esteem’s possible effects in this relationship. A total of 1068 Chinese college students ranging in age from 18 to 25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional survey study. Correlations and multivariate regressions were used to calculate the possible mediation and moderation relationship among the variables of meaning in life, self-esteem, impulsivity, and IA. In the analyses that we conducted, IA was shown to be prevalent among Chinese university students. The relationship between impulsivity and IA was partially mediated by meaning in life, and the relationship between meaning in life and IA was moderated by self-esteem. Our findings demonstrate that meaning in life and self-esteem can be useful buffers to IA for highly impulsive individuals. Further randomized trials to confirm these results are needed. PMID:26171860

  7. Moderators of Implicit-Explicit Exercise Cognition Concordance.

    PubMed

    Berry, Tanya R; Rodgers, Wendy M; Markland, David; Hall, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    Investigating implicit-explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations. Attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between implicit associations of exercise with health and health motives. Identified regulations significantly moderated implicit-explicit concordance with respect to associations with appearance. These results suggest that implicit and explicit exercise-related cognitions are not necessarily independent and their relationship to each other may be moderated by attitudes or some forms of behavioral regulation. Future research that takes a dual-processing approach to exercise behavior should consider potential theoretical moderators of concordance.

  8. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability

    PubMed Central

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  9. Undiagnosed depression and its correlates in a predominantly immigrant Hispanic neurology clinic.

    PubMed

    Sahai-Srivastava, Soma; Zheng, Ling

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have reported a high incidence of depression in neurology clinics, however areas where there are predominantly underserved immigrants have not been studied. Retrospective cohort study in an academic outpatient neurology clinic in Los Angeles, California. Newly referred patients (N=318) were assessed consecutively for depression using a PHQ-9 questionnaire, accompanied by review of the assessment of the depressive disorder. The patient cohort consisted of 190 females (59%) and 130 males (41%), primarily of Hispanic descent (72%), with 8% Asian 11% white, and 5% African-American. Sixty-eight percent (68%) had depression, with 40% exhibiting moderate to severe depression. Patients who had moderate to severe depression (based on PHQ-9) were more likely to be unemployed (75.2% vs. 60.7%, p=0.008), dependent on government income (29.5% vs. 20.4%, p=0.06), and have headache or pain as the reason for referral (42.4% vs. 28.5%, p=0.03). Severity of depression also significantly correlated with current treatment by psychiatrist, current antidepressant use, and less independent living. Patients with moderate to severe depression were more likely to have made ER visits in the last 12 months (0.9 vs. 0.7, p=0.01) and were taking more medications (3.3 vs. 2.5, p=0.03), compared to patient with mild or no depression. The presence of moderate to severe depression significantly correlated with socioeconomic status, use of emergency room, and presence of headache/pain. Neurology clinics with predominantly underserved immigrant patients have a disproportionate amount of depression, which may be related to socioeconomic factors resulting in overutilization of scarce healthcare resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Defining the Relationship of Student Achievement Between STEM Subjects Through Canonical Correlation Analysis of 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neal, Melissa Jean

    Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 achievement databases encompassing information from fourth/eighth grades. Student achievement in life science/biology was correlated with achievement in mathematics and other sciences across three analytical areas: mathematics and science student performance, achievement in cognitive domains, and achievement in content domains. Strong correlations between student achievement in life science/biology with achievement in mathematics and overall science occurred for both high- and low-performing education systems. Hence, partial emphases on the inter-subject connections did not always lead to a better student learning outcome in STEM education. In addition, student achievement in life science/biology was positively correlated with achievement in mathematics and science cognitive domains; these patterns held true for correlations of life science/biology with mathematics as well as other sciences. The importance of linking student learning experiences between and within STEM domains to support high performance on TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 < r < 85) stronger correlations (73 < r < 97) between life science/biology and other science domains. Results demonstrated the foundational nature of STEM knowledge at the fourth grade level, and established the importance of strong interconnections among life science/biology, mathematics, and other sciences. At the eighth grade level, students who built increasing levels of cognitive complexity upon firm foundations were prepared for successful learning throughout their educational careers. The results from this investigation promote a holistic design of school learning opportunities to improve student achievement in life science/biology and other science, technology, engineering, and

  11. Mutacins and bacteriocins like genes in Streptococcus mutans isolated from participants with high, moderate, and low salivary count.

    PubMed

    Soto, Carolina; Padilla, Carlos; Lobos, Olga

    2017-02-01

    To detect S. mutans producers of mutacins and bacteriocins like substances (BLIS) from saliva of participants with low, moderate, and high salivary counts. 123 strains of S. mutans were obtained from participants with low, moderate, and high salivary counts (age 18 and 20 years old) and their antibacterial capacity analyzed. By using PCR amplification, the expression levels of mutacins and BLIS genes were studied (expressed in arbitrary units/ml) in all three levels. S. mutans strains from participants with low salivary counts show high production of mutacins (63%). In contrast, participants with moderate and high salivary counts depict relatively low levels of mutacins (22 and 15%, respectively). Moreover, participants with low salivary counts showed high expression levels of genes encoding mutacins, a result that correlates with the strong antimicrobial activity of the group. Participants with moderate and high salivary counts however depict low expression levels of mutacin related genes, and little antimicrobial activity. No BLIS were detected in any of the groups studied. S. mutans isolated from the saliva of participants with low bacterial counts have significant antibacterial capacity compared to that of participants with moderate and high salivary counts. The superior lethality of S. mutans in participants with low salivary counts is likely due to the augmented expression of mutacin- related genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interlayer tunneling in a strongly correlated electron-phonon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzejewski, M.; Zieliński, J.

    1996-10-01

    We discuss the role of interlayer tunneling for superconducting properties of strongly correlated (U-->∞ limit) two-layer Hubbard model coupled to phonons. Strong correlations are taken into account within the mean-field approximation for auxiliary boson fields. To consider phonon-mediated and interlayer tunneling contribution to superconductivity on equal footing we incorporate the tunneling term into the generalized Eliashberg equations. This leads to the modification of the phonon-induced pairing kernel and implies a pronounced enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature in the d-wave channel for moderate doping. In numerical calculations the two-dimensional band structure has been explicitly taken into account. The relevance of our results for high-temperature superconductors is briefly discussed.

  13. Cognitive performance predicts treatment decisional abilities in mild to moderate dementia.

    PubMed

    Gurrera, R J; Moye, J; Karel, M J; Azar, A R; Armesto, J C

    2006-05-09

    To examine the contribution of neuropsychological test performance to treatment decision-making capacity in community volunteers with mild to moderate dementia. The authors recruited volunteers (44 men, 44 women) with mild to moderate dementia from the community. Subjects completed a battery of 11 neuropsychological tests that assessed auditory and visual attention, logical memory, language, and executive function. To measure decision making capacity, the authors administered the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Interview, the Hopemont Capacity Assessment Interview, and the MacCarthur Competence Assessment Tool--Treatment. Each of these instruments individually scores four decisional abilities serving capacity: understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and expression of choice. The authors used principal components analysis to generate component scores for each ability across instruments, and to extract principal components for neuropsychological performance. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that neuropsychological performance significantly predicted all four abilities. Specifically, it predicted 77.8% of the common variance for understanding, 39.4% for reasoning, 24.6% for appreciation, and 10.2% for expression of choice. Except for reasoning and appreciation, neuropsychological predictor (beta) profiles were unique for each ability. Neuropsychological performance substantially and differentially predicted capacity for treatment decisions in individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Relationships between elemental cognitive function and decisional capacity may differ in individuals whose decisional capacity is impaired by other disorders, such as mental illness.

  14. Relationship functioning moderates the association between depressive symptoms and life stressors.

    PubMed

    Trombello, Joseph M; Schoebi, Dominik; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2011-02-01

    Data from 172 newlywed couples were collected over the first 4 years of marriage to test how behaviors demonstrated during marital interactions moderate associations between depressive symptoms and subsequent life stressors. Depressive symptoms and behaviors coded from problem-solving and social support interactions were analyzed as predictors of nonmarital stressors that were interpersonal and dependent on the participant's actions. Behavioral codes were found to moderate 3 of 16 symptom-to-life event associations for husbands. Husbands' reports of more depressive symptoms predicted greater levels of stress when husbands' positive affect and hard negative affect during problem-solving were relatively infrequent and when wives made frequent displays of positive behaviors during husbands' support topics. These effects remained after controlling for marital satisfaction. For wives, behavioral moderators did not interact with depressive symptoms to predict changes in stress, but marital satisfaction consistently interacted with depressive symptoms to predict future stressors beyond interpersonal behaviors. Specifically, for wives, stress generation was more evident when relationship satisfaction was low than when it was high. Our results, though different for men and women, suggest that relationship functioning can alter associations between depressive symptoms and life stress in the early years of marriage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Stress moderates the relationships between problem-gambling severity and specific psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups. Interactions odds ratios were statistically significant for stress moderating the relationships between at-risk gambling (versus non-gambling) and Any Axis-I and Any Axis-II disorder, with substance-use and Cluster-A and Cluster-B disorders contributing significantly. Some similar patterns were observed for pathological gambling (versus non-gambling), with stress moderating relationships with Cluster-B disorders. In all cases, a stronger relationship was observed between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in the low-stress versus high-stress groups. The findings suggest that perceived stress accounts for some of the variance in the relationship between problem-gambling severity and specific forms of psychopathology, particularly with respect to lower intensity, subsyndromal levels of gambling. Findings suggest that stress may be particularly important to consider in the relationships between problem-gambling severity and substance use and Cluster-B disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Cognitive performance predicts treatment decisional abilities in mild to moderate dementia

    PubMed Central

    Gurrera, R.J.; Moye, J.; Karel, M.J.; Azar, A.R.; Armesto, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the contribution of neuropsychological test performance to treatment decision-making capacity in community volunteers with mild to moderate dementia. Methods The authors recruited volunteers (44 men, 44 women) with mild to moderate dementia from the community. Subjects completed a battery of 11 neuropsychological tests that assessed auditory and visual attention, logical memory, language, and executive function. To measure decision making capacity, the authors administered the Capacity to Consent to Treatment Interview, the Hopemont Capacity Assessment Interview, and the MacCarthur Competence Assessment Tool—Treatment. Each of these instruments individually scores four decisional abilities serving capacity: understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and expression of choice. The authors used principal components analysis to generate component scores for each ability across instruments, and to extract principal components for neuropsychological performance. Results Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that neuropsychological performance significantly predicted all four abilities. Specifically, it predicted 77.8% of the common variance for understanding, 39.4% for reasoning, 24.6% for appreciation, and 10.2% for expression of choice. Except for reasoning and appreciation, neuropsychological predictor (β) profiles were unique for each ability. Conclusions Neuropsychological performance substantially and differentially predicted capacity for treatment decisions in individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Relationships between elemental cognitive function and decisional capacity may differ in individuals whose decisional capacity is impaired by other disorders, such as mental illness. PMID:16682669

  17. Preliminary Note on a Correlation of a Boundary-Layer Transition Results on Highly Cooled Blunt Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisniewski, Richard J.

    1957-01-01

    Transition data on highly cooled blunt bodies are correlated in terms of the ratio of wall to local-stream enthalpy, Reynolds number based on displacement thickness, and location of transition. The proposed correlation, although not sensitive enough to predict the exact location of transition does predict the enthalpy ratio below which very early transition on blunt bodies is expected. The correlation is not altered by moderate amounts of surface roughness; however, the location of transition may well be affected by roughness.

  18. Newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH: a better correlation in vaginal atrophy?

    PubMed

    Tuntiviriyapun, P; Panyakhamlerd, K; Triratanachat, S; Chatsuwan, T; Chaikittisilpa, S; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation among symptoms, signs, and the number of lactobacilli in postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. The secondary objective was to develop a new parameter to improve the correlation. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Naturally postmenopausal women aged 45-70 years with at least one clinical symptom of vaginal atrophy of moderate to severe intensity were included in this study. All of the objective parameters (vaginal atrophy score, vaginal pH, the number of lactobacilli, vaginal maturation index, and vaginal maturation value) were evaluated and correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. A new parameter of vaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy symptoms II, was developed and consists of the two most bothersome symptoms (vaginal dryness and dyspareunia). Vaginal atrophy symptoms II was analyzed for correlation with the objective parameters. A total of 132 naturally postmenopausal women were recruited for analysis. Vaginal pH was the only objective parameter found to have a weak correlation with vaginal atrophy symptoms (r = 0.273, p = 0.002). The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II parameter showed moderate correlation with vaginal pH (r = 0.356, p < 0.001) and a weak correlation with the vaginal atrophy score (r = 0.230, p < 0.001). History of sexual intercourse within 3 months was associated with a better correlation between vaginal atrophy symptoms and the objective parameters. Vaginal pH was significantly correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II was associated with a better correlation. The vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH may be better tools for clinical evaluation and future study of the vaginal ecosystem.

  19. Understanding and Using Mediators and Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2008-01-01

    Mediation and moderation are two theories for refining and understanding a causal relationship. Empirical investigation of mediators and moderators requires an integrated research design rather than the data analyses driven approach often seen in the literature. This paper described the conceptual foundation, research design, data analysis, as…

  20. Best Practices in Online Conference Moderation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Schutter, Adrienne; Fahrni, Patricia; Rudolph, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Facilitation by a moderator is crucial to a purposeful and productive conference. The moderator keeps the session focused, and ensures that all participants receive feedback regarding their contributions to the discussion. These functions are particularly important in the otherwise impersonal context of online discussion. The current report…

  1. Trait Anger and Partner-Specific Anger Management Moderate the Temporal Association Between Alcohol Use and Dating Violence.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; McNulty, James K; Moore, Todd M; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-03-01

    Research demonstrates alcohol temporally precedes and increases the odds of violence between intimate partners. However, despite an extensive theoretical literature on factors that likely moderate the relationship between alcohol and dating violence, minimal empirical research has examined such moderators. The purpose of the present study was to examine two potential moderators of this association: trait anger and partner-specific anger management. Undergraduate men (N = 67) who had consumed alcohol within the past month and were in current dating relationships completed a baseline assessment of their trait anger and partner-specific anger management skills and subsequently completed daily assessments of their alcohol use and violence perpetration (psychological, physical, and sexual) for up to 90 consecutive days. Alcohol was significantly associated with increased odds of physical aggression among men with relatively high but not low trait anger and partner-specific anger management deficits. In contrast, alcohol was significantly associated with increased odds of sexual aggression among men with relatively low trait anger and partner-specific anger management deficits. Our findings demonstrate important differences in the roles of acute intoxication and anger management in the risk of physical aggression and sexual dating violence. Interventions for dating violence may benefit from targeting both alcohol and adaptive anger management skills.

  2. Correlational Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Chandar, Sarath; Khapra, Mitesh M; Larochelle, Hugo; Ravindran, Balaraman

    2016-02-01

    Common representation learning (CRL), wherein different descriptions (or views) of the data are embedded in a common subspace, has been receiving a lot of attention recently. Two popular paradigms here are canonical correlation analysis (CCA)-based approaches and autoencoder (AE)-based approaches. CCA-based approaches learn a joint representation by maximizing correlation of the views when projected to the common subspace. AE-based methods learn a common representation by minimizing the error of reconstructing the two views. Each of these approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, while CCA-based approaches outperform AE-based approaches for the task of transfer learning, they are not as scalable as the latter. In this work, we propose an AE-based approach, correlational neural network (CorrNet), that explicitly maximizes correlation among the views when projected to the common subspace. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed CorrNet is better than AE and CCA with respect to its ability to learn correlated common representations. We employ CorrNet for several cross-language tasks and show that the representations learned using it perform better than the ones learned using other state-of-the-art approaches.

  3. The PROMIS Global Health Questionnaire Correlates With the QuickDASH in Patients With Upper Extremity Illness.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Nicky; Menendez, Mariano E; Mellema, Jos J; Ring, David

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the construct validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health instrument by establishing its correlation to the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire in patients with upper extremity illness. A cohort of 112 patients completed a sociodemographic survey and the PROMIS Global Health and QuickDASH questionnaires. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the association of the QuickDASH with the PROMIS Global Health items and subscales. Six of the 10 PROMIS Global Health items were associated with the QuickDASH. The PROMIS Global Physical Health subscale showed moderate correlation with QuickDASH and the Mental Health subscale. There was no significant relationship between the PROMIS Global Mental Health subscale and QuickDASH. The consistent finding that general patient-reported outcomes correlate moderately with regional patient-reported outcomes suggests that a small number of relatively nonspecific patient-reported outcome measures might be used to assess a variety of illnesses. In our opinion, the blending of physical and mental health questions in the PROMIS Global Health makes this instrument less useful for research or patient care.

  4. Role of buccal corridor in smile esthetics and its correlation with underlying skeletal and dental structures.

    PubMed

    Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Maurya, R P; Ahmad, Nabeel

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the buccal corridor in smile esthetics and to correlate it with underlying hard tissues. Posed smiling frontal photographs, digital posterior-anterior (PA) cephalograms, and study models of 25 males and 25 females in age range of 18-25 years were taken. Photographs were evaluated for smile esthetics by eight orthodontists, eight plastic surgeons, eight beauticians and eight lay people to group them into three groups with least attractive, average and attractive smile and buccal corridor width was measured. Digital PA cephalograms were transferred on Nemo-tech software for frontal facial analysis. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on upper study model with the help of a digital calliper. The buccal corridor width was least in attractive smile group and maximum in least attractive smile group. The buccal corridor width had a negligible correlation with hard tissues and a mild to moderate inverse correlation with intercanine and intermolar widths within the groups. As the amount of buccal corridor display was increased, smiling images were scored less attractive by the evaluators. The buccal corridor is not influenced by underlying skeletal hard tissues but have mild to moderate inverse correlation with the intercanine and intermolar width.

  5. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Strom, Suzanne L; Anderson, Craig L; Yang, Luanna; Canales, Cecilia; Amin, Alpesh; Lotfipour, Shahram; McCoy, C Eric; Osborn, Megan Boysen; Langdorf, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulation-based evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6%) than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6-14.0%], p<0.00005). We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04), validating the new evaluation method. Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation.

  6. Psychosocial and environmental correlates of violence perpetration among African-American urban youth.

    PubMed

    Feigelman, S; Howard, D E; Li, X; Cross, S I

    2000-09-01

    To ascertain the proportion of youths involved in acts of violence; to examine individual, social, and environmental factors associated with perpetration; and to determine the relationship among victimization, witnessing, and perpetration of violence. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 349 volunteer males and females, aged 9-15 years, 96% of whom were African-American. The youths were recruited from recreation centers associated with 10 public-housing communities in an eastern city. Survey instruments included the Child Health and Illness Profile, Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence, and other standardized questionnaires. Statistical analyses included Chi-square, correlation, regression, and test for linear trends. Half of the youths self-reported at least one act of violence perpetration, with similar distributions among males and females. One-third of the youths reported both personal victimization and the witnessing of violent events. Victim and witness status were moderately correlated. Individual risk behaviors and victimization made significant contributions to perpetration status. Further analysis demonstrated a linear relationship between acts of perpetration and number of victimization events. Participation in problem behaviors may place youths in circumstances in which they may be victim, witness, or aggressor. The chronic and high levels of community violence to which many youths are exposed are likely to contribute to an individual's participation in acts of violence.

  7. Discrepancy between functional exercise capacity and daily physical activity: a cross-sectional study in patients with mild to moderate COPD.

    PubMed

    Fastenau, Annemieke; van Schayck, Onno C P; Gosselink, Rik; Aretz, Karin C P M; Muris, Jean W M

    2013-12-01

    In patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the six-minute walk distance reflects the functional exercise level for daily physical activity. It is unknown if this also applies to patients with mild to moderate COPD in primary care. To assess the relationship between functional exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with mild to moderate COPD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 51 patients with mild to moderate COPD in primary care. Functional exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walk test and physical activity was measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor. Functional exercise capacity was close to normal values. However, the daily physical activity of the patients could be classified as 'sedentary' and 'low active'. No significant correlations were observed between six-minute walk distance (% predicted) and any of the physical activity variables (steps per day, movement intensity during walking, total active time, total walking time, physical activity level, and time spent in moderate physical activity). A discrepancy was found between functional exercise capacity and daily physical activity in patients with mild to moderate COPD recruited and assessed in primary care. We conclude that these variables represent two different concepts. Our results reinforce the importance of measuring daily physical activity in order to fine-tune treatment (i.e. focusing on enhancement of exercise capacity or behavioural change, or both).

  8. Correlation between spheno-occipital synchondrosis, dental age, chronological age and cervical vertebrae maturation in Turkish population: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Demirturk Kocasarac, Husniye; Altan, Ayse Burcu; Yerlikaya, Canan; Sinanoglu, Alper; Noujeim, Marcel

    2017-03-01

    To assess the correlation between third molar mineralization (TMM), spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) fusion, chronologic age and cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) for skeletal maturation. Radiographs for 116 patients between 8 and 28 years were evaluated for age determination using mandibular TMM, SOS fusion and CVM. Spearman Correlation and Kappa test analyses were used to assess the relationship between variables and for intraobserver reliability. Strong correlation was found between chronological age and TMM for males (r = .802) and females (r = .842), very strong correlation was found between age and CVM for males (r = .812) and moderate for females (r = .449), it was strong between age and SOS fusion for males (r = .810) and females (r = .643). Correlation between TMM and SOS was found to be strong for males (r = .759) and moderate for females (r = .534), it was strong between TMM and CVM for males (r = .723) and weak for females (r = .371). Very strong correlation was found between CVM and SOS fusion for males (r = .851) and strong correlation for females (r = .618). Good correlation was found between the degrees of TMM, fusion of SOS and CVM in young Turkish population.

  9. Smaller Slices of the Pie. The Growing Economic Vulnerability of Poor and Moderate Income Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Kathryn; And Others

    Data which demonstrate increasing poverty in the United States are collected in this report. Following a brief introduction, six sections present information to support these major findings: (1) Today there is a growing trend toward income disparity between rich and poor. Americans of moderate incomes as well as those classified as poor have lost…

  10. Correlation among extinction efficiency and other parameters in an aggregate dust model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Tanuj Kumar; Sekhar Das, Himadri

    2017-10-01

    We study the extinction properties of highly porous Ballistic Cluster-Cluster Aggregate dust aggregates in a wide range of complex refractive indices (1.4≤ n≤ 2.0, 0.001≤ k≤ 1.0) and wavelengths (0.11 {{μ }}{{m}}≤ {{λ }}≤ 3.4 {{μ }} m). An attempt has been made for the first time to investigate the correlation among extinction efficiency ({Q}{ext}), composition of dust aggregates (n,k), wavelength of radiation (λ) and size parameter of the monomers (x). If k is fixed at any value between 0.001 and 1.0, {Q}{ext} increases with increase of n from 1.4 to 2.0. {Q}{ext} and n are correlated via linear regression when the cluster size is small, whereas the correlation is quadratic at moderate and higher sizes of the cluster. This feature is observed at all wavelengths (ultraviolet to optical to infrared). We also find that the variation of {Q}{ext} with n is very small when λ is high. When n is fixed at any value between 1.4 and 2.0, it is observed that {Q}{ext} and k are correlated via a polynomial regression equation (of degree 1, 2, 3 or 4), where the degree of the equation depends on the cluster size, n and λ. The correlation is linear for small size and quadratic/cubic/quartic for moderate and higher sizes. We have also found that {Q}{ext} and x are correlated via a polynomial regression (of degree 3, 4 or 5) for all values of n. The degree of regression is found to be n and k-dependent. The set of relations obtained from our work can be used to model interstellar extinction for dust aggregates in a wide range of wavelengths and complex refractive indices.

  11. Moderate Sedation Changes for Bronchoscopy in 2017.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael E

    2017-10-01

    The reimbursement for procedures using moderate (conscious) sedation has changed significantly as of January 1, 2017. Due to the increasing use of anesthesia services to provide moderate sedation during endoscopy, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services made the decision to remove work relative value units from many of the services requiring moderate sedation, including the bronchoscopy codes. If a bronchoscopist provides moderate sedation to a patient without using anesthesia services or another qualified provider, that work (and revenue) can be reclaimed by using the relevant codes. An understanding of the recent changes in coding and billing is essential for appropriate reimbursement. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wigner molecules: natural orbitals of strongly correlated two-electron harmonium.

    PubMed

    Cioslowski, Jerzy; Buchowiecki, Marcin

    2006-08-14

    Explicit asymptotic expressions for natural orbitals and their occupancies are derived for the harmonium atom at the strong-correlation limit at which the confinement strength omega tends to zero. Unlike in systems with moderate correlation effects, the occupancies at the omega-->0 limit (derived from occupation amplitudes with alternating sign patterns) are vanishingly small and asymptotically independent of the angular momentum, forming a geometric progression with the scale factor proportional to omega(1/3) and the common ratio of ca. 0.0186. The radial components of the natural orbitals are given by products of polynomials and Gaussian functions that, as expected, peak at approximately half of the equilibrium interelectron distance.

  13. Investigation of focused and unfocused transducer beam patterns in moderately nonlinear absorbing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Nikolay A.

    2001-05-01

    The novel solution of the KZK equation for acoustic pressure of the second harmonic in slightly focused beam of a circular transducer was obtained in a closed form for moderately nonlinear absorbing media (Gol'dberg numbers ~ 1). The solution is based on the method of slowly changing wave profile in combination with the method of successive approximations. Two pairs of transducers (Valpey-Fisher Corp.) Were compared to investigate the influence of focusing on the applicability of the moderate nonlinearity approach. The first pair was of 0.25' diameter and the second was of 0.5' diameter. Both pairs has one transducer with flat surface and the other geometrically focused at 4'. The central frequency for all transducers was 5 MHz. Measurements were undertaken in the blood-mimicking solution of water and glycerine. The results demonstrated that for slightly focused transducers with circular apertures, the moderate nonlinearity approach is still valid, as it was proved for flat sources with the same source level, despite the higher pressures in the focal region. The peak pressure for the weakly focused system occurs at a shorter range than focal length.

  14. Correlation to FVIII:C in Two Thrombin Generation Tests: TGA-CAT and INNOVANCE ETP.

    PubMed

    Ljungkvist, Marcus; Berndtsson, Maria; Holmström, Margareta; Mikovic, Danijela; Elezovic, Ivo; Antovic, Jovan P; Zetterberg, Eva; Berntorp, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Several thrombin-generation tests are available, but few have been directly compared. Our primary aim was to investigate the correlation of two thrombin generation tests, thrombin generation assay-calibrated automated thrombogram (TGA-CAT) and INNOVANCE ETP, to factor VIII levels (FVIII:C) in a group of patients with hemophilia A. The secondary aim was to investigate inter-laboratory variation for the TGA-CAT method. Blood samples were taken from 45 patients with mild, moderate and severe hemophilia A. The TGA-CAT method was performed at both centers while the INNOVANCE ETP was only performed at the Stockholm center. Correlation between parameters was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation test. For determination of the TGA-CAT inter-laboratory variability, Bland-Altman plots were used. The correlation for the INNOVANCE ETP and TGA-CAT methods with FVIII:C in persons with hemophilia (PWH) was r=0.701 and r=0.734 respectively.The correlation between the two methods was r=0.546.When dividing the study material into disease severity groups (mild, moderate and severe) based on FVIII levels, both methods fail to discriminate between them.The variability of the TGA-CAT results performed at the two centers was reduced after normalization; before normalization, 29% of values showed less than ±10% difference while after normalization the number increased to 41%. Both methods correlate in an equal manner to FVIII:C in PWH but show a poor correlation with each other. The level of agreement for the TGA-CAT method was poor though slightly improved after normalization of data. Further improvement of standardization of these methods is warranted.

  15. Heber Binary Project. Binary Cycle Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant (RP1900-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, R. G.; Nelson, T. T.

    1982-12-01

    The Heber Binary Project (1) demonstrates the potential of moderate temperature (below 410 F) geothermal energy to produce economic electric power with binary cycle conversion technology; (2) allows the scaling up and evaluation of the performance of binary cycle technology in geothermal service; (3) establishes schedule, cost and equipment performance, reservoir performance, and the environmental acceptability of such plants; and (4) resolves uncertainties associated with the reservoir performance, plant operation, and economics.

  16. The association between knee joint biomechanics and neuromuscular control and moderate knee osteoarthritis radiographic and pain severity.

    PubMed

    Astephen Wilson, J L; Deluzio, K J; Dunbar, M J; Caldwell, G E; Hubley-Kozey, C L

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between biomechanical and neuromuscular factors of clinically diagnosed mild to moderate knee osteoarthritis (OA) with radiographic severity and pain severity separately. Three-dimensional gait analysis and electromyography were performed on a group of 40 participants with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate medial knee OA. Associations between radiographic severity, defined using a visual analog radiographic score, and pain severity, defined with the pain subscale of the WOMAC osteoarthritis index, with knee joint kinematics and kinetics, electromyography patterns of periarticular knee muscles, BMI and gait speed were determined with correlation analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses of radiographic and pain severity were also explored. Statistically significant correlations between radiographic severity and the overall magnitude of the knee adduction moment during stance (r²=21.4%, P=0.003) and the magnitude of the knee flexion angle during the gait cycle (r²=11.4%, P=0.03) were found. Significant correlations between pain and gait speed (r²=28.2%, P<0.0001), the activation patterns of the lateral gastrocnemius (r²=16.6%, P=0.009) and the medial hamstring (r²=10.3%, P=0.04) during gait were found. The combination of the magnitude of the knee adduction moment during stance and BMI explained a significant portion of the variability in radiographic severity (R(2)=27.1%, P<0.0001). No multivariate model explained pain severity better than gait speed alone. This study suggests that some knee joint biomechanical variables are associated with structural knee OA severity measured from radiographs in clinically diagnosed mild to moderate levels of disease, but that pain severity is only reflected in gait speed and neuromuscular activation patterns. A combination of the knee adduction moment and BMI better explained structural knee OA severity than any individual factor alone. Copyright © 2010

  17. Correlation between the dizziness handicap inventory and balance performance during the acute phase of unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Son, Eun Jin; Lee, Dong-Hee; Oh, Jeong-Hoon; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Jeon, Eun-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) is widely used to evaluate self-perceived handicap due to dizziness, and is known to correlate with vestibular function tests in chronic dizziness. However, whether DHI reflects subjective symptoms during the acute phase has not been studied. This study aims to investigate the correlations of subjective and objective measurements to highlight parameters that reflect the severity of dizziness during the first week of acute unilateral vestibulopathy. Thirty-seven patients with acute unilateral vestibulopathy were examined. Patients' subjective perceptions of dizziness were measured using the DHI, Vertigo Visual Analog Scale (VVAS), Disability Scale (DS), and Activity-Specific Balance Scale (ABC). Additionally, the oculomotor tests, Romberg and sharpened Romberg tests, functional reach test, and dynamic visual acuity tests were performed. The correlation between the DHI and other tests was evaluated. DHI-total scores exhibited a moderately positive correlation with VVAS and DS, and a moderately negative correlation with ABC. However, DHI-total score did not correlate with results of the Romberg, sharpened Romberg, or functional reach tests. When compared among four groups divided according to DHI scores, VVAS and DS scores exhibited statistically significant differences, but no significant differences were detected for other test results. Our findings revealed that the DHI correlated significantly with self-perceived symptoms measured by VVAS and DS, but not ABC. There was no significant correlation with other balance function tests during the first week of acute vestibulopathy. The results suggest that DHI, VVAS and DS may be more useful to measure the severity of acute dizziness symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trust and mindreading in adolescents: the moderating role of social value orientation.

    PubMed

    Derks, Jeffrey; Van Scheppingen, Manon A; Lee, Nikki C; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    In adolescence, aspects of cognition that are required to deal with complex cooperation situations, such as mentalising and social value orientation, are still in development. In the Trust Game, cooperation may lead to better outcomes for both players, but can also lead to exploitation by the trustee. In the present study, we explore how mindreading, a crucial aspect of mentalising, and social value orientation (whether someone is prosocial or proself) are related to trust. In a group of 217 students (51% girls, Mage = 15.1) social value orientation, mindreading and trust (using the Trust Game) were measured. The result show that social value orientation moderates the relation between mindreading and trust. In the group of prosocials, we find no correlation between mindreading and trust. In the group of proselfs, mindreading is negatively correlated to trust, indicating that proselfs use their mentalising skills to assess that the trustee is likely to exploit them.

  19. Explaining the Substantial Inter-Domain and Over-Time Correlations in Student Achievement: The Importance of Stable Student Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary N.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-domain and longitudinal studies of student achievement routinely find moderate to strong correlations across achievement domains and even stronger within-domain correlations over time. The purpose of this study is to examine the sources of these patterns analysing student achievement in 5 domains across Years 3, 5 and 7. The analysis is of…

  20. Enabling Delay of Gratification Behavior in Those Not So Predisposed: The Moderating Role of Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lei; Liao, Jiangqun

    2016-01-01

    The presence of delay of gratification (DG) in childhood is correlated with success later in a person's life. Is there any way of helping adults with a low level of DG to obtain similar success? The present research examines how social support helps those low in DG nonetheless to act similarly to those high in DG. This research includes both correlational studies and experiments that manipulate social support as well as both field studies and a laboratory study. The results show that with high social support, employees (Study 1) and university students (Study 2) low in DG report vocational and academic DG behavioral intentions, respectively, similar to those high in DG. Study 3 found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed job-choice DG similar to those high in the DG. Study 4 controlled for mood and self-image and found that participants low in DG who were primed with high social support expressed more money-choice DG than those high in the DG. Study 5 showed that social support moderated the relationship between DG and actual DG behaviors. These findings provide evidence for a moderating role of social support in the expression of DG behavior. PMID:27047408

  1. SU-E-T-108: Development of a Novel Clinical Neutron Dose Monitor for Proton Therapy Based On Twin TLD500 Chips in a Small PE Moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Hentschel, R; Mukherjee, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, it could be desirable to measure out-of-field fast neutron doses at critical locations near and outside the patient body. Methods: The working principle of a novel clinical neutron dose monitor is verified by MCNPX simulation. The device is based on a small PE moderator of just 5.5cm side length for easy handling covered with a thermal neutron suppression layer. In the simulation, a polystyrene phantom is bombarded with a standard proton beam. The secondary thermal neutron flux produced inside the moderator by the impinging fast neutrons from the treatment volume is estimated by pairs of α-Al2O3:Cmore » (TLD500) chips which are evaluated offline after the treatment either by TL or OSL methods. The first chip is wrapped with 0.5mm natural Gadolinium foil converting the thermal neutrons to gammas via (n,γ) reaction. The second chip is wrapped with a dummy material. The chip centers have a distance of 2cm from each other. Results: The simulation shows that the difference of gamma doses in the TLD500 chips is correlated to the mean fast neutron dose delivered to the moderator material. Different outer shielding materials have been studied. 0.5mm Cadmium shielding is preferred for cost reasons and convenience. Replacement of PE moderator material by other materials like lead or iron at any place is unfavorable. The spatial orientation of the moderator cube is uncritical. Using variance reduction techniques like splitting/Russian roulette, the TLD500 gamma dose simulation give positive differences up to distances of 0.5m from the treatment volume. Conclusion: Applicability and basic layout of a novel clinical neutron dose monitor are demonstrated. The monitor measures PE neutron doses at locations outside the patient body up to distances of 0.5m from the treatment volume. Tissue neutron doses may be calculated using neutron kerma factors.« less

  2. Treatment moderators of child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sally M; Henry, David B; Katz, Andrea C; Peters, Amy T; West, Amy E

    2015-02-01

    Prior work has demonstrated the efficacy of child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (CFF-CBT) versus enhanced treatment as usual (TAU; unstructured psychotherapy) for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). The current study builds on primary findings by examining baseline child, parent, and family characteristics as moderators of symptom response trajectories. A total of 69 youth aged 7 to 13 years (mean = 9.19 years, SD = 1.61 years) with DSM-IV-TR bipolar I, II, or not otherwise specified (NOS) were randomly assigned, with family members, to CFF-CBT or TAU. Both treatments consisted of 12 weekly sessions and 6 monthly booster sessions. Participants were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, and 6-month follow-up on mania and depression symptoms and overall psychiatric severity. Parents and youth also provided self-report data on baseline characteristics. CFF-CBT demonstrated greater efficacy for youth depressive symptoms relative to TAU for parents with higher baseline depressive symptoms and lower income, and marginally for families with higher cohesion. In addition, youth with lower baseline depression and youth with higher self-esteem showed a poorer response to TAU versus CFF-CBT on mania symptom outcomes. Age, sex, baseline mania symptoms, comorbidity, and suicidality did not moderate treatment response. Results indicate that CFF-CBT was relatively immune to the presence of treatment moderators. Findings suggest the need for specialized treatment to address symptoms of PBD in the context of parental symptomatology and financial stress. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial correlation of shear-wave velocity within San Francisco Bay Sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, E.M.; Baise, L.G.; Kayen, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment properties are spatially variable at all scales, and this variability at smaller scales influences high frequency ground motions. We show that surface shear-wave velocity is highly correlated within San Francisco Bay Area sediments using shear-wave velocity measurements from 210 seismic cone penetration tests. We use this correlation to estimate the surface sediment velocity structure using geostatistics. We find that the variance of the estimated shear-wave velocity is reduced using ordinary kriging, and that including this velocity structure in 2D ground motion simulations of a moderate sized earthquake improves the accuracy of the synthetics. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  4. Students' Perceptions of Online Discussions, Participation and E-Moderation Behaviours in Peer-Moderated Asynchronous Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadirian, Hajar; Fauzi Mohd Ayub, Ahmad; Salehi, Keyvan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' perceptions of online discussions, participation and e-moderation behaviours in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions. Using survey data, the learning system's activity log and discussion transcripts, the authors analysed how 84 learners' perceptions of online…

  5. Correlation Filter Learning Toward Peak Strength for Visual Tracking.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yao; Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a novel visual tracking approach to correlation filter learning toward peak strength of correlation response. Previous methods leverage all features of the target and the immediate background to learn a correlation filter. Some features, however, may be distractive to tracking, like those from occlusion and local deformation, resulting in unstable tracking performance. This paper aims at solving this issue and proposes a novel algorithm to learn the correlation filter. The proposed approach, by imposing an elastic net constraint on the filter, can adaptively eliminate those distractive features in the correlation filtering. A new peak strength metric is proposed to measure the discriminative capability of the learned correlation filter. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach effectively strengthens the peak of the correlation response, leading to more discriminative performance than previous methods. Extensive experiments on a challenging visual tracking benchmark demonstrate that the proposed tracker outperforms most state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Performance of a proportion-based approach to meta-analytic moderator estimation: results from Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Urreta, Miguel I; Ellis, Michael E; Sun, Wenying

    2012-03-01

    This research investigates the performance of a proportion-based approach to meta-analytic moderator estimation through a series of Monte Carlo simulations. This approach is most useful when the moderating potential of a categorical variable has not been recognized in primary research and thus heterogeneous groups have been pooled together as a single sample. Alternative scenarios representing different distributions of group proportions are examined along with varying numbers of studies, subjects per study, and correlation combinations. Our results suggest that the approach is largely unbiased in its estimation of the magnitude of between-group differences and performs well with regard to statistical power and type I error. In particular, the average percentage bias of the estimated correlation for the reference group is positive and largely negligible, in the 0.5-1.8% range; the average percentage bias of the difference between correlations is also minimal, in the -0.1-1.2% range. Further analysis also suggests both biases decrease as the magnitude of the underlying difference increases, as the number of subjects in each simulated primary study increases, and as the number of simulated studies in each meta-analysis increases. The bias was most evident when the number of subjects and the number of studies were the smallest (80 and 36, respectively). A sensitivity analysis that examines its performance in scenarios down to 12 studies and 40 primary subjects is also included. This research is the first that thoroughly examines the adequacy of the proportion-based approach. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Diener, E; Diener, M

    1995-04-01

    College students in 31 nations (N = 13,118) completed measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, and satisfaction with specific domains (friends, family, and finances). The authors assessed whether cross-cultural variations in the strength of associations were related to societal dimensions including income and individualism. At the national level, individualism correlated -.24 (ns) with heterogeneity and .71 (p < .001) with wealth. At the individual level, self-esteem and life satisfaction were correlated .47 for the entire sample. This relation, however, was moderated by the individualism of the society. The associations of financial, friend, and family satisfactions with life satisfaction and with self-esteem also varied across nations. Financial satisfaction was a stronger correlate of life satisfaction in poorer countries. It was found that life satisfaction and self-esteem were clearly discriminable constructs. Satisfaction ratings, except for financial satisfaction, varied between slightly positive and fairly positive.

  8. Correlation and simple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Zou, Kelly H; Tuncali, Kemal; Silverman, Stuart G

    2003-06-01

    In this tutorial article, the concepts of correlation and regression are reviewed and demonstrated. The authors review and compare two correlation coefficients, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Spearman rho, for measuring linear and nonlinear relationships between two continuous variables. In the case of measuring the linear relationship between a predictor and an outcome variable, simple linear regression analysis is conducted. These statistical concepts are illustrated by using a data set from published literature to assess a computed tomography-guided interventional technique. These statistical methods are important for exploring the relationships between variables and can be applied to many radiologic studies.

  9. Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation

    PubMed Central

    Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models. PMID:22503640

  10. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Census Influences Discharge of Moderately Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Profit, Jochen; McCormick, Marie C.; Escobar, Gabriel J.; Richardson, Douglas K.; Zheng, Zheng; Coleman-Phox, Kim; Roberts, Rebecca; Zupancic, John A. F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The timely discharge of moderately premature infants has important economic implications. The decision to discharge should occur independent of unit census. We evaluated the impact of unit census on the decision to discharge moderately preterm infants. Design/Methods In a prospective multicenter cohort study, we enrolled 850 infants born between 30 and 34 weeks' gestation at 10 NICUs in Massachusetts and California. We divided the daily census from each hospital into quintiles and tested whether discharges were evenly distributed among them. Using logistic regression, we analyzed predictors of discharge within census quintiles associated with a greater- or less-than-expected likelihood of discharge. We then explored parental satisfaction and postdischarge resource consumption in relation to discharge during census periods that were associated with high proportions of discharge. Results There was a significant correlation between unit census and likelihood of discharge. When unit census was in the lowest quintile, patients were 20% less likely to be discharged when compared with all of the other quintiles of unit census. In the lowest quintile of unit census, patient/nurse ratio was the only variable associated with discharge. When census was in the highest quintile, patients were 32% more likely to be discharged when compared with all of the other quintiles of unit census. For patients in this quintile, a higher patient/nurse ratio increased the likelihood of discharge. Conversely, infants with prolonged lengths of stay, an increasing Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology II, and minor congenital anomalies were less likely to be discharged. Infants discharged at high unit census did not differ from their peers in terms of parental satisfaction, emergency department visits, home nurse visits, or rehospitalization rates. Conclusions Discharges are closely correlated with unit census. Providers incorporate demand and case mix into their discharge decisions

  11. Employee Trust in Supervisors and Affective Commitment: The Moderating Role of Authentic Leadership.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Kehan; Lin, Weipeng; Li, Jenny C; Wang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Although previous research has examined the main/direct effects of subordinates' trust in their supervisors on the levels of subordinates' affective commitment towards the organizations, little attention has been paid to explore the boundary conditions of this relationship. Two studies were conducted to examine the moderating effect of authentic leadership on the relationship between subordinates' trust in supervisor and their levels of affective commitment towards the organization. In line with the hypothesized model, both Study 1 (cross-sectional design, n = 138) and Study 2 (lagged design, n = 154) demonstrated that authentic leadership moderated the relationship between employees' trust in supervisor and their levels of affective commitment towards their organizations. Specifically, the positive relationship was stronger for employees under higher levels of authentic leadership. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Carbon and hydrogen isotope fractionation by moderately thermophilic methanogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, David L.; Chidthaisong, Amnat; Rice, Andrew; Reeburgh, William S.; Tyler, Stanley C.

    2004-04-01

    A series of laboratory studies were conducted to increase understanding of stable carbon (13C/12C) and hydrogen (D/H) isotope fractionation arising from methanogenesis by moderately thermophilic acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens. Studies of the aceticlastic reaction were conducted with two closely related strains of Methanosaeta thermophila. Results demonstrate a carbon isotope fractionation of only 7‰ (α = 1.007) between the methyl position of acetate and the resulting methane. Methane formed by this process is enriched in 13C when compared with other natural sources of methane; the magnitude of this isotope effect raises the possibility that methane produced at elevated temperature by the aceticlastic reaction could be mistaken for thermogenic methane based on carbon isotopic content. Studies of H2/CO2 methanogenesis were conducted with Methanothermobacter marburgensis. The fractionation of carbon isotopes between CO2 and CH4 was found to range from 22 to 58‰ (1.023 ≤ α ≤ 1.064). Greater fractionation was associated with low levels of molecular hydrogen and steady-state metabolism. The fractionation of hydrogen isotopes between source H2O and CH4 was found to range from 127 to 275‰ (1.16 ≤ α ≤ 1.43). Fractionation was dependent on growth phase with greater fractionation associated with later growth stages. The maximum observed fractionation factor was 1.43, independent of the δD-H2 supplied to the culture. Fractionation was positively correlated with temperature and/or metabolic rate. Results demonstrate significant variability in both hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation during methanogenesis from H2/CO2. The relatively small fractionation associated with deuterium during H2/CO2 methanogenesis provides an explanation for the relatively enriched deuterium content of biogenic natural gas originating from a variety of thermal environments. Results from these experiments are used to develop a hypothesis that differential

  13. BDNF Polymorphism–Dependent OFC and DLPFC Plasticity Differentially Moderates Implicit and Explicit Bias

    PubMed Central

    Poore, Joshua C.; Barbey, Aron K.; Krueger, Frank; Solomon, Jeffrey; Lipsky, Robert H.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Goldman, David; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plasticity in controlling implicit and explicit social biases. Normal controls and patients with varied OFC and DLPFC lesion size and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which promotes (methionine–valine [Met/Val] SNP) or stifles (valine–valine [Val/Val] SNP) plasticity in damaged PFC regions, completed measures of implicit and explicit social bias. Patients and controls demonstrated comparable levels of implicit bias, but patients with Met/Val SNPs exhibited less implicit bias when they had smaller OFC lesions compared with Val/Val patients with similar size lesions and those with large OFC lesions. Both patients and controls demonstrated patterns of explicit bias consistent with hypotheses. Patients with Met/Val SNPs exhibited less explicit bias when they had smaller DLPFC lesions sizes compared with Val/Val patients with similar size lesions and those with large DLPFC lesions. OFC lesion size and BDNF SNP type did not moderate explicit bias; DLPFC lesion size and BDNF SNP type did not moderate implicit bias (nor did other medial or lateral regions). Findings suggest that plasticity within specific PFC regions modulates the type and degree of social bias that individuals’ exhibit. PMID:22123938

  14. Chemo-IMRT of Oropharyngeal Cancer Aiming to Reduce Dysphagia: Swallowing Organs Late Complication Probabilities and Dosimetric Correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Eisbruch, Avraham, E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Feng, Felix Y.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Assess dosimetric correlates of long-term dysphagia after chemo-intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) sparing parts of the swallowing organs. Patients and Methods: Prospective longitudinal study: weekly chemotherapy concurrent with IMRT for Stages III/IV OPC, aiming to reduce dysphagia by sparing noninvolved parts of swallowing-related organs: pharyngeal constrictors (PC), glottic and supraglottic larynx (GSL), and esophagus, as well as oral cavity and major salivary glands. Dysphagia outcomes included patient-reported Swallowing and Eating Domain scores, Observer-based (CTCAEv.2) dysphagia, and videofluoroscopy (VF), before and periodically after therapy through 2 years. Relationships between dosimetric factors and worsening (from baseline) of dysphagia throughmore » 2 years were assessed by linear mixed-effects model. Results: Seventy-three patients participated. Observer-based dysphagia was not modeled because at >6 months there were only four Grade {>=}2 cases (one of whom was feeding-tube dependent). PC, GSL, and esophagus mean doses, as well as their partial volume doses (V{sub D}s), were each significantly correlated with all dysphagia outcomes. However, the V{sub D}s for each organ intercorrelated and also highly correlated with the mean doses, leaving only mean doses significant. Mean doses to each of the parts of the PCs (superior, middle, and inferior) were also significantly correlated with all dysphagia measures, with superior PCs demonstrating highest correlations. For VF-based strictures, most significant predictor was esophageal mean doses (48{+-}17 Gy in patients with, vs 27{+-}12 in patients without strictures, p = 0.004). Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs) increased moderately with mean doses without any threshold. For increased VF-based aspirations or worsened VF summary scores, toxic doses (TDs){sub 50} and TD{sub 25} were 63 Gy and 56 Gy for PC, and 56 Gy and 39 Gy for GSL, respectively

  15. Issues in Moderation of National Curriculum Assessment at Key Stage 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowling, Les

    1994-01-01

    Highlights the issues of moderation of teacher judgments for accountability and moderation for achieving consistent assessments. Discusses the meaning of moderation, the need for moderating teacher judgments, approaches to moderation, methods of moderation, and most appropriate methods of moderation at Key Stage 3. Presents an approach to…

  16. Gender Differences in Psychopathic Traits, Types, and Correlates of Aggression among Adjudicated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Timothy R.; Marini, Victoria A.; Thomas, Jamila N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in types and correlates of aggression among 150 adjudicated youth (M age = 15.2, SD = 1.4). In cluster analysis, consistent with past studies, one aggressive group characterized by moderate levels of reactive aggression and one characterized by high levels of proactive and reactive aggression…

  17. Psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates of life satisfaction among patients diagnosed with cancer in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al Abeiat, Dana D; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim N; Ghannam, Bushra M; Hanouneh, Salah I

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is a worldwide disease, and the psychosocial concerns are nearly universal among patients with cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychosocial correlates of life satisfaction among patients diagnosed with cancer in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey using 92 patients diagnosed with cancer used to collect data in regard to life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, coping, and perceived social support. In general, about 50% of patients reported high level of life satisfaction and 50% of the patients reported moderate levels of ability to effectively cope with life situations. Moreover, 78% of patients reported that they had depressive symptoms and 45.3% of them reported that they had moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms had significant and negative correlation with life satisfaction (r = -0.50, p < 0.001), and stress had weak nonsignificant correlation with life satisfaction (r = 0.05, p > 0.05). On the other hand, social support from others has positive and significant correlation with life satisfaction (r = 0.32, p < 0.01). Marital status, times of admission, perceived social support from others, and depressive symptoms were significant predictors of life satisfaction. Health professionals need to integrate their medical care with psychosocial intervention early at admission and during follow-up care, so early detection of psychological disturbances will help to implement effective treatment plans.

  18. Auditory feedback improves heart rate moderation during moderate-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Shaykevich, Alex; Grove, J Robert; Jackson, Ben; Landers, Grant J; Dimmock, James

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to automated HR feedback can produce improvements in the ability to regulate HR during moderate-intensity exercise and to evaluate the persistence of these improvements after feedback is removed. Twenty healthy adults performed 10 indoor exercise sessions on cycle ergometers over 5 wk after a twice-weekly schedule. During these sessions (FB), participants received auditory feedback designed to maintain HR within a personalized, moderate-intensity training zone between 70% and 80% of estimated maximum HR. All feedback was delivered via a custom mobile software application. Participants underwent an initial assessment (PREFB) to measure their ability to maintain exercise intensity defined by the training zone without use of feedback. After completing the feedback training, participants performed three additional assessments identical to PREFB at 1 wk (POST1), 2 wk (POST2), and 4 wk (POST3) after their last feedback session. Time in zone (TIZ), defined as the ratio of the time spent within the training zone divided by the overall time of exercise, rate of perceived exertion, instrumental attitudes, and affective attitudes were then evaluated to assess results using two-way, mixed-model ANOVA with sessions and gender as factors. Training with feedback significantly improved TIZ (P < 0.01) compared with PREFB. An absence of significant differences in TIZ between FB, POST1, POST2, and POST3 (P ≥ 0.35) indicated that these improvements were maintained after feedback was removed. No significant differences in rate of perceived exertion (P ≥ 0.40) or attitude measures (P ≥ 0.30) were observed. Auditory biofeedback is an effective mechanism for entraining HR regulation during moderate-intensity exercise in healthy adults.

  19. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  20. Landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns and processes - eight hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Rand, Tatyana A; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Batáry, Péter; Bengtsson, Janne; Clough, Yann; Crist, Thomas O; Dormann, Carsten F; Ewers, Robert M; Fründ, Jochen; Holt, Robert D; Holzschuh, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra M; Kleijn, David; Kremen, Claire; Landis, Doug A; Laurance, William; Lindenmayer, David; Scherber, Christoph; Sodhi, Navjot; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Thies, Carsten; van der Putten, Wim H; Westphal, Catrin

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how landscape characteristics affect biodiversity patterns and ecological processes at local and landscape scales is critical for mitigating effects of global environmental change. In this review, we use knowledge gained from human-modified landscapes to suggest eight hypotheses, which we hope will encourage more systematic research on the role of landscape composition and configuration in determining the structure of ecological communities, ecosystem functioning and services. We organize the eight hypotheses under four overarching themes. Section A: 'landscape moderation of biodiversity patterns' includes (1) the landscape species pool hypothesis-the size of the landscape-wide species pool moderates local (alpha) biodiversity, and (2) the dominance of beta diversity hypothesis-landscape-moderated dissimilarity of local communities determines landscape-wide biodiversity and overrides negative local effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Section B: 'landscape moderation of population dynamics' includes (3) the cross-habitat spillover hypothesis-landscape-moderated spillover of energy, resources and organisms across habitats, including between managed and natural ecosystems, influences landscape-wide community structure and associated processes and (4) the landscape-moderated concentration and dilution hypothesis-spatial and temporal changes in landscape composition can cause transient concentration or dilution of populations with functional consequences. Section C: 'landscape moderation of functional trait selection' includes (5) the landscape-moderated functional trait selection hypothesis-landscape moderation of species trait selection shapes the functional role and trajectory of community assembly, and (6) the landscape-moderated insurance hypothesis-landscape complexity provides spatial and temporal insurance, i.e. high resilience and stability of ecological processes in changing environments. Section D: 'landscape constraints on

  1. Periodic diffraction correlation imaging without a beam-splitter.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Chen, Zhipeng; Xiong, Jin; Zeng, Guihua

    2012-01-30

    In this paper, we proposed and demonstrated a new correlation imaging mechanism based on the periodic diffraction effect. In this effect, a periodic intensity pattern is generated at the output surface of a periodic point source array. This novel correlation imaging mechanism can realize super-resolution imaging, Nth-order ghost imaging without a beam-splitter and correlation microscopy.

  2. The Use of Color Cues to Facilitate Discrimination Learning in Moderately Retarded Adults: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haese, Julia B.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve moderately retarded adults served as subjects in testing the hypothesis that colored drawings would be more effective in teaching the identification of common kitchen utensils. The study demonstrated that such adults performed better in discrimination tasks with color coding as an aid to developing such living skills as food preparation.…

  3. Combining individual participant and aggregated data in a meta-analysis with correlational studies.

    PubMed

    Pigott, Terri; Williams, Ryan; Polanin, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents methods for combining individual participant data (IPD) with aggregated study level data (AD) in a meta-analysis of correlational studies. Although medical researchers have employed IPD in a wide range of studies, only a single example exists in the social sciences. New policies at the National Science Foundation requiring grantees to submit data archiving plans may increase social scientists' access to individual level data that could be combined with traditional meta-analysis. The methods presented here extend prior work on IPD to meta-analyses using correlational studies. The examples presented illustrate the synthesis of publicly available national datasets in education with aggregated study data from a meta-analysis examining the correlation of socioeconomic status measures and academic achievement. The major benefit of the inclusion of the individual level is that both within-study and between-study interactions among moderators of effect size can be estimated. Given the potential growth in data archives in the social sciences, we should see a corresponding increase in the ability to synthesize IPD and AD in a single meta-analysis, leading to a more complete understanding of how within-study and between-study moderators relate to effect size. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire in Elderly Individuals with Mild to Moderate Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Vodanovich, Domagoj A; Bicknell, Thomas J; Holland, Anne E; Hill, Catherine J; Cecins, Nola; Jenkins, Sue; McDonald, Christine F; Burge, Angela T; Thompson, Philip; Stirling, Robert G; Lee, Annemarie L

    2015-01-01

    The chronic respiratory disease questionnaire (CRDQ) is designed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in chronic respiratory conditions, but its reliability, validity and responsiveness in individuals with mild to moderate non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis are unclear. This study aimed to determine measurement properties of the CRDQ in non-CF bronchiectasis. Participants with non-CF bronchiectasis involved in a randomised controlled trial of exercise training were recruited. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's α. Over 8 weeks, reliability was evaluated using intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman analysis for measures of agreement. Convergent and divergent validity was assessed by correlations with the other HRQOL questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The responsiveness to exercise training was assessed using effect sizes and standardised response means. Eighty-five participants were included (mean age ± SD, 64 ± 13 years). Internal consistency was adequate (>0.7) for all CRDQ domains and the total score. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.69 to 0.85 for each CRDQ domain and was 0.82 for the total score. Dyspnoea (CRDQ) was related to St George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) symptoms only (r = 0.38), with no relationship to the Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) or HADS. Moderate correlations were found between the total score of the CRDQ, the SGRQ (rs = -0.49) and the LCQ score (rs = 0.51). Lower CRDQ scores were associated with higher anxiety and depression (rs = -0.46 to -0.56). The responsiveness of the CRDQ was small (effect size 0.1-0.24). The CRDQ is a valid and reliable measure of HRQOL in mild to moderate non-CF bronchiectasis, but responsiveness was limited. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Effects of pre-sleep media use on sleep/wake patterns and daytime functioning among adolescents: the moderating role of parental control.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Delphine; De Valck, Elke; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Pirrera, Sandra; Wuyts, Johan; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Haex, Bart; Michiels, Nina; Verbraecken, Johan; Cluydts, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the influence of media use in the hour before bedtime on sleep/wake patterns and daytime functioning among adolescents and to examine the moderating role of parental control. A total of 1,926 Belgian students, 55% girls and 45% boys, with a mean age of 16.9 ± 1.5 years, completed a modified version of the School Sleep Habits Survey. Correlational analyses showed that media use, except television viewing, was associated with later bedtimes and longer sleep latencies. Cell phone and computer usage was negatively associated with daytime functioning. On schooldays, parental control had a moderating effect on the relationship between bedtime and computer use (β = .05; p < .05) and between bedtime and mp3 player use (β = .08; p < .01). During the weekend, parental control played a moderating role between bedtime and television viewing (β = .06; p = .01). As media use can influence the sleep of adolescents considerably, parental control is necessary to regulate the exposure of adolescents to media and to moderate the detrimental effect of media use on sleep.

  7. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Oral Language, Decoding, Phonological Awareness and Reading Comprehension: A Meta-Analysis of the Correlational Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby-Lervag, Monica; Lervag, Arne

    2011-01-01

    We present a meta-analysis of cross-linguistic transfer of oral language (vocabulary and listening comprehension), phonology (decoding and phonological awareness) and reading comprehension. Our findings show a small meta-correlation between first (L1) and second (L2) oral language and a moderate to large correlation between L1 and L2 phonological…

  8. Canonical correlation analysis of infant's size at birth and maternal factors: a study in rural northwest Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Klemn, Rolf D W; Labrique, Alain B; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P; Nasser, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences) as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n = 14,506) while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001), demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity). A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X = 0.131). Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.

  9. Wolfram syndrome: a clinicopathologic correlation

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Saumil N.; Adams, Joe C.; Joseph, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome or DIDMOAD (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy as well as diabetes insipidus and deafness in many cases. We report the post-mortem neuropathologic findings of a patient with Wolfram syndrome and correlate them with his clinical presentation. In the hypothalamus, neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei were markedly decreased and minimal neurohypophyseal tissue remained in the pituitary. The pontine base and inferior olivary nucleus showed gross shrinkage and neuron loss, while the cerebellum was relatively unaffected. The visual system had moderate to marked loss of retinal ganglion neurons, commensurate loss of myelinated axons in the optic nerve, chiasm and tract, and neuron loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus but preservation of the primary visual cortex. The patient’s inner ear showed loss of the organ of Corti in the basal turn of the cochleae and mild focal atrophy of the stria vascularis. These findings correlated well with the patient’s high-frequency hearing loss. The pathologic findings correlated closely with the patient’s clinical symptoms and further support the concept of Wolfram syndrome as a neurodegenerative disorder. Our findings extend prior neuropathologic reports of Wolfram syndrome by providing contributions to our understanding of eye, inner ear and olivopontine pathology in this disease. PMID:19449020

  10. Are core self-evaluations a suitable moderator in stressor-detachment relationships? A study among managers' perceived job demands, detachment and strain reactions.

    PubMed

    Hentrich, Stephan; Zimber, Andreas; Sosnowsky-Waschek, Nadia; Gregersen, Sabine; Petermann, Franz

    2018-01-01

    The relationships among job demands, personality factors, recovery and psychological health receive increasing attention but are not well understoodOBJECTIVE:Therefore, the present study tests moderating effects among a sample of managers as proposed by the stressor-detachment model. We aimed to determine whether core self-evaluations (CSE) had an influence on the correlations between detachment and strain reactions (depressive symptoms, irritation, exhaustion) and between job demands and detachment. Further, we tested whether detachment attenuates the positive relation between job demands and strain reactions. A convenience sample of managers in three German settings (N = 282) participated in the cross-sectional study. Results based on hierarchical regression analysis showed that high CSE significantly weakened the negative relationship between detachment and depressive symptoms in this sample. However, CSE did not moderate the negative relationship between job demands and detachment. Moreover, results revealed that detachment moderated the positive relation between job demands and exhaustion. The authors tested whether CSE was able to moderate the relationship between job demands, psychological detachment and different stress reactions. Although we found a significant interaction effect, CSE may be too distal to moderate all respective associations.

  11. Personality correlates of pathological gambling derived from Big Three and Big Five personality models

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua D.; MacKillop, James; Fortune, Erica E.; Maples, Jessica; Lance, Charles E.; Campbell, W. Keith; Goodie, Adam S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits have proven to be consistent and important factors in a variety of externalizing behaviors including addiction, aggression, and antisocial behavior. Given the comorbidity of these behaviors with pathological gambling (PG), it is important to test the degree to which PG shares these trait correlates. In a large community sample of regular gamblers (N=354; 111 with diagnoses of pathological gambling), the relations between measures of two major models of personality – Big Three and Big Five – were examined in relation to PG symptoms derived from a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Across measures, traits related to the experience of strong negative emotions were the most consistent correlates of PG, regardless of whether they were analyzed using bivariate or multivariate analyses. In several instances, however, the relations between personality and PG were moderated by demographic variable such as gender, race, and age. It will be important for future empirical work of this nature to pay closer attention to potentially important moderators of these relations. PMID:23078872

  12. Comparison of the Modified McBride Procedure and the Distal Chevron Osteotomy for Mild to Moderate Hallux Valgus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Taik Seon; Chun, Sung Kwang; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Yong In; Kim, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Distal metatarsal osteotomy and the modified McBride procedure have each been used for the treatment of mild to moderate hallux valgus. However, few studies have compared the results of these 2 procedures for mild to moderate hallux valgus. The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of distal chevron osteotomy and the modified McBride procedure for treatment of mild to moderate hallux valgus according to the severity of the deformity. We analyzed the data from 45 patients (49.5%; 48 feet [49.0%]), who had undergone an isolated modified McBride procedure (McBride group), and 46 patients (50.5%; 50 feet [51.0%]), who had a distal chevron osteotomy (chevron group). We subdivided each group into those with mild and moderate deformity and compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes between the groups in relation to the severity of the deformity. The improvements in the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score and the visual analog scale for pain were significantly better for the chevron group for both mild and moderate deformity. The chevron group experienced significantly greater correction in the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle for both mild and moderate deformity. The chevron group experienced a significantly greater decrease in the grade of sesamoid displacement for patients with moderate deformity. The McBride group had a greater risk of recurrence than did the chevron group for moderate deformity (odds ratio 14.00, 95% confidence interval 3.91 to 50.06, p < .001). The results of the present study have demonstrated the superiority of the distal chevron osteotomy over the modified McBride procedure for mild to moderate deformity. For patients with moderate deformity, the McBride group had a greater risk of hallux valgus recurrence than did the distal chevron group. Therefore, we recommend distal chevron osteotomy rather than a modified McBride procedure for the treatment of mild and moderate hallux valgus. Copyright

  13. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha

    2013-08-01

    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. New York City Transit Authority automated transit infrastructure maintenance demonstration.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this pilot project was to demonstrate that the safety and reliability of the New York City : Transit transportation system can be improved by automating the correlation and analysis of disparate : track related data. Through the use ...

  15. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  16. [Pharmacist perception of the use of analgesics and their practice on mild-moderate pain. DOLOR-OFF survey].

    PubMed

    Arrebola, Cristobal; García-Delgado, Pilar; Labrador Barba, Elena; Orera Peña, Maria Luisa; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To examine the use of analgesics, from the perspective of the pharmacist community, and pharmaceutical practice in mild-moderate pain. A cross-sectional, observational study was performed between April and September 2013. 696 community pharmacies in 20 Spanish provinces. Community pharmacists with a minimum professional experience of one year. Characterisation of the demand for analgesics, analgesic users, and pharmaceutical intervention for mild-moderate pain from the perspective of the pharmaceutical community. The main reason why a patient with mild-moderate pain visits a pharmacy is to receive a drug with prescription (45.5%), and the most common condition is headache (35.2%). Ibuprofen and paracetamol are the most commonly used drugs for mild-moderate pain. More than one-third (38.9%) of pharmacists follow a protocol for counselling. A correlation was found between the pharmacist's professional experience and the application of counselling process (Fisher P<.05). Some 87.8% of pharmacists checked two indicators from the dispensing service, and only 1.3% did not check any. Referral to a physician was made by 14.8% of pharmacists, with the main reason being the detection of alarm indicators. Protocols need to be designed and adapted to the characteristics of the 3 profiles identified, in order to increase the efficiency of pharmaceutical services in mild-moderate pain relief. Practical and specific training in pain are required to implement services to ensure the correct and systemic use of analgesics and positive clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Effects of acute moderate hypoxia on anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Birgit; Frese, Falko; Menold, Elmar; Bärtsch, Peter

    2007-09-01

    While there is some controversy whether anaerobic capacity might be improved after altitude training little is known about changes in anaerobic capacity during hypoxic exposure in highly trained athletes. In order to analyze the effects of acute moderate normobaric hypoxia on anaerobic capacity, 18 male competitive triathletes, middle- and long-distance runners VO2max 67.4 +/- 3.8 ml kg min(-1) performed 2 supra-VO2max treadmill runs with the same speed, one in normoxia and one after 4 h exposure to normobaric hypoxia (FiO(2) 0.15), for estimation of their maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and measurement of peak capillary lactate and peak capillary ammonia concentration. MAOD was not significantly different in normoxia and in moderate hypoxia while time to exhaustion and accumulated O(2) uptake were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced in hypoxia compared to normoxia by 28 and 45%, respectively. The reduction in time to exhaustion was significantly correlated to the decrement in accumulated O(2) uptake (R = 0.730, P = 0.001). In hypoxia, there was a tendency for peak capillary lactate concentration to be decreased compared to normoxia (12.9 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.8 +/- 2.2 mmol l(-1), P = 0.082); peak capillary ammonia concentration was significantly decreased in hypoxia (97 +/- 52 vs. 121 +/- 44 micromol l(-1), P = 0.032). In conclusion, anaerobic capacity is not significantly changed during acute exposure to moderate hypoxia in endurance-trained athletes. The performance reduction during all-out exercise of short duration has to be attributed to the decrement in aerobic capacity.

  18. Thermodynamic equilibrium-air correlations for flowfield applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoby, E. V.; Moss, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Equilibrium-air thermodynamic correlations have been developed for flowfield calculation procedures. A comparison between the postshock results computed by the correlation equations and detailed chemistry calculations is very good. The thermodynamic correlations are incorporated in an approximate inviscid flowfield code with a convective heating capability for the purpose of defining the thermodynamic environment through the shock layer. Comparisons of heating rates computed by the approximate code and a viscous-shock-layer method are good. In addition to presenting the thermodynamic correlations, the impact of several viscosity models on the convective heat transfer is demonstrated.

  19. Integrating mediation and moderation to advance theory development and testing.

    PubMed

    Karazsia, Bryan T; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Armstrong, Bridget; Janicke, David M; Darling, Katherine E

    2014-03-01

    The concepts and associated analyses of mediation and moderation are important to the field of psychology. Although pediatric psychologists frequently incorporate mediation and moderation in their theories and empirical research, on few occasions have we integrated mediation and moderation. In this article, conceptual reasons for integrating mediation and moderation are offered. We illustrate a model that integrates mediation and moderation. In our illustration, the strength of an indirect or a mediating effect varied as a function of a moderating variable. Clinical implications of the integration of mediation and moderation are discussed, as is the potential of integrated models to advance research programs in pediatric psychology.

  20. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations in the Classroom: Age Differences and Academic Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepper, Mark R.; Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Iyengar, Sheena S.

    2005-01-01

    Age differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the relationships of each to academic outcomes were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of 797 3rd-grade through 8th-grade children. Using independent measures, the authors found intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to be only moderately correlated, suggesting that they may be largely…

  1. Cooperative Collision Avoidance Technology Demonstration Data Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This report details the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Access 5 Project Office Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) Technology Demonstration for unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) conducted from 21 to 28 September 2005. The test platform chosen for the demonstration was the Proteus Optionally Piloted Vehicle operated by Scaled Composites, LLC, flown out of the Mojave Airport, Mojave, CA. A single intruder aircraft, a NASA Gulf stream III, was used during the demonstration to execute a series of near-collision encounter scenarios. Both aircraft were equipped with Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System-II (TCAS-II) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) systems. The objective of this demonstration was to collect flight data to support validation efforts for the Access 5 CCA Work Package Performance Simulation and Systems Integration Laboratory (SIL). Correlation of the flight data with results obtained from the performance simulation serves as the basis for the simulation validation. A similar effort uses the flight data to validate the SIL architecture that contains the same sensor hardware that was used during the flight demonstration.

  2. Moderate Psoriasis: A Proposed Definition.

    PubMed

    Llamas-Velasco, M; de la Cueva, P; Notario, J; Martínez-Pilar, L; Martorell, A; Moreno-Ramírez, D

    2017-12-01

    The Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) is the most widely used scale for assessing the severity of psoriasis and for therapeutic decision making. On the basis of the PASI score, patients have been stratified into 2 groups: mild disease and moderate-to-severe disease. To draft a proposal for the definition and characterization of moderate psoriasis based on PASI and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. A group of 6 dermatologists with experience in the treatment of psoriasis undertook a critical review of the literature and a discussion of cases to draft a proposal. In order of priority, PASI, DLQI, and body surface area (BSA) are the parameters to be used in daily practice to classify psoriasis as mild, moderate, or severe. Severity should be assessed on the basis of a combined evaluation and interpretation of the PASI and DLQI. And 3, PASI and DLQI should carry equal weight in the determination of disease severity. On this basis, psoriasis severity was defined using the following criteria: mild, PASI<7 and DLQI<7; moderate, PASI=7-15 and DLQI=5-15 (classified as severe when difficult-to-treat sites are affected or when there is a significant psychosocial impact); severe, PASI >15, independently of the DLQI score. A more precise classification of psoriasis according to disease severity will improve the risk-benefit assessment essential to therapeutic decision making in these patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. An Index and Test of Linear Moderated Mediation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    I describe a test of linear moderated mediation in path analysis based on an interval estimate of the parameter of a function linking the indirect effect to values of a moderator-a parameter that I call the index of moderated mediation. This test can be used for models that integrate moderation and mediation in which the relationship between the indirect effect and the moderator is estimated as linear, including many of the models described by Edwards and Lambert ( 2007 ) and Preacher, Rucker, and Hayes ( 2007 ) as well as extensions of these models to processes involving multiple mediators operating in parallel or in serial. Generalization of the method to latent variable models is straightforward. Three empirical examples describe the computation of the index and the test, and its implementation is illustrated using Mplus and the PROCESS macro for SPSS and SAS.

  4. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor

    DOEpatents

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M [Idaho Falls, ID; Terry, William K [Shelley, ID; Gougar, Hans D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-07-22

    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  5. Software Correlator for Radioastron Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Sergey F.; Kostenko, Vladimir I.; Girin, Igor A.; Andrianov, Andrey S.; Rudnitskiy, Alexey G.; Zharov, Vladimir E.

    In this paper, we discuss the characteristics and operation of Astro Space Center (ASC) software FX correlator that is an important component of space-ground interferometer for Radioastron project. This project performs joint observations of compact radio sources using 10m space radio telescope (SRT) together with ground radio telescopes at 92, 18, 6 and 1.3 cm wavelengths. In this paper, we describe the main features of space-ground VLBI data processing of Radioastron project using ASC correlator. Quality of implemented fringe search procedure provides positive results without significant losses in correlated amplitude. ASC Correlator has a computational power close to real time operation. The correlator has a number of processing modes: “Continuum”, “Spectral Line”, “Pulsars”, “Giant Pulses”,“Coherent”. Special attention is paid to peculiarities of Radioastron space-ground VLBI data processing. The algorithms of time delay and delay rate calculation are also discussed, which is a matter of principle for data correlation of space-ground interferometers. During five years of Radioastron SRT successful operation, ASC correlator showed high potential of satisfying steady growing needs of current and future ground and space VLBI science. Results of ASC software correlator operation are demonstrated.

  6. Gender moderates the association between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex volume and depressive symptoms in a subclinical sample.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joshua M; Depetro, Emily; Maxwell, Joshua; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-30

    Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The role that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for correlations between medial prefrontal gray matter volume and depressive traits. The dorsal medial frontal cortex was correlated with greater levels of depression, but not anxiety and stress. Gender moderates this effect: in males greater levels of depression were associated with lower dorsal medial prefrontal volumes, but in females no relationship was observed. The results indicate that even within a non-clinical sample, male participants with higher levels of depressive traits tend to have lower levels of gray matter volume in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Our finding is consistent with low dorsal medial prefrontal volume contributing to the development of depression in males. Future longitudinal work is needed to substantiate this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation between bone mineral density and serum trace elements in response to supervised aerobic training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Muaz H

    2016-01-01

    , Cu, and Zn were shown to be positively correlated with improved bone mass density among control and osteoporosis subjects of both sexes. These results demonstrate that aerobic exercise of moderate intensity might protect bone and cartilage by regulation of body trace elements which are involved in the biosynthesis of bone matrix structures and inhibition of bone resorption process via a proposed anti-free radical mechanism.

  8. Correlation of compliance to statin therapy with lipid profile and serum HMGCoA reductase levels in dyslipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Grover, Abhinav; Rehan, Harmeet Singh; Gupta, Lalit Kumar; Yadav, Madhur

    The efficacy of statin therapy may be lost or vary with reduction in compliance and intensity of statin therapy. To study and correlate the quantitative effect of compliance on lipid profile and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA-R) levels in dyslipidemic patients. Compliance to different intensity of statin therapy assessed by pill count was correlated with serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and HMGCoA-R. Out of 200 patients, 160 received moderate intensity statin therapy whereas 40 were on high intensity statin therapy. The overall mean compliance of patients was 56.7%. The compliance of patients on moderate intensity statin therapy was higher (56.8%) than those on high intensity (56.4%) (p=0.92). There was significant inverse correlation (p<0.05) between compliance and TC, TG, LDL-C and HMGCoA-R levels and positive correlation (p<0.05) with HDL-C levels. The mean serum HMGCoA-R levels did not fall below 9-10ng/mL when compliance to either moderate or high intensity statin therapy was increased above 60%. It is appropriate to improve the compliance to existing statin therapy than switching over to higher intensity statin therapy. Estimation of HMGCoA-R levels may be explored as a surrogate marker to monitor and assess the compliance of patients to statin therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Co-rumination via cellphone moderates the association of perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Gorman, Sarah; Robbins, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents' and emerging adults' social interactions increasingly revolve around cellphone use, but little research has investigated the psychological properties of cellphone interactions. The current study explored co-rumination via cellphone; that is, the use of cellphone functions to excessively communicate about problems or negative feelings. Face-to-face co-rumination and co-rumination via cellphone were examined as potential moderators of the association between perceived interpersonal stress and psychosocial well-being (i.e., positive mental health and social burnout) in a sample of 142 college students. Face-to-face co-rumination was not a moderator. However, co-rumination via cellphone was a significant moderator such that higher levels of perceived interpersonal stress were associated with lower levels of well-being only among college students who reported higher levels of co-rumination via cellphone. Co-rumination via cellphone should be further investigated to elucidate its developmental trajectory and mental health correlates. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.; Wigner, E.P.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-05-12

    Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

  11. MRI-based analysis of patellofemoral cartilage contact, thickness, and alignment in extension, and during moderate and deep flexion.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Benjamin R; Sheehan, Frances T; Lerner, Amy L

    2015-10-01

    Several factors are believed to contribute to patellofemoral joint function throughout knee flexion including patellofemoral (PF) kinematics, contact, and bone morphology. However, data evaluating the PF joint in this highly flexed state have been limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate patellofemoral contact and alignment in low (0°), moderate (60°), and deep (140°) knee flexion, and then correlate these parameters to each other, as well as to femoral morphology. Sagittal magnetic resonance images were acquired on 14 healthy female adult knees (RSRB approved) using a 1.5 T scanner with the knee in full extension, mid-flexion, and deep flexion. The patellofemoral cartilage contact area, lateral contact displacement (LCD), cartilage thickness, and lateral patellar displacement (LPD) throughout flexion were defined. Intra- and inter-rater repeatability measures were determined. Correlations between patellofemoral contact parameters, alignment, and sulcus morphology were calculated. Measurement repeatability ICCs ranged from 0.94 to 0.99. Patellofemoral cartilage contact area and thickness, LCD, and LPD were statistically different throughout all levels of flexion (p<0.001). The cartilage contact area was correlated to LPD, cartilage thickness, sulcus angle, and epicondylar width (r=0.47-0.72, p<0.05). This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the patellofemoral joint throughout its range of motion. This study agrees with past studies that investigated patellofemoral measures at a single flexion angle, and provides new insights into the relationship between patellofemoral contact and alignment at multiple flexion angles. The study provides a detailed analysis of the patellofemoral joint in vivo, and demonstrates the feasibility of using standard clinical magnetic resonance imaging scanners to image the knee joint in deep flexion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlates of individual, and age-related, differences in short-term learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Davis, Hasker P; Salthouse, Timothy A; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2007-07-01

    Latent growth models were applied to data on multitrial verbal and spatial learning tasks from two independent studies. Although significant individual differences in both initial level of performance and subsequent learning were found in both tasks, age differences were found only in mean initial level, and not in mean learning. In neither task was fluid or crystallized intelligence associated with learning. Although there were moderate correlations among the level parameters across the verbal and spatial tasks, the learning parameters were not significantly correlated with one another across task modalities. These results are inconsistent with the existence of a general (e.g., material-independent) learning ability.

  13. Online gambling's moderators: how effective? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Caillon, Julie; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Challet-Bouju, Gaelle

    2015-05-30

    Online gambling has been legalized in France in 2010. Licenses are issued to gambling operators who demonstrate their ability to respect the legal framework (security, taxation, consumer protection, etc.). The preventive measures to protect vulnerable gamblers include an obligation to provide online gambling moderators. These moderators should allow gamblers to limit their bets, exclude themselves from the website for 7 days, and consult the balance of the gambler's account at any time. However, there are only a few published reports of empirical research investigating the effectiveness of Internet-based protective measures implemented by French law. Moreover, no empirical research has yet studied the impact of bonuses on gambling behaviors. This research is an experimental randomized controlled trial, risk prevention targeted. The research is divided