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Sample records for demonstrates dna-protective effects

  1. DNA-protective effects of sumach (Rhus coriaria L.), a common spice: results of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Asima; Ferk, Franziska; Simić, Tatjana; Brantner, Adelheid; Dusinská, Maria; Kundi, Michael; Hoelzl, Christine; Nersesyan, Armen; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2009-02-10

    Sumach (Rhus coriaria L.) is widely used as a spice. The aim of this study was the investigation of its DNA-protective effects in humans and animals. Prevention of the formation of strand breaks and oxidized DNA bases as well as the protection against H(2)O(2)- and (+/-)-anti-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydro-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE)-induced DNA-damage were monitored in human lymphocytes in a placebo controlled trial (N=8/group) with ethanolic extract of sumach (3.0g/day, 3 days) in single cell gel electrophoresis assays. Furthermore, DNA-protective effects of sumach were monitored in different inner organs of rats under identical conditions. No alteration of DNA-migration was detectable in human lymphocytes under standard conditions, but a decrease of the tail-lengths due to formation of oxidized purines and pyrimidines (52% and 36%) was found with lesion-specific enzymes. Also damage caused by H(2)O(2) and BPDE was significantly reduced by 30% and 69%, respectively. The later effect may be due to induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST). After the intervention, the overall GST (CDNB) activity in plasma was increased by 40%, GST-alpha by 52% and GST-pi by 26% (ELISA). The antioxidant effects of extract are probably due to scavenging which was observed in in vitro experiments, which also indicated that gallic acid is the active principle of sumach. The animal experiments showed that sumach also causes protection in inner organs. Supplementation of the drinking water (0.02g/kg per animal) decreased the formation of oxidized DNA bases in colon, liver, lung and lymphocytes; also after gamma-irradiation pronounced effects were seen.

  2. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists.

  3. Carvacrol and rosemary essential oil manifest cytotoxic, DNA-protective and pro-apoptotic effect having no effect on DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Melusova, M; Slamenova, D; Kozics, K; Jantova, S; Horvathova, E

    2014-01-01

    For several thousand years natural products were successfully used to treat a variety of diseases and to maintain health in humans, but until now it is not fully known what causes these medicinal effects. In our study we assessed the cytotoxic, DNA-protective and pro-apoptotic effect of two frequently occurring natural compounds, carvacrol and rosemary essential oil, on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In addition we examined the in vitro incision repair activity of liver cell extracts prepared from hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats fed with water containing carvacrol or rosemary oil. Using conventional and modified single cell gel electrophoresis we proved that incubation of HepG2 cells with selected concentrations of carvacrol and rosemary oil significantly protected cellular DNA against two dangerous oxidative agents, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). It is interesting that despite this DNA protection, the addition of both volatiles to the drinking water of SD rats had no effect on incision repair capacity of hepatocyte extracts. In this paper we also showed that carvacrol and rosemary oil can trigger apoptotic cell death pathways in HepG2 cells, which is probably connected with their cytotoxicity.

  4. Evaluation of genotoxicity and DNA protective effects of mangiferin, a glucosylxanthone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark extract.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, I; Hernandez, S; Morffi, J; Herrera, J A; Gómez-Lechón, M J; Delgado, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

    2012-09-01

    Mangiferin is a glucosylxantone isolated from Mangifera indica L. stem bark. Several studies have shown its pharmacological properties which make it a promising candidate for putative therapeutic use. This study was focused to investigate the in vitro genotoxic effects of mangiferin in the Ames test, SOS Chromotest and Comet assay. The genotoxic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes from NMRI mice orally treated with mangiferin (2000 mg/kg) were also evaluated. Additionally, its potential antimutagenic activity against several mutagens in the Ames test and its effects on CYP1A1 activity were assessed. Mangiferin (50-5000 μg/plate) did not increased the frequency of reverse mutations in the Ames test, nor induced primary DNA damage (5-1000 μg/mL) to Escherichia coli PQ37 cells under the SOS Chromotest. It was observed neither single strand breaks nor alkali-labile sites in blood peripheral lymphocytes or hepatocytes after 1h exposition to 10-500 μg/mL of mangiferin under the Comet assay. Furthermore, micronucleus studies showed mangiferin neither induced cytotoxic activity nor increased the frequency of micronucleated/binucleated cells in mice bone marrow. In short, mangiferin did not induce cytotoxic or genotoxic effects but it protect against DNA damage which would be associated with its antioxidant properties and its capacity to inhibit CYP enzymes.

  5. Vitamin C in Cultured Human (HeLa) Cells: Lack of Effect on DNA Protection and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Azqueta, Amaya; Costa, Solange; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Bastani, Nasser E.; Collins, Andrew R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Dietary antioxidants, including vitamin C, may be in part responsible for the cancer-preventive effects of fruits and vegetables. Human intervention trials with clinical endpoints have failed to confirm their protective effects, and mechanistic studies have given inconsistent results. Our aim was to investigate antioxidant/ pro-oxidant effects of vitamin C at the cellular level. Experimental approach: We have used the comet assay to investigate effects of vitamin C on DNA damage, antioxidant status, and DNA repair, in HeLa (human tumor) cells, and HPLC to measure uptake of vitamin C into cells. Results: Even at concentrations in the medium as high as 200 μM, vitamin C did not increase the background level of strand breaks or of oxidized purines in nuclear DNA. Vitamin C is taken up by HeLa cells and accumulates to mM levels. Preincubation of cells with vitamin C did not render them resistant to strand breakage induced by H2O2 or to purine oxidation by photosensitizer plus light. Vitamin C had no effect on the rate of repair of strand breaks or oxidized bases by HeLa cells. However, vitamin C at a concentration of less than 1 μM, or extract from cells preincubated for 6 h with vitamin C, was able to induce damage (strand breaks) in lysed, histone-depleted nuclei (nucleoids). Conclusion: In these cultured human cells, vitamin C displays neither antioxidant nor pro-oxidant properties; nor does it affect DNA strand break or base excision repair. PMID:23571651

  6. DNA-protection and antioxidant properties of fermentates from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 and Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933.

    PubMed

    Prazdnova, E V; Chistyakov, V A; Churilov, M N; Mazanko, M S; Bren, A B; Volski, A; Chikindas, M L

    2015-12-01

    DNA protective and antioxidant activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 and Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933 were evaluated by Escherichia coli-based Lux biosensors. Two biosensor strains of E. coli, MG1655 (pColD-lux) and MG1655 (pSoxS-lux), which react on DNA damage and superoxide-anion radical activity, were used. SOS-response and Sox-response were stimulated by addition of dioxidine (2,3-Quinoxalinedimethanol,1,4-dioxide) and paraquat (N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) respectively. Preparations of both Bacillus fermentates demonstrated DNA protective and antioxidant (superoxide scavenging) activity (up to 60·19%). The strain К1933 is, in general, characterized by higher DNA protective activity (28·85%), with parameters of antioxidant activity of both bacilli strains being statistically not significantly different. Sporogenous potential probiotic micro-organisms with antioxidant and DNA protective activities can become an effective tool for compensation of various negative oxidative stress processes in humans. In humans, oxidative stress is a cause or an important component of many serious diseases, as well as being one of the age influencing factors. Environmental stresses lead to the increase in levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative DNA damage is a side effect of nonspecific inflammation. These human health challenging factors trigger the search for health-promoting bacteria capable of production of antioxidants and DNA-protectors. In this study, two Bacillus strains of interest were shown to produce noticeable DNA protective and antioxidant activities. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. DNA-Protected Silver Clusters for Nanophotonics

    PubMed Central

    Gwinn, Elisabeth; Schultz, Danielle; Copp, Stacy M.; Swasey, Steven

    2015-01-01

    DNA-protected silver clusters (AgN-DNA) possess unique fluorescence properties that depend on the specific DNA template that stabilizes the cluster. They exhibit peak emission wavelengths that range across the visible and near-IR spectrum. This wide color palette, combined with low toxicity, high fluorescence quantum yields of some clusters, low synthesis costs, small cluster sizes and compatibility with DNA are enabling many applications that employ AgN-DNA. Here we review what is known about the underlying composition and structure of AgN-DNA, and how these relate to the optical properties of these fascinating, hybrid biomolecule-metal cluster nanomaterials. We place AgN-DNA in the general context of ligand-stabilized metal clusters and compare their properties to those of other noble metal clusters stabilized by small molecule ligands. The methods used to isolate pure AgN-DNA for analysis of composition and for studies of solution and single-emitter optical properties are discussed. We give a brief overview of structurally sensitive chiroptical studies, both theoretical and experimental, and review experiments on bringing silver clusters of distinct size and color into nanoscale DNA assemblies. Progress towards using DNA scaffolds to assemble multi-cluster arrays is also reviewed.

  8. A Facile and Effective Chemiluminescence Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Arthur G.; Turro, Nicholas J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a chemiluminescence system which can be used to demonstrate the effects of certain factors which affect the rate of reaction (temperature, concentration, catalysis, solvent, etc.), and to perform experiments relevant to the mechanism of the system. (SLH)

  9. A Facile and Effective Chemiluminescence Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Arthur G.; Turro, Nicholas J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a chemiluminescence system which can be used to demonstrate the effects of certain factors which affect the rate of reaction (temperature, concentration, catalysis, solvent, etc.), and to perform experiments relevant to the mechanism of the system. (SLH)

  10. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  11. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  12. Simple Demonstration of the Seebeck Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molki, Arman

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose a simple and low-cost experimental set-up through which science educators can demonstrate the Seebeck effect using a thermocouple and an instrumentation amplifier. The experiment can be set up and conducted during a 1-hour laboratory session. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  13. A Classroom Demonstration for Teaching Network Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawler, James

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the concept of network effects is useful at the principles level to facilitate discussions of the determinants of monopoly, the need for standards in high-tech industries, and the general complexity of real-world competition. The author describes a demonstration and an extension that help students understand how consumers make…

  14. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  15. Simple Demonstration of the Seebeck Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molki, Arman

    2010-01-01

    In this article we propose a simple and low-cost experimental set-up through which science educators can demonstrate the Seebeck effect using a thermocouple and an instrumentation amplifier. The experiment can be set up and conducted during a 1-hour laboratory session. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  16. Experiments to Demonstrate Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Jirí

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric and pyroelectric materials are used in many current applications. The purpose of this paper is to explain the basic properties of pyroelectric and piezoelectric effects and demonstrate them in simple experiments. Pyroelectricity is presented on lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics as an electric charge generated by the temperature…

  17. Direct Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, D. A.; Malashanka, S.; Call, K.; Bernays, N.

    2012-12-01

    Consider these three "theories:" climate change, evolution, and gravity. Why are two of them hotly debated by non-scientists, but not gravity? In part, the answer is that climate change and evolution are more complex processes and not readily observable over short time scales to most people. In contrast, the "theory of gravity" is tested every day by billions of people world-wide and is therefore not challenged. While there are numerous "demonstrations" of the greenhouse effect available online, unfortunately, many of them are based on poor understanding of the physical principles involved. For this reason, we sought to develop simple and direct experiments that would demonstrate aspects of the greenhouse effect that would be suitable for museums, K-12, and/or college classrooms. We will describe two experiments. In the first, we use a simple plexiglass tube, approximately 12 cm long, with IR transparent windows. The tube is first filled with dry nitrogen and exposed to an IR heat lamp. Following this, the tube is filled with pure, dry CO2. Both tubes warm up, but the tube filled with CO2 ends up about 0.7 degrees C warmer. It is useful to compare this 12 cm column of CO2 to the column in the earth's atmosphere, which is equivalent to approximately 2.7 meters of pure CO2. This demonstration would be suitable for museum exhibits to demonstrate the physical basis of CO2 heating in the atmosphere. In the second experiment, we use FTIR spectroscopy to quantify the CO2 content of ambient air and indoor/classroom air. For this experiment, we use a commercial standard of 350 ppm CO2 to calibrate the absorption features. Once the CO2 content of ambient air is found, it is useful for students to compare their observed value to background data (e.g. NOAA site in Hawaii) and/or the "Keeling Curve". This leads into a discussion on causes for local variations and the long-term trends. This experiment is currently used in our general chemistry class but could be used in many

  18. Understanding the Effectiveness of Demonstration Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Allison; Boeving, Emily R.; Shender, Marisa A.; Ross, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    This project sought to understand guest engagement during great ape demonstrations conducted at the "Regenstein Center for African Apes" in the Lincoln Park Zoo. We were interested in how these demonstrations engaged audiences, relative to a non-demonstration-viewing experience, as well as how they compared to each other. In 2012 and…

  19. Understanding the Effectiveness of Demonstration Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Allison; Boeving, Emily R.; Shender, Marisa A.; Ross, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    This project sought to understand guest engagement during great ape demonstrations conducted at the "Regenstein Center for African Apes" in the Lincoln Park Zoo. We were interested in how these demonstrations engaged audiences, relative to a non-demonstration-viewing experience, as well as how they compared to each other. In 2012 and…

  20. Antioxidant, DNA protective efficacy and HPLC analysis of Annona muricata (soursop) extracts.

    PubMed

    George, V Cijo; Kumar, D R Naveen; Suresh, P K; Kumar, R Ashok

    2015-04-01

    Annona muricata is a naturally occurring edible plant with wide array of therapeutic potentials. In India, it has a long history of traditional use in treating various ailments. The present investigation was carried out to characterize the phytochemicals present in the methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of A. muricata, followed by validation of its radical scavenging and DNA protection activities. The extracts were also analyzed for its total phenolic contents and subjected to HPLC analysis to determine its active metabolites. The radical scavenging activities were premeditated by various complementary assays (DRSA, FRAP and HRSA). Further, its DNA protection efficacy against H2O2 induced toxicity was evaluated using pBR322 plasmid DNA. The results revealed that the extracts were highly rich in various phytochemicals including luteolin, homoorientin, tangeretin, quercetin, daidzein, epicatechin gallate, emodin and coumaric acid. Both the extracts showed significant (p < 0.05) radical scavenging activities, while methanolic extract demonstrated improved protection against H2O2-induced DNA damage when compared to aqueous extract. A strong positive correlation was observed for the estimated total phenolic contents and radical scavenging potentials of the extracts. Further HPLC analysis of the phyto-constituents of the extracts provides a sound scientific basis for compound isolation.

  1. Effective Classroom Demonstration of Soil Reinforcing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Wharton; Fox, Dennis James

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for demonstrating soil mass stabilization. Explains how this approach can assist students in understanding the various types of soil reinforcement techniques, their relative contribution to increased soil strength, and some of their limitations. A working drawing of the model and directives for construction are included. (ML)

  2. Cyber and Air Joint Effects Demonstration (CAAJED)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Enterprise for Cyber Operations Training ( SECOT ) 5 4.4 Cross Domain Effects between MAP and SECOT 6 4.5 Level 2 and Level 3 Cyber Attacks 8 5. 2007...human, human vs. computer, and computer vs. computer play. 4.3 Simulated Enterprise for Cyber Operations Training ( SECOT ) The SECOT is a combined...traffic generator and score system used to host the cyber component of CAAJED. SECOT simulates an active and demanding enterprise community

  3. DNA-protected silver emitters: charge dependent switching of fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Berdakin, Matías; Taccone, Martin I; Pino, Gustavo A; Sánchez, Cristián G

    2017-02-22

    The relationship between the state of charge and spectroscopy of DNA-protected silver emitters is not yet well understood. This remains one of the major issues to unveil in order to fully disentangle the spectroscopic features of these novel systems. It is a well known fact that a fluorescence response arises upon chemical reduction of silver cations attached to DNA, leading to neutral (or partially oxidized) "bright" clusters. It is important to note that the absence of fluorescence in completely ionic complexes is universal in the sense that it does not depend on any experimental variable. This suggests that its origin may be founded on the nature of the interaction between DNA bases and silver cations. Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, no explanation exists for this charge dependent switching between dark completely ionic complexes and bright (neutral or partially oxidized) clusters. In this brief report we address this experimental fact on the basis of the electronic structure of the complex as a function of its charge and quantum dynamical simulations of the processes following photoexcitation. These data provide a dynamical picture of the correlation between charge and fluorescence.

  4. Curcumin, resveratrol and flavonoids as anti-inflammatory, cyto- and DNA-protective dietary compounds.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Kavita; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Bulmer, Andrew C

    2010-11-28

    Numerous dietary compounds, ubiquitous in fruits, vegetables and spices have been isolated and evaluated during recent years for their therapeutic potential. These compounds include flavonoid and non-flavonoid polyphenols, which describe beneficial effects against a variety of ailments. The notion that these plant products have health promoting effects emerged because their intake was related to a reduced incidence of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and age-related diseases. Exposure of the body to a stressful environment challenges cell survival and increases the risk of chronic disease developing. The polyphenols afford protection against various stress-induced toxicities through modulating intercellular cascades which inhibit inflammatory molecule synthesis, the formation of free radicals, nuclear damage and induce antioxidant enzyme expression. These responses have the potential to increase life expectancy. The present review article focuses on curcumin, resveratrol, and flavonoids and seeks to summarize their anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and DNA-protective properties.

  5. [The role of a lysine residue in the antioxidant and dna-protective activity of oligopeptides].

    PubMed

    Prazdnova, E V; Mazanko, M S; Zolotukhin, P V; Kharchenko, E Y; Chistyakov, V A; Arutiunov, V A; Kozina, L S

    2016-01-01

    Oligopeptides present in the living cell were found to have antioxidative activity and to be involved in the regulation of antioxidant balance by interaction with the redox-dependent cellular signaling cascades. Experiments on animal models have shown that the introduction of oligopeptides causes geroprotective and adaptogenic effects. In the present work, we investigate the biological action of a number of synthetic oligopeptides using bacterial biosensors. This approach allows us to precisely estimate the antioxidant properties of the compounds without affecting their participation in regulatory cascades typical to eukaryotic cells. It has been shown that the ability of oligopeptides to protect cells from action of physical prooxidant factors (UV irradiation) is related to the presence of a lysine residue in the molecule. For chemical pro-oxidants (dioxidine), we have observed a similar, though less strict pattern. This effect also correlates with DNA-protective activity of the investigated oligopeptides.

  6. DNA protection by ectoine from ionizing radiation: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Marc Benjamin; Meyer, Susann; Schröter, Maria-Astrid; Kunte, Hans-Jörg; Solomun, Tihomir; Sturm, Heinz

    2017-09-27

    Ectoine, a compatible solute and osmolyte, is known to be an effective protectant of biomolecules and whole cells against heating, freezing and extreme salinity. Protection of cells (human keratinocytes) by ectoine against ultraviolet radiation has also been reported by various authors, although the underlying mechanism is not yet understood. We present the first electron irradiation of DNA in a fully aqueous environment in the presence of ectoine and at high salt concentrations. The results demonstrate effective protection of DNA by ectoine against the induction of single-strand breaks by ionizing radiation. The effect is explained by an increase in low-energy electron scattering at the enhanced free-vibrational density of states of water due to ectoine, as well as the use of ectoine as an ˙OH-radical scavenger. This was demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  7. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  8. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  9. Demonstrations at School Level of the Effects of IAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Describes demonstrations suitable for secondary school biology classes relating to the effects of the hormone IAA on plant growth. Demonstrations illustrate how hormone treatments affect stem elongation, callus formation, inhibition of axillary buds, stimulation of secondary growth and initiation of adventitious root development, root elongation,…

  10. Demonstrations at School Level of the Effects of IAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Peter

    1973-01-01

    Describes demonstrations suitable for secondary school biology classes relating to the effects of the hormone IAA on plant growth. Demonstrations illustrate how hormone treatments affect stem elongation, callus formation, inhibition of axillary buds, stimulation of secondary growth and initiation of adventitious root development, root elongation,…

  11. Astronauts Hoffman and Seddon demonstrate effect of weightlessness on slinky

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-14

    51D-06-015 (12-19 April 1985) --- Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Rhea Seddon mission specialists, demonstrate the effect of weightlessness on a slinky toy in the mid-deck of the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  12. Experimental demonstration of illusion optics with ``external cloaking'' effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Guochang; Li, Fang; Fang, Guangyou

    2011-08-01

    A metamaterial "illusion optics" with "complementary medium" and "restoring medium" is designed by using inductor-capacitor (L-C) network medium. The unprecedented effects of "external cloaking" and "transforming one object to appear as another" are demonstrated experimentally. We also demonstrate that the non-resonant nature of the L-C network decreases the sensitivity of the "external cloaking" effect to the variation of the frequency and results in an acceptable bandwidth of the whole device.

  13. A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate the Peltier Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougal, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Peltier, or thermoelectric effect, which provides a way of cooling a system by coupling it thermally to the junction of two materials suitably chosen, shaped, and connected to a d.c. current. Describes an apparatus which simply and inexpensively demonstrates this effect. (MLH)

  14. A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate the Peltier Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougal, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Peltier, or thermoelectric effect, which provides a way of cooling a system by coupling it thermally to the junction of two materials suitably chosen, shaped, and connected to a d.c. current. Describes an apparatus which simply and inexpensively demonstrates this effect. (MLH)

  15. Studio vs. Interactive Lecture Demonstration--Effects on Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Harry

    2003-01-01

    Compares two delivery methods for a course in genetics and evolution: (1) studio teaching involving teamwork by students, hands-on exercises, and minimal lecturing; and (2) an interactive lecture demonstration method. Uses pre- and post-testing of basic concepts to evaluate the effectiveness of each method. Suggests that studio techniques are a…

  16. The Mercury-Drag Effect, a Demonstration of Transport Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, D. H.; Teese, R. B

    1969-01-01

    The mercury-drag effect is demonstrated when mercury vapor diffuses through nitrogen gas at low pressure, passing through tubes of different radii to liquid nitrogen-cooled cold traps. The pressure changes of the nitrogen gas on the mercury-deficient side of the cold traps are observed and compared with theoretical and experimental valves from the…

  17. The Mercury-Drag Effect, a Demonstration of Transport Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, D. H.; Teese, R. B

    1969-01-01

    The mercury-drag effect is demonstrated when mercury vapor diffuses through nitrogen gas at low pressure, passing through tubes of different radii to liquid nitrogen-cooled cold traps. The pressure changes of the nitrogen gas on the mercury-deficient side of the cold traps are observed and compared with theoretical and experimental valves from the…

  18. The Physics behind a Simple Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, and popular, demonstration of the greenhouse effect involves a higher temperature being observed in a container with an elevated concentration of CO[subscript 2] inside than in a container with just air enclosed, when subject to direct light. The CO[subscript 2] absorbs outgoing thermal radiation and causes the air inside the container…

  19. The Physics behind a Simple Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple, and popular, demonstration of the greenhouse effect involves a higher temperature being observed in a container with an elevated concentration of CO[subscript 2] inside than in a container with just air enclosed, when subject to direct light. The CO[subscript 2] absorbs outgoing thermal radiation and causes the air inside the container…

  20. Demonstration of an Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Blankenship, Kurt S.; Lee, Sam

    2006-01-01

    The development of a piloted flight simulator called the Ice Contamination Effects Flight Training Device (ICEFTD) was recently completed. This device demonstrates the ability to accurately represent an iced airplane s flight characteristics and is utilized to train pilots in recognizing and recovering from aircraft handling anomalies that result from airframe ice formations. The ICEFTD was demonstrated at three recent short courses hosted by the University of Tennessee Space Institute. It was also demonstrated to a group of pilots at the National Test Pilot School. In total, eighty-four pilots and flight test engineers from industry and the regulatory community spent approximately one hour each in the ICEFTD to get a "hands on" lesson of an iced airplane s reduced performance and handling qualities. Additionally, pilot cues of impending upsets and recovery techniques were demonstrated. The purpose of this training was to help pilots understand how ice contamination affects aircraft handling so they may apply that knowledge to the operations of other aircraft undergoing testing and development. Participant feedback on the ICEFTD was very positive. Pilots stated that the simulation was very valuable, applicable to their occupations, and provided a safe way to explore the flight envelope. Feedback collected at each demonstration was also helpful to define additional improvements to the ICEFTD; many of which were then implemented in subsequent demonstrations

  1. Astronauts Hoffman and Seddon demonstrate effect of weightlessness on slinky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Rhea Seddon, mission specialists, demonstrate the effect of weightlessness on a slinky toy in the middeck of the Discovery. On the middeck lockers are various logos of the universities that the astronauts are affiliated with such as: Amherst, Purdue and Tennessee. There are also stickers which read 'Fly Navy' and 'Naval Reserve'. On the top locker is a sticker which shows the STS 51-D logo.

  2. Astronauts Hoffman and Seddon demonstrate effect of weightlessness on slinky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Rhea Seddon, mission specialists, demonstrate the effect of weightlessness on a slinky toy in the middeck of the Discovery. On the middeck lockers are various logos of the universities that the astronauts are affiliated with such as: Amherst, Purdue and Tennessee. There are also stickers which read 'Fly Navy' and 'Naval Reserve'. On the top locker is a sticker which shows the STS 51-D logo.

  3. Simulations to demonstrate reduction of the Gordon-Haus effect.

    PubMed

    Marcuse, D

    1992-01-01

    The superposition of spontaneous emission noise on a train of soliton pulses produces a random change of the center frequency of the soliton spectrum that causes a change of the group velocity of individual solitons, which in long-light-wave systems translates into a random jitter of the position of the pulses at the receiver. This phenomenon is known as the Gordon-Haus effect. If uncontrolled, the Gordon-Haus effect sets a definite limit on the permissible data rate or on the length of soliton-based light-wave systems. Recently Kodama and Hasegawa [Opt. Lett. 17, 31 (1992)] have shown that the Gordon-Haus effect can be suppressed by placing filters along the fiber that reduce the frequency jitter and the concomitant group-velocity changes. We demonstrate the reduction of the Gordon-Haus effect by computer simulations.

  4. Experimental demonstration of topological effects in bianisotropic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Slobozhanyuk, Alexey P.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Smirnova, Daria A.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2016-01-01

    Existence of robust edge states at interfaces of topologically dissimilar systems is one of the most fascinating manifestations of a novel nontrivial state of matter, a topological insulator. Such nontrivial states were originally predicted and discovered in condensed matter physics, but they find their counterparts in other fields of physics, including the physics of classical waves and electromagnetism. Here, we present the first experimental realization of a topological insulator for electromagnetic waves based on engineered bianisotropic metamaterials. By employing the near-field scanning technique, we demonstrate experimentally the topologically robust propagation of electromagnetic waves around sharp corners without backscattering effects. PMID:26936219

  5. Skylab 2 crewmen give demonstration on effects of weightlessness

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-01

    S73-27262 (1 June 1973) --- The three Skylab 2 crewmen give a demonstration on the effects of weightlessness in the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the space station. Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., Joseph P. Kerwin and Paul J. Weitz are crouched in a fast-start stance to race around the dome area of the OWS forward compartment. The astronauts had ease of motion and good maneuverability in the zero-gravity of space. Photo credit: NASA

  6. The Mozart effect may only be demonstrable in nonmusicians.

    PubMed

    Twomey, A; Esgate, A

    2002-12-01

    The "Mozart effect" is the tendency to score higher on spatiotemporal IQ subscales following exposure to complex music such as Mozart's Sonata K.448. This phenomenon was investigated in 20 musicians and 20 nonmusicians. The trion model predicts increased synchrony between musical and spatiotemporal centres in the right cerebral hemisphere. Since increased left-hemispheric involvement in music processing occurs as a result of music training, predictions deriving from the possibility of increased synchrony with left-hemispheric areas in musicians were tested. These included improved performance on language as well as spatiotemporal tasks. Spatiotemporal, synonym generation, and rhyming word generation tasks were employed as was the Mozart Sonata K.448. A Mozart effect was demonstrated on the spatiotemporal task, and the facilitatory effect of exposure to Mozart was greater for the nonmusician group. This finding adds to the robustness of the Mozart effect since novel tasks were used. No Mozart effect was found for either group on the verbal tasks, although the musicians scored higher on rhyming word generation. This new finding adds to the number of nonmusical tasks apparently showing long-term benefits from music training. However, no systematic link was found between performance on any task and number of years spent in music training. The failure to induce a Mozart effect in the musician group on verbal tasks, as well as that group's limited facilitation on spatiotemporal tasks, may be associated with either a ceiling effect due to the long-term effects of music training or from methodological factors. Both possibilities are discussed.

  7. The physics behind a simple demonstration of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxton, Gavin A.

    2014-03-01

    A simple, and popular, demonstration of the greenhouse effect involves a higher temperature being observed in a container with an elevated concentration of CO2 inside than in a container with just air enclosed, when subject to direct light. The CO2 absorbs outgoing thermal radiation and causes the air inside the container to be warmer. However, in some variations of this experiment an additional positive effect can arise from artefacts in the experiment, such as the slightly heavier CO2 forming a layer at the bottom of the container and suppressing convection. Therefore, the physics of this demonstration is elucidated in a system that does not suffer from such artefacts. In particular, the absorption of infrared radiation due to the enclosed CO2 is measured, and a one-dimensional model of heat transfer is solved. It is found that the temperature of the enclosed air is significantly higher inside the container with an elevated concentration of CO2 inside, but that the temperature of the container itself is not appreciably higher.

  8. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology. PMID:27991594

  9. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-12-19

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology.

  10. Demonstration of Complementary Ternary Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun Ji; Kim, So-Young; Noh, Jinwoo; Shim, Chang Hoo; Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Sang Kyung; Chang, Kyoung Eun; Cho, Chunhum; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2016-12-01

    Strong demand for power reduction in state-of-the-art semiconductor devices calls for novel devices and architectures. Since ternary logic architecture can perform the same function as binary logic architecture with a much lower device density and higher information density, a switch device suitable for the ternary logic has been pursued for several decades. However, a single device that satisfies all the requirements for ternary logic architecture has not been demonstrated. We demonstrated a ternary graphene field-effect transistor (TGFET), showing three discrete current states in one device. The ternary function was achieved by introducing a metal strip to the middle of graphene channel, which created an N-P-N or P-N-P doping pattern depending on the work function of the metal. In addition, a standard ternary inverter working at room temperature has been achieved by modulating the work function of the metal in a graphene channel. The feasibility of a ternary inverter indicates that a general ternary logic architecture can be realized using complementary TGFETs. This breakthrough will provide a key stepping-stone for an extreme-low-power computing technology.

  11. Inhibitory effect of nitrite on coagulation processes demonstrated by thrombelastography.

    PubMed

    Park, J W; Piknova, B; Nghiem, K; Lozier, J N; Schechter, A N

    2014-08-31

    Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated by two-step reduction pathway in which nitrate is converted first into nitrite and then into NO via several mechanisms, as well as from arginine by endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We have recently shown that nitrite ions in the presence of erythrocytes inhibit platelet aggregation and activation, as measured by aggregometry and flow cytometric analysis of P-selectin, through its reduction to NO under partially deoxygenated conditions. In the current study, we investigated how nitrite may affect overall clotting processes via modulating platelet function using thrombelastography (TEG). We measured three major TEG parameters, reaction time (R, time to initial fibrin formation), α angle (velocity of clot growth) and maximum amplitude (MA, maximum clot strength) using blood from healthy volunteers. An NO donor (DEANONOate) showed inhibitory effects on all TEG parameters in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood, resulting in delayed R, decreased angle, and reduced MA in a dose dependent manner. Nitrite ions also exhibited inhibitory effects in whole blood at 20% hematocrit, and this was greatly enhanced under hypoxic conditions, being demonstrable at 0.1 μM concentration. Neither compound changed any TEG parameters in plasma. Our results suggest that nitrite affects overall blood clotting and that TEG may be used to follow this process. Further the physiological effects of factors which determine NO bioavailability, such as endogenous levels of blood and tissue nitrite, may be useful as biomarkers for predicting hemostatic potential.

  12. Inhibitory effect of nitrite on coagulation processes demonstrated by thrombelastography

    PubMed Central

    Park, J. W.; Piknova, B.; Nghiem, K.; Lozier, J. N.; Schechter, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated by two-step reduction pathway in which nitrate is converted first into nitrite and then into NO via several mechanisms, as well as from arginine by endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We have recently shown that nitrite ions in the presence of erythrocytes inhibit platelet aggregation and activation, as measured by aggregometry and flow cytometric analysis of P-selectin, through its reduction to NO under partially deoxygenated conditions. In the current study, we investigated how nitrite may affect overall clotting processes via modulating platelet function using thrombelastography (TEG). We measured three major TEG parameters, reaction time (R, time to initial fibrin formation), α angle (velocity of clot growth) and maximum amplitude (MA, maximum clot strength) using blood from healthy volunteers. An NO donor (DEANONOate) showed inhibitory effects on all TEG parameters in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood, resulting in delayed R, decreased angle, and reduced MA in a dose dependent manner. Nitrite ions also exhibited inhibitory effects in whole blood at 20% hematocrit, and this was greatly enhanced under hypoxic conditions, being demonstrable at 0.1 μM concentration. Neither compound changed any TEG parameters in plasma. Our results suggest that nitrite affects overall blood clotting and that TEG may be used to follow this process. Further the physiological effects of factors which determine NO bioavailability, such as endogenous levels of blood and tissue nitrite, may be useful as biomarkers for predicting hemostatic potential. PMID:24858214

  13. Experimental demonstration of the time reversal Aharonov-Casher effect.

    PubMed

    Bergsten, Tobias; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    2006-11-10

    We demonstrate the time reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in small arrays of mesoscopic semiconductor rings. By using an electrostatic gate we can control the spin precession rate and follow the AC phase over several interference periods. We show that we control the precession rate in two different gate voltage ranges; in the lower range the gate voltage dependence is strong and linear and in the higher range the dependence in almost an order of magnitude weaker. We also see the second harmonic of the AC interference, oscillating with half the period. We finally map the AC phase to the spin-orbit interaction parameter alpha and find it is consistent with Shubnikov-de Haas analysis.

  14. 30 CFR 553.43 - When is my OSFR demonstration or the amendment to my OSFR demonstration effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is my OSFR demonstration or the amendment to my OSFR demonstration effective? 553.43 Section 553.43 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE...

  15. 30 CFR 553.43 - When is my OSFR demonstration or the amendment to my OSFR demonstration effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is my OSFR demonstration or the amendment to my OSFR demonstration effective? 553.43 Section 553.43 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE...

  16. 30 CFR 253.43 - When is my OSFR demonstration or the amendment to my OSFR demonstration effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is my OSFR demonstration or the amendment to my OSFR demonstration effective? 253.43 Section 253.43 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE...

  17. 30 CFR 553.43 - When is my OSFR demonstration or the amendment to my OSFR demonstration effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is my OSFR demonstration or the amendment to my OSFR demonstration effective? 553.43 Section 553.43 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL SPILL FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR OFFSHORE...

  18. A demonstration of the antimicrobial effectiveness of various copper surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial contamination on touch surfaces results in increased risk of infection. In the last few decades, work has been done on the antimicrobial properties of copper and its alloys against a range of micro-organisms threatening public health in food processing, healthcare and air conditioning applications; however, an optimum copper method of surface deposition and mass structure has not been identified. Results A proof-of-concept study of the disinfection effectiveness of three copper surfaces was performed. The surfaces were produced by the deposition of copper using three methods of thermal spray, namely, plasma spray, wire arc spray and cold spray The surfaces were then inoculated with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). After a two hour exposure to the surfaces, the surviving MRSA were assayed and the results compared. The differences in the copper depositions produced by the three thermal spray methods were examined in order to explain the mechanism that causes the observed differences in MRSA killing efficiencies. The cold spray deposition method was significantly more effective than the other methods. It was determined that work hardening caused by the high velocity particle impacts created by the cold spray technique results in a copper microstructure that enhances ionic diffusion, and copper ions are principally responsible for antimicrobial activity. Conclusions This test showed significant microbiologic differences between coatings produced by different spray techniques and demonstrates the importance of the copper application technique. The cold spray technique shows superior anti-microbial effectiveness caused by the high impact velocity imparted to the sprayed particles which results in high dislocation density and high ionic diffusivity. PMID:23537176

  19. Demonstration of the greenhouse effect for elementary school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanovic, Jelena

    2014-05-01

    The school where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development school" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of school and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the climate change. To that effect, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse effect. Although the terms greenhouse effect and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary school students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse effect • Analyze the consequences of climate changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20

  20. Biological effects of tandem shock waves demonstrated on magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Benes, J; Zeman, J; Pouckova, P; Zadinova, M; Sunka, P; Lukes, P

    2012-01-01

    The shock wave is used for the treatment of kidney stones, eventually of gall stones, for more than 20 years. It is a pressure wave, which breaks through soft tissues easily and it is possible to focus it into a small volume. The excellent results of the treatment of concrements led to considerations about another usage of the shock wave. The research is now concentrated on the possibility of the damage to tumour tissues. In contrast to concrements tumour tissues are not different from healthy tissues as for their acoustic attributes. That is why a new source of shock waves was used in this work. The source allows generating two successive shock waves focused into a common focus, so-called tandem shock waves. The biological effects of the tandem shock waves generated by the new source on rats hepatic tissue and rabbit femoral muscle in vivo were studied in this work. The damage is demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging. MR images showed tissue damage in focus. There was damage of the liver tissue, muscle and also stomach wall. We found that the tandem shock waves are able to damage the acoustically homogeneous soft tissue in the focus, i.e. in the depth. In tissues in front of the focus, there is, however, no damage (Fig. 10, Ref. 15).

  1. Classroom as Reality: Demonstrating Campaign Effects through Live Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Daniel J.; Miller, William J.; Feuerstein, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Scholastic research has demonstrated that when conducted properly, active learning exercises are successful at increasing student awareness, student interest, and knowledge retention. Face-to-face simulations, in particular, have been demonstrated to add positively to classrooms focusing on comparative politics, international relations, public…

  2. Classroom as Reality: Demonstrating Campaign Effects through Live Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Daniel J.; Miller, William J.; Feuerstein, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Scholastic research has demonstrated that when conducted properly, active learning exercises are successful at increasing student awareness, student interest, and knowledge retention. Face-to-face simulations, in particular, have been demonstrated to add positively to classrooms focusing on comparative politics, international relations, public…

  3. Antioxidant and cyto/DNA protective properties of apple pomace enriched bakery products.

    PubMed

    Sudha, M L; Dharmesh, Shylaja M; Pynam, Hasitha; Bhimangouder, Shivaleela V; Eipson, Sushma W; Somasundaram, Rajarathnam; Nanjarajurs, Shashirekha M

    2016-04-01

    Apple pomace (AP), the residue that remains after the extraction of juice from apple accounts for ~25 % of total apple weight. Current study is aimed at identification of phytochemicals and utilization of Dehydrated apple pomace (DAP) in the preparation of bakery products with potential health benefits. DAP was prepared by drying the pomace obtained by crushing peeled apple fruits. DAP was incorporated into bakery products such as bun, muffin and cookies for value addition. Bioactivity such as free radical scavenging, cyto/DNA protectivity was evaluated in these products. DAP contained 17 g/100 g starch, 49.86 g/100 g fructose and 37 g/100 g dietary fibre. The phenolics and flavonoids content was 1.5 mg/g and 3.92 mg/g, respectively. Increase in DAP resulted in decreased volume and enhanced firmness of buns and muffins. DAP at 15 % in buns, 30 % in muffins and 20 % in cookies were found to be acceptable. DAP blended products exhibited better free radical scavenging as well as cyto/DNA protective properties suggesting the retention of bioactivity after baking. Addition of DAP potentially enhanced the bioactivity of the products evaluated.

  4. Effects of a Demonstration Laboratory on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Erik; Williamson, Vickie M.; Ruebush, Laura E.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and demonstration have long been used to supplement lecture in chemistry education. Current research indicates that students are better served by laboratories which exercise the higher-order cognitive skills, such as inquiry-based laboratories. However, the time and the resources available to perform these recommended types of…

  5. A Simple Demonstration of the Effect of Eddy Currents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapple, Paul; Reilly, Lee M.

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating that a moving magnet can induce an electromagnetic force by causing an electric current in a conducting material can be shown by a number of methods. A common method is dropping a magnet down a copper pipe and showing that the rate of fall is much slower than expected owing to the induced electric current in the copper pipe. This…

  6. A Simple Demonstration of the Effect of Eddy Currents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapple, Paul; Reilly, Lee M.

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating that a moving magnet can induce an electromagnetic force by causing an electric current in a conducting material can be shown by a number of methods. A common method is dropping a magnet down a copper pipe and showing that the rate of fall is much slower than expected owing to the induced electric current in the copper pipe. This…

  7. Have complementary therapies demonstrated effectiveness in rheumatoid arthritis?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Llanio Comella, Nagore; Fernández Matilla, Meritxell; Castellano Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has improved thanks to the use of highly effective drugs. However, patients usually require long term therapy, which is not free of side effects. Therefore RA patients often demand complementary medicine, they seek additional sources of relief and/or less side effects. In fact 30-60% of rheumatic patients use some form of complementary medicine. Therefore, from conventional medicine, if we want to optimally treat our patients facilitating communication with them we must know the most commonly used complementary medicines. The aim of this review is to assess, based on published scientific research, what complementary therapies commonly used by patients with RA are effective and safe.

  8. Demonstrating Effectiveness of Antibiotics Against Known Bacteria Strains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Lois M.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for showing the effectiveness of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) against a nonpathogenic bacteria strain (Bacillus cereus). Methods are outlined for preparing nutrient agar, sterilizing tubes, pouring agar plates, preparing antibiotic discs, and transferring antibiotic discs to agar plates. (CS)

  9. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  10. Polymer Photooxidation: An Experiment to Demonstrate the Effect of Additives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Norman S.; McKellar, John F.

    1979-01-01

    This undergraduate experiment shows that the inclusion of an appropriate additive can have a very marked effect on the physical properties of a polymer. The polymer used is polypropylene and the additives are 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxy-benzophenone and benzophenone. (BB)

  11. Demonstrating Effectiveness of Antibiotics Against Known Bacteria Strains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Lois M.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are described for showing the effectiveness of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) against a nonpathogenic bacteria strain (Bacillus cereus). Methods are outlined for preparing nutrient agar, sterilizing tubes, pouring agar plates, preparing antibiotic discs, and transferring antibiotic discs to agar plates. (CS)

  12. STUDY OF CHARACTERISTICS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VISUAL DEMONSTRATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOGUSLAVSKY, GEORGE W.

    SLIDES OF SELECTED TEXTBOOK ILLUSTRATIONS, DRAWN TO HIGHLIGHT THE PERTINENT AREAS OF THE ILLUSTRATION BY MEANS OF SHADING AND ILLUMINATION, WERE USED TO EVALUATE THEIR EFFECTIVENESS OVER SELECTED SLIDES OF CONVENTIONAL ILLUSTRATIONS AND DIAGRAMS IN WHICH ALL DETAILS WERE PROMINENTLY DISPLAYED. WHEN THE CONTROL SLIDES WERE PRESENTED, A TEACHER USED…

  13. Classroom Demonstration of the Visual Effects of Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Raphail, Ann-Marie; Bach, Emily C.; Hallock, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the visual system is a fundamental aspect of many neuroscience and psychology courses. These classes often cover a variety of visual diseases that are correlated with the anatomy of the visual system, e.g., cataracts are caused by a clouding of the lens. Here, we describe an easy way to modify standard laboratory glasses/goggles to simulate the various perceptual deficits that accompany vision disorders such as astigmatism, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, optic neuritis, posterior vitreous detachment, and retinitis pigmentosa. For example, when teaching about cataracts, students can put on glasses that mimic how severe cataracts affect one’s vision. Using the glasses will allow students to draw connections between the disorder, its perceptual deficits, and the underlying anatomy. We also discuss floaters in the eye and provide an easy method to allow students to detect their own floaters. Together, these demonstrations make for a more dynamic and interactive class on the visual system that will better link diseases of the eye to anatomy and perception, and allow undergraduate students to develop a better understanding of the visual system as a whole. PMID:24693262

  14. Demonstration of antidiarrheal and antimotility effects of wood creosote.

    PubMed

    Ogata, N; Baba, T; Shibata, T

    1993-01-01

    Wood creosote administered to rats prevented castor-oil-induced diarrhea with an ED50 of 53 mg/kg p.o. This antidiarrheal effect was apparently produced by acceleration of net fluid absorption from the intestine, as shown by a 52% decrease (p < 0.001) of residual fluid volume in an intestinal loop, and partly by suppression of intestinal motility. Wood creosote also inhibited spontaneous longitudinal contractions of isolated ileal segments in rats (IC50 = 28 mg/l) and guinea pigs (IC50 = 17 mg/l). Contractions of the guinea pig ileum induced by electrical stimulation, bradykinin and acetylcholine were also inhibited dose-dependently. We conclude that wood creosote has an antidiarrheal activity and that this effect is exerted by inhibition of intestinal motility and by augmentation of net fluid absorption from the intestine.

  15. Demonstration of the optical limiting effect for an hemiporphyrazine.

    PubMed

    Dini, Danilo; Calvete, Mario J F; Hanack, Michael; Amendola, Vincenzo; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2006-06-14

    The hemiporphyrazine complex 9,22-bis(dibutoxy)hemiporphyrazinato chloroindium(III) (1) is one of the few examples for this class of compounds, which displays the nonlinear optical effect of reverse saturable absorption for nanosecond laser pulses in the visible spectrum. The high linear transmission combined with the fast switching into a strongly absorbing excited state in the same spectral range (400-650 nm), renders the studied hemiporphyrazine an ideal material for the passive shuttering of pulsed radiations.

  16. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and DNA protective properties of Achillea eriophora DC. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. extracts: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Varasteh-Kojourian, Maryam; Abrishamchi, Parvaneh; Matin, Maryam M; Asili, Javad; Ejtehadi, Hamid; Khosravitabar, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Achillea is a traditional medicinal herb which contains different phenol and flavonoid compounds that are responsible for Achillea pharmacological effects. We aimed to determine phenol and flavonoid contents, besides antioxidant activities of different extracts from Achillea eriophoraa (A. eriophora) DC. and Achillea biebersteinii (A. biebersteinii) Afan. (endemic species in Iran) and to investigate their effects on human cells. Achillea extracts, were prepared by maceration and shaking methods, from different parts (aerial parts, stem, leaves and inflorescence) of two species using methanol and ethanol as solvents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were measured by spectrophotometry, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by DPPH radical scavenging, BCB and TBARS assays. Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the extracts were investigated in Human Foreskin Fibroblast (HFF3) cells using MTT, comet and H2O2 assays. Methanol extracts of A. biebersteinii prepared from leaves and inflorescence by maceration method exhibited maximum phenol (1657.58 ± 36.45 mg GAE/100 g DW) and flavonoid (264.00 ± 62.16 mg QUE/100 g DW) contents. Leaf methanol extract showed significantly higher antioxidant activity (0.0276 ± 0.003, 0.16 ± 0.016 and 13.96 ± 0.26 mg/ml for DPPH, BCB and TBARS IC50s, respectively) than those of the other extracts. Leaf extract of A. biebersteinii was not cytotoxic even at the highest examined dose (512 µg/ml) and inhibited cell toxicity induced by H2O2 (98% viability for the cells pretreated with plant extract in the presence of H2O2). Comet assay also confirmed high DNA protective activity of leaf extracts. Achillea extracts possess remarkable antioxidant activity, and could be good natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  17. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and DNA protective properties of Achillea eriophora DC. and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. extracts: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Varasteh-kojourian, Maryam; Abrishamchi, Parvaneh; Matin, Maryam M.; Asili, Javad; Ejtehadi, Hamid; Khosravitabar, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Achillea is a traditional medicinal herb which contains different phenol and flavonoid compounds that are responsible for Achillea pharmacological effects. We aimed to determine phenol and flavonoid contents, besides antioxidant activities of different extracts from Achillea eriophoraa (A. eriophora) DC. and Achillea biebersteinii (A. biebersteinii) Afan. (endemic species in Iran) and to investigate their effects on human cells. Materials and Methods: Achillea extracts, were prepared by maceration and shaking methods, from different parts (aerial parts, stem, leaves and inflorescence) of two species using methanol and ethanol as solvents. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were measured by spectrophotometry, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by DPPH radical scavenging, BCB and TBARS assays. Cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities of the extracts were investigated in Human Foreskin Fibroblast (HFF3) cells using MTT, comet and H2O2 assays. Results: Methanol extracts of A. biebersteinii prepared from leaves and inflorescence by maceration method exhibited maximum phenol (1657.58 ± 36.45 mg GAE/100 g DW) and flavonoid (264.00 ± 62.16 mg QUE/100 g DW) contents. Leaf methanol extract showed significantly higher antioxidant activity (0.0276 ± 0.003, 0.16 ± 0.016 and 13.96 ± 0.26 mg/ml for DPPH, BCB and TBARS IC50s, respectively) than those of the other extracts. Leaf extract of A. biebersteinii was not cytotoxic even at the highest examined dose (512 µg/ml) and inhibited cell toxicity induced by H2O2 (98% viability for the cells pretreated with plant extract in the presence of H2O2). Comet assay also confirmed high DNA protective activity of leaf extracts. Conclusion: Achillea extracts possess remarkable antioxidant activity, and could be good natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants in pharmaceutical and food industries. PMID:28348971

  18. A Simple Demonstration of Convective Effects on Reaction-Diffusion Systems: A Burning Cigarette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pojman, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a demonstration that provides an introduction to nonequilibrium reaction-diffusion systems and the coupling of hydrodynamics to chemical reactions. Experiments that demonstrate autocatalytic behavior that are effected by gravity and convection are included. (KR)

  19. A Simple Demonstration of Convective Effects on Reaction-Diffusion Systems: A Burning Cigarette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pojman, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a demonstration that provides an introduction to nonequilibrium reaction-diffusion systems and the coupling of hydrodynamics to chemical reactions. Experiments that demonstrate autocatalytic behavior that are effected by gravity and convection are included. (KR)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  2. Mixing, Matching, and Mating: Demonstrating the Effect of Contrast on Relationship Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Brian P.; Gurung, Regan A. R.

    2003-01-01

    We extended earlier demonstrations of the matching phenomenon (individuals choose romantic partners who tend to match them on a variety of traits) to demonstrate several relationship issues including contrast effects, the impact of alternative mates on relationship satisfaction, and social exchange and equity theories. Students first place playing…

  3. The Principle of Equivalence: Demonstrations of Local Effective Vertical and Horizontal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Múnera, Héctor A.

    2010-02-01

    It has been suggested that Einstein's principle of equivalence (PE) should be introduced at an early stage. This principle leads to the notion of local effective gravity, which in turn defines effective vertical and horizontal directions. Local effective gravity need not coincide with the direction of terrestrial gravity. This paper describes three classroom demonstrations that we have used to teach the concepts of the effective horizontal plane and the effective vertical direction to students at National University in Bogotá.

  4. Tested Demonstrations: Visualization of Buffer Action and the Acidifying Effect of Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a buffer demonstration which features visualization of the effects of carbon dioxide on pH. Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and a discussion of results obtained are included. (JN)

  5. Tested Demonstrations: Visualization of Buffer Action and the Acidifying Effect of Carbon Dioxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a buffer demonstration which features visualization of the effects of carbon dioxide on pH. Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and a discussion of results obtained are included. (JN)

  6. [Effect of comprehensive control and prevention for chronic disease in demonstration plot of Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Qi, Li; Ding, Xian-bin; Mao, De-qiang; Feng, Lian-gui; Wang, Yu-lin; Jiao, Yan; Zhang, Chun-hua; Lü, Xiao-yan; Li, Hong; Xia, Yi-yin

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive control and prevention for chronic diseases in demonstration plot of Chongqing. Residents were enrolled through multi-stage stratified random sampling method from 17 districts or counties which had successfully established demonstration plots and 21 districts or counties which had not established demonstration plots (non-demonstration plot for short) yet on May, 2012. Questionnaire was designed to survey awareness of health knowledge, health behaviors and utilization of health supportive tools. The results were analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software. We investigated 15 108 residents, 6156 of which were in demonstration plot and others (8951) were not. The findings revealed the percentage of the people who were aware the national action of health lifestyle in demonstration plot and in non-demonstration plot were 44.4% (2734/6157) and 40.2% (3598/8951), respectively, and the awareness of the hypertension risk of too much sodium were 72.4% (4458/6156) and 67.5% (6042/8951), respectively, and the awareness of the cardinal vascular disease (CVD) risk of obesity and overweight were 77.2% (4753/6157) and 69.6% (6230/8951), respectively. About the residents' health behaviors in demonstration plot and in non-demonstration plot, the utilization rates of salt restriction scoop or pot were 23.5% (1447/6157) and 17.9% (1602/8951), and the utilization rates of oil restriction pot were 16.7% (1028/6157) and 11.8% (1064/8951), respectively. Totally, 33 of the 37 indexes were shown higher in demonstration plot than that in non-demonstration plot (P < 0.05). The chronic diseases comprehensive control and prevention in demonstration plot was more effective, and the remarkable improvement of health knowledge and behaviors level had been achieved in demonstration plot.

  7. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and DNA protection capacities of Anadenanthera colubrina, Libidibia ferrea and Pityrocarpa moniliformis fruits.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Renata Maria; José Macedo, Alexandre; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the antioxidant and DNA protection abilities of hydroalcoholic extracts from fruits of Anadenanthera colubrina (ACHE), Libidibia ferrea (LFHE) and Pityrocarpa moniliformis (PMHE). These extracts were tested by five antioxidant methods (phosphomolibdenium and reducing power assays; superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging) and DNA protection capacity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. ACHE exhibited the highest phenolic content (578 mg/g GAE), followed by LFHE (460 mg/g GAE) and PMHE (448 mg/g GAE). In phosphomolibdenium assay, ACHE showed 24.81% of activity in relation to ascorbic acid, whereas LFHE and PMHE had 21.08% and 18.05%, respectively. These plants showed high ability to inhibit reactive species tested with IC50 values ranged from 10.66 to 14.37 μg/mL for superoxide radical; 26.05 to 45.43 μg/mL for hydrogen peroxide; 178.42 to 182.98 μg/mL for reducing power; and 199.2 to 283 μg/mL for nitric oxide. Furthermore, these extracts had capacity to break the DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant activity of these plants is related with their higher phenolic content and show that they may be used as source of bioactive compounds, relevant to the maintenance of oxidative stability of the food matrix, cosmetics and/or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; Dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N; Henriques, João A P; Brendel, Martin; Pungartnik, Cristina; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as "mangosteen fruit," originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application.

  9. DNA Protection against Oxidative Damage Using the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Garcinia mangostana and Alpha-Mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho-Silva, Ronaldo; Pereira, Alanna Cibelle Fernandes; dos Santos Alves, Rúbens Prince; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A. P.; Brendel, Martin; Rios-Santos, Fabrício

    2016-01-01

    Garcinia mangostana, popularly known as “mangosteen fruit,” originates from Southeast Asia and came to Brazil about 80 years ago where it mainly grows in the states of Pará and Bahia. Although mangosteen or its extracts have been used for ages in Asian folk medicine, data on its potential genotoxicity is missing. We, therefore, evaluated genotoxicity/mutagenicity of hydroethanolic mangosteen extract [HEGM, 10 to 640 μg/mL] in established test assays (Comet assay, micronucleus test, and Salmonella/microsome test). In the Comet assay, HEGM-exposed human leukocytes showed no DNA damage. No significant HEGM-induced mutation in TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (with or without metabolic activation) was observed and HEGM-exposed human lymphocytes had no increase of micronuclei. However, HEGM suggested exposure concentration-dependent antigenotoxic potential in leukocytes and antioxidant potential in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. HEGM preloading effectively protected against H2O2-induced DNA damage in leukocytes (Comet assay). Preloading of yeast with HEGM for up to 4 h significantly protected the cells from lethality of chronic H2O2-exposure, as expressed in better survival. Absence of genotoxicity and demonstration of an antigenotoxic and antioxidant potential suggest that HEGM or some substances contained in it may hold promise for pharmaceutical or nutraceutical application. PMID:27042187

  10. Free radical scavenging, DNA protection, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation mediated by uric acid.

    PubMed

    Stinefelt, Beth; Leonard, Stephen S; Blemings, Kenneth P; Shi, Xianglin; Klandorf, Hillar

    2005-01-01

    Uric acid (UA) has been proposed to be the dominant antioxidant in birds. The objective of this study was to investigate the quenching effect of varying concentrations of UA, including those found in avian plasma, on specific reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to determine the ability of UA to protect DNA and cellular membranes from ROS-mediated damage. Hydroxyl (OH) and superoxide (O2-) radicals were detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) and their presence was reduced following addition of UA (p <0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner. UA inhibited hydroxyl-mediated DNA damage, indicated by the presence of more precise, dense bands of lambda Hind III DNA after agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining (p <0.05). Lipid peroxidation of silica-exposed RAW 264.7 cell membranes was diminished (p <0.02) after addition of UA to the cell incubation mixture. These studies demonstrate that UA scavenges hydroxyl and superoxide radicals and protects against DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. These results indicate specific antioxidant protection that UA may afford birds against ROS-mediated damage.

  11. Liposomal carfilzomib nanoparticles effectively target multiple myeloma cells and demonstrate enhanced efficacy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Jonathan D; Stefanick, Jared F; Schroeder, Valerie A; Suckow, Mark A; Alves, Nathan J; Suzuki, Rikio; Kikuchi, Shohei; Hideshima, Teru; Anderson, Kenneth C; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Bilgicer, Basar

    2014-12-28

    Carfilzomib, a recently FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor, has remarkable anti-myeloma (MM) activity. However, its effectiveness is limited by associated severe side-effects, short circulation half-life, and limited solubility. Here, we report the engineering of liposomal carfilzomib nanoparticles to overcome these problems and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of carfilzomib by increasing tumoral drug accumulation while decreasing systemic toxicity. In our design, carfilzomib was loaded into the bilayer of liposomes to yield stable and reproducible liposomal nanoparticles. Liposomal carfilzomib nanoparticles were efficiently taken up by MM cells, demonstrated proteasome inhibition, induced apoptosis, and exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity against MM cells. In vivo, liposomal carfilzomib demonstrated significant tumor growth inhibition and dramatically reduced overall systemic toxicity compared to free carfilzomib. Finally, liposomal carfilzomib demonstrated enhanced synergy in combination with doxorubicin. Taken together, this study establishes the successful synthesis of liposomal carfilzomib nanoparticles that demonstrates improved therapeutic index and the potential to improve patient outcome in MM.

  12. Effects of Expanded Coverage for Chiropractic Services on Medicare Costs in a CMS Demonstration.

    PubMed

    Stason, William B; Ritter, Grant A; Martin, Timothy; Prottas, Jeffrey; Tompkins, Christopher; Shepard, Donald S

    2016-01-01

    Moderately convincing evidence supports the benefits of chiropractic manipulations for low back pain. Its effectiveness in other applications is less well documented, and its cost-effectiveness is not known. These questions led the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) to conduct a two-year demonstration of expanded Medicare coverage for chiropractic services in the treatment of beneficiaries with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions affecting the back, limbs, neck, or head. The demonstration was conducted in 2005-2007 in selected counties of Illinois, Iowa, and Virginia and the entire states of Maine and New Mexico. Medicare claims were compiled for the preceding year and two demonstration years for the demonstration areas and matched comparison areas. The impact of the demonstration was analyzed through multivariate regression analysis with a difference-in-difference framework. Expanded coverage increased Medicare expenditures by $50 million or 28.5% in users of chiropractic services and by $114 million or 10.4% in all patients treated for NMS conditions in demonstration areas during the two-year period. Results varied widely among demonstration areas ranging from increased costs per user of $485 in Northern Illinois and Chicago counties to decreases in costs per user of $59 in New Mexico and $178 in Scott County, Iowa. The demonstration did not assess possible decreases in costs to other insurers, out-of-pocket payments by patients, the need for and costs of pain medications, or longer term clinical benefits such as avoidance of orthopedic surgical procedures beyond the two-year period of the demonstration. It is possible that other payers or beneficiaries saved money during the demonstration while costs to Medicare were increased.

  13. Effects of Expanded Coverage for Chiropractic Services on Medicare Costs in a CMS Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Stason, William B.; Ritter, Grant A; Prottas, Jeffrey; Tompkins, Christopher; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Moderately convincing evidence supports the benefits of chiropractic manipulations for low back pain. Its effectiveness in other applications is less well documented, and its cost-effectiveness is not known. These questions led the Centers for Medicaid and Medicare Services (CMS) to conduct a two-year demonstration of expanded Medicare coverage for chiropractic services in the treatment of beneficiaries with neuromusculoskeletal (NMS) conditions affecting the back, limbs, neck, or head. Methods The demonstration was conducted in 2005–2007 in selected counties of Illinois, Iowa, and Virginia and the entire states of Maine and New Mexico. Medicare claims were compiled for the preceding year and two demonstration years for the demonstration areas and matched comparison areas. The impact of the demonstration was analyzed through multivariate regression analysis with a difference-in-difference framework. Results Expanded coverage increased Medicare expenditures by $50 million or 28.5% in users of chiropractic services and by $114 million or 10.4% in all patients treated for NMS conditions in demonstration areas during the two-year period. Results varied widely among demonstration areas ranging from increased costs per user of $485 in Northern Illinois and Chicago counties to decreases in costs per user of $59 in New Mexico and $178 in Scott County, Iowa. Conclusion The demonstration did not assess possible decreases in costs to other insurers, out-of-pocket payments by patients, the need for and costs of pain medications, or longer term clinical benefits such as avoidance of orthopedic surgical procedures beyond the two-year period of the demonstration. It is possible that other payers or beneficiaries saved money during the demonstration while costs to Medicare were increased. PMID:26928221

  14. Virgin Olive Oil Enriched with Its Own Phenols or Complemented with Thyme Phenols Improves DNA Protection against Oxidation and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Hyperlipidemic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Romeu, Marta; Rubió, Laura; Sánchez-Martos, Vanessa; Castañer, Olga; de la Torre, Rafael; Valls, Rosa M; Ras, Rosa; Pedret, Anna; Catalán, Úrsula; López de las Hazas, María del Carmen; Motilva, María J; Fitó, Montserrat; Solà, Rosa; Giralt, Montserrat

    2016-03-09

    The effects of virgin olive oil (VOO) enriched with its own phenolic compounds (PC) and/or thyme PC on the protection against oxidative DNA damage and antioxidant endogenous enzymatic system (AEES) were estimated in 33 hyperlipidemic subjects after the consumption of VOO, VOO enriched with its own PC (FVOO), or VOO complemented with thyme PC (FVOOT). Compared to pre-intervention, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a marker for DNA damage) decreased in the FVOO intervention and to a greater extent in the FVOOT with a parallel significant increase in olive and thyme phenolic metabolites. Superoxide dismutase (AEES enzyme) significantly increased in the FVOO intervention and to a greater extent in the FVOOT with a parallel significant increase in thyme phenolic metabolites. When all three oils were compared, FVOOT appeared to have the greatest effect in protecting against oxidative DNA damage and improving AEES. The sustained intake of a FVOOT improves DNA protection against oxidation and AEES probably due to a greater bioavailability of thyme PC in hyperlipidemic subjects.

  15. ``Wow'' is good, but ``I see'' is better - techniques for more effective Physics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    The use of demonstrations to assist in Physics education at all levels is commonplace, but frequently lacks optimal effectiveness. In many cases, the choice of demonstration is not at issue, but rather the manner in which it is presented to the audience. Modern educational research reveals a number of simple ways to improve instruction of this kind, including objective setting, audience evaluation, concept building, and promoting engagement. These techniques and considerations will be reviewed, explained, and modeled through a demonstration of ``Why Mr. Fork and Mr. Microwave Oven don't get along.''

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Described are demonstrations designed to reveal the important "nonsolvent" properties of water through its interaction with a toy called "Magic Sand" and other synthetic silica derivatives, especially those bonded with organic moities. The procedures for seven demonstrations along with a discussion of the effects are presented. (CW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the photochromic behavior of mercury(II) bis(dithizonate) in providing a colorful demonstration of the effect that visible light can have on the conformation and bonding of molecules in solution. Provides a description of the demonstration itself, along with the preparation needed to complete it. (TW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  20. [Clinical pharmacology of Opino-gel--the demonstration of its effectiveness (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wasilewski, A

    1975-05-02

    The effectiveness of topically-applied buphenin (in a gel basis) was demonstrated by rheography in a double-blind study. This finding was additionally corroborated by experimental local vascular (venous) rheography. The flow volume of the tested vessels showed an improvement.

  1. Music-of-Light Stethoscope: A Demonstration of the Photoacoustic Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitichev, D. I.; Xia, W.; Hill, E.; Mosse, C. A.; Perkins, T.; Konyn, K.; Ourselin, S.; Desjardins, A. E.; Vercauteren, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a system aimed at demonstrating the photoacoustic (PA) effect for educational purposes. PA imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that requires no contrast agent and has a great potential for spine and brain lesion characterisation, breast cancer and blood flow monitoring notably in the context of fetal surgery. It relies on…

  2. The Effect of Group Works and Demonstrative Experiments Based on Conceptual Change Approach: Photosynthesis and Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibik, Ayse Sert; Diken, Emine Hatun; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of group works and demonstration experiments based on conceptual change approach in the elimination of misconception about the subject of photosynthesis and respiration in plants in pre-service science teachers. This study was conducted with 78 pre-service science teachers including…

  3. Are Health Educators in Denial or Facing Reality? Demonstrating Effectiveness within a School Accountability System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham-Deal, Tami; Hudson, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Health educators are providing students with the health knowledge and health skills that are prerequisites for becoming health literate and using assessment tools to demonstrate effectiveness. In the school health educators' world, accountability equates to improved student knowledge and skills. To expect them to be held accountable for students'…

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of Variations in the Demonstration Method of Teaching a Complex Manipulative Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenbaker, E. Keith

    There are so many methods and approaches to teaching that it is sometimes difficult to choose the approach best suited to the needs of the students. This study sought to ascertain the relative effectiveness and efficiency of selected approaches to the demonstration of complex manipulative sequences, and to test the theory that students of high…

  5. Tested Demonstrations: The Effect of Free Radical Stability on the Rate of Bromination of Hydrocarbons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents a demonstration of the effect of alkyl free radical stability on the rate of free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons. The arenes toluene, ethylbenzene and comene are photobrominated comparatively, using an overhead projector both to provide a light source for the chemical reaction and to project the results on a screen. (CS)

  6. Music-of-Light Stethoscope: A Demonstration of the Photoacoustic Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikitichev, D. I.; Xia, W.; Hill, E.; Mosse, C. A.; Perkins, T.; Konyn, K.; Ourselin, S.; Desjardins, A. E.; Vercauteren, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a system aimed at demonstrating the photoacoustic (PA) effect for educational purposes. PA imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that requires no contrast agent and has a great potential for spine and brain lesion characterisation, breast cancer and blood flow monitoring notably in the context of fetal surgery. It relies on…

  7. Demonstrating the Barkhausen effect with high signal-to-noise ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2017-07-01

    The Barkhausen effect can be impaired by various noise sources. These are avoided by a hum-bucking coil, earthing, a preamplifier with carefully chosen bandwidth, and matching the input resistor to the inductance of the coil. The present setup is suitable for lecture hall demonstration in higher education institutes.

  8. A PROJECT DEMONSTRATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES IN A TOTAL PSYCHIATRIC CARE PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Board of Health, Atlanta.

    A COOPERATIVE PROGRAM OFFERED A COMPLETE RANGE OF INTEGRATED MEDICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, AND VOCATIONAL SERVICES TO REINTEGRATE MENTAL PATIENTS INTO THE LIFE OF THE COMMUNITY. THE PROGRAM PROPOSED TO DEMONSTRATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CERTAIN REHABILITATION PROCEDURES TO EXTEND AND IMPROVE REHABILITATION SERVICES, AND TO ESTABLISH EFFECTIVE…

  9. The Effect of Group Works and Demonstrative Experiments Based on Conceptual Change Approach: Photosynthesis and Respiration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibik, Ayse Sert; Diken, Emine Hatun; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of group works and demonstration experiments based on conceptual change approach in the elimination of misconception about the subject of photosynthesis and respiration in plants in pre-service science teachers. This study was conducted with 78 pre-service science teachers including…

  10. Tested Demonstrations: The Effect of Free Radical Stability on the Rate of Bromination of Hydrocarbons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents a demonstration of the effect of alkyl free radical stability on the rate of free radical halogenation of hydrocarbons. The arenes toluene, ethylbenzene and comene are photobrominated comparatively, using an overhead projector both to provide a light source for the chemical reaction and to project the results on a screen. (CS)

  11. Demonstration of Laser-Induced Fluorescence on Krypton Hall Effect Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-10

    Conference Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Demonstration of Laser-Induced Fluorescence on Krypton Hall Effect...Sep 2011. 14. ABSTRACT There is growing interest within the electrostatic propulsion community for the use of krypton as a propellant. It is a...probe thruster krypton propellant acceleration with the minimum disturbance to the overall propellant stream similar to those already developed for

  12. Effects of the Medicare Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration on nursing home entry.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R; Newcomer, R; Fox, P

    1999-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Did the Medicare Alzheimer's Disease Demonstration, with its goal of improving caregiver outcomes through case management and subsidized community services, affect the nursing home entry rate of treatments with dementia compared to controls? DATA SOURCES: Interviews conducted at baseline and six months thereafter. Measures include date of nursing home entry, client and caregiver health, and income. STUDY DESIGN: The demonstration randomly assigned voluntary applicants into treatment and control groups. Treatment group cases were eligible for case management and for an 80 percent discount on community care benefits, up to about $600 per month. DATA COLLECTION: All cases received baseline and semi-annual assessment interviews for up to three years after enrollment. Analyses are among cases that remained in the demonstration for more than 30 days after enrollment (n = 8,095). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The intervention of case management and subsidized community service had no effect on nursing home entry rates for treatments overall, compared to those of controls, and few effects on treatment subgroups, with the exception of one site where it may have increased nursing home entry rates. CONCLUSIONS: Providing case management and subsidized community services with the goal of improving caregiver outcomes may have little effect on nursing home entry rates for people with dementia. PMID:10445898

  13. An expert panel report of a proposed scientific model demonstrating the effectiveness of antibacterial handwash products.

    PubMed

    Boyce, John M; Dupont, Herbert L; Massaro, Joseph; Sack, David; Schaffner, Donald W

    2012-10-01

    In 2005, a US Food and Drug Administration Nonprescription Drug Advisory Committee (NDAC) review of consumer antiseptic handwash product studies concluded that the data regarding existing products failed to demonstrate any association between specific log reductions of bacteria achieved by antiseptic handwashing and reduction of infection. The NDAC recommended that consumer antibacterial handwashing products should demonstrate a reduction in infection compared with non-antibacterial handwash products. In response to the NDAC review, a consumer product industry-sponsored expert panel meeting was held in October 2007 to review new methods for assessing the efficacy of antibacterial handwashes. The expert panel reviewed a newly proposed model for linking the effectiveness of antibacterial handwashing to infection reduction and made recommendations for conducting future studies designed to demonstrate the efficacy of antibacterial handwash formulations. The panel concluded that using the surrogate infection model to demonstrate efficacy has a sound scientific basis, that the use of Shigella flexneri as a test organism coupled with a modified hand contamination procedure is supported by published data, and that the model represents a realistic test for the efficacy of consumer antibacterial handwash products. This article summarizes the expert panel's deliberations, conclusions, and recommendations. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Music-of-light stethoscope: a demonstration of the photoacoustic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitichev, D. I.; Xia, W.; Hill, E.; Mosse, C. A.; Perkins, T.; Konyn, K.; Ourselin, S.; Desjardins, A. E.; Vercauteren, T.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present a system aimed at demonstrating the photoacoustic (PA) effect for educational purposes. PA imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that requires no contrast agent and has a great potential for spine and brain lesion characterisation, breast cancer and blood flow monitoring notably in the context of fetal surgery. It relies on combining light excitation with ultrasound reception. Our brief was to present and explain PA imaging in a public-friendly way suitable for a variety of ages and backgrounds. We developed a simple, accessible demonstration unit using readily available materials. We used a modulated light emitting diode (LED) torch and an electronic stethoscope. The output of a music player was used for light modulation and the chest piece of the stethoscope covered by a black tape was used as an absorbing target and an enclosed chamber. This demonstration unit was presented to the public at the Bloomsbury Festival On Light in October 2015. Our stall was visited by over 100 people of varying ages. Twenty families returned in-depth evaluation questionnaires, which show that our explanations of the photoacoustic effect were well understood. Their interest in biomedical engineering was increased.

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  1. Swelling effect actuation of shape-memory polymer: mechanism and demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haibao; Leng, Jinsong; Liu, Yanju; Du, Shanyi

    2009-03-01

    Recently, there is increasing interest in triggering shape recovery of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) by novel inductive effect. In this paper, many hard works have been carried out to make SMP induced while along with swelling effect. Based on the Free-volume theory, Rubber Elasticity Theory and Mooney-Rivlin Equation, it is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of SMP activated by swelling effect. The mechanism behind it is solvent acting as plasticizer, to reduce the glass transition temperature (Tg) and melting temperature (Tm) of polymers, make them softer and more flexible, facilitating the diffusion of the molecules to polymer chains, and then separating them. In addition to this physical action, the intermolecular interactions among the chains are weakened, because interactions are hindered at the points where the plasticizer is located. Finally, the Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), FTIR study and glass transition temperature measurement tests were used to exemplify the feasibility of SMP driven by swelling effect. And it is qualitatively identified the role of swelling effect playing in influencing the transition temperature. Swelling effect occurs due to the interaction between macromolecules and solvent molecules, leading to free volume of polymeric chains increasing (namely the flexibility of polymer chains increasing), resulting in the Tg decreasing. All above mentioned investigation can be used to confirm that the shape recovery is induced by swelling effect. This actuation almost is applicable for all the SMP and SMP composite, as the swelling theory is almost applicable for all the polymeric materials.

  2. R W Wood's Experiment Done Right - A Laboratory Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    It would not be exaggerating to say that R. W. Wood was the most respected experimental optical physicist of his time. Thus the null result of his attempt to demonstrate the greenhouse effect by comparing temperature rise in illuminated cylinders with glass or rock salt windows has echoed down through the years in climate science discussions both on the professional and public levels1. Today the web is full of videos purporting to demonstrate the greenhouse effect, but careful examination shows that they simply demonstrate heating via absorption of IR or NIR light by CO2. These experiments miss that the greenhouse effect is a result of the temperature difference between the surface and the upper troposphere as a result of which radiation from greenhouse molecules slows as the level rises. The average distance a photon emitted from a vibrationally excited CO2 molecule is about 10 m at the surface, increasing with altitude until at about 8 km the mean free path allows for radiation to space. Increasing CO2 concentrations raises this level to a higher one, which is colder, and at which the rate of radiation to space decreases. Emitting the same amount of radiation to space as before requires heating the entire system including the surface. To model the greenhouse effect we have used a 22 L bulb with a capsule heater in the center. The temperature near the heater (the surface) or above it can be monitored using a thermocouple and the CO2 mixing ratio determined using a NDIR sensor. By controlling the CO2 concentration in the bulb, the mean free path of re-radiated photons from CO2 can be controlled so that it much smaller than the bulb's diameter. We have measure rises in temperature both near the heater and at a distance from it as CO2is introduced, demonstrating the greenhouse effect. 1. R.W. Wood, London, Edinborough and Dublin Philosophical Magazine , 1909, 17, p319-320 also http://www.wmconnolley.org.uk/sci/wood_rw.1909.html

  3. Demonstrating Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Richard DeLombard of NASA's Glenn Research Center, hands the relase line for the Microgravity Demonstrator to a visitor for her to start a short experiment showing the effects of microgravity on candle flames. Combustion physics will be a major line of investigation for NASA aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The Microgravity Demonstrator is frequently used at shows and schools to illustrate how phenomena change in microgravity. The exhibit was part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI

  4. Experimental Demonstration of Interaction-Free All-Optical Switching via the Quantum Zeno Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kevin T.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kowligy, Abijith S.; Kumar, Prem

    2013-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical interaction-free switching using the quantum Zeno effect, achieving a high contrast of 35∶1. The experimental data match a zero-parameter theoretical model for several different regimes of operation, indicating a good understanding of the switch’s characteristics. We also discuss extensions of this work that will allow for significantly improved performance, and the integration of this technology onto chip-scale devices, which can lead to ultra-low-power all-optical switching, a long-standing goal with applications to both classical and quantum information processing.

  5. Molecular modification of native coffee polysaccharide using subcritical water treatment: Structural characterization, antioxidant, and DNA protecting activities.

    PubMed

    Getachew, Adane Tilahun; Chun, Byung Soo

    2017-06-01

    Polysaccharides are an abundant resource in coffee beans and have proved to show numerous bioactivities. Despite their abundance, their activities are not always satisfactory mostly due to their structure and large molecular size. Molecular modifications of native polysaccharides can overcome this problem. In this study, we used a novel and green method to modify native coffee polysaccharides using subcritical water (SCW) treatment. The SCW treatment was used at the temperature of 180°C-220°C and pressure of 30-60bar. The molecular and structural modification of the polysaccharides was confirmed using several techniques such as FT-IR, UV spectroscopy, XRD, and TGA. The antioxidant activity of the modified polysaccharides was evaluated using several chemical and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based high throughput assays. The modified polysaccharides showed high antioxidant activities in all tested assays. Moreover, the polysaccharides showed high DNA protection activities. Therefore, SCW could be employed as a green solvent for molecular modification of polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular characterization, immune responses and DNA protection activity of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus), peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6).

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, Mahanama; Ryu, Jae-Ho; Chung, Hee-Chung; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Nikapitiya, Chamilani; Oh, Chulhong; Kim, Hyowon; Saranya Revathy, K; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we describe the molecular characterization, immune responses of rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus peroxiredoxin 6 cDNA (RbPrx6) and DNA protection activity of its recombinant protein. The full-length cDNA sequence of RbPrx6 was identified after pyrosequencing of rock bream cDNA library. RbPrx6 consists of 663 bp open reading frame (ORF) that codes for a putative protein of 221 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 27 kDa. It showed characteristic peroxiredoxin super-family domain similar to vertebrate Prx counterparts. In the pair-wise comparison, RbPrx6 showed the highest amino acid identity (92.8%) to Scophthalmus maximus Prx6. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that constitutive expression of RbPrx6 transcripts in eleven tissues selected from un-challenged fish showing the highest level in liver. Synthetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and iridovirus containing supernatant, up-regulated the RbPrx6 mRNA in liver. Purified recombinant RbPrx6 protein was able to protect supercoiled plasmid DNA from damages that is induced by metal-catalyzed generation of reactive oxygen species. Our results suggest that RbPrx6 may play an important role in regulating oxidative stress by scavenging of ROS, involving immune reactions and minimizing the DNA damage in rock bream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA Protection Protein, a Novel Mechanism of Radiation Tolerance: Lessons from Tardigrades

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takuma; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2017-01-01

    Genomic DNA stores all genetic information and is indispensable for maintenance of normal cellular activity and propagation. Radiation causes severe DNA lesions, including double-strand breaks, and leads to genome instability and even lethality. Regardless of the toxicity of radiation, some organisms exhibit extraordinary tolerance against radiation. These organisms are supposed to possess special mechanisms to mitigate radiation-induced DNA damages. Extensive study using radiotolerant bacteria suggested that effective protection of proteins and enhanced DNA repair system play important roles in tolerability against high-dose radiation. Recent studies using an extremotolerant animal, the tardigrade, provides new evidence that a tardigrade-unique DNA-associating protein, termed Dsup, suppresses the occurrence of DNA breaks by radiation in human-cultured cells. In this review, we provide a brief summary of the current knowledge on extremely radiotolerant animals, and present novel insights from the tardigrade research, which expand our understanding on molecular mechanism of exceptional radio-tolerability. PMID:28617314

  8. Technology demonstration: geostatistical and hydrologic analysis of salt areas. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, P.G.; Oberlander, P.L.; Rice, W.A.; Devary, J.L.; Nelson, R.W.; Tucker, P.E.

    1982-09-01

    The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) requested Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to: (1) use geostatistical analyses to evaluate the adequacy of hydrologic data from three salt regions, each of which contains a potential nuclear waste repository site; and (2) demonstrate a methodology that allows quantification of the value of additional data collection. The three regions examined are the Paradox Basin in Utah, the Permian Basin in Texas, and the Mississippi Study Area. Additional and new data became available to ONWI during and following these analyses; therefore, this report must be considered a methodology demonstration here would apply as illustrated had the complete data sets been available. A combination of geostatistical and hydrologic analyses was used for this demonstration. Geostatistical analyses provided an optimal estimate of the potentiometric surface from the available data, a measure of the uncertainty of that estimate, and a means for selecting and evaluating the location of future data. The hydrologic analyses included the calculation of transmissivities, flow paths, travel times, and ground-water flow rates from hypothetical repository sites. Simulation techniques were used to evaluate the effect of optimally located future data on the potentiometric surface, flow lines, travel times, and flow rates. Data availability, quality, quantity, and conformance with model assumptions differed in each of the salt areas. Report highlights for the three locations are given.

  9. Demonstration Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Charles "Skip"

    1998-05-01

    Last week I did a demonstration that produced a serious explosion. After putting methanol in a big glass carboy and rotating the carboy to build up some methanol vapor, I lit the mouth of the carboy. What normally happens is a "jet engine" effect out of the mouth of the carboy. In my case, the carboy exploded. Two polycarbonate blast shields were shattered and glass was blown as far as 15 feet away. I was not seriously cut and bruised, but had I not been using the two blast shields, I would have been severely injured. At this time, I am not sure what caused the explosion. I have done this demonstration around one hundred times with no problem using the exact same amount of methanol and technique. I think it is important to get the word out that this demonstration may be more dangerous than previously thought. I would also welcome any hypotheses concerning what caused the carboy to explode.

  10. Actin and DNA Protect Histones from Degradation by Bacterial Proteases but Inhibit Their Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Asaf; Skvirsky, Yaniv; Blotnick, Edna; Bachrach, Gilad; Muhlrad, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins located in the cell nucleus. Together, DNA and histones are integral constituents of the nucleosomes. Upon apoptosis, necrosis, and infection – induced cell death, histones are released from the cell. The extracellular histones have strong antimicrobial activity but are also cytotoxic and thought as mediators of cell death in sepsis. The antimicrobial activity of the cationic extracellular histones is inhibited by the polyanionic DNA and F-actin, which also become extracellular upon cell death. DNA and F-actin protect histones from degradation by the proteases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Porphyromonas gingivalis. However, though the integrity of the histones is protected, the activity of histones as antibacterial agents is lost. The inhibition of the histone’s antibacterial activity and their protection from proteolysis by DNA and F-actin indicate a tight electrostatic interaction between the positively charged histones and negatively charged DNA and F-actin, which may have physiological significance in maintaining the equilibrium between the beneficial antimicrobial activity of extracellular histones and their cytotoxic effects. PMID:27555840

  11. Granulysin-Derived Peptides Demonstrate Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammatory Effects Against Propionibacterium acnes

    PubMed Central

    McInturff, Jamie E.; Wang, Shyh-Jeun; Machleidt, Thomas; Lin, T. Richard; Oren, Ami; Hertz, Cheryl J.; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Hart, Scott; Zeh, Karin; Anderson, Daniel H.; Gallo, Richard L.; Modlin, Robert L.; Kim, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key therapeutic target in acne, yet this bacterium has become resistant to standard antibiotic agents. We investigated whether the human antimicrobial protein granulysin is a potential candidate for the treatment of acne. Granulysin and synthetic granulysin-derived peptides possessing a helix–loop–helix motif killed P. acnes in vitro. Modification of a helix–loop–helix peptide, 31–50, by substitution of a tryptophan for the valine at amino acid 44 (peptide 31–50v44w) to increase its interaction with bacterial surfaces also increased its antimicrobial activity. Moreover, when synthesized with d- rather than l-type amino acids, this peptide (d-31– 50v44w) became less susceptible to degradation by proteases and more effective in killing P. acnes. Granulysin peptides were bactericidal, demonstrating an advantage over standard bacteriostatic antibiotics in their control of P. acnes. Moreover, peptide d-31–50v44w killed P. acnes in isolated human microcomedone preparations. Importantly, peptides 31–50, 31–50v44w, and d-31–50v44w also have potential anti-inflammatory effects, as demonstrated by suppression of P. acnes-stimulated cytokine release. Taken together, these data suggest that granulysin peptides may be useful as topical therapeutic agents, providing alternatives to current acne therapies. PMID:16098035

  12. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (e.g., Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate its feasibility.

  13. Spherical Primary Optical Telescope (SPOT): An Architecture Demonstration for Cost-effective Large Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee; Hagopian, John; Budinoff, Jason; Dean, Bruce; Howard, Joe

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes efforts underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to demonstrate a new type of space telescope architecture that builds on the rigid, segmented telescope heritage of the James Webb Space Telescope but that solves several key challenges for future space telescopes. The architecture is based on a cost-effective segmented spherical primary mirror combined with a unique wavefront sensing and control system that allows for continuous phasing of the primary mirror. The segmented spherical primary allows for cost-effective 3-meter class (eg, Midex and Discovery) missions as well as enables 30-meter telescope solutions that can be manufactured in a reasonable amount of time and for a reasonable amount of money. The continuous wavefront sensing and control architecture enables missions in low-earth-orbit and missions that do not require expensive stable structures and thermal control systems. For the 30-meter class applications, the paper discusses considerations for assembling and testing the telescopes in space. The paper also summarizes the scientific and technological roadmap for the architecture and also gives an overview of technology development, design studies, and testbed activities underway to demonstrate it s feasibility.

  14. Demonstration of the effectiveness and acceptability of self-study module use in residency education.

    PubMed

    Yeazel, Mark W; Center, Bruce A

    2004-02-01

    Educators face increasing challenges to promote lifelong learning skills, to include new content areas in an already full curriculum and to maximize limited resources for curriculum implementation. Self-study modules (hereafter modules) offer potential solutions. Three modules on preventive medicine topics were evaluated in Family Medicine residencies. A retrospective pre-/post-test of a resident's ability to meet the module's objectives was used for evaluation. Additionally, residents rated the appropriateness and acceptability of the modules, their preference for 13 methods of learning, and completed a multiple-choice knowledge test. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of modules at multiple levels of evaluation in accordance with a modified version of Kirkpatrick's hierarchy of levels of evaluation. Residents found the modules to be acceptable and useful. Significant gains were seen in residents' abilities to meet objectives. The multiple-choice knowledge test was used to demonstrate mastery of the module materials at an appropriate performance level for future practitioners. Module use was in the top five choices of preferred learning methods. No correlation was seen between residents' preference for learning using modules and educational outcomes. Modules are an effective and acceptable learning method for residents. Even those who prefer other learning methods show improved educational outcomes.

  15. Hepatitis B: progress in understanding chronicity, the innate immune response, and cccDNA protection

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Tomoe; Takeda, Rei; Izumi, Takaaki; Umumura, Machiko; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious health threat around the world. Despite the availability of an effective hepatitis B vaccine, the number of HBV carriers is estimated to be as high as 240 million worldwide. Global mortality due to HBV-related liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be as high as 1 million deaths per year. HBV is transmitted via blood and body fluids, and is much more infectious than both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus. While HBV infection exhibits a variety of clinical presentations, even asymptomatic carriers can develop HCC without liver fibrosis. Current therapeutic options against HBV include pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), with clinical studies showing a significant association between loss of HBV DNA and a decrease in cancer risk. However, the ultimate goal of HBV therapy is a complete cure of HBV—including the elimination of covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA)—in order to further decrease the risk of developing HCC. The development of hepatitis B is associated with the host immune response to virus-infected hepatocytes, as HBV is understood to lack direct cytotoxicity. While HBV-specific CD8+ T cells are thus involved in hepatitis development, they also play an important role in eliminating HBV infection. Indeed, the innate immune response during the initial phase of HBV infection is essential to the induction of acquired immunity. However, the innate immune response to HBV infection, including the roles of specific immunocompetent cells and associated molecules, is not well understood. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the mechanisms underlying hepatitis development by HBV infection. We also address the mechanisms by which HBV protects cccDNA. PMID:27761441

  16. Orally administered whole egg demonstrates antidepressant-like effects in the forced swimming test on rats.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Ogino, Yumi; Yoshida, Junki; Tomonaga, Shozo; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have reported that vegetarian diets are associated with a higher prevalence of major depression. Therefore, we hypothesised that the consumption of animal products, especially eggs, may have positive effects on mental health, especially on major depression, because a previous study reported that egg consumption produces numerous beneficial effects in humans. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic whole-egg treatment on depression-like behaviours in Wistar rats, a control strain, and Wistar Kyoto rats, an animal model of depression. In both the rats, either whole-egg solution (5 ml/kg) or distilled water (5 ml/kg) was orally administrated for 35 days. During these periods, the open-field test (OFT) was conducted on the 21st day, and a forced swimming test (FST) was enforced on the 27th and 28th days. On the 36th day, the plasma and brain were collected. Chronic whole-egg treatment did not affect line crossing in the OFT, whereas it reduced the total duration of immobility in the FST on both strains. Furthermore, interestingly, the results indicated the possibility that whole-egg treatment elevated the incorporation of tryptophan into the brain, and the tryptophan concentration in the prefrontal cortex was actually increased by the treatment. This study demonstrated that whole-egg treatment exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the FST. It is suggested that whole egg may be an excellent food for preventing and alleviating the conditions of major depression.

  17. Direct Demonstration of the Concept of Unrestricted Effective-Medium Approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Dlugach, Zhanna M.; Zakharova, Nadezhda T.

    2014-01-01

    The modified unrestricted effective-medium refractive index is defined as one that yields accurate values of a representative set of far-field scattering characteristics (including the scattering matrix) for an object made of randomly heterogeneous materials. We validate the concept of the modified unrestricted effective-medium refractive index by comparing numerically exact superposition T-matrix results for a spherical host randomly filled with a large number of identical small inclusions and Lorenz-Mie results for a homogeneous spherical counterpart. A remarkable quantitative agreement between the superposition T-matrix and Lorenz-Mie scattering matrices over the entire range of scattering angles demonstrates unequivocally that the modified unrestricted effective-medium refractive index is a sound (albeit still phenomenological) concept provided that the size parameter of the inclusions is sufficiently small and their number is sufficiently large. Furthermore, it appears that in cases when the concept of the modified unrestricted effective-medium refractive index works, its actual value is close to that predicted by the Maxwell-Garnett mixing rule.

  18. Demonstrating Masculinity” Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lisco, Claire G.; Leone, Ruschelle M.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men’s history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men’s attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men’s adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed. PMID:26456996

  19. "Demonstrating Masculinity" Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations which are intended for chemistry college students. These demonstrations are: (1) enhancement of concentration quenching by micelles; and (2) the thermite lecture demonstration. (HM)

  4. Demonstration of large field effect in topological insulator films via a high-κ back gate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C. Y.; Lin, H. Y.; Yang, S. R.; Chen, K. H. M.; Kwo, J. E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw; Lin, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Young, L. B.; Cheng, C. K.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Hong, M. E-mail: raynien@phys.nthu.edu.tw; Tseng, S. C.

    2016-05-16

    The spintronics applications long anticipated for topological insulators (TIs) has been hampered due to the presence of high density intrinsic defects in the bulk states. In this work we demonstrate the back-gating effect on TIs by integrating Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films 6–10 quintuple layer (QL) thick with amorphous high-κ oxides of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Large gating effect of tuning the Fermi level E{sub F} to very close to the band gap was observed, with an applied bias of an order of magnitude smaller than those of the SiO{sub 2} back gate, and the modulation of film resistance can reach as high as 1200%. The dependence of the gating effect on the TI film thickness was investigated, and ΔN{sub 2D}/ΔV{sub g} varies with TI film thickness as ∼t{sup −0.75}. To enhance the gating effect, a Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer thickness 4 nm was inserted into Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate stack to increase the total κ value to 13.2. A 1.4 times stronger gating effect is observed, and the increment of induced carrier numbers is in good agreement with additional charges accumulated in the higher κ oxides. Moreover, we have reduced the intrinsic carrier concentration in the TI film by doping Te to Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} to form Bi{sub 2}Te{sub x}Se{sub 1−x}. The observation of a mixed state of ambipolar field that both electrons and holes are present indicates that we have tuned the E{sub F} very close to the Dirac Point. These results have demonstrated that our capability of gating TIs with high-κ back gate to pave the way to spin devices of tunable E{sub F} for dissipationless spintronics based on well-established semiconductor technology.

  5. Demonstrating an Effective Marine Biodiversity Observation Network in the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) is a transition zone characterized by high species and habitat diversity and strong environmental gradients within a relatively small area where cold- and warm-water species found from Baja to the Bering Sea coexist. These characteristics make SBC an ideal setting for our demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (BON) project that integrates biological levels from genes to habitats and links biodiversity observations to environmental forcing and biogeography. SBC BON is building a comprehensive demonstration system that includes representation of all levels of biotic diversity, key new tools to expand the scales of present observation, and a data management network to integrate new and existing data sources. Our system will be scalable to expand into a full regional Marine BON, and the methods and decision support tools we develop will be transferable to other regions. Incorporating a broad set of habitats including nearshore coast, continental shelf, and pelagic, and taxonomic breadth from microbes to whales will facilitate this transferability. The Santa Barbara Channel marine BON has three broad objectives: 1. Integrate biodiversity data to enable inferences about regional biodiversity 2. Develop advanced methods in optical and acoustic imaging and genomics for monitoring biodiversity in partnership with ongoing monitoring and research programs to begin filling the gaping gaps in our knowledge. 3. Implement a tradeoff framework that optimizes allocation of sampling effort. Here we discuss our progress towards these goals and challenges in developing an effective MBON.

  6. Quantitative and empirical demonstration of the Matthew effect in a study of career longevity

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Jung, Woo-Sung; Yang, Jae-Suk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    The Matthew effect refers to the adage written some two-thousand years ago in the Gospel of St. Matthew: “For to all those who have, more will be given.” Even two millennia later, this idiom is used by sociologists to qualitatively describe the dynamics of individual progress and the interplay between status and reward. Quantitative studies of professional careers are traditionally limited by the difficulty in measuring progress and the lack of data on individual careers. However, in some professions, there are well-defined metrics that quantify career longevity, success, and prowess, which together contribute to the overall success rating for an individual employee. Here we demonstrate testable evidence of the age-old Matthew “rich get richer” effect, wherein the longevity and past success of an individual lead to a cumulative advantage in further developing his or her career. We develop an exactly solvable stochastic career progress model that quantitatively incorporates the Matthew effect and validate our model predictions for several competitive professions. We test our model on the careers of 400,000 scientists using data from six high-impact journals and further confirm our findings by testing the model on the careers of more than 20,000 athletes in four sports leagues. Our model highlights the importance of early career development, showing that many careers are stunted by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. PMID:21173276

  7. Combined inhibition of morphogen pathways demonstrates additive antifibrotic effects and improved tolerability.

    PubMed

    Distler, Alfiya; Lang, Veronika; Del Vecchio, Tina; Huang, Jingang; Zhang, Yun; Beyer, Christian; Lin, Neng-Yu; Palumbo-Zerr, Katrin; Distler, Oliver; Schett, Georg; Distler, Jörg Hw

    2014-06-01

    The morphogen pathways Hedgehog, Wnt and Notch are attractive targets for antifibrotic therapies in systemic sclerosis. Interference with stem cell regeneration, however, may complicate the use of morphogen pathway inhibitors. We therefore tested the hypothesis that combination therapies with low doses of Hedgehog, Wnt and Notch inhibitors maybe safe and effective for the treatment of fibrosis. Skin fibrosis was induced by bleomycin and by overexpression of a constitutively active TGF-β receptor type I. Adverse events were assessed by clinical monitoring, pathological evaluation and quantification of Lgr5-positive intestinal stem cells. Inhibition of Hedgehog, Wnt and Notch signalling dose-dependently ameliorated bleomycin-induced and active TGF-β receptor type I-induced fibrosis. Combination therapies with low doses of Hedgehog/Wnt inhibitors or Hedgehog/Notch inhibitors demonstrated additive antifibrotic effects in preventive as well as in therapeutic regimes. Combination therapies were well tolerated. In contrast with high dose monotherapies, combination therapies did not reduce the number of Lgr5 positive intestinal stem cells. Combined inhibition of morphogen pathways exerts additive antifibrotic effects. Combination therapies are well tolerated and, in contrast to high dose monotherapies, may not impair stem cell renewal. Combined targeting of morphogen pathways may thus help to overcome dose-limiting toxicity of Hedgehog, Wnt and Notch signalling.

  8. Demonstration of hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Hyun Kook

    2016-06-01

    The steady scaling-down of semiconductor device for improving performance has been the most important issue among researchers. Recently, as low-power consumption becomes one of the most important requirements, there have been many researches about novel devices for low-power consumption. Though scaling supply voltage is the most effective way for low-power consumption, performance degradation is occurred for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) when supply voltage is reduced because subthreshold swing (SS) of MOSFETs cannot be lower than 60 mV/dec. Thus, in this thesis, hetero-gate-dielectric tunneling field-effect transistors (HG TFETs) are investigated as one of the most promising alternatives to MOSFETs. By replacing source-side gate insulator with a high- k material, HG TFETs show higher on-current, suppressed ambipolar current and lower SS than conventional TFETs. Device design optimization through simulation was performed and fabrication based on simulation demonstrated that performance of HG TFETs were better than that of conventional TFETs. Especially, enlargement of gate insulator thickness while etching gate insulator at the source side was improved by introducing HF vapor etch process. In addition, the proposed HG TFETs showed higher performance than our previous results by changing structure of sidewall spacer by high- k etching process.

  9. Noninvasive in vivo model demonstrating the effects of autonomic innervation on pancreatic islet function

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Speier, Stephan; Molano, Ruth Damaris; Formoso, Alexander; Gans, Itai; Abdulreda, Midhat H.; Cabrera, Over; Molina, Judith; Fachado, Alberto; Ricordi, Camillo; Leibiger, Ingo; Pileggi, Antonello; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system is thought to modulate blood glucose homeostasis by regulating endocrine cell activity in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The role of islet innervation, however, has remained elusive because the direct effects of autonomic nervous input on islet cell physiology cannot be studied in the pancreas. Here, we used an in vivo model to study the role of islet nervous input in glucose homeostasis. We transplanted islets into the anterior chamber of the eye and found that islet grafts became densely innervated by the rich parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous supply of the iris. Parasympathetic innervation was imaged intravitally by using transgenic mice expressing GFP in cholinergic axons. To manipulate selectively the islet nervous input, we increased the ambient illumination to increase the parasympathetic input to the islet grafts via the pupillary light reflex. This reduced fasting glycemia and improved glucose tolerance. These effects could be blocked by topical application of the muscarinic antagonist atropine to the eye, indicating that local cholinergic innervation had a direct effect on islet function in vivo. By using this approach, we found that parasympathetic innervation influences islet function in C57BL/6 mice but not in 129X1 mice, which reflected differences in innervation densities and may explain major strain differences in glucose homeostasis. This study directly demonstrates that autonomic axons innervating the islet modulate glucose homeostasis. PMID:23236142

  10. Demonstration Results on the Effects of Mercury Speciation on the Stabilization of Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, T.B.; Hulet, G.A.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1999-06-01

    Mercury-contaminated wastes are currently being stored at approximately 19 Department of Energy sites, the volume of which is estimated to be about 16m(sup)3. These wastes exist in various forms including soil, sludges, and debris, which present a particular challenge regarding possible mercury stabilization methods. This reports provides the test results of three vendors, Allied Technology Group, IT Corporation, and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., that demonstrate the effects of mercury speciation on the stabilization of the mercury wastes. Mercury present in concentrations that exceed 260 parts per million must be removed by extraction methods and requires stabilization to ensure that the final wasteforms leach less than 0.2mg/L of mercury by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure or 0.025 mg/L using the Universal Treatment Standard.

  11. Case report demonstrating effectiveness of sorafenib in multiple lung and bone metastases of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    HOSHI, MANABU; OEBISU, NAOTO; TAKADA, JUN; IWAI, TDASHI; NAKAMURA, HIROAKI

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents the case of a 59-year-old male with advanced-stage renal cell carcinoma and bone metastases in the proximal femur and ilium (cT3aN3M1; stage IV). Resection of the primary renal cell cancer and palliative surgery with a γ-nail for an impending fracture of the right proximal femur were performed, followed by radiotherapy. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor that blocks the raf and tyrosine kinases of the vascular endothelial and platelet-derived growth factor receptors, was administered for 9 months, resulting in a marked improvement in the metastatic ilium and a reduction in the extent of the lung metastases. The patient suffered minor adverse effects, including a skin rash and mild diarrhea, but remained alive at the time of follow-up at 36 months post-surgery. Sorafenib demonstrated efficacy against the bone metastasis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:25663922

  12. Measurements of Forward Flight Effects on the Advanced Ducted Propulsion Demonstrator Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. C.; Soderman, P. T.; Larkin, M.; Bock, L.; Olson, Lawrence (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The performance of the Pratt & Whitney Advanced Ducted Propulsion (ADP) UHB concept has been recently evaluated with studies of a 17 in. diameter fan simulator. Following the model scale tests, a 118 in. diameter demonstrator was tested at the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. The 18 blade fan was driven by the low compressor shaft of a PW2037 core through a reduction gear system fabricated by Fiat with approximately 1:3.7 reduction ratio. ne variable pitch fan was hydraulically actuated with settings for take-off, cruise, feather, and reverse thrust. The low-pressure turbine was built by MTU to provide higher shaft power in comparison with the standard PW2037. The demonstrator was provided with 45 vanes located 2.6 fan chords downstream of the rotor, and 10 case struts approximately 1 fan chord downstream of the vanes. The inlet, mid-duct, and exhaust linings were acoustically treated. Acoustic surveys were taken in the for-ward thrust mode for fan speeds of 898, 1120, 1205, and 1302 R.P.M., and at tunnel speeds of 25, 50, 100, and 140 kts. The lowest speed was achieved with the wind tunnel fans at flat pitch, but with the engine pumping the test section Microphone signals were recorded for 30 seconds at 5 deg. increments. These measurements will be used to assess the effects of forward speed on UHB engines, to compare these effects with the corresponding characteristics of conventional bypass ratio engines, and to discuss the various aspects of testing large engines in the wind tunnel.

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  16. The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing: no demonstrable effect on already falling injury rates following intensive community and workplace intervention.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L; Deb, Pooja; Bertera, Robert; Ford, Lynda

    2009-10-01

    The Fort McMurray Demonstration Project in Social Marketing attempted to achieve mutually reinforcing effects from thematically coordinated educational and awareness efforts in the community as a whole and in the workplace and the inclusion of occupational safety within the framework of a community health promotion project. The study community was Fort McMurray, a small, industrial city in northern Alberta. The Mistahiai Health Region, several hundred kilometers to the west and also dominated by one city, Grande Prairie, served as the reference community. The intervention was based on media and events staged at public events, with supporting educational activities in schools and the community. It relied heavily on community-based partners and volunteers. Data on healthcare utilization of selected preventable injuries were obtained from Alberta Health for the time period 1990-1996 for the Regional Health Authorities of Northern Lights, where the only large population centre is Fort McMurray, and Mistahia. Age-adjusted aggregate injury rates were analyzed for evidence of an effect of the intervention. Severity was measured by proxy, using the number of diagnostic claims submitted for reimbursement for medical services in a given year. The communities differed in age-specific injury rates, with Fort McMurray showing higher rates for residents aged less than 55. Young adults and older adolescents showed higher levels of severity. Injury rates fell substantially and at similar rates in both communities over the five-year period. However, in both communities injury rates were already falling before the intervention in Fort McMurray began and continued to fall at about the same rate, slowing toward the end of the period. No evidence was found for an effect of the Project or for acceleration of the reduction in injury frequency in the intervention area. Over the period, fewer medical services were delivered in office settings and more in emergency rooms, in both

  17. ESWT and alendronate sodium demonstrate equal protective effects in osteoarthritis of the knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ching-Jen; Chou, Wen-Yi; Hsu, Shan-Ling; Huang, Chien-Yiu; Cheng, Jai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and alendronate sodium (alendronate) in osteoarthritis (OA) of rat knees. The control group was subjected to a sham surgery and did not receive either ESWT or alendronate treatment. The OA group underwent anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and medial meniscectomy (MM) surgery and did not receive either ESWT or alendronate. The ESWT group underwent ACLT and MM surgery and received ESWT after the surgery. The alendronate group received alendronate after ACLT and MM surgery. The evaluations included radiograph, bone mineral density (BMD), serum C-telopeptide collagen II (CTX-II), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP), alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. Radiographs at 12 weeks showed pronounced OA changes in the OA group. The BMD values, CTX-II, COMP, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin showed no significant difference between ESWT and alendronate groups. In histopathology, the Mankin and Safranin O scores significantly increased in the OA, ESWT and alendronate groups, but without any significant difference between the ESWT and alendronate groups. In immunohistochemical analysis, the von Willebrand factor (vWF), vascular endothelial factor (VEGF), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), and osteocalcin expressions in articular cartilage and subchondral bone showed a significant decrease in the OA group, but no difference was noted between the ESWT and alendronate groups. In conclusion, ESWT and alendronate sodium demonstrate equal protective effects from developing osteoarthritis of the knee in rats.

  18. The discovery of the Mach reflection effect and its demonstration in an auditorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krehl, P.; van der Geest, M.

    1991-03-01

    This paper examines the historical background leading to the discovery of the Mach reflection effect and applies original documents from Mach's residue which are kept in the archives of the Ernst-Mach-Institut in Freiburg. Two experimental setups for the generation and demonstration of the Mach reflection effect, incorporating an overhead projector, are described: (a) Mach's historic mechanical shock wave reflection and interaction experiments with soot covered glass plates, performed in 1875. The Mach triple points sharply erase the soot which results in a residual picture of funnel-shaped V-formations. The head-on collision of two shock waves is marked as a narrow line of piled-up soot. (b) CalTech's hydraulic jump reflection experiments in a shallow ripple tank, performed during World War II. Regular reflection and its transition into a Mach reflection wave. Using a slightly inclined tank and providing a “shoreline” in the middle of the tank, Mach stem propagation slows down to zero when hitting the shore line and, therefore, can be observed “live” without the use of a slow motion technique.

  19. Pilot study demonstrating effectiveness of targeted education to improve informed consent understanding in AIDS clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Sohini; Lo, Bernard; Strauss, Ronald P; Eron, Joseph; Gifford, Allen L

    2011-11-01

    Assessing and improving informed consent understanding is equally important as obtaining consent from participants in clinical trial research, but developing interventions to target gaps in participants' informed consent understanding remains a challenge. We used a randomized controlled study design to pilot test an educational intervention to improve actual informed consent understanding of new enrollees in the Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG). Questionnaires were administered to 24 enrollees to assess their baseline understanding on eight elements of informed consent associated with AIDS clinical trials. Enrollees who scored 18/21(85%) or less were randomly assigned to in-person, targeted education (intervention), or delayed education (control). Two follow-up assessments were administered. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to determine intervention effectiveness in improving actual informed consent understanding over time. Actual understanding improved at the immediate post-intervention time point with a significant score difference of 2.5 when comparing the intervention and delayed groups. In addition, there was a significant score difference of 3.2 when comparing baseline to three-month follow-up for the two groups, suggesting a statistically significant intervention effect to improve actual understanding of the basic elements of informed consent. The findings demonstrated that one-time targeted education can improve actual informed consent understanding one week after the intervention, but retention of these concepts may require periodic monitoring to ensure comprehension throughout the course of a clinical trial.

  20. Mechanical evaluation by patient-specific finite element analyses demonstrates therapeutic effects for osteoporotic vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Tawara, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Jiro; Murakami, Hideki; Kawahara, Norio; Oda, Juhachi; Tomita, Katsuro

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis can lead to bone compressive fractures in the lower lumbar vertebrae. In order to assess the recovery of vertebral strength during drug treatment for osteoporosis, it is necessary not only to measure the bone mass but also to perform patient-specific mechanical analyses, since the strength of osteoporotic vertebrae is strongly dependent on patient-specific factors, such as bone shape and bone density distribution in cancellous bone, which are related to stress distribution in the vertebrae. In the present study, patient-specific general (not voxel) finite element analyses of osteoporotic vertebrae during drug treatment were performed over time. We compared changes in bone density and compressive principal strain distribution in a relative manner using models for the first lumbar vertebra based on computer tomography images of four patients at three time points (before therapy, and after 6 and 12 months of therapy). The patient-specific mechanical analyses indicated that increases in bone density and decreases in compressive principal strain were significant in some osteoporotic vertebrae. The data suggested that the vertebrae were strengthened structurally and the drug treatment was effective in preventing compression fractures. The effectiveness of patient-specific mechanical analyses for providing useful and important information for the prognosis of osteoporosis is demonstrated.

  1. Ex vivo demonstration of a synergistic effect of Adapalene and benzoyl peroxide on inflammatory acne lesions.

    PubMed

    Zuliani, Thomas; Khammari, Amir; Chaussy, Hélène; Knol, Anne Chantal; Dréno, Brigitte

    2011-10-01

    Acne is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicle. Thanks to its ability to reduce both comedones and inflammatory lesions, the association of a retinoid and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) is now recommended for the treatment of acne. However, the mechanisms of action of this combined therapy on inflammatory acne lesions are not well understood. In an ex vivo immunohistochemistry study, we investigated the potential synergistic modulator effect of Adapalene associated with BPO on keratinocytes proliferation/differentiation and innate immunity in inflammatory acne lesions. We demonstrated that proliferation (Ki-67), adhesion/differentiation (integrin α(2), α(3) and α(6)) and innate immunity (TLR-2, β-defensin 4, IL-8) markers are overexpressed in inflammatory acne skin compared with uninvolved acne skin. Association of Adapalene and BPO significantly decreased expression of Ki67, α(2) and α(6) integrins, TLR-2, β-defensin 4 and IL-8 in inflammatory acne skin, whereas single treatments with Adapalene or BPO alone were less effective. These results contribute to explain the comedolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of this combined therapy observed in recent clinical trials. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. CubeSat Measurement and Demonstration of Coulomb Drag Effect for Deorbiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-08-01

    Deorbiting satellites by passive or active electrodynamic tether Lorentz force effect is well known. Probably less well known is that a charged conducting tether also interacts with the streaming ionospheric plasma by electrostatic Coulomb drag. Especially for the case of small satellites deorbited by thin tethers, the Coulomb drag effect can be larger than the Lorentz force effect. When a tether is optimised for Coulomb drag, the goal is only to keep it charged. The fact that the charged tether gathers current is then a side effect which can be minimised by using negative voltage and by making the tether very thin. Using negative voltage in most cases implies that one can use the satellite's conducting surface as the other electrode so that no electron or ion emitter is needed on the spacecraft for closing the circuit. Thinness of the tether is a large benefit not only from the mass saving and power consumption minimisation points of view, but also because a sufficiently thin tether (made e.g. four 25-50 micrometre thin aluminium wires) poses nearly no threat to other space assets in the even of an unwanted collision. ESTCube-1 is an Estonian 1U CubeSat which is scheduled for Vega launch in May 2013 to 680 km polar orbit. The payload of ESTCube-1 is a 10 m long Heytether made of 25-50 aluminium wires which can be charged to plus orminus 500 V by onboard voltage sources and electron gun. The mission of ESTCube-1 is to demonstrate deployment of very thin multiline (and thus micrometeoroid tolerant) tether and to measure the Coulomb drag effect on the charged tether by ionospheric plasma ram flow. The Coulomb drag has not been measured before and besides useful for deorbiting the effect can also be used to propel interplanetary spacecraft by the fast moving solar wind plasma stream. The measurement of the micronewton scale force is carried out by turning the voltage on and off in a synchronous way with the satellite's rotation and by measuring the cumulative change

  3. Oregano demonstrates distinct tumour-suppressive effects in the breast carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Kubatka, Peter; Kello, Martin; Kajo, Karol; Kruzliak, Peter; Výbohová, Desanka; Mojžiš, Ján; Adamkov, Marián; Fialová, Silvia; Veizerová, Lucia; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Statelová, Dagmar; Grančai, Daniel; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-04-01

    There has been a considerable interest in the identification of natural plant foods for developing effective agents against cancer. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of oregano in the in vivo and in vitro breast cancer model were evaluated. Lyophilized oregano (ORE) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration. At autopsy, mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Moreover, in vitro evaluation in MCF-7 cells was carried out. Low-dose ORE suppressed tumour frequency by 55.5 %, tumour incidence by 44 %, and tumour volume by 44.5 % compared to control animals. Analysis of rat tumour cells showed Ki67, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase after low-dose ORE treatment. High-dose ORE lengthened tumour latency by 12.5 days; moreover, Bcl-2, VEGFR-2, CD24, and EpCAM expression decrease and caspase-3 expression increase in carcinoma cells were observed. Histopathological analysis revealed a decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas in both treated groups. In vitro studies showed that ORE decreased survival and proliferation of MCF-7 cells. In ORE-treated MCF-7 cells, an increase in cells expressing sub-G 0/G 1 DNA content and an increase in the percentage of annexin V/PI positive MCF-7 cells were observed. In vitro, both caspase-dependent and possible non-caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways were found. The deactivation of anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2, a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, and the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were observed in the ORE-treated MCF-7 cells. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, a distinct tumour-suppressive effect of oregano in the breast cancer model.

  4. Fruit peel polyphenols demonstrate substantial anti-tumour effects in the model of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kubatka, Peter; Kapinová, Andrea; Kello, Martin; Kruzliak, Peter; Kajo, Karol; Výbohová, Desanka; Mahmood, Silvia; Murin, Radovan; Viera, Tischlerová; Mojžiš, Ján; Zulli, Anthony; Péč, Martin; Adamkov, Marián; Kassayová, Monika; Bojková, Bianka; Stollárová, Nadežda; Dobrota, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely correlated with cancer; thus, it is proposed that an extract of phytochemicals as present in whole fruits, vegetables, or grains may have anti-carcinogenic properties. Thus, the anti-tumour effects of fruit peel polyphenols (Flavin7) in the chemoprevention of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats were evaluated. Lyophilized substance of Flavin7 (F7) was administered at two concentrations of 0.3 and 3 % through diet. The experiment was terminated 14 weeks after carcinogen administration, and mammary tumours were removed and prepared for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, apoptosis and proliferation after F7 treatment in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells were performed. High-dose F7 suppressed tumour frequency by 58 % (P < 0.001), tumour incidence by 24 % (P < 0.05), and lengthened latency by 8 days (P > 0.05) in comparison with the control rats, whereas lower dose of F7 was less effective. Histopathological analysis of tumours showed significant decrease in the ratio of high-/low-grade carcinomas after high-dose F7 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis of rat carcinoma cells in vivo found a significant increase in caspase-3 expression and significant decrease in Bcl-2, Ki67, and VEGFR-2 expression in the high-dose group. Both doses demonstrated significant positive effects on plasma lipid metabolism in rats. F7 significantly decreased survival of MCF-7 cells in vitro in MTT assay by dose- and time-dependent manner compared to control. F7 prevented cell cycle progression by significant enrichment in G1 cell populations. Incubation with F7 showed significant increase in the percentage of annexin V-/PI-positive MCF-7 cells and DNA fragmentation. Our results reveal a substantial tumour-suppressive effect of F7 in the breast cancer model. We propose that the effects of phytochemicals present in this fruit extract are

  5. Effectiveness of a publicly-funded demonstration program to promote management of dryland salinity.

    PubMed

    Robertson, M J; Measham, T G; Batchelor, G; George, R; Kingwell, R; Hosking, K

    2009-07-01

    Community and catchment-based approaches to salinity management continue to attract interest in Australia. In one such approach, Catchment Demonstration Initiative (CDI) projects were established by the Western Australian (WA) Government in 2000 for targeted investment in large-scale catchment-based demonstrations of integrated salinity management practices. The aim was to promote a process for technically-informed salinity management by landholders. This paper offers an evaluation of the effectiveness of one CDI project in the central wheatbelt of WA, covering issues including: its role in fostering adoption of salinity management options, the role of research and the technical requirements for design and implementation of on-ground works, the role of monitoring and evaluation, the identification and measurement of public and private benefits, comparison and identification of the place and value of plant-based and engineering-based options, reliance on social processes and impacts of constraints on capacity, management of governance and administration requirements and an appreciation of the value of group-based approaches. A number of factors may reduce the effectiveness of CDI-type approaches in facilitating landholder action to address salinity, many of these are socially-based. Such approaches can create considerable demands on landholders, can be expensive (because of the planning and accountability required) on the basis of dollars per hectare impacted, and can be difficult to garner ownership from all involved. An additional problem could be that few community groups would have the capacity to run such programs and disseminate the new knowledge so that the CDI-type projects can impact outside the focus catchment. In common with many publicly-funded approaches to salinity, we found that direct benefits on public assets are smaller than planned and that results from science-based requirements of monitoring and evaluation have long lead times, causing farmers

  6. Demonstration of high current carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors at industrially relevant voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Mitchell

    The display market is presently dominated by the active matrix liquid crystal display (LCD). However, the active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display is argued to become the successor to the LCD, and is already beginning its way into the market, mainly in small size displays. But, for AMOLED technology to become comparable in market share to LCD, larger size displays must become available at a competitive price with their LCD counterparts. A major issue preventing low-cost large AMOLED displays is the thin-film transistor (TFT) technology. Unlike the voltage driven LCD, the OLEDs in the AMOLED display are current driven. Because of this, the mature amorphous silicon TFT backplane technology used in the LCD must be upgraded to a material possessing a higher mobility. Polycrystalline silicon and transparent oxide TFT technologies are being considered to fill this need. But these technologies bring with them significant manufacturing complexity and cost concerns. Carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) offer a unique solution to this problem (now known as the AMOLED backplane problem). The CN-VFET allows the use of organic semiconductors to be used for the semiconductor layer. Organics are known for their low-cost large area processing compatibility. Although the mobility of the best organics is only comparable to that of amorphous silicon, the CN-VFET makes up for this by orienting the channel vertically, as opposed to horizontally (like in conventional TFTs). This allows the CN-VFET to achieve sub-micron channel lengths without expensive high resolution patterning. Additionally, because the CN-VFET can be easily converted into a light emitting transistor (called the carbon nanotube enabled vertical organic light emitting transistor---CN-VOLET) by essentially stacking an OLED on top of the CN-VFET, more potential benefits can be realized. These potential benefits include, increased aperture ratio, increased OLED

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  9. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  13. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  14. Demonstrating Effective In Situ Filtration of Pathogens in Saturated Environments: Laboratory and Field Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelko, M. B.

    2009-05-01

    As both water treatment costs and demands for potable water increase, many municipalities around the world are considering low-cost, effective treatment technologies such as riverbank filtration (RBF), which involves situating municipal ground water wells in close proximity to surface water bodies such as rivers to induce conditions of downward infiltration from the river across part or all of the riverbed in the vicinity of the well. A variety of frameworks in various jurisdictions have been proposed for assessing groundwater under the direct influence of surface water (GWUDI/GUDI) for the ultimate purposes of determining appropriate levels of subsequent treatment or source water protection. While it is relatively easy to observe deterioration of production well water quality and to require more extensive treatment, relying on the subsurface for effective in situ filtration of compounds of public health significance (e.g., pathogens) necessarily requires more extensive demonstration. This work details and summarizes unpublished work from four separate studies focused on improving the water industry's capacity to assess the pathogen removal efficacy of in situ filtration processes such as RBF. Both laboratory and field studies investigating the transport of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Bacillus subtilis spores, and Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in saturated sandy environments have indicated that experimental conditions (e.g., microorganism densities present during the studies) can impact transport outcomes by over 3-log. Laboratory experiments have also indicated that experimental configuration (e.g., column orientation) can significantly impact pathogen transport. Accordingly, laboratory and field data must be carefully examined when outcomes are extrapolated for the purpose of policy development.

  15. Effect of science magic applied in interactive lecture demonstrations on conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufiq, Muhammad; Suhandi, Andi; Liliawati, Winny

    2017-08-01

    Research about the application of science magic-assisting Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD) has been conducted. This research is aimed at providing description about the comparison of the improvement of the conceptual understanding of lesson on pressure between students who receive physics lesson through science magic-assisting ILD and students who receive physics lesson through ILD without science magic. This research used a quasi-experiment methods with Control Group Pretest-Posttest Design. The subject of the research is all students of class VIII in one of MTs (Islamic junior high school) in Pekalongan. Research samples were selected using random sampling technique. Data about students' conceptual understanding was collected using test instrument of conceptual understanding in the form of multiple choices. N-gain average calculation was performed in order to determine the improvement of students' conceptual understanding. The result of the research shows that conceptual understanding of students on lesson about pressure who received lesson with ILD using science magic <0.44> is higher than students who received lesson with ILD without science magic <0.25>. Therefore, the conclusion is that the application of science magic ILD is more effective to improve the conceptual understanding of lesson on pressure.

  16. Direct effects of ethane dimethanesulphonate on epididymal function in adult rats. An in vitro demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Klinefelter, G.L.; Roberts, N.L.; Suarez, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    It was recently demonstrated that the Leydig cell toxicant ethane dimethanesulphonate (EDS) produces multiple effects on the epididymis after a single in vivo exposure. To determine whether any of the perturbations were mediated by a direct action of the compound, we used a novel system for the coculture of epididymal epithelial cells and sperm from the caput epididymidis. This system maintains the morphologic integrity and cell polarity of the epididymal epithelial cells before and during coculture, and the sperm recovered after coculture have intact plasma and acrosomal membranes. In addition, several functions required for epididymal sperm maturation are expressed, including the secretion of protein by the epididymal epithelium, the association of secreted protein with the plasma membrane of cocultured sperm, and the acquisition of progressive motility by cocultured sperm. In vitro exposure of epididymal epithelial cells and sperm to EDS results in a significant decline in protein secretion by the epithelial cells during coculture, and in particular, a dose-dependent decline in a 36- to 38-kd protein (PI 4.0 to 4.5) and a 34- to 36-kd protein (PI 4.5 to 5.0). Moreover, these and other proteins are not recovered from the sperm membrane of cocultured sperm after EDS treatment. Finally, EDS results in a dose-dependent decline in the percentage of both motile and progressively motile sperm recovered after coculture compared with that of sperm from untreated cocultures.

  17. Dynamic Memory Cells Using MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors Demonstrating Femtoampere Leakage Currents.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Chaitanya U; Xu, Weichao; Su, Yang; Robbins, Matthew C; Kim, Chris H; Koester, Steven J

    2016-09-27

    Two-dimensional semiconductors such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of tremendous interest for scaled logic and memory applications. One of the most promising TMDs for scaled transistors is molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and several recent reports have shown excellent performance and scalability for MoS2 MOSFETs. An often overlooked feature of MoS2 is that its wide band gap (1.8 eV in monolayer) and high effective masses should lead to extremely low off-state leakage currents. These features could be extremely important for dynamic memory applications where the refresh rate is the primary factor affecting the power consumption. Theoretical predictions suggest that leakage currents in the 10(-18) to 10(-15) A/μm range could be possible, even in scaled transistor geometries. Here, we demonstrate the operation of one- and two-transistor dynamic memory circuits using MoS2 MOSFETs. We characterize the retention times in these circuits and show that the two-transistor memory cell reveals MoS2 MOSFETs leakage currents as low as 1.7 × 10(-15) A/μm, a value that is below the noise floor of conventional DC measurements. These results have important implications for the future use of MoS2 MOSFETs in low-power circuit applications.

  18. Unilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation in essential tremor demonstrates long-term ipsilateral effects.

    PubMed

    Peng-Chen, Zhongxing; Morishita, Takashi; Vaillancourt, David; Favilla, Chris; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S; Wagle Shukla, Aparna

    2013-12-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of thalamus in essential tremor (ET) is effective for the treatment of contralateral tremors. Bilateral DBS controls tremors on both sides but is associated with increased morbidity and risks. We evaluated if unilateral surgery had ipsilateral benefits on tremors and thus could be a potentially safer alternative to bilateral DBS. Medication refractory ET patients undergoing unilateral thalamic DBS were included and longitudinally followed. Tremor rating scale was used to record total motor, arm tremor and activities of daily living (ADL) scores at baseline, six months and at last visit (three or more years after surgery). Postoperative scores were recorded with DBS turned OFF and ON. Twenty-two patients with a mean follow-up 3.4 ± 0.14 years were enrolled. When baseline scores were compared to scores with the DBS turned ON, significant improvements were noted in total tremor (40%), ADL (67%) and arm tremor scores both on the ipsilateral and the contralateral side at six months and at the last visit of follow-up (all p < 0.05). Ipsilateral arm tremor (∼56%) improvements were milder compared to the contralateral side (∼73%) tremors. Unilateral thalamic DBS in ET demonstrates significant long-term benefits for ipsilateral arm tremors and can be offered to higher risk and to select patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical effectiveness of the massachusetts childhood obesity research demonstration initiative among low-income children.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Elsie M; Perkins, Meghan; Anand, Shikha; Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Nelson, Candace C; Kamdar, Neil; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Gortmaker, Steven L; Barrett, Jessica L; Davison, Kirsten K; Land, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    To examine the extent to which a clinical intervention resulted in reduced BMI z scores among 2- to 12-year-old children compared to routine practice (treatment as usual [TAU]). The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) project is a multifaceted initiative to prevent childhood obesity among low-income children. At the federally qualified community health centers (FQHCs) of two communities (Intervention Site #1 and #2), the following were implemented: (1) pediatric weight management training, (2) electronic decision supports for clinicians, (3) on-site Healthy Weight Clinics, (4) community health worker integration, and (5) healthful clinical environment changes. One FQHC in a demographically matched community served as the TAU site. Using electronic health records, we assessed BMI z scores and used linear mixed models to examine BMI z score change over 2 years in each intervention site compared to a TAU site. Compared to children in the TAU site (n = 2,286), children in Intervention Site #2 (n = 1,368) had a significant decline in BMI z scores following the start of the intervention (-0.16 units/y; 95% confidence interval: -0.21 to -0.12). No evidence of an effect was found in Intervention Site #1 (n = 111). The MA-CORD clinical interventions were associated with modest improvement in BMI z scores in one of two intervention communities compared to a TAU community. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  20. Major Effects of Nonmetallic Inclusions on the Fatigue Life of Disk Superalloy Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack; Kantzos, Peter T.; Bonacuse, Peter J.; Barrie, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    then sealed in separate containers, hot isostatically pressurized, extruded, forged into subscale disks, and heat treated. Low-cycle-fatigue specimens were then extracted, machined, and tested. Fatigue tests were performed at 650 C in closed-loop servohydraulic testing machines using induction heating and axial extensometers. All tests were continued to failure, and fractographic evaluations were performed on all specimens to determine the crack initiation sites. A large majority of the failures in specimens with introduced inclusions occurred at cracks initiating from inclusions at the specimen surface, as shown for each type of inclusion in the following bar chart. The inclusions significantly reduced fatigue life from unseeded material levels, as shown in the bar chart. These effects were found to depend on the strain range, strain ratio, and inclusion size. Tests at lower strain ranges and higher strain ratios resulted in larger effects of inclusions on life. Inclusion effects on life were thereby maximized in tests at the lowest strain range of 0.6 percent and the most positive strain ratio of 0.5. Under these conditions, small Type 2 inclusions reduced life substantially-- about 20 times, whereas large Type 1 inclusions dramatically reduced life 100 times. These results clearly demonstrate that it is essential to include the effects of inclusions for realistic predictions of disk fatigue life. Important issues, including temperature dependence, crack initiation versus propagation, surface treatments, realistic disk features and machining, and realistic disk spin testing will be addressed to accurately model inclusion effects on disk fatigue life. Fatigue life varied from well over 105 cycles for no inclusions to a little over 103 cycles for 100-micrometer inclusions. A single crack initiating at a surface-connected seeded inclusion caused failure in each case.

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  5. Notes: Water Flow and Chemical Retardation in Soils: A Simple Effective Laboratory Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, R. S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory demonstration that illustrates principles of miscible displacement and chemical retardation in soils. Discusses how the experimental apparatus can be constructed from readily available materials. (TW)

  6. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  7. A Palatable Introduction to and Demonstration of Statistical Main Effects and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Because concrete explanations in a familiar context facilitate understanding, we illustrate the concept of an interaction via a baking analogy to provide students with food for thought. The demonstration initially introduces the concepts of independent and dependent variables using a chocolate chip cookie recipe. The demonstration provides an…

  8. Effect of Dialogue on Demonstrations: Direct Quotations, Facial Portrayals, Hand Gestures, and Figurative References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelas, Janet; Gerwing, Jennifer; Healing, Sara

    2014-01-01

    "Demonstrations" (e.g., direct quotations, conversational facial portrayals, conversational hand gestures, and figurative references) lack conventional meanings, relying instead on a resemblance to their referent. Two experiments tested our theory that demonstrations are a class of communicative acts that speakers are more likely to use…

  9. Effect of Dialogue on Demonstrations: Direct Quotations, Facial Portrayals, Hand Gestures, and Figurative References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelas, Janet; Gerwing, Jennifer; Healing, Sara

    2014-01-01

    "Demonstrations" (e.g., direct quotations, conversational facial portrayals, conversational hand gestures, and figurative references) lack conventional meanings, relying instead on a resemblance to their referent. Two experiments tested our theory that demonstrations are a class of communicative acts that speakers are more likely to use…

  10. A Palatable Introduction to and Demonstration of Statistical Main Effects and Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Marek, Pam

    2009-01-01

    Because concrete explanations in a familiar context facilitate understanding, we illustrate the concept of an interaction via a baking analogy to provide students with food for thought. The demonstration initially introduces the concepts of independent and dependent variables using a chocolate chip cookie recipe. The demonstration provides an…

  11. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  12. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student…

  14. Ustur whole body case 0269: demonstrating effectiveness of i.v. CA-DTPA for Pu.

    PubMed

    James, A C; Sasser, L B; Stuit, D B; Glover, S E; Carbaugh, E H

    2007-01-01

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol 'mist'. Chelation treatment with intravenously (i.v.) Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2.5 y with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation) and continuing for 37 y. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 y after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive data set has been applied to derive 'chelation-enhanced' transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially, all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modelling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as effective

  15. USTUR WHOLE BODY CASE 0269: DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS OF I.V. CA-DTPA FOR PU

    SciTech Connect

    James, Anthony C.; Sasser , Lyle B.; Stuit, Dorothy B.; Glover, Samuel E.; Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2008-01-28

    This whole body donation case (USTUR Registrant) involved a single acute inhalation of an acidic Pu(NO3)4 solution in the form of an aerosol ‘mist.’ Chelation treatment with i.v. Ca-EDTA was initiated on the day of the intake, and continued intermittently over 6 months. After 2½ years with no further treatment, a course of i.v. Ca-DTPA was administered. A total of 400 measurements of 239+240Pu excreted in urine were recorded; starting on the first day (both before and during the initial Ca-EDTA chelation), and continuing for 37 years. This sampling included all intervals of chelation. In addition, 91 measurements of 239+240Pu-in-feces were recorded over this whole period. The Registrant died about 38 years after the intake, at age 79 y, with extensive carcinomatosis secondary to adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. At autopsy, all major soft tissue organs were harvested for radiochemical analyses of their 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am content. Also, all types of bone (comprising about half the skeleton) were harvested for radiochemical analyses, as well as samples of skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle. This comprehensive dataset has been applied to derive ‘chelation-enhanced’ transfer rates in the ICRP Publication 67 plutonium biokinetic model, representing the behaviour of blood-borne and tissue-incorporated plutonium during intervals of therapy. The resulting model of the separate effects of i.v. Ca-EDTA and Ca-DTPA chelation shows that the therapy administered in this case succeeded in reducing substantially the long-term burden of plutonium in all body organs, except for the lungs. The calculated reductions in organ content at the time of death are approximately 40% for the liver, 60% for other soft tissues (muscle, skin, glands, etc.), 50% for the kidneys, and 50% for the skeleton. Essentially all of the substantial reduction in skeletal burden occurred in trabecular bone. This modeling exercise demonstrated that 3-y-delayed Ca-DTPA therapy was as

  16. How-To-Do-It: Environmental Pollution Effects Demonstrated by Metal Adsorption in Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an experiment to demonstrate the degree to which environmental cations are taken up by susceptible lichen organisms in the field. Discusses the preparation of materials, procedures and typical results for this short laboratory exercise. (CW)

  17. How-To-Do-It: Environmental Pollution Effects Demonstrated by Metal Adsorption in Lichens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an experiment to demonstrate the degree to which environmental cations are taken up by susceptible lichen organisms in the field. Discusses the preparation of materials, procedures and typical results for this short laboratory exercise. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  11. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  16. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

  18. Effects of different fixatives on demonstrating epinephrine and ACTH hormones in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Csaba, G; Kovács, P; Pállinger, E

    2009-12-01

    The unicellular Tetrahymena produces, contains, and secretes many hormones characteristic of higher animals. We tested three fixatives, formaldehyde, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC), and glutaraldehyde for suitability for immunocytochemical demonstration of epinephrine and adrenocorticotropic harmone (ACTH) in Tetrahymena. Using flow cytometric immunocytochemistry, staining of ACTH was highest after EDAC fixation and that of epinephrine after glutaraldehyde fixation. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, formaldehyde fixation prevented staining. Glutaraldehyde fixation produced high autofluorescence, which obscured specific staining. After EDAC fixation, ACTH was localized in the ciliary row; however, demonstration of epinephrine was not improved. Our results show that there is no "fixative for any hormone." Different fixatives are needed to demonstrate different hormones in Tetrahymena.

  19. Present or Play: The Effect of Serious Gaming on Demonstrated Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Tom; Spil, Ton; van der Burg, Sanne; Wenzler, Ivo; Dalmolen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Serious gaming is one of the newest developments in the world of learning and is gaining increasing attention within the business environment. Although many practitioners claim that serious gaming has more impact on demonstrated behaviour of trainees when compared to common presentations, little evidence exists. In this paper, the authors present…

  20. Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saayman, Jean; Nicol, Willie

    2011-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is described that employs the ozone decomposition reaction at ambient conditions on Fe2O3 impregnated Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst. Using a two-dimensional see-through column the importance of interphase mass transfer is clearly illustrated by the significant difference in ozone conversion between the…

  1. An Easy and Effective Demonstration of Enzyme Stereospecificity and Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdman, Chelsea; Dickman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme stereospecificity and equilibrium thermodynamics can be demonstrated using the coupling of two amino acid derivatives by Thermoase C160. This protease will catalyze peptide bond formation between Z-L-AspOH and L-PheOMe to form the Aspartame precursor Z-L-Asp-L-PheOMe. Reaction completion manifests itself by precipitation of the product. As…

  2. Salience and Contrast Effects in Reference Resolution: The Interpretation of Dutch Pronouns and Demonstratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2011-01-01

    We report three experiments on reference resolution in Dutch. The results of two off-line experiments and an eye-tracking study suggest that the interpretation of different referential forms--in particular, "emphatic" strong pronouns, weak pronouns, and demonstrative pronouns--cannot be satisfactorily explained in terms of a single…

  3. An Easy and Effective Demonstration of Enzyme Stereospecificity and Equilibrium Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdman, Chelsea; Dickman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme stereospecificity and equilibrium thermodynamics can be demonstrated using the coupling of two amino acid derivatives by Thermoase C160. This protease will catalyze peptide bond formation between Z-L-AspOH and L-PheOMe to form the Aspartame precursor Z-L-Asp-L-PheOMe. Reaction completion manifests itself by precipitation of the product. As…

  4. The Effects of Age and Number of Demonstrations on Modeling of Form and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltz, Deborah L.

    1982-01-01

    In a research study, fourth-grade, fifth-grade, and college females performed the Bachman Free-Standing Ladder-Balance task after watching four, eight, and twelve, or no videotaped demonstrations of the task. The videotape modeling seemed to affect form (or strategy) of their performances more than their final scores. (PP)

  5. Demonstrating the Effect of Interphase Mass Transfer in a Transparent Fluidized Bed Reactor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saayman, Jean; Nicol, Willie

    2011-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is described that employs the ozone decomposition reaction at ambient conditions on Fe2O3 impregnated Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst. Using a two-dimensional see-through column the importance of interphase mass transfer is clearly illustrated by the significant difference in ozone conversion between the…

  6. Present or Play: The Effect of Serious Gaming on Demonstrated Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Tom; Spil, Ton; van der Burg, Sanne; Wenzler, Ivo; Dalmolen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Serious gaming is one of the newest developments in the world of learning and is gaining increasing attention within the business environment. Although many practitioners claim that serious gaming has more impact on demonstrated behaviour of trainees when compared to common presentations, little evidence exists. In this paper, the authors present…

  7. Classroom Demonstration of Behavioral Effects of the Split-Brain Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a method for simulating the behavior and perceptual deficits demonstrated by patients who have undergone the split brain surgical procedure. Presents several activities in which two volunteers are required to accomplish certain tasks as one person. Suggests that these activities show how split brain patients illustrate certain lateralized…

  8. Systematic review of live surgical demonstrations and their effectiveness on training.

    PubMed

    Brunckhorst, O; Challacombe, B; Abboudi, H; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P; Ahmed, K

    2014-12-01

    Live surgical demonstrations are commonly performed for surgical conferences. These live procedures have recently come under scrutiny, in particular with issues pertaining to patient safety. This systematic review aimed to explore the evidence for live surgery as a training tool, and to investigate the safety of live surgical broadcasts. PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases were searched using a predefined search strategy from January 1980 to October 2013. Specialty Societies and primary Colleges of Surgeons were searched for guidelines or position statements on live surgical teaching. Educational value criteria demonstrated for live surgery included feasibility, acceptability, construct and concurrent validity. Complication rates during live procedures were not compromised in the majority of studies. Patient safety, however, may be affected during live procedures as success rates have been found to be lower in some studies. Only Cardiothoracic, Urology and Vascular Surgical Societies currently offer guidelines on conducting live surgical demonstrations. Little evidence exists on the safety and educational value of live surgery, with few studies of high quality conducted. Guidance on live procedures is scarce, with only three major surgical specialties offering any advice. More needs to be done to establish and promote evidence for the value of live surgery demonstrations. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Principle of Equivalence: Demonstrations of Local Effective Vertical and Horizontal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that Einstein's principle of equivalence (PE) should be introduced at an early stage. This principle leads to the notion of local effective gravity, which in turn defines effective vertical and horizontal directions. Local effective gravity need not coincide with the direction of terrestrial gravity. This paper describes…

  10. The Principle of Equivalence: Demonstrations of Local Effective Vertical and Horizontal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munera, Hector A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that Einstein's principle of equivalence (PE) should be introduced at an early stage. This principle leads to the notion of local effective gravity, which in turn defines effective vertical and horizontal directions. Local effective gravity need not coincide with the direction of terrestrial gravity. This paper describes…

  11. Experimental demonstration of nonlocal effects in the partial-collapse measurement and reversal process

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaoye; Xu Jinshi; Li Chuanfeng; Zou Yang; Guo Guangcan

    2011-01-15

    We demonstrate experimentally the nonlocal reversal of a partial-collapse quantum measurement of a two-photon entangled state. Both the partial-collapse measurement and the reversal operation are implemented in linear optics with two displaced Sagnac interferometers, characterized by single-qubit quantum-process tomography. The recovered state is measured by quantum-state tomography, and its nonlocality is characterized by testing the Bell inequality. Our result will be helpful in quantum communication and quantum error correction.

  12. Demonstration of a cost-effective, broadband passive optical network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Thomas H.; Feldman, Robert D.; Austin, Richard F.

    1994-04-01

    We demonstrate that a combination of coarse wavelength division multiplexing, time division multiplexing, and subcarrier multiple access can be used to provide broadband service over a 16-way split, single-fiber passive optical network. We provide an aggregate bit rate of 622 Mb/s outbound and 48 Mb/s return in our system, with power margins of at least 9.4 dB in excess of specifications.

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first (useful as an introduction to kinetics) shows how the rate of a reaction is fast at first and then gradually decreases to zero when one reactant has been used up. The second is a gas density demonstration using 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoro ethane. (JN)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  6. Using Mixture Regression to Identify Varying Effects: A Demonstration with Paternal Incarceration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, W. Justin; Pleck, Joseph; McBride, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used techniques for identifying the varying effects of stressors involve testing moderator effects via interaction terms in regression or multiple-group analysis in structural equation modeling. The authors present mixture regression as an alternative approach. In contrast to more widely used approaches, mixture regression…

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early Reading Programs: A Demonstration with Recommendations for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollands, Fiona M.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Shand, Robert; Pan, Yilin; Cheng, Henan; Levin, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    We review the value of cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluation and decision making with respect to educational programs and discuss its application to early reading interventions. We describe the conditions for a rigorous cost-effectiveness analysis and illustrate the challenges of applying the method in practice, providing examples of programs…

  8. The effect of ozone on tannery wastewater biological treatment at demonstrative scale.

    PubMed

    Di Iaconi, Claudio; Ramadori, Roberto; Lopez, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the results obtained during an investigation aimed at transferring to the demonstrative scale an aerobic granular biomass system (SBBGR--Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor) integrated with ozonation for the efficient treatment of tannery wastewater. The results show that the integrated process was able to achieve high removal efficiencies for COD, TSS, TKN, surfactants and colour with residual concentrations much lower than the current discharge limits. Furthermore, the process was characterised by a very low sludge production (i.e., 0.1 kg dry sludge/m(3) of treated wastewater) with interesting repercussions on treatment costs (about 1 euro per m(3) of wastewater).

  9. The effect of stem cell proliferation regulators demonstrated with an in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Pragnell, I B; Wright, E G; Lorimore, S A; Adam, J; Rosendaal, M; DeLamarter, J F; Freshney, M; Eckmann, L; Sproul, A; Wilkie, N

    1988-07-01

    Spleen colony formation after transplantation of bone marrow cells into irradiated mice has been used as an assay for hematopoietic stem cells (CFU-S), but has serious limitations intrinsic to an in vivo assay. In this report we describe experiments using an in vitro clonogenic assay that is especially suitable for studies of stem cell regulation as defined growth factors and normal untreated bone marrow can be used. We have demonstrated that the colony-forming cells have proliferative properties in common with CFU-S and respond to specific proliferation regulators previously detected using the spleen colony assay.

  10. Field demonstration of the combined effects of absorption and evapotranspiration on septic system drainfield capacity.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Ken; Jackson, Andrew; Ingram, Wesley; Lee, Chang Yong; Thompson, David; Mollhagen, Tony; Ramsey, Heyward; Urban, Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Drainfields for disposal of septic tank effluents are typically designed by considering the loss of water by either upward evapotranspiration into the atmosphere or lateral and downward absorption into the adjacent soil. While this approach is appropriate for evapotranspiration systems, absorption systems allow water loss by both mechanisms. It was proposed that, in areas where high evapotranspiration rates coincide with permeable soils, drainfield sizes could be substantially reduced by accounting for both mechanisms. A two-year field demonstration was conducted to determine appropriate design criteria for areas typical of the Texas High Plains. The study consisted of evaluating the long-term acceptance rates for three different drainfield configurations: evapotranspiration only, absorption only, and combined conditions. A second field demonstration repeated the experiments for additional observation of the combined evapotranspiration and absorption and achieved similar results as the first study. The field tests indicated that the current design loading criteria may be increased by at least a factor of two for the Texas High Plains region and other Texas areas with similar soil composition and evapotranspiration rates, while still retaining a factor of safety of two.

  11. Effectiveness of Video Demonstration over Conventional Methods in Teaching Osteology in Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Jobby, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Technology and its applications are the most happening things in the world. So, is it in the field of medical education. This study was an evaluation of whether the conventional methods can compete with the test of technology. Aim A comparative study of traditional method of teaching osteology in human anatomy with an innovative visual aided method. Materials and Methods The study was conducted on 94 students admitted to MBBS 2014 to 2015 batch of Travancore Medical College. The students were divided into two academically validated groups. They were taught using conventional and video demonstrational techniques in a systematic manner. Post evaluation tests were conducted. Results Analysis of the mark pattern revealed that the group taught using traditional method scored better when compared to the visual aided method. Feedback analysis showed that, the students were able to identify bony features better with clear visualisation and three dimensional view when taught using the video demonstration method. The students identified visual aided method as the more interesting one for learning which helped them in applying the knowledge gained. In most of the questions asked, the two methods of teaching were found to be comparable on the same scale. Conclusion As the study ends, we discover that, no new technique can be substituted for time tested techniques of teaching and learning. The ideal method would be incorporating newer multimedia techniques into traditional classes. PMID:28384890

  12. Demonstration of a quasi-scalar angular Goos-Hänchen effect.

    PubMed

    Merano, M; Hermosa, N; Aiello, A; Woerdman, J P

    2010-11-01

    We show experimentally that the angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) effect can be easily observed, also without employing its resonant enhancement at Brewster incidence. An s-polarized beam was used to decouple the polarization from the propagation dynamics of the beam. We found that, in this case, the angular GH effect can be strongly enhanced by increasing the angular aperture of the Gaussian beam. Our experiments suggest a route toward observing the angular GH effect for true scalar waves, such as acoustic waves and quantum matter waves.

  13. How-to-Do-It: Demonstrating the Effects of Stress on Cellular Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodopich, Darrell S.; Moore, Randy

    1989-01-01

    Describes two simple procedures allowing students to experiment with living membranes and to relate their results to fundamental membrane structure. Provides instructions for determining the effects of temperature and organic solvent stress on cellular membranes, and spectrophotometric analysis. (RT)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  9. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  11. Experimental demonstration of the stabilizing effect of dielectric coatings on magnetically accelerated imploding metallic liners

    SciTech Connect

    Awe, Thomas James; Peterson, Kyle J.; Yu, Edmund P.; McBride, Ryan D.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Martin, Matthew R.; Rosenthal, Stephen E.; Sefkow, Adam B.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Vesey, Roger A.; Schroen, D. G.; Tomlinson, Kurt

    2016-02-10

    Enhanced implosion stability has been experimentally demonstrated for magnetically accelerated liners that are coated with 70 μm of dielectric. The dielectric tamps liner-mass redistribution from electrothermal instabilities and also buffers coupling of the drive magnetic field to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A dielectric-coated and axially premagnetized beryllium liner was radiographed at a convergence ratio [CR=Rin,0/Rin(z,t)] of 20, which is the highest CR ever directly observed for a strengthless magnetically driven liner. Lastly, the inner-wall radius Rin(z,t) displayed unprecedented uniformity, varying from 95 to 130 μm over the 4.0 mm axial height captured by the radiograph.

  12. Experimental demonstration of the stabilizing effect of dielectric coatings on magnetically accelerated imploding metallic liners

    DOE PAGES

    Awe, Thomas James; Peterson, Kyle J.; Yu, Edmund P.; ...

    2016-02-10

    Enhanced implosion stability has been experimentally demonstrated for magnetically accelerated liners that are coated with 70 μm of dielectric. The dielectric tamps liner-mass redistribution from electrothermal instabilities and also buffers coupling of the drive magnetic field to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A dielectric-coated and axially premagnetized beryllium liner was radiographed at a convergence ratio [CR=Rin,0/Rin(z,t)] of 20, which is the highest CR ever directly observed for a strengthless magnetically driven liner. Lastly, the inner-wall radius Rin(z,t) displayed unprecedented uniformity, varying from 95 to 130 μm over the 4.0 mm axial height captured by the radiograph.

  13. Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilizing Effect of Dielectric Coatings on Magnetically Accelerated Imploding Metallic Liners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awe, T. J.; Peterson, K. J.; Yu, E. P.; McBride, R. D.; Sinars, D. B.; Gomez, M. R.; Jennings, C. A.; Martin, M. R.; Rosenthal, S. E.; Schroen, D. G.; Sefkow, A. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Tomlinson, K.; Vesey, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Enhanced implosion stability has been experimentally demonstrated for magnetically accelerated liners that are coated with 70 μ m of dielectric. The dielectric tamps liner-mass redistribution from electrothermal instabilities and also buffers coupling of the drive magnetic field to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A dielectric-coated and axially premagnetized beryllium liner was radiographed at a convergence ratio [CR =Rin,0/Rin(z ,t ) ] of 20, which is the highest CR ever directly observed for a strengthless magnetically driven liner. The inner-wall radius Rin(z ,t ) displayed unprecedented uniformity, varying from 95 to 130 μ m over the 4.0 mm axial height captured by the radiograph.

  14. Experimental demonstration of programmable multi-functional spin logic cell based on spin Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Wan, C. H.; Yuan, Z. H.; Fang, C.; Kong, W. J.; Wu, H.; Zhang, Q. T.; Tao, B. S.; Han, X. F.

    2017-04-01

    Confronting with the gigantic volume of data produced every day, raising integration density by reducing the size of devices becomes harder and harder to meet the ever-increasing demand for high-performance computers. One feasible path is to actualize more logic functions in one cell. In this respect, we experimentally demonstrate a prototype spin-orbit torque based spin logic cell integrated with five frequently used logic functions (AND, OR, NOT, NAND and NOR). The cell can be easily programmed and reprogrammed to perform desired function. Furthermore, the information stored in cells is symmetry-protected, making it possible to expand into logic gate array where the cell can be manipulated one by one without changing the information of other undesired cells. This work provides a prospective example of multi-functional spin logic cell with reprogrammability and nonvolatility, which will advance the application of spin logic devices.

  15. Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilizing Effect of Dielectric Coatings on Magnetically Accelerated Imploding Metallic Liners.

    PubMed

    Awe, T J; Peterson, K J; Yu, E P; McBride, R D; Sinars, D B; Gomez, M R; Jennings, C A; Martin, M R; Rosenthal, S E; Schroen, D G; Sefkow, A B; Slutz, S A; Tomlinson, K; Vesey, R A

    2016-02-12

    Enhanced implosion stability has been experimentally demonstrated for magnetically accelerated liners that are coated with 70  μm of dielectric. The dielectric tamps liner-mass redistribution from electrothermal instabilities and also buffers coupling of the drive magnetic field to the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A dielectric-coated and axially premagnetized beryllium liner was radiographed at a convergence ratio [CR=Rin,0/Rin(z,t)] of 20, which is the highest CR ever directly observed for a strengthless magnetically driven liner. The inner-wall radius Rin(z,t) displayed unprecedented uniformity, varying from 95 to 130  μm over the 4.0 mm axial height captured by the radiograph.

  16. Short range rapidity correlations from the Bose-Einstein effect and intermittency: A quantitative demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, M.J.; E802 /E859 Collaboration

    1997-05-15

    A measurement of the two-particle correlation of identified pions was performed in the E802/E859 magnetic spectrometer on the interval 1.5 {le} y {le} 2.0, {delta}{phi} = 0.4 rad, for central {sup 28}Si + Au collisions. It is demonstrated that the two-pion correlation in rapidity is entirely due to Bose-Einstein interference. The directly measured exponential correlation length is {zeta}{sub y} = 0.20 {+-} 0.03 for two {pi}{sup {minus}}, with strength R(0,0) {approximately} 1%, in agreement with previous E802 indirect measurements derived from an analysis of intermittency using Negative Binomial Distributions.

  17. Organic Lecture Demonstrations of Common-Ion Effect, Ionizing Power of Solvents, and First-Order Reaction Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danen, Wayne C.; Blecha, M. Therese, Sr.

    1982-01-01

    Background information and experimental procedures are provided for three lecture-demonstrations (involving hydrolysis of tetra-butyl chloride) illustrating: (1) common-ion or mass law effect; (2) effect of changing ionizing power of a solvent on a solvolysis reaction; and (3) collecting/plotting data to illustrate a first-order reaction.…

  18. A Laboratory to Demonstrate the Effect of Thermal History on Semicrystalline Polymers Using Rapid Scanning Rate Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Kessler, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of thermal history on the thermal properties of semicrystalline polymers is essential for materials scientists and engineers. In this article, we describe a materials science laboratory to demonstrate the effect of parameters such as heating rate and isothermal annealing conditions on the thermal behavior of…

  19. A Laboratory to Demonstrate the Effect of Thermal History on Semicrystalline Polymers Using Rapid Scanning Rate Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badrinarayanan, Prashanth; Kessler, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the effect of thermal history on the thermal properties of semicrystalline polymers is essential for materials scientists and engineers. In this article, we describe a materials science laboratory to demonstrate the effect of parameters such as heating rate and isothermal annealing conditions on the thermal behavior of…

  20. Organic Lecture Demonstrations of Common-Ion Effect, Ionizing Power of Solvents, and First-Order Reaction Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danen, Wayne C.; Blecha, M. Therese, Sr.

    1982-01-01

    Background information and experimental procedures are provided for three lecture-demonstrations (involving hydrolysis of tetra-butyl chloride) illustrating: (1) common-ion or mass law effect; (2) effect of changing ionizing power of a solvent on a solvolysis reaction; and (3) collecting/plotting data to illustrate a first-order reaction.…

  1. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  2. New insight into multifunctional role of peroxiredoxin family protein: Determination of DNA protection properties of bacterioferritin comigratory protein under hyperthermal and oxidative stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangmin; Chung, Jeong Min; Yun, Hyung Joong; Won, Jonghan; Jung, Hyun Suk

    2016-01-22

    Bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) is a monomeric conformer acting as a putative thiol-dependent bacterial peroxidase, however molecular basis of DNA-protection via DNA-binding has not been clearly understood. In this study, we characterized the DNA binding properties of BCP using various lengths and differently shaped architectures of DNA. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and electron microscopy analysis showed that recombinant TkBCP bound to DNA of a circular shape (double-stranded DNA and single-stranded DNA) and a linear shape (16–1000 bp) as well as various architectures of DNA. In addition, DNA protection experiments indicated that TkBCP can protect DNA against hyperthermal and oxidative stress by removing highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by protecting DNA from thermal degradation. Based on these results, we suggest that TkBCP is a multi-functional DNA-binding protein which has DNA chaperon and antioxidant functions. - Highlights: • Bacterioferritin comigratory protein (BCP) protects DNA from oxidative stress by reducing ROS. • TkBCP does not only scavenge ROS, but also protect DNA from hyperthermal stress. • BCP potentially adopts the multi-functional role in DNA binding activities and anti-oxidant functions.

  3. An Effective and Economical Photometer for Classroom Demonstrations and Laboratory Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Anthony E.; Young, Colin C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple, effective, and inexpensive spectrophotometer design that may be used in a stand-alone teaching module, and to enhance various unit operations experiments. The spectrophotometers described performed as well as a commercial option at estimating cell concentration in a bioreactor and tracking a first-order reaction. Such devices…

  4. Assessment of vibration of effects due to model specification can demonstrate the instability of observational associations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag J.; Burford, Belinda; Ioannidis, John P.A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Model specification -- what adjusting variables are analytically modeled –may influence results of observational associations. We present a standardized approach to quantify the variability of results obtained with choices of adjustments called the “vibration of effects” (VoE). Study Design and Setting We estimated the VoE for 417 clinical, environmental, and physiological variables in association with all-cause mortality using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. We selected 13 variables as adjustment co-variates and computed 8,192 Cox models for each of 417 variables’ associations with all-cause mortality. Results We present the VoE by assessing the variance of the effect size and in the −log10(p-value) obtained by different combinations of adjustments. We present whether there are multimodality patterns in effect sizes and p-values and the trajectory of results with increasing adjustments. For 31% of the 417 variables we observed a Janus effect, with the effect being in opposite direction in the 99th versus the 1st percentile of analyses. For example, the vitamin E variant α-tocopherol had a VoE that indicated higher and lower risk for mortality. Conclusions Estimating VoE offers empirical estimates of associations are under different model specifications. When VoE is large, claims for observational associations should be very cautious. PMID:26279400

  5. A Peer-Assisted Learning Program and Its Effect on Student Skill Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer; Vardiman, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of an intentional Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program on peer-tutors and peer-tutees for performance on specific psychomotor skills. Design and Setting: Randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 69, 42 females and 27 males, all participants were 18 to 22 years old,…

  6. Student Evaluations of Teaching: Combining the Meta-Analyses and Demonstrating Further Evidence for Effective Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Stephen L.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a plethora of research on student evaluations of teaching (SETs) regarding their validity, susceptibility to bias, practical use and effective implementation. Given that there is not one study summarising all these domains of research, a comprehensive overview of SETs was conducted by combining all prior meta-analyses related to SETs.…

  7. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Cracks on Materials Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauls, Frederick C.

    2011-01-01

    A simple in-class experiment was designed to expose students to an aspect of materials science dealing with defects. Students break a series of paper strips to gauge the breaking strength. A precut transverse "crack" weakens the paper strip by a surprising amount. Adding a precut "crack stopper" greatly reduces the effect of the original "crack".…

  8. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Cracks on Materials Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauls, Frederick C.

    2011-01-01

    A simple in-class experiment was designed to expose students to an aspect of materials science dealing with defects. Students break a series of paper strips to gauge the breaking strength. A precut transverse "crack" weakens the paper strip by a surprising amount. Adding a precut "crack stopper" greatly reduces the effect of the original "crack".…

  9. Demonstrating the Effectiveness of an Integrated and Intensive Research Methods and Statistics Course Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; Caldwell, Tracy L.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We developed a two-semester series of intensive (six-contact hours per week) behavioral research methods courses with an integrated statistics curriculum. Our approach includes the use of team-based learning, authentic projects, and Excel and SPSS. We assessed the effectiveness of our approach by examining our students' content area scores on the…

  10. An Effective and Economical Photometer for Classroom Demonstrations and Laboratory Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Anthony E.; Young, Colin C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple, effective, and inexpensive spectrophotometer design that may be used in a stand-alone teaching module, and to enhance various unit operations experiments. The spectrophotometers described performed as well as a commercial option at estimating cell concentration in a bioreactor and tracking a first-order reaction. Such devices…

  11. A Peer-Assisted Learning Program and Its Effect on Student Skill Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer; Vardiman, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of an intentional Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) program on peer-tutors and peer-tutees for performance on specific psychomotor skills. Design and Setting: Randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 69, 42 females and 27 males, all participants were 18 to 22 years old,…

  12. Demonstrating the Effectiveness of an Integrated and Intensive Research Methods and Statistics Course Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; Caldwell, Tracy L.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We developed a two-semester series of intensive (six-contact hours per week) behavioral research methods courses with an integrated statistics curriculum. Our approach includes the use of team-based learning, authentic projects, and Excel and SPSS. We assessed the effectiveness of our approach by examining our students' content area scores on the…

  13. Music improves dopaminergic neurotransmission: demonstration based on the effect of music on blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Sutoo, Den'etsu; Akiyama, Kayo

    2004-08-06

    The mechanism by which music modifies brain function is not clear. Clinical findings indicate that music reduces blood pressure in various patients. We investigated the effect of music on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Previous studies indicated that calcium increases brain dopamine (DA) synthesis through a calmodulin (CaM)-dependent system. Increased DA levels reduce blood pressure in SHR. In this study, we examined the effects of music on this pathway. Systolic blood pressure in SHR was reduced by exposure to Mozart's music (K.205), and the effect vanished when this pathway was inhibited. Exposure to music also significantly increased serum calcium levels and neostriatal DA levels. These results suggest that music leads to increased calcium/CaM-dependent DA synthesis in the brain, thus causing a reduction in blood pressure. Music might regulate and/or affect various brain functions through dopaminergic neurotransmission, and might therefore be effective for rectification of symptoms in various diseases that involve DA dysfunction.

  14. Is Teaching Simple Surgical Skills Using an Operant Learning Program More Effective Than Teaching by Demonstration?

    PubMed

    Levy, I Martin; Pryor, Karen W; McKeon, Theresa R

    2016-04-01

    A surgical procedure is a complex behavior that can be constructed from foundation or component behaviors. Both the component and the composite behaviors built from them are much more likely to recur if it they are reinforced (operant learning). Behaviors in humans have been successfully reinforced using the acoustic stimulus from a mechanical clicker, where the clicker serves as a conditioned reinforcer that communicates in a way that is language- and judgment-free; however, to our knowledge, the use of operant-learning principles has not been formally evaluated for acquisition of surgical skills. Two surgical tasks were taught and compared using two teaching strategies: (1) an operant learning methodology using a conditioned, acoustic reinforcer (a clicker) for positive reinforcement; and (2) a more classical approach using demonstration alone. Our goal was to determine whether a group that is taught a surgical skill using an operant learning procedure would more precisely perform that skill than a group that is taught by demonstration alone. Two specific behaviors, "tying the locking, sliding knot" and "making a low-angle drill hole," were taught to the 2014 Postgraduate Year (PGY)-1 class and first- and second-year medical students, using an operant learning procedure incorporating precise scripts along with acoustic feedback. The control groups, composed of PGY-1 and -2 nonorthopaedic surgical residents and first- and second-year medical students, were taught using demonstration alone. The precision and speed of each behavior was recorded for each individual by a single experienced surgeon, skilled in operant learning. The groups were then compared. The operant learning group achieved better precision tying the locking, sliding knot than did the control group. Twelve of the 12 test group learners tied the knot and precisely performed all six component steps, whereas only four of the 12 control group learners tied the knot and correctly performed all six

  15. The effect of science demonstrations as a community service activity on pre-service science teachers' teaching practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurel, Derya Kaltakci

    2016-03-01

    In the scope of this study, pre-service science teachers (PSST) developed and carried out science demonstrations with everyday materials for elementary school students as a community service activity. 17 PSST enrolled in the community services practices course at Kocaeli University comprised the sample of the present study. Community service practices aim to develop consciousness of social responsibility and professional skills, as well as to gain awareness of social and community problems and find solutions for pre-service teachers. With this aim, each PSST developed five science demonstration activities and their brochures during a semester. At the end of the semester, a total of 85 demonstrations were carried out at public elementary schools, which are especially located in socioeconomically poor districts of Kocaeli, Turkey. In the present case study, the effect of developing and carrying out science demonstrations for elementary school students on six of the PSST' teaching practices on density and buoyancy concept was investigated. 30-minute interviews conducted with each PSST, videos recorded during their demonstration performances, brochures they prepared for their demonstration activities, and reflection papers were used as data collection tools of the study. The results showed that community service practices with science demonstrations had positive effects on PSST' science content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge.

  16. Baca geothermal demonstration project baseline ecosystem studies of cooling tower emission effects

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, P.; Osterling, R.; Price, D.; Westermeier, J.

    1981-03-01

    Results of baseline studies for boron, arsenic, mercury, and fluorine in vegetation and soil near the Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant are provided for the 1980 sampling season. Preliminary results of visual vegetation assessments and population density studies of soil invertebrate fauna are also provided. Foliage samples were collected for chemical analysis on a total of 17 plots on 5 transects. Two to five plant species were sampled at each plot. Samples were collected in June-July and September. Soil samples were collected at each plot during September. Visual vegetation inspections were conducted along each transect. Eighty-eight soil samples were collected for soil invertebrate studies. Boron, arsenic, mercury, and fluorine levels in vegetation were within normal range for natural vegetation and crops. Concentrations of soil arsenic and mercury were comparable to foliage concentrations. Boron concentrations were lower in soil than in foliage, whereas soil fluorine concentrations were considerably higher than foliage concentrations. With the exception of heavy insect infestations in June-July, no vegetation abnormalities were noted. Preliminary soil invertebrate analysis indicated an overall arthropod density of approximately 100,000/m/sup 2/ which appears within the normal range encountered in forest and meadow soil.

  17. The effect of fixatives and temperature on the quality of glycogen demonstration.

    PubMed

    Zakout, Yosef Mohamed Azzam; Salih, Magdi M; Ahmed, H G

    2010-04-01

    Glycogen is demonstrated in a number of lesions and is diagnostically significant, particularly in certain tumors. To stain glycogen accurately, it is essential to choose a suitable fixative, temperature and staining method. We used rabbit liver to assess these variables. Specimens were fixed in three fixatives at two temperatures: 10% formalin, neutral buffered formalin (NBF) and Bouin's solution at 37 and 4 degrees C. Seventy-two paraffin sections were prepared and stained with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), hexamine (methenamine) silver and Best's carmine methods. Negative control sections using diastase digestion were used for all methods to confirm the presence of glycogen. For the PAS reaction, Bouin's fixative gave better results at both temperatures compared to the other fixatives. For hexamine (methenamine) silver, the quality of staining was improved for tissues fixed in both 10% formalin and NBF at 37 degrees C compared to Bouin's solution. Both 10% formalin and NBF at 4 degrees C gave better results than Bouin's solution. For Best's carmine, Bouin's solution gave the best results for tissues fixed at 4 degrees C. Fixation of tissues with NBF at 37 degrees C gave the best quality staining. We concluded that the quality of glycogen staining in paraffin sections is greatly affected by both the fixative and the temperature of fixation.

  18. [Pharmacological treatment of Bell's palsy: favourable effects of prednisolone-based therapy now demonstrated].

    PubMed

    Opstelten, W; Portegies, P

    2008-02-16

    Bell's palsy accounts for two-thirds ofall acute facial palsies. Presumed reactivation of the herpes simplex virus and concurrent swelling of the facial nerve prompted the use of antivirals in combination with corticosteroids, although evidence supporting the effectiveness of this approach was weak. A recently published randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the effectiveness of adding valacyclovir to prednisolone; another larger primary-care-based study compared treatment with prednisolone, acyclovir or both with placebo. In patients with severe or complete facial palsy, the addition of valacyclovir improved the chance of complete recovery, but as this study was single-blinded, results should be interpreted with caution. Early treatment with prednisolone (25 mg twice daily for to days) significantly improved the chance of complete recovery at 3 and 9 months. Acyclovir, given alone or in addition to prednisolone, did not show any benefit.

  19. Implantation of juvenile human chondrocytes demonstrates no adverse effect on spinal nerve tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Külling, Fabrice A; Liu, Jane J; Liebenberg, Ellen; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-09-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common disabling condition for millions of individuals. Injection of xenogenic juvenile chondrocytes (XJC) into the disc space has been shown to have a therapeutic potential for disc repair. In the current study, XJC were injected extra-discally on neural structures in an in vivo rat hemilaminectomy model to compare the histological and behavioral effects on XJC and fibrin glue carrier. Twenty-four rats were assigned to four groups: cells plus carrier, carrier alone, sham hemi-laminectomy, and a positive control (nerve root ligation). A right-sided hemilaminectomy was performed and the study material was placed on and around the exposed L4 nerve root and the spinal cord. Pre- and postoperatively mechanical allodynia was tested on the ipsilateral hind paw using the von Frey up-down method. The lumbar spines were harvested after 6 and 12 weeks for nerve histology and TNF-α quantification. After a brief period of hyperalgesia, the von Frey data indicate there are no adverse effects of placing XJC on spinal nerve roots in rats. However ligation of nerve root showed significant allodynia compared to the other groups. These behavioral data were supported by histological analyses. While these results need to be confirmed over a larger period of time, they suggest that XJC transplantation into the disc space shows no adverse effect on nerve tissue.

  20. [Lateralized brain language semantic network demonstrated by word repetition suppression effect in MEG].

    PubMed

    Nikolaeva, A Yu; Butorina, A V; Prokofyev, A O; Stroganova, T A

    2015-01-01

    We studied auditory word repetition suppression effect using magnetoencephalography while subjects listened to "new" and "old" words whose familiarity they had to judge upon presentation. The lateralization of brain magnetic activity during processing of "new" and "old" words were estimated by computing RMS measure of whole-brain magnetic response within time window of semantic N400 (350-450 ms). A magnetic N400 was significantly stronger in the left than in the right hemisphere for the "new" words only. Repetition of "new" words led to sharp decrease of N400 response RMS in the left hemisphere but did not change right-hemispheric N400 RMS. The asymmetry index of this repetition suppression effect was lateralized to the left hemisphere for the majority of the participants and its magnitude was related to memory task performance. The findings point to a strong left-hemispheric dominance of word repetition suppression effect within the brain semantic networks at the level of whole-network response.

  1. Explicit demonstration of the role of Marangoni effect in the breakup of nanoscale liquid filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seric, Ivana; Mahady, Kyle; Afkhami, Shahriar; Hartnett, Chris; Fowlkes, Jason; Rack, Philip; Kondic, Lou

    2016-11-01

    We consider a breakup of bi-metal filaments deposited on a solid substrate. These filaments are exposed to laser irradiation and, while in the liquid phase, evolve by a process resembling breakup of a liquid jet governed by the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The novel element is that the Marangoni effect, resulting from a different surface tension of the two metals from which the filament is built, is crucial in understanding the instability development. In particular, Marangoni effect may lead to the inversion of the breakup process, producing droplets at the locations where according to the Rayleigh-Plateau theory dry spots would be expected. We present experimental results carried out with Cu-Ni filaments, as well as direct numerical simulations based on a novel algorithm that includes variable surface tension in a Volume-of-Fluid based Navier-Stokes solver. These results suggest the possibility of using Marangoni effect for the purpose of self- and directed-assembly on the nanoscale. Supported by the NSF Grant No. CBET-1604351.

  2. Computed tomographic demonstration of the effects of bromocriptine on pituitary microadenoma size

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville, J.F.; Poulignot, D.; Cattin, F.; Couturier, M.; Mollet, E.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1982-05-01

    A group of 17 strictly intrasellar prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas between 2 and 9 mm in size was examined by computed tomography before and after bromocriptine therapy of 3 months to 1 year duration. These findings were compared with clinical and biological data. Bromocriptine therapy was effective clinically and biologically in 14 of the 17 cases. Of the 15 intrasellar adenomas in nonpregnant patients treated with bromocriptine, six disappeared completely with normalization of the pituitary appearance, five decreased approximately 50% in volume (three showed an increase in density, two a decrease), and four remained unchanged in size (two showed increased density, two showed very low densities).

  3. Demonstration of the healthy worker survivor effect in a cohort of workers in the construction industry

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, U; Rothenbacher, D; Daniel, U; Brenner, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the potential of a healthy worker survivor effect due to differential occupational mobility in a cohort of construction workers.
METHODS—A cohort of 10 809 male employees in the German construction industry aged 15-64 years was followed up for occupational mobility, early retirement due to permanent disability, and total mortality from 1986 to 1994. Using the Cox's proportional hazards model of relative rates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of occupational mobility, early retirement and total mortality were estimated according to medical diagnoses at baseline after adjustment for various covariates.
RESULTS—During follow up, 2472 subjects changed employment, 359 employees were granted a disability pension for health reasons and 188 subjects died. A wide range of chronic diseases was associated with increased rates of early retirement and total mortality but not occupational mobility. However, a healthy worker survivor effect was identified related to disorders of the back and spine (ninth revision of the international classification of diseases, ICD-9, code 720-4), a common predictor of both occupational mobility (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.32) and early retirement (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.88). In total, there were about as many events of occupational changes (n = 41) as events of early retirement due to permanent disability (n = 39) significantly attributable to disorders of the back and spine. Differential occupational mobility preceded differential early retirement due to permanent disability by more than one decade.
CONCLUSIONS—These findings show the need to consider a healthy worker survivor effect due to occupational mobility in occupational epidemiological research. Furthermore these results underline the necessity of further health promotion targeting work related conditions in the construction industry.


Keywords: healthy worker survivor effect; construction workers; occupational

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  6. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses three broad classes of magnetic behavior: diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and ferromagnetic. Presents a simple lecture demonstration using an overhead projector to synthesize triiron tetraoxide and to show its interaction with a magnetic field and comparing it to a paramagnetic material. (MVL)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  12. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in chemistry instruction. The first illustrates the preparation of a less common oxide of iron, showing why this oxide is rare. The second is an explosion reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that is recommended for use as an attention-getting device. (TW)

  16. Teenage Parent Programs: A Synthesis of the Long-Term Effects of the New Chance Demonstration, Ohio's Learning, Earning, and Parenting Program, and the Teenage Parent Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Robert C.; Cytron, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Synthesizes the long-term findings of three major evaluations of programs that began in the late 1980s and were designed to improve the self-efficacy of teenage mothers on welfare. Economic outcomes for the mothers improved over time, and the interventions had some positive effects, although they did not affect fertility. (SLD)

  17. OCTET does not demonstrate a lack of effectiveness for community treatment orders.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David

    2014-02-01

    In the Oxford Community Treatment Order Evaluation Trial (OCTET), patients were randomised either to be made subject to a community treatment order (CTO) or to be managed with Section 17 leave and discharge. No differences in outcome between the two groups were observed. Here it is argued that the patients studied were not those who might have benefited from a CTO and that the psychiatrists involved were unlikely to have used the provisions of a CTO assertively. Consideration of the lengths of time for which both Section 17 leave and CTOs were used supports the notion that CTOs were not used appropriately for a group of patients who might have benefited from them. Hence the results of this study should not be taken to provide any evidence as to the effectiveness or otherwise of CTOs.

  18. An endocrinology laboratory exercise demonstrating the effect of confinement stress on the immune system of mice.

    PubMed

    Brehe, Jacqueline; Way, Amy L

    2008-06-01

    This article describes a simple laboratory exercise for examining the effect of stress on the immune system in mice. Mice are subjected to confinement stress for 1 h, after which a sample of blood is collected via the caudal vein. Blood samples are smeared onto microscope slides, air dried, and stained with Wright's Giemsa stain. When differential white blood cell counts are performed, there are noticeable differences between the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts of stressed versus control mice. The protocol is simple enough for students to perform, and the entire experiment can be completed within 3 h. Examples of ways in which the basic protocol can be modified to accommodate a shorter laboratory class are provided. This hands-on laboratory experiment provides students with experience using the scientific method to investigate the interaction between the endocrine and immune systems in response to stress.

  19. Molecularly targeted drug combinations demonstrate selective effectiveness for myeloid- and lymphoid-derived hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Stephen E; Eide, Christopher A; Kaempf, Andy; Khanna, Vishesh; Savage, Samantha L; Rofelty, Angela; English, Isabel; Ho, Hibery; Pandya, Ravi; Bolosky, William J; Poon, Hoifung; Deininger, Michael W; Collins, Robert; Swords, Ronan T; Watts, Justin; Pollyea, Daniel A; Medeiros, Bruno C; Traer, Elie; Tognon, Cristina E; Mori, Motomi; Druker, Brian J; Tyner, Jeffrey W

    2017-09-05

    Translating the genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity underlying human cancers into therapeutic strategies is an ongoing challenge. Large-scale sequencing efforts have uncovered a spectrum of mutations in many hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggesting that combinations of agents will be required to treat these diseases effectively. Combinatorial approaches will also be critical for combating the emergence of genetically heterogeneous subclones, rescue signals in the microenvironment, and tumor-intrinsic feedback pathways that all contribute to disease relapse. To identify novel and effective drug combinations, we performed ex vivo sensitivity profiling of 122 primary patient samples from a variety of hematologic malignancies against a panel of 48 drug combinations. The combinations were designed as drug pairs that target nonoverlapping biological pathways and comprise drugs from different classes, preferably with Food and Drug Administration approval. A combination ratio (CR) was derived for each drug pair, and CRs were evaluated with respect to diagnostic categories as well as against genetic, cytogenetic, and cellular phenotypes of specimens from the two largest disease categories: AML and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Nearly all tested combinations involving a BCL2 inhibitor showed additional benefit in patients with myeloid malignancies, whereas select combinations involving PI3K, CSF1R, or bromodomain inhibitors showed preferential benefit in lymphoid malignancies. Expanded analyses of patients with AML and CLL revealed specific patterns of ex vivo drug combination efficacy that were associated with select genetic, cytogenetic, and phenotypic disease subsets, warranting further evaluation. These findings highlight the heuristic value of an integrated functional genomic approach to the identification of novel treatment strategies for hematologic malignancies.

  20. Interacting effect of two social factors on 18-month-old infants' imitative behavior: Communicative cues and demonstrator presence.

    PubMed

    Kupán, Krisztina; Király, Ildikó; Kupán, Kinga; Krekó, Kata; Miklósi, Ádám; Topál, József

    2017-09-01

    Certain aspects of a demonstration have been shown to influence infants' interpretation of an observational situation and result in selective imitation. Studying social factors that trigger selective imitation may improve our understanding of how infants encode certain situations. However, only a few studies have investigated the possible interactions among these factors. In our study, 18-month-old infants (N=54) observed an adult demonstrator retrieve a toy from under an opaque ("baited") container by manipulating another transparent empty one. Infants were assigned to one of four conditions representing all combinations of two social factors: ostensive communication during demonstration (Communicative vs. Non-communicative) and presence of the demonstrator during reenactment (D-present vs. D-not present). Results suggest that infants' choice behavior was formed in two steps: during the demonstration and during the test phase. Furthermore, an interaction between the effects of the two levels was observed. Communication during the demonstration triggered imitative learning. Infants tended to copy the observed manipulation to learn the communicatively assigned way to reach the goal. This choice behavior was not influenced later by the presence or absence of the demonstrator. The non-communicative demonstration, however, did not elicit a particular learning mechanism. Therefore, in this situation, infants' choice behavior was affected by the demonstrator's presence or absence. Infants developed an individual solution and chose the baited container in the D-not present condition, indicative of emulation. In the D-present situation, they were more likely to reproduce the observed manipulation, which can be interpreted as a tendency to communicate with or conform to the demonstrator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  2. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  3. The environmental virtual observatory pilot (EVOp): a cloud solution demonstrating effective science for efficient decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurney, R. J.; Emmett, B.; McDonald, A.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental managers and policy makers face a challenging future trying to accommodate growing expectations of environmental well-being, while subject to maturing regulation, constrained budgets and a public scrutiny that expects easier and more meaningful access to data and decision logic. To support such a challenge requires new tools and new approaches. The EVOp is an initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for these new tools and approaches. A series of exemplar 'big catchment science questions' are posed and the prospects for their solution are assessed. These are then used to develop cloud solutions for serving data, models, visualisation and analysis tools to scientists, regulators, private companies and the public, all of whom have different expectations of what environmental information is important. Approaches are tested regularly with users using SCRUM. The VO vision encompasses seven key ambitions: i. being driven by the need to contribute to the solution of major environmental issues that impinge on, or link to, catchment science ii. having the flexibility and adaptability to address future problems not yet defined or fully clarified iii. being able to communicate issues and solutions to a range of audiences iv. supporting easy access by a variety of users v. drawing meaningful information from data and models and identifying the constraints on application in terms of errors, uncertainties, etc vi. adding value and cost effectiveness to current investigations by supporting transfer and scale adjustment thus limiting the repetition of expensive field monitoring addressing essentially the same issues in varying locations vii. promoting effective interfacing of robust science with a variety of end users by using terminology or measures familiar to the user (or required by regulation), including financial and carbon accounting, whole life or fixed period costing, risk as probability or as

  4. Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) in Moroccan Jews: Demonstration of a founder effect by extended haplotype analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aksentijevich, Ivona; Pras, Elon; Gruberg, Luis; Shen, Yang; Holman, Katherine; Helling, Sharon; Prosen, Leandrea; Sutherland, Grant R.; Richards, Robert I.; Dean, Michael; Pras, Mordechai; Kastner, Daniel L.

    1993-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease causing attacks of fever and serositis. The FMF gene (designated “MEF”) is on 16p, with the gene order 16cen–D16S80–MEF–D16S94–D16S283–D16S291–16pter. Here we report the association of FMF susceptibility with alleles at D16S94, D16S283, and D16S291 among 31 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families (14 Moroccan, 17 non-Moroccan). We observed highly significant associations at D16S283 and D16S291 among the Moroccan families. For the non-Moroccans, only the allelic association at D16S94 approached statistical significance. Haplotype analysis showed that 18/25 Moroccan FMF chromosomes, versus 0/21 noncarrier chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D16S94–D16S283–D16S291. Among non-Moroccans this haplotype was present in 6/26 FMF chromosomes versus 1/28 controls. Both groups of families are largely descended from Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. The strong haplotype association seen among the Moroccans is most likely a founder effect, given the recent origin and genetic isolation of the Moroccan Jewish community. The lower haplotype frequency among non-Moroccan carriers may reflect differences both in history and in population genetics. PMID:8102507

  5. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) in Moroccan Jews: Demonstration of a founder effect by extened haplotype analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aksentijevich, I.; Pras, E.; Helling, S.; Prosen, L.; Kastner, D.L.; Gruberg, L.; Pras, M. )

    1993-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease causing attacks of fever and serositis. The FMF gene (designated MEF') is on 16p, with the gene order 16 cen-D16S80-MEF-D16S94-D16S283-D16S291-16pter. Here the authors report the association of FMF susceptibility with alleles at D16S94, D16S283, and D16S291 among 31 non-Ashkenazi Jewish families 14 Moroccan families. For the non-Moroccans, only the allelic association at D16S94 approached statistical significance. Haplotype analysis showed that 18/25 Moroccan FMF chromosomes, versus 0/21 noncarrier chromosomes, bore a specific haplotype for D16S94-D16S283-D16S291. Among non-Moroccans this haplotype was present in 6/26 FMF chromosomes versus 1/28 controls. Both groups of families are largely descended from Jews who fled the Spanish Inquisition. The strong haplotype association seen among the Moroccans is most likely a founder effect, given the recent origin and genetic isolation of the Moroccan Jewish community. The lowest haplotype frequency among non-Moroccan carriers may reflect differences both in history and in population genetics. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Comparative pharmacokinetics of unlabeled and deuterium-labeled terbutaline: demonstration of a small isotope effect

    SciTech Connect

    Borgstroem, L.L.; Lindberg, C.; Joensson, S.S.; Svensson, K.

    1988-11-01

    An equimolar mixture of terbutaline and (/sup 2/H6)terbutaline was given as an oral solution to six healthy volunteers (three men and three women). Frequent blood samples were collected during a 24-h period and the plasma concentrations of unlabeled and deuterium-labeled terbutaline were measured by GC-MS. The overall geometric mean plasma concentration ratio of terbutaline to (/sup 2/H6)terbutaline (isotope ratio) was 1.04 and differed significantly from unity. The difference can be explained by a difference in lipophilicity between the analogues, affecting their absorption. No trend in isotope ratio over the experimental time was observed. For unknown reasons, the isotope ratio was higher for women (1.07) than for men (1.00). Deuterium-labeled terbutaline can be used, intravenously or orally, as an absolute reference in bioavailability studies on terbutaline. If deuterium-labeled terbutaline is given orally in a single-day relative bioavailability study, a correlation should be made for the observed isotope effect.

  7. Effects of mutant Vpr/Vpx on HIV-2 assembly demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wan, J J; Ratner, L

    2001-01-01

    The virion-associated accessory proteins Vpr and Vpx of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are required for efficient viral replication. Vpr could be important for Vpx assembly. To investigate the interaction of Vpr and Vpx with respect to the effects of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, viral particle information and Vpx expression site directed mutagenesis was carried out to construct Vpr, Vpx and double Vpr/Vpx HIV-2 mutants. These mutants were used for infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), human acute lymphoblastomic leukaemia cells (CEM-CM3) and HeLa CD4+ cells. Visualization of Vpx expression was carried out using FITC and gold labelling by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy and semi quantitative immunoelectron microscopy. Intracellular and extracellular localizations of Vpx were determined by means of fine structural analysis. Up to 80-90% reduction in the RT activity, total number of viral particles, and average Vpx expression was observed after infection of target cells with the Vpr mutant strains. In addition, intracellular Vpx expression was reduced to 51.2% with the Vpr mutant. Only 0.02% Vpx expression was detected after mutation at amino acid 62. These results provide evidence that Vpr or Vpr/Vpx mutants reduce RT activity and interfere with the expression of Vpx in HIV-2 particles during viral assembly. Vpr is efficient for Vpx corporation during viral assembly.

  8. Preliminary Findings Demonstrating Latent Effects of Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Onset on Cortical Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; DeWitt, Samuel J; Mishra, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Background As the most commonly used illicit substance during early adolescence, long-term or latent effects of early adolescent marijuana use across adolescent developmental processes remain to be determined. Methods We examined cortical thickness, gray/white matter border contrast (GWR) and local gyrification index (LGI) in 42 marijuana (MJ) users. Voxelwise regressions assessed early-onset (age <16) vs. late-onset (≥16 years-old) differences and relationships to continued use while controlling for current age and alcohol use. Results Although groups did not differ by onset status, groups diverged in their correlations between cannabis use and cortical architecture. Among early-onset users, continued years of MJ use and current MJ consumption were associated with thicker cortex, increased GWR and decreased LGI. Late-onset users exhibited the opposite pattern. This divergence was observed in all three morphological measures in the anterior dorsolateral frontal cortex (p<.05, FWE-corrected). Conclusions Divergent patterns between current MJ use and elements of cortical architecture were associated with early MJ use onset. Considering brain development in early adolescence, findings are consistent with disruptions in pruning. However, divergence with continued use for many years thereafter suggests altered trajectories of brain maturation during late adolescence and beyond. PMID:26507433

  9. Parameterization of phosphine ligands demonstrates enhancement of nickel catalysis via remote steric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kevin; Doyle, Abigail G.

    2017-08-01

    The field of Ni-catalysed cross-coupling has seen rapid recent growth because of the low cost of Ni, its earth abundance, and its ability to promote unique cross-coupling reactions. Whereas advances in the related field of Pd-catalysed cross-coupling have been driven by ligand design, the development of ligands specifically for Ni has received minimal attention. Here, we disclose a class of phosphines that enable the Ni-catalysed Csp3 Suzuki coupling of acetals with boronic acids to generate benzylic ethers, a reaction that failed with known ligands for Ni and designer phosphines for Pd. Using parameters to quantify phosphine steric and electronic properties together with regression statistical analysis, we identify a model for ligand success. The study suggests that effective phosphines feature remote steric hindrance, a concept that could guide future ligand design tailored to Ni. Our analysis also reveals that two classic descriptors for ligand steric environment—cone angle and % buried volume—are not equivalent, despite their treatment in the literature.

  10. Experimental Demonstration of Microwave Signal/Electric Thruster Plasma Interaction Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Curran, Frank M.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was designed and conducted in the Electric Propulsion Laboratory of NASA Lewis Research Center to assess the impact of ion thruster exhaust plasma plume on electromagnetic signal propagation. A microwave transmission experiment was set up inside the propulsion test bed using a pair of broadband horn antennas and a 30 cm 2.3 kW ion thruster. Frequency of signal propagation covered from 6.5 to 18 GHz range. The stainless steel test bed when enclosed can be depressurized to simulate a near vacuum environment. A pulsed CW system with gating hardware was utilized to eliminate multiple chamber reflections from the test signal. Microwave signal was transmitted and received between the two hours when the thruster was operating at a given power level in such a way that the signal propagation path crossed directly through the plume volume. Signal attenuation and phase shift due to the plume was measured for the entire frequency band. Results for this worst case configuration simulation indicate that the effects of the ion thruster plume on microwave signals is a negligible attenuation (within 0.15 dB) and a small phase shift (within 8 deg.). This paper describes the detailed experiment and presents some of the results.

  11. The effects of weathering demonstrated by maternal age on low birth weight outcome in babies.

    PubMed

    Ahmadu, Baba Usman; Mustapha, Bello; Bappariya, Jonathan Isah; Alfred, Numfor; Joel, Zwabragi

    2013-03-01

    Increasing age has been hypothesized with wear and tear (weathering) in mothers, which may result to low birthweight of their babies. The prevalence of low birthweight could be heightened if maternal weathering is associated with poor maternal socioeconomic variables. In this current study, we analyzed the effects of maternal weathering on babies' birthweights. One hundred and twenty four mother-baby pairs were selected using systematic random sampling method. Maternal age formed part of the demographic data that was obtained from the mothers' case notes and from interviews held with them. Maternal socioeconomic variables were assessed using Oyedeji's parameters and birthweights of babies were determined using bassinet weighing scale. Associations between maternal socioeconomic variables and birthweight of babies were assessed using univariate analysis. Differences in mean birthweight of babies according to their maternal age were evaluated using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA. Among the 124 babies, 66(53.2%) were males and 58(46.8%) females of whom the majority 104(83.9%, had normal birthweight. The mean birthweight of babies was 3.05±0.57 (95% CI, 2.95-3.15) kg, while the mean maternal age was 23.60 (5.2) 95% CI, (22.68-24.52) years. The difference between mean birthweight of babies and mean maternal age was not significant (F=1.35, p=0.255). Similarly, the association between birthweight, maternal education and occupation computed using univariate analysis was not significant (F=2.163, p=0.120) for education and (F=1.825, p=0.166) for occupation. In this study, maternal weathering was not found to be associated with LBW outcome. This implies that an increase in maternal age may not be significantly associated with LBW. However, there is need for further research on this subject from different centers using larger sample size in order to enhance the precision of the study.

  12. 32-Phosphorus selectively delivered by listeria to pancreatic cancer demonstrates a strong therapeutic effect.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Dinesh; Selvanesan, Benson Chellakkan; Yuan, Ziqiang; Libutti, Steven K; Koba, Wade; Beck, Amanda; Zhu, Kun; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Gravekamp, Claudia

    2017-02-06

    Our laboratory has developed a novel delivery platform using an attenuated non-toxic and non-pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that infects tumor cells and selectively survives and multiplies in metastases and primary tumors with help of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). 32P was efficiently incorporated into the Listeria bacteria by starvation of the bacteria in saline, and then cultured in phosphorus-free medium complemented with 32P as a nutrient. Listeria-32P kills tumor cells through both 32P-induced ionizing radiation and Listeria-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of 32P and Listeria were studied in various normal and tumor tissues, at sequential time points after injection of mice with pancreatic cancer (syngeneic model Panc-02). We found that 32P and Listeria predominantly accumulated in tumors and metastases, with their highest accumulation 4 hrs (32P) and 3 days (Listeria) after injection. Listeria also penetrated the transgenic KPC (conditionally express endogenous Kras-G12D and p53-R172H mutant alleles) pancreatic tumors and metastases. This is remarkable since KPC tumors, like human tumors, exhibit a stromal barrier, which prevents most drugs from penetrating the pancreatic tumors. Therapeutic treatment with Listeria -32P resulted in a strong reduction of the growth of pancreatic cancer at early and late stages in Panc-02 and KPC mice. These results highlight the power of Listeria as new delivery platform of anticancer agents to the TME. Not only were therapeutic levels of radioactive Listeria reached in tumors and metastases but the selective delivery also led to minimal side effects.

  13. Heart-protective effect of n-3 PUFA demonstrated in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Anna, Zhukovska; Angela, Shysh; Barbara, Bacova; Jana, Radosinska; Tamara, Benova; Csilla, Viczenczova; Victor, Dosenko; Oleksiy, Moybenko; Narcisa, Tribulova

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to examine in vivo functional changes of the heart in the early stages of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy and to evaluate the effects of n-3 PUFA intake. Moreover, we investigated whether modulation of diabetes-related abnormalities of myocardial connexin-43 (Cx43), β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), and β1-adrenergic receptors (β1-AR) might be implicated in the cardioprotective mechanism of n-3 PUFA. Our results showed significantly reduced cardiac output and ejection fraction (using the microtip pressure-volume catheter technique) as well as stroke volume and stroke work, 4 weeks after STZ-induced diabetes, with improvement of these parameters due to n-3 PUFA consumption. Myocardial expression of Cx43 mRNA estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction did not change in diabetic rats regardless of n-3 PUFA consumption (100 mg/100 g b.w./day). In contrast, the total and functional phosphorylated form of Cx43 protein increased significantly, and its cardiomyocyte-related distribution was disordered in the diabetic heart, but these changes normalized because of n-3 PUFA intake. Furthermore, acute diabetes was accompanied by decrease of myocardial β1-AR mRNA expression and mild yet nonsignificant increase of β-MHC mRNA. These alterations were not significantly affected by n-3 PUFA. In conclusion, the results point out that STZ-diabetic rats benefit from n-3 PUFA consumption particularly because of the attenuation of myocardial Cx43 abnormalities that most likely contributes to improvement of cardiac function.

  14. Effect of inhaled iloprost on the exercise function of Fontan patients: a demonstration of concept.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Jonathan; Ubeda-Tikkanen, Ana; Clair, Mathieu; Fernandes, Susan M; Graham, Dionne A; Milliren, Carly E; Daly, Kevin P; Mullen, Mary P; Landzberg, Michael J

    2013-10-03

    Exercise capacity following Fontan surgery is often depressed. An inability to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance appropriately during exercise may contribute to this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether administration of iloprost, a selective pulmonary vasodilator, would improve exercise function after Fontan procedure. Double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Patients performed two cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPX) separated by <1 month. A single nebulizer treatment (iloprost or placebo) was administered before each CPX. 18 patients aged 12-49 (median 17) years were recruited. Mild throat discomfort developed in 10/18 patients during iloprost administration; all but 1 were able to complete treatment. No symptoms developed during placebo treatments (p<0.001). Two additional patients did not complete CPX: one with atrial flutter; another with developmental issues that precluded adequate CPX. In the 15 remaining subjects oxygen pulse (a surrogate for forward stroke volume) at peak exercise was higher following iloprost (median increase 1.2 ml/beat; p<0.001). Peak VO2 also rose (median increase 1.3 ml/kg/min; p<0.04). Nine patients had peak VO2 <30 ml/kg/min; each of these patients had higher peak VO2 following iloprost. Only 3/6 patients with peak VO2 >30 ml/kg/min had higher peak VO2 following iloprost (p<0.04). Iloprost improves the peak oxygen pulse and peak VO2 of patients with Fontan physiology and appears to be particularly beneficial among patients with impaired exercise function. Treatment is associated with minor side effects. These findings support the concept of pulmonary vasodilator therapy in Fontan patients with limited functional capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 32-Phosphorus selectively delivered by listeria to pancreatic cancer demonstrates a strong therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Dinesh; Selvanesan, Benson Chellakkan; Yuan, Ziqiang; Libutti, Steven K; Koba, Wade; Beck, Amanda; Zhu, Kun; Casadevall, Arturo; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Gravekamp, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Our laboratory has developed a novel delivery platform using an attenuated non-toxic and non-pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that infects tumor cells and selectively survives and multiplies in metastases and primary tumors with help of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). 32P was efficiently incorporated into the Listeria bacteria by starvation of the bacteria in saline, and then cultured in phosphorus-free medium complemented with 32P as a nutrient. Listeria-32P kills tumor cells through both 32P-induced ionizing radiation and Listeria-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The levels of 32P and Listeria were studied in various normal and tumor tissues, at sequential time points after injection of mice with pancreatic cancer (syngeneic model Panc-02). We found that 32P and Listeria predominantly accumulated in tumors and metastases, with their highest accumulation 4 hrs (32P) and 3 days (Listeria) after injection. Listeria also penetrated the transgenic KPC (conditionally express endogenous Kras-G12D and p53-R172H mutant alleles) pancreatic tumors and metastases. This is remarkable since KPC tumors, like human tumors, exhibit a stromal barrier, which prevents most drugs from penetrating the pancreatic tumors. Therapeutic treatment with Listeria -32P resulted in a strong reduction of the growth of pancreatic cancer at early and late stages in Panc-02 and KPC mice. These results highlight the power of Listeria as new delivery platform of anticancer agents to the TME. Not only were therapeutic levels of radioactive Listeria reached in tumors and metastases but the selective delivery also led to minimal side effects. PMID:28186976

  16. Effects of an acceptance/defusion intervention on experimentally induced generalized avoidance: a laboratory demonstration.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Carmen; Valdivia-Salas, Sonsoles; Ruiz, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Valverde, Miguel; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Dougher, Michael J; López-López, Juan C; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Gutierrez-Martínez, Olga

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effectiveness of an acceptance/defusion intervention in reducing experimentally induced generalized avoidance. After the formation of two 6-member equivalence classes, 23 participants underwent differential conditioning with two elements from each class: A1 and B1 were paired with mild electric shock, whereas A2 and B2 were paired with earning points. Participants learned to produce avoidance and approach responses to these respective stimuli and subsequently showed transfer of functions to non-directly conditioned equivalent stimuli from Class 1 (i.e., D1 and F1 evoked avoidance responses) and Class 2 (i.e., D2 and F2 evoked approach responses). Participants were then randomly assigned to either a motivational protocol (MOT) in which approaching previously avoided stimuli was given a general value, or to a defusion protocol (DEF) in which defusion (a component of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy) was trained while approaching previously avoided stimuli was connected to personally meaningful examples. A post-hoc control group (CMOT) was conducted with 16 participants to control for differences in protocol length between the former two groups. All participants in the DEF group showed a complete suppression of avoidance responding in the presence of Class 1 stimuli (A1-F1 and additional novel stimuli in relation to them), as compared to 40% of participants in the MOT condition and 20% in the CMOT condition. The acceptance/defusion protocol eliminated experimentally induced avoidance responding even for stimuli that elicited autonomic fear responses. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Field Effect Transistor Behavior in Electrospun Polyaniline/Polyethylene Oxide Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Theofylaktos, Onoufrios; Robinson, Daryl C.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2004-01-01

    Novel transistors and logic devices based on nanotechnology concepts are under intense development. The potential for ultra-low-power circuitry makes nanotechnology attractive for applications such as digital electronics and sensors. For NASA applications, nanotechnology offers tremendous opportunities for increased onboard data processing, and thus autonomous decisionmaking ability, and novel sensors that detect and respond to environmental stimuli with little oversight requirements. Polyaniline/polyethylene oxide (PANi/PEO) nanofibers are of interest because they have electrical conductivities that can be changed from insulating to metallic by varying the doping levels and conformations of the polymer chain. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have observed field effect transistor (FET) behavior in electrospun PANi/PEO nanofibers doped with camphorsulfonic acid. The nanofibers were deposited onto Au electrodes, which had been prepatterned onto oxidized silicon substrates. The preceding scanning electron image shows the device used in the transistor measurements. Saturation channel currents are observed at surprisingly low source/drain voltages (see the following graph). The hole mobility in the depletion regime is 1.4x10(exp -4)sq cm/V sec, whereas the one-dimensional charge density (at zero gate bias) is calculated to be approximately 1 hole per 50 two-ring repeat units of polyaniline, consistent with the rather high channel conductivity (approx.10(exp -3) S/cm). Reducing or eliminating the PEO content in the fiber is expected to enhance device parameters. Electrospinning is thus proposed as a simple method of fabricating one-dimensional polymer FET's.

  18. Effectiveness of Demonstrations Supported by ICT Tools on Upper Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards the Learning of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Boon Chien; Chew, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative research study reports the effectiveness of demonstrations supported by appropriate information and communication technology (ICT) tools such as dataloggers, animations and video clips on upper secondary school students' attitudes towards the learning of physics. A sample of 94 secondary four express stream (age 16 years) and…

  19. The Effect of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature: A Study from Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanahoung, Choksin; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Soankwan, Chernchok; Sharma, Manjula D.; Johnston, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations over traditional instruction on university students' understanding of heat and temperature. The participants were 327 first year undergraduate students from two science classes in two academic years from the same university in Thailand. One class…

  20. The Effectiveness of Online Instructional Videos in the Acquisition and Demonstration of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Rehabilitation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Darren; Higgins, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of instructional videos to teach clinical skills is an ever growing area of e-learning based upon observational learning that is cited as one of the most basic yet powerful learning strategies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of online instructional videos for the acquisition and demonstration of cognitive,…

  1. The Effect of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature: A Study from Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanahoung, Choksin; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Soankwan, Chernchok; Sharma, Manjula D.; Johnston, Ian D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations over traditional instruction on university students' understanding of heat and temperature. The participants were 327 first year undergraduate students from two science classes in two academic years from the same university in Thailand. One class…

  2. Sentence Demonstration Ability in Learning Disabled and Normal College Students: Analysis of Presentation Mode, Sentence Length, and Meaningfulness Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Daniel W.; And Others

    A sentence demonstration task was used to examine the information processing skills of 14 normal and 14 learning disabled college students. The effects of sentence meaningfulness (meaningful vs. nonsense), sentence length (two vs. four vs. six vs. eight items), and presentation mode (words vs. logographs) were evaluated. A Population Membership by…

  3. The Effectiveness of Online Instructional Videos in the Acquisition and Demonstration of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Rehabilitation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Darren; Higgins, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of instructional videos to teach clinical skills is an ever growing area of e-learning based upon observational learning that is cited as one of the most basic yet powerful learning strategies. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of online instructional videos for the acquisition and demonstration of cognitive,…

  4. Effectiveness of Demonstrations Supported by ICT Tools on Upper Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards the Learning of Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Boon Chien; Chew, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative research study reports the effectiveness of demonstrations supported by appropriate information and communication technology (ICT) tools such as dataloggers, animations and video clips on upper secondary school students' attitudes towards the learning of physics. A sample of 94 secondary four express stream (age 16 years) and…

  5. DIRECT BINDING OF GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE TO TELOMERIC DNA PROTECTS TELOMERES AGAINST CHEMOTHERAPY-INDUCED RAPID DEGRADATION

    PubMed Central

    Demarse, Neil A.; Ponnusamy, Suriyan; Spicer, Eleanor K.; Apohan, Elif; Baatz, John E.; Ogretmen, Besim; Davies, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    GAPDH (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) is a glycolytic enzyme that displays several non-glycolytic activities, including the maintenance and/or protection of telomeres. In this study, we determined the molecular mechanism and biological role of the interaction between GAPDH and human telomeric DNA. Using gel shift assays, we show that recombinant GAPDH binds directly with high affinity (Kd = 45 nM) to a single-stranded oligonucleotide comprising three telomeric DNA repeats and that nucleotides T1, G5 and G6 of the TTAGGG repeat are essential for binding. The stoichiometry of the interaction is 2:1 (DNA: GAPDH), and GAPDH appears to form a high-molecular weight complex when bound to the oligonucleotide. Mutation of Asp32 and Cys149, which are localized to the NAD-binding site and the active site center of GAPDH, respectively, produced mutants that almost completely lost their telomere-binding functions both in vitro and in situ (in A549 human lung cancer cells). Treatment of A549 cells with the chemotherapeutic agents gemcitabine and doxorubicin resulted in increased nuclear localization of expressed wild-type GAPDH, where it protected telomeres against rapid degradation, concomitant with increased resistance to the growth inhibitory effects of these drugs. The non-DNA-binding mutants of GAPDH also localized to the nucleus when expressed in A549 cells, but did not confer any significant protection of telomeres against chemotherapy-induced degradation or growth inhibition, and this occurred without the involvement of caspase activation or apoptosis regulation. Overall, these data demonstrate that GAPDH binds telomeric DNA directly in vitro and may have a biological role in the protection of telomeres against rapid degradation in response to chemotherapeutic agents in A549 human lung cancer cells. PMID:19800890

  6. GASIS demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vidas, E.H.

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  7. Demonstrating accountability.

    PubMed

    Melton, V B

    1983-01-01

    Clearly, the department of education has an important role to play in assisting the hospital to become more effective and efficient. The key competencies required of today's manager and practitioner are educational needs assessment, evaluation, and measurement. ASHET educational programs, including the highly successful teleconference "Productivity and Performance Improvement" broadcast nationally last fall, are addressing this need for increased knowledge and skill in educational diagnosis. The key to the success of the health care education and training field depends, to a large extent, on the value, productivity, quality, and cost-effectiveness of our education programs and activities. With the advent of cost-per-case reimbursement, these will play an increasingly important part in the expectations that will be placed on education in the coming years.

  8. Device Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    effecting change in the electrical properties of the material. Due to the heating requirement in setting the state, stray radiation does not affect the...device as in traditional binary RAM, thus giving the device radiation-hard properties . Uniformity of the heater elements at a small size below 100 nm is...Molybdenum was chosen for the cathode tube material because it has a low sputtering coefficient, and it’s high temperature properties .. The tubes are

  9. [Research and demonstration of comprehensive measures of schistosomiasis prevention and control technology. II. Longitudinal evaluation on control effect].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi-Qing; Hu, Fei; Liu, Ying; Ding, Jian-Nan; Liu, Yue-Min; Yuan, Min; Hu, Qi-Wu; Huang, Mei-Jiao

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of comprehensive measures of schistosomiasis prevention and control technique. The comprehensive measures including forbidding grazing on marshlands, renovating latrines and supplying safe water, and health education were carried out in a demonstrative area, and the schistosomiasis endemic situation and other relative factors were investigated. After the control measures were carried out for 3 years, the prevalence of schistosomiasis in human decreased from 3.57% to 0.83%, and the infection rates of cattle decreased from 17.14% to 0. No infected Oncomelania snails were found on the marshlands in the demonstration area. The comprehensive measures aforementioned are effective in the control of schistosomiasis in Poyang Lake region.

  10. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Described are demonstrations of the optical activity of two sugar solutions, and the effects of various substituents on acid strength using an overhead projector. Materials and procedures for each demonstration are discussed. (CW)

  11. Glucosamine Supplementation Demonstrates a Negative Effect On Intervertebral Disc Matrix in an Animal Model of Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Lloydine; Vo, Nam; Coehlo, J. Paulo; Dong, Qing; Bechara, Bernard; Woods, Barrett; Hempen, Eric; Hartman, Robert; Preuss, Harry; Balk, Judith; Kang, James; Sowa, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Laboratory based controlled in vivo study Objective To determine the in vivo effects of oral glucosamine sulfate on intervertebral disc degeneration Summary of Background Data Although glucosamine has demonstrated beneficial effect in articular cartilage, clinical benefit is uncertain. A CDC report from 2009 reported that many patients are using glucosamine supplementation for low back pain (LBP), without significant evidence to support its use. Because disc degeneration is a major contributor of LBP, we explored the effects of glucosamine on disc matrix homeostasis in an animal model of disc degeneration. Methods Eighteen skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups: control, annular puncture, glucosamine, and annular puncture+glucosamine. Glucosamine treated rabbits received daily oral supplementation with 107mg/day (weight based equivalent to human 1500mg/day). Annular puncture surgery involved puncturing the annulus fibrosus (AF) of 3 lumbar discs with a 16G needle to induce degeneration. Serial MRIs were obtained at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 20 weeks. Discs were harvested at 20 weeks for determination of glycosaminoglycan(GAG) content, relative gene expression measured by RT-PCR, and histological analyses. Results The MRI index and NP area of injured discs of glucosamine treated animals with annular puncture was found to be lower than that of degenerated discs from rabbits not supplemented with glucosamine. Consistent with this, decreased glycosaminoglycan was demonstrated in glucosamine fed animals, as determined by both histological and GAG content. Gene expression was consistent with a detrimental effect on matrix. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the net effect on matrix in an animal model in vivo, as measured by gene expression, MRI, histology, and total proteoglycan is anti-anabolic. This raises concern over this commonly used supplement, and future research is needed to establish the clinical relevance of these

  12. A Demonstration Project in New York and Virginia: Retrofitting Cost-Effective Roll-over Protective Structures (CROPS) on Tractors.

    PubMed

    Hard, D L; McKenzie, E A; Cantis, D; May, J; Sorensen, J; Bayes, B; Madden, E; Wyckoff, S; Stone, B; Maass, J

    2015-07-01

    The NIOSH cost-effective roll-over protective structure (CROPS) demonstration project sought to determine whether three prototype roll-over protective structures (ROPS) designed to be retrofitted on Ford 8N, Ford 3000, Ford 4000, and Massey Ferguson 135 tractors could be installed in the field and whether they would be acceptable by the intended end users (farmers). There were a total of 50 CROPS. demonstrators (25 in New York and 25 in Virginia), with 45 observers attending the New York CROPS demonstrations and 36 observers attending the Virginia CROPS demonstrations, for a total of 70 participants in New York and 61 in Virginia. The oldest retrofitted tractors were 77 to 62 years old, while the newest retrofitted tractors were 40 to 37 years old. The most frequently retrofitted tractor in the CROPS demonstration project was a Ford 3000 series tractor (n = 19; 38%), followed by Ford 4000 (n = 11; 22%), Massey Ferguson 135 (n = 11; 22%), and Ford 8N (n = 9; 18%). A major issue of CROPS retrofitting was the rear wheel fenders. The effort involved in disassembling the fenders (removing the old bolts was often faster by cutting them with a torch), modifying the fender mounting brackets, and then reinstalling the fenders with the CROPS generally required the most time. In addition, various other semi-permanent equipment attachments, such as front-end loaders, required additional time and effort to fit with the CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to rank the reasons why they had not retrofitted their tractors with ROPS until they had enrolled in the CROPS demonstration program. ROPS "cost too much" was ranked as the primary reason for participants in both states (80% for New York and 88% for Virginia). The second highest ranked reasons were "ROPS wasn't available" for Virginia (80%) and "hassle to find ROPS" for New York (69%). The third highest ranked reasons were "not enough time to find ROPS" for New York (67%) and "hassle to find ROPS" for Virginia (79%). All

  13. A Demonstration Project in New York and Virginia: Retrofitting Cost-Effective Roll-over Protective Structures (CROPS) on Tractors

    PubMed Central

    Hard, David L.; McKenzie, E. A.; Cantis, Douglas; May, John; Sorensen, Julie; Bayes, Barbara; Madden, Erin; Wyckoff, Sherry; Stone, Bruce; Maass, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    The NIOSH cost-effective roll-over protective structure (CROPS) demonstration project sought to determine whether three prototype roll-over protective structures (ROPS) designed to be retrofitted on Ford 8N, Ford 3000, Ford 4000, and Massey Ferguson 135 tractors could be installed in the field and whether they would be acceptable by the intended end users (farmers). There were a total of 50 CROPS demonstrators (25 in New York and 25 in Virginia), with 45 observers attending the New York CROPS demonstrations and 36 observers attending the Virginia CROPS demonstrations, for a total of 70 participants in New York and 61 in Virginia. The oldest retrofitted tractors were 77 to 62 years old, while the newest retrofitted tractors were 40 to 37 years old. The most frequently retrofitted tractor in the CROPS demonstration project was a Ford 3000 series tractor (n = 19; 38%), followed by Ford 4000 (n = 11; 22%), Massey Ferguson 135 (n = 11; 22%), and Ford 8N (n = 9; 18%). A major issue of CROPS retrofitting was the rear wheel fenders. The effort involved in disassembling the fenders (removing the old bolts was often faster by cutting them with a torch), modifying the fender mounting brackets, and then reinstalling the fenders with the CROPS generally required the most time. In addition, various other semi-permanent equipment attachments, such as front-end loaders, required additional time and effort to fit with the CROPS. Demonstrators were asked to rank the reasons why they had not retrofitted their tractors with ROPS until they had enrolled in the CROPS demonstration program. ROPS “cost too much” was ranked as the primary reason for participants in both states (80% for New York and 88% for Virginia). The second highest ranked reasons were “ROPS wasn’t available” for Virginia (80%) and “hassle to find ROPS” for New York (69%). The third highest ranked reasons were “not enough time to find ROPS” for New York (67%) and “hassle to find ROPS” for Virginia

  14. Demonstration of inhibitory effect of oral shark cartilage on basic fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the rabbit cornea.

    PubMed

    González, R P; Soares, F S; Farias, R F; Pessoa, C; Leyva, A; de Barros Viana, G S; Moraes, M O

    2001-02-01

    Several angiogenic inhibitors have been obtained from shark cartilage, some of these are currently in clinical trials for assessment of safety and therapeutic efficacy in humans. Still, shark cartilage taken orally is commonly used in alternative and complimentary medicine for various ailments including serious diseases such as cancer. However, only few studies of oral shark cartilage have demonstrated pharmacological effects in experimental animals or patients, to indicate safe doses with sufficient bioavailability. In the present study we demonstrated the antiangiogenic properties of oral shark cartilage in the rabbit cornea model. Slow-release, polymethylmetacrylate pellets containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were surgically implanted in the rabbit cornea to stimulate neovascularization scored by stereo microscopy. Powdered shark cartilage (PSC; commercial product) was tested orally along with a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of this cartilage product which was tested by local application. Animals were treated with oral dosages of 100 mg/kg PSC or 200 mg/kg thalidomide as positive control. Pellets containing WSF (50, 100 or 200 microg/pellet) or bFGF-inhibitor pentosan polysulfate were implanted adjacent to the bFGF pellet. Oral shark cartilage inhibited bFGF-induced angiogenesis, as did oral thalidomide, in this in vivo model. WSF and pentosan polysulfate was shown to block neovascularization in the cornea when applied locally. This study demonstrates that in the rabbit, oral shark cartilage appears to produce systemic levels of angiogenesis inhibitors that can exert their effect at the cornea.

  15. Demonstration of an add-on effect of probucol and cilostazol on the statin-induced anti-atherogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Bai, Liang; Lin, Yan; Guan, Hua; Zhu, Ninghong; Chen, Yulong; Li, Yafeng; Gao, Shoucui; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2014-12-01

    Statins are often prescribed for treatment of cardiovascular diseases, although there are still many patients who cannot be effectively treated by statins alone. Both probucol and cilostazol exhibit anti-atherogenic effects. In the current study, we attempted to investigate whether a probucol and cilostazol combination had any add-on effects on atorvastatin. To examine this hypothesis, we fed Japanese white rabbits with a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with atorvastatin alone (Statin group), probucol and cilostazol (PC group), atorvastatin, probucol and cilostazol (APC group), and compared their effects on plasma lipids and aortic atherosclerosis. All three drug-treated groups had lowered total cholesterol levels compared with the vehicle group but high-density lipoproteins cholesterol levels of the atorvastatin group were higher than other groups. Although aortic atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in all drug-treated groups, the most prominent atheroprotective effect was seen in APC group (APC: 67% reduction> PC: 43% reduction> Statin group: 42% reduction over the vehicle). Morphometric analysis revealed that the reduced aortic atherosclerosis in all three groups was mainly attributed to the reduction of intimal macrophages and smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that a combination of probucol and cilostazol with statin enhances statin's anti-atherogenic functions, which may be beneficial for those patients who are less responsive to statin therapy alone.

  16. Computational fluid dynamics: a suitable assessment tool for demonstrating the antiobstructive effect of drugs in the therapy of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Achilles, N; Pasch, N; Lintermann, A; Schröder, W; Mösges, R

    2013-02-01

    This systematic review aims first to summarize the previous areas of application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and then to demonstrate that CFD is also a suitable instrument for generating three-dimensional images that depict drug effects on nasal mucosa. Special emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional visualization of the antiobstructive effect of nasal steroids and antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. In the beginning, CFD technology was only used to demonstrate physiological and pathophysiological airflow conditions in the nose and to aid in preoperative planning and postoperative monitoring of surgical outcome in the field of rhinosurgery. The first studies using CFD examined nasal respiratory physiology, important functions of the nose, such as conditioning and warming of inspired air, and the influence of pathophysiological changes on nasal breathing. Also, postoperative outcome of surgical procedures could be "predicted" using the nasal airflow model. Later studies focused on the three-dimensional visualization of the effect of nasal sprays in healthy subjects and postoperative patients. A completely new approach, however, was the use of CFD in the area of allergic rhinitis and the treatment of its cardinal symptom of nasal obstruction. In two clinical trials, a suitable patient with a positive history of allergic rhinitis was enrolled during a symptom-free period after the pollen season. The patient developed typical allergic rhinitis symptoms after provocation with birch pollen. The 3-D visualization showed that the antiallergic treatment successfully counteracted the effects of nasal allergen provocation on nasal airflow. These observations were attributed to the antiobstructive effect of a nasal steroid (mometasone furoate) and a systemic antihistamine (levocetirizine), respectively. CFD therefore constitutes a non-invasive, precise, reliable and objective examination procedure for generating three-dimensional images that

  17. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  18. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  19. [Demonstration of angiogenesis and the effect on an antiangiogenetic therapy with 99mTc labeled erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Zengel, P; Bodenstein, C; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R; Weber, W A

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate, whether scintigraphic studies with radiolabeled erythrocytes may be used to demonstrate the formation of new vessels during angiogenesis and if an effect on antiangiogenetic therapy could be detected. As an angiogenesis model we used the ingrowth of blood vessels in matrigel, subcutaneously injected into mice. In order to measure the relative blood volume in the matrigel non-invasively, mouse erythrocytes were labeled with Technetium-99m DTPA. The amount of activity in the matrigel was measured 30 minutes after injection of the radiolabeled erythrocytes with a gammacamera (in-vivo) and a gammacounter (ex-vivo). These results were correlated with the concentration of hemoglobin in the matrigel and the immunhistochemically evaluated density of blood vessels. The influence of the angiogenesis stimulating growth factor (bFGF) and the antiangiogenetic effect of the cyclooxigenase type 2 inhibitor (COX-2) NS398 were tested. There was a close correlation between the activity concentration in the matrigel and the hemoglobin content. Treatment with bFGF significantly increased the activity concentration from 1.74% +/- ID/g to 4.06% +/- 0.36 (p < 0.01), whereas treatment with NS398 significantly inhibited tracer uptake from 2.83% ID/g +/- 0.33 to 0.87% ID/g +/- 0.12 (p < 0.01). These results demonstrate the feasibility of using (99m)Tc labelled erythrocytes for scintigraphic imaging to assess the effects of angiogenesis stimulating and inhibiting interventions non-invasively.

  20. Analysis of differential secondary effects of novel rexinoids: select rexinoid X receptor ligands demonstrate differentiated side effect profiles

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Pamela A; Jurutka, Peter W; Wagner, Carl E; van der Vaart, Arjan; Kaneko, Ichiro; Chavez, Pedro I; Ma, Ning; Bhogal, Jaskaran S; Shahani, Pritika; Swierski, Johnathon C; MacNeill, Mairi

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of utilizing novel rexinoids for chemotherapeutics and as potential treatments for neurological conditions, we undertook an assessment of the side effect profile of select rexinoid X receptor (RXR) analogs that we reported previously. We assessed pharmacokinetic profiles, lipid and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in rats, and cell culture activity of rexinoids in sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) induction and thyroid hormone inhibition assays. We also performed RNA sequencing of the brain tissues of rats that had been dosed with the compounds. We show here for the first time that potent rexinoid activity can be uncoupled from drastic lipid changes and thyroid axis variations, and we propose that rexinoids can be developed with improved side effect profiles than the parent compound, bexarotene (1). PMID:26038698

  1. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  2. Treatment effects of Fast ForWord demonstrated by magnetoencephalography (MEG) in a child with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Lajiness-O'Neill, R; Akamine, Y; Bowyer, S M

    2007-10-01

    Treatment effects of Fast ForWord, hypothesized to ameliorate temporal processing deficits, were demonstrated by magnetoencephalography in a child with dyslexia using four paradigms: Word/Non-word Reading (NW), Grapheme-to-Phoneme Matching (GP), Verbal, and Spatial Working Memory (VWM, SWM). Shifts in brain activation from right inferior frontal and temporal to left frontal, bilateral supramarginal, and transverse temporal regions occurred during GP. During NW, shifts progressed from (1) right or bilateral anterior and superior to (2) left, inferior frontal, to (3) left, superior posterior temporoparietal, to (4) left, inferior, posterior temporooccipital regions. Reading and written language improvements were noted in passage comprehension and spelling.

  3. Effective use of simple computer programmes and clay models to demonstrate the planning and operative steps for teaching and presentations

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rahul Krishnarao; Malhotra, Gopal; Srinivasan, Venugopal; Abdul Hamid, Ahmed Osama; Cherian, Mahil; Koul, Ashok Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Presenting and demonstrating a surgical procedure in the current era is difficult without good intraoperative pictures and videos. A long, complex, multi-staged surgery is better illustrated by detailed intraoperative images at various stages. Although desirable, it may be difficult due to various reasons. Material and Methods: A simple method of preparing illustrations with pictures/diagrams created on PowerPoint and clay models to recreate the missing links in clinical photographs has been proposed. Results: It is a simple technique with a moderate learning curve. Once familiar with technique, one can effectively use the technique to convey the details in much more clear manner. Conclusion: It is a simple and effective way of communicating through digital images, and gives the audience a 3 dimensional idea about the concept. PMID:27833280

  4. Demonstration of Ion Kinetic Effects in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions and Investigation of Magnetic Reconnection Using Laser-Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    Shock-driven laser inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions have demonstrated the presence of ion kinetic effects in ICF implosions and also have been used as a proton source to probe the strongly driven reconnection of MG magnetic fields in laser-generated plasmas. Ion kinetic effects arise during the shock-convergence phase of ICF implosions when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions (λii) approaches the size of the hot-fuel region (Rfuel) and may impact hot-spot formation and the possibility of ignition. To isolate and study ion kinetic effects, the ratio of N - K =λii /Rfuel was varied in D3He-filled, shock-driven implosions at the Omega Laser Facility and the National Ignition Facility, from hydrodynamic-like conditions (NK 0.01) to strongly kinetic conditions (NK 10). A strong trend of decreasing fusion yields relative to the predictions of hydrodynamic models is observed as NK increases from 0.1 to 10. Hydrodynamics simulations that include basic models of the kinetic effects that are likely to be present in these experiments-namely, ion diffusion and Knudsen-layer reduction of the fusion reactivity-are better able to capture the experimental results. This type of implosion has also been used as a source of monoenergetic 15-MeV protons to image magnetic fields driven to reconnect in laser-produced plasmas at conditions similar to those encountered at the Earth's magnetopause. These experiments demonstrate that for both symmetric and asymmetric magnetic-reconnection configurations, when plasma flows are much stronger than the nominal Alfvén speed, the rate of magnetic-flux annihilation is determined by the flow velocity and is largely insensitive to initial plasma conditions. This work was supported by the Department of Energy Grant Number DENA0001857.

  5. Experimental demonstration of a trophic cascade in the Galápagos rocky subtidal: Effects of consumer identity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Witman, Jon D; Smith, Franz; Novak, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species-blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)-drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus). Triggerfish predation effects were strong, causing a 24-fold reduction of pencil urchin densities during the initial 21 hours of a trophic cascade experiment. A trophic cascade was demonstrated for pencil urchins, but not for green urchins, by significantly higher percent cover of urchin-grazed algae in cages that excluded predatory fish than in predator access (fence) treatments. Pencil urchins were more abundant at night when triggerfish were absent, suggesting that this species persists by exploiting a nocturnal predation refuge. Time-series of pencil urchin survivorship further demonstrated per capita interference effects of hogfish and top predators. These interference effects respectively weakened and extended the trophic cascade to a fourth trophic level through behavioral modifications of the triggerfish-urchin interaction. We conclude that interference behaviors capable of modifying interaction strength warrant greater attention as mechanisms for altering top-down control, particularly in speciose food webs.

  6. Experimental demonstration of a trophic cascade in the Galápagos rocky subtidal: Effects of consumer identity and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Witman, Jon D.; Smith, Franz; Novak, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In diverse tropical webs, trophic cascades are presumed to be rare, as species interactions may dampen top-down control and reduce their prevalence. To test this hypothesis, we used an open experimental design in the Galápagos rocky subtidal that enabled a diverse guild of fish species, in the presence of each other and top predators (sea lions and sharks), to attack two species of sea urchins grazing on benthic algae. Time-lapse photography of experiments on natural and experimental substrates revealed strong species identity effects: only two predator species–blunthead triggerfish (Pseudobalistes naufragium) and finescale triggerfish (Balistes polylepis)–drove a diurnal trophic cascade extending to algae, and they preferred large pencil urchins (Eucidaris galapagensis) over green urchins (Lytechinus semituberculatus). Triggerfish predation effects were strong, causing a 24-fold reduction of pencil urchin densities during the initial 21 hours of a trophic cascade experiment. A trophic cascade was demonstrated for pencil urchins, but not for green urchins, by significantly higher percent cover of urchin-grazed algae in cages that excluded predatory fish than in predator access (fence) treatments. Pencil urchins were more abundant at night when triggerfish were absent, suggesting that this species persists by exploiting a nocturnal predation refuge. Time-series of pencil urchin survivorship further demonstrated per capita interference effects of hogfish and top predators. These interference effects respectively weakened and extended the trophic cascade to a fourth trophic level through behavioral modifications of the triggerfish-urchin interaction. We conclude that interference behaviors capable of modifying interaction strength warrant greater attention as mechanisms for altering top-down control, particularly in speciose food webs. PMID:28430794

  7. Adults with dyslexia demonstrate large effects of crowding and detrimental effects of distractors in a visual tilt discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Cassim, Rizan; Talcott, Joel B; Moores, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adults with dyslexia (AwD) are disproportionately impacted by close spacing of stimuli and increased numbers of distractors in a visual search task compared to controls [1]. Using an orientation discrimination task, the present study extended these findings to show that even in conditions where target search was not required: (i) AwD had detrimental effects of both crowding and increased numbers of distractors; (ii) AwD had more pronounced difficulty with distractor exclusion in the left visual field and (iii) measures of crowding and distractor exclusion correlated significantly with literacy measures. Furthermore, such difficulties were not accounted for by the presence of covarying symptoms of ADHD in the participant groups. These findings provide further evidence to suggest that the ability to exclude distracting stimuli likely contributes to the reported visual attention difficulties in AwD and to the aetiology of literacy difficulties. The pattern of results is consistent with weaker and asymmetric attention in AwD.

  8. Adults with Dyslexia Demonstrate Large Effects of Crowding and Detrimental Effects of Distractors in a Visual Tilt Discrimination Task

    PubMed Central

    Cassim, Rizan; Talcott, Joel B.; Moores, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adults with dyslexia (AwD) are disproportionately impacted by close spacing of stimuli and increased numbers of distractors in a visual search task compared to controls [1]. Using an orientation discrimination task, the present study extended these findings to show that even in conditions where target search was not required: (i) AwD had detrimental effects of both crowding and increased numbers of distractors; (ii) AwD had more pronounced difficulty with distractor exclusion in the left visual field and (iii) measures of crowding and distractor exclusion correlated significantly with literacy measures. Furthermore, such difficulties were not accounted for by the presence of covarying symptoms of ADHD in the participant groups. These findings provide further evidence to suggest that the ability to exclude distracting stimuli likely contributes to the reported visual attention difficulties in AwD and to the aetiology of literacy difficulties. The pattern of results is consistent with weaker and asymmetric attention in AwD. PMID:25184299

  9. Myricitrin and bioactive extract of Albizia amara leaves: DNA protection and modulation of fertility and antioxidant-related genes expression.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mona El Said; Ibrahim, Lamya Fawzy; Hussein, Sameh Reda; El-Sharawy, Reham; El-Ansari, Mohamed Amin; Hassanane, Mahrousa Mohamed; Booles, Hoda Fahime

    2016-11-01

    Albizia species are reported to exhibit many biological activities including antiovulatory properties in female rats and antispermatogenic and antiandrogenic activities in male rats. The present study investigates the flavonoids of Albizia amara (Roxb.) B. Boivin (Fabaceae) leaves and evaluates their activity on gene expression of fertility and antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase-related genes of treated female mice in addition to their effect on DNA damage. Plant materials were extracted by using 70% methanol for 48 h, the extract was chromatographed on a polyamide 6S column, each isolated compound was purified by using Sephadex LH-20 column; its structure was elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. Both the leaves extract and myricitrin (200, 30 mg/kg bw/d, respectively) were assayed for their effect on DNA damage in female mice after four weeks treatment using Comet assay. Their modulatory activity on gene expression of fertility (aromatase CYP19 and luteinizing hormone LH) and antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-related genes of treated female mice were investigated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside, myricitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol were isolated and identified from the studied taxa. Myricitrin and the extract induced low rate of DNA damage (4.8% and 5%, respectively), compared with the untreated control (4.2%) and significantly down-regulated the expression of CYP19 and LH genes and up-regulated GST gene. Our results highlight the potential effect of the leaves extract of Albizia amara and myricitrin as fertility-regulating phytoconstituents with ability to protect DNA from damage and cells from oxidative stress.

  10. A Novel Approach to Delayed-Start Analyses for Demonstrating Disease-Modifying Effects in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Seifert, Hong; Andersen, Scott W.; Lipkovich, Ilya; Holdridge, Karen C.; Siemers, Eric

    2015-01-01

    One method for demonstrating disease modification is a delayed-start design, consisting of a placebo-controlled period followed by a delayed-start period wherein all patients receive active treatment. To address methodological issues in previous delayed-start approaches, we propose a new method that is robust across conditions of drug effect, discontinuation rates, and missing data mechanisms. We propose a modeling approach and test procedure to test the hypothesis of noninferiority, comparing the treatment difference at the end of the delayed-start period with that at the end of the placebo-controlled period. We conducted simulations to identify the optimal noninferiority testing procedure to ensure the method was robust across scenarios and assumptions, and to evaluate the appropriate modeling approach for analyzing the delayed-start period. We then applied this methodology to Phase 3 solanezumab clinical trial data for mild Alzheimer’s disease patients. Simulation results showed a testing procedure using a proportional noninferiority margin was robust for detecting disease-modifying effects; conditions of high and moderate discontinuations; and with various missing data mechanisms. Using all data from all randomized patients in a single model over both the placebo-controlled and delayed-start study periods demonstrated good statistical performance. In analysis of solanezumab data using this methodology, the noninferiority criterion was met, indicating the treatment difference at the end of the placebo-controlled studies was preserved at the end of the delayed-start period within a pre-defined margin. The proposed noninferiority method for delayed-start analysis controls Type I error rate well and addresses many challenges posed by previous approaches. Delayed-start studies employing the proposed analysis approach could be used to provide evidence of a disease-modifying effect. This method has been communicated with FDA and has been successfully applied to

  11. A novel approach to delayed-start analyses for demonstrating disease-modifying effects in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu-Seifert, Hong; Andersen, Scott W; Lipkovich, Ilya; Holdridge, Karen C; Siemers, Eric

    2015-01-01

    One method for demonstrating disease modification is a delayed-start design, consisting of a placebo-controlled period followed by a delayed-start period wherein all patients receive active treatment. To address methodological issues in previous delayed-start approaches, we propose a new method that is robust across conditions of drug effect, discontinuation rates, and missing data mechanisms. We propose a modeling approach and test procedure to test the hypothesis of noninferiority, comparing the treatment difference at the end of the delayed-start period with that at the end of the placebo-controlled period. We conducted simulations to identify the optimal noninferiority testing procedure to ensure the method was robust across scenarios and assumptions, and to evaluate the appropriate modeling approach for analyzing the delayed-start period. We then applied this methodology to Phase 3 solanezumab clinical trial data for mild Alzheimer's disease patients. Simulation results showed a testing procedure using a proportional noninferiority margin was robust for detecting disease-modifying effects; conditions of high and moderate discontinuations; and with various missing data mechanisms. Using all data from all randomized patients in a single model over both the placebo-controlled and delayed-start study periods demonstrated good statistical performance. In analysis of solanezumab data using this methodology, the noninferiority criterion was met, indicating the treatment difference at the end of the placebo-controlled studies was preserved at the end of the delayed-start period within a pre-defined margin. The proposed noninferiority method for delayed-start analysis controls Type I error rate well and addresses many challenges posed by previous approaches. Delayed-start studies employing the proposed analysis approach could be used to provide evidence of a disease-modifying effect. This method has been communicated with FDA and has been successfully applied to actual

  12. Towards a conceptual framework demonstrating the effectiveness of audiovisual patient descriptions (patient video cases): a review of the current literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Technological advances have enabled the widespread use of video cases via web-streaming and online download as an educational medium. The use of real subjects to demonstrate acute pathology should aid the education of health care professionals. However, the methodology by which this effect may be tested is not clear. Methods We undertook a literature review of major databases, found relevant articles relevant to using patient video cases as educational interventions, extracted the methodologies used and assessed these methods for internal and construct validity. Results A review of 2532 abstracts revealed 23 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and a final review of 18 of relevance. Medical students were the most commonly studied group (10 articles) with a spread of learner satisfaction, knowledge and behaviour tested. Only two of the studies fulfilled defined criteria on achieving internal and construct validity. The heterogeneity of articles meant it was not possible to perform any meta-analysis. Conclusions Previous studies have not well classified which facet of training or educational outcome the study is aiming to explore and had poor internal and construct validity. Future research should aim to validate a particular outcome measure, preferably by reproducing previous work rather than adopting new methods. In particular cognitive processing enhancement, demonstrated in a number of the medical student studies, should be tested at a postgraduate level. PMID:23256787

  13. Towards a conceptual framework demonstrating the effectiveness of audiovisual patient descriptions (patient video cases): a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Roland, Damian; Coats, Tim; Matheson, David

    2012-12-21

    Technological advances have enabled the widespread use of video cases via web-streaming and online download as an educational medium. The use of real subjects to demonstrate acute pathology should aid the education of health care professionals. However, the methodology by which this effect may be tested is not clear. We undertook a literature review of major databases, found relevant articles relevant to using patient video cases as educational interventions, extracted the methodologies used and assessed these methods for internal and construct validity. A review of 2532 abstracts revealed 23 studies meeting the inclusion criteria and a final review of 18 of relevance. Medical students were the most commonly studied group (10 articles) with a spread of learner satisfaction, knowledge and behaviour tested. Only two of the studies fulfilled defined criteria on achieving internal and construct validity. The heterogeneity of articles meant it was not possible to perform any meta-analysis. Previous studies have not well classified which facet of training or educational outcome the study is aiming to explore and had poor internal and construct validity. Future research should aim to validate a particular outcome measure, preferably by reproducing previous work rather than adopting new methods. In particular cognitive processing enhancement, demonstrated in a number of the medical student studies, should be tested at a postgraduate level.

  14. A novel landscape genetic approach demonstrates the effects of human disturbance on the Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum)

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Lopez, M J; Barelli, C; Rovero, F; Hodges, K; Roos, C; Peterman, W E; Ting, N

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of how human disturbance affects tropical forest ecosystems is critical for the mitigation of future losses in global biodiversity. Although many genetic studies of tropical forest fragmentation have been conducted to provide insight into this issue, relatively few have incorporated landscape data to explicitly test the effects of human disturbance on genetic differentiation among populations. In this study, we use a newly developed landscape genetic approach that relies on a genetic algorithm to simultaneously optimize resistance surfaces to investigate the effects of human disturbance in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania, which is an important part of a universally recognized biodiversity hotspot. Our study species is the endangered Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum), which is endemic to the Udzungwa Mountains and a known indicator species that thrives in large and well-protected blocks of old growth forest. Population genetic analyses identified significant population structure among Udzungwa red colobus inhabiting different forest blocks, and Bayesian cluster analyses identified hierarchical structure. Our new method for creating composite landscape resistance models found that the combination of fire density on the landscape and distance to the nearest village best explains the genetic structure observed. These results demonstrate the effects that human activities are having in an area of high global conservation priority and suggest that this ecosystem is in a precarious state. Our study also illustrates the ability of our novel landscape genetic method to detect the impacts of relatively recent landscape features on a long-lived species. PMID:26374237

  15. Evaluation of barriers contributing in the demonstration of an effective nurse-patient communication in educational hospitals of Jahrom, 2014.

    PubMed

    Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Ramezanli, Somayeh

    2014-06-30

    Establishing an effective communication with patients is an essential aspect of nursing care. Nurse-patient communication has a key role in improving nursing care and increasing patient's satisfaction of health care system. The study aimed at evaluation of barriers contributing in the demonstration of an effective nurse-patient communication from their viewpoint. This was cross-sectional study, carried out in 2014, with a sample of 200 nurses and patients drawn from two educational hospitals in jahrom city. Data were collected by using two questionnaire structured by the researchers. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16). The results of this study showed that the greatest barriers of nurse-patient communication were characteristics of nursing job with an average score of 71.05 ± 10.18. The most communication barriers from patients viewpoint including: heavy work load of the nurses, age , sex and language difference between patient and nurse and the spicy morality of nurses. It is concluded that overcome barriers to communication and support are needed to enable nurses to communicate therapeutically with patients in order to achieve care that is effective and responsive to their needs.

  16. Dynamic ground-effect measurements on the F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (S/MTD) configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.

    1990-01-01

    A moving-model ground-effect testing method was used to study the influence of rate-of-descent on the aerodynamic characteristics for the F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (S/MTD) configuration for both the approach and roll-out phases of landing. The approach phase was modeled for three rates of descent, and the results were compared to the predictions from the F-15 S/MTD simulation data base (prediction based on data obtained in a wind tunnel with zero rate of descent). This comparison showed significant differences due both to the rate of descent in the moving-model test and to the presence of the ground boundary layer in the wind tunnel test. Relative to the simulation data base predictions, the moving-model test showed substantially less lift increase in ground effect, less nose-down pitching moment, and less increase in drag. These differences became more prominent at the larger thrust vector angles. Over the small range of rates of descent tested using the moving-model technique, the effect of rate of descent on longitudinal aerodynamics was relatively constant. The results of this investigation indicate no safety-of-flight problems with the lower jets vectored up to 80 deg on approach. The results also indicate that this configuration could employ a nozzle concept using lower reverser vector angles up to 110 deg on approach if a no-flare approach procedure were adopted and if inlet reingestion does not pose a problem.

  17. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.

    2006-08-01

    By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

  18. Role of DNA protection and repair in resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores to ultrahigh shock pressures simulating hypervelocity impacts.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Reitz, Günther; Meyer, Cornelia; Hornemann, Ulrich; Stöffler, Dieter

    2008-11-01

    Impact-induced ejections of rocks from planetary surfaces are frequent events in the early history of the terrestrial planets and have been considered as a possible first step in the potential interplanetary transfer of microorganisms. Spores of Bacillus subtilis were used as a model system to study the effects of a simulated impact-caused ejection on rock-colonizing microorganisms using a high-explosive plane wave setup. Embedded in different types of rock material, spores were subjected to extremely high shock pressures (5 to 50 GPa) lasting for fractions of microseconds to seconds. Nearly exponential pressure response curves were obtained for spore survival and linear dependency for the induction of sporulation-defective mutants. Spores of strains defective in major small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) (alpha/beta-type SASP) that largely protect the spore DNA and spores of strains deficient in nonhomologous-end-joining DNA repair were significantly more sensitive to the applied shock pressure than were wild-type spores. These results indicate that DNA may be the sensitive target of spores exposed to ultrahigh shock pressures. To assess the nature of the critical physical parameter responsible for spore inactivation by ultrahigh shock pressures, the resulting peak temperature was varied by lowering the preshock temperature, changing the rock composition and porosity, or increasing the water content of the samples. Increased peak temperatures led to increased spore inactivation and reduced mutation rates. The data suggested that besides the potential mechanical stress exerted by the shock pressure, the accompanying high peak temperatures were a critical stress parameter that spores had to cope with.

  19. Role of DNA Protection and Repair in Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spores to Ultrahigh Shock Pressures Simulating Hypervelocity Impacts▿

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda; Rabbow, Elke; Reitz, Günther; Meyer, Cornelia; Hornemann, Ulrich; Stöffler, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Impact-induced ejections of rocks from planetary surfaces are frequent events in the early history of the terrestrial planets and have been considered as a possible first step in the potential interplanetary transfer of microorganisms. Spores of Bacillus subtilis were used as a model system to study the effects of a simulated impact-caused ejection on rock-colonizing microorganisms using a high-explosive plane wave setup. Embedded in different types of rock material, spores were subjected to extremely high shock pressures (5 to 50 GPa) lasting for fractions of microseconds to seconds. Nearly exponential pressure response curves were obtained for spore survival and linear dependency for the induction of sporulation-defective mutants. Spores of strains defective in major small, acid-soluble spore proteins (SASP) (α/β-type SASP) that largely protect the spore DNA and spores of strains deficient in nonhomologous-end-joining DNA repair were significantly more sensitive to the applied shock pressure than were wild-type spores. These results indicate that DNA may be the sensitive target of spores exposed to ultrahigh shock pressures. To assess the nature of the critical physical parameter responsible for spore inactivation by ultrahigh shock pressures, the resulting peak temperature was varied by lowering the preshock temperature, changing the rock composition and porosity, or increasing the water content of the samples. Increased peak temperatures led to increased spore inactivation and reduced mutation rates. The data suggested that besides the potential mechanical stress exerted by the shock pressure, the accompanying high peak temperatures were a critical stress parameter that spores had to cope with. PMID:18791028

  20. Demonstration of the "conditioning effect" in soil organic matter in support of a pore deformation mechanism for sorption hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuefeng; Pignatello, Joseph J

    2002-11-01

    Hysteresis, or isotherm nonsingularity, is a confounding issue in sorption research that undermines the commonplace assumption of reversibility in environmental fate and effects models for organic compounds in soil media. Until now, a molecular-level mechanism for true hysteresis when the sorbate is retrievable, structurally intact, has not been forthcoming. We show here that two organic soils exhibit the "conditioning effect", which refers to the enhancement in sorption of a compound following brief exposure of the sorbent to high concentrations of the same or a similar compound. The conditioning effect has been used in support of a pore deformation mechanism for hysteresis in glassy polymers. By this mechanism, the sorbate causes irreversible changes in the structure of internal nanopores (holes) in the organic matrix upon its sorption. Trichloromethane was the test solute for dichloromethane-conditioned Pahokee soil (44.6% organic carbon), and chlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were the test solutes for benzene-conditioned Mount Pleasant silt loam (4.5% organic carbon). In each case, the isotherm of the test solute in the conditioned soil was shifted upward of, and was less linear than, the corresponding isotherm in the nonconditioned control. Application of the polymer-based Dual-Mode (partitioning-hole filling) Model shows an expansion of the hole domain as a result of conditioning. The memory of the conditioning effect persists for longer than 96 days at 21 degrees C but is lost upon heating the sample at 100 degrees C. A three-step (sorption-desorption-resorption) experiment demonstrated hysteresis followed by enhanced resorption, implying a mechanistic relationship between hysteresis and the conditioning effect. The results indicate that irreversible pore deformation is a mechanism for hysteresis in natural organic matter materials and suggest that slow matrix relaxation may contribute to the often-observed long-term resistance of some contaminants to

  1. Cost-effectiveness of telecare for people with social care needs: the Whole Systems Demonstrator cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Catherine; Knapp, Martin; Fernández, José-Luis; Beecham, Jennifer; Hirani, Shashivadan P.; Beynon, Michelle; Cartwright, Martin; Rixon, Lorna; Doll, Helen; Bower, Peter; Steventon, Adam; Rogers, Anne; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Barlow, James; Bardsley, Martin; Newman, Stanton P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the study: to examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of ‘second-generation’ telecare, in addition to standard support and care that could include ‘first-generation’ forms of telecare, compared with standard support and care that could include ‘first-generation’ forms of telecare. Design and methods: a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with nested economic evaluation. A total of 2,600 people with social care needs participated in a trial of community-based telecare in three English local authority areas. In the Whole Systems Demonstrator Telecare Questionnaire Study, 550 participants were randomised to intervention and 639 to control. Participants who were offered the telecare intervention received a package of equipment and monitoring services for 12 months, additional to their standard health and social care services. The control group received usual health and social care. Primary outcome measure: incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. The analyses took a health and social care perspective. Results: cost per additional QALY was £297,000. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves indicated that the probability of cost-effectiveness at a willingness-to-pay of £30,000 per QALY gained was only 16%. Sensitivity analyses combining variations in equipment price and support cost parameters yielded a cost-effectiveness ratio of £161,000 per QALY. Implications: while QALY gain in the intervention group was similar to that for controls, social and health services costs were higher. Second-generation telecare did not appear to be a cost-effective addition to usual care, assuming a commonly accepted willingness to pay for QALYs. Trial registration number: ISRCTN 43002091. PMID:24950690

  2. Identification of Yeast Mutants Exhibiting Altered Sensitivity to Valinomycin and Nigericin Demonstrate Pleiotropic Effects of Ionophores on Cellular Processes.

    PubMed

    Jakubkova, Michaela; Dzugasova, Vladimira; Truban, Dominika; Abelovska, Lenka; Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid; Valachovic, Martin; Klobucnikova, Vlasta; Zeiselova, Lucia; Griac, Peter; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2016-01-01

    Ionophores such as valinomycin and nigericin are potent tools for studying the impact of ion perturbance on cellular functions. To obtain a broader picture about molecular components involved in mediating the effects of these drugs on yeast cells under respiratory growth conditions, we performed a screening of the haploid deletion mutant library covering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nonessential genes. We identified nearly 130 genes whose absence leads either to resistance or to hypersensitivity to valinomycin and/or nigericin. The processes affected by their protein products range from mitochondrial functions through ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance to vacuolar biogenesis and stress response. Comparison of the results with independent screenings performed by our and other laboratories demonstrates that although mitochondria might represent the main target for both ionophores, cellular response to the drugs is very complex and involves an intricate network of proteins connecting mitochondria, vacuoles, and other membrane compartments.

  3. Identification of Yeast Mutants Exhibiting Altered Sensitivity to Valinomycin and Nigericin Demonstrate Pleiotropic Effects of Ionophores on Cellular Processes

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid; Valachovic, Martin; Klobucnikova, Vlasta; Zeiselova, Lucia; Griac, Peter; Nosek, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Ionophores such as valinomycin and nigericin are potent tools for studying the impact of ion perturbance on cellular functions. To obtain a broader picture about molecular components involved in mediating the effects of these drugs on yeast cells under respiratory growth conditions, we performed a screening of the haploid deletion mutant library covering the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nonessential genes. We identified nearly 130 genes whose absence leads either to resistance or to hypersensitivity to valinomycin and/or nigericin. The processes affected by their protein products range from mitochondrial functions through ribosome biogenesis and telomere maintenance to vacuolar biogenesis and stress response. Comparison of the results with independent screenings performed by our and other laboratories demonstrates that although mitochondria might represent the main target for both ionophores, cellular response to the drugs is very complex and involves an intricate network of proteins connecting mitochondria, vacuoles, and other membrane compartments. PMID:27711131

  4. Demonstration of Cost-Effective, High-Performance Computing at Performance and Reliability Levels Equivalent to a 1994 Vector Supercomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babrauckas, Theresa

    2000-01-01

    The Affordable High Performance Computing (AHPC) project demonstrated that high-performance computing based on a distributed network of computer workstations is a cost-effective alternative to vector supercomputers for running CPU and memory intensive design and analysis tools. The AHPC project created an integrated system called a Network Supercomputer. By connecting computer work-stations through a network and utilizing the workstations when they are idle, the resulting distributed-workstation environment has the same performance and reliability levels as the Cray C90 vector Supercomputer at less than 25 percent of the C90 cost. In fact, the cost comparison between a Cray C90 Supercomputer and Sun workstations showed that the number of distributed networked workstations equivalent to a C90 costs approximately 8 percent of the C90.

  5. Development and Demonstration of a Computational Tool for the Analysis of Particle Vitiation Effects in Hypersonic Propulsion Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Hugh Douglas

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the understanding of particle vitiation effects in hypersonic propulsion test facilities, a quasi-one dimensional numerical tool was developed to efficiently model reacting particle-gas flows over a wide range of conditions. Features of this code include gas-phase finite-rate kinetics, a global porous-particle combustion model, mass, momentum and energy interactions between phases, and subsonic and supersonic particle drag and heat transfer models. The basic capabilities of this tool were validated against available data or other validated codes. To demonstrate the capabilities of the code a series of computations were performed for a model hypersonic propulsion test facility and scramjet. Parameters studied were simulated flight Mach number, particle size, particle mass fraction and particle material.

  6. How large must a treatment effect be before it matters to practitioners? An estimation method and demonstration.

    PubMed

    Miller, William R; Manuel, Jennifer Knapp

    2008-09-01

    Treatment research is sometimes criticised as lacking in clinical relevance, and one potential source of this friction is a disconnection between statistical significance and what clinicians regard to be a meaningful difference in outcomes. This report demonstrates a novel methodology for estimating what substance abuse practitioners regard to be clinically important differences. To illustrate the estimation method, we surveyed 50 substance abuse treatment providers participating in the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network. Practitioners identified thresholds for clinically meaningful differences on nine common outcome variables, indicated the size of effect that would justify their learning a new treatment method and estimated current outcomes from their services. Clinicians judged a difference between two treatments to be meaningful if outcomes were improved by about 10 - 12 points on the percentage of patients totally abstaining, arrested for driving while intoxicated, employed or having abnormal liver enzymes. A 5 percentage-point reduction in patient mortality was regarded as clinically significant. On continuous outcome measures (such as percentage of days abstinent or drinks per drinking day), practitioners judged an outcome to be significant when it doubled or halved the base rate. When a new treatment meets such criteria, practitioners were interested in learning it. Effects that are statistically significant in clinical trials may be unimpressive to practitioners. Clinicians' judgements of meaningful differences can inform the powering of clinical trials.

  7. Interference effects demonstrate distinct roles for visual and motor imagery during the mental representation of human action.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J A

    2005-04-01

    Four experiments were completed to characterize the utilization of visual imagery and motor imagery during the mental representation of human action. In Experiment 1, movement time functions for a motor imagery human locomotion task conformed to a speed-accuracy trade-off similar to Fitts' Law, whereas those for a visual imagery object motion task did not. However, modality-specific interference effects in Experiment 2 demonstrate visual and motor imagery as cooperative processes when the action represented is tied to visual coordinates in space. Biomechanic-specific motor interference effects found in Experiment 3 suggest one basis for separation of processing channels within motor imagery. Finally, in Experiment 4 representations of motor actions were found to be generated using only visual imagery under certain circumstances: namely, when the imaginer represented the motor action of another individual while placed at an opposing viewpoint. These results suggest that the modality of representation recruited to generate images of human action is dependent on the dynamic relationship between the individual, movement, and environment.

  8. An Experiment to Determine the Effectiveness of Slides and Audio-Tapes for Presenting Manipulative Demonstrations in Graphic Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John David

    This study compared teacher demonstrations with a slide-tape methods of presenting demonstrations in graphic arts. It involved 134 eighth grade students and four teachers in four schools. Random assignment to treatments was made by classes. Four demonstrations randomly selected from a group were (1) composing a line of type, (2) locking-up a type…

  9. Experimental demonstration of radiation effects on the performance of a stirling-alternator convertor and candidate materials evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Omar R.

    Free-piston Stirling power convertors are under consideration by NASA for service in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) and Fission Surface Power (FSP) systems to enable aggressive exploration missions by providing a reliable and constant power supply. The ASRG must withstand environmental radiation conditions, while the FSP system must tolerate a mixed neutron and gamma-ray environment resulting from self-irradiation. Stirling-alternators utilize rare earth magnets and a variety of organic materials whose radiation limits dominate service life estimates and shielding requirements. The project objective was to demonstrate the performance of the alternator, identify materials that exhibit excessive radiation sensitivity, identify radiation tolerant substitutes, establish empirical dose limits, and demonstrate the feasibility of cost effective nuclear and radiation tests by selection of the appropriate personnel and test facilities as a function of hardware maturity. The Stirling Alternator Radiation Test Article (SARTA) was constructed from linear alternator components of a Stirling convertor and underwent significant pre-exposure characterization. The SARTA was operated at the Sandia National Laboratories Gamma Irradiation Facility to a dose of over 40 Mrad. Operating performance was within nominal variation, although modestly decreasing trends occurred in later runs as well as the detection of an electrical fault after the final exposure. Post-irradiation disassembly and internal inspection revealed minimal degradation of the majority of the organic components. Radiation testing of organic material coupons was conducted since the majority of the literature was inconsistent. These inconsistencies can be attributed to testing at environmental conditions vastly different than those Stirling-alternator organics will experience during operation. Samples were irradiated at the Texas A&M TRIGA reactor to above expected FSP neutron fluence. A thorough

  10. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  11. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  12. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon F.; Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a method of demonstrating the optical activity of glucose using an overhead projector and easily obtainable materials. Explores the difference between reflected and transmitted light (Tyndall Effect) using sodium thiosulfate, hydrochloric acid, and an overhead projector. (ML)

  14. Floating Magnet Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

  15. Floating Magnet Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

  16. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon F.; Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a method of demonstrating the optical activity of glucose using an overhead projector and easily obtainable materials. Explores the difference between reflected and transmitted light (Tyndall Effect) using sodium thiosulfate, hydrochloric acid, and an overhead projector. (ML)

  17. Demonstration of DFT-spread 256QAM-OFDM signal transmission with cost-effective directly modulated laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Yu, Jianjun; Fang, Yuan; Dong, Ze; Li, Xinying; Chen, Lin

    2014-04-07

    We experimentally demonstrated a 256-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (256QAM) direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) transmission system utilizing a cost-effective directly modulated laser (DML). Intra-symbol frequency-domain averaging (ISFA) is applied to suppress in-band noise while the channel response estimation and Discrete Fourier Transform-spread (DFT-spread) is used to reduce the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted OFDM signal. The bit-error ratio (BER) of 15-Gbit/s 256QAM-OFDM signal has been measured after 20-km SSMF transmission that is less than 7% forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) as the launch power into fiber is set at 6dBm. For 11.85-Gbit/s 256QAM-OFDM signal, with the aid of ISFA-based channel estimation and PAPR reduction enabled by DFT-spread, the BER after 20-km SSMF transmission can be improved from 6.4 × 10(-3) to 6.8 × 10(-4) when the received optical power is -6dBm.

  18. Experimental demonstration of the antiherbivore effects of silica in grasses: impacts on foliage digestibility and vole growth rates

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Fergus P; Hartley, Sue E

    2006-01-01

    The impact of plant-based factors on the population dynamics of mammalian herbivores has been the subject of much debate in ecology, but the role of antiherbivore defences in grasses has received relatively little attention. Silica has been proposed as the primary defence in grasses and is thought to lead to increased abrasiveness of foliage so deterring feeding, as well as reducing foliage digestibility and herbivore performance. However, at present there is little direct experimental evidence to support these ideas. In this study, we tested the effects of manipulating silica levels on the abrasiveness of grasses and on the feeding preference and growth performance of field voles, specialist grass-feeding herbivores. Elevated silica levels did increase the abrasiveness of grasses and deterred feeding by voles. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that silica reduced the growth rates of both juvenile and mature female voles by reducing the nitrogen they could absorb from the foliage. Furthermore, we found that vole feeding leads to increased levels of silica in leaves, suggesting a dynamic feedback between grasses and their herbivores. We propose that silica induction due to vole grazing reduces vole performance and hence could contribute to cyclic dynamics in vole populations. PMID:16928631

  19. Using statistical process control to demonstrate the effect of operational interventions on quality indicators in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Schwab, R A; DelSorbo, S M; Cunningham, M R; Craven, K; Watson, W A

    1999-01-01

    When our emergency department (ED) initiated a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program, we selected as a quality indicator the percentage of patients leaving without being seen (LWBS) by a physician. Because the primary reason for LWBS patients was determined to be dissatisfaction with waiting time, we devised four interventions in clinical operations to decrease delays in patient flow through the ED. Statistical process control (SPC) methodology was then used to assess the effect of these interventions. Because baseline data were available, we constructed control charts of the percentage of LWBS patients versus consecutive months beginning in January 1990 with the mean percentage of LWBS patients and upper and lower control limits. Postintervention data, plotted using control statistics from the baseline period, demonstrated sustained special-cause variation, indicating a fundamental change in the overall system. A new control chart was then constructed using postintervention data. A significantly lowered mean percentage LWBS and a narrowed control limit range were observed, leading to the conclusion that the interventions improved the quality of care as measured by a reduction in percentage LWBS.

  20. Demonstration of surface plasmons in metal island films and the effect of the surrounding medium-An undergraduate experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orfanides, P.; Buckner, T. F.; Buncick, M. C.; Meriaudeau, F.; Ferrell, T. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present a demonstration of the surface plasmon phenomenon as it occurs in thin metal island films. The metal films are deposited on glass microscope slides. The effect of the surface plasmon resonance may be observed visually on the slide without further apparatus. Heating the film changes the shape of the islands and therefore the resonant frequency of the surface plasmon and changes the color of the film. Placing the film in a dielectric medium changes the resonance condition for the surface plasmon again and changes the color again. We show this by coating the slides with commercially available liquids with different indices of refraction. We present a theoretical model that assumes the islands are oblate spheroids. There are enough details given so that the equations can be programed and the theoretical optical absorbance can be reproduced. We also present a modification to the theory so that the shift in resonant frequency can be calculated when the spheroids are immersed in the index fluids. We describe our apparatus for making thin films and our optical spectrometer system. We then present optical absorbance measurements of thin films of both Ag and Au in air and in two liquids with different indices of refraction.

  1. The Microgravity Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Wargo, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The Demonstrator is a tool to create microgravity conditions in your classroom. A series of demonstrations is used to provide a dramatically visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions and to understand why various types of experiments are performed under microgravity conditions. A wealth of back-round material on free-fall, microgravity, and micro-gravity sciences is available in two educational documents available through the NASA Teacher Resource Centers: Microgravity-Activity Guide for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, and The Mathematics of Microgravity. The remainder of this manual is divided into five sections. The first explains how to put the Microgravity Demonstrator together. The next section introduces the individual demonstrations and discusses the underlying physical science concepts. Following that are detailed steps for conducting each demonstration to make your use of the Demonstrator most effective. Next are some ideas on how to make your own Microgravity Demonstrator. The last section is a tips and troubleshooting guide for video connections and operations. If you have one of the NASA Microgravity Demonstrators, this entire manual should be useful. If you have a copy of the Microgravity Demonstrator Videotape and would like to use that as a teaching tool, the Demonstrations and Scientific Background section of this manual will give you insight into the science areas studied in microgravity.

  2. Development of Criteria to Measure the Extent of Implementation and the Effectiveness of Demonstration in Vocational Education. Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This document presents case studies of eight demonstration projects selected to assess the practicality and feasibility of a monograph for improving and measuring the impact of vocational education demonstration projects. An introduction provides background of the project that developed that monograph and information on the case studies, including…

  3. A home-based individualized information communication technology training program for older adults: a demonstration of effectiveness and value.

    PubMed

    Arthanat, Sajay; Vroman, Kerryellen G; Lysack, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness and value of a home-based information communication technology (ICT) training program for older adults. Thirteen older adults were provided in-home ICT training by graduate occupational therapy students using an iPad. The breadth and frequency of ICT use, perspectives on technology, and perceived independence were recorded at baseline, during the 3-month training and at follow-up, along with an end-of-study questionnaire. Non-parametric Friedman analysis was conducted to verify trends in the outcome measures. The qualitative data were examined by content analysis. Participants' breadth of ICT activities showed a significant trend across 6 months. Leisure accounted for the significant increase, while health management and social connections activities increased modestly. A positive trend in participants' perspectives on technology was evident along with a marginal increase in perceived independence. Participants' perspectives were thematically categorized as technology experiences, interactions with coach, training approach, and specific activities. As reflection of the training program's value, 12 of the 13 participants took ownership of the iPad at the end of the study. Building capacity of older adults to utilize the multifaceted potential of ICT is critical in addressing declines in health, impending disabilities, and social isolation. Implications for Rehabilitation A one-on-one home-based individualized information communication technology (ICT) training program for older adults could result in a progressive increase in the breadth of online activities carried out by them. Specifically, the increase in their usage of ICT could be expected in leisure-based online activities. Individualized training programs designed based on needs, priorities, and learning style of older adults could have a positive impact on their technological perspectives and intrinsic motivation to adopt ICT.

  4. Amorphous solid dispersion of berberine with absorption enhancer demonstrates a remarkable hypoglycemic effect via improving its bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Zhaojie, Meng; Ming, Zhang; Shengnan, Wei; Xiaojia, Bi; Hatch, Grant M; Jingkai, Gu; Li, Chen

    2014-06-05

    Low oral bioavailability of berberine due to poor solubility and membrane permeability limits its clinical use for treatment of diabetes. We developed an amorphous solid dispersion of berberine with absorption enhancer sodium caprate, referred to as Huang-Gui Solid Dispersion (HGSD) preparations, and examined them for improvement of dissolution and oral bioavailability. HGSDs were prepared by solvent evaporation, and the formulations of amorphous solid dispersions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. According to in vitro solubility and dissolution studies, P9, the 9th production of HGSDs based on orthogonal test, was sorted out. Then pharmacokinetic behavior of P9 was evaluated by in vitro membrane permeation, in situ intestinal perfusion, and in vivo bioavailability in rats. Furthermore, the anti-diabetic effect of P9 was examined in a type 2 diabetic rat model. It was found that majority of berberine in P9 existed in an amorphous form, and its solubility and dissolution rate were significantly increased. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated a 3-fold increase in in vitro membrane permeation, a 4-fold increase in in situ intestinal perfusion and a 5-fold increase in vivo bioavailability of P9 compared to berberine or berberine tablets. In addition, oral administration of P9 (100mg/kg) improved glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic rats compared to pure berberine (100mg/kg), berberine tablets (100mg/kg) or metformin (300 mg/kg) treatment. These findings indicate that P9 enhances oral bioavailability of berberine and may be a potential candidate drug for treatment of diabetes.

  5. Dynamic metabolism modelling of urban water services--demonstrating effectiveness as a decision-support tool for Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, G; Sægrov, Sveinung; Brattebø, Helge

    2014-09-15

    Urban water services are challenged from many perspectives and different stakeholders demand performance improvements along economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainability. In response, urban water utilities systematically give more attention to criteria such as water safety, climate change adaptation and mitigation, environmental life cycle assessment (LCA), total cost efficiency, and on how to improve their operations within the water-energy-carbon nexus. The authors of this paper collaborated in the development of a 'Dynamic Metabolism Model' (DMM). The model is developed for generic use in the sustainability assessment of urban water services, and it has been initially tested for the city of Oslo, Norway. The purpose has been to adopt a holistic systemic perspective to the analysis of metabolism and environmental impacts of resource flows in urban water and wastewater systems, in order to offer a tool for the examination of future strategies and intervention options in such systems. This paper describes the model and its application to the city of Oslo for the analysis time period 2013-2040. The external factors impacting decision-making and interventions are introduced along with realistic scenarios developed for the testing, after consultation with officials at the Oslo Water and Wastewater Works (Norway). Possible interventions that the utility intends to set in motion are defined and numerically interpreted for incorporation into the model, and changes in the indicator values over the time period are determined. This paper aims to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the DMM, as a decision-support tool for water-wastewater utilities. The scenarios considered and interventions identified do not include all possible scenarios and interventions that can be relevant for water-wastewater utilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Demonstration of a novel technique to measure two-photon exchange effects in elastic e±p scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Niroula, Megh; Raue, Brian A.; ...

    2013-08-30

    between the incoming electron and positron beams. This systematic effect leads to the largest uncertainty in the final ratio of positron to electron scattering: R=1.027±0.005±0.05 for < Q2 >=0.206 GeV2 and 0.830 ≤ ε ≤ 0.943. We have demonstrated that the tertiary e± beam generated using this technique provides the opportunity for dramatically improved comparisons of e±p scattering, covering a significant range in both Q2 and scattering angle. Combining data with different chicane polarities will allow for detailed studies of the difference between the incoming e+ and e- beams.« less

  7. Demonstration of a novel technique to measure two-photon exchange effects in elastic e±p scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Moteabbed, Maryam; Niroula, Megh; Raue, Brian A.; Weinstein, Lawrence B.

    2013-08-30

    difference between the incoming electron and positron beams. This systematic effect leads to the largest uncertainty in the final ratio of positron to electron scattering: R=1.027±0.005±0.05 for < Q2 >=0.206 GeV2 and 0.830 ≤ ε ≤ 0.943. We have demonstrated that the tertiary e± beam generated using this technique provides the opportunity for dramatically improved comparisons of e±p scattering, covering a significant range in both Q2 and scattering angle. Combining data with different chicane polarities will allow for detailed studies of the difference between the incoming e+ and e- beams.

  8. Demonstration of a novel technique to measure two-photon exchange effects in elastic e±p scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moteabbed, M.; Niroula, M.; Raue, B. A.; Weinstein, L. B.; Adikaram, D.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Lachniet, J.; Rimal, Dipak; Ungaro, M.; Afanasev, A.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.; Collins, P.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; Fassi, L. El; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fersch, R.; Fleming, J. A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lewis, S.; Lu, H. Y.; MacCormick, M.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Martinez, D.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moriya, K.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nasseripour, R.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Park, S.; Phelps, E.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tian, Ye; Tkachenko, S.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2013-08-01

    to study the difference between the incoming electron and positron beams. This systematic effect leads to the largest uncertainty in the final ratio of positron to electron scattering: R=1.027±0.005±0.05 for =0.206 GeV2 and 0.830⩽ɛ⩽0.943.Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the tertiary e± beam generated using this technique provides the opportunity for dramatically improved comparisons of e±p scattering, covering a significant range in both Q2 and scattering angle. Combining data with different chicane polarities will allow for detailed studies of the difference between the incoming e+ and e- beams.

  9. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  10. Effects of Lecture, Teacher Demonstrations, Discussion and Practical Work on 10th Graders' Attitudes to Chemistry and Understanding of Electrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jerome; Soyibo, Kola

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, teacher demonstrations, class discussion, and student practical work in small groups significantly improved experimental subjects' attitudes to chemistry and understanding of electrolysis more than their control group counterparts who were not exposed to practical work. Examines whether…

  11. The Effect of Demonstrator Gender on Wind Instrument Preferences of Kindergarten, Third-Grade, and Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Satrom, Shauna L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined possible influences of demonstrator gender on children's instrument choices. Participants (N = 104) included boys (n = 53) and girls ( n = 51) in fifth grade (n = 27), third grade (n = 41), and kindergarten (n = 36) in six intact music classes from a single elementary school. Pretest and posttest consisted of circling (Grades 3…

  12. Demonstration of an Integrated Compliance Model for Predicting Copper Fate and Effects in DoD Harbors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing ...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send...Integrated Model. ..................... 19 Table 3. Performance Criteria and Confirmation Methods for the Demonstration of the CH3D/Seawater-BLM

  13. Is Quality/Effectiveness An Empirically Demonstrable School Attribute? Statistical Aids for Determining Appropriate Levels of Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, James

    2002-01-01

    Describes and demonstrates analytical techniques used in organizational psychology and contemporary multilevel analysis. Using these analytic techniques, examines the relationship between educational outcomes and the school environment. Finds that at least some indicators might be represented as school-level phenomena. Results imply that the…

  14. Demonstrating the Effects of Shop Flow Process Variability on the Air Force Depot Level Reparable Item Pipeline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    DO41). AFLCR 57-4. Wright-Patterson AFB OH: HQ AFLC, 29 April 1983. 137 12. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The Goal. Croton-On-Hudson NY: North...manufacturing process (14:411). Goldratt and Cox give another example of the same impact of variability in their book The Goal when they demonstrated what

  15. 30 CFR 1243.12 - May I substitute a demonstration of financial solvency for a bond posted before the effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND BONDING-OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE General Provisions § 1243.12 May I... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I substitute a demonstration of...

  16. 30 CFR 1243.12 - May I substitute a demonstration of financial solvency for a bond posted before the effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND BONDING-OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE General Provisions § 1243.12 May I... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I substitute a demonstration of...

  17. 30 CFR 1243.12 - May I substitute a demonstration of financial solvency for a bond posted before the effective...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE SUSPENSIONS PENDING APPEAL AND BONDING-OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE General Provisions § 1243.12 May I... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May I substitute a demonstration of...

  18. The Effect of Demonstrator Gender on Wind Instrument Preferences of Kindergarten, Third-Grade, and Fifth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Satrom, Shauna L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined possible influences of demonstrator gender on children's instrument choices. Participants (N = 104) included boys (n = 53) and girls ( n = 51) in fifth grade (n = 27), third grade (n = 41), and kindergarten (n = 36) in six intact music classes from a single elementary school. Pretest and posttest consisted of circling (Grades 3…

  19. Demonstrating the Superiority of the FCB Grid as a Tool for Students To Write Effective Advertising Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yssel, Johan C.

    Although the FCB (Foote, Cone, & Belding) grid was never intended to serve as an educational tool, it can be applied successfully in advertising classes to address the three areas that S. E. Moriarty considers to be the minimum for writing strategy. To demonstrate the superiority of the FCB grid as a pedagogical tool, a study analyzed…

  20. Use of Prepump Separation Technologies to Enhance Cost-Effectiveness of Bioslurper Systems Long-Term Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    removing light, nonaqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) from contaminated aquifers. Bioslurping combines vacuum-assisted LNAPL recovery with bioventing and...soils through bioventing and SVE. The prepump separation methods demonstrated in this project improve the operation of the bioslurping process, making...Conventional Bioslurping Process The bioslurping process combines vacuum-assisted LNAPL recovery with bioventing and SVE to simultaneously recover LNAPL

  1. Effects of Lecture, Teacher Demonstrations, Discussion and Practical Work on 10th Graders' Attitudes to Chemistry and Understanding of Electrolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jerome; Soyibo, Kola

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, teacher demonstrations, class discussion, and student practical work in small groups significantly improved experimental subjects' attitudes to chemistry and understanding of electrolysis more than their control group counterparts who were not exposed to practical work. Examines whether…

  2. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  3. Demonstration of an Integrated Compliance Model for Predicting Copper Fate and Effects in DoD Harbors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    methods , and records throughout the demonstration and data analysis; reviewed the data reduction and validation, and prepared and signed a statement... Review , Verification, and Validation 4.2. Verification and Validation Methods 4.3. Reconciliation with User Requirements C.9. ISO 14001 The...statistical method applied to both Cutot and Cudiss. Linear regression cannot be applied for the case of a constant variable. However, comparison of the

  4. Innovative technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P. ); Hartley, J.N. . Environmental Management Operations); Hinchee, R. )

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ.

  5. Innovative technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ.

  6. Inseparable Phone Books Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Nuri; Çetin, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at first introducing a well-known discrepant event; inseparable phone books and second, turning it into an experiment for high school or middle school students. This discrepant event could be used especially to indicate how friction force can be effective in producing an unexpected result. Demonstration, discussion, explanation…

  7. Constructing Virtual Training Demonstrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    asymmetric threats present an ongoing need to disseminate lessons learned straight from the battlefield to a wide audience of personnel. Interactive...materials because they accelerate learning , stimulate interest, and communicate better than text. They also can be delivered on a wide variety of...areas of research (e.g., observational learning studies, behavioral modeling training) to identify factors influencing demonstration effectiveness; and

  8. The fine line between mutualism and parasitism: complex effects in a cleaning symbiosis demonstrated by multiple field experiments.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryan L; Creed, Robert P; Skelton, James; Rollins, Mark A; Farrell, Kaitlin J

    2012-09-01

    Ecological theory and observational evidence suggest that symbiotic interactions such as cleaning symbioses can shift from mutualism to parasitism. However, field experimental evidence documenting these shifts has never been reported for a cleaning symbiosis. Here, we demonstrate shifts in a freshwater cleaning symbiosis in a system involving crayfish and branchiobdellid annelids. Branchiobdellids have been shown to benefit their hosts under some conditions by cleaning material from host crayfish's gill filaments. The system is uniquely suited as an experimental model for symbiosis due to ease of manipulation and ubiquity of the organisms. In three field experiments, we manipulated densities of worms on host crayfish and measured host growth in field enclosures. In all cases, the experiments revealed shifts from mutualism to parasitism: host crayfish growth was highest at intermediate densities of branchiobdellid symbionts, while high symbiont densities led to growth that was lower or not significantly different from 0-worm controls. Growth responses were consistent even though the three experiments involved different crayfish and worm species and were performed at different locations. Results also closely conformed to a previous laboratory experiment using the same system. The mechanism for these shifts appears to be that branchiobdellids switched from cleaning host gills at intermediate densities of worms to consuming host gill tissue at high densities. These outcomes clearly demonstrate shifts along a symbiosis continuum with the maximum benefits to the host at intermediate symbiont densities. At high symbiont densities, benefits to the host disappear, and there is some evidence for a weak parasitism. These are the first field experimental results to demonstrate such shifts in a cleaning symbiosis.

  9. AEGIS technology demonstration for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1982-09-01

    A technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts was conducted. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The following report documents the technology demonstration in basalt. Available information has been used to establish the data base and initial hydrologic and geologic interpretations for this site-specific application. A simplified diagram of the AEGIS analyses is shown. Because an understanding of the dynamics of ground-water flow is essential to the development of release scenarios and consequence analyses, a key step in the demonstration is the systems characterization contained in the conceptual model. Regional and local ground-water movement patterns have been defined with the aid of hydrologic computer models. Hypothetical release scenarios have been developed and evaluated by a process involving expert opinion and a Geologic Simulation Model for basalt. (The Geologic Simulation Model can also be used to forecast future boundary conditions for the hydrologic simulation.) Chemical reactivity of the basalt with ground water will influence the leaching and transport of radionuclides; solubility equilibria based on available data are estimated with geochemical models. After the radionuclide concentrations are mathematically introduced into the ground-water movement patterns, waste movement patterns are outlined over elapsed time. Contaminant transport results are summarized for significant radionuclides that are hypothetically released to the accessible environment and to the biosphere.

  10. Demonstrations in Introductory Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Stein, S.; van der Lee, S.; Swafford, L.; Klosko, E.; Delaughter, J.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Geophysical concepts are challenging to teach at introductory levels, because students need to understand both the underlying physics and its geological application. To address this, our introductory courses include class demonstrations and experiments to demonstrate underlying physical principles and their geological applications. Demonstrations and experiments have several advantages over computer simulations. First, computer simulations "work" even if the basic principle is wrong. In contrast, simple demonstrations show that a principle is physically correct, rather than a product of computer graphics. Second, many students are unfamiliar with once-standard experiments demonstrating ideas of classical physics used in geophysics. Demonstrations are chosen that we consider stimulating, relevant, inexpensive, and easy to conduct in a non-lab classroom. These come in several groups. Many deal with aspects of seismic waves, using springs, light beams, and other methods such as talking from outside the room to illustrate the frequency dependence of diffraction (hearing but not seeing around a corner). Others deal with heat and mass transfer, such as illustrating fractional crystallization with apple juice and the surface/volume effect in planetary evolution with ice. Plate motions are illustrated with paper cutouts showing effects like motion on transform faults and how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence along the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska. Radioactive decay is simulated by having the class rise and sit down as a result of coin flips (one tail versus two gives different decay rates and hence half lives). This sessions' goal of exchanging information about demonstrations is an excellent idea: some of ours are described on http://www.earth.nwu.edu/people/seth/202.

  11. Complementary effects of antioxidants and sunscreens in reducing UV-induced skin damage as demonstrated by skin biomarker expression.

    PubMed

    Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Galdi, Angelike; Foltis, Peter; Pillai, Sreekumar

    2010-06-01

    UV-exposure of the skin causes oxidative stress, leading to inflammatory reactions and premature skin aging. Sunscreens protect by absorbing or reflecting UV on the skin surface. Antioxidants provide protection by quenching UV-induced reactive oxygen species inside skin. To evaluate the complementary photoprotective benefits of formulas containing either an antioxidant complex of Cassia alata leaf extract or a combination of the antioxidant complex and sunscreens on normal healthy volunteers using biomarkers of skin damage. Each formula and a placebo control were applied separately to selected areas on the lower back of 10 individuals for 4 consecutive days. On Day 4, the control and three test sites were exposed to 5 x MED (minimal erythemal dose) of solar-simulated UV-irradiation (UVR). On Day 5, 4-mm punch biopsies were collected from the four exposed sites and a control site (untreated, unexposed) for immunohistochemistry. Exposure to 5 x MED demonstrated significant damage as assessed by thymine dimer formation, MMP-9 and p53 protein expression on untreated exposed skin. The formula containing sunscreens + the antioxidant complex was the most protective, followed by the formula with the antioxidant alone. The study demonstrated that a combination of antioxidants and sunscreens complement each other, resulting in superior photoprotection.

  12. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  13. Investigating differences in treatment effect estimates between propensity score matching and weighting: A demonstration using STAR*D trial data

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Alan R.; Dusetzina, Stacie B.; Hansen, Richard A.; Gaynes, Bradley N.; Farley, Joel F.; Stürmer, Til

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The choice of propensity score (PS) implementation influences treatment effect estimates not only because different methods estimate different quantities, but also because different estimators respond in different ways to phenomena such as treatment effect heterogeneity and limited availability of potential matches. Using effectiveness data, we describe lessons learned from sensitivity analyses with matched and weighted estimates. Methods With subsample data (N=1,292) from Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression, a 2001–2004 effectiveness trial of depression treatments, we implemented PS matching and weighting to estimate the treatment effect in the treated and conducted multiple sensitivity analyses. Results Matching and weighting both balanced covariates but yielded different samples and treatment effect estimates (matched RR 1.00, 95% CI:0.75–1.34; weighted RR 1.28, 95% CI:0.97–1.69). In sensitivity analyses, as increasing numbers of observations at both ends of the PS distribution were excluded from the weighted analysis, weighted estimates approached the matched estimate (weighted RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.77–1.39 after excluding all observations below the 5th percentile of the treated and above the 95th percentile of the untreated). Treatment appeared to have benefits only in the highest and lowest PS strata. Conclusions Matched and weighted estimates differed due to incomplete matching, sensitivity of weighted estimates to extreme observations, and possibly treatment effect heterogeneity. PS analysis requires identifying the population and treatment effect of interest, selecting an appropriate implementation method, and conducting and reporting sensitivity analyses. Weighted estimation especially should include sensitivity analyses relating to influential observations, such as those treated contrary to prediction. PMID:23280682

  14. A rocket-based combined-cycle engine prototype demonstrating comprehensive component compatibility and effective mode transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; He, Guoqiang; Liu, Peijin; Qin, Fei; Wei, Xianggeng; Liu, Jie; Wu, Lele

    2016-11-01

    A rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) engine was designed to demonstrate its broad applicability in the ejector and ramjet modes within the flight range from Mach 0 to Mach 4.5. To validate the design, a prototype was fabricated and tested as a freejet engine operating at flight Mach 3 using hydrocarbon fuel. The proposed design was a single module, heat sink steel alloy model with an interior fuel supply and active control system and a fully integrated flowpath that was comprehensively instrumented with pressure sensors. The mass capture and back pressure resistance of the inlet were numerically investigated and experimentally calibrated. The combustion process and rocket operation during mode transition were investigated by direct-connect tests. Finally, the comprehensive component compatibility and multimodal operational capability of the RBCC engine prototype was validated through freejet tests. This paper describes the design of the RBCC engine prototype, reviews the testing procedures, and discusses the experimental results of these efforts in detail.

  15. Effectiveness of programmes as part of primary prevention demonstrated on the example of cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Korczak, Dieter; Dietl, Markus; Steinhauser, Gerlinde

    2011-04-01

    The HTA-report (HTA = Health Technology Assessment) deals with the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2. In 2009 approximately 356,000 people died in Germany due to cardiovascular diseases. According to estimations about 6.3 million people are suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2. The interventions that are subsidized by the public health insurance are mainly focused on sufficient physical activities, healthy nutrition, stress management and the reduction of the consumption of addictive drugs and luxury food. Which lifestyle-related measures and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are effective? To what extent will the health status be improved by these offers? To what extent will existing health resources and skills be strengthened by these offers? Are there any differences regarding the effectiveness among the interventions with respect to different settings or subgroups? Which lifestyle-related interventions and/or programmes for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and of the metabolic syndrome are sustainable and cost-effective? Which outcome parameters are in the view of the contributors decisive for the evaluation of the effectiveness? In the view of the contributor are there different values between the outcome parameters? In the view of the payers and other actors are there different values between the outcome parameters? Which ethical and juridical factors have to be considered? Which social and/or socio-economic parameters influence the use of the services and effectiveness? A systematic literature research is done in 35 databases. For the period 2005 to 2010, reviews, epidemiological and clinical studies as well as economical evaluations which deal with primary prevention programmes regarding cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome are included. 44 publications meet the inclusion criteria. These studies confirm the effectiveness of the

  16. Demonstration of the phytotoxic effect of air pollution through the measurement of the reaction of bryophytes with a bryometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokobori, M.; Taoda, H.

    1980-11-01

    The use of bryophytes as a means to study the effects of air pollution is discussed. Sensitivity to air pollutants and easy cultivation in small growth chambers are characteristic to bryophytes. The phytotoxic effect of air pollution is monitored using an apparatus in which the gemmae of Marchantia Polymorpha (liverwort) is cultivated with carbon filtered air and unfiltered air. A ratio of growth in the unfiltered chamber to growth in the filtered chamber is measured. The results are compared with the concentration of SO(2), and NO(2), and the pH values of rain.

  17. The Effect of Prenatal Hypoxia on Brain Development: Short- and Long-Term Consequences Demonstrated in Rodent Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Hava; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia (H) and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are major causes of foetal brain damage with long-lasting behavioral implications. The effect of hypoxia has been widely studied in human and a variety of animal models. In the present review, we summarize the latest studies testing the behavioral outcomes following prenatal hypoxia/hypoxia-ischemia in rodent…

  18. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Demonstrate Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Sources and a Role for TRPA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals, the composition of which is determined by contributing sources, and has been linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These effects stem in part from the irritating properties of PM constituents, which ...

  19. 77 FR 37059 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Active Controls in Studies To Demonstrate Effectiveness of a New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... a New Animal Drug for Use in Companion Animals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... of a New Animal Drug for Use in Companion Animals.'' This draft guidance advises industry on the use of active controls in studies intended to provide substantial evidence of effectiveness of new animal...

  20. Demonstrating Institutional Effectiveness in the Connecticut Community-Technical College System (Initial Recommendations--DHE Performance Measures).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Community-Technical Coll., Hartford. Board of Trustees.

    This paper presents information regarding the five critical success factors for institutional effectiveness identified by the Connecticut Community-Technical Colleges. These factors are: (1) career education; (2) general study; (3) transfer; (4) community service; and (5) student support services. The Performance Measures Review Team also points…

  1. Presynaptic control of dopamine metabolism in the nucleus accumbens. Lack of effect of buspirone as demonstrated using in vivo voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Louilot, A; Le Moal, M; Simon, H

    1987-05-18

    Buspirone is a non-benzodiazepine drug with anxiolytic properties. It has been reported to induce a marked increase in the metabolism of dopamine in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens which is similar to that induced by neuroleptics. It has been suggested that the effect observed in the striatum reflects an action of buspirone on dopaminergic autoreceptors in both terminals and cell bodies. In the present study, presynaptic effects of buspirone on dopaminergic metabolism in the nucleus accumbens were investigated, and they were compared to the effects of the classical neuroleptic, haloperidol. Dopaminergic terminals were isolated by infusion of tetrodotoxin into the median forebrain bundle in order to evaluate the effects of buspirone and haloperidol on presynaptic receptors. Changes in dopamine metabolism were determined by in vivo voltammetry. Buspirone administered after interruption of the impulse flow did not affect dopamine metabolism. In contrast haloperidol treatment led to an increase in metabolism of dopamine. It is concluded that buspirone did not act at the presynaptic level and furthermore on dopaminergic autoreceptors.

  2. Zebrafish Locomotor Responses Demonstrate Irritant Effects of Fine Particulate Matter Sources and a Role for TRPA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a complex mixture of chemicals, the composition of which is determined by contributing sources, and has been linked to cardiopulmonary dysfunction. These effects stem in part from the irritating properties of PM constituents, which ...

  3. The Effect of Prenatal Hypoxia on Brain Development: Short- and Long-Term Consequences Demonstrated in Rodent Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golan, Hava; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-01-01

    Hypoxia (H) and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are major causes of foetal brain damage with long-lasting behavioral implications. The effect of hypoxia has been widely studied in human and a variety of animal models. In the present review, we summarize the latest studies testing the behavioral outcomes following prenatal hypoxia/hypoxia-ischemia in rodent…

  4. A Demonstration: Effecting Incremental Improvements in K-12 Education. Final Report, July 1, 1978-September 30, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    A project was conducted to (1) determine how to install comprehensive career education programs on a districtwide basis when development and field testing have been completed, and (2) determine how to transport effective career education programs from school districts that have them to school districts that need them. Project objectives were met…

  5. Field Demonstration of Horizontal Infill Drilling Using Cost-effective Integrated Reservoir Modeling--Mississippian Carbonates, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Saibal Bhattacharya

    2005-08-31

    Mississippian carbonate reservoirs have produced in excess of 1 billion barrels of oil in Kansas accounting for over 16% of the state's production. With declining production from other age reservoirs, the contribution of Mississippian reservoirs to Kansas's oil production has risen to 43% as of 2004. However, solution-enhanced features such as vertical shale intervals extending from the karst erosional surface at the top introduce complexities/compartmentalizations in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs. Coupled with this, strong water drives charge many of these reservoirs resulting in limited drainage from vertical wells due to high water cuts after an initial period of low water production. Moreover, most of these fields are operated by small independent operators without access to the knowledge bank of modern research in field characterization and exploitation/development practices. Thus, despite increasing importance of Mississippian fields to Kansas production, these fields are beset with low recovery factors and high abandonment rates leaving significant resources in the ground. Worldwide, horizontal infill wells have been successful in draining compartmentalized reservoirs with limited pressure depletion. The intent of this project was to demonstrate the application of horizontal wells to successfully exploit the remaining potential in mature Mississippian fields of the mid-continent. However, it is of critical importance that for horizontal wells to be economically successful, they must be selectively targeted. This project demonstrated the application of initial and secondary screening methods, based on publicly available data, to quickly shortlist fields in a target area for detailed studies to evaluate their potential to infill horizontal well applications. Advanced decline curve analyses were used to estimate missing well-level production data and to verify if the well produced under unchanging bottom-hole conditions--two commonly occurring data

  6. Bicalutamide demonstrates biologic effectiveness in prostate cancer cell lines and tumor primary cultures irrespective of Her2/neu expression levels.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Festuccia, Claudio; Millimaggi, Danilo; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Dolo, Vincenza; Vicentini, Carlo; Bologna, Mauro

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the role of Her2/neu as a molecular marker predictive of the treatment response to bicalutamide in prostate cancer (PCa). Four PCa cell lines with graded Her2/neu expression levels and 63 primary tumor cultures derived from men with PCa and selected according to Her2/neu tumor levels were used. Primary tumor cultures and PCa cell lines were treated with bicalutamide (0.1-10 microM) in the presence of dehydrotestosterone (10(-12) M) for 4 days. The presence of a significant correlation between Her2/nue expression and drug efficacy was used to define the role of Her2/neu as molecular predictor of bicalutamide effectiveness. As an indicator of drug effectiveness we used the concentration that inhibits 50% values determined after bicalutamide treatment. After bicalutamide treatment, no significant differences in the concentration that inhibits 50% were found among the different tumor cell lines (P = .081). In this experimental model, the correlation analysis suggested that the effectiveness of this drug was not influenced by Her2/neu levels (r = 0.053, P = .823). In primary cultures with high Her2/neu levels (43 tumor cultures), the mean value of the concentration that inhibits 50% for bicalutamide was 0.43 +/- 0.13 microM, and in cultures with low Her2/neu levels (20 tumor cultures), the same parameter was 0.5 +/- 0.16 microM (P = .14). The correlation analysis suggested that the effectiveness of this drug was not influenced by Her2/neu levels (r = 0.33, P = .101). Our biologic data seem to indicate that the antitumor effect of bicalutamide is independent of Her2/neu levels in preclinical models of PCa. Bicalutamide could be configured as a pharmacologic option to treat patients with high or low levels of Her2/neu.

  7. Demonstration of Effects on Tropical Cyclone Forecasts with a High Resolution Global Model from Variation in Cumulus Convection Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Cohen, Charles; Mackaro, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) is a system of models that have been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to support NASA's earth science research in data analysis, observing system modeling and design, climate and weather prediction, and basic research. The work presented used GEOS-5 with 0.25o horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels (up to 0.01 hP) resolving both the troposphere and stratosphere, with closer packing of the levels close to the surface. The model includes explicit (grid-scale) moist physics, as well as convective parameterization schemes. Results will be presented that will demonstrate strong dependence in the results of modeling of a strong hurricane on the type of convective parameterization scheme used. The previous standard (default) option in the model was the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme, which uses a quasi-equilibrium closure. In the cases shown, this scheme does not permit the efficient development of a strong storm in comparison with observations. When this scheme is replaced by a modified version of the Kain-Fritsch scheme, which was originally developed for use on grids with intervals of order 25 km such as the present one, the storm is able to develop to a much greater extent, closer to that of reality. Details of the two cases will be shown in order to elucidate the differences in the two modeled storms.

  8. Demonstration of Effects on Tropical Cyclone Forecasts with a High Resolution Global Model from Variation in Cumulus Convection Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Cohen, Charles; Mackaro, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) is a system of models that have been developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to support NASA's earth science research in data analysis, observing system modeling and design, climate and weather prediction, and basic research. The work presented used GEOS-5 with 0.25o horizontal resolution and 72 vertical levels (up to 0.01 hP) resolving both the troposphere and stratosphere, with closer packing of the levels close to the surface. The model includes explicit (grid-scale) moist physics, as well as convective parameterization schemes. Results will be presented that will demonstrate strong dependence in the results of modeling of a strong hurricane on the type of convective parameterization scheme used. The previous standard (default) option in the model was the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) scheme, which uses a quasi-equilibrium closure. In the cases shown, this scheme does not permit the efficient development of a strong storm in comparison with observations. When this scheme is replaced by a modified version of the Kain-Fritsch scheme, which was originally developed for use on grids with intervals of order 25 km such as the present one, the storm is able to develop to a much greater extent, closer to that of reality. Details of the two cases will be shown in order to elucidate the differences in the two modeled storms.

  9. Crystalline structure and magnetic behavior of the Ni41Mn39In12Co8 alloy demonstrating giant magnetocaloric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madiligama, A. S. B.; Ari-Gur, P.; Shavrov, V. G.; Koledov, V. V.; Calder, S.; Mashirov, A. V.; Kamantsev, A. P.; Dilmieva, E. T.; Gonzalez-Legarreta, L.; Grande, B. H.; Vega, V. V.; Kayani, A.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic cooling is a green cooling technology, which is more energy efficient than existing fluid-compression cooling machines. Ni41Mn39In12Co8 alloy, which demonstrates promising magnetocaloric performances, was investigated using neutron diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements. The austenite structure is cubic L21 (Fm\\bar{3}m), while that of the martensite is a mix of 8 and 6 M modulated monoclinic structures (P\\quad 1\\quad 2/m\\quad 1). The austenitic site occupancy refinements reveal that all substituting Co atoms occupy Ni-sites. Most Mn atoms (65%) are in the Mn-sites and the rest go to In-sites (about 35%) and Ni-sites (less than 5%). This disorder of the magnetic atoms (Mn, Ni and Co) in the austenitic phase remains unchanged during the martensitic transition. The distortions of the interatomic distances due to the modulation of the martensitic structures further enhance the disorder in the magnetic interactions. Thermomagnetic measurements indicate that the austenitic phase is ferromagnetic. Cooling to below 250 K, where the alloy loses its ferromagnetic nature, and down to 50 K, the lack of any antiferromagnetic Bragg peaks suggests no antiferromagnetic ordering in the martensitic phase. At very low temperatures in the martensitic phase, spin glass magnetic nature is identified by magnetic measurements, and the spin-glass transition temperature is ∼19 K.

  10. [Demonstration of the role of stimulation of purinergic receptors in the electrophysiologic effect of adenylic compounds in man].

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, M; Vidaurri, A; Assaf, M; Vidal, J; Pastelín, G

    1987-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of action of AMP on the AV node conduction, 10 patients with re-entrant tachycardia including the AV node in the circuit (SVT) were studied. The mean age was 32.8 +/- 11.1. Tachycardia was induced by programmed atrial stimulation. Electrophysiological studies were made in all the cases. Intravenous injection of AMP suppressed SVT in all the patients in the first part of the study. The mean doses was 0.095 +/- 0.037 mg/Kg., and the mean time was 15.2 +/- 2.6 sec. In the second part (after 0.04 mg/Kg. IV atropine) the induced SVT was suppressed with a mean doses of 0.122 +/- 0.45 mg/Kg of AMP (P = NSD) in a mean time of 16.2 +/- 2.2 sec. (p = NSD). In the last part of this study the intravenous injection of aminophylline (4 mg/Kg) avoided the suppression of induced SV T in 8/10 patients. In to patients the AMP doses was 0.250 mg/Kg., and in the other 0.075 mg/Kg. Our studies demonstrated that the mechanism of action of AMP is by means of agonistic stimulation of purinergic receptors in the AV node.

  11. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

  12. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

  13. Autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells treatment demonstrated favorable and sustainable therapeutic effect for Crohn's fistula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Cho, Yong Beom; Yoon, Sang Nam; Song, Kee Ho; Kim, Do Sun; Jung, Sang Hun; Kim, Mihyung; Yoo, Hee-Won; Kim, Inok; Ha, Hunjoo; Yu, Chang Sik

    2013-11-01

    Fistula is a representative devastating complication in Crohn's patients due to refractory to conventional therapy and high recurrence. In our phase I clinical trial, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) demonstrated their safety and therapeutic potential for healing fistulae associated with Crohn's disease. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ASCs in patients with Crohn's fistulae. In this phase II study, forty-three patients were treated with ASCs. The amount of ASCs was proportioned to fistula size and fistula tract was filled with ASCs in combination with fibrin glue after intralesional injection of ASCs. Patients without complete closure of fistula at 8 weeks received a second injection of ASCs containing 1.5 times more cells than the first injection. Fistula healing at week 8 after final dose injection and its sustainability for 1-year were evaluated. Healing was defined as a complete closure of external opening without any sign of drainage and inflammation. A modified per-protocol analysis showed that complete fistula healing was observed in 27/33 patients (82%) by 8 weeks after ASC injection. Of 27 patients with fistula healing, 26 patients completed additional observation study for 1-year and 23 patients (88%) sustained complete closure. There were no adverse events related to ASC administration. ASC treatment for patients with Crohn's fistulae was well tolerated, with a favorable therapeutic outcome. Furthermore, complete closure was well sustained. These results strongly suggest that autologous ASC could be a novel treatment option for the Crohn's fistula with high-risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  14. A reductionist biomimetic model system that demonstrates highly effective Zn(II)-catalyzed cleavage of an RNA model.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Tony; Neverov, Alexei A; Brown, R Stan

    2007-03-05

    The cyclization of the RNA model 2-hydroxypropyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNPP, 1) promoted by Zn2+ alone and the 1,5,9-triazacyclododecane complex of Zn2+ (Zn2+:[12]aneN3) is studied in ethanol in the presence of 0.5 equiv of -OEt/Zn2+ to investigate the effect of a low polarity/dielectric medium on a metal-catalyzed reaction of biological relevance. Ethanol exerts a medium effect that promotes strong binding of HPNPP to Zn2+, followed by a dimerization to form a catalytically active complex (HPNPP:Zn2+)2 in which the phosphate undergoes cyclization with a rate constant of kcat = 2.9 s(-1) at s(s)pH 7.1. In the presence of the triaza ligand:Zn2+ complex, the change from water to methanol and then to ethanol brings about a mechanism where two molecules of the complex, suggested as EtOH:Zn2+:[12]aneN3 and its basic form, EtO-:Zn2+:[12]aneN3, bind to HPNPP and catalyze its decomposition with a rate constant of kcat of 0.13 s(-1) at s(s)pH 7.1. Overall, the acceleration exhibited in these two situations is 4 x 10(14)-fold and 1.7 x 10(12)-fold relative to the background ethoxide-promoted reactions at the respective s(s)pH values. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of the idea that enzymatic catalysis is enhanced by a reduced effective dielectric constant within the active site.

  15. Effectiveness of the nitroblue tetrazolium test in demonstrating reduced bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in schistosomal hepatosplenomegaly and ascites.

    PubMed

    Bagneid, M; Kamel, M S; Shaker, A

    1975-06-01

    The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test was carried out on blood from ten normal individuals and 20 schistosomal patients, ten of whom had hepatosplenomegaly and ten hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. The test revealed defective neutrophils in patients who had hepatosplenomegaly accompained by ascites. The phagocytic and bactericidal effects from five of each of the two groups of patients; results substantiated tose obtained by the NBT screening test. The NBT screening test thus proved useful in detecting acquired defective function of neutrophils in a helminthic parasitic disease that is accompanied by frequent bacterial infections.

  16. Protective effect of quercetin and luteolin in human melanoma HMB-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Katarína; Chalupa, Ivan; Sebová, Lívia; Tóthová, Darina; Vachálková, Anna

    2005-01-03

    Multifunctional effects of flavonoids are reported to be markedly connected with their structure and the functional groups in the molecule. The important role in the activity play C2-C3 double bond, hydroxyl group at C3 and the number of hydroxyl groups at phenyl ring (B). In this paper, the DNA protective free radical scavenging potential of quercetin (QU) and luteolin (LU) against H2O2 and their clastogenic effect alone and in combination with melphalan (MH) were investigated in human melanoma HMB-2 cells. Elevated frequency of chromosomal aberrations induced by MH, that at high doses have shown a variety of toxic side effects, was statistically decreased by studied flavonoids regarding to control (QU at the concentration of 50 microM and LU already at the concentration of 20 microM). The results concerning DNA protective potential against free radicals in HMB-2 cells demonstrated that QU and LU have significant effect in dose dependent manner. The percentage of QU protective effect is 40% at the concentration 20 microM, resp. 80% at the concentration 100 microM. Comparable values were obtained with LU. Results are correlated to their structural arrangement and organization of the hydroxyl groups.

  17. Triclosan Demonstrates Synergic Effect with Amphotericin B and Fluconazole and Induces Apoptosis-Like Cell Death in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Movahed, Elaheh; Tan, Grace Min Yi; Munusamy, Komathy; Yeow, Tee Cian; Tay, Sun Tee; Wong, Won Fen; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungus that causes fatal meningoencephalitis especially in AIDS patients. There is an increasing need for discovery of new anti-cryptococcal drugs due to emergence of resistance cases in recent years. In this study, we aim to elucidate the antifungal effect of triclosan against C. neoformans. Methods: Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of triclosan in different C. neoformans strains was first examined. The in vitro interactions between triclosan and two standard anti-fungal drugs (amphotericin B and fluconazole) were further evaluated by microdilution checkerboard assay. Mechanism of triclosan fungicidal activity was then investigated by viewing the cell morphology under transmission electron microscope. Results: We reported that triclosan potently inhibited the growth of C. neoformans. A combination of triclosan with amphotericin B or with fluconazole enhanced their fungicidal effects. Triclosan-treated C. neoformans displayed characteristics such as nuclear chromatin condensation, extensive intracellular vacuolation and mitochondrial swelling, indicating that triclosan triggered apoptosis-like cell death. Conclusion: In summary, our report suggests triclosan as an independent drug or synergent for C. neoformans treatment. PMID:27047474

  18. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae Young; Gupta, Biki; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Yong, Chul Soon

    2017-01-01

    The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD) significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p < 0.05). MXD (3%) and DA-5512 (1%, 5%) significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs) versus the controls (each p < 0.05). The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p < 0.05). In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss. PMID:28539964

  19. Preclinical and Clinical Studies Demonstrate That the Proprietary Herbal Extract DA-5512 Effectively Stimulates Hair Growth and Promotes Hair Health.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jae Young; Gupta, Biki; Park, Hyoung Geun; Son, Miwon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Jong Oh

    2017-01-01

    The proprietary DA-5512 formulation comprises six herbal extracts from traditional oriental plants historically associated with therapeutic and other applications related to hair. Here, we investigated the effects of DA-5512 on the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs) in vitro and on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice and conducted a clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DA-5512. DA-5512 significantly enhanced the viability of hDPCs in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), and 100 ppm of DA-5512 and 1 μM minoxidil (MXD) significantly increased the number of Ki-67-positive cells, compared with the control group (p < 0.05). MXD (3%) and DA-5512 (1%, 5%) significantly stimulated hair growth and increased the number and length of hair follicles (HFs) versus the controls (each p < 0.05). The groups treated with DA-5512 exhibited hair growth comparable to that induced by MXD. In clinical study, we detected a statistically significant increase in the efficacy of DA-5512 after 16 weeks compared with the groups treated with placebo or 3% MXD (p < 0.05). In conclusion, DA-5512 might promote hair growth and enhance hair health and can therefore be considered an effective option for treating hair loss.

  20. Toxicological and biochemical analyses demonstrate no toxic effect of Cry1C and Cry2A to Folsomia candida

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Cao, Fengqin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    Collembolans are common soil arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in genetically engineered (GE) plants by ingestion of crop residues or root exudates. In the present study, a dietary exposure assay was validated and used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins, Cry1C and Cry2A, on Folsomia candida. Using the insecticidal compounds potassium arsenate (PA), protease inhibitor (E-64), and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) mixed into Baker’s yeast, we show that the assay used can detect adverse effects on F. candida. Survival and development were significantly reduced when F. candida was fed a diet containing PA, E-64, and GNA at 9, 75, and 100 μg/g diet, respectively, but not when fed a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A. The activities of test antioxidant-, detoxification-, and digestion-related enzymes in F. candida were unaltered by a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A, but were significantly increased by a diet containing 75 μg/g E-64. The results confirm that Cry1C and Cry2A are not toxic to F. candida at concentrations that are much higher than those encountered under field conditions. PMID:26494315

  1. Effect of hierarchically aligned fibrin hydrogel in regeneration of spinal cord injury demonstrated by tractography: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenxia; Yao, Shenglian; Xie, Sheng; Wang, Xiumei; Chang, Feiyan; Luo, Jie; Wang, Jingming; Fu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have reported that scaffold or cell-based transplantation may improve functional recovery following SCI, but no imaging information regarding regeneration has been provided to date. This study used tractography to show the regenerating process induced by a new biomaterial-aligned fibrin hydrogel (AFG). A total of eight canines subjected to SCI procedures were assigned to the control or the AFG group. AFG was implanted into the SCI lesion immediately after injury in 5 canines. A follow-up was performed at 12 weeks to evaluate the therapeutic effect including the hindlimb functional recovery, anisotropy and continuity of fibers on tractography. Using tractography, we found new fibers running across the SCI in three canines of the AFG group. Further histological examination confirmed limited glial scarring and regenerated nerve fibers in the lesions. Moreover, Repeated Measures Analysis revealed a significantly different change in fractional anisotropy (FA) between the two groups during the follow-up interval. An increase in FA during the post injury time interval was detected in the AFG group, indicating a beneficial effect of AFG in the rehabilitation of injured axons. Using tractography, AFG was suggested to be helpful in the restoration of fibers in SCI lesions, thus leading to promoted functional recovery. PMID:28067245

  2. Demonstration of. beta. -adrenergic receptors and catecholamine-mediated effects on cell proliferation in embryonic palatal tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Pisano, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of catecholamines to modulate cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis in other systems, and modulate adenylate cyclase activity in the developing palate during the period of cellular differentiation, made it of interest to determine their involvement in palatal ontogenesis. Catecholamines exert their physiologic effects via interaction with distinct membrane-bound receptors, one class being the B-adrenergic receptors which are coupled to stimulation of adenylate cyclase and the generation of cAMP. A direct radioligand binding technique utilizing the B-adrenergic antagonist (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol ((/sup 3/H)-DHA) was employed in the identification of B-adrenergic receptors in the developing murine secondary palate. Specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-DHA in embryonic (day 13) palatal tissue homogenates was saturable and of high affinity. The functionality of B-adrenergic receptor binding sites was assessed from the ability of embryonic palate mesenchmyal cells in vitro to respond to catecholamines with elevations of cAMP. Embryonic palate mesenchymal cells responded to various B-adrenergic catecholamine agonists with significant, dose-dependent accumulations of intracellular cAMP. Embryonic (day 13) maxillary tissue homogenates were analyzed for the presence of catecholamines by high performance liquid chromatography and radioenzymatic assay. Since normal palatal and craniofacial morphogenesis depends on proper temporal and spatial patterns of growth, the effect of B-adrenergic catecholamines on embryonic palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was investigated.

  3. Demonstration of postoperative effectiveness in ventral lengthening using a tunica vaginalis flap for severe penile curvature with hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yutaro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Mizuno, Kentaro; Nakane, Akihiro; Kato, Toshiki; Kurokawa, Satoshi; Kamisawa, Hideyuki; Maruyama, Tetsuji; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the postoperative effectiveness of ventral lengthening with a tunica vaginalis flap. Correcting penile curvature is an essential step in proximal hypospadias surgery. It is logical to lengthen the ventral radius using a graft; however, penile curvature would recur owing to a graft contracture with inadequate vascularization. Although a tunica vaginalis is considered a suitable material to be used as a flap instead of a graft, clinical application of this technique is uncommon. Information regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of this procedure is required. Between 2003 and 2008, we repaired 146 patients with hypospadias and the urethral plate was transected in 39 patients because of severe curvature. Significant severe curvature persisting even after transection of the plate was corrected with ventral corporeal lengthening procedures using a tunica vaginalis flap in 15 patients and postoperative results were evaluated. Straight penile erection was identified in all 15 boys at home by their parents. In 7 of the 15 boys, artificial erection was performed at the time of additional surgery; 5 degrees of curvature was found in 2 patients and 0 degree in 5. At the second session of surgery, we observed that penile straightening was maintained without recurrence of curvature. Additionally, the area in which the tunica vaginalis flap was placed on the ventrum did not contract. Therefore, lengthening the ventral aspect using a tunica vaginalis flap might be an important alternative for correction of severe penile curvature in hypospadias surgery. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The impacts of possible climate futures upon Alpine catchment water balance: demonstration of extreme sensitivity to temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balin, Daniela; Schulla, Jörg; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Alpine river basins may be exceptionally sensitive to 20th century climate change because of the importance of snow accumulation and snowmelt for the water balance. Even if there are no significant precipitation changes over this time period, it is possible that there are substantial water balance changes because of the effects of temperature upon the intra-annual and inter-annual accumulation and release of water from cryosphere dominated parts of these river basins. Understanding such changes is difficult in many cases because Alpine basins have also been subject to direct human intervention associated with, for example, changes in land use and land management practices, or water management for hydro-electricity. In this poster, we take the opportunity to assess possible future changes in Alpine catchment water balance for a river basin that is heavily protected and where both in the recent past and the next century it is likely that human impacts within the basin will be relatively insignificant: the Avançon catchment in the western Swiss Alps. We apply the fully-distributed WaSIM-ETH hydrological model to this basin (Schulla, 2012), a model that has been calibrated using a Bayesian MCMC approach (Balin et al, 2010), to determine daily river flows. We couple the model to 21st Century climate model simulations. Analysis of the first results indicates significant changes in hydrological regime to the 2050s especially under the warmer and drier A2 scenario but these changes do not relate to changes in the magnitude of precipitation but, rather, to the effects of progressive temperature rise on the intra-annual stockage of snow in the basin. By the 2050s, there is significantly lower accumulation of snow in the basin, an effect that translates simultaneously into: (1) a greater probability of extended summer base flow; (2) a greater probability of higher winter baseflow; and (3) a reduced probability of extreme river flow because the stock of snow available in the

  5. Radiation-induced resistance oscillations in a 2D hole gas: a demonstration of a universal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñarrea, Jesús; Platero, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    We report on a theoretical study about the microwave-induced resistance oscillations and zero resistance states when dealing with p-type semiconductors and holes instead of electrons. We consider a high-mobility two-dimensional hole gas hosted in a pure Ge/SiGe quantum well. Similarly to electrons we obtain radiation-induced resistance oscillations and zero resistance states. We analytically deduce a universal expression for the irradiated magnetoresistance, explaining the origin of the minima positions and their 1/4 cycle phase shift. The outcome is that these phenomena are universal and only depend on radiation and cyclotron frequencies. We also study the possibility of having simultaneously two different carriers driven by radiation: light and heavy holes. As a result the calculated magnetoresistance reveals an interference profile due to the different effective masses of the two types of carriers.

  6. Effects of space flight on the immunohistochemical demonstration of connexin 26 and connexin 43 in the postpartum uterus of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burden, H. W.; Zary, J.; Alberts, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of space flight in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle was studied in pregnant rats. Rats were launched on day 11 of gestation and recovered on day 20 of gestation. Pregnancy was allowed to proceed to term and rats delivered vaginally on days 22-23, although flight animals required more labour contractions to complete the delivery process. Pups were placed with foster dams and connexin 26 and 43 were examined in the uterus of flight animals approximately 3 h after delivery. Space flight did not affect uterine connexin 26, localized primarily in epithelial cells of the endometrium, but decreased connexin 43, the major gap junction protein in the myometrium. It is suggested that decreased connexin 43 alters synchronization and coordination of labour contractions, resulting in a requirement for more contractions to complete the delivery process.

  7. Effects of space flight on the immunohistochemical demonstration of connexin 26 and connexin 43 in the postpartum uterus of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burden, H. W.; Zary, J.; Alberts, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of space flight in a National Aeronautics and Space Administration shuttle was studied in pregnant rats. Rats were launched on day 11 of gestation and recovered on day 20 of gestation. Pregnancy was allowed to proceed to term and rats delivered vaginally on days 22-23, although flight animals required more labour contractions to complete the delivery process. Pups were placed with foster dams and connexin 26 and 43 were examined in the uterus of flight animals approximately 3 h after delivery. Space flight did not affect uterine connexin 26, localized primarily in epithelial cells of the endometrium, but decreased connexin 43, the major gap junction protein in the myometrium. It is suggested that decreased connexin 43 alters synchronization and coordination of labour contractions, resulting in a requirement for more contractions to complete the delivery process.

  8. Laboratory demonstration of a prozone-like effect in HRP2-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic tests: implications for clinical management.

    PubMed

    Luchavez, Jennifer; Baker, Joanne; Alcantara, Sheila; Belizario, Vicente; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James S; Bell, David

    2011-09-29

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are now widely used for prompt on-site diagnosis in remote endemic areas where reliable microscopy is absent. Aberrant results, whereby negative test results occur at high parasite densities, have been variously reported for over a decade and have led to questions regarding the reliability of the tests in clinical use. In the first trial, serial dilutions of recombinant HRP2 antigen were tested on an HRP2-detectiing RDT. In a second trial, serial dilutions of culture-derived Plasmodium falciparum parasites were tested against three HRP2-detecting RDTs. A prozone-like effect occurred in RDTs at a high concentration of the target antigen, histidine-rich protein-2 (above 15,000 ng/ml), a level that corresponds to more than 312000 parasites per μL. Similar results were noted on three RDT products using dilutions of cultured parasites up to a parasite density of 25%. While reduced line intensity was observed, no false negative results occurred. These results suggest that false-negative malaria RDT results will rarely occur due to a prozone-like effect in high-density infections, and other causes are more likely. However, RDT line intensity is poorly indicative of parasite density in high-density infections and RDTs should, therefore, not be considered quantitative. Immediate management of suspected severe malaria should rely on clinical assessment or microscopy. Evaluation against high concentrations of antigen should be considered in malaria RDT product development and lot-release testing, to ensure that very weak or false negative results will not occur at antigen concentrations that might be seen clinically.

  9. A spreadsheet-based model demonstrating the nonuniform economic effects of varying reproductive performance in Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Meadows, C; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Frazer, G S

    2005-03-01

    A spreadsheet-based model was developed to estimate the economic effect of varying reproductive performance in dairy herds. Scenarios were created to model an average cow with respect to production, herd lifetime, and reproductive events. Average milk yield per day of life as well as lifetime calf and replacement heifer production were examined. Additional inputs representing milk, feed, semen, calf, and salvage prices were used to calculate net cash flow for each day of herd life for the average cow in a scenario. Economic comparison of different scenarios was accomplished using an equivalent annual cash flow (annuity) methodology.Herd performance measures and prices representative of Ohio dairy herds were used to establish a baseline average cow that had a 160-d calving-to-conception interval [days open (DO)]. Alternative scenarios that differed from baseline in DO, annual culling rate, and feed and milk prices were created to characterize the effects of changes. Under scenario inputs representative of typical Ohio dairy herds, the model indicated that a lower annual culling rate (25%) was preferable to higher annual culling rates (34 or 45%). The model estimated maximum average milk yield per day of life to occur at 110 DO. At 34% annual culling rate, calves and replacement heifers produced per lifetime declined as DO increased; beyond 150 DO, the modeled cow produced less than 1 replacement heifer per lifetime. The model also estimated a loss of $1.37 per cow per year for a 1-d increase in DO beyond 160 d. At 20% higher feed and milk prices, the model estimated a loss of $1.52 per cow per year; at 20% lower feed and milk prices, the model estimated a loss of $1.23 per cow per year. Furthermore, the model suggested that the loss associated with a 1-d increase in DO changed as DO changed. Using baseline inputs, the model calculated losses for a 1-d increase of $0.44 per cow per year at 130 DO and $1.71 per cow per year at 190 DO. The nonuniform nature of the cost

  10. Binding and distribution studies in the SENCAR mouse of compounds demonstrating a route-dependent tumorigenic effect

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.P.; Fossa, A.A.; Morse, M.A.; Weaver, P.M.

    1986-09-01

    Previous investigators have determined that benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was much more effective in causing skin papillomas if applied topically than when administered orally in the initiation-promotion assay in SENCAR mouse. Conversely, urethane and acrylamide caused a higher percentage of mice to develop papillomas and induced more tumors per mouse when given orally. In an attempt to understand the reason for this discrepancy in route dependency, /sup 3/H-benzo(a)pyrene, /sup 14/C-acrylamide were administered as single doses orally or topically to male SENCAR mice. Distribution in skin, stomach, liver, and lung was determined for time periods up to 48 hr. The binding of these compounds to DNA, RNA, and protein in these tissues was determined 6 and 48 hr after administration. For all three compounds, high concentrations were found in the skin following topical application, but very little material reached this target organ following oral administration. In contrast, the internal organs generally contained more material after oral administration. The binding of label compounds to DNA, RNA, and protein generally reflected the distribution data, thus more compound was bound in the stomach, liver, and lung after oral administration compared to topical application, whereas the opposite was true for the skin. This finding was particularly evident for B(a)P. The results suggest that differences in distribution to the skin and binding to macromolecules following oral or topical administration cannot explain the greater tumorigenicity of urethane and acrylamide after oral administration in the SENCAR mouse.

  11. A robust demonstration of the cognate facilitation effect in first-language and second-language naming.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Li; Lam, Boji Pak Wing; Cruz, Diana; Fulton, Aislynn

    2016-01-01

    The cognate facilitation effect refers to the phenomenon that in bilinguals performance on various vocabulary tasks is enhanced for cross-linguistic cognates as opposed to noncognates. However, research investigating the presence of the cognate advantage in bilingual children remains limited. Most studies with children conducted to date has not included a control group or rigorously designed stimuli, which may jeopardize the validity and robustness of the emerging evidence. The current study addressed these methodological problems by examining performance in picture naming tasks in 34 4- to 7-year-old Spanish-English bilinguals and 52 Mandarin-English bilinguals as well as 37 English-speaking monolinguals who served as controls. Stimuli were controlled for phonology, word frequency, and length. The Spanish-English bilinguals performed better for cognates than for noncognates and exhibited a greater number of doublet responses (i.e., providing correct responses in both languages) in naming cognate targets than in naming noncognates. The control groups did not show differences in performance between the two sets of words. These findings provide compelling evidence that cross-linguistic similarities at the phonological level allow bootstrapping of vocabulary learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Friedreich ataxia in Louisiana Acadians: demonstration of a founder effect by analysis of microsatellite-generated extended haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Sirugo, G; Keats, B; Fujita, R; Duclos, F; Purohit, K; Koenig, M; Mandel, J L

    1992-01-01

    Eleven Acadian families with Friedreich ataxia (FA) who were from southwest Louisiana were studied with a series of polymorphic markers spanning 310 kb in the D9S5-D9S15 region previously shown to be tightly linked to the disease locus. In particular, three very informative microsatellites were tested. Evidence for a strong founder effect was found, since a specific extended haplotype spanning 230 kb from 26P (D9S5) to MCT112 (D9S15) was present on 70% of independent FA chromosomes and only once (6%) on the normal ones. There was no evident correlation between haplotypes and clinical expression. The typing of an additional microsatellite (GS4) located 80 kb from MCT112 created a divergence of the main FA-linked haplotype, generating four minor and one major haplotype. A similar split was observed with GS4 in a patient homozygous for a rare 26P-to-MCT112 haplotype. These results suggest that GS4 is flanking marker for the disease locus, although other interpretations are possible. Images Figure 2 PMID:1347194

  13. Weight-Related Goal Setting in a Telephone-Based Preventive Health-Coaching Program: Demonstration of Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Blythe J; Gale, Joanne; McGill, Bronwyn; Bauman, Adrian; Hebden, Lana; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Maxwell, Michelle; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2016-08-02

    This study investigated whether participants in a 6-month telephone-based coaching program, who set physical activity, nutrition, and weight loss goals had better outcomes in these domains. Quasi-experimental design. The Australian Get Healthy Information and Coaching Service (GHS), a free population-wide telephone health-coaching service that includes goal setting as a key component of its coaching program. Consenting GHS coaching participants who had completed coaching between February 2009 and December 2012 (n = 4108). At baseline, participants select a goal for the coaching program, and sociodemographic variables are collected. Self-reported weight, height, waist circumference, physical activity, and nutrition-related behaviors are assessed at baseline and 6 months. Descriptive analysis was performed on key sociodemographic variables, and the relationship between goal type and change in health outcomes was assessed using a series of linear mixed models that modeled change from baseline to 6 months. Participants who set goals in relation to weight management and physical activity achieved better results in these areas than those who set alternate goals, losing more than those who set alternate goals (1.5 kg and 0.9 cm in waist circumference) and increasing walking per week (40 minutes), respectively. There was no difference in food-related outcomes for those that set nutrition-related goals. Goal setting for weight management and increasing physical activity in the overweight and obese population, undertaken in a telephone-based coaching program, can be effective. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways.

    PubMed

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-10-23

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H. Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. PMID:26497462

  16. A case study of bats and white-nose syndrome demonstrating how to model population viability with evolutionary effects.

    PubMed

    Maslo, Brooke; Fefferman, Nina H

    2015-08-01

    Ecological factors generally affect population viability on rapid time scales. Traditional population viability analyses (PVA) therefore focus on alleviating ecological pressures, discounting potential evolutionary impacts on individual phenotypes. Recent studies of evolutionary rescue (ER) focus on cases in which severe, environmentally induced population bottlenecks trigger a rapid evolutionary response that can potentially reverse demographic threats. ER models have focused on shifting genetics and resulting population recovery, but no one has explored how to incorporate those findings into PVA. We integrated ER into PVA to identify the critical decision interval for evolutionary rescue (DIER) under which targeted conservation action should be applied to buffer populations undergoing ER against extinction from stochastic events and to determine the most appropriate vital rate to target to promote population recovery. We applied this model to little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) affected by white-nose syndrome (WNS), a fungal disease causing massive declines in several North American bat populations. Under the ER scenario, the model predicted that the DIER period for little brown bats was within 11 years of initial WNS emergence, after which they stabilized at a positive growth rate (λ = 1.05). By comparing our model results with population trajectories of multiple infected hibernacula across the WNS range, we concluded that ER is a potential explanation of observed little brown bat population trajectories across multiple hibernacula within the affected range. Our approach provides a tool that can be used by all managers to provide testable hypotheses regarding the occurrence of ER in declining populations, suggest empirical studies to better parameterize the population genetics and conservation-relevant vital rates, and identify the DIER period during which management strategies will be most effective for species conservation.

  17. Demonstrating the Effect of Particle Impact Dampers on the Random Vibration Response and Fatigue Life of Printed Wiring Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Brent; Montgomery, Randall; Geist, David; Hunt, Ron; LaVerde, Bruce; Towner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In a recent experimental study, small Particle Impact Dampers (PID) were bonded directly to the surface of printed circuit board (PCB) or printed wiring assemblies (PWA), reducing the random vibration response and increasing the fatigue life. This study provides data verifying practicality of this approach. The measured peak strain and acceleration response of the fundamental out of plane bending mode was significantly attenuated by adding a PID device. Attenuation of this mode is most relevant to the fatigue life of a PWA because the local relative displacements between the board and the supported components, which ultimately cause fatigue failures of the electrical leads of the board-mounted components are dominated by this mode. Applying PID damping at the board-level of assembly provides mitigation with a very small mass impact, especially as compared to isolation at an avionics box or shelf level of assembly. When compared with other mitigation techniques at the PWA level (board thickness, stiffeners, constrained layer damping), a compact PID device has the additional advantage of not needing to be an integral part of the design. A PID can simply be bonded to heritage or commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware to facilitate its use in environments beyond which it was originally qualified. Finite element analysis and test results show that the beneficial effect is not localized and that the attenuation is not due to the simple addition of mass. No significant, detrimental reduction in frequency was observed. Side-by-side life testing of damped and un-damped boards at two different thicknesses (0.070" and 0.090") has shown that the addition of a PID was much more significant to the fatigue life than increasing the thickness. High speed video, accelerometer, and strain measurements have been collected to correlate with analytical results.

  18. Demonstration of the Effect of Generic Anatomical Divisions versus Clinical Protocols on Computed Tomography Dose Estimates and Risk Burden

    PubMed Central

    Moorin, Rachael E.; Gibson, David A. J.; Forsyth, Rene K.; Fox, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Choosing to undertake a CT scan relies on balancing risk versus benefit, however risks associated with CT scanning have generally been limited to broad anatomical locations, which do not provided adequate information to evaluate risk against benefit. Our study aimed to determine differences in radiation dose and risk estimates associated with modern CT scanning examinations when computed for clinical protocols compared with those using anatomical area. Methods Technical data were extracted from a tertiary hospital Picture Archiving Communication System for random samples of 20–40 CT examinations per adult clinical CT protocol. Organ and whole body radiation dose were calculated using ImPACT Monte Carlo simulation software and cancer incidence and mortality estimated using BEIR VII age and gender specific lifetime attributable risk weights. Results Thirty four unique CT protocols were identified by our study. When grouped according to anatomic area the radiation dose varied substantially, particularly for abdominal protocols. The total estimated number of incident cancers and cancer related deaths using the mean dose of anatomical area were 86 and 69 respectively. Using more specific protocol doses the estimates rose to 214 and 138 incident cancers and cancer related deaths, at least doubling the burden estimated. Conclusions Modern CT scanning produces a greater diversity of effective doses than much of the literature describes; where a lack of focus on actual scanning protocols has produced estimates that do not reflect the range and complexity of modern CT practice. To allow clinicians, patients and policy makers to make informed risk versus benefit decisions the individual and population level risks associated with modern CT practices are essential. PMID:24878841

  19. Demonstration of the herd effect in adults after the implementation of pneumococcal vaccination with PCV13 in children.

    PubMed

    Hays, C; Vermee, Q; Agathine, A; Dupuis, A; Varon, E; Poyart, C; Ploy, M-C; Raymond, J

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the evolution of serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from both adults and children from the same population area with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or acute otitis media (AOM), 5 years after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). From 2009 to 2015, 839 strains of S. pneumoniae strains were collected (481 from adults and 358 from children). Serotyping by latex antisera and molecular methods was performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested. Compared to 2009, the total number of strains isolated in 2015 decreased in children (263 vs. 53, respectively) and in adults (220 vs. 131, respectively). Serotype coverage of PCV13 for IPD decreased significantly in adults from 67.7% (149/220) to 25.2% (33/131) and in children from 75.1% (61/81) to 18.5% (5/27). Especially, serotypes 1, 7F and 19A decreased significantly in children, while serotypes 7F and 19A decreased significantly in adults. PCV13 serotypes involved in AOM decreased significantly over the 5-year period, from 85.7% (156/182) to 38.5% (10/26), and were more susceptible to penicillin, amoxicillin and cefotaxime, p < 0.05. Serotypes 8, 9N and 10A seemed to emerge in adults, whereas any serotype prevalence was observed in children. Between 2009 and 2015, the introduction of PCV13 has resulted in a significant decrease of the number of S. pneumoniae strains isolated from IPD in children as in adults. It highlights a strong herd effect of vaccination in adults.

  20. Can we demonstrate that breast cancer “Integrative Oncology” is effective? A methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of integrative oncology offered in community clinics

    PubMed Central

    Standish, Leanna J.; Sweet, Erin; Naydis, Eleonora; Andersen, M. Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Many women diagnosed with breast cancer receive both standard cancer treatment and care from providers trained in the emerging field of medicine called ‘integrative oncology’ (IO) in which science-based complementary and alternative medical1 therapies are prescribed by physicians. The effectiveness of IO services has not been fully studied, so is yet unknown. Purpose Determine if a matched case-controlled prospective outcomes study evaluating the efficacy and safety of breast cancer IO care is feasible. Methods Methodological proof of principle requires demonstration that 1) it is possible to find matched control breast cancer patients using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program’s western Washington Cancer Surveillance System (CSS), and 2) an IO clinic can recruit breast cancer patients into a matched controlled study. Results A pilot study was conducted in 2008 (N=14) to determine if matched controlled women could be identified in the western Washington SEER database. All 14 women who were approached agreed to participate. The cases were matched to the CSS along five variables - age and stage at diagnosis, race, marital and ER/PR status. Multiple matches were found for 12 of the 14 participants. Conclusion A prospective cohort study with a matched comparison group is a feasible and potentially rigorous study design with high patient acceptability. It may provide valuable data for the evaluation of the effectiveness of IO care on patient health, relapse rate, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A federally funded matched-case controlled outcomes study is currently underway at Bastyr University and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. PMID:22740079