Science.gov

Sample records for demonstrates reduced availability

  1. Demonstrating Reduced Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Howard; Stocker, Dennis; Gotti, Daniel; Urban, David; Ross, Howard; Sours, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    A miniature drop tower, Reduced-Gravity Demonstrator is developed to illustrate the effects of gravity on a variety of phenomena including the way fluids flow, flames burn, and mechanical systems (such as pendulum) behave. A schematic and description of the demonstrator and payloads are given, followed by suggestions for how one can build his (her) own.

  2. 40 CFR 1042.815 - Demonstrating availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demonstrating availability. 1042.815 Section 1042.815 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION... required that the engine be removed from the vessel and shipped to a factory to be remanufactured. (4)...

  3. 40 CFR 1042.815 - Demonstrating availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (c) of this section, must be less than $45,000 per ton of PM reduction. (3) It must be possible to... conventionally, divided by the projected amount that PM emissions will be reduced over the engine's useful life... the projected amount that PM emissions will be reduced over the engine's useful life using...

  4. 40 CFR 1042.815 - Demonstrating availability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (c) of this section, must be less than $45,000 per ton of PM reduction. (3) It must be possible to... conventionally, divided by the projected amount that PM emissions will be reduced over the engine's useful life... the projected amount that PM emissions will be reduced over the engine's useful life using...

  5. Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.

  6. Demonstrating Absorption Spectra Using Commercially Available Incandescent Light Bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.

    In introductory astronomy courses, I typically introduce the three types of spectra: continuous, absorption line, and emission line. It is standard practice to use an ordinary incandescent light bulb to demonstrate the production of a continuous spectrum, and gas discharge tubes to demonstrate the production of an emission line spectrum. The concept of an absorption spectrum is more difficult for students to grasp. A variety of commercially available light bulbs can be used to demonstrate absorption spectra. Here I discuss the use of specialty incandescent light bulbs to demonstrate the phenomenon of absorption of the continuous spectrum produced by a hot tungsten filament. The bulbs examined include the GE Reveal bulb, yellow anti-insect lights, colored party bulbs, and an incandescent "black light" bulb. The bulbs can be used in a lecture or laboratory setting.

  7. Clinically Available Medicines Demonstrating Anti-Toxoplasma Activity

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Andrew J.; Zach, Sydney J.; Wang, Xiaofang; Larson, Joshua J.; Judge, Abigail K.; Davis, Lisa A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite of humans and other mammals, including livestock and companion animals. While chemotherapeutic regimens, including pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine regimens, ameliorate acute or recrudescent disease such as toxoplasmic encephalitis or ocular toxoplasmosis, these drugs are often toxic to the host. Moreover, no approved options are available to treat infected women who are pregnant. Lastly, no drug regimen has shown the ability to eradicate the chronic stage of infection, which is characterized by chemoresistant intracellular cysts that persist for the life of the host. In an effort to promote additional chemotherapeutic options, we now evaluate clinically available drugs that have shown efficacy in disease models but which lack clinical case reports. Ideally, less-toxic treatments for the acute disease can be identified and developed, with an additional goal of cyst clearance from human and animal hosts. PMID:26392504

  8. Court ruling demonstrates ACA's power to reduce future medical expenses.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Leslie M

    2016-04-01

    Industry insiders who handle litigation involving catastrophic injury cases have eagerly awaited the first rulings to address the impact, if any, of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), often referred to as Obamacare, on claims for future damages. Before the ACA, it was uncertain whether injured individuals would have health insurance to cover ever-growing health care costs in the future. Consequently, in most jurisdictions, the applicable rule of law has prevented the argument that future damages should be reduced because of the availability of health insurance. Because of this, damages have remained essentially unrebutted, and the law has permitted such unrebutted damage projections to be calculated into the future. These projections, primarily in the form of life care plans, are generally the single largest financial component of damage claims. Such plans often project massive expenses that can drive equally massive jury verdicts. PMID:27088773

  9. Reduced availability of large seeds constrains Atlantic forest regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Janaina B. P.; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Santos, Bráulio A.; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Secondary forests are expanding in defaunated fragmented tropical landscapes, but their resilience potential remains poorly understood. In this study we used a chronosequence of advancing (19-62-yr old) Atlantic forest regeneration following slash-and-burn agriculture to infer successional shifts in seed rain in terms of seed density, species richness, taxonomic and functional composition, and local spatial distribution. After monitoring seed rain during 12 months in 60 1-m2 seed traps, we recorded over 400,000 seeds belonging to 180 morphospecies. From early to late-successional stage, seed rain decreased in density, increased in per capita species richness, gradually changed in species composition, and became less aggregated spatially. Regardless the age of forest stand, vertebrate-dispersed seeds accounted for 67-75% of all species recorded. Large-seeded species typical of old-growth forests, on the other hand, accounted for only 5-8% of the species recorded in the seed rain, a proportion around five times smaller than that reported for the old-growth forests of the same study site (31%). Our results suggest that the secondary forests considered, which are embedded in one of the largest (3500 ha) and best preserved remnant of the severely fragmented Atlantic forest of Northeast Brazil, may fail attaining older successional stages due to the reduced availability of large-seeded late-successional species. This regeneration constraint may be even stronger in smaller, more isolated forest remnants of the region, potentially reducing their ability to provide ecosystem services.

  10. 40 CFR 450.24 - New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). Any new source... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). 450.24 Section 450.24 Protection...

  11. 40 CFR 450.24 - New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). 450.24 Section 450.24 Protection...

  12. 40 CFR 450.24 - New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). 450.24 Section 450.24 Protection...

  13. 40 CFR 450.24 - New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). Any new source... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). 450.24 Section 450.24 Protection...

  14. 40 CFR 450.24 - New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New source performance standards reflecting the best available demonstrated control technology (NSPS). 450.24 Section 450.24 Protection...

  15. 77 FR 14029 - Rental Assistance Demonstration: Notice of Web Availability and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Rental Assistance Demonstration: Notice of Web Availability and Request for Comments... the subject properties. This notice announces that HUD has posted on its Web site a demonstration... immediately available to the public. Comments submitted electronically through the www.regulations.gov...

  16. Localized sclerotic bone response demonstrated reduced nanomechanical creep properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuli; Goh, James Cho Hong; Teoh, Swee Hin; De, Shamal Das; Soong, Richie; Lee, Taeyong

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosis (tissue hardening) development is a common occurrence in slow growing or benign osteolytic lesions. However, there is lack of knowledge on the mechanical and material property changes associated with sclerotic bone response. The immune system is postulated to play a relevant role in evoking sclerotic bone responses. In this study, localized sclerotic response in an immunocompetent model of Walker 256 breast carcinoma in SD rats showed an apparent increase in new reactive bone formation. Sclerotic rat femurs had significant increases in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), bone surface density (BS/TV), trabecular number (Tb.N) and a significant decrease in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and structural model index (SMI) as compared to control rat femurs. Significantly reduced creep responses (increased η) were observed for both trabecular and cortical bone in sclerotic bones while no significant difference was observed in elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) values. Therefore, we conclude that viscoelastic creep property using nanoindentation would serve as a more sensitive indicator of localized bone modeling than elastic properties. Moreover, reduced viscoelasticity can contribute towards increased microcrack propagation and therefore reduced toughness. Since significant positive correlations between elastic properties (E) and (H) with viscosity (η) were also observed, our results indicate that sclerotic response of bone metastasis would cause reduced toughness (increased η) with stiffening of material (increased E and H). PMID:23127639

  17. Demonstration of Reduced Gas Pressure in a Centrifugal Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fred; Wild, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple demonstration that shows the change in molecular density and the reduction in pressure of air in a centrifugal field. Uses two circular disks with the same radius and rotating with the same angular velocity, in loose mutual contact, around their symmetry axis. (GA)

  18. Strategies Demonstrating Efficacy in Reducing Wound Contraction In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Justin R.; Martin, Yella

    2013-01-01

    Significance Scarring continues to present a significant clinical problem. Wound contraction leads to scarring and is mediated by myofibroblasts and contractile forces across the wound bed. Contracture formation can have a significant impact on the quality of life of the patient, particularly where function and appearance are affected. Recent Advances Novel tissue-engineered matrices, cell-based therapies, and medicinal therapeutics have shown significant reduction in wound contraction in in-vivo models, particularly at early time points. These have been accompanied in many cases by reduced numbers of myofibroblasts, and in some by increased angiogenesis and improved neodermal architecture. Critical Issues There are no animal models that replicate all aspects of wound healing as seen in patients. Therefore, information obtained from in vivo studies should be assessed critically. Additional studies, in particular those that seek to elucidate the mechanisms by which novel therapies reduce contraction, are needed to gain sufficient confidence to move into clinical testing. Future Directions The use of knockout mouse models in particular has generated significant advances in knowledge of the mechanisms behind myofibroblast conversion and other factors involved in generating tension across the wound. Medicinal therapeutics and tissue-engineering approaches that seek to disrupt/alter these pathways hold much promise for future development and translation to clinical practice. PMID:24527340

  19. 78 FR 65747 - Notice of Funding Availability for Accelerated Innovation Deployment Demonstration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... and Eligible to Receive Services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs'' (published at 77 FR 47868) is... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Funding Availability for Accelerated Innovation Deployment... funding for Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration authorized within the Technology...

  20. Burned rice straw reduces the availability of clomazone to barnyardgrass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Liu, Weiping; Sheng, G Daniel

    2008-03-25

    Field burning of crop residue is a common post-harvest practice to dispose of these agricultural by-products and for land clearing. Burned crop residues may effectively adsorb pesticides and thus influence their bioavailability in agricultural soils. The adsorption of clomazone by a soil amended with a burned rice straw (BRS) was measured. The availability of clomazone to barnyardgrass in the soil in the absence and presence of BRS was tested. The BRS was 1000-20,000 times more effective than soil in sorbing clomazone. The sorption of clomazone by soil increased with increasing BRS amount in the soil. In a bioassay, the injury of barnyardgrass 9 days after planting decreased with increasing BRS amount in soil indicating the effect of BRS on clomazone availability. Residual analyses showed higher concentrations of clomazone in soils receiving higher rates of the herbicide than in soils with lower application rates suggesting the adsorptive role of BRS. At typical application rate of clomazone (0.3 microg g(-1)), BRS amounts of 0.02 wt.% and higher caused an appreciable reduction to a complete loss in clomazone availability. Calculations suggest that field burning of rice straw may result in sufficiently high amounts (>0.02 wt.%) of BRS, and hence contribute to often experienced loss of pesticide availability in agricultural soils. Our results may be extended to field situations where other crop residues and vegetation are burned. Alternative management of crop residues may improve the bioavailability of pesticides in agricultural soils.

  1. THE ENGLISH PROGRAM OF THE USOE CURRICULUM STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION CENTER MATERIALS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    AFTER FIVE YEARS OF FEDERALLY-SUPPORTED CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN ENGLISH, 14 STUDY CENTERS AND FIVE DEMONSTRATION CENTERS ARE NOW MAKING THE RESULTS OF THEIR WORK AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. THIS PAMPHLET LISTS TITLES OF REPORTS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS PREPARED BY THE FOLLOWING CENTERS--(1) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY, (2) TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA…

  2. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Interactive effect of reduced pollen availability and Varroa destructor infestation limits growth and protein content of young honey bees.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, C; Stam, E; Gerritsen, L; Cornelissen, B; van der Steen, J; van Langevelde, F; Blacquière, T

    2013-04-01

    Varroa destructor in combination with one or more stressors, such as low food availability or chemical exposure, is considered to be one of the main causes for honey bee colony losses. We examined the interactive effect of pollen availability on the protein content and body weight of young bees that emerged with and without V. destructor infestation. With reduced pollen availability, and the coherent reduced nutritional protein, we expected that V. destructor infestation during the pupal stage would have a larger negative effect on bee development than without infestation. Moreover, when raised with ample pollen available after emergence, infested pupae were expected not to be able to compensate for early losses due to V. destructor. We found that both V. destructor infestation and reduced pollen availability reduced body weight, abdominal protein level, and increased the head to abdomen protein ratio. The availability of pollen did indeed not result in compensation for reduced mass and protein content caused by V. destructor infestation in young bees after 1 week of their adult life. Both V. destructor and nutrition are top concerns for those studying honey bee health and this study demonstrates that both have substantial effects on young bees and that ample available pollen cannot compensate for reduced mass and protein content caused by V. destructor parasitism. PMID:23439242

  4. Interactive effect of reduced pollen availability and Varroa destructor infestation limits growth and protein content of young honey bees.

    PubMed

    van Dooremalen, C; Stam, E; Gerritsen, L; Cornelissen, B; van der Steen, J; van Langevelde, F; Blacquière, T

    2013-04-01

    Varroa destructor in combination with one or more stressors, such as low food availability or chemical exposure, is considered to be one of the main causes for honey bee colony losses. We examined the interactive effect of pollen availability on the protein content and body weight of young bees that emerged with and without V. destructor infestation. With reduced pollen availability, and the coherent reduced nutritional protein, we expected that V. destructor infestation during the pupal stage would have a larger negative effect on bee development than without infestation. Moreover, when raised with ample pollen available after emergence, infested pupae were expected not to be able to compensate for early losses due to V. destructor. We found that both V. destructor infestation and reduced pollen availability reduced body weight, abdominal protein level, and increased the head to abdomen protein ratio. The availability of pollen did indeed not result in compensation for reduced mass and protein content caused by V. destructor infestation in young bees after 1 week of their adult life. Both V. destructor and nutrition are top concerns for those studying honey bee health and this study demonstrates that both have substantial effects on young bees and that ample available pollen cannot compensate for reduced mass and protein content caused by V. destructor parasitism.

  5. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppy, M.; Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Holland, G.; Hanada, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  6. Demonstration of Hadoop-GIS: A Spatial Data Warehousing System Over MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Ablimit; Sun, Xiling; Vo, Hoang; Liu, Qioaling; Lee, Rubao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Saltz, Joel; Wang, Fusheng

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of GPS-enabled devices, and the rapid improvement of scientific instruments have resulted in massive amounts of spatial data in the last decade. Support of high performance spatial queries on large volumes data has become increasingly important in numerous fields, which requires a scalable and efficient spatial data warehousing solution as existing approaches exhibit scalability limitations and efficiency bottlenecks for large scale spatial applications. In this demonstration, we present Hadoop-GIS – a scalable and high performance spatial query system over MapReduce. Hadoop-GIS provides an efficient spatial query engine to process spatial queries, data and space based partitioning, and query pipelines that parallelize queries implicitly on MapReduce. Hadoop-GIS also provides an expressive, SQL-like spatial query language for workload specification. We will demonstrate how spatial queries are expressed in spatially extended SQL queries, and submitted through a command line/web interface for execution. Parallel to our system demonstration, we explain the system architecture and details on how queries are translated to MapReduce operators, optimized, and executed on Hadoop. In addition, we will showcase how the system can be used to support two representative real world use cases: large scale pathology analytical imaging, and geo-spatial data warehousing.

  7. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the

  8. Reduced sleep duration mediates decreases in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Wiers, C E; Shumay, E; Cabrera, E; Shokri-Kojori, E; Gladwin, T E; Skarda, E; Cunningham, S I; Kim, S W; Wong, T C; Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented reduced striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability in cocaine abusers, which has been associated with impaired prefrontal activity and vulnerability for relapse. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the decreases in D2/D3R remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that sleep deprivation is associated with a downregulation of striatal D2/D3R in healthy volunteers. As cocaine abusers have disrupted sleep patterns, here we investigated whether reduced sleep duration mediates the relationship between cocaine abuse and low striatal D2/D3R availability. We used positron emission tomography with [(11)C]raclopride to measure striatal D2/D3R availability in 24 active cocaine abusers and 21 matched healthy controls, and interviewed them about their daily sleep patterns. Compared with controls, cocaine abusers had shorter sleep duration, went to bed later and reported longer periods of sleep disturbances. In addition, cocaine abusers had reduced striatal D2/D3R availability. Sleep duration predicted striatal D2/D3R availability and statistically mediated the relationship between cocaine abuse and striatal D2/D3R availability. These findings suggest that impaired sleep patterns contribute to the low striatal D2/D3R availability in cocaine abusers. As sleep impairments are similarly observed in other types of substance abusers (for example, alcohol and methamphetamine), this mechanism may also underlie reductions in D2/D3R availability in these groups. The current findings have clinical implications suggesting that interventions to improve sleep patterns in cocaine abusers undergoing detoxification might be beneficial in improving their clinical outcomes. PMID:26954979

  9. Reduced sleep duration mediates decreases in striatal D2/D3 receptor availability in cocaine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Wiers, C E; Shumay, E; Cabrera, E; Shokri-Kojori, E; Gladwin, T E; Skarda, E; Cunningham, S I; Kim, S W; Wong, T C; Tomasi, D; Wang, G-J; Volkow, N D

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have documented reduced striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2/D3R) availability in cocaine abusers, which has been associated with impaired prefrontal activity and vulnerability for relapse. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the decreases in D2/D3R remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that sleep deprivation is associated with a downregulation of striatal D2/D3R in healthy volunteers. As cocaine abusers have disrupted sleep patterns, here we investigated whether reduced sleep duration mediates the relationship between cocaine abuse and low striatal D2/D3R availability. We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure striatal D2/D3R availability in 24 active cocaine abusers and 21 matched healthy controls, and interviewed them about their daily sleep patterns. Compared with controls, cocaine abusers had shorter sleep duration, went to bed later and reported longer periods of sleep disturbances. In addition, cocaine abusers had reduced striatal D2/D3R availability. Sleep duration predicted striatal D2/D3R availability and statistically mediated the relationship between cocaine abuse and striatal D2/D3R availability. These findings suggest that impaired sleep patterns contribute to the low striatal D2/D3R availability in cocaine abusers. As sleep impairments are similarly observed in other types of substance abusers (for example, alcohol and methamphetamine), this mechanism may also underlie reductions in D2/D3R availability in these groups. The current findings have clinical implications suggesting that interventions to improve sleep patterns in cocaine abusers undergoing detoxification might be beneficial in improving their clinical outcomes. PMID:26954979

  10. High nutrient availability reduces the diversity and stability of the equine caecal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Naja C. K.; Avershina, Ekaterina; Mydland, Liv T.; Næsset, Jon A.; Austbø, Dag; Moen, Birgitte; Måge, Ingrid; Rudi, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that nutrient availability can alter the gut microbiota composition, while the effect on diversity and temporal stability remains largely unknown. Methods Here we address the equine caecal microbiota temporal stability, diversity, and functionality in response to diets with different levels of nutrient availability. Hay (low and slower nutrient availability) versus a mixture of hay and whole oats (high and more rapid nutrient availability) were used as experimental diets. Results We found major effects on the microbiota despite that the caecal pH was far from sub-clinical acidosis. We found that the low nutrient availability diet was associated with a higher level of both diversity and temporal stability of the caecal microbiota than the high nutrient availability diet. These observations concur with general ecological theories, suggesting a stabilising effect of biological diversity and that high nutrient availability has a destabilising effect through reduced diversity. Conclusion Nutrient availability does not only change the composition but also the ecology of the caecal microbiota. PMID:26246403

  11. Earlier springs are causing reduced nitrogen availability in North American eastern deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Andrew J; Nelson, David M; Craine, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    There is wide agreement that anthropogenic climate warming has influenced the phenology of forests during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries(1,2). Longer growing seasons can lead to increased photosynthesis and productivity(3), which would represent a negative feedback to rising CO2 and consequently warming(4,5). Alternatively, increased demand for soil resources because of a longer photosynthetically active period in conjunction with other global change factors might exacerbate resource limitation(6,7), restricting forest productivity response to a longer growing season(8,9). In this case, increased springtime productivity has the potential to increase plant nitrogen limitation by increasing plant demand for nitrogen more than nitrogen supplies, or increasing early-season ecosystem nitrogen losses(10,11). Here we show that for 222 trees representing three species in eastern North America earlier spring phenology during the past 30 years has caused declines in nitrogen availability to trees by increasing demand for nitrogen relative to supply. The observed decline in nitrogen availability is not associated with reduced wood production, suggesting that other environmental changes such as increased atmospheric CO2 and water availability are likely to have overwhelmed reduced nitrogen availability. Given current trajectories of environmental changes, nitrogen limitation is likely to continue to increase for these forests, possibly further limiting carbon sequestration potential. PMID:27618399

  12. Earlier springs are causing reduced nitrogen availability in North American eastern deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Andrew J; Nelson, David M; Craine, Joseph M

    2016-09-12

    There is wide agreement that anthropogenic climate warming has influenced the phenology of forests during the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries(1,2). Longer growing seasons can lead to increased photosynthesis and productivity(3), which would represent a negative feedback to rising CO2 and consequently warming(4,5). Alternatively, increased demand for soil resources because of a longer photosynthetically active period in conjunction with other global change factors might exacerbate resource limitation(6,7), restricting forest productivity response to a longer growing season(8,9). In this case, increased springtime productivity has the potential to increase plant nitrogen limitation by increasing plant demand for nitrogen more than nitrogen supplies, or increasing early-season ecosystem nitrogen losses(10,11). Here we show that for 222 trees representing three species in eastern North America earlier spring phenology during the past 30 years has caused declines in nitrogen availability to trees by increasing demand for nitrogen relative to supply. The observed decline in nitrogen availability is not associated with reduced wood production, suggesting that other environmental changes such as increased atmospheric CO2 and water availability are likely to have overwhelmed reduced nitrogen availability. Given current trajectories of environmental changes, nitrogen limitation is likely to continue to increase for these forests, possibly further limiting carbon sequestration potential.

  13. Flooding disturbances increase resource availability and productivity but reduce stability in diverse plant communities.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; de Kroon, Hans; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Buchmann, Nina; Buchmann, Tina; Fischer, Christine; Hacker, Nina; Hildebrandt, Anke; Leimer, Sophia; Mommer, Liesje; Oelmann, Yvonne; Scheu, Stefan; Steinauer, Katja; Strecker, Tanja; Weisser, Wolfgang; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-01-01

    The natural world is increasingly defined by change. Within the next 100 years, rising atmospheric CO₂ concentrations will continue to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events. Simultaneously, human activities are reducing global biodiversity, with current extinction rates at ~1,000 × what they were before human domination of Earth's ecosystems. The co-occurrence of these trends may be of particular concern, as greater biological diversity could help ecosystems resist change during large perturbations. We use data from a 200-year flood event to show that when a disturbance is associated with an increase in resource availability, the opposite may occur. Flooding was associated with increases in productivity and decreases in stability, particularly in the highest diversity communities. Our results undermine the utility of the biodiversity-stability hypothesis during a large number of disturbances where resource availability increases. We propose a conceptual framework that can be widely applied during natural disturbances. PMID:25600177

  14. Fluorescence Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Demonstrates Reduced Cones and Hypoautofluorescent Spots in Fundus Albipunctatus

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hongxin; Latchney, Lisa; Williams, David; Chung, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Importance Fundus albipunctatus (FA) is a form of congenital stationary night blindness characterized by yellow-white spots, which were classically described as subretinal. Although night blindness and delayed dark adaptation are hallmarks of this condition, recent studies have described a macular phenotype, particularly among older patients. Using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (FAOSLO), this study provides in vivo morphological data at the cellular level in FA. Objective To study the cone photoreceptors and the albipunctate spots in FA at single cell resolution. Design, Setting and Participant A 34-year-old woman with FA underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, including conventional imaging tests, at the University of Rochester. FAOSLO was used to obtain infrared reflectance images of the cone mosaic at the central fovea and along the superior and temporal meridians to 10 degrees eccentricity. Cone density was measured at the foveal center and cone spacing was calculated in sampling windows eccentrically. In the area of the albipunctate spots, autofluorescence FAOSLO images (excitation 561 nm, emission 624 Δ 40nm) were simultaneously obtained. Results Cone density was reduced to 70% of the lower limit of normal range at the foveal center, and cone spacing was increased eccentrically to 10 degrees. Individual cone central core reflectances appeared dim, suggesting loss of photoreceptor outer segments. The albipunctate spots were hypoautofluorescent. No photoreceptors or RPE cells were identified at the locations of the albipunctate spots. Conclusions and Relevance Although the predominant clinical symptom of night blindness and the ERG results suggest a primary rod dysfunction, FAOSLO demonstrates cone density is also reduced. This finding may represent an early sign of progression to macular phenotype in FA. The hypoautofluorescence suggests that the albipunctate spots do not represent lipofuscin. PMID:24922193

  15. Effectiveness of activated carbon and biochar in reducing the availability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soils.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunzhou; Currie, Rebecca J; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Fishman, Vyacheslav N; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-01-17

    Five activated carbons (ACs) and two biochars were tested as amendments to reduce the availability of aged polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two soils. All sorbents (ACs and biochars) tested substantially reduced the availability of PCDD/Fs measured by polyoxymethylene (POM) passive uptake and earthworm (E. fetida) biouptake. Seven sorbents amended at a level of 0.2 × soil total organic carbon (0.2X) reduced the passive uptake (physicochemical availability) of total PCDD/Fs in POM by 40% to 92% (or toxic equivalent by 48% to 99%). Sorbents with finer particle sizes or more macropores showed higher reduction efficiencies. The powdered regenerated AC and powdered coconut AC demonstrated to be the most effective and the two biochars also performed reasonably well especially in the powdered form. The passive uptake of PCDD/F in POM increased approximately 4 to 5 fold as the contact time between POM and soil slurry increased from 24 to 120 d while the efficacy of ACs in reducing the physicochemical availability remained unchanged. The reduction efficiencies measured by POM passive uptake for the regenerated AC were comparable to those measured by earthworm biouptake (bioavailability) at both dose levels of 0.2X and 0.5X. The biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) values for unamended soil ranged from 0.1 for tetra-CDD/F to 0.02 for octa-CDD/F. At both dose levels, the regenerated AC reduced the BSAFs to below 0.03 with the exception of two hexa-CDD/Fs. The reduction efficiencies measured by earthworm for coconut AC and corn stover biochar were generally less than those measured by POM probably due to larger particle sizes of these sorbents that could not be ingested by the worms. PMID:22136630

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Formyl-Methionyl Transferase Mutants Demonstrate Reduced Virulence Factor Production and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; DeMarsh, Peter; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection. PMID:23571548

  17. Fan Beam Emission Tomography Demonstrated Successfully in the Reduced-Gravity Environment of Drop Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feikema, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    Fires onboard manned spacecraft and launch vehicles are a particularly feared hazard because one cannot jump ship while in orbit 240 nmi above the Earth at 17 000 mph! Understanding the physical properties of fires in free fall and on orbit is, therefore, a very important endeavor for NASA s Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. However, detailed information concerning the structure of microgravity fires remained elusive until recently since robustness, limited power, limited volume, and limited mass place severe constraints on diagnostic equipment for use in space and in NASA Glenn Research Center s reduced-gravity facilities. Under NASA Research Associate funding since 2001, En'Urga, Inc. (Dr. Sivathanu, principal investigator, and Dr. Lim, co-investigator) in collaboration with Glenn (Dr. Feikema, coinvestigator) have successfully demonstrated a new technology for use in microgravity combustion. A midinfrared scanning spectrometer has been developed by En'Urga and tested at Glenn to measure 30 spectra per second at different spatial locations in a flame from 1.8 to 4.8 microns.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus formyl-methionyl transferase mutants demonstrate reduced virulence factor production and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; Demarsh, Peter; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection.

  19. Conocarpus biochar as a soil amendment for reducing heavy metal availability and uptake by maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I.; Usman, Adel R.A.; El-Naggar, Ahmed H.; Aly, Anwar A.; Ibrahim, Hesham M.; Elmaghraby, Salem; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of Concarpus biochar as a soil amendment for reducing heavy metal accessibility and uptake by maize plants (Zea mays L.). The impacts of biochar rates (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0% w/w) and two soil moisture levels (75% and 100% of field capacity, FC) on immobilization and availability of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb to maize plants as well as its application effects on soil pH, EC, bulk density, and moisture content were evaluated using heavy metal-contaminated soil collected from mining area. The biochar addition significantly decreased the bulk density and increased moisture content of soil. Applying biochar significantly reduced NH4OAc- or AB-DTPA-extractable heavy metal concentrations of soils, indicating metal immobilization. Conocarpus biochar increased shoot dry biomass of maize plants by 54.5–102% at 75% FC and 133–266% at 100% FC. Moreover, applying biochar significantly reduced shoot heavy metal concentrations in maize plants (except for Fe at 75% FC) in response to increasing application rates, with a highest decrease of 51.3% and 60.5% for Mn, 28% and 21.2% for Zn, 60% and 29.5% for Cu, 53.2% and 47.2% for Cd at soil moisture levels of 75% FC and 100% FC, respectively. The results suggest that biochar may be effectively used as a soil amendment for heavy metal immobilization and in reducing its phytotoxicity. PMID:26150758

  20. Conocarpus biochar as a soil amendment for reducing heavy metal availability and uptake by maize plants.

    PubMed

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Usman, Adel R A; El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Aly, Anwar A; Ibrahim, Hesham M; Elmaghraby, Salem; Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of Concarpus biochar as a soil amendment for reducing heavy metal accessibility and uptake by maize plants (Zea mays L.). The impacts of biochar rates (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0% w/w) and two soil moisture levels (75% and 100% of field capacity, FC) on immobilization and availability of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb to maize plants as well as its application effects on soil pH, EC, bulk density, and moisture content were evaluated using heavy metal-contaminated soil collected from mining area. The biochar addition significantly decreased the bulk density and increased moisture content of soil. Applying biochar significantly reduced NH4OAc- or AB-DTPA-extractable heavy metal concentrations of soils, indicating metal immobilization. Conocarpus biochar increased shoot dry biomass of maize plants by 54.5-102% at 75% FC and 133-266% at 100% FC. Moreover, applying biochar significantly reduced shoot heavy metal concentrations in maize plants (except for Fe at 75% FC) in response to increasing application rates, with a highest decrease of 51.3% and 60.5% for Mn, 28% and 21.2% for Zn, 60% and 29.5% for Cu, 53.2% and 47.2% for Cd at soil moisture levels of 75% FC and 100% FC, respectively. The results suggest that biochar may be effectively used as a soil amendment for heavy metal immobilization and in reducing its phytotoxicity.

  1. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  2. Rain events decrease boreal peatland net CO2 uptake through reduced light availability.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Limpens, Juul; Metselaar, Klaas; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Berendse, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Boreal peatlands store large amounts of carbon, reflecting their important role in the global carbon cycle. The short-term exchange and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in these ecosystems are closely associated with the permanently wet surface conditions and are susceptible to drought. Especially, the single most important peat forming plant genus, Sphagnum, depends heavily on surface wetness for its primary production. Changes in rainfall patterns are expected to affect surface wetness, but how this transient rewetting affects net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) remains unknown. This study explores how the timing and characteristics of rain events during photosynthetic active periods, that is daytime, affect peatland NEE and whether rain event associated changes in environmental conditions modify this response (e.g. water table, radiation, vapour pressure deficit, temperature). We analysed an 11-year time series of half-hourly eddy covariance and meteorological measurements from Degerö Stormyr, a boreal peatland in northern Sweden. Our results show that daytime rain events systematically decreased the sink strength of peatlands for atmospheric CO2 . The decrease was best explained by rain associated reduction in light, rather than by rain characteristics or drought length. An average daytime growing season rain event reduced net ecosystem CO2 uptake by 0.23-0.54 gC m(-2) . On an annual basis, this reduction of net CO2 uptake corresponds to 24% of the annual net CO2 uptake (NEE) of the study site, equivalent to a 4.4% reduction of gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. We conclude that reduced light availability associated with rain events is more important in explaining the NEE response to rain events than rain characteristics and changes in water availability. This suggests that peatland CO2 uptake is highly sensitive to changes in cloud cover formation and to altered rainfall regimes, a process hitherto largely

  3. Rain events decrease boreal peatland net CO2 uptake through reduced light availability.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Limpens, Juul; Metselaar, Klaas; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Berendse, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Boreal peatlands store large amounts of carbon, reflecting their important role in the global carbon cycle. The short-term exchange and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) in these ecosystems are closely associated with the permanently wet surface conditions and are susceptible to drought. Especially, the single most important peat forming plant genus, Sphagnum, depends heavily on surface wetness for its primary production. Changes in rainfall patterns are expected to affect surface wetness, but how this transient rewetting affects net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE) remains unknown. This study explores how the timing and characteristics of rain events during photosynthetic active periods, that is daytime, affect peatland NEE and whether rain event associated changes in environmental conditions modify this response (e.g. water table, radiation, vapour pressure deficit, temperature). We analysed an 11-year time series of half-hourly eddy covariance and meteorological measurements from Degerö Stormyr, a boreal peatland in northern Sweden. Our results show that daytime rain events systematically decreased the sink strength of peatlands for atmospheric CO2 . The decrease was best explained by rain associated reduction in light, rather than by rain characteristics or drought length. An average daytime growing season rain event reduced net ecosystem CO2 uptake by 0.23-0.54 gC m(-2) . On an annual basis, this reduction of net CO2 uptake corresponds to 24% of the annual net CO2 uptake (NEE) of the study site, equivalent to a 4.4% reduction of gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. We conclude that reduced light availability associated with rain events is more important in explaining the NEE response to rain events than rain characteristics and changes in water availability. This suggests that peatland CO2 uptake is highly sensitive to changes in cloud cover formation and to altered rainfall regimes, a process hitherto largely

  4. Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced PADD IV refining capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.; Chin, S.M.

    1994-02-01

    Studies of Rocky Mountain area petroleum product availability with reduced refining capacity in Petroleum Administration for Defense IV (PADD IV, part of the Rocky Mountain area) have been performed with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Refinery Yield Model, a linear program which has been updated to blend gasolines to satisfy constraints on emissions of nitrogen oxides and winter toxic air pollutants. The studies do not predict refinery closures in PADD IV. Rather, the reduced refining capacities provide an analytical framework for probing the flexibility of petroleum refining and distribution for winter demand conditions in the year 2000. Industry analysts have estimated that, for worst case scenarios, 20 to 35 percent of PADD IV refining capacity could be shut-down as a result of clean air and energy tax legislation. Given these industry projections, the study scenarios provide the following conclusions: The Rocky Mountain area petroleum system would have the capability to satisfy winter product demand with PADD IV refinery capacity shut-downs in the middle of the range of industry projections, but not in the high end of the range of projections. PADD IV crude oil production can be maintained by re-routing crude released from PADD IV refinery demands to satisfy increased crude oil demands in PADDs II (Midwest), III (Gulf Coast), and Washington. Clean Air Act product quality regulations generally do not increase the difficulty of satisfying emissions reduction constraints in the scenarios.

  5. Next Generation Fast RF Interlock Module and ATCA Adapter for ILC High Availability RF Test Station Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R

    2009-10-17

    High availability interlocks and controls are required for the ILC (International Linear Collider) L-Band high power RF stations. A new F3 (Fast Fault Finder) VME module has been developed to process both fast and slow interlocks using FPGA logic to detect the interlock trip excursions. This combination eliminates the need for separate PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control of slow interlocks. Modules are chained together to accommodate as many inputs as needed. In the next phase of development the F3's will be ported to the new industry standard ATCA (Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture) crate (shelf) via a specially designed VME adapter module with IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface). The goal is to demonstrate auto-failover and hot-swap for future partially redundant systems.

  6. Feasibility studies to improve plant availability and reduce total installed cost in IGCC plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Kevin; Anasti, William; Fang, Yichuan; Subramanyan, Karthik; Leininger, Tom; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-03-30

    The main purpose of this project is to look at technologies and philosophies that would help reduce the costs of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, increase its availability or do both. GE’s approach to this problem is to consider options in three different areas: 1) technology evaluations and development; 2) constructability approaches; and 3) design and operation methodologies. Five separate tasks were identified that fall under the three areas: Task 2 – Integrated Operations Philosophy; Task 3 – Slip Forming of IGCC Components; Task 4 – Modularization of IGCC Components; Task 5 – Fouling Removal; and Task 6 – Improved Slag Handling. Overall, this project produced results on many fronts. Some of the ideas could be utilized immediately by those seeking to build an IGCC plant in the near future. These include the considerations from the Integrated Operations Philosophy task and the different construction techniques of Slip Forming and Modularization (especially if the proposed site is in a remote location or has a lack of a skilled workforce). Other results include ideas for promising technologies that require further development and testing to realize their full potential and be available for commercial operation. In both areas GE considers this project to be a success in identifying areas outside the core IGCC plant systems that are ripe for cost reduction and ity improvement opportunities.

  7. Effect of reduced barometric pressure on water availability related to microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Hawrylewicz, E J; Hagen, C; Tolkacz, V; Ehrlich, R

    1967-01-01

    Data obtained from Mariner IV indicate that the barometric pressure on Mars is considerably lower than previously estimated. Current estimates from Mariner IV indicate a range from 4 to 7 mb and by near infrared spectroscopy 33-56 mb. Inasmuch as the pressure has a marked influence on availability of water, this should affect the existence of Martian life. At the maximum temperatures recorded on Mars, namely 25 degrees C, a barometric pressure of 30 mb is required for the retention of free water. The lower pressure, 4 mb, would suggest that the moisture is present as a vapor above the freezing point and consequently it is not available for utilizing by living cells. The lower estimates of barometric pressure also inversely affect the carbon dioxide concentration in the Martian atmosphere. Our previous studies have demonstrated that spores of Bacillus cereus survive, germinate and grow in a simulated Martian environment (2.4% CO2, 98 mb) supplemented with moisture. The studies described in this paper were designed to determine the effect of low barometric pressures (10 to 98 mb Hg) and high concentrations of carbon dioxide (37 to 100%) in the simulated Martian environment on survival and growth of B cereus. The organism was inoculated into a felsite-limonite soil at 8% moisture level. The temperature cycles used were 8 hr at -65 degrees C and 16 hr at 25 degrees C, or 20 hr at -65 degrees C and 4 hr at 25 degrees C. The data suggest that the organism after achieving maximum growth in the simulated Martian environment (2.4% CO2, 98 mb) immediately enters into the growth phase upon reinoculation into fresh soil. These data reflect upon the possibility of contamination through air movements. Based upon currently available Martian environmental data, the probability of contamination of Mars by terrestrial micro-organisms will be discussed.

  8. SUMOylation of synapsin Ia maintains synaptic vesicle availability and is reduced in an autism mutation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Leo T. -H.; Craig, Tim J.; Henley, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Synapsins are key components of the presynaptic neurotransmitter release machinery. Their main role is to cluster synaptic vesicles (SVs) to each other and anchor them to the actin cytoskeleton to establish the reserve vesicle pool, and then release them in response to appropriate membrane depolarization. Here we demonstrate that SUMOylation of synapsin Ia (SynIa) at K687 is necessary for SynIa function. Replacement of endogenous SynIa with a non-SUMOylatable mutant decreases the size of the releasable vesicle pool and impairs stimulated SV exocytosis. SUMOylation enhances SynIa association with SVs to promote the efficient reclustering of SynIa following neuronal stimulation and maintain its presynaptic localization. The A548T mutation in SynIa is strongly associated with autism and epilepsy and we show that it leads to defective SynIa SUMOylation. These results identify SUMOylation as a fundamental regulator of SynIa function and reveal a novel link between reduced SUMOylation of SynIa and neurological disorders. PMID:26173895

  9. Reducing Available Soluble β-Amyloid Prevents Progression of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Julia L.; Prada, Claudia M.; Fine, Sara J.; Garcia-Alloza, Monica; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Greenberg, Steven M.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Frosch, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the walls of leptomeningeal and cortical blood vessels of the brain, is a major cause of intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment, and is commonly associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). CAA progression, as measured in transgenic mice by longitudinal imaging with multiphoton microscopy, occurs in a predictable linear manner. The dynamics of Aβ deposition in and clearance from vascular walls and their relationship to the concentration of Aβ in the brain is poorly understood. We manipulated Aβ levels in the brain using 2 approaches: peripheral clearance via administration of the amyloid binding “peripheral sink” protein gelsolin, and direct inhibition of its formation via administration of LY-411575, a small molecule γ-secretase inhibitor. We found that gelsolin and LY-411575 both reduced the rate of CAA progression in Tg2576 mice from untreated rates of 0.58 ± 0.15% and 0.52 ± 0.09% to 0.11 ± 0.18% (p = 0.04) and −0.17 ± 0.09% (p < 0.001) of affected vessel per day, respectively, in the absence of an immune response. CAA progression was also halted when gelsolin was combined with LY-411575 (−0.004 ± 0.10%, p < 0.003). These data suggest that CAA progression can be prevented with non-immune approaches that may reduce the availability of soluble Aβ, but without evidence of substantial amyloid clearance from vessels. PMID:23095848

  10. Radiolarians decreased silicification as an evolutionary response to reduced Cenozoic ocean silica availability.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, David B; Kotrc, Benjamin; Wulf, Gerwin; Schmidt, Daniela N

    2009-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that increased water column stratification has been an abiotic "universal driver" affecting average cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Gradually decreasing Cenozoic radiolarian shell weight, by contrast, suggests that competition for dissolved silica, a shared nutrient, resulted in biologic coevolution between radiolaria and marine diatoms, which expanded dramatically in the Cenozoic. We present data on the 2 components of shell weight change--size and silicification--of Cenozoic radiolarians. In low latitudes, increasing Cenozoic export of silica to deep waters by diatoms and decreasing nutrient upwelling from increased water column stratification have created modern silica-poor surface waters. Here, radiolarian silicification decreases significantly (r = 0.91, P < 0.001), from approximately 0.18 (shell volume fraction) in the basal Cenozoic to modern values of approximately 0.06. A third of the total change occurred rapidly at 35 Ma, in correlation to major increases in water column stratification and abundance of diatoms. In high southern latitudes, Southern Ocean circulation, present since the late Eocene, maintains significant surface water silica availability. Here, radiolarian silicification decreased insignificantly (r = 0.58, P = 0.1), from approximately 0.13 at 35 Ma to 0.11 today. Trends in shell size in both time series are statistically insignificant and are not correlated with each other. We conclude that there is no universal driver changing cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Furthermore, biologic and physical factors have, in concert, by reducing silica availability in surface waters, forced macroevolutionary changes in Cenozoic low-latitude radiolarians. PMID:19458255

  11. Radiolarians decreased silicification as an evolutionary response to reduced Cenozoic ocean silica availability.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, David B; Kotrc, Benjamin; Wulf, Gerwin; Schmidt, Daniela N

    2009-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that increased water column stratification has been an abiotic "universal driver" affecting average cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Gradually decreasing Cenozoic radiolarian shell weight, by contrast, suggests that competition for dissolved silica, a shared nutrient, resulted in biologic coevolution between radiolaria and marine diatoms, which expanded dramatically in the Cenozoic. We present data on the 2 components of shell weight change--size and silicification--of Cenozoic radiolarians. In low latitudes, increasing Cenozoic export of silica to deep waters by diatoms and decreasing nutrient upwelling from increased water column stratification have created modern silica-poor surface waters. Here, radiolarian silicification decreases significantly (r = 0.91, P < 0.001), from approximately 0.18 (shell volume fraction) in the basal Cenozoic to modern values of approximately 0.06. A third of the total change occurred rapidly at 35 Ma, in correlation to major increases in water column stratification and abundance of diatoms. In high southern latitudes, Southern Ocean circulation, present since the late Eocene, maintains significant surface water silica availability. Here, radiolarian silicification decreased insignificantly (r = 0.58, P = 0.1), from approximately 0.13 at 35 Ma to 0.11 today. Trends in shell size in both time series are statistically insignificant and are not correlated with each other. We conclude that there is no universal driver changing cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Furthermore, biologic and physical factors have, in concert, by reducing silica availability in surface waters, forced macroevolutionary changes in Cenozoic low-latitude radiolarians.

  12. Radiolarians decreased silicification as an evolutionary response to reduced Cenozoic ocean silica availability

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, David B.; Kotrc, Benjamin; Wulf, Gerwin; Schmidt, Daniela N.

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that increased water column stratification has been an abiotic “universal driver” affecting average cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Gradually decreasing Cenozoic radiolarian shell weight, by contrast, suggests that competition for dissolved silica, a shared nutrient, resulted in biologic coevolution between radiolaria and marine diatoms, which expanded dramatically in the Cenozoic. We present data on the 2 components of shell weight change—size and silicification—of Cenozoic radiolarians. In low latitudes, increasing Cenozoic export of silica to deep waters by diatoms and decreasing nutrient upwelling from increased water column stratification have created modern silica-poor surface waters. Here, radiolarian silicification decreases significantly (r = 0.91, P < 0.001), from ≈0.18 (shell volume fraction) in the basal Cenozoic to modern values of ≈0.06. A third of the total change occurred rapidly at 35 Ma, in correlation to major increases in water column stratification and abundance of diatoms. In high southern latitudes, Southern Ocean circulation, present since the late Eocene, maintains significant surface water silica availability. Here, radiolarian silicification decreased insignificantly (r = 0.58, P = 0.1), from ≈0.13 at 35 Ma to 0.11 today. Trends in shell size in both time series are statistically insignificant and are not correlated with each other. We conclude that there is no universal driver changing cell size in Cenozoic marine plankton. Furthermore, biologic and physical factors have, in concert, by reducing silica availability in surface waters, forced macroevolutionary changes in Cenozoic low-latitude radiolarians. PMID:19458255

  13. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Impairs CD4 T Cell Responses by Reducing Antigen Availability

    PubMed Central

    Atif, Shaikh M.; Winter, Sebastian E.; Winter, Maria G.; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is associated with a disseminated febrile illness in humans, termed typhoid fever, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes localized gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. One of the genetic differences between both pathogens is the presence in S. Typhi of TviA, a regulatory protein that shuts down flagellin (FliC) expression when bacteria transit from the intestinal lumen into the intestinal mucosa. Here we investigated the consequences of TviA-mediated flagellum gene regulation on flagellin-specific CD4 T cell responses in a mouse model of S. Typhimurium infection. Introduction of the S. Typhi tviA gene into S. Typhimurium suppressed antigen presentation of dendritic cells to flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in vitro. Furthermore, TviA-mediated repression of flagellin expression impaired the activation and proliferation of naive flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, which was accompanied by increased bacterial dissemination to the spleen. We conclude that TviA-mediated repression of flagellin expression reduces antigen availability, thereby weakening flagellin-specific CD4 T cell responses. PMID:24643532

  14. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  15. A study of New York City obstetrics units demonstrates the potential for reducing hospital inpatient capacity.

    PubMed

    Green, Linda V; Liu, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Hospitals are under significant pressure from payers to reduce costs. The single largest fixed cost for a hospital is inpatient beds, yet there is significant variation in hospital capacity utilization. We study bed capacity in New York City hospital obstetrics units and find that while many hospitals have an insufficient number of beds to provide timely access to care, overall there is significant excess capacity. Our findings, coupled with current demographic and clinical practice trends, indicate that a large fraction of obstetrics units nationwide could likely reduce their bed capacity while assuring timely access to care, resulting in large savings in capital and staffing costs. Given emerging health care delivery and payment models that will likely decrease demand for other types of hospital beds, our study suggests that data-based methodologies should be used by hospitals and policy makers to identify opportunities for reducing excess bed capacity in other inpatient units as well.

  16. Experimental demonstration of reduced tilt-to-length coupling by a two-lens imaging system.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Sönke; Tröbs, Michael; Wanner, Gudrun; Heinzel, Gerhard

    2016-05-16

    The coupling between beam tilt and longitudinal path length readout in a setup representing a LISA test mass interferometer was reduced to below 2 µm/rad using a two lens imaging system. This was achieved by the use of a homodyne equal arm-length Mach-Zehnder interferometer and suppression of the dominating effects of higher order Gaussian modes and longitudinal actuator movement. The latter was subtracted using the phase signal of a large single element photo diode. PMID:27409870

  17. A lactotransferrin single nucleotide polymorphism demonstrates biological activity that can reduce susceptibility to caries.

    PubMed

    Fine, Daniel H; Toruner, Gokce A; Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Godboley, Dipti; Furgang, David

    2013-05-01

    Streptococcus mutans is prominently linked to dental caries. Saliva's influence on caries is incompletely understood. Our goal was to identify a salivary protein with anti-S. mutans activity, characterize its genotype, and determine genotypic variants associated with S. mutans activity and reduced caries. An S. mutans affinity column was used to isolate active moieties from saliva obtained from a subject with minimal caries. The bound and eluted protein was identified as lactotransferrin (LTF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis and confirmed by Western blotting with LTF antibody. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that produced a shift from arginine (R) to lysine (K) at amino acid position 47 in the LTF antimicrobial region (rs: 1126478) killed S. mutans in vitro. Saliva from a subject with moderate caries and with the LTF "wild-type" R form at position 47 had no such activity. A pilot genetic study (n = 30) showed that KK subjects were more likely to have anti-S. mutans activity than RR subjects (P = 0.001; relative risk = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.5 to 11.13). Pretreatment of KK saliva with antibody to LTF reduced S. mutans killing in a dose-dependent manner (P = 0.02). KK subjects were less likely to have caries (P = 0.02). A synthetic 11-mer LTF/K peptide killed S. mutans and other caries-related bacteria, while the LTF/R peptide had no effect (P = 0.01). Our results provide functional evidence that the LTF/K variant results in both anti-S. mutans activity and reduced decay. We suggest that the LTF/K variant can influence oral microbial ecology in general and caries-provoking microbes specifically. PMID:23460521

  18. A Lactotransferrin Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Demonstrates Biological Activity That Can Reduce Susceptibility to Caries

    PubMed Central

    Toruner, Gokce A.; Velliyagounder, Kabilan; Sampathkumar, Vandana; Godboley, Dipti; Furgang, David

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is prominently linked to dental caries. Saliva's influence on caries is incompletely understood. Our goal was to identify a salivary protein with anti-S. mutans activity, characterize its genotype, and determine genotypic variants associated with S. mutans activity and reduced caries. An S. mutans affinity column was used to isolate active moieties from saliva obtained from a subject with minimal caries. The bound and eluted protein was identified as lactotransferrin (LTF) by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis and confirmed by Western blotting with LTF antibody. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that produced a shift from arginine (R) to lysine (K) at amino acid position 47 in the LTF antimicrobial region (rs: 1126478) killed S. mutans in vitro. Saliva from a subject with moderate caries and with the LTF “wild-type” R form at position 47 had no such activity. A pilot genetic study (n = 30) showed that KK subjects were more likely to have anti-S. mutans activity than RR subjects (P = 0.001; relative risk = 3.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.5 to 11.13). Pretreatment of KK saliva with antibody to LTF reduced S. mutans killing in a dose-dependent manner (P = 0.02). KK subjects were less likely to have caries (P = 0.02). A synthetic 11-mer LTF/K peptide killed S. mutans and other caries-related bacteria, while the LTF/R peptide had no effect (P = 0.01). Our results provide functional evidence that the LTF/K variant results in both anti-S. mutans activity and reduced decay. We suggest that the LTF/K variant can influence oral microbial ecology in general and caries-provoking microbes specifically. PMID:23460521

  19. Quantifying sulfate reducing bacteria in microbiologically influenced corrosion. (Reannouncement with new availability information). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.

    1992-11-01

    Iron-oxidizing, sulfur-oxidizing, iron-reducing, sulfate-reducing, acid producing, slime-producing, ammonium-producing, and hydrogen-producing bacteria in addition to other physiological groups have been implicated in the corrosion of metals and alloys. However, the most widely recognized and most easily detected bacteria in most corrosion processes are the bacteria that reduce sulfate to sulfide that are collectively called sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB constitute a physiological-ecological assemblage of morphologically very different types of anaerobic bacteria that have in common the capacity to reduce sulfate to hydrogen sulfide in dissimilatory energy-conserving reactions. Hydrogen sulfide can react with metals to produce metal sulfides as corrosion products. Most techniques for the evaluation of SRB populations are related to their potential to cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Standard practices for evaluating the contribution of SRB to corrosion processes depend on the detection and quantification of SRB using culturing techniques that enumerate organisms or quantify intrinsic characteristics of SRB including enzymes and antibodies. Mineralogy of metal sulfides and sulfur isotope fractionation can also be used to verify the involvement of SRB in corrosion. This paper will review standard practices and innovative techniques for detecting and quantifying SRB.

  20. Pituitary adenoma with seizures: PET demonstration of reduced glucose utilization in the medial temporal lobe

    SciTech Connect

    Bairamian, D.; Di Chiro, G.; Blume, H.; Ehrenberg, B.

    1986-05-01

    A patient with a benign chromophobe adenoma, who had incomplete surgical removal followed by radiotherapy, continued to have epileptic seizures up to two or three times a day. She was studied with positron emission tomography using /sup 18/F-2-deoxyglucose (FDG). This technique showed a high level of glucose utilization in the area of the operated tumor but also clear reduction of glucose utilization in the left medial temporal region adjacent to the sella and the scar tissue from the neoplasm. This area of reduced glucose utilization corresponded well to the same finding observed in other patients with complex partial epilepsy. A left temporal anterior lobectomy was carried out followed by improved control of the epilepsy. Positron emission tomography using FDG, together with electrophysiological examinations, may assist in the management of epilepsy related to pituitary tumors.

  1. 75 FR 38592 - Solicitation of Applications and Notice of Funding Availability for Reducing the Effects of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Railroad Safety are concerned about the health and safety of train crews who witness traumatic events from... Reducing the Effects of Traumatic Exposure to Grade Crossing and Trespasser Incidents on Train Crews AGENCY... traumatic interventions and to advance evidence-based recommendations for controlling the risks...

  2. Undergraduate Virology Exercises Demonstrate Conventional and Real-Time PCR Using Commercially Available HIV Primers and Noninfectious Target

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.; Wasilewski, Melissa A.; Farrell, James C.; Glick, David L.

    2009-01-01

    It is an extraordinary challenge to offer an undergraduate laboratory course in virology that teaches hands-on, relevant molecular biology techniques using nonpathogenic models of human virus detection. To our knowledge, there exists no inexpensive kits or reagent sets that are appropriate for demonstrating real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in an…

  3. Decreased brain zinc availability reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang Won; Won, Seok Joon; Hamby, Aaron M; Yoo, Byung Hoon; Fan, Yang; Sheline, Christian T; Tamano, Haruna; Takeda, Atsushi; Liu, Jialing

    2009-09-01

    In the adult brain, neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG), where high levels of vesicular zinc are localized in the presynaptic terminals. To determine whether zinc has a role in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis under normal or pathologic conditions, we manipulated the level of vesicular zinc experimentally. To reduce hippocampal vesicular zinc, rats were either fed a zinc-deficient diet or treated with a zinc chelator, clioquinol (CQ). The number of progenitor cells and immature neurons was decreased significantly in the DG after 6 weeks of dietary zinc deprivation. Conversely, the number of progenitor cells and immature neurons was restored after a 2-week reversal to a normal zinc-containing diet. Similarly, a 1-week treatment with the zinc chelator, CQ, reduced the number of progenitor cells. The results of our previous study showed that hypoglycemia increased hippocampal neurogenesis. This study shows that zinc chelation reduced hypoglycemia-induced progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Finally, the role of vesicular zinc on neurogenesis was further assessed in zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) gene deleted mice. Zinc transporter 3 knockout (KO) mice had significantly fewer proliferating progenitor cells and immature neurons after hypoglycemia. Our data provide converging evidence in support of the essential role zinc has in modulating hippocampal neurogenesis.

  4. A Hybrid Quorum Protocol for Improved Availability, Capacity, Load and Reduced Overhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Parul; Tripathi, Maheshwari

    2016-06-01

    Data replication is playing a vital role in the design of distributed information systems. This paper presents a novel and efficient distributed algorithm for managing replicated data and for better performance and availability. This paper presents an extension to existing wheel protocol for improved performance. Wheel protocol imposes a logical wheel structure on the set of copies of an object and gives smallest read quorum. In addition to small read quorum size for read intensive applications, it is necessary to have good write availability as well. This paper proposes two hybrid wheel protocols, which superimpose logarithmic and ring protocols on top of the wheel protocol. It shows that, both protocols help in improving write availability, read capacity, load and message overhead and also compare their performances with wheel and other protocols. Hybrid protocols expand usage of wheel protocol to different type of applications.

  5. A Hybrid Quorum Protocol for Improved Availability, Capacity, Load and Reduced Overhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Parul; Tripathi, Maheshwari

    2016-12-01

    Data replication is playing a vital role in the design of distributed information systems. This paper presents a novel and efficient distributed algorithm for managing replicated data and for better performance and availability. This paper presents an extension to existing wheel protocol for improved performance. Wheel protocol imposes a logical wheel structure on the set of copies of an object and gives smallest read quorum. In addition to small read quorum size for read intensive applications, it is necessary to have good write availability as well. This paper proposes two hybrid wheel protocols, which superimpose logarithmic and ring protocols on top of the wheel protocol. It shows that, both protocols help in improving write availability, read capacity, load and message overhead and also compare their performances with wheel and other protocols. Hybrid protocols expand usage of wheel protocol to different type of applications.

  6. Preference for pasture versus freestall housing by dairy cattle when stall availability indoors is reduced.

    PubMed

    Falk, A C; Weary, D M; Winckler, C; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-11-01

    Providing cattle with access to pasture has been shown to yield benefits, including access to more space, fewer agonistic interactions, better air quality, and the ability to perform a greater range of normal behaviors. Preference for pasture appears to depend on several parameters, including weather conditions and availability of shade. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the preference for pasture versus inside a freestall barn with variable stocking densities at the stalls. We also investigated the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) and precipitation on this preference. Overall, cows spent on average 13.7±2.6 h/d (mean ± SD) on pasture (ranging from 7.2 to 18.0 h/d across days); at night (between 2000 and 0600 h) cows spent the majority of their time (78.5±27.8%) on pasture. Stall availability had no effect on time spent outside, but time spent on pasture decreased with increasing THI during the day and declined during nights with more rainfall. Stall usage changed depending on stall availability; standing with 2 and 4 feet in the stall and lying time indoors decreased with decreasing stall availability. Indoor lying time also increased with higher THI and more precipitation. In conclusion, cows preferred to be outside at night; they were much more likely to remain indoors during the day, even when overstocked.

  7. Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available

    PubMed Central

    Missbach, Benjamin; Florack, Arnd; Weissmann, Lukas; König, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. In the present research, we replicated these effects and further examined whether the depletion of self-regulatory resources would reduce the habituation effects of imagined food consumption. Since self-regulatory resources have been shown to reduce habituation effects during the perception of emotional stimuli, we expected a reduction in habituation effects from imagined food consumption when self-regulatory resources were depleted. In Study 1, we replicated habituation effects as a response to imagining gummy bear consumption with a high (36) and medium number (18) of repetitions in a camouflaged taste test. Participants imagining gummy bear intake showed decreased food intake compared with participants who imagined putting a coin into a laundry machine. The number of repetitions did not significantly moderate the observed habituation effect. In Study 2, we investigated whether self-regulatory depletion would impede habituation effects evoked by the imagination of walnut consumption. Participants in a depleted state did not show a reduction in food intake after imagining walnut intake compared with participants in a non-depleted state. We discuss directions for future research and processes that might underlie the observed moderating effect of self-regulatory resources. PMID:25506337

  8. Effect of reduced soil water availability on productivity of short rotation coppice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orság, Matěj; Fischer, Milan; Mani Tripathi, Abhishek; Trnka, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    "Wood, in fact, is the unsung hero of the technological revolution that has brought us from a stone and bone culture to our present age.'' Perlin and Journey (1991). Given its high-energy content and versatile use, biomass in a form of wood has been used for energy purposes since millennia and through times has been preferred source of biomass. Ever since, the production and use of woody biomass resources expands globally. Main drivers for its use as a source of energy are diversification and the mitigation of energy related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through partial substitution of fossil fuels. An alternative option for wood biomass sourcing from natural forests is short rotation woody coppice. Its productivity is largely dependent on the environment in terms of climatic conditions. Especially drought is the major constraint of woody biomass production involving serious economic consequences. In the central Europe, increased global radiation and air temperature together with decreased relative humidity increases the reference evapotranspiration resulting in an increased demand for soil water during growing season. For that reason, our field experiment was designed to evaluate impact of decreased soil water availability on productivity of poplar based short rotation coppice plantation during multiple growing seasons. Throughfall exclusion system based on plastic roof strips placed under the canopy was used to drain up to 70 % of the incoming rain water. Usual methods were used to assess the annual above ground biomass increment expressed in dry matter content. Not surprisingly our results show systematic decline in the productivity of plots subjected to decreased soil water availability but also considerable resilience of the drought-stressed trees which will be also discussed. This study was supported by project "Building up a multidisciplinary scientific team focused on drought", No. CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0248 and PASED - project supported by Czech program

  9. Reduced-gravity environment hardware demonstrations of a prototype miniaturized flow cytometer and companion microfluidic mixing technology.

    PubMed

    Phipps, William S; Yin, Zhizhong; Bae, Candice; Sharpe, Julia Z; Bishara, Andrew M; Nelson, Emily S; Weaver, Aaron S; Brown, Daniel; McKay, Terri L; Griffin, DeVon; Chan, Eugene Y

    2014-11-13

    Until recently, astronaut blood samples were collected in-flight, transported to earth on the Space Shuttle, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories. If humans are to travel beyond low Earth orbit, a transition towards space-ready, point-of-care (POC) testing is required. Such testing needs to be comprehensive, easy to perform in a reduced-gravity environment, and unaffected by the stresses of launch and spaceflight. Countless POC devices have been developed to mimic laboratory scale counterparts, but most have narrow applications and few have demonstrable use in an in-flight, reduced-gravity environment. In fact, demonstrations of biomedical diagnostics in reduced gravity are limited altogether, making component choice and certain logistical challenges difficult to approach when seeking to test new technology. To help fill the void, we are presenting a modular method for the construction and operation of a prototype blood diagnostic device and its associated parabolic flight test rig that meet the standards for flight-testing onboard a parabolic flight, reduced-gravity aircraft. The method first focuses on rig assembly for in-flight, reduced-gravity testing of a flow cytometer and a companion microfluidic mixing chip. Components are adaptable to other designs and some custom components, such as a microvolume sample loader and the micromixer may be of particular interest. The method then shifts focus to flight preparation, by offering guidelines and suggestions to prepare for a successful flight test with regard to user training, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), and other issues. Finally, in-flight experimental procedures specific to our demonstrations are described.

  10. Reduced-gravity environment hardware demonstrations of a prototype miniaturized flow cytometer and companion microfluidic mixing technology.

    PubMed

    Phipps, William S; Yin, Zhizhong; Bae, Candice; Sharpe, Julia Z; Bishara, Andrew M; Nelson, Emily S; Weaver, Aaron S; Brown, Daniel; McKay, Terri L; Griffin, DeVon; Chan, Eugene Y

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, astronaut blood samples were collected in-flight, transported to earth on the Space Shuttle, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories. If humans are to travel beyond low Earth orbit, a transition towards space-ready, point-of-care (POC) testing is required. Such testing needs to be comprehensive, easy to perform in a reduced-gravity environment, and unaffected by the stresses of launch and spaceflight. Countless POC devices have been developed to mimic laboratory scale counterparts, but most have narrow applications and few have demonstrable use in an in-flight, reduced-gravity environment. In fact, demonstrations of biomedical diagnostics in reduced gravity are limited altogether, making component choice and certain logistical challenges difficult to approach when seeking to test new technology. To help fill the void, we are presenting a modular method for the construction and operation of a prototype blood diagnostic device and its associated parabolic flight test rig that meet the standards for flight-testing onboard a parabolic flight, reduced-gravity aircraft. The method first focuses on rig assembly for in-flight, reduced-gravity testing of a flow cytometer and a companion microfluidic mixing chip. Components are adaptable to other designs and some custom components, such as a microvolume sample loader and the micromixer may be of particular interest. The method then shifts focus to flight preparation, by offering guidelines and suggestions to prepare for a successful flight test with regard to user training, development of a standard operating procedure (SOP), and other issues. Finally, in-flight experimental procedures specific to our demonstrations are described. PMID:25490614

  11. Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R; Zakocs, R; Heeren, T; Winter, M; Rosenbloom, D; DeJong, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. Intervention: Five of 14 communities awarded Fighting Back grants by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce substance abuse and related problems attempted to reduce availability of alcohol and expand substance abuse treatment programs (FBAT communities). Program implementation began on 1 January 1992. Design: A quasi-experimental design matched each program community to two or three other communities of similar demographic composition in the same state. Main outcome measures: The ratio of fatal crashes involving a driver or pedestrian with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.01% or higher, 0.08% or higher, or 0.15% or higher were examined relative to fatal crashes where no alcohol was involved for 10 years preceding and 10 years following program initiation. Results: Relative to their comparison communities, the five FBAT communities experienced significant declines of 22% in alcohol related fatal crashes at 0.01% BAC or higher, 20% at 0.08% or higher, and 17% at 0.15% or higher relative to fatal crashes not involving alcohol. Conclusions: Community interventions to reduce alcohol availability and increase substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. PMID:15805436

  12. Asians demonstrate reduced sensitivity to unpredictable threat: a preliminary startle investigation using genetic ancestry in a multiethnic sample.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brady D; Bishop, Jeffrey R; Sarapas, Casey; Kittles, Rick A; Shankman, Stewart A

    2014-06-01

    Research has indicated that individuals of Asian descent, relative to other racial groups, demonstrate reduced emotional responding and lower prevalence rates of several anxiety disorders. It is unclear though whether these group differences extend to biomarkers of anxiety disorders and whether genetic differences play a role. This study compared self-identified Caucasian, Latino, and Asian persons (total N = 174) on startle response during a baseline period and while anticipating unpredictable threat-a putative biomarker for certain anxiety disorders--as well as predictable threat. In addition, the association between genetic ancestry and startle response was examined within each racial group to determine potential genetic influences on responding. For the baseline period, Asian participants exhibited a smaller startle response relative to Caucasian and Latino participants, who did not differ. Within each racial group, genetic ancestry was associated with baseline startle. Furthermore, genetic ancestry mediated racial group differences in baseline startle. For the threat conditions, a Race × Condition interaction indicated that Asian participants exhibited reduced startle potentiation to unpredictable, but not predicable, threat relative to Caucasian and Latino participants, who did not differ. However, genetic ancestry was not associated with threat-potentiated startle in any racial group. This study adds to the growing literature on racial differences in emotional responding and provides preliminary evidence suggesting that genetic ancestry may play an important role. Moreover, reduced sensitivity to unpredictable threat may reflect a mechanism for why individuals of Asian descent are at less risk for particular anxiety disorders relative to other racial groups.

  13. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  14. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  15. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-07-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P–E). Here, we compute P–E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P–E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P–E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P–E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making.

  16. Use of Atmospheric Budget to Reduce Uncertainty in Estimated Water Availability over South Asia from Different Reanalyses.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Dawn Emil; Pathak, Amey; Ghosh, Subimal

    2016-01-01

    Disagreements across different reanalyses over South Asia result into uncertainty in assessment of water availability, which is computed as the difference between Precipitation and Evapotranspiration (P-E). Here, we compute P-E directly from atmospheric budget with divergence of moisture flux for different reanalyses and find improved correlation with observed values of P-E, acquired from station and satellite data. We also find reduced closure terms for water cycle computed with atmospheric budget, analysed over South Asian landmass, when compared to that obtained with individual values of P and E. The P-E value derived with atmospheric budget is more consistent with energy budget, when we use top-of-atmosphere radiation for the same. For analysing water cycle, we use runoff from Global Land Data Assimilation System, and water storage from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment. We find improvements in agreements across different reanalyses, in terms of inter-annual cross correlation when atmospheric budget is used to estimate P-E and hence, emphasize to use the same for estimations of water availability in South Asia to reduce uncertainty. Our results on water availability with reduced uncertainty over highly populated monsoon driven South Asia will be useful for water management and agricultural decision making. PMID:27388837

  17. Reduced Perinatal Leptin Availability May Contribute to Adverse Metabolic Programming in a Rat Model of Uteroplacental Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Nüsken, Eva; Wohlfarth, Maria; Lippach, Gregor; Rauh, Manfred; Schneider, Holm; Dötsch, Jörg; Nüsken, Kai-Dietrich

    2016-05-01

    Leptin availability in perinatal life critically affects metabolic programming. We tested the hypothesis that uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine stress affect perinatal leptin availability in rat offspring. Pregnant rats underwent bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG; n = 14), sham operation (SOP; n = 12), or no operation (controls, n = 14). Fetal livers (n = 180), placentas (n = 180), and maternal blood were obtained 4 hours (gestational day [E] 19), 24 hours (E20), and 72 hours (E22) after surgery. In the offspring, we took blood samples on E22 (n = 44), postnatal day (P) 1 (n = 29), P2 (n = 16), P7 (n = 30), and P12 (n = 30). Circulating leptin (ELISA) was significantly reduced in LIG (E22, P1, P2) and SOP offspring (E22). Postnatal leptin surge was delayed in LIG but was accelerated in SOP offspring. Placental leptin gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR) was reduced in LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E20, E22). Hepatic leptin receptor (Lepr-a, mediating leptin degradation) gene expression was increased in LIG fetuses (E20, E22) only. Surprisingly, hypoxia-inducible factors (Hif; Western blot) were unaltered in placentas and were reduced in the livers of LIG (Hif1a, E20; Hif2a, E19, E22) and SOP (Hif2a, E19) fetuses. Gene expression of prolyl hydroxylase 3, a factor expressed under hypoxic conditions contributing to Hif degradation, was increased in livers of LIG (E19, E20, E22) and SOP (E19) fetuses and in placentas of LIG and SOP (E19). In summary, reduced placental leptin production, increased fetal leptin degradation, and persistent perinatal hypoleptinemia are present in intrauterine growth restriction offspring, especially after uteroplacental insufficiency, and may contribute to perinatal programming of leptin resistance and adiposity in later life.

  18. Dopamine D1 receptor blockade impairs alcohol seeking without reducing dorsal striatal activation to cues of alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Rebecca R; Robinson, Donita L

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol-associated cues activate both ventral and dorsal striatum in functional brain imaging studies of heavy drinkers. In rodents, alcohol-associated cues induce changes in neuronal firing frequencies and increase dopamine release in ventral striatum, but the impact of alcohol-associated cues on neuronal activity in dorsal striatum is unclear. We previously reported phasic changes in action potential frequency in the dorsomedial and dorsolateral striatum after cues that signaled alcohol availability, prompting approach behavior. Methods We investigated the hypothesis that dopamine transmission modulates these phasic firing changes. Rats were trained to self-administer alcohol, and neuronal activity was monitored with extracellular electrophysiology during “anticipatory” cues that signaled the start of the operant session. Sessions were preceded by systemic administration of the D1-type dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0, 10, and 20 μg/kg). Results SCH23390 significantly decreased firing rates during the 60 s prior to cue onset without reducing phasic excitations immediately following the cues. While neuronal activation to cues might be expected to initiate behavioral responses, in this study alcohol seeking was reduced despite the presence of dorsal striatal excitations to alcohol cues. Conclusions These data suggest that D1 receptor antagonism reduces basal firing rates in the dorsal striatum and modulates the ability of neuronal activation to “anticipatory” cues to initiate alcohol seeking in rats with an extensive history of alcohol self-administration. PMID:25642390

  19. A high gas fraction, reduced power, syngas bioprocessing method demonstrated with a Clostridium ljungdahlii OTA1 paper biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Mark J; Wiltgen, Jeff; Ritter, John; Mooney, Charles B; Flickinger, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel approach to continuous bioprocessing of gases. A miniaturized, coated-paper strip, high gas fraction, biocomposite absorber has been developed using slowly shaken horizontal anaerobic tubes. Concentrated Clostridium ljungdahlii OTA1 was used as a model system. These gas absorbers demonstrate elevated CO mass transfer with low power input, reduced liquid requirements, elevated substrate consumption, and increased product secretion compared to shaken suspended cells. Concentrated OTA1 cell paste was coated by extrusion onto chromatography paper. The immobilized system shows high, constant reactivity immediately upon rehydration. Cell adhesion was by adsorption to the cellulose fibers; visualized by SEM. The C. ljungdahlii OTA1 coated paper mounted above the liquid level absorbs CO and H2 from a model syngas secreting acetate with minimal ethanol. At 100 rpm shaking speed (7.7 Wm(-3) ) the optimal cell loading is 6.5 gDCW m(-2) to maintain high CO absorbing reactivity without the cells coming off of the paper into the liquid phase. Reducing the medium volume from 10 mL to 4 mL (15% of tube volume) did not decrease CO reactivity. The reduced liquid volume increased secreted product concentration by 80%. The specific CO consumption by paper biocomposites was higher at all shaking frequencies <100 rpm than suspended cells under identical incubation conditions. At 25 rpm the biocomposite outperforms suspended cells for CO absorption by 2.5-fold, with an estimated power reduction of 97% over the power input at 100 rpm. The estimated minimum kL a for miniaturized biocomposite gas-absorbers is ∼100 h(-1) , 10 to 10(4) less power input than other syngas fermentation systems reported in the literature at similar kL a. Specific consumption rates in a biocomposite were ∼14 mmol gDCW-1 h(-1) . This work intensified CO absorption and reactivity by 14-fold to 94 mmol CO m(-2) h(-1) over previous C. ljungdahlii OTA1 work by our group

  20. A high gas fraction, reduced power, syngas bioprocessing method demonstrated with a Clostridium ljungdahlii OTA1 paper biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Mark J; Wiltgen, Jeff; Ritter, John; Mooney, Charles B; Flickinger, Michael C

    2016-09-01

    We propose a novel approach to continuous bioprocessing of gases. A miniaturized, coated-paper strip, high gas fraction, biocomposite absorber has been developed using slowly shaken horizontal anaerobic tubes. Concentrated Clostridium ljungdahlii OTA1 was used as a model system. These gas absorbers demonstrate elevated CO mass transfer with low power input, reduced liquid requirements, elevated substrate consumption, and increased product secretion compared to shaken suspended cells. Concentrated OTA1 cell paste was coated by extrusion onto chromatography paper. The immobilized system shows high, constant reactivity immediately upon rehydration. Cell adhesion was by adsorption to the cellulose fibers; visualized by SEM. The C. ljungdahlii OTA1 coated paper mounted above the liquid level absorbs CO and H2 from a model syngas secreting acetate with minimal ethanol. At 100 rpm shaking speed (7.7 Wm(-3) ) the optimal cell loading is 6.5 gDCW m(-2) to maintain high CO absorbing reactivity without the cells coming off of the paper into the liquid phase. Reducing the medium volume from 10 mL to 4 mL (15% of tube volume) did not decrease CO reactivity. The reduced liquid volume increased secreted product concentration by 80%. The specific CO consumption by paper biocomposites was higher at all shaking frequencies <100 rpm than suspended cells under identical incubation conditions. At 25 rpm the biocomposite outperforms suspended cells for CO absorption by 2.5-fold, with an estimated power reduction of 97% over the power input at 100 rpm. The estimated minimum kL a for miniaturized biocomposite gas-absorbers is ∼100 h(-1) , 10 to 10(4) less power input than other syngas fermentation systems reported in the literature at similar kL a. Specific consumption rates in a biocomposite were ∼14 mmol gDCW-1 h(-1) . This work intensified CO absorption and reactivity by 14-fold to 94 mmol CO m(-2) h(-1) over previous C. ljungdahlii OTA1 work by our group

  1. The A53E α-synuclein pathological mutation demonstrates reduced aggregation propensity in vitro and in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Nicola J; Giasson, Benoit I

    2015-06-15

    Mutations in the gene that encodes α-synuclein (αS) are a known cause of Parkinson's disease. αS is also the major component of pathological inclusions that characterize this disorder and a spectrum of other neurodegenerative diseases termed synucleinopathies. The effects of the most recently identified αS mutation, A53E, on αS aggregation were studied in vitro and in cell culture models. The A53E mutation in αS impedes the formation of aggregated, amyloid protein in vitro compared to wild-type αS. Under certain conditions, A53E αS can still form elongated amyloid fibrils with similar morphology, but with thinner width compared to wild-type αS. Using amyloid seeding of αS in cell culture studies, we demonstrate that significantly less A53E αS could be induced to aggregate compared to wild-type αS, although the mutant protein was still able to form mature inclusions within some cells. Furthermore, expression of A53E αS enhanced toxicity in cells experiencing mitochondrial stress. These findings indicate that the A53E mutation in αS reduces the propensity of αS to aggregate both in vitro and in the cellular environment, and may lead to cellular toxicity through other mechanisms.

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  3. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals. PMID:26048395

  4. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals.

  5. Isolation and identification of ferric reducing bacteria and evaluation of their roles in iron availability in two calcareous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbanzadeh, N.; Lakzian, A.; Haghnia, G. H.; Karimi, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Iron is an essential element for all organisms which plays a crucial role in important biochemical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. Iron deficiency seems to be an important problem in many calcareous soils. Biological dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction increases iron availability through reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and evaluate some bacterial isolates for their abilities to reduce Fe(III) in two calcareous soils. Three bacterial isolates were selected and identified from paddy soils by using 16S rRNA amplification and then inoculated to sterilized and non-sterilized calcareous soils in the presence and absence of glucose. The results showed that all isolates belonged to Bacillus genus and were capable of reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II) in vitro condition. The amount of Fe(III) reduction in sterilized calcareous soils was significantly higher when inoculated with PS23 isolate and Shewanella putrefaciens ( S. putrefaciens) (as positive control) compared to PS16 and PS11 isolates. No significant difference was observed between PS11 and PS16 isolates in the presence of indigenous microbial community. The results also revealed that glucose had a significant effect on Fe(III) reduction in the examined calcareous soil samples. The amount of Fe(III) reduction increased two-fold when soil samples were treated with glucose and inoculated by S. putrefaciens and PS23 in non-sterilized soils.

  6. Evaluation of seven publicized enforcement demonstration programs to reduce impaired driving: Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana, and Michigan.

    PubMed

    Fell, James C; Tippetts, A Scott; Levy, Marvin

    2008-10-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) funded demonstration projects designed to reduce impaired driving through well-publicized and frequent enforcement in seven States: Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana, and Michigan. Significant reductions in fatal crashes in the intervention States relative to surrounding States were obtained in Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana and Michigan when an interrupted time-series analysis of Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data was used comparing the ratio of drinking to non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes. Significant reductions in a second measure, alcohol-related fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT), were also obtained in Indiana and Michigan. The other three States showed only marginal, non-significant changes relative to their comparison jurisdictions or States. As compared to surrounding States, fatal crash reductions in Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana, and Michigan ranged from 11 to 20 percent. In these four States, the programs were estimated to have saved lives ranging from 25 in Indiana to 43 in Tennessee to 57 in Michigan to 60 in Georgia. Some common features of the programs that experienced significant reductions included the use of paid media to publicize the enforcement (in three States), using a statewide model rather than selected portions of the State (all four States), and the use of highly visible and frequent sobriety checkpoints (in three States). In summary, it appears that a variety of media and enforcement procedures that supplement ongoing statewide efforts can yield meaningful crash reduction effects among alcohol impaired drivers.

  7. Two- and 3-Dimensional Knee Valgus Are Reduced After an Exercise Intervention in Young Adults With Demonstrable Valgus During Squatting

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David R.; Oates, D. Craig; Clark, Micheal A.; Padua, Darin A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Two-dimensional (or medial knee displacement [MKD]) and 3-dimensional (3D) knee valgus are theorized to contribute to anterior cruciate ligament injuries. However, whether these displacements can be improved in the double-legged squat (DLS) after an exercise intervention is unclear. Objective: To determine if MKD and 3D knee valgus are improved in a DLS after an exercise intervention. Design:  Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 participants were enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16) or intervention (n = 16) group. During a DLS, all participants demonstrated knee valgus that was corrected with a heel lift. Intervention(s):  The intervention group completed 10 sessions of directed exercise that focused on hip and ankle strength and flexibility over a 2- to 3-week period. Main Outcome Measure(s): We assessed MKD and 3D knee valgus during the DLS using an electromagnetic tracking system. Hip strength and ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion were measured. Change scores were calculated for MKD and 3D valgus at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% phases, and group (2 levels)-by phase (6 levels) repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted. Independent t tests were used to compare change scores in other variables (α < .05). Results: The MKD decreased from 20% to 50% of the DLS (P = .02) and 3D knee valgus improved from 30% to 50% of the squat phase (P = .001). Ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion (knee extended) increased in the intervention group (P = .009). No other significant findings were observed (P > .05). Conclusions:  The intervention reduced MKD and 3D knee valgus during a DLS. The intervention also increased ankle range of motion. Our inclusion criteria might have limited our ability to observe changes in hip strength. PMID:23724771

  8. Evaluation of Seven Publicized Enforcement Demonstration Programs to Reduce Impaired Driving: Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana, and Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Tippetts, A. Scott; Levy, Marvin

    2008-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2003, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) funded demonstration projects designed to reduce impaired driving through well-publicized and frequent enforcement in seven States: Georgia, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Indiana, and Michigan. Significant reductions in fatal crashes in the intervention States relative to surrounding States were obtained in Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana and Michigan when an interrupted time-series analysis of Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) data was used comparing the ratio of drinking to non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes. Significant reductions in a second measure, alcohol-related fatalities per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT), were also obtained in Indiana and Michigan. The other three States showed only marginal, non-significant changes relative to their comparison jurisdictions or States. As compared to surrounding States, fatal crash reductions in Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana, and Michigan ranged from 11 to 20 percent. In these four States, the programs were estimated to have saved lives ranging from 25 in Indiana to 43 in Tennessee to 57 in Michigan to 60 in Georgia. Some common features of the programs that experienced significant reductions included the use of paid media to publicize the enforcement (in three States), using a statewide model rather than selected portions of the State (all four States), and the use of highly visible and frequent sobriety checkpoints (in three States). In summary, it appears that a variety of media and enforcement procedures that supplement ongoing statewide efforts can yield meaningful crash reduction effects among alcohol impaired drivers. PMID:19026220

  9. Individual rain events decrease long-term boreal peatland net CO2 uptake through reduced light availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijp, Jelmer; Limpens, Juul; Metselaar, Klaas; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B.; van der Zee, Sjoerd; Berendse, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Northern peatlands sequester enormous quantities of carbon, suggesting these wetland ecosystems are of fundamental importance for the global carbon cycle. The long-term carbon storage of these wetland ecosystems depends on wet surface conditions, and is prone to drought. Future climate predictions indicate that most of the northern hemisphere is projected to become wetter, but that precipitation will fall in less frequent but more intense events. How such fine-scale climatic changes will affect long-term future net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of northern peatlands remains unknown. In this study we explored the short-term peatland NEE response to day time rain events during the growing season, how timing and characteristics of individual events and environmental conditions modify this response, and the impact of NEE responses to individual rain events for the longer-term (annual) carbon uptake. We used an 11-year time series of half-hourly eddy covariance and meteorological measurements from Degerö Stormyr, a peatland in northern Sweden. Our study shows daytime precipitation events systematically decreased the sink strength for atmospheric CO2. An individual daytime precipitation event reduced net ecosystem CO2 uptake by 0.23-0.54 gC m-2 on average. This reduction was best explained by the reduction in light associated with precipitation events, rather than by precipitation characteristics, timing of events, or drought length. On an annual basis, this reduction of net CO2 uptake corresponds to 24% of the annual net CO2 uptake (NEE) of the study site, equivalent to a 4.4% reduction of gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. We conclude that accounting for the short-term response of NEE to individual rain events is crucial in determining climate change impacts on long-term sink strength of peatlands to atmospheric CO2. Moreover, reduced light availability associated with rain events is more important in explaining the NEE response to rain events than

  10. Reduced plasma FFA availability increases net triacylglycerol degradation, but not GPAT or HSL activity, in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Watt, Matthew J; Holmes, Anna G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Mesa, Jose L; Kemp, Bruce E; Febbraio, Mark A

    2004-07-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerols (IMTG) are proposed to be an important metabolic substrate for contracting muscle, although this remains controversial. To test the hypothesis that reduced plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability would increase IMTG degradation during exercise, seven active men cycled for 180 min at 60% peak pulmonary O(2) uptake either without (CON) or with (NA) prior ingestion of nicotinic acid to suppress adipose tissue lipolysis. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained before and at 90 and 180 min of exercise. NA ingestion decreased (P < 0.05) plasma FFA at rest and completely suppressed the exercise-induced increase in plasma FFA (180 min: CON, 1.42 +/- 0.07; NA, 0.10 +/- 0.01 mM). The decreased plasma FFA during NA was associated with decreased (P < 0.05) adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity (CON: 13.9 +/- 2.5, NA: 9.1 +/- 3.0 nmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1)). NA ingestion resulted in decreased whole body fat oxidation and increased carbohydrate oxidation. Despite the decreased whole body fat oxidation, net IMTG degradation was greater in NA compared with CON (net change: CON, 2.3 +/- 0.8; NA, 6.3 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg dry mass). The increased IMTG degradation did not appear to be due to reduced fatty acid esterification, because glycerol 3-phosphate activity was not different between trials and was unaffected by exercise (rest: 0.21 +/- 0.07; 180 min: 0.17 +/- 0.04 nmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1)). HSL activity was not increased from resting rates during exercise in either trial despite elevated plasma epinephrine, decreased plasma insulin, and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1 activity was not affected by exercise or NA, whereas AMPKalpha2 activity was increased (P < 0.05) from rest during exercise in NA and was greater (P < 0.05) than in CON at 180 min. These data suggest that plasma FFA availability is an important mediator of net IMTG degradation, and in the absence of

  11. Assessment of an apparent relationship between availability of soluble carbohydrates and reduced nitrogen during floral initiation in tobacco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Thomas, J. F.; Tolley-Henry, L.; Rideout, J. W.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Daily relative accumulation rate of soluble carbohydrates (RARS) and reduced nitrogen (RARN) in the shoot, as estimates of source strength, were compared with daily relative growth rates (RGR) of the shoot, as an estimate of sink demand, during floral transformation in apical meristems of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum 'NC 2326') grown at day/night temperatures of 18/14, 22/18, 26/22, 30/26, and 34/30 C. Source strength was assumed to exceed sink demand for either carbohydrates or nitrogen when the ratio of RARS/RGR or RARN/RGR was greater than unity, and sink demand was assumed to exceed source strength when the ratio was less than unity. Time of floral initiation, which was delayed up to 21 days with increases in temperature over the experimental range, was associated with intervals in which source strength of either carbohydrate or nitrogen exceeded sink demand, while sink demand for the other exceeded source strength. Floral initiation was not observed during intervals in which source strengths of both carbohydrates and nitrogen were greater than or less than sink demand. These results indicate that floral initiation is responsive to an imbalance in the relative availabilities of carbohydrate and nitrogen.

  12. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p < 0.05) EDTA-extractable Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations in the two soils used, with decreases in ranges 21-100, 25-100 and 2-100 % for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. The amendments tested were also effective in reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Zn for L. albus, which gave rise to a decrease in shoot metal accumulation by the lupine plants compared to that found in the control soil. That decrease reached up to 5.6 and 2.8 times for Pb and Zn, respectively, being statistically significant in most cases. Moreover, application of the OMW, DWS and SF amendments led to higher average values of plant biomass (up to 71%) than those obtained in the control soil. The results obtained showed the technology put forward to be a viable means of remediating mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer. PMID:25772873

  13. Rewarding Progress, Reducing Debt: Early Results from Ohio's Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration for Low-Income Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Paulette; Patel, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    This report presents early results from a rigorous evaluation of a performance-based scholarship program that was implemented at three community colleges in Ohio during the 2008-2009 academic year. The program in Ohio that is the subject of this report is part of MDRC's national Performance-Based Scholarship (PBS) Demonstration, which was…

  14. Availability and quality of emergency obstetric care, an alternative strategy to reduce maternal mortality: experience of Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Bangoura, Ismael Fatou; Hu, Jian; Gong, Xun; Wang, Xuanxuan; Wei, Jingjing; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiang; Fang, Pengqian

    2012-04-01

    The burden of maternal mortality (MM) and morbidity is especially high in Asia. However, China has made significant progress in reducing MM over the past two decades, and hence maternal death rate has declined considerably in last decade. To analyze availability and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) received by women at Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China, this study retrospectively analyzed various pregnancy-related complications at the hospital from 2000 to 2009. Two baseline periods of equal length were used for the comparison of variables. A total of 11 223 obstetric complications leading to MM were identified on a total of 15 730 hospitalizations, either 71.35% of all activities. No maternal death was recorded. Mean age of women was 29.31 years with a wide range of 14-52 years. About 96.26% of women had higher levels of schooling, university degrees and above and received the education of secondary school or college. About 3.74% received primary education at period two (P2) from 2005 to 2009, which was significantly higher than that of period one (P1) from 2000 to 2004 (P<0.05) (OR: 0.586; 95% CI: 0.442 to 0.776). About 65.69% were employed as skilled or professional workers at P2, which was significantly higher than that of P1 (P<0.05). About 34.31% were unskilled workers at P2, which was significantly higher than that of P1 (P<0.05). Caesarean section was performed for 9,930 women (88.48%) and the percentage of the procedure increased significantly from 19.25% at P1 to 69.23% at P2 (P<0.05). We were led to conclude that, despite the progress, significant gaps in the performance of maternal health services between rural and urban areas remain. However, MM reduction can be achieved in China. Priorities must include, but not limited to the following: secondary healthcare development, health policy and management, strengthening primary healthcare services. PMID:22528213

  15. The anthocyanin reduced tomato mutant demonstrates the role of flavonols in tomato lateral root and root hair development.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Gregory S; DiNapoli, Kathleen T; Muday, Gloria K

    2014-10-01

    This study utilized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants with altered flavonoid biosynthesis to understand the impact of these metabolites on root development. The mutant anthocyanin reduced (are) has a mutation in the gene encoding FLAVONOID 3-HYDROXYLASE (F3H), the first step in flavonol synthesis, and accumulates higher concentrations of the F3H substrate, naringenin, and lower levels of the downstream products kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and anthocyanins, than the wild type. Complementation of are with the p35S:F3H transgene reduced naringenin and increased flavonols to wild-type levels. The initiation of lateral roots is reduced in are, and p35S:F3H complementation restores wild-type root formation. The flavonoid mutant anthocyanin without has a defect in the gene encoding DIHYDROFLAVONOL REDUCTASE, resulting in elevated flavonols and the absence of anthocyanins and displays increased lateral root formation. These results are consistent with a positive role of flavonols in lateral root formation. The are mutant has increased indole-3-acetic acid transport and greater sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid on lateral root formation. Expression of the auxin-induced reporter (DR5-β-glucuronidase) is reduced in initiating lateral roots and increased in primary root tips of are. Levels of reactive oxygen species are elevated in are root epidermal tissues and root hairs, and are forms more root hairs, consistent with a role of flavonols as antioxidants that modulate root hair formation. Together, these experiments identify positive roles of flavonols in the formation of lateral roots and negative roles in the formation of root hairs through the modulation of auxin transport and reactive oxygen species, respectively. PMID:25006027

  16. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on

  17. 77 FR 2064 - Availability of the Report on the International Workshop on Alternative Methods To Reduce, Refine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ..., Refine, and Replace the Use of Animals in Vaccine Potency and Safety Testing: State of the Science and... Reduce, Refine, and Replace the Use of Animals in Vaccine Potency and Safety Testing: State of the... potential adverse health effects. However, such testing requires large numbers of animals and accounts...

  18. Evaluation of Blast Furnace Slag as a means of Reducing Metal Availability in a Contaminated Sediment for Beneficial use Purposes

    EPA Science Inventory

    An attractive option for the disposal of dredged sediment involves the use of the sediment for beneficial purposes. Treatment (chemical amendment) of the sediment may be necessary to limit the environmental and human availability (bioavailability, leachability, plant uptake) of h...

  19. Demonstration of myosin heavy chain isoforms in rat and humans: the specificity of seven available monoclonal antibodies used in immunohistochemical and immunoblotting methods.

    PubMed

    Smerdu, Vika; Soukup, T

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present our experience with seven monoclonal antibodies, six of them were applied in immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting of MyHC isoforms in rats and humans, one of them, 6H1 (Lucas et al., 2000), was tested in human muscle sections only. The four antibodies specific to rat MyHC isoforms, BA-D5,SC-71, BF-35,BF-F3 (Schiaffino et al.,1989) reacted as declared both on muscle sections and immunoblots of rat except SC-71 antibody, which stained MyHC-2a and -2x bands in blots. One of the two commercially available antibodies, A4.74 antibody,reliably marked type 2a fibres of rat,but in blots it weakly stained MyHC-2a and -2x isoforms when used undiluted. The other one, F113.15F4, stained type 2a and 2x fibres and corresponding MyHC bands in blots. Therefore, using this antibody rat MyHC-2x can be additionally confirmed, which can be otherwise demonstrated only on the principle of exclusion with BF-35.Using the same set of antibodies human fast MyHC isoforms can be revealed less clearly. Namely, SC-71 and A4.74 antibodies intensively stained histochemical type 2a,predominantly expressing 2a MyHC transcripts and moderately type 2x fibres, expressing mostly 2x MyHC transcripts, in blots the antibodies recognized both fast isoforms. The 6H1antibody was the only one that selectively labelled type 2x fibres, whereas BF-35 left unstained only a variable proportion of histochemical type 2x fibres and MyHC-2x in blots. F113.15F4 did not distinguish between human fast fibre types and corresponding MyHC isoforms in blots. The negativeresults obtained with BF-F3 in muscle sections and in blots are in agreement with the absence of MyHC-2b in human skeletal muscles. Our results imply that the reactivity of antibodies specific to distinct MyHC isoforms should be carefully evaluated not only among various species but with the two different techniques used as well.

  20. Niacinamide pretreatment reduces microvesicle formation in hairless guinea pigs cutaneously exposed to sulfur mustard. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Yourick, J.J.; Clark, C.R.; Mitcheltree, L.W.

    1991-12-31

    It has been proposed that sulfur mustard (HD) may indirectly activate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP) by alkylating cellular DNA (Papirmeister et al., 1985). Activation of PADPRP results in the depletion of cellular NAD+ which initiates a series of biochemical processes that have been proposed to culminate in blister formation. Preventing PADPRP activation and NAD+ depletion should inhibit blister formation. Niacinamide is both an inhibitor of PADPRP and a precursor for NAD+ synthesis. The present study was undertaken to determine whether niacinamide can protect against HD-induced microvesication in cutaneously exposed hairless guinea pigs. Each site was exposed to HD for 8 min by means of a vapor cup. Niacinamide (750 mg/kg, ip) given as a 30-min pretreatment inhibited microvesicle formation by 50% after HD application. However, niacinamide given 2 hr after HD application did not reduce microvesicle formation. There was no benefit when niacinamide was given as both a pretreatment and treatment when compared to niacinamide given only as a pretreatment. The reduction in microvesication 24 hr after HD did not correlate with skin NAD+ content. Niacinamide did not reduce the degree of erythema or edema. Ballooning degeneration of basal epidermal cells was present in some niacinamide pretreated HD exposure sites.

  1. Long-term nitrogen deposition linked to reduced water use efficiency in forests with low phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiqun; Liu, Bao; Davis, Murray; Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep; Billings, Sharon

    2016-04-01

    The impact of long-term nitrogen (N) deposition is under-studied in phosphorus (P)-limited subtropical forests. We exploited historically collected herbarium specimens to investigate potential physiological responses of trees in three subtropical forests representing an urban-to-rural gradient, across which N deposition has probably varied over the past six decades. We measured foliar [N] and [P] and stable carbon (δ(13) C), oxygen (δ(18) O) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) isotopic compositions in tissue from herbarium specimens of plant species collected from 1947 to 2014. Foliar [N] and N : P increased, and δ(15) N and [P] decreased in the two forests close to urban centers. Consistent with recent studies demonstrating that N deposition in the region is (15) N-depleted, these data suggest that the increased foliar [N] and N : P, and decreased [P], may be attributable to atmospheric deposition and associated enhancement of P limitation. Estimates of intrinsic water use efficiency calculated from foliar δ(13) C decreased by c. 30% from the 1950s to 2014, contrasting with multiple studies investigating similar parameters in N-limited forests. This effect may reflect decreased photosynthesis, as suggested by a conceptual model of foliar δ(13) C and δ(18) O. Long-term N deposition may exacerbate P limitation and mitigate projected increases in carbon stocks driven by elevated CO2 in forests on P-limited soils. PMID:26661404

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a second part to the dichromate volcano demonstration. The green ash produced during the demonstration is reduced to metal using aluminothermy (Goldschmide process). Also describes suitable light sources and spectroscopes for student observation of emission spectra in lecture halls. (JN)

  3. Effectual detection of group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) by commercially available methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-selective agar.

    PubMed

    Fukigai, Shinako; Morimoto, Makiko; Kimura, Kouji; Doyama, Yo; Miyazaki, Akira; Kamiya, Chitose; Banno, Hirotsugu; Morishima, Eriko; Onoda, Tomohiro; Nagano, Noriyuki; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-Ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Arakawa, Yoshichika

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a commercially available methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-selective agar, chromID(™) MRSA, to detect group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) in this study. The results showed 72.4% (21/29) sensitivity and 98.4% (60/61) specificity to detect PRGBS using this method.

  4. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Provides directions for setup and performance of two demonstrations. The first demonstrates the principles of Raoult's Law; using a simple apparatus designed to measure vapor pressure. The second illustrates the energy available from alcohol combustion (includes safety precautions) using an alcohol-fueled missile. (JM)

  6. DENSE PHASE REBURN COMBUSTION SYSTEM (DPRCS) DEMONSTRATION ON A 154 MWE TANGENTIAL FURNACE: ADDITIONAL AREA OF INTEREST-TO DEVELOP AND DEMONSTRATE AN IN-FURNACE MULTI-POLLUTANT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE NOx, SO2 & Hg

    SciTech Connect

    Allen C. Wiley; Steven Castagnero; Geoff Green; Kevin Davis; David White

    2004-03-01

    Semi-dense phase pneumatic delivery and injection of calcium and sodium sorbents, and microfine powdered coal, at various sidewall elevations of an online operating coal-fired power plant, was investigated for the express purpose of developing an in-furnace, economic multi-pollutant reduction methodology for NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} & Hg. The 154 MWe tangentially-fired furnace that was selected for a full-scale demonstration, was recently retrofitted for NO{sub x} reduction with a high velocity rotating-opposed over-fire air system. The ROFA system, a Mobotec USA technology, has a proven track record of breaking up laminar flow along furnace walls, thereby enhancing the mix of all constituents of combustion. The knowledge gained from injecting sorbents and micronized coal into well mixed combustion gases with significant improvement in particulate retention time, should serve well the goals of an in-furnace multi-pollutant reduction technology; that of reducing back-end cleanup costs on a wide variety of pollutants, on a cost per ton basis, by first accomplishing significant in-furnace reductions of all pollutants.

  7. The use of composite materials increase the availability of oil and gas and reduce the cost of drilling and production operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, James C.

    2007-04-01

    Recognizing the potential benefits, the oil exploration and production industry began to experiment with the field use of composite materials in the last half of the 1900's. Gradually, the inherent reluctance to move "unproven materials" into full operational applications is being overcome. Now, the increased price of crude and the need to locate and produce more oil and gas and to reduce associated costs are forcing an accelerated acceptance and use of composite materials in these operations. As a result, the cost of building, servicing, and maintaining drilling rigs and pipe lines is being reduced. "Thought to be depleted" oil and gas deposits are being revitalized. Technology currently in development and/or in the process of field trial demonstration are showing promise to provide enabling capability for obtaining greater reach in both extended reach and deep water drilling. Smart drill pipes and coiled tubing, able to provide both real-time communication from well head to drill bit and to similarly provide down hole power, have been demonstrated. This paper presents a summary of the current state of the use of composites in the Oil Patch and discusses areas of technology development which must be brought to fruition in order for the oil industry the reap full benefit, such as has been accomplished by the aerospace industry.

  8. Development of in vitro models to demonstrate the ability of PecSys®, an in situ nasal gelling technology, to reduce nasal run-off and drip

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many of the increasing number of intranasal products available for either local or systemic action can be considered sub-optimal, most notably where nasal drip or run-off give rise to discomfort/tolerability issues or reduced/variable efficacy. PecSys, an in situ gelling technology, contains low methoxy (LM) pectin which gels due to interaction with calcium ions present in nasal fluid. PecSys is designed to spray readily, only forming a gel on contact with the mucosal surface. The present study employed two in vitro models to confirm that gelling translates into a reduced potential for drip/run-off: (i) Using an inclined TLC plate treated with a simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES), mean drip length [±SD, n = 10] was consistently much shorter for PecSys (1.5 ± 0.4 cm) than non-gelling control (5.8 ± 1.6 cm); (ii) When PecSys was sprayed into a human nasal cavity cast model coated with a substrate containing a physiologically relevant concentration of calcium, PecSys solution was retained at the site of initial deposition with minimal redistribution, and no evidence of run-off/drip anteriorly or down the throat. In contrast, non-gelling control was significantly more mobile and consistently redistributed with run-off towards the throat. Conclusion In both models PecSys significantly reduced the potential for run-off/drip ensuring that more solution remained at the deposition site. In vivo, this enhancement of retention will provide optimum patient acceptability, modulate drug absorption and maximize the ability of drugs to be absorbed across the nasal mucosa and thus reduce variability in drug delivery. PMID:22803832

  9. Low energy availability in exercising men is associated with reduced leptin and insulin but not with changes in other metabolic hormones.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Hoerner, Neele R; Gibbs, Jenna C; Zinner, Christoph; Braun, Hans; De Souza, Mary Jane; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2016-10-01

    Low energy availability, defined as low caloric intake relative to exercise energy expenditure, has been linked to endocrine alterations frequently observed in chronically energy-deficient exercising women. Our goal was to determine the endocrine effects of low energy availability in exercising men. Six exercising men (VO2peak: 49.3 ± 2.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) underwent two conditions of low energy availability (15 kcal · kg(-1) fat-free mass [FFM] · day(-1)) and two energy-balanced conditions (40 kcal · kg(-1) FFM · day(-1)) in randomised order. During one low energy availability and one balanced condition, participants exercised to expend 15 kcal · kg(-1) FFM · day(-1); no exercise was conducted during the other two conditions. Metabolic hormones were assessed before and after each 4-day period. Following both low energy availability conditions, leptin (-53% to -56%) and insulin (-34% to -38%) were reduced (P < 0.05). Reductions in leptin and insulin were independent of whether low energy availability was attained with or without exercise (P > 0.80). Low energy availability did not significantly impact ghrelin, triiodothyronine, testosterone and IGF-1 (all P > 0.05). The observed reductions in leptin and insulin were in the same magnitude as changes previously reported in sedentary women. Further research is needed to understand why other metabolic hormones are more robust against low energy availability in exercising men than those in sedentary and exercising women.

  10. A novel resistance mechanism to triclosan that suggests horizontal gene transfer and demonstrates a potential selective pressure for reduced biocide susceptibility in clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ciusa, Maria Laura; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel; Decorosi, Francesca; Fondi, Marco; Raggi, Carla; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Aragones, Luis; Moce, Laura; Visa, Pilar; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Fani, Renato; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose Luis; Morrissey, Ian; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo

    2012-09-01

    The widely used biocide triclosan selectively targets FabI, the NADH-dependent trans-2-enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, which is an important target for narrow-spectrum antimicrobial drug development. In relation to the growing concern about biocide resistance, we compared in vitro mutants and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus with reduced triclosan susceptibility. Clinical isolates of S. aureus as well as laboratory-generated mutants were assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) phenotypes and genotypes related to reduced triclosan susceptibility. A potential epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) MBC of >4 mg/L was observed for triclosan in clinical isolates of S. aureus. These showed significantly lower MICs and higher MBCs than laboratory mutants. These groups of strains also had few similarities in the triclosan resistance mechanism. Molecular analysis identified novel resistance mechanisms linked to the presence of an additional sh-fabI allele derived from Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The lack of predictive value of in-vitro-selected mutations for clinical isolates indicates that laboratory tests in the present form appear to be of limited value. More importantly, detection of sh-fabI as a novel resistance mechanism with high potential for horizontal gene transfer demonstrates for the first time that a biocide could exert a selective pressure able to drive the spread of a resistance determinant in a human pathogen.

  11. Reducing Child Maltreatment by Making Parenting Programs Available to All Parents: A Case Example Using the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program.

    PubMed

    Pickering, John A; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-10-01

    Preventing the maltreatment of children is a major public health challenge. Using the Triple P-Positive Parenting program as an example, this article makes the case that strengthening parenting and family relationships at a population level is a potentially powerful means of taking on this challenge. We focus on the value of making parenting programs available to all parents in the community. We conclude by examining the key ingredients required to make a population-level parenting approach to reducing child maltreatment work. PMID:27580665

  12. Reduced availability of voltage-gated sodium channels by depolarization or blockade by tetrodotoxin boosts burst firing and catecholamine release in mouse chromaffin cells

    PubMed Central

    Vandael, David H F; Ottaviani, Matteo M; Legros, Christian; Lefort, Claudie; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Allio, Arianna; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Action potential (AP) firing in mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs) is mainly sustained by Cav1.3 L-type channels that drive BK and SK currents and regulate the pacemaking cycle. As secretory units, CCs optimally recruit Ca2+ channels when stimulated, a process potentially dependent on the modulation of the AP waveform. Our previous work has shown that a critical determinant of AP shape is voltage-gated sodium channel (Nav) channel availability. Here, we studied the contribution of Nav channels to firing patterns and AP shapes at rest (−50 mV) and upon stimulation (−40 mV). Using quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, we show that MCCs mainly express tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive, fast-inactivating Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 channels that carry little or no Na+ current during slow ramp depolarizations. Time constants and the percentage of recovery from fast inactivation and slow entry into closed-state inactivation are similar to that of brain Nav1.3 and Nav1.7 channels. The fraction of available Nav channels is reduced by half after 10 mV depolarization from −50 to −40 mV. This leads to low amplitude spikes and a reduction in repolarizing K+ currents inverting the net current from outward to inward during the after-hyperpolarization. When Nav channel availability is reduced by up to 20% of total, either by TTX block or steady depolarization, a switch from tonic to burst firing is observed. The spontaneous occurrence of high frequency bursts is rare under control conditions (14% of cells) but leads to major Ca2+-entry and increased catecholamine release. Thus, Nav1.3/Nav1.7 channel availability sets the AP shape, burst-firing initiation and regulates catecholamine secretion in MCCs. Nav channel inactivation becomes important during periods of high activity, mimicking stress responses. PMID:25620605

  13. A WEE1 Inhibitor Analog of AZD1775 Maintains Synergy with Cisplatin and Demonstrates Reduced Single-Agent Cytotoxicity in Medulloblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Christopher J; Venkataraman, Sujatha; Amani, Vladimir; Harris, Peter S; Backos, Donald S; Donson, Andrew M; Wempe, Michael F; Foreman, Nicholas K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Reigan, Philip

    2016-04-15

    The current treatment for medulloblastoma includes surgical resection, radiation, and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Although this approach has improved survival rates, the high doses of chemotherapy required for clinical efficacy often result in lasting neurocognitive defects and other adverse events. Therefore, the development of chemosensitizing agents that allow dose reductions of cytotoxic agents, limiting their adverse effects but maintaining their clinical efficacy, would be an attractive approach to treat medulloblastoma. We previously identified WEE1 kinase as a new molecular target for medulloblastoma from an integrated genomic analysis of gene expression and a kinome-wide siRNA screen of medulloblastoma cells and tissue. In addition, we demonstrated that WEE1 prevents DNA damage-induced cell death by cisplatin and that the WEE1 inhibitor AZD1775 displays synergistic activity with cisplatin. AZD1775 was developed as a WEE1 inhibitor from an initial hit from a high-throughput screen. However, given the lack of structure-activity data for AZD1775, we developed a small series of analogs to determine the requirements for WEE1 inhibition and further examine the effects of WEE1 inhibition in medulloblastoma. Interestingly, the compounds that inhibited WEE1 in the same nanomolar range as AZD1775 had significantly reduced single-agent cytotoxicity compared with AZD1775 and displayed synergistic activity with cisplatin in medulloblastoma cells. The potent cytotoxicity of AZD1775, unrelated to WEE1 inhibition, may result in dose-limiting toxicities and exacerbate adverse effects; therefore, WEE1 inhibitors that demonstrate low cytotoxicity could be dosed at higher concentrations to chemosensitize the tumor and potentiate the effect of DNA-damaging agents such as cisplatin. PMID:26745241

  14. Experimental demonstration of low-complexity fiber chromatic dispersion mitigation for reduced guard-interval OFDM coherent optical communication systems based on digital spectrum sub-band multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Malekiha, Mahdi; Tselniker, Igor; Nazarathy, Moshe; Tolmachev, Alex; Plant, David V

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel digital signal processing (DSP) structure for reduced guard-interval (RGI) OFDM coherent optical systems. The proposed concept is based on digitally slicing optical channel bandwidth into multiple spectrally disjoint sub-bands which are then processed in parallel. Each low bandwidth sub-band has a smaller delay-spread compared to a full-band signal. This enables compensation of both chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion using a simple timing and one-tap-per-symbol frequency domain equalizer with a small cyclic prefix overhead. In terms of the DSP architecture, this allows for a highly efficient parallelization of DSP tasks performed over the received signal samples by deploying multiple processors running at a lower clock rate. It should be noted that this parallelization is performed in the frequency domain and it allows for flexible optical transceiver schemes. In addition, the resulting optical receiver is simplified due to the removal of the CD compensation equalizer compared to conventional RGI-OFDM systems. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate digital sub-banding of optical bandwidth. We test the system performance for different modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM and 32QAM) over various transmission distances and optical launch powers using a 1.5% CP overhead in all scenarios. We also compare the proposed RGI-OFDM architecture performance against common single carrier modulation formats. At the same total data rate and signal bandwidth both systems have similar performance and transmission reach whereas the proposed method allows for a significant reduction of computational complexity due to removal of CD pre/post compensation equalizer.

  15. Experimental demonstration of low-complexity fiber chromatic dispersion mitigation for reduced guard-interval OFDM coherent optical communication systems based on digital spectrum sub-band multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Malekiha, Mahdi; Tselniker, Igor; Nazarathy, Moshe; Tolmachev, Alex; Plant, David V

    2015-10-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel digital signal processing (DSP) structure for reduced guard-interval (RGI) OFDM coherent optical systems. The proposed concept is based on digitally slicing optical channel bandwidth into multiple spectrally disjoint sub-bands which are then processed in parallel. Each low bandwidth sub-band has a smaller delay-spread compared to a full-band signal. This enables compensation of both chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion using a simple timing and one-tap-per-symbol frequency domain equalizer with a small cyclic prefix overhead. In terms of the DSP architecture, this allows for a highly efficient parallelization of DSP tasks performed over the received signal samples by deploying multiple processors running at a lower clock rate. It should be noted that this parallelization is performed in the frequency domain and it allows for flexible optical transceiver schemes. In addition, the resulting optical receiver is simplified due to the removal of the CD compensation equalizer compared to conventional RGI-OFDM systems. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate digital sub-banding of optical bandwidth. We test the system performance for different modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM and 32QAM) over various transmission distances and optical launch powers using a 1.5% CP overhead in all scenarios. We also compare the proposed RGI-OFDM architecture performance against common single carrier modulation formats. At the same total data rate and signal bandwidth both systems have similar performance and transmission reach whereas the proposed method allows for a significant reduction of computational complexity due to removal of CD pre/post compensation equalizer. PMID:26480077

  16. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I Demonstruation Plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix B. Best available control technology (BACT) proposals. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-21

    The best available control technology (BACT) proposals for the following areas of the SRC-I demonstration plant are described: coal preparation and handling, SRC process and deashing, coke and liquid fuels (control of particles and hydrocarbon vapors), cryogenic systems and fuel gas purification (including sulfur recovery system and venting of gaseous wastes). (LTN)

  17. Highly Ordered Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Based Polymer Nanocomposites: Promise and Limits for Dynamic Impacts Demonstrated in Model Organic Coatings.

    PubMed

    Schmelter, Dirk; Hintze-Bruening, Horst

    2016-06-29

    Graphene oxide (GO) dispersed in water has been combined with a mixture of aqueous polymer dispersions and melamine formaldehyde resin (MF). Stable low viscous fluids with no obvious signs of mesoscale ordering at 0.3 wt % yield transparent films with GO loadings up to one weight percent in the form of homogeneously aligned double strands, each comprising few individual layers of the carbon allotrope. While baking of the films at 160 °C results in minor thermal reduction of GO, in situ reduction with excess hydroxylamine (HA) in the presence of the polymer colloids yields stable dispersions in which amphiphilic graphene like flakes temporarily encapsulate gaseous reaction products. Depending on the parameters in the time-temperature domain, the hollow spheres may be transferred into solid material or disassemble during film formation, the latter case providing black, smooth, and transparent films with up to eight magnitudes increased electrical conductivity and an oxygen permeability 30-fold higher compared to the neat polymer matrix. In contrast, GO reduces oxygen permeability by that factor, while water permeability stays unchanged. Thermo-mechanical measurements reveal matrix stiffening by the platelets as well as by HA, the latter via modifying the MF reactivity. Excellent stone chip resistance and ballistic impact tests demonstrate efficient energy dissipation and crack deflection provided by the laminate like morphology of GO based composite. On the contrary, the same material only provides moderate substrate protection in rain erosion tests. PMID:27254080

  18. Clinical comparison of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh vs a commercially available fluoride breath-freshening toothpaste in reducing breath odor overnight: a multiple-use study.

    PubMed

    Niles, Hollandra P; Hunter, Catherine M; Vazquez, Joe; Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effectiveness of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh toothpaste to a commercially available breath-freshening dentifrice containing fluoride for its ability to reduce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) responsible for breath odor overnight. The study followed a two-treatment, two-period crossover design. Subjects were given a test product, along with a soft-bristled toothbrush, and instructed to brush their teeth for 1 minute, twice daily (once in the morning and the evening) using the assigned dentifrice for 7 consecutive days. After their evening brushing on the seventh day, subjects reported to the testing facility without oral hygiene, eating, or drinking for the overnight evaluation. After a washout period, subjects repeated the same regimen, now using the other test product. The levels of breath VSC were evaluated instrumentally using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector.

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  1. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices.

  2. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices. PMID:26313472

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student demonstrations. (CW)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  8. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  9. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: A comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native peren...

  10. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity, and fire-induced plant mortality was not demonstrated: a comment on Davies et al. (2015)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior and intensity metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchg...

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  13. The anthocyanin reduced Tomato Mutant Demonstrates the Role of Flavonols in Tomato Lateral Root and Root Hair Development1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Gregory S.; DiNapoli, Kathleen T.; Muday, Gloria K.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants with altered flavonoid biosynthesis to understand the impact of these metabolites on root development. The mutant anthocyanin reduced (are) has a mutation in the gene encoding FLAVONOID 3-HYDROXYLASE (F3H), the first step in flavonol synthesis, and accumulates higher concentrations of the F3H substrate, naringenin, and lower levels of the downstream products kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and anthocyanins, than the wild type. Complementation of are with the p35S:F3H transgene reduced naringenin and increased flavonols to wild-type levels. The initiation of lateral roots is reduced in are, and p35S:F3H complementation restores wild-type root formation. The flavonoid mutant anthocyanin without has a defect in the gene encoding DIHYDROFLAVONOL REDUCTASE, resulting in elevated flavonols and the absence of anthocyanins and displays increased lateral root formation. These results are consistent with a positive role of flavonols in lateral root formation. The are mutant has increased indole-3-acetic acid transport and greater sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the auxin transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid on lateral root formation. Expression of the auxin-induced reporter (DR5-β-glucuronidase) is reduced in initiating lateral roots and increased in primary root tips of are. Levels of reactive oxygen species are elevated in are root epidermal tissues and root hairs, and are forms more root hairs, consistent with a role of flavonols as antioxidants that modulate root hair formation. Together, these experiments identify positive roles of flavonols in the formation of lateral roots and negative roles in the formation of root hairs through the modulation of auxin transport and reactive oxygen species, respectively. PMID:25006027

  14. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  15. Methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: demonstration of defective valine and beta-alanine metabolism and reduced malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity in cultured fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.G.; Pollitt, R.J.; Webley, J.

    1987-08-01

    Intact cultured fibroblasts from a child with a new metabolic disorder, thought to be due to a deficiency of methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produced labeled CO/sub 2/ normally from (1-/sup 14/C)valine but not from (2-/sup 14/C)valine. CO/sub 2/ production from labeled beta-alanine was also much reduced, confirming the suspicion that malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is also deficient in this condition. An assay for malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in cell homogenates showed low activity but it was impossible to assess the degree of reduction.

  16. A biological/chemical process for reduced waste and energy consumption, Caprolactam production: Phase 1, Select microorganisms and demonstrate feasibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    St.Martin, E.J.

    1995-08-01

    A novel biological/chemical process for converting cyclohexane into caprolactam was investigated. Microorganisms in a bioreactor would be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone followed by chemical synthesis of caprolactam using ammonia. The proposed bioprocess would be more energy efficient and reduce byproducts and wastes that are generated by the current chemical process. We have been successful in isolating from natural soil and water samples two microorganisms that can utilize cyclohexane as a sole source of carbon and energy for growth. These microorganisms were shown to have the correct metabolic intermediates and enzymes to convert cyclohexane into cyclohexanol, cyclohexanone and caprolactone. Genetic techniques to create and select for caprolactone hydrolase negative-mutants are being developed. These blocked-mutants will be used to convert cyclohexane into caprolactone but, because of the block, be unable to metabolize the caprolactone further and excrete it as a final end product.

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for college level chemistry courses including: "Electrochemical Cells Using Sodium Silicate" and "A Simple, Vivid Demonstration of Selective Precipitation." Lists materials, preparation, procedures, and precautions. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) red cabbage and electrolysis of water to bring together acid/base and electrochemical concepts; and (2) a model to demonstrate acid/base conjugate pairs utilizing magnets. (SK)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Presents: (1) a simple demonstration which illustrates the driving force of entropy using the familiar effects of the negative thermal expansion coefficient of rubber; and (2) a demonstration of tetrahedral bonding using soap films. (CS)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations including a variation of the iodine clock reaction, and a simple demonstration of refractive index. The materials, procedures, and a discussion of probable results are given for each. (CW)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are two demonstrations; "Heat of Solution and Colligative Properties: An Illustration of Enthalpy and Entropy," and "A Vapor Pressure Demonstration." Included are lists of materials and experimental procedures. Apparatus needed are illustrated. (CW)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations; one on Boyle's Law, to illustrate the gas law and serve as a challenging problem for the students; the other is a modified Color Blind Traffic Light demonstration in which the oscillating reactions were speeded up. (GA)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides instructions on conducting four demonstrations for the chemistry classroom. Outlines procedures for demonstrations dealing with coupled oscillations, the evaporation of liquids, thioxanthone sulfone radical anion, and the control of variables and conservation of matter. (TW)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described which are suitable for introductory chemistry classes. The first involves the precipitation of silver, and the second is a demonstration of the relationship between rate constants and equilibrium constants using water and beakers. (BB)

  5. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a demonstration involving the controlled combustion of a mixture of metals with black and smokeless powder in a small Erlenmeyer flask. Also describes demonstrations using a device that precludes breathing of hazardous vapors during class demonstrations; the device is easy to transport and use in rooms without sinks. (JN)

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations used in laboratory chemistry courses. Discusses a "pH-activated" display used to chemically and visually supplement lecture demonstrations. Outlines another demonstration designed to show that copper(II) chloride is made of two ions, blue and yellow, which are combined to produce green. (TW)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are provided. The solubility of ammonia gas in water is demonstrated by introducing water into a closed can filled with the gas, collapsing the can. The second demonstration relates scale of standard reduction potentials to observed behavior of metals in reactions with hydrogen to produce hydrogen gas. (Author/JN)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two classroom chemistry demonstrations which focus on the descriptive chemistry of bromine and iodine. Outlines the chemicals and equipment needed, experimental procedures, and discussion of one demonstration of the oxidation states of bromine and iodine, and another demonstration of the oxidation states of iodine. (TW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    List of materials needed, procedures used, and results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first is an inexpensive and quick method for demonstrating column chromatography of plant pigments of spinach extract. The second is a demonstration of cathodic protection by impressed current. (JN)

  11. Case Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk in American Indians and Alaska Natives With Diabetes: Results From the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luohua; Manson, Spero M.; Beals, Janette; Henderson, William; Pratte, Katherine; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with diabetes in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart (SDPI-HH) Demonstration Project. Methods. Multidisciplinary teams implemented an intensive case management intervention among 30 health care programs serving 138 tribes. The project recruited 3373 participants, with and without current CVD, between 2006 and 2009. We examined data collected at baseline and 1 year later to determine whether improvements occurred in CVD risk factors and in Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk scores, aspirin use, and smoking status. Results. A1c levels decreased an average of 0.2% (P < .001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride levels decreased, with the largest significant reduction in LDL cholesterol (∆ = −5.29 mg/dL; P < .001). Average Framingham CHD risk scores also decreased significantly. Aspirin therapy increased significantly, and smoking decreased. Participants with more case management visits had significantly greater reductions in LDL cholesterol and A1c values. Conclusions. SDPI-HH successfully translated an intensive case management intervention. Creative retention strategies and an improved understanding of organizational challenges are needed for future Indian health translational efforts. PMID:25211728

  12. Lysimeter experiments to determine the ability of soil to reduce concentrations of BOD, available P and inorganic N in dirty water.

    PubMed

    Brookman, S K E; Chadwick; Retter, A R

    2005-11-01

    Lysimeter experiments were conducted to determine the ability of different soils to reduce levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and concentrations of molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) and ammonium-N (NH4(+)-N) in dirty water and the impact of applications on nitrate leaching. An additional experiment investigated the effect of dirty water components on leaching quality. This information is required to assess the potential risk of dirty water applications on polluting groundwater and to assess the use of such soils in the development of treatment systems for dirty water. Intact and disturbed soil lysimeters, 0.5 and 1m deep were constructed from four soils; a coarse free-draining sandy loam, a sandy loam over soft sandstone, a calcareous silty clay over chalk and a sandy loam over granite. For the coarse free-draining sandy loam, lysimeters were also constructed from disturbed soil with and without the addition of lime, to assess if this could increase phosphorus immobilisation. Levels of BOD and concentrations of MRP, NH4(+)-N and nitrate (NO3(-)-N) of leachates were measured following dirty water applications at 2 and 8 mm day(-1) under laboratory conditions. Under the daily 2mm application, all soils were effective at treating dirty water, reducing concentrations of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N by > or = 98% but NO3(-)-N concentrations increased up to 80 mg l(-1) from the 0.5 m deep lysimeters of the sandy loam over granite. Soils were less effective at reducing levels of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N at the 8 mm daily rate of application, with maximum NO3(-)-N concentrations of leachates of 200 mg l(-1) from disturbed soils.

  13. The influence of reduced oxygen availability on gene expression in laboratory (H37Rv) and clinical strains (S7 and S10) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Devasundaram, Santhi; Khan, Imran; Kumar, Neeraj; Das, Sulochana; Raja, Alamelu

    2015-09-20

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to persist within the host in a dormant stage. One important condition believed to contribute to dormancy is reduced access to oxygen known as hypoxia. However, the response of M. tuberculosis to such hypoxia condition is not fully characterized. Virtually all dormant models against tuberculosis tested in animals used laboratory strain H37Rv or Erdman strain. But major outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) occur with the strains that have widely different genotypes and phenotypes compared to H37Rv. In this study, we used a custom oligonucleotide microarray to determine the overall transcriptional response of laboratory strain (H37Rv) and most prevalent clinical strains (S7 and S10) of M. tuberculosis from South India to hypoxia. Analysis of microarray results revealed that a total of 1161 genes were differentially regulated (≥1.5 fold change) in H37Rv, among them 659 genes upregulated and 502 genes down regulated. Microarray data of clinical isolates showed that a total of 790 genes were differentially regulated in S7 among which 453 genes were upregulated and 337 down regulated. Interestingly, numerous genes were also differentially regulated in S10 (total 2805 genes) of which 1463 genes upregulated and 1342 genes down regulated during reduced oxygen condition (Wayne's model). One hundred and thirty-four genes were found common and upregulated among all three strains (H37Rv, S7, and S10) and can be targeted for drug/vaccine development against TB.

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Free radical chlorination of methane is used in organic chemistry to introduce free radical/chain reactions. In spite of its common occurrence, demonstrations of the reaction are uncommon. Therefore, such a demonstration is provided, including background information, preparation of reactants/reaction vessel, introduction of reactants, irradiation,…

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Provides three descriptions of demonstrations used in various chemistry courses. Includes the use of a simple demonstration model to illustrate principles of chromatography, techniques for using balloons to teach about the behavior of gases, and the use of small concentrations of synthetic polyelectrolytes to induce the flocculation hydrophobic…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines a simple, inexpensive way of demonstrating electroplating using the reaction between nickel ions and copper metal. Explains how to conduct a demonstration of the electrolysis of water by using a colored Na2SO4 solution as the electrolyte so that students can observe the pH changes. (TW)

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations: "The Construction and Use of Commercial Voltaic Cell Displays in Freshman Chemistry"; Dramatizing Isotopes: Deuterated Ice Cubes Sink"; and "A Simple Apparatus to Demonstrate Differing Gas Diffusion Rates (Graham's Law)." Materials, procedures, and safety considerations are discussed. (CW)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a demonstration utilized to measure the heat of vaporization using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Explained is that when measurement is made as part of a demonstration, it raises student's consciousness that chemistry is experimentally based. (Author/DS)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) modification of copper catalysis demonstration apparatus; (2) experiments in gas-liquid chromatography with simple gas chromatography at room temperature; and (3) equilibria in silver arsenate-arsenic acid and silver phosphate-phosphoric acid systems. Procedures and materials needed are provided.…

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presented are two chemistry demonstrations: (1) an alternative method for the demonstration of the properties of alkali metals, water is added to small amounts of metal; (2) an exploration of the properties of hydrogen, helium, propane, and carbon dioxide using an open trough and candle. (MVL)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Described are demonstrations designed to reveal the important "nonsolvent" properties of water through its interaction with a toy called "Magic Sand" and other synthetic silica derivatives, especially those bonded with organic moities. The procedures for seven demonstrations along with a discussion of the effects are presented. (CW)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a variant of preparing purple benzene by phase transfer catalysis with quaternary ammonium salts and potassium permanganate in which crown ethers are used; (2) a corridor or "hallway" demonstration in which unknown molecular models are displayed and prizes awarded to students correctly identifying the…

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration of a solid state phase transition using a thermodynamic material which changes state at room temperature. Also describes a demonstration on kinetics using a "Big Bang" (trade mark) calcium carbide cannon. Indicates that the cannon is safe to use. (JN)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations for classroom use related to precipitation of ferrous hydroxide and to variation of vapor pressure with temperature. The former demonstration is simple and useful when discussing solubility of ionic compounds electrode potential of transition elements, and mixed valence compounds. (Author/SA)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a supplement to the "water to rose" demonstration in which a pink color is produced. Also discusses blood buffer demonstrations, including hydrolysis of sodium bicarbonate, simulated blood buffer, metabolic acidosis, natural compensation of metabolic acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, acidosis treatment, and alkalosis treatment. Procedures…

  6. Complete Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelon, Stephen; Maddocks, Peg

    1986-01-01

    Describes four-step approach to educational demonstration: tell learners they will have to perform; what they should notice; describe each step before doing it; and require memorization of steps. Examples illustrate use of this process to demonstrate a general mental strategy, and industrial design, supervisory, fine motor, and specific…

  7. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two laboratory demonstrations in chemistry. One uses dry ice, freon, and freezer bags to demonstrate volume changes, vapor-liquid equilibrium, a simulation of a rain forest, and vaporization. The other uses the clock reaction technique to illustrate fast reactions and kinetic problems in releasing carbon dioxide during respiration. (TW)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations designed to help chemistry students visualize certain chemical properties. One experiment uses balloons to illustrate the behavior of gases under varying temperatures and pressures. The other uses a makeshift pea shooter and a commercial model to demonstrate atomic structure and the behavior of high-speed particles.…

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Provided are two demonstrations for an introductory course in chemistry. The first one emphasizes the observation and the interpretation of facts to form hypotheses during the heating of a beaker of water. The second demonstration shows the liquid phase of carbon dioxide using dry ice and a pressure gauge. (YP)

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Soret, Juliette; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques

    2016-06-01

    THE ROLE OF RUXOLITINIB IN THE TREATMENT OF MYELOPROLIFERATIVE NEOPLASMS: The discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in 2005, present in 95% of polycythemia vera (PV) and in 55% of myelofibrosis (MF) patients, opened the way for a new era of targeted therapies for myeloproliferative neoplasms. Ruxolitinib was the first-in-class Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitor approved for the management of these diseases. In PV patients, conventional treatment strategies including aspirin, phlebotomy, cytoreductive agents such as hydroxyurea and interferon, clearly provide clinical benefits. However, some patients develop resistance or intolerance to these treatments. Ruxolitinib has been approved for PV patients who are resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea, based on the results of the phase 3 RESPONSE study. This study showed that ruxolitinib improves hematocrit control, reduces splenomegaly, and ameliorate disease-related symptoms as compared with best available therapy. In MF patients, the only curative treatment is allogeneic stem cell transplantation, but it remains restricted to a limited group of patients with poor prognosis and who are eligible for such procedure associated with non-negligible transplant-related mortality. Other treatments are palliative and unlikely to prolong survival. Ruxolitinib has been approved in the United States for MF patients with intermediate or high-risk disease, and in Europe for disease-related splenomegaly or symptoms in adults with MF, based on phase 3 COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II studies. These studies showed that ruxolitinib was able to reduce splenomegaly, ameliorate symptoms, and improve survival. However, the journey is not finished yet since there are still important unmet needs for MF patients, including improvement in cytopenias, and significant modification of disease natural history. PMID:27494970

  11. Moderate whisky consumption in combination with an evening meal reduces tryptophan availability to the brain but does not influence performance in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Markus, C Rob; Sierksma, Aafje; Verbeek, Cees; van Rooijen, Jan J M; Patel, Hamina J; Brand, A Nico; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2004-12-01

    Brain serotonin (5-HT) synthesis is controlled by nutrients that influence the availability of plasma tryptophan (Trp) as compared with the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (LNAA; Trp:LNAA). Alcohol consumption is found to change mood and performance and this might well be due to alterations in the plasma Trp:LNAA ratio and brain 5-HT. In the present study, we tested whether whisky consumption as part of a meal may alter the plasma Trp:LNAA ratio and influence mood and performance in healthy volunteers. Twenty-four healthy male subjects participated in a within-subjects cross-over study. Subjects consumed whisky (125 ml; 40 g alcohol) or water (125 ml) as part of a standard evening meal. Effects of whisky consumption were tested on mood and choice reaction time and blood samples were taken to measure changes in plasma amino acids, glucose and insulin. The plasma Trp:LNAA ratio showed a significant decline 2 h after whisky consumption of alcohol (P<0.001). No effects were found on choice reaction time or mood as compared with the control condition. The present findings reveal that whisky consumption alters available plasma Trp for uptake into the brain, whereas there were no effects on mood and performance.

  12. Passive damping technology demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Robert E.; Spencer, Susan M.; Austin, Eric M.; Johnson, Conor D.

    1995-05-01

    A Hughes Space Company study was undertaken to (1) acquire the analytical capability to design effective passive damping treatments and to predict the damped dynamic performance with reasonable accuracy; (2) demonstrate reasonable test and analysis agreement for both baseline and damped baseline hardware; and (3) achieve a 75% reduction in peak transmissibility and 50% reduction in rms random vibration response. Hughes Space Company teamed with CSA Engineering to learn how to apply passive damping technology to their products successfully in a cost-effective manner. Existing hardware was selected for the demonstration because (1) previous designs were lightly damped and had difficulty in vibration test; (2) multiple damping concepts could be investigated; (3) the finite element model, hardware, and test fixture would be available; and (4) damping devices could be easily implemented. Bracket, strut, and sandwich panel damping treatments that met the performance goals were developed by analysis. The baseline, baseline with damped bracket, and baseline with damped strut designs were built and tested. The test results were in reasonable agreement with the analytical predictions and demonstrated that the desired reduction in dynamic response could be achieved. Having successfully demonstrated this approach, it can now be used with confidence for future designs as a means for reducing weight and enhancing reliability.

  13. Biochar from sugarcane filtercake reduces soil CO2 emissions relative to raw residue and improves water retention and nutrient availability in a highly-weathered tropical soil.

    PubMed

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  14. Decrease in Available Soil Water Storage Capacity Reduces Vitality of Young Understorey European Beeches (Fagus sylvatica L.)—A Case Study from the Black Forest, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Tamalika; Saha, Somidh; Reif, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Growth and survival of young European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is largely dependent on water availability. We quantified the influence of water stress (measured as Available Soil Water Storage Capacity or ASWSC) on vitality of young beech plants at a dry site. The study site was located in a semi-natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.) stand adjacent to beech stands on a rocky gneiss outcrop in southwestern Germany. Plant vitality was measured as crown dieback and estimated by the percentage of dead above ground biomass. The magnitude of crown dieback was recorded in different vertical parts of the crown. Biomass was calculated from the harvested plants following allometric regression equations specifically developed for our study site. Stem discs from harvested plants were used for growth analysis. We found that soil depth up to bedrock and skeleton content significantly influenced ASWSC at the study site. A significant negative correlation between ASWSC and crown dieback was found. Highest rates of crown dieback were noticed in the middle and lower crown. The threshold of crown dieback as a function of drought stress for young beech plants was calculated for the first time in this study. This threshold of crown dieback was found to be 40% of above ground biomass. Beyond 40% crown dieback, plants eventually experienced complete mortality. In addition, we found that the extremely dry year of 2003 significantly hampered growth (basal area increment) of plants in dry plots (ASWSC < 61 mm) in the study area. Recovery in the plants’ radial growth after that drought year was significantly higher in less dry plots (ASWSC > 61 mm) than in dry plots. We concluded that a decrease in ASWSC impeded the vitality of young beech causing partial up to complete crown dieback in the study site. PMID:27137398

  15. Biochar from Sugarcane Filtercake Reduces Soil CO2 Emissions Relative to Raw Residue and Improves Water Retention and Nutrient Availability in a Highly-Weathered Tropical Soil

    PubMed Central

    Eykelbosh, Angela Joy; Johnson, Mark S.; Santos de Queiroz, Edmar; Dalmagro, Higo José; Guimarães Couto, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the degradation of nutrient-poor Ferralsols limits productivity and drives agricultural expansion into pristine areas. However, returning agricultural residues to the soil in a stabilized form may offer opportunities for maintaining or improving soil quality, even under conditions that typically promote carbon loss. We examined the use of biochar made from filtercake (a byproduct of sugarcane processing) on the physicochemical properties of a cultivated tropical soil. Filtercake was pyrolyzed at 575°C for 3 h yielding a biochar with increased surface area and porosity compared to the raw filtercake. Filtercake biochar was primarily composed of aromatic carbon, with some residual cellulose and hemicellulose. In a three-week laboratory incubation, CO2 effluxes from a highly weathered Ferralsol soil amended with 5% biochar (dry weight, d.w.) were roughly four-fold higher than the soil-only control, but 23-fold lower than CO2 effluxes from soil amended with 5% (d.w.) raw filtercake. We also applied vinasse, a carbon-rich liquid waste from bioethanol production typically utilized as a fertilizer on sugarcane soils, to filtercake- and biochar-amended soils. Total CO2 efflux from the biochar-amended soil in response to vinasse application was only 5% of the efflux when vinasse was applied to soil amended with raw filtercake. Furthermore, mixtures of 5 or 10% biochar (d.w.) in this highly weathered tropical soil significantly increased water retention within the plant-available range and also improved nutrient availability. Accordingly, application of sugarcane filtercake as biochar, with or without vinasse application, may better satisfy soil management objectives than filtercake applied to soils in its raw form, and may help to build soil carbon stocks in sugarcane-cultivating regions. PMID:24897522

  16. Annual burning of a tallgrass prairie inhibits C and N cycling in soil, increasing recalcitrant pyrogenic organic matter storage while reducing N availability.

    PubMed

    Soong, Jennifer L; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Grassland ecosystems store an estimated 30% of the world's total soil C and are frequently disturbed by wildfires or fire management. Aboveground litter decomposition is one of the main processes that form soil organic matter (SOM). However, during a fire biomass is removed or partially combusted and litter inputs to the soil are substituted with inputs of pyrogenic organic matter (py-OM). Py-OM accounts for a more recalcitrant plant input to SOM than fresh litter, and the historical frequency of burning may alter C and N retention of both fresh litter and py-OM inputs to the soil. We compared the fate of these two forms of plant material by incubating (13) C- and (15) N-labeled Andropogon gerardii litter and py-OM at both an annually burned and an infrequently burned tallgrass prairie site for 11 months. We traced litter and py-OM C and N into uncomplexed and organo-mineral SOM fractions and CO2 fluxes and determined how fire history affects the fate of these two forms of aboveground biomass. Evidence from CO2 fluxes and SOM C:N ratios indicates that the litter was microbially transformed during decomposition while, besides an initial labile fraction, py-OM added to SOM largely untransformed by soil microbes. Additionally, at the N-limited annually burned site, litter N was tightly conserved. Together, these results demonstrate how, although py-OM may contribute to C and N sequestration in the soil due to its resistance to microbial degradation, a long history of annual removal of fresh litter and input of py-OM infers N limitation due to the inhibition of microbial decomposition of aboveground plant inputs to the soil. These results provide new insight into how fire may impact plant inputs to the soil, and the effects of py-OM on SOM formation and ecosystem C and N cycling. PMID:25487951

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a recipe for the Nylon Rope Trick, which is considered to be one of the most spectacular demonstrations in chemistry. Materials for growing the polymer and some safety precautions are given. (SA)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1990-01-01

    Included are three demonstrations that include the phase change of ice when under pressure, viscoelasticity and colloid systems, and flame tests for metal ions. The materials, procedures, probable results, and applications to real life situations are included. (KR)

  19. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations suitable for chemistry instruction. One involves fractal structures obtained by electrodeposition of silver at an air-water interface and the other deals with molecular weights and music. (TW)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are provided for a demonstration involving the transformation of a hydrophobic liquid to a partially hydrophobic semisolid. Safety considerations are noted. (JN)

  1. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffia, Sergio; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports two electrochemical demonstrations. Uses a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell to power a clock. Includes description of methods and materials. Investigates the "potato clock" used with different fruits. Lists emf and current for various fruit and electrode combinations. (ML)

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a Corridor Demonstration which can be set up in readily accessible areas such as hallways or lobbies. Equipment is listed for a display of three cells (solar cells, fuel cells, and storage cells) which develop electrical energy. (CS)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfeld, D. W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations (1) a dust explosion using a coffee can, candle, rubber tubing, and cornstarch and (2) forming a silicate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer which can be pressed into plastic sheets or molded. Gives specific instructions. (MVL)

  4. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Two demonstrations are presented: a verification of the discontinuity of matter based on the law of definite proportions, and a series of consecutive chemical reactions featuring reversible equilibria. (BB)

  5. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presents three demonstrations suitable for undergraduate chemistry classes. Focuses on experiments with calcium carbide, the induction by iron of the oxidation of iodide by dichromate, and the classical iodine clock reaction. (ML)

  6. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1982-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described: (1) a sunset effect using a gooseneck lamp and 20 sheets of paper and (2) the preparation and determination of structural features of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by infrared spectroscopy. (SK)

  7. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a room-temperature method for demonstrating phosphorescence by including samples in a polymer matrix. Also discusses the Old Nassau Reaction, a clock reaction which turns orange then black. (MLH)

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in college chemistry classes. Includes "Spectroscopy in Large Lecture Halls" and "The Endothermic Dissolution of Ammonium Nitrate." Gives materials lists and procedures as well as a discussion of the results. (CW)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations for use in chemistry instruction. The first illustrates the preparation of a less common oxide of iron, showing why this oxide is rare. The second is an explosion reaction of hydrogen and oxygen that is recommended for use as an attention-getting device. (TW)

  10. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides instructions and a list of materials needed to demonstrate: (1) a model of the quantum mechanical atom; (2) principles involved in metal corrosion and in the prevention of this destructive process by electrochemical means; and (3) a Thermit reaction, modified to make it more dramatic and interesting for students. (SK)

  11. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and typical results obtained are provided for two demonstrations. The first involves the colorful complexes of copper(II). The second involves reverse-phase separation of Food, Drug, and Cosmetic (FD & C) dyes using a solvent gradient. (JN)

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliche, Jean-Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: 1) the effect of polarity on solubility using sodium dichromate, TTE, ligroin, and water to form nonpolar-polar-nonpolar layers with the polar layer being colored; 2) determination of egg whites to be yellow by determining the content of yellow colored riboflavin in the egg white. (MVL)

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations to illustrate characteristics of substances. Outlines a method to detect the changes in pH levels during the electrolysis of water. Uses water pistols, one filled with methane gas and the other filled with water, to illustrate the differences in these two substances. (TW)

  14. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations: one that illustrates the attainment of equilibrium in first-order reactions by changing the volumes of two beakers of water at a specified rate, and another that illustrates the role of indicators in showing pH changes in buffer solutions. (MLH)

  15. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes two demonstrations that require almost no preparation time, are visually stimulating, and present a variety of material for class discussion (with sample questions provided). The first involves a sodium bicarbonate hydrochloric acid volcano; the second involves a dissolving polystyrene cup. Procedures used and information on…

  16. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus is described in which effects of pressure, volume, and temperature changes on a gas can be observed simultaneously. Includes use of the apparatus in demonstrating Boyle's, Gay-Lussac's, and Charles' Laws, attractive forces, Dalton's Law of Partial pressures, and in illustrating measurable vapor pressures of liquids and some solids.…

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. The first shows the effect of polarity on solubility. The second is based on the unexpected formation of a precipitate of barium nitrate when barium carbonate or barium phosphate is treated with dilute nitric acid. List of materials needed and procedures used are included. (JN)

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Collin, Johanne; Hughes, David

    2016-01-01

    In The Mind of Modernism, Mark Micale demonstrates the ubiquity of the concept of hysteria in the French imagination at the turn of the century. Taking this approach as our starting point, our study attempts to determine if the notion of degeneration played a similar role in the interactions of psychiatry, culture and politics in Quebec. Our analysis of a variety of historical sources demonstrates that the concept of degeneration did indeed penetrate aspects of psychiatric nosology, medical literature, news media, fiction, and political discourse in Quebec. PMID:27344902

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Collin, Johanne; Hughes, David

    2016-01-01

    In The Mind of Modernism, Mark Micale demonstrates the ubiquity of the concept of hysteria in the French imagination at the turn of the century. Taking this approach as our starting point, our study attempts to determine if the notion of degeneration played a similar role in the interactions of psychiatry, culture and politics in Quebec. Our analysis of a variety of historical sources demonstrates that the concept of degeneration did indeed penetrate aspects of psychiatric nosology, medical literature, news media, fiction, and political discourse in Quebec.

  20. GASIS demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Vidas, E.H.

    1995-04-01

    A prototype of the GASIS database and retrieval software has been developed and is the subject of this poster session and computer demonstration. The prototype consists of test or preliminary versions of the GASIS Reservoir Data System and Source Directory datasets and the software for query and retrieval. The prototype reservoir database covers the Rocky Mountain region and contains the full GASIS data matrix (all GASIS data elements) that will eventually be included on the CD-ROM. It is populated for development purposes primarily by the information included in the Rocky Mountain Gas Atlas. The software has been developed specifically for GASIS using Foxpro for Windows. The application is an executable file that does not require Foxpro to run. The reservoir database software includes query and retrieval, screen display, report generation, and data export functions. Basic queries by state, basin, or field name will be assisted by scrolling selection lists. A detailed query screen will allow record selection on the basis of any data field, such as depth, cumulative production, or geological age. Logical operators can be applied to any-numeric data element or combination of elements. Screen display includes a {open_quotes}browse{close_quotes} display with one record per row and a detailed single record display. Datasets can be exported in standard formats for manipulation with other software packages. The Source Directory software will allow record retrieval by database type or subject area.

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    REFLEXIONS ABOUT NEW STRATEGIES OF RADIOTHERAPY FOR EARLY BREAST CANCER: Radiotherapy (RT) remains a major treatment element in early breast cancer, with a major impact on local control and survival. For ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), RT reduces local recurrence (LR) rates by 50 to 60 % after conservative surgery (both in situ and invasive). This was confirmed by four randomized trials and one meta-analysis. For infiltrating breast cancers (IBC), RT also reduces LR rates by 65 to 75 % after conservative surgery. Boost allows an additional reduction of LR. RT is efficient in all age categories, but hypofractionated schemes are particularly adapted to elderly women. Partial breast irrradiation techniques are very much heterogeneous and lack follow-up. They should be used in LR low-risk patients only and in the frame of controlled studies. Locoregional RT for high-risk patients (especially in pN+) remains essential to reduce the locoregional recurrence rate and to increase survival, as confirmed in several meta-analyses. Four studies showed a survival benefit (2-3 %), thanks to internal mammary chain irradiation in LR high-risk patients. Moreover, axillary RT seems to be a likely valuable alternative to axillary dissection in case of sentinel node invasion. Finally, with the modern techniques and dosimetric optimization, RT toxicity was reduced, or even cancelled, arousing hope for a better increased benefit for the patients in the future. PMID:27494965

  2. Efficacy Analysis of a Script-based Guide for EVAR Execution: is it Possible to Reduce Patient Exposure to Contrast, Operative Time and Blood Loss even when Advanced Technologies are not Available?

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Giovani José Dal Poggetto; Guillaumon, Ana Terezinha; Dalbem, Andréia Marques de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Despite the patient and medical staff exposure to radiation in endovascular aneurysm repair, the benefits of this abdominal aortic aneurysm type of surgical management are justfied by minor recovery time and hospitalization, as well as an option for patients not elected to conventional open repair. In this minimally invasive surgical aproach, time of procedure and radiation doses can be substantial - and the increasing frequency of these procedures and it's complexity have impelled vascular surgeons to face additional and successive risk to occupational radiation exposure. Meticulous study of the computed tomography angiography during the endovascular aneurysm repair preparation allows reduction of unnecessary radiation exposure, as also reduces consecutive image acquisition and contrast use (that may be related to renal overload in susceptible patients). Some studies have proposed strategies to optimize endovascular intervention to reduce contrast use and X-ray exposure. Although they might prove to be effective, they rely on use of additional specific and advanced equipment, available only in major centers. As an alternative to this expensive and restrict technology, it is presented a simpler technique through image manipulation on software OsiriX, aiming to reduce both exposures. OBJECTIVE To analyze the efficacy of the adoption of a study protocol and a script-based guide in preparation for endovascular aneurysm repair through verifying it's impact over the surgical procedure - as referred to intravascular contrast infuse, effects over renal function, blood loss and operatory time. METHODS A longitudinal prospective study from March 2014 through March 2015, where 30 performed endovascular aneurysm repair were compared to a historic control group. The planning for endovascular aneurysm repair through the patient's tomographic image manipulation in the prospective group was performed with OsiriX MD software. A script-based guide upon gathering

  3. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Fischer, K D

    1994-01-01

    In most instances, knowledge is passed on through the medium of language. The author tries to demonstrate to what extent the Latin present in early medieval Latin medical treatises failed to fulfill its role as an efficient medium of communication, which factors may account for this failure and how scholars in the middle ages strove to restore sense in texts in various stages of corruption, an attempt that was bound to be unsuccessful in many cases owing to a lack of reliable dictionaries.

  4. Available nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar technology may contribute to the recovery and recycling of plant nutrients and thus add a fertilizer value to the biochar. Total nutrient content in biochars varies greatly and is mainly dependent on feedstock elemental composition and to a lesser extent on pyrolysis conditions. Availability...

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    1989-10-24

    First aid books, ambulances and other health images are hidden among the smiling faces on these colourful Christmas cards produced by the Nicaragua Health Fund. Packs of six are available at &1.95 (plus 25p postage and packaging) from 83 Margaret Street. London WIN 7HB.

  6. LIMB demonstration project extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The purpose of the DOE limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension is to extend the data base on LIMB technology and to expand DOE's list of Clean Coal Technologies by demonstrating the Coolside process as part of the project. The main objectives of this project are: to demonstrate the general applicability of LIMB technology by testing 3 coals and 4 sorbents (total of 12 coal/sorbent combinations) at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant; and to demonstrate that Coolside is a viable technology for improving precipitator performance and reducing sulfur dioxide emissions while acceptable operability is maintained. Progress is reported. 3 figs.

  7. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ben Omar Bridi, S; PIennevaux, V; Racapé, J; Nortier, J

    2016-01-01

    Because of the significant costs related to the treatment of end-stage kidney disease by dialysis, Belgian Health Care Authorities proposed in June 2009 an early multidisciplinary care of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a so-called clinical pathway (CP). Working on the hypothesis that inclusion into a CP could result in reduced morbidity and mortality and delayed admission on dialysis, we initiated a retrospective cohort study on dialyzed patients for whom a prior CKD diagnosis was made between June 1, 2009 and August 31, 2013 in the Nephrology Dept of Erasme Hospital. The exposed patient group was defined as enrolled patients into a CP (n = 25), the control patients were free of any CP (n = 25). Survival analyses were performed to search for an association between the inclusion into a CP and the time period needed to reach dialysis, but also to find a possible impact of CP on mortality and risk of hospitalization. The present study showed that CKD-CP significantly delayed the time of dialysis initiation (HR = 0.48 [0.27-0.87]; p = 0.015) but also reduced mortality (HR = 0.10 [0.02-0.53]; p = 0.007) and hospitalization risk (HR = 0.30 [0.11-0.83]; p = 0.020) after starting dialysis. These data suggest the benefit of a multidisciplinary care of CKD patients. However, a larger scale study is necessary to confirm these results. PMID:27120930

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Crispinoi, Margherita; Biondi, Massimo; Lama, Giovanni; Mastrantuono, Sergio; Iammarrone, Clemente Servodio; Bianco, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Among the main causes of absence from work, with direct and indirect social costs, there are the low back pain that represent the most frequent complaint in health professionals. From 8 to 16% of the nursing staff and care is damaged skeletal muscle such as to limit the eligibility to work. In the Campania Region has introduced a structural adjustment program of the institutions which provide social and health care in order to improve the "practicality" and "usability" of space for guests and operators. The implementation of this program in the Azienda Sanitaria Locale Napoli 2 North, and especially in our district 39, has been the main targets of optimizing the organization of work and reducing the percentage of low back pain. The evaluation of this program has shown that compliance with ergonomic principles leads to the prevention of psychological and physical disorders related to a bad drawing of organized labor. PMID:27311146

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Perrotta, F M; Lubrano, E

    2016-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that possibly leads to structural damage and to a reduction of joint function and poor quality of life. Treatment of PsA has changed since its introduction of anti- TNF drugs, which have shown to reduce the symptoms and signs of the disease and slow the radiographic progression. However, recently, the discovery of new pathogenic mechanisms have made possible the development of new molecules that target pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in skin, joint and entheseal inflammation. New drugs like ustekinumab, secukinumab and apremilast inhibit interleukin axis and intracellular pathways and showed their efficacy and safety in randomized clinical trials. These drugs have been recently approved for the treatment of PsA and included in the new EULAR and GRAPPA treatment recommendations. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the clinical trials that led to their approval for PsA. PMID:27608793

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Jütte, R

    1996-01-01

    Pain, and toothache in particular, belongs to the most basic human experiences. This paper describes how the experience of pain is shaped and modified by individual human minds and by specific medical cultures. It explores what social historians of medicine call the historical, social, cultural, and psychological construction of pain. The story of how people reconstruct the experience of pain in past and present demands that we look beyond the medical gaze. The voices most often neglected in medical history belong of course to patients. However, their testimony is difficult to recover, except for more recent times. We have to look therefore for their hidden voices in diaries, memoirs, essays, poems, novels and other literary genres. These scattered records and fragmentary episodes of bouts of illness suggest that the history of toothache cannot be reduced to a parable about biomedical progress, but stands at the crossroad of bodies, minds, and cultures.

  11. Methanol Cannon Demonstrations Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes two variations on the traditional methanol cannon demonstration. The first variation is a chain reaction using real metal chains. The second example involves using easily available components to produce sequential explosions that can be musical in nature. (AIM)

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Rajani, Rupesh; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute and chronic liver disease have a rebalanced hemostasis, i.e. these patients have an increased tendency for both bleeding and thrombosis.Bleeding is primarily related to portal hypertension, rather than a defective hemostasis. There are well-established clinical guidelines for the management of patients with liver cirrhosis and variceal bleeding.Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with liver cirrhosis. The treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis and venous thrombosis is not well documented. Treatment with anticoagulants should be considered in patients with symptomatic, extensive or progressive thrombosis of the portal system, as well as in patients who are being considered for liver transplantation. PMID:26978811

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    1987-12-19

    This nineteenth century illustration of a midwife on her way to a delivery was just one of the many fascinating slides shown recently at a Christmas Lecture at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, demonstrating the 'Story of Birth' through the ages. The delivery of babies was always regarded as the exclusive responsibility of the midwife, whose typical image was that of 'not quite drunk and but not quite sober', according to the speaker Mr john Studd, Consultant Obstetrician and Gynaecologist at King's college Hospital. Men were not allowed in the birthing chamber, and in the sixteenth century a Doctor Wertt of Hamburg was burned at the stake for masquerading as a woman in order to discover the wonder of childbirth.

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Zecchini, Céline; Chanoine, Sébastien; Chapuis, Claire; Claustre, Johanna; Schir, Edith; Allenet, Benoît; Raymond, Christel Saint; Bedouch, Pierrick

    2015-01-01

    Advances in lung transplantation allow the women of childbearing age to consider becoming mothers. When planning to become pregnant, a therapeutic drug management of immunosuppressive drugs and associated therapies is required. It must take into account teratogenic and fetotoxic drugs, as well as pharmacokinetic changes encountered during pregnancy. Increasingly data are currently available on the management of immunosuppressive drugs and associated therapies during pregnancy. We report the case management of drug therapy before and during pregnancy in two patients after a lung or heart-lung transplantation. To prevent the emergence of complications for mother and child, a literature review has been necessary to manage drug therapies of each patient. PMID:27393315

  15. Automatic lighting controls demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, F.; Verderber, R.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate, in a real building situation, the energy and peak demand reduction capabilities of an electronically ballasted lighting control system that can utilize all types of control strategies to efficiently manage lighting. The project has demonstrated that a state-of-the-art electronically ballasted dimmable lighting system can reduce energy and lighting demand by as least 50% using various combinations of control strategies. By reducing light levels over circulation areas (tuning) and reducing after hours light levels to accommodate the less stringent lighting demands of the cleaning crew (scheduling), lighting energy consumption on weekdays was reduced an average of 54% relative to the initial condition. 10 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Katov, A

    1970-01-01

    An attempt is made to outline the recently developed, modern gnostic possibilities for positivism, mechanicism and vulgar materialism of the bourgeois ideological influence upon the medico-biological science. The stronger neopositivism trends in the medico-biological front represent, on the one hand, reaction to the accepted in the past natural and philosophical decrees, and on the other, a consequence of the fact that some philosophers-marxists began teaching that special learning proper represents practically a methodology. The manifestations of modern mechanicism, especially at the levels of biophysics and chemistry, are explained with the fact that a number of biologists and philosophers, stupefied by the successes of microstructural investigation in vivo, and ignoring the principles of dialectics, began to absolutize biological microstructures by reducing the complex of biological facts to the biophysico-chemical principle. The great successes of discovering the neurodynamical structures and mechanisms of psychics and thinking also led to the reaching of inferences that thinking and psychics represent the neurodynamic processes proper. Thus, the idealistic essence and specificity of consciousness is rejected a second time. The bourgeois ideological influence is effected also by means of denying the philosophical and party character of science.

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Tenter, A M; Fehlhaber, K

    2002-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. The organism causing the disease, Toxoplasma gondii, may infect a broad spectrum of hosts and it has developed several potential routes for transmission within and between different host species. Food-borne toxoplasmosis in humans may result from exposure to different stages of the parasite, in particular from the ingestion of tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals, or from the ingestion of sporulated oocysts which are contained in the environment and may contaminate fruits and vegetables. Although the potential transmission of the parasite to humans via food has been known for several decades, the route which is the most important from an epidemiological point of view is still unknown. On one hand, the seroprevalence of human infections is higher in countries with high meat consumption compared to those with low meat consumption, but on the other hand up to 47% of strict vegetarians have been shown to possess antibodies against the parasite. It is likely that the transmission of the parasite to humans is not only influenced by the contamination of various food sources, but also by the consumers' behaviour, as preventive measures may significantly reduce the risk of contracting T. gondii infection.

  18. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Brehant, O; Fuks, D; Sabbagh, C; Wouters, A; Mention, C; Dumont, F; Regimbeau, Jm

    2008-05-01

    O. Brehant, D. Fuks, C. Sabbagh, A. Wouters, C. Mention, F. Dumont, JM. Regimbeau When surgery is indicated for bleeding duodenal ulcer, the traditional standard of care has been "radical surgical treatment is preferable to conservative therapy since the risk of rebleeding is reduced without an augmentation in morbidity and mortality". This principle is based on two prospective studies published before 1995. Radical surgery at that time consisted of antrectomy, while conservative therapy included oversewing of the bleeding vessel in the ulcer bed and ligation of the gastroduodenal artery (Weinberg procedure). This strategy must be re-evaluated in 2008 in view of our better understanding of the role of Helicopacter pylori in the causation of duodenal ulceration and the decreased risk of post-operative re-bleeding with the use of proton pump inhibitors. The role of surgery has changed. Its aim is no longer to cure the ulcer diathesis but rather to urgently control bleeding in anticipation of ulcer cure with medical therapy.

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Klauss, K

    1994-01-01

    In the mid-nineteenth century Hermann von Helmholtz proved for the first time experimentally that nervous impulses are transmitted not directly by means of a "vital force" but at a finite, measurable velocity in the nerve tracts. Helmholtz's findings were a major step forward towards a comprehensive, scientific understanding of the specific nature of life processes. He demonstrated, for example, that life functions such as perception and desire, rather than being attributable to any vis vitalis, were the product of chemical and physical processes which could be quantified scientifically. Helmholtz's experiments were initially confined to frogs but later extended to human beings. His work on frogs has been published, unlike the results of the studies he undertook on human subjects. However, his first report - presented by his friend Emil du Bois-Reymond at a conference of the Physikalische Gesellschaft on 20 December 1850 - has survived as a draft in which Helmholtz gives a detailed description of this method. This document from the history of science is published here for the first time along with a brief introduction on its origin.

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    von Arx, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of apical surgery is to retain teeth with persistent apical pathosis following orthograde root canal treatment if endodontic non-surgical revision is difficult or associated with risks, or is even declined by the patient. Since the most frequent cause of recurrent apical disease is bacterial reinfection from the (remaining) root canal system, the bacteria-tight root-end filling is the most important step in apical surgery. In the early 1990s, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed at the Loma Linda University in California/USA. Preclinical studies clearly showed that MTA has a high sealing capability, a good material stability and an excellent biocompatbility. Multiple experimental studies in animals highlighted the mild tissue reactions observed adjacent to this material. Furthermore, histological analysis of the periapical regions demonstrated a frequent deposition of new cementum not only onto the resection plane (cut dentinal surface), but also directly onto MTA. For these reasons, MTA is considered a bioactive material. In 1997 MTA was cleared for clinical use in patients. Multiple prospective clinical and randomized studies have documented high and constant success rates of MTA-treated teeth in apical surgery. A recently published longitudinal study showed that MTA-treated teeth remained stable over five years; hence the high healed rates documented after one year are maintained during long-term observation. PMID:27377433

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Bennett, Jason W

    2009-01-01

    Malaria's global impact is expansive and includes the extremes of the healthcare system ranging from international travelers returning to nonendemic regions with tertiary referral medical care to residents in hyperendemic regions without access to medical care. Implementation of prompt and accurate diagnosis is needed to curb the expanding global impact of malaria associated with ever-increasing antimalarial drug resistance. Traditionally, malaria is diagnosed using clinical criteria and/or light microscopy even though both strategies are clearly inadequate in many healthcare settings. Hand held immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been recognized as an ideal alternative method for diagnosing malaria. Numerous malaria RDTs have been developed and are widely available; however, an assortment of issues related to these products have become apparent. This review provides a summary of RDT including effectiveness and strategies to select the ideal RDT in varying healthcare settings.

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Olsen, Björn; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-03-10

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitos. The virus was discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda. Symptomatic disease is usually mild and is characterized by maculopapular rash, headache, fever, arthralgia and conjunctivitis. Fatalities are rare. There is neither vaccine nor curative treatment available. In May 2015, the first observation of local virus transmission was reported from Brazil. During the expanding outbreak in the Americas, Zika virus infection has been associated with microcephaly in newborn and fetal losses in women infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. The main reason for the current epidemic in the Americas is the introduction of an Old World virus into a new ecosystem, with no background herd immunity in the population. It is likely that the spread of Zika virus will continue, affecting all countries in the Americas except for Chile and Canada.

  3. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Elodie; de Lara, Manuel Tunon

    2013-01-01

    Pholcodine is an opioid that has been widely used worldwide since 1950 for the treatment of non-productive cough in children and adults. The results of early preclinical studies but also those of recent clinical trials have shown the antitussive efficacy of pholcodine to be superior to that of codeine, of longer duration, and with an equivalent or safer toxicity profile. Also, there is no risk of addiction. Concern had been raised over a possible cross-sensitisation with neuromuscular blocking agents. While a recent assessment of the available data by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has confirmed the favourable risk-benefit ratio of pholcodine, further studies are needed to clear this point. PMID:27392673

  4. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Elodie; de Lara, Manuel Tunon

    2013-01-01

    Pholcodine is an opioid that has been widely used worldwide since 1950 for the treatment of non-productive cough in children and adults. The results of early preclinical studies but also those of recent clinical trials have shown the antitussive efficacy of pholcodine to be superior to that of codeine, of longer duration, and with an equivalent or safer toxicity profile. Also, there is no risk of addiction. Concern had been raised over a possible cross-sensitisation with neuromuscular blocking agents. While a recent assessment of the available data by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has confirmed the favourable risk-benefit ratio of pholcodine, further studies are needed to clear this point.

  5. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Cuerda Compes, María Cristina; García-Luna, Pedro P; Martínez Faedo, Ceferino; Mauri Roca, Sílvia; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Virgili Casas, M Nuria; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    Introducción:la nutrición parenteral (NP) a largo plazo puede asociarse a complicaciones graves, con un deterioro importante de la calidad de vida de los pacientes con síndrome de intestino corto (SIC). Teduglutida, un análogo del péptido-2 similar al glucagón, pertenece a una nueva familia terapéutica y representa el primer abordaje no sintomático del SIC. Objetivos: revisar los datos preclínicos y clínicos en cuanto a eficacia y seguridad de teduglutida. Resultados: la aprobación de teduglutida se basó en los resultados de un estudio en fase III de 24 semanas, doble ciego, controlado con placebo (STEPS). Pacientes con fallo intestinal por SIC dependientes de NP ≥ 3 veces/semana durante ≥ 12 meses recibieron 0,05 mg/kg de teduglutida (n = 43) o placebo (n = 43) 1 vez/día. En la semana 24 hubo significativamente más respondedores en el grupo de teduglutida que en el de placebo (63 vs.30%; p = 0,002). La reducción absoluta media del volumen de NP frente al valor basal en la semana 24 fue significativamente mayor con teduglutida (4,4 vs.2,3 l/semana; p < 0,001). La necesidad de NP se redujo ≥ 1 día en la semana 24 en el 54% de pacientes tratados con teduglutida vs.23% con placebo. Del total de pacientes que recibieron teduglutida en los ensayos en fase III (n = 134), el 12% consiguió una autonomía completa de la NP. Por lo general, la administración subcutánea de teduglutida se toleró bien. Conclusiones: se ha demostrado que teduglutida recupera la absorción intestinal y reduce significativamente la dependencia de la NP, consiguiendo incluso la independencia en algunos pacientes. PMID:27571675

  6. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Burgos Peláez, Rosa; Cuerda Compes, María Cristina; García-Luna, Pedro P; Martínez Faedo, Ceferino; Mauri Roca, Sílvia; Moreno Villares, José Manuel; Virgili Casas, M Nuria; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-07-19

    Introducción:la nutrición parenteral (NP) a largo plazo puede asociarse a complicaciones graves, con un deterioro importante de la calidad de vida de los pacientes con síndrome de intestino corto (SIC). Teduglutida, un análogo del péptido-2 similar al glucagón, pertenece a una nueva familia terapéutica y representa el primer abordaje no sintomático del SIC. Objetivos: revisar los datos preclínicos y clínicos en cuanto a eficacia y seguridad de teduglutida. Resultados: la aprobación de teduglutida se basó en los resultados de un estudio en fase III de 24 semanas, doble ciego, controlado con placebo (STEPS). Pacientes con fallo intestinal por SIC dependientes de NP ≥ 3 veces/semana durante ≥ 12 meses recibieron 0,05 mg/kg de teduglutida (n = 43) o placebo (n = 43) 1 vez/día. En la semana 24 hubo significativamente más respondedores en el grupo de teduglutida que en el de placebo (63 vs.30%; p = 0,002). La reducción absoluta media del volumen de NP frente al valor basal en la semana 24 fue significativamente mayor con teduglutida (4,4 vs.2,3 l/semana; p < 0,001). La necesidad de NP se redujo ≥ 1 día en la semana 24 en el 54% de pacientes tratados con teduglutida vs.23% con placebo. Del total de pacientes que recibieron teduglutida en los ensayos en fase III (n = 134), el 12% consiguió una autonomía completa de la NP. Por lo general, la administración subcutánea de teduglutida se toleró bien. Conclusiones: se ha demostrado que teduglutida recupera la absorción intestinal y reduce significativamente la dependencia de la NP, consiguiendo incluso la independencia en algunos pacientes.

  7. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vizuet Vega, Norma Isela; Shamah Levy, Teresa; Gaona Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Cuevas Nasu, Lucía; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: la anemia es un factor de riesgo en la población infantil con consecuencias graves para su crecimiento y desarrollo. Los programas de ayuda alimentaria pueden contribuir a su prevención y control. Objetivo: estudiar la adherencia al consumo de suplementos y su relación con la prevalencia de anemia en niños menores de tres años de edad en San Luis Potosí, México beneficiarios del programa PROSPERA.Métodos: se realizó un análisis comparativo en niños de 12 a 36 meses que consumen diferentes suplementos alimenticios: 414 pertenecientes al grupo de intervención y 334 al de comparación. Se midió la hemoglobina (Hb) por Hemocue clasificando como anémicos a quienes tuvieron valores <110 g/l. Se aplicaron pruebas de t de Student y X2. Se estimaron efectos de intervención mediante el método de diferencias en diferencias y un puntaje de adherencia al consumo de suplementos.Resultados: al final del estudio la prevalencia de anemia disminuyó 11.2 pp en el grupo de intervención y 8.7 pp en el de comparación; la interacción del puntaje de adherencia por suplemento y etapa de observación mostró que la adherencia al consumo de Bebida láctea + Vitaniño reduce el riesgo de presentar anemia (p = 0,14). El consumo de Nutrisano + Vitaniño se asoció con menor riesgo (0,2), ambos con respecto al consumo de Nutrisano.Conclusiones: el programa PROSPERA tuvo efectos importantes en la disminución de las prevalencias de anemia. Se recomienda llevar a cabo acciones para mejorar la adherencia al consumo de suplementos alimenticios, a fIn de mejorar la efectividad de los programas.

  8. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Vizuet Vega, Norma Isela; Shamah Levy, Teresa; Gaona Pineda, Elsa Berenice; Cuevas Nasu, Lucía; Méndez Gómez-Humarán, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la anemia es un factor de riesgo en la población infantil con consecuencias graves para su crecimiento y desarrollo. Los programas de ayuda alimentaria pueden contribuir a su prevención y control. Objetivo: estudiar la adherencia al consumo de suplementos y su relación con la prevalencia de anemia en niños menores de tres años de edad en San Luis Potosí, México beneficiarios del programa PROSPERA.Métodos: se realizó un análisis comparativo en niños de 12 a 36 meses que consumen diferentes suplementos alimenticios: 414 pertenecientes al grupo de intervención y 334 al de comparación. Se midió la hemoglobina (Hb) por Hemocue clasificando como anémicos a quienes tuvieron valores <110 g/l. Se aplicaron pruebas de t de Student y X2. Se estimaron efectos de intervención mediante el método de diferencias en diferencias y un puntaje de adherencia al consumo de suplementos.Resultados: al final del estudio la prevalencia de anemia disminuyó 11.2 pp en el grupo de intervención y 8.7 pp en el de comparación; la interacción del puntaje de adherencia por suplemento y etapa de observación mostró que la adherencia al consumo de Bebida láctea + Vitaniño reduce el riesgo de presentar anemia (p = 0,14). El consumo de Nutrisano + Vitaniño se asoció con menor riesgo (0,2), ambos con respecto al consumo de Nutrisano.Conclusiones: el programa PROSPERA tuvo efectos importantes en la disminución de las prevalencias de anemia. Se recomienda llevar a cabo acciones para mejorar la adherencia al consumo de suplementos alimenticios, a fIn de mejorar la efectividad de los programas. PMID:27571648

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Torres Hinojal, María Del Carmen; Geijo Uribe, María Soraya; Redondo Del Río, María Paz; Mongil López, Beatriz; De Brito García-Sousa, Inés; Caballero Sanz, Irene; Eiros Bouza, José María

    2016-06-30

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is the most prevalent of eating disorders in children and adolescents, and its treatment is long and complex, involving a multidisciplinary team. Nutritional rehabilitation and restoration of a healthy body weight is one of the central goals in the initial stages of inpatient treatment. However, current recommendations on initial energy requirements for these patients are inconsistent, with a clear lack of controlled studies, available scientific evidence and global consensus on the most effective and safe refeeding practices in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Conservative refeeding recommendations have been classically established in order to prevent the refeeding syndrome. Nevertheless, various works have recently appeared advocating a higher initial caloric intake, without observing more complications or refeeding syndrome, and allowing a shorter average stay. We present our experience in the treatment of restricting AN with a conservative progressive treatment. We have obtained good results with this approach, which was well tolerated by patients, with no observing complications. As a consequence, the medical team could establish a pact about the therapeutic goals with the patients in an easier way.

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Marugán de Miguelsanz, José Manuel; Torres Hinojal, María Del Carmen; Geijo Uribe, María Soraya; Redondo Del Río, María Paz; Mongil López, Beatriz; De Brito García-Sousa, Inés; Caballero Sanz, Irene; Eiros Bouza, José María

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is the most prevalent of eating disorders in children and adolescents, and its treatment is long and complex, involving a multidisciplinary team. Nutritional rehabilitation and restoration of a healthy body weight is one of the central goals in the initial stages of inpatient treatment. However, current recommendations on initial energy requirements for these patients are inconsistent, with a clear lack of controlled studies, available scientific evidence and global consensus on the most effective and safe refeeding practices in hospitalized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Conservative refeeding recommendations have been classically established in order to prevent the refeeding syndrome. Nevertheless, various works have recently appeared advocating a higher initial caloric intake, without observing more complications or refeeding syndrome, and allowing a shorter average stay. We present our experience in the treatment of restricting AN with a conservative progressive treatment. We have obtained good results with this approach, which was well tolerated by patients, with no observing complications. As a consequence, the medical team could establish a pact about the therapeutic goals with the patients in an easier way. PMID:27513485

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Goffinet, L; Breton, A; Gavillot, C; Barbary, S; Journeau, P; Lascombes, P; Dautel, G

    2015-09-30

    The early management of pediatric hand burns includes surgical treatment, medical follow up and prevention of abnormal scarring by splits and/or pressure garment therapy. The aim of this review was to find the best available evidence in the literature on the surgical part of this management. This review started with a search in the PubMed database for the keywords, hand AND/OR child AND/OR burn. Only the articles published between January 1(st), 2005 and January 1(st), 2011 were selected. The data were compared to French and American textbooks. Contradictory findings were reported on the timing of the excision and graft, with only two comparative studies reported, with a lot of biases. The state of the art on the initial management of hand burns in children is not totally conclusive due to the lack of statistic power in these studies, but many expert opinions help to define options for good therapeutic paradigms. It is important to include these patients in prospective protocols with both early and long-term follow-up in order to increase the amount of evidence at our disposal. PMID:27279807

  12. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Demaeyer, Ph

    2016-01-01

    Medicine owes many to Hippocrate, but pneumology traces its origin back to antiquity, from Mesopotamia to ancient Rome. Regarding prehistory: if viscera of this period have not been kept, some bones were. Since Neanderthals, it is then possible to study osteoarticular pathologies (often chronic arthrosis). But no evidence of tuberculosis was found (all thoracic kyphosis are not tuberculosis). Tuberculosis probably appears during the Neolithic age, because of high concentration of population. In ancient times, pneumology was of course not a real medical specialty. However, respiratory illness already constituted a big part of antique medical practice. The purpose of the physician in antiquity was to establish a diagnosis, a prognostic and to propose a treatment. Prognostic revealed to be of great importance in ancient times, since therapeutic efficacy was limited. Contemporary physicians often neglect this part of their practice. In ancient times, physicians also tried to gradually eliminate magic-religious aspects in taking care of the patients. This review will propose a journey from Mesopotamia to ancient Egypt (and its medical papyrus). Very few sources are available concerning medicine in pre-Columbian cultures. However, it is well known that shamans had, besides their religious competences, a great pharmacopoeia. Because of these very few sources, this topic will not be added to this article. Little is known in Europa about chinese medicine before the Jesuit mission in China during the 17th and 18th centuries. Yet, chinese medicine grew in parallel with European's one. Some relevant elements of this medicine will hereafter be shown.

  13. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Demaeyer, Ph

    2016-01-01

    Medicine owes many to Hippocrate, but pneumology traces its origin back to antiquity, from Mesopotamia to ancient Rome. Regarding prehistory: if viscera of this period have not been kept, some bones were. Since Neanderthals, it is then possible to study osteoarticular pathologies (often chronic arthrosis). But no evidence of tuberculosis was found (all thoracic kyphosis are not tuberculosis). Tuberculosis probably appears during the Neolithic age, because of high concentration of population. In ancient times, pneumology was of course not a real medical specialty. However, respiratory illness already constituted a big part of antique medical practice. The purpose of the physician in antiquity was to establish a diagnosis, a prognostic and to propose a treatment. Prognostic revealed to be of great importance in ancient times, since therapeutic efficacy was limited. Contemporary physicians often neglect this part of their practice. In ancient times, physicians also tried to gradually eliminate magic-religious aspects in taking care of the patients. This review will propose a journey from Mesopotamia to ancient Egypt (and its medical papyrus). Very few sources are available concerning medicine in pre-Columbian cultures. However, it is well known that shamans had, besides their religious competences, a great pharmacopoeia. Because of these very few sources, this topic will not be added to this article. Little is known in Europa about chinese medicine before the Jesuit mission in China during the 17th and 18th centuries. Yet, chinese medicine grew in parallel with European's one. Some relevant elements of this medicine will hereafter be shown. PMID:27120938

  14. Long distance laser communications demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northcott, Malcolm J.; McClaren, A.; Graves, J. E.; Phillips, John; Driver, Don; Abelson, David; Young, David W.; Sluz, Joseph E.; Juarez, Juan C.; Airola, Marc B.; Sova, Raymond M.; Hurt, Harry; Foshee, James

    2007-04-01

    AOptix demonstrated a simulated air-to-air laser communications (laser-com) system over a 147Km distance by establishing a laser communication link between the islands of Hawaii and Maui. We expect the atmospheric conditions encountered during this demonstration to be representative of the worst seeing conditions that could be expected for an actual air to air link. AOptix utilized laser-com terminal incorporating Adaptive Optics (AO) to perform high speed tracking and aberration correction to reduce the effects of the seeing. The demonstration showed the feasibility of establishing high data rate point to point laser-com links between aircraft. In conjunction with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory networking equipment we were able to demonstrate a 40Gbit DWDM link, providing significantly more data throughput than is available using RF technologies. In addition to being very high data rate, the link demonstrates very low beam spread, which gives very high covertness, and a high degree of data security. Since the link is based on 1550nm optical wavelengths it is inherently resistant to jamming.

  15. Telavancin demonstrates activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, daptomycin, and linezolid in broth microdilution MIC and one-compartment pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan R; Barber, Katie E; Hallesy, Jessica; Raut, Animesh; Rybak, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates have arisen with reduced susceptibility to several anti-MRSA agents. Telavancin (TLV), a novel anti-MRSA agent, retains low MICs against these organisms. Our objective was to determine the MICs for TLV, daptomycin (DAP), vancomycin (VAN), and linezolid (LZD) against daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DNS) S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), heteroresistant VISA (hVISA), and linezolid-resistant (LZD(r)) S. aureus. We also evaluated these agents against each phenotype in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models. Seventy DNS, 100 VISA, 180 hVISA, and 25 LZD(r) MRSA isolates were randomly selected from our library and tested to determine their MICs against TLV, DAP, VAN, and LZD via broth microdilution and a Trek panel. Four isolates were randomly selected for 168-h in vitro models to evaluate treatment with TLV at 10 mg/kg of body weight/day, DAP at 10 mg/kg/day, VAN at 1 g every 12 h (q12h), and LZD at 600 mg q12h. The MIC50/90 for TLV, DAP, VAN, and LZD against 70 DNS S. aureus isolates were 0.06/0.125 μg/ml, 2/4 μg/ml, 1/2 μg/ml, and 2/2 μg/ml, respectively. Against 100 VISA isolates, the MIC50/90 were 0.06/0.125 μg/ml, 1/1 μg/ml, 4/8 μg/ml, and 1/2 μg/ml, respectively. Against 170 hVISA isolates, the MIC50/90 were 0.06/0.125 μg/ml, 0.5/1 μg/ml, 1/2 μg/ml, and 1/2 μg/ml, respectively. Against 25 LZD(r) isolates, the MIC50/90 were 0.03/0.06 μg/ml, 1/1 μg/ml, 2/2 μg/ml, and 8/8 μg/ml, respectively. The TLV MIC was >0.125 μg/ml for 10/365 (2.7%) isolates. In PK/PD models, TLV was universally bactericidal at 168 h and statistically superior to all antibiotics against DNS S. aureus strain R2334. These data further establish the potency of TLV against resistant MRSA. The model data demonstrate in vitro bactericidal activity of TLV against hVISA, VISA, DNS S. aureus, and LZD(r) S. aureus strains. Further clinical research is warranted.

  16. Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Parsonage, Tom; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fabrications of large Beryllium optical components are fundamentally limited by available facility capabilities. To overcome this limitation, NASA funded Brush Wellman Corp to study a Be joining process. Four 76 mm diameters samples and a 0.5 mm diameter Joined Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (JBMD) were fabricated. This presentation will review the fabrication of these samples and summarize the results of their cryogenic testing at MSFCs XRCF.

  17. Demonstration of integrated optimization software

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    NeuCO has designed and demonstrated the integration of five system control modules using its proprietary ProcessLink{reg_sign} technology of neural networks, advanced algorithms and fuzzy logic to maximize performance of coal-fired plants. The separate modules control cyclone combustion, sootblowing, SCR operations, performance and equipment maintenance. ProcessLink{reg_sign} provides overall plant-level integration of controls responsive to plant operator and corporate criteria. Benefits of an integrated approach include NOx reduction improvement in heat rate, availability, efficiency and reliability; extension of SCR catalyst life; and reduced consumption of ammonia. All translate into cost savings. As plant complexity increases through retrofit, repowering or other plant modifications, this integrated process optimization approach will be an important tool for plant operators. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  18. TRW utility demonstration unit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Entrained Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/oil unit to fire 2.5% sulfur coal. The slagging combustor process will provide NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Environmental Standards. During this report period, activity continued to address the total program funding shortfall. Ideas and responsibilities for further evaluation have been put forward to reduce the shortfall. In addition, an effort aimed at gaining additional program sponsorships, was initiated.

  19. Global Availability of Cardiac Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Turk-Adawi, Karam; Grace, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    The most prevalent non-communicable disease globally, namely cardiovascular disease (CVD), is also the leading cause of mortality, with over 80% of the deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. To lessen the impact of CVDs on individuals and societies, a comprehensive approach is needed. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) involves delivery of structured exercise, education and risk reduction, in a cost-effective manner. Robust evidence demonstrates it reduces mortality up to 25%, improves functional capacity, as well as decreases re-hospitalization. Despite its benefits, and clinical practice guideline recommendations to refer cardiac patients, CR programs are grossly under-used. Worldwide, there is low availability of CR; only 38.8% of countries globally have CR programs. Specifically, 68.0% of high-income and 23% of LMICs (28.2% for middle- and 8.3% for low-income countries) have CR. CR density estimates ranged from 1 program per 0.1–6.4 million inhabitants. CR availability is much lower than that of other evidence-based secondary prevention therapies, such as revascularization and pharmacological therapies. Multi-level strategies to augment CR capacity and availability at national and international levels such as supportive public health policies, systematic referral strategies, and alternative models of delivery are needed. PMID:25027487

  20. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  1. Commercial Hybrid SNCR/SCR Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Urbas, J.; Boyle, J.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Pennsylvania Electric Energy Research Council, (PEERC), New York State Electric and Gas and GPU Generation, Inc. are jointly funding a demonstration to determine the capabilities of a Hybrid SNCR/SCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction/Selective Catalytic Reduction). The demonstration site is at GPU Generation`s Seward Unit 5 (147 MW) located in Seward Pennsylvania. The demonstration will begin in late October of 1997 and will continue for a period of one year. The DOE funding is being provided through Grant No. DE-FG22-96PC96256 with T.J. Feeley as the Project Manager. The project will demonstrate the operation of a Hybrid SNCR/SCR NO{sub x} control process on a full scale coal fired utility boiler. The hybrid technology is expected to provide a cost effective method of reducing NO{sub x} while balancing capital and operating costs. The process also provides a method for staging the NO{sub x} reduction performance and costs to suit the needs of the utility. An urea based SNCR system is currently in operation on Seward Unit 5 and the ammonia slip from the SNCR will be used as the reducing agent for the hybrid catalyst. The project goals are: demonstrate that hybrid technology is capable of achieving greater than 55% reduction from baseline NO{sub x} emissions while maintaining less than 2 ppm ammonia slip at the inlet to the air heaters; maintain fly ash marketability; verify the performance capabilities of two different types of catalysts (plate and monolith); determine the cost benefit and applicability of hybrid post combustion technology; and reduce forced outages due to ABS fouling of the air heaters. Since the demonstration will begin in October of 1997 and continue for a period of one year operating data is not available. Therefore this paper will describe the methodology of the system design and construction.

  2. A Fluorescence Lecture Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozzelli, Joseph W.; Kemp, Marwin

    1982-01-01

    Describes fluorescence demonstrations related to several aspects of molecular theory and quantitized energy levels. Demonstrations use fluorescent chemical solutions having luminescence properties spanning the visible spectrum. Also describes a demonstration of spontaneous combustion of familiar substances in chlorine. (JN)

  3. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  4. Public health impacts of the severe haze in Equatorial Asia in September-October 2015: demonstration of a new framework for informing fire management strategies to reduce downwind smoke exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koplitz, Shannon N.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Marlier, Miriam E.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Kim, Patrick S.; Liu, Tianjia; Sulprizio, Melissa P.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Schwartz, Joel; Pongsiri, Montira; Myers, Samuel S.

    2016-09-01

    In September-October 2015, El Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions set the stage for massive fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), leading to persistently hazardous levels of smoke pollution across much of Equatorial Asia. Here we quantify the emission sources and health impacts of this haze episode and compare the sources and impacts to an event of similar magnitude occurring under similar meteorological conditions in September-October 2006. Using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, we first calculate the influence of potential fire emissions across the domain on smoke concentrations in three receptor areas downwind—Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore—during the 2006 event. This step maps the sensitivity of each receptor to fire emissions in each grid cell upwind. We then combine these sensitivities with 2006 and 2015 fire emission inventories from the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) to estimate the resulting population-weighted smoke exposure. This method, which assumes similar smoke transport pathways in 2006 and 2015, allows near real-time assessment of smoke pollution exposure, and therefore the consequent morbidity and premature mortality, due to severe haze. Our approach also provides rapid assessment of the relative contribution of fire emissions generated in a specific province to smoke-related health impacts in the receptor areas. We estimate that haze in 2015 resulted in 100 300 excess deaths across Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, more than double those of the 2006 event, with much of the increase due to fires in Indonesia’s South Sumatra Province. The model framework we introduce in this study can rapidly identify those areas where land use management to reduce and/or avoid fires would yield the greatest benefit to human health, both nationally and regionally.

  5. Herschel's Interference Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S.; Freeman, J. Reuben

    2000-01-01

    Describes Herschel's demonstration of interference arising from many coherent rays. Presents a method for students to reproduce this demonstration and obtain beautiful multiple-beam interference patterns. (CCM)

  6. Selective inhibition of OCTN2 is more effective than inhibition of gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase to decrease the availability of l-carnitine and to reduce myocardial infarct size.

    PubMed

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Makrecka, Marina; Kuka, Janis; Cirule, Helena; Makarova, Elina; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Grinberga, Solveiga; Vilskersts, Reinis; Lola, Daina; Loza, Einars; Stonans, Ilmars; Pugovics, Osvalds; Dambrova, Maija

    2014-07-01

    l-Carnitine is a cofactor in the energy metabolism pathways where it drives the uptake and oxidation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) by mitochondria. LCFA lipotoxicity causes mitochondrial damage and results in an insufficient energy supply and a decrease in l-carnitine content limits LCFA flux and protects mitochondria. Here, we tested whether the inhibition of GBB dioxygenase (BBOX) or organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2) is the most effective strategy to decrease l-carnitine content. The activity of 51 compounds was tested and we identified selective inhibitors of OCTN2. In contrast to selective inhibitors of BBOX, OCTN2 inhibitors induced a 10-fold decrease in l-carnitine content in the heart tissues and a significant 35% reduction of myocardial infarct size. In addition, OCTN2 inhibition correlated with the inhibitor content in the heart tissues, and OCTN2 could potentially be an efficient target to increase drug transport into tissues and to reduce drug elimination by urine. In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that selective inhibition of OCTN2, compared to selective inhibition of BBOX, is a far more effective approach to decrease l-carnitine content and to induce cardioprotective effects. OCTN2 could potentially be an efficient tool to increase drug transport in tissues and to reduce drug elimination via urine. PMID:24836867

  7. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  8. Why Demonstrations Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Richard

    2005-01-01

    With the current focus on constructivist perspectives, science demonstrations have fallen out of favor in some circles. Demonstrations are easy to do and offer many benefits and unique opportunities in the constructivist classroom. With careful use, demonstrations can be powerful teaching tools. A wonderful quality of a demonstration (or a series…

  9. Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) background document for newly listed wastes: K107, k108, k109, k110, k111, k112, u328, u353, k117, k118, k136, k123, k124, k125, k126, k131, k132, u359. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-30

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (the Agency or EPA) is establishing best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) treatment standards for the following listed hazardous wastes identified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Sections 261.32 and 261.33(f) (40 CFR 261.32 and 261.33(f)): 1,1-Dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) Production Wastes: K107, K108, K109, and K110; Dinitrotoluene (DNT) and Toluenediamine (TDA) Production Wastes: K111, K112, U328, and U353; Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) Production Wastes: K117, K118, and K136; Ethylenebisdithiocarbamic acid (EBDC) Production Wastes: K123, K124, K125, and K126; Methyl Bromide Production Wastes: K131 and K132; and 2-Ethoxyethanol Waste: U359.

  10. LFR Demonstrator Materials Viability

    SciTech Connect

    Caro, M

    2006-08-02

    Interest in fast reactor development has increased with the Department of Energy's introduction of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) [1]. The GNEP program plans development of a sodium cooled Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) that can be used to reduce the amount spent LWR fuel in storage and the number of high level waste sites needed for expansion of nuclear power throughout the world over the 21st century. In addition, the program proposes to make nuclear power more available while reducing the proliferation concerns by revising policies and technology for control of weapons useable materials. This would be accomplished with establishment of new institutional arrangements based on selective siting of reprocessing, enrichment and waste disposal facilities. The program would also implement development of small reactors suitable for use in developing countries or remote regions with small power grids. Over the past several years, under the Department of Energy (DOE) NERI and GEN IV programs research has been conducted on small lead cooled reactors. The Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR) [2] is the most recent version of this type of reactor and research is continuing on it in the GEN IV program in parallel with GNEP. SSTAR is a small (10MWe-100MWe) reactor that is fueled once for life. It complements the GNEP program very well in that it serves one of the world markets not currently addressed by large reactors and its development requirements are similar to those for the ABRs. In particular, the fuel and structural materials for these fast spectrum reactors share common thermal and neutron environments. The coolants, sodium in ABR and lead or lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) in SSTAR, are the major developmental difference. This report discusses the status of structural materials for fast reactor core and primary system components and selected aspects of their development.

  11. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  12. Analysis of Skylab fluid mechanics science demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegart, J. R.; Butz, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the data reduction and analysis of the Skylab fluid mechanics demonstrations are presented. All the fluid mechanics data available from the Skylab missions were identified and surveyed. The significant fluid mechanics phenomena were identified and reduced to measurable quantities wherever possible. Data correlations were performed using existing theories. Among the phenomena analyzed were: static low-g interface shapes, oscillation frequency and damping of a liquid drop, coalescence, rotating drop, liquid films and low-g ice melting. A survey of the possible applications of the results was made and future experiments are recommended.

  13. Smart Grid Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Craig; Carroll, Paul; Bell, Abigail

    2015-03-11

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA) organized the NRECA-U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000222) to install and study a broad range of advanced smart grid technologies in a demonstration that spanned 23 electric cooperatives in 12 states. More than 205,444 pieces of electronic equipment and more than 100,000 minor items (bracket, labels, mounting hardware, fiber optic cable, etc.) were installed to upgrade and enhance the efficiency, reliability, and resiliency of the power networks at the participating co-ops. The objective of this project was to build a path for other electric utilities, and particularly electrical cooperatives, to adopt emerging smart grid technology when it can improve utility operations, thus advancing the co-ops’ familiarity and comfort with such technology. Specifically, the project executed multiple subprojects employing a range of emerging smart grid technologies to test their cost-effectiveness and, where the technology demonstrated value, provided case studies that will enable other electric utilities—particularly electric cooperatives— to use these technologies. NRECA structured the project according to the following three areas: Demonstration of smart grid technology; Advancement of standards to enable the interoperability of components; and Improvement of grid cyber security. We termed these three areas Technology Deployment Study, Interoperability, and Cyber Security. Although the deployment of technology and studying the demonstration projects at coops accounted for the largest portion of the project budget by far, we see our accomplishments in each of the areas as critical to advancing the smart grid. All project deliverables have been published. Technology Deployment Study: The deliverable was a set of 11 single-topic technical reports in areas related to the listed technologies. Each of these reports has already been submitted to DOE, distributed to co-ops, and

  14. Modular hydropower demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The modular approach has been developed for the construction of small hydro projects in order to reduce the costs and to shorten procurement and construction schedules that occur when designs and equipment selection more applicable to large projects are used. The modular approach aims to maximize the use of ''off-the-shelf'' and readily available components. A key feature is the replacement of the conventional purpose-designed hydroelectric turbine by a pump used in reverse as a turbine with fixed blades and vanes. Other features are the use of siphon penstocks, induction generators, prefabricated structures, and automated control equipment. The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority contracted with Acres International Corporation to study two small hydro projects designed and built using the modular approach, and compare each one with an equivalent conventional design. Equipment procurement and installation costs, general construction costs, and energy production were estimated. Economic analyses were prepared. Preliminary data on operation and maintenance was recorded. The methodology and results of the study are contained in this report. 18 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Describes several chemistry demonstrations that use an overhead projector. Some of the demonstrations deal with electrochemistry, and another deals with the reactions of nonvolatile immiscible liquid in water. (TW)

  16. Traveling Wave Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluger-Bell, Barry

    1995-01-01

    Describes a traveling-wave demonstration that uses inexpensive materials (crepe-paper streamers) and is simple to assemble and perform. Explains how the properties of light waves are illustrated using the demonstration apparatus. (LZ)

  17. Polarized Light Corridor Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven demonstrations of light polarization are presented. Each includes a brief description of the apparatus and the effect demonstrated. Illustrated are strain patterns, reflection, scattering, the Faraday Effect, interference, double refraction, the polarizing microscope, and optical activity. (CW)

  18. Tidd PFBC demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Marrocco, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Tidd project was one of the first joint government-industry ventures to be approved by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in its Clean Coal Technology Program. In March 1987, DOE signed an agreement with the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, to refurbish the then-idle Tidd plant on the banks of the Ohio River with advanced pressurized fluidized bed technology. Testing ended after 49 months of operation, 100 individual tests, and the generation of more than 500,000 megawatt-hours of electricity. The demonstration plant has met its objectives. The project showed that more than 95 percent of sulfur dioxide pollutants could be removed inside the advanced boiler using the advanced combustion technology, giving future power plants an attractive alternative to expensive, add-on scrubber technology. In addition to its sulfur removal effectiveness, the plant`s sustained periods of steady-state operation boosted its availability significantly above design projections, heightening confidence that pressurized fluidized bed technology will be a reliable, baseload technology for future power plants. The technology also controlled the release of nitrogen oxides to levels well below the allowable limits set by federal air quality standards. It also produced a dry waste product that is much easier to handle than wastes from conventional power plants and will likely have commercial value when produced by future power plants.

  19. Adolescents' Demonstrative Behavior Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfilova, Gulfiya G.; Karimova, Lilia Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of demonstrative behavior is very topical among teenagers and this issue has become the subject of systematic scientific research. Demonstrative manifestations in adolescents disrupt the favorable socialization; therefore, understanding, prevention and correction of demonstrative behavior at this age is relevant and requires special…

  20. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details two demonstrations for use with an overhead projector in a chemistry lecture. Includes "A Very Rapidly Growing Silicate Crystal" and "A Colorful Demonstration to Simulate Orbital Hybridization." The materials and directions for each demonstration are included as well as a brief explanation of the essential learning involved. (CW)

  1. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  2. Classroom Demonstrations: Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Sandra M.

    These demonstrations stress individual differences, a concept becoming increasingly important in psychological research. Intended for use in undergraduate psychology courses, four demonstrations that illustrate common examples of human variation are described. The demonstrations deal with the following individual differences: taste blindness,…

  3. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.

    2006-08-01

    By using astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients, I have been able to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students. I will present some of the edible demonstrations I have created including using popcorn to simulate radioactivity; using chocolate, nuts, and marshmallows to illustrate density and differentiation during the formation of the planets; and making big-bang brownies or chocolate chip-cookies to illustrate the expansion of the Universe. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented.

  4. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  5. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  6. Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration

    NASA Video Gallery

    Chris Moore delivers a presentation from the Exploration Technology Development & Demonstration (ETDD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX....

  7. Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

  8. Demonstrating Phase Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Walter

    1995-01-01

    Presents two experiments that demonstrate phase changes. The first experiment explores phase changes of carbon dioxide using powdered dry ice sealed in a piece of clear plastic tubing. The second experiment demonstrates an equilibrium process in which a crystal grows in equilibrium with its saturated solution. (PVD)

  9. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  10. USFWS demonstration fees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Jonathan; Vaske, Jerry; Donnelly, Maureen; Shelby, Lori

    2002-01-01

    This study examined National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) visitors' reactions to changes in fees implemented as part of the fee demonstration program. Visitors' evaluations of the fees paid were examined in addition to their beliefs about fees and the fee demonstration program, and the impact of fees paid on their intention to return. All results were analyzed relative to socio-demographic characteristics.

  11. A Stellar Demonstrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the stellar demonstrator is to help explain the movement of stars. In particular, students have difficulties understanding why, if they are living in the Northern Hemisphere, they may observe starts in the Southern Hemisphere, or why circumpolar stars are not the same in different parts of Europe. Using the demonstrator, these…

  12. Toy Demonstrator's "VISIT" Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The role of the toy demonstrator in a home-based, mother-involved intervention effort (Verbal Interaction Project) is presented in this handbook for staff members. It is believed that the prerequisites for functioning in the toy demonstrator's role are a sense of responsibility, patience with the children and their mothers, and willingness to be…

  13. Better Ira Remsen Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, David K.; Maynard, James H.; Moore, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Many versions of the classic Ira Remsen experience involving copper and concentrated nitric acid have been used as lecture demonstrations. Remsen's original reminiscence from 150 years ago is included in the Supporting Information, and his biography can be found on the Internet. This article presents a new version that makes the demonstration more…

  14. Kinetics and Catalysis Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven videotaped kinetics and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…

  15. A Greener Chemiluminescence Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jilani, Osman; Donahue, Trisha M.; Mitchell, Miguel O.

    2011-01-01

    Because they are dramatic and intriguing, chemiluminescence demonstrations have been used for decades to stimulate interest in chemistry. One of the most intense chemiluminescent reactions is the oxidation of diaryl oxalate diesters with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a fluorescer. In typical lecture demonstrations, the commercially…

  16. Demonstration Experiments in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    This book represents a "cookbook" for teachers of physics, a book of recipes for the preparation of demonstration experiments to illustrate the principles that make the subject of physics so fascinating. Illustrations and explanations of each demonstration are done in an easy-to-understand format. Each can be adapted to be used as a demonstration…

  17. The Microgravity Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Wargo, Michael J.

    The Microgravity Demonstrator is a tool used to create microgravity conditions in the classroom. A series of demonstrations is used to provide a dramatically visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions in order to understand why various types of experiments are performed under microgravity conditions. The manual is…

  18. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  19. Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Launch Vehicle Dynamics Demonstrator Model. The effect of vibration on launch vehicle dynamics was studied. Conditions included three modes of instability. The film includes close up views of the simulator fuel tank with and without stability control. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030984. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  20. Loudspeaker line array educational demonstration.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian E; Moser, Brad; Gee, Kent L

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a physical demonstration of an audio-range line array used to teach interference of multiple sources in a classroom or laboratory exercise setting. Software has been developed that permits real-time control and steering of the array. The graphical interface permits a user to vary the frequency, the angular response by phase shading, and reduce sidelobes through amplitude shading. An inexpensive, eight-element loudspeaker array has been constructed to test the control program. Directivity measurements of this array in an anechoic chamber and in a large classroom are presented. These measurements have good agreement with theoretical directivity predictions, thereby allowing its use as a quantitative learning tool for advanced students as well as a qualitative demonstration of arrays in other settings. Portions of this paper are directed toward educators who may wish to implement a similar demonstration for their advanced undergraduate or graduate level course in acoustics.

  1. Demonstrating Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, David S.; Amundson, John C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes laboratory exercises with chickens selecting their food from dyed and natural corn kernels as a method of demonstrating natural selection. The procedure is based on the fact that organisms that blend into their surroundings escape predation. (BR)

  2. Flagship Technology Demonstrations (FTD)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Mike Conley delivers a presentation from the Flagship Technology Demonstrations (FTD) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of t...

  3. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  4. Floating Magnet Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Masayoshi

    1990-01-01

    A room-temperature demonstration of a floating magnet using a high-temperature superconductor is described. The setup and operation of the apparatus are described. The technical details of the effect are discussed. (CW)

  5. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  6. EVA Retriever Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The EVA retriever is demonstrated in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF). The retriever moves on the air bearing table 'searching' for its target, in this case tools 'dropped' by astronauts on orbit.

  7. Commissioning the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenqin; Majorana Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator deploys high purity germanium (HPGe) detector modules to search for neutrinoless double beta (0 νββ) decay in 76Ge. The experiment is aimed at demonstrating the technical feasibility and low backgrounds for a next generation Ge-based BBz experiment. The program of testing and commissioning the Demonstrator modules is a critical step to debug and improve the experimental apparatus, to establish and refine operational procedures, and to develop data analysis tools. In this talk, we will discuss our experience commissioning the Demonstrator modules and show how this program leads to successful data-taking. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  8. Five amazing physics demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downie, Neil

    2015-04-01

    There's nothing better than a good physics demonstration to illustrate the subject's fundamental principles. Neil Downie, who has run Saturday science clubs for children for more than two decades, presents his five best demos of all time.

  9. Demonstration of Surface Tension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Andrew J.

    2001-01-01

    Surface tension is a fundamental obstacle in the spontaneous formation of bubbles, droplets, and crystal nuclei in liquids. Describes a simple overhead projector demonstration that illustrates the power of surface tension that can prevent so many industrial processes. (ASK)

  10. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambly, Gordon F.; Goldsmith, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a method of demonstrating the optical activity of glucose using an overhead projector and easily obtainable materials. Explores the difference between reflected and transmitted light (Tyndall Effect) using sodium thiosulfate, hydrochloric acid, and an overhead projector. (ML)

  11. Classroom Demonstration of Sunspots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, Thomas O.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    An overhead projector, projection screen, and clear tungsten Filament light bulb operated through a dimmer or variac switch are used to demonstrate the fact that black appearance of sunspots is due only to contrast and that sunspots are bright. (SK)

  12. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  13. Education & Collection Facility GSHP Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Joplin, Jeff

    2015-03-28

    The Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS) designed and implemented an innovative ground source heat pump (GSHP) system for heating and cooling its new Education and Collection Facility (ECF) building addition. The project goal was to successfully design and install an open-loop GSHP system that utilized water circulating within an underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water system as the heat sink/source as a demonstration project. The expected results were to significantly reduce traditional GSHP installation costs while increasing system efficiency, reduce building energy consumption, require significantly less area and capital to install, and be economically implemented wherever access to a recycled water system is available. The project added to the understanding of GSHP technology by implementing the first GSHP system in the United States utilizing a municipal recycled water system as a heat sink/source. The use of this fluid through a GSHP system has not been previously documented. This use application presents a new opportunity for local municipalities to develop and expand the use of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems. The installation costs for this type of technology in the building structure would be a cost savings over traditional GSHP costs, provided the local municipal infrastructure was developed. Additionally, the GSHP system functions as a viable method of heat sink/source as the thermal characteristics of the fluid are generally consistent throughout the year and are efficiently exchanged through the GSHP system and its components. The use of the recycled water system reduces the area required for bore or loop fields; therefore, presenting an application for building structures that have little to no available land use or access. This GSHP application demonstrates the viability of underground municipal recycled (non-potable) water systems as technically achievable, environmentally supportive, and an efficient

  14. Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Demonstrations (EPO-Demos) are recorded video education demonstrations performed on the International Space Station (ISS) by crewmembers using hardware already onboard the ISS. EPO-Demos are videotaped, edited, and used to enhance existing NASA education resources and programs for educators and students in grades K-12. EPO-Demos are designed to support the NASA mission to inspire the next generation of explorers.

  15. Edible Astronomy Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2007-12-01

    Astronomy demonstrations with edible ingredients are an effective way to increase student interest and knowledge of astronomical concepts. This approach has been successful with all age groups from elementary school through college students - and the students remember these demonstrations after they are presented. In this poster I describe edible demonstrations I have created to simulate the expansion of the universe (using big-bang chocolate chip cookies); differentiation during the formation of the Earth and planets (using chocolate or chocolate milk with marshmallows, cereal, candy pieces or nuts); and radioactivity/radioactive dating (using popcorn). Other possible demonstrations include: plate tectonics (crackers with peanut butter and jelly); convection (miso soup or hot chocolate); mud flows on Mars (melted chocolate poured over angel food cake); formation of the Galactic disk (pizza); formation of spiral arms (coffee with cream); the curvature of Space (Pringles); constellations patterns with chocolate chips and chocolate chip cookies; planet shaped cookies; star shaped cookies with different colored frostings; coffee or chocolate milk measurement of solar radiation; Oreo cookie lunar phases. Sometimes the students eat the results of the astronomical demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  16. The MICE Demonstration of Ionization Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Pasternak, J.; Blackmore, V.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Collomb, N.; Snopok, P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at the Neutrino Factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at the Muon Collider. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material (the absorber) in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and re-acceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised project plan, which has received the formal endorsement of the international MICE Project Board and the international MICE Funding Agency Committee, will deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling by September 2017. In the revised configuration a central lithium-hydride absorber provides the cooling effect. The magnetic lattice is provided by the two superconducting focus coils and acceleration is provided by two 201 MHz single-cavity modules. The phase space of the muons entering and leaving the cooling cell will be measured by two solenoidal spectrometers. All the superconducting magnets for the ionization cooling demonstration are available at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the first single-cavity prototype is under test in the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with a summary of the performance of each of its components. The cooling performance of the revised configuration will also be presented.

  17. Demonstrations in Introductory Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Stein, S.; van der Lee, S.; Swafford, L.; Klosko, E.; Delaughter, J.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Geophysical concepts are challenging to teach at introductory levels, because students need to understand both the underlying physics and its geological application. To address this, our introductory courses include class demonstrations and experiments to demonstrate underlying physical principles and their geological applications. Demonstrations and experiments have several advantages over computer simulations. First, computer simulations "work" even if the basic principle is wrong. In contrast, simple demonstrations show that a principle is physically correct, rather than a product of computer graphics. Second, many students are unfamiliar with once-standard experiments demonstrating ideas of classical physics used in geophysics. Demonstrations are chosen that we consider stimulating, relevant, inexpensive, and easy to conduct in a non-lab classroom. These come in several groups. Many deal with aspects of seismic waves, using springs, light beams, and other methods such as talking from outside the room to illustrate the frequency dependence of diffraction (hearing but not seeing around a corner). Others deal with heat and mass transfer, such as illustrating fractional crystallization with apple juice and the surface/volume effect in planetary evolution with ice. Plate motions are illustrated with paper cutouts showing effects like motion on transform faults and how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence along the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska. Radioactive decay is simulated by having the class rise and sit down as a result of coin flips (one tail versus two gives different decay rates and hence half lives). This sessions' goal of exchanging information about demonstrations is an excellent idea: some of ours are described on http://www.earth.nwu.edu/people/seth/202.

  18. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Biesinger, K; Cuppett, D; Dyer, D

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with Kalwall building panels. An added feature of the Kalwall system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  19. Dealer model site demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, H.C.

    1992-08-01

    Model site demonstrations are joint efforts between TVA and cooperating organizations to improve the industry's environmental stewardship. Program objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and management practices to help retail fertilizer/agricultural chemical dealers minimize adverse environmental impacts. The model site demonstrations serve as 'real life' laboratories for researchers, technologists, educators and participants. The retail dealership is treated as a complete unit. The program recognizes the need to: Develop information and experience to guide others; Test numerous methods of containment, materials of construction, management practices, and monitoring techniques; Strengthen and highlight industry's commitment to envirorunental stewardship; Identify future research needs; and Provide a catalyst for cooperation across a broad spectrum of groups and organizations to identify problems and develop solutions appropriate for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers. Emphasis is on transferring current technology and developing and introducing needed new technologies. Field testing and applied research are encouraged at demonstration sites. One of the key concepts is to bridge the gap between research findings and their practical application and evaluation in field settings. Primary audiences include fertilizer dealers and professional workers in agriculture, the fertilizer industry, the environmental arena, and related institutions across the nation. Experiences at participating dealer sites are shared through organized tours, open houses, news articles and publications. Sixteen sites have been selected for demonstrations, and at least four more are planned. TVA provides assistance in engineering, design and educational forums. Dealers pay for installation of needed containment and related features.

  20. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  1. TRUEX hot demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  2. Demonstrating marketing accountability.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Britt, Jason; Taylor, Jan; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Adkins, Wanda; Springate, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Pressure on health care marketers to demonstrate effectiveness of their strategies and show their contribution to organizational goals is growing. A seven-tiered model based on the concepts of structure (having the right people, systems), process (doing the right things in the right way), and outcomes (results) is discussed. Examples of measures for each tier are provided and the benefits of using the model as a tool for measuring, organizing, tracking, and communicating appropriate information are provided. The model also provides a framework for helping management understand marketing's value and can serve as a vehicle for demonstrating marketing accountability.

  3. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Deri, R. J.

    2015-10-13

    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  4. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  5. Notional Airspace Operations Demonstration Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trongale, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    The airspace operations demonstration (AOD) is intended to show that the Access 5 Step 1 functional requirements can be met. The demonstration will occur in two phases. The initial on-range phase will be carried out in restricted airspace to demonstrate the cooperative collision avoidance (CCA) functional requirements and to provide risk-reduction for the AOD by allowing the test team to rehearse some elements of the demonstration mission. The CCA system to be used in these flights is based on Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) which is a commercially-available system by which airplanes constantly broadcast their current position and altitude to other aircraft and ground resources over a dedicated radio datalink. The final phase will occur in the national airspace (NAS) and will be the formal demonstration of the remainder of the proposed functional requirements. The general objectives of the AOD are as follows: (1) Demonstrate that the UAS can aviate in the NAS (2) Demonstrate that the UAS can navigate in the NAS (3) Demonstrate that the UAS can communicate with the NAS (4) Demonstrate that the UAS can perform selected collision avoidance functions in the NAS (5) Demonstrate that the UAS can evaluate and avoid weather conflicts in the NAS (6) Demonstrate that the UAS can provide adequate command and control in the NAS In addition to the stated objectives, there are a number of goals for the flight demonstration. The demo can be accomplished successfully without achieving these goals, but these goals are to be used as a guideline for preparing for the mission. The goals are: (1) Mission duration of at least 24 hours (2) Loiter over heavy traffic to evaluate the data block issue identified during the Access 5 Airspace Operations Simulations (3) Document the contingency management process and lessons learned (4) Document the coordination process for Ground Control Stations (GCS) handoff (5) Document lessons learned regarding the process of flying in

  6. Organic Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silversmith, Ernest F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a listing of 35 demonstrations designed to generate interest in organic chemistry and help put points across. Topics include opening lecture; molecular structure and properties; halogenation; nucleophilic substitution, alkenes and dienes, stereochemistry, spectroscopy, alcohols and phenols, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, amines,…

  7. Calculus Demonstrations Using MATLAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter K.; Harman, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The note discusses ways in which technology can be used in the calculus learning process. In particular, five MATLAB programs are detailed for use by instructors or students that demonstrate important concepts in introductory calculus: Newton's method, differentiation and integration. Two of the programs are animated. The programs and the…

  8. A Magnetic Circuit Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderkooy, John; Lowe, June

    1995-01-01

    Presents a demonstration designed to illustrate Faraday's, Ampere's, and Lenz's laws and to reinforce the concepts through the analysis of a two-loop magnetic circuit. Can be made dramatic and challenging for sophisticated students but is suitable for an introductory course in electricity and magnetism. (JRH)

  9. Participatory Lecture Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin

    1979-01-01

    The use of participatory lecture demonstrations in the classroom is described. Examples are given for the following topics: chromatography, chemical kinetics, balancing equations, the gas laws, kinetic molecular theory, Henry's law of gas solubility, electronic energy levels in atoms, and translational, vibrational, and rotational energies of…

  10. Demonstrating carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Qader, A.; Hooper, B.; Stevens, G.

    2009-11-15

    Australia is at the forefront of advancing CCS technology. The CO2CRC's H3 (Post-combustion) and Mulgrave (pre-combustion) capture projects are outlined. The capture technologies for these 2 demonstration projects are described. 1 map., 2 photos.

  11. Demonstrating Poisson Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetterling, William T.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an apparatus that offers a very lucid demonstration of Poisson statistics as applied to electrical currents, and the manner in which such statistics account for shot noise when applied to macroscopic currents. The experiment described is intended for undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  12. The "Golden Penny" Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szczepankiewicz, Steven H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the view that the explanation of the Golden Penny Experiment found in popular chemistry textbooks is insufficient or incorrect in part. Reports a series of electrochemical measurements that lead to a logical explanation for this demonstration and to a simplified design that makes it safer. (DDR)

  13. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Provides two demonstrations: (1) electrolyte migration of ions using colored ions which cross a strip of gelatin allowing for noticeable migration; and (2) photochemical reduction of Fe+3 by the citrate ion. Points out both reactions can be done in a Petri dish using common lab materials. (MVL)

  14. Astronomy Demonstrations and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckroth, Charles A.

    Demonstrations in astronomy classes seem to be more necessary than in physics classes for three reasons. First, many of the events are very large scale and impossibly remote from human senses. Secondly, while physics courses use discussions of one- and two-dimensional motion, three-dimensional motion is the normal situation in astronomy; thus,…

  15. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Described are three chemistry demonstrations: (1) a simple qualitative technique for taste pattern recognition in structure-activity relationships; (2) a microscale study of gaseous diffusion using bleach, HCl, ammonia, and phenolphthalein; and (3) the rotation of polarized light by stereoisomers of limonene. (MVL)

  16. Why Demonstrations Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The author remembers how exciting it was when the teacher had "stuff" on the front desk: unfamiliar objects and other things out of place in the traditional classroom. Years later, as a new teacher, the author learned the importance of building lessons around concepts and that demonstrations are an integral part of concept development in science.…

  17. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Presents two demonstrations using the overhead projector: (1) describes how to build a projecting voltmeter and presents uses for the classroom; and (2) investigates the color of fluorescent solutions by studying the absorption and transmission of light through the solutions. (MVL)

  18. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  19. A Biofeedback Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Michael K.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a demonstration for measurement of biophysical signals produced by the human body. The signals, after amplification, could provide acoustical feedback through a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), or they could be seen either with an oscilloscope or a high speed chart recorder. (GA)

  20. A Fruity Biochemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    Classroom demonstrations are a great vehicle for getting students to apply information they have heard in a lecture. Educational research is replete with data showing that concept application in an inquiry setting reinforces long-term science content retention. This means that students learn best when they experience applications of concepts and…

  1. The Breaking Broomstick Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamola, Karl C.; Pollock, Joseph T.

    1993-01-01

    Describes and explains the breaking broomstick demonstration first reported in 1532. A needle is fixed at each end of the broomstick, and these needles are made to rest on two glasses, placed on chairs. If the broomstick is struck violently with another stout stick, the former will be broken, but the glasses will remain intact. (PR)

  2. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    PubMed

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  3. Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation reviewing the Earth Science Capability Demonstration Project is shown. The contents include: 1) ESCD Project; 2) Available Flight Assets; 3) Ikhana Procurement; 4) GCS Layout; 5) Baseline Predator B Architecture; 6) Ikhana Architecture; 7) UAV Capability Assessment; 8) The Big Picture; 9) NASA/NOAA UAV Demo (5/05 to 9/05); 10) NASA/USFS Western States Fire Mission (8/06); and 11) Suborbital Telepresence.

  4. Availability growth modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, J.R.

    1998-12-01

    In reliability modeling, the term availability is used to represent the fraction of time that a process is operating successfully. Several different definitions have been proposed for different types of availability. One commonly used measure of availability is cumulative availability, which is defined as the ratio of the amount of time that a system is up and running to the total elapsed time. During the startup phase of a process, cumulative availability may be treated as a growth process. A procedure for modeling cumulative availability as a function of time is proposed. Estimates of other measures of availability are derived from the estimated cumulative availability function. The use of empirical Bayes techniques to improve the resulting estimates is also discussed.

  5. Space Fabrication Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress on fabrication facility (beam builder) support structure control, clamp/weld block, and welding and truss cut off is discussed. The brace attachment design was changed and the design of the weld mechanism was modified which achieved the following system benefits: (1) simplified weld electrode life; (2) reduced weld power requirements; and (3) simplified brace attachment mechanisms. Static and fatigue characteristics of spot welded 2024T3 aluminum joints are evaluated.

  6. Nucla CFB Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents Colorado-Ute Electric Association's Nucla Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion (AFBC) demonstration project. It describes the plant equipment and system design for the first US utility-size circulating AFBC boiler and its support systems. Included are equipment and system descriptions, design/background information and appendices with an equipment list and selected information plus process flow and instrumentation drawings. The purpose of this report is to share the information gathered during the Nucla circulating AFBC demonstration project and present it so that the general public can evaluate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of replacing pulverized or stoker-fired boiler units with circulating fluidized-bed boiler units. (VC)

  7. AVNG system demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Thron, Jonathan Louis; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Kondratov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander; Razinkov, Sergey

    2010-01-01

    An attribute measurement system (AMS) measures a number of unclassified attributes of potentially classified material. By only displaying these unclassified results as red or green lights, the AMS protects potentially classified information while still generating confidence in the measurement result. The AVNG implementation that we describe is an AMS built by RFNC - VNIIEF in Sarov, Russia. To provide additional confidence, the AVNG was designed with two modes of operation. In the secure mode, potentially classified measurements can be made with only the simple red light/green light display. In the open mode, known unclassified material can be measured with complete display of the information collected from the radiation detectors. The AVNG demonstration, which occurred in Sarov, Russia in June 2009 for a joint US/Russian audience, included exercising both modes of AVNG operation using a number of multi-kg plutonium sources. In addition to describing the demonstration, we will show photographs and/or video taken of AVNG operation.

  8. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-15

    The basic goal of the Limestone Injection Mitigation Burner (LIMB) demonstration is to extend LIMB technology development to a full- scale application on a representative wall-fired utility boiler. The successful retrofit of LIMB to an existing boiler is expected to demonstrate that (a) reductions of 50 percent or greater in SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of add-on FGD systems, (b) boiler reliability, operability, and steam production can be maintained at levels existing prior to LIMB retrofit, and (c) technical difficulties attributable to LIMB operation, such as additional slagging and fouling, changes in ash disposal requirements, and an increased particulate load, can be resolved in a cost-effective manner. The primary fuel to be used will be an Ohio bituminous coal having a nominal sulfur content of 3 percent or greater.

  9. Chemical Domino Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. Dale

    1998-04-01

    The Chemical Domino Demonstration is both educational and entertaining. It provides an excellent means for a review of chemical concepts at the conclusion of a general chemistry course. This demonstration consists of a number of different chemical reactions occurring in sequence in a Rube Goldberg-type apparatus. These reactions include the reduction of water by an active metal, the oxidation of a moderately active metal by an acid, reduction of metallic ions by a metal of greater activity, acid-base neutralization reactions in solution monitored with indicators, a gas-phase acid-base neutralization reaction, decomposition of a compound, precipitation of an insoluble salt, substitution reactions of coordination complexes, and pyrotechnic oxidation-reduction reactions including a hypergolic oxidation-reduction reaction, an intramolecular oxidation-reduction reaction, and the combustion of a flammable gas.

  10. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  11. Space Fabrication Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The completion of assembly of the beam builder and its first automatic production of truss is discussed. A four bay, hand assembled, roll formed members truss was built and tested to ultimate load. Detail design of the fabrication facility (beam builder) was completed and designs for subsystem debugging are discussed. Many one bay truss specimens were produced to demonstrate subsystem operation and to detect problem areas.

  12. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does…

  13. The Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Fast, James E.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Merriman, Jason H.; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Combs, Dustin C.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Konovalov, S.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, Vladimir; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Loach, J. C.; Martin, R. D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Vetter, Kai; Bertrand, F.; Cooper, R. J.; Radford, D. C.; Varner, R. L.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Boswell, M.; Elliott, S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hime, Andrew; Kidd, M. F.; LaRoque, B. H.; Rielage, Keith; Ronquest, M. C.; Steele, David; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, Oleg; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Busch, Matthew; Esterline, James H.; Tornow, Werner; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Horton, Mark; Howard, S.; Sobolev, V.; Collar, J. I.; Fields, N.; Creswick, R.; Doe, Peter J.; Johnson, R. A.; Knecht, A.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Marino, Michael G.; Miller, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Wolfe, B. A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Shima, T.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Henning, Reyco; Howe, M. A.; MacMullin, S.; Phillips, D.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Strain, J.; Vorren, Kris R.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Keller, C.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Thomas, K.; Zhang, C.; Hallin, A. L.; Keeter, K.; Mizouni, Leila; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-09-03

    A brief review of the history and neutrino physics of double beta decay is given. A description of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR research and development program, including background reduction techniques, is presented in some detail. The application of point contact (PC) detectors to the experiment is discussed, including the effectiveness of pulse shape analysis. The predicted sensitivity of a PC detector array enriched to 86% to 76Ge is given.

  14. Projectile Motion Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Erlend H.

    2008-12-01

    For a recent lecture, I went to our apparatus stock room and took out our venerable Sargent-Welch projectile apparatus that demonstrates that a dropped ball and a horizontally launched ball hit the floor at the same time, if they are simultaneously released. A problem with this apparatus is that its small size makes it difficult for a large class to see what is going on. Furthermore, the projectiles are ball bearings, which tend to roll under chairs, benches, etc.

  15. Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolson, David A.; Battino, Rubin; Letcher, Trevor M.; Pegel, K. H.; Revaprasadu, N.

    1995-10-01

    The "charring reaction" of a carbohydrate with concentrated H2SO4 is a demonstration of the dehydrating power of H2SO4. In this paper several sugars and supermarket carbohydrates are systematically studied with respect to size of particles, addition of water, and amount of H2SO4 added. The results are tabulated as to the amount of time to blackening and to the attainment of a particular volume of the charred material. Detailed safety precautions are included.

  16. Overhead Projector Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Doris

    1988-01-01

    Describes two oscillating reactions: the Briggs-Raucher reaction using H202, KIO3, malonic acid, and MnSO4 which changes from yellow to blue, and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction uses NaBrO3, NaBr, malonic acid, and ferroin solution and changes from red to blue. Includes a third color demonstration on the six oxidation states of manganese. (MVL)

  17. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  18. Unmanned space vehicle technology demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, U.; Accardo, D.; Grassi, M.; Curreri, F.

    2007-02-01

    The unmanned space vehicle (USV) program has been undertaken by the Italian Center for Aerospace Research with the aim of developing flying test beds of next generation reentry launch vehicles. In this framework, the development of small demonstrators is also foreseen to validate technological and operational aspects of full-scale vehicles and missions. In this paper, a small-scale demonstrator of the sub-orbital re-entry test mission of the USV program is described. Both mission profile and objectives are very challenging in terms of demonstrator guidance, navigation and control. After a short description of the mission and demonstrator architectures, particular emphasis is given to the guidance and navigation analysis. To this end, mission objectives and reduced-scale system constaints are integrated and translated into innovative guidance solutions relying on optimization techniques. Then, performance of a commercial-off-the-shelf GPS-aided, miniature inertial navigation system over the proposed trajectories is evaluated by Monte Carlo analysis. Standalone inertial and GPS-aided inertial navigation performance is also compared considering GPS loss conditions due to antenna plasma effects.

  19. Solar Energy Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Solar energy furnishes all of the heating and hot water needs, plus 80 percent of the air conditioning, for the two-story Reedy Creek building. A unique feature of this installation is that the 16 semi-cylindrical solar collectors (center photo on opposite page with closeup of a single collector below it) are not mounted atop the roof as is customary, they actually are the roof. This arrangement eliminates the usual trusses, corrugated decking and insulating concrete in roof construction; that, in turn, reduces overall building costs and makes the solar installation more attractive economically. The Reedy Creek collectors were designed and manufactured by AAI Corporation of Baltimore, Maryland.

  20. NAVAJO ELECTRIFICATION DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Terry W. Battiest

    2008-06-11

    The Navajo Electrification Demonstration Project (NEDP) is a multi-year project which addresses the electricity needs of the unserved and underserved Navajo Nation, the largest American Indian tribe in the United States. The program serves to cumulatively provide off-grid electricty for families living away from the electricty infrastructure, line extensions for unserved families living nearby (less than 1/2 mile away from) the electricity, and, under the current project called NEDP-4, the construction of a substation to increase the capacity and improve the quality of service into the central core region of the Navajo Nation.

  1. Demonstrating induced recharge

    SciTech Connect

    Caswell, B. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes an attempt by a New England community to explore for an aquifer that would yield 1 million gallons of ground water per day. After the discovery of a glacial sand and gravel aquifer, a demonstration of a hydraulic coupling between the aquifer and an adjacent stream was undertaken. This connection was needed to maintain recharge capacity of the well. The paper goes on to describe the techniques needed and used to determine the induced recharge caused by drawdown in these test wells.

  2. Space Research Benefits Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Angie Jackman, a NASA project manager in microgravity research, demonstrates the enhanced resilience of undercooled metal alloys as compared to conventional alloys. Experiments aboard the Space Shuttle helped scientists refine their understanding of the physical properties of certain metal alloys when undercooled (i.e., kept liquid below their normal solidification temperature). This new knowledge then allowed scientists to modify a terrestrial production method so they can now make limited quantities marketed under the Liquid Metal trademark. The exhibit was a part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  3. The Blowgun Demonstration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Koji; Uchino, Masanori

    2008-09-01

    We have found that a simple demonstration experiment using a match or a cotton swab and a drinking straw or an acrylic pipe serves as an effective introduction to dynamics. The most basic apparatus has a cotton swab serving as a dart and the straw as the blowgun. When blown from a starting point near the exit end of the straw, the cotton swab does not fly a significant distance. When the starting point is closer to the lips, the straw is projected 2-3 m. If two or three straws are connected to form a longer blowgun, the cotton swab flies even farther.

  4. Pilot Scale Advanced Fogging Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, Rick L.; Fox, Don T.; Archiblad, Kip E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments in 2006 developed a useful fog solution using three different chemical constituents. Optimization of the fog recipe and use of commercially available equipment were identified as needs that had not been addressed. During 2012 development work it was noted that low concentrations of the components hampered coverage and drying in the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory’s testing much more so than was evident in the 2006 tests. In fiscal year 2014 the Idaho National Laboratory undertook a systematic optimization of the fogging formulation and conducted a non-radioactive, pilot scale demonstration using commercially available fogging equipment. While not as sophisticated as the equipment used in earlier testing, the new approach is much less expensive and readily available for smaller scale operations. Pilot scale testing was important to validate new equipment of an appropriate scale, optimize the chemistry of the fogging solution, and to realize the conceptual approach.

  5. Vortex Apparatus and Demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerin, Said

    2010-05-01

    Vortex flow, from millimeter to kilometer in scale, is important in many scientific and technological areas. Examples are seen in water strider locomotion, from industrial pipe flow (wastewater treatment) to air traffic control (safe distance between aircrafts on a runway ready for takeoff) to atmospheric studies.2-5 In this paper, we focus on a particular vortex known as bathtub vortex (BTV). It occurs when water is drained from a hole at the bottom of a container such as a bathtub or a sink under the action of gravity. The vortex has a funnel shape with a central air core, resembling a tornado. We have designed a portable apparatus to demonstrate bathtub vortex on a continual basis. The apparatus consists of a clear cylinder supported by a frame over a water reservoir and a submersible pump. Young and old have been equally amazed by watching the demonstrations at various public presentations held at the University of the Pacific recently. With material cost of less than 100, the apparatus can be easily fabricated and used at other universities. With a short set-up time, it is an ideal device for promoting science to the general public, and it can be used to enhance lectures in physics courses as well.

  6. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  7. Demonstration of microfiltration technology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.F.; Topudurti, K.; Labunski, S.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program in cooperation with E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Company, Inc. (DuPont) and the Oberlin Filter Company (Oberlin), undertook a field demonstration project to evaluate microfiltration technology for removal of zinc and suspended solids from wastewater. The microfiltration system utilized DuPont's Tyvek T-980 membrane filter media in conjunction with the Oberlin automatic pressure filter. The project was undertaken at the Palmerton Zinc Superfund site in April, 1990. Analysis of the treated filtrate indicated that the system removed precipitated zinc and other suspended solids at an efficiency greater than 99.9 percent. (Copyright (c) 1991--Air and Waste Management Association.)

  8. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    SciTech Connect

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  9. Fusion-power demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.; Carlson, G. A.; Neef, W. S.; Moir, R. W.; Campbell, R. B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I. R.; Carpenter, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment.

  10. Shuttle bay telerobotics demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, W.; Cogeos, P.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of NASA's robotics capabilities should be a balanced agenda of servicing and assembly tasks combined with selected key technical experiments. The servicing tasks include refueling and module replacement. Refueling involves the mating of special fluid connectors while module replacement requires an array of robotic technologies such as special tools, the arm of a logistics tool, and the precision mating of orbital replacement units to guides. The assembly task involves the construction of a space station node and truss structure. The technological experiments will focus on a few important issues: the precision manipulation of the arms by a teleoperator, the additional use of several mono camera views in conjunction with the stereo system, the use of a general purpose end effector versus a caddy of tools, and the dynamics involved with using a robot with a stabilizer.

  11. The GLORIA demonstrator experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcher, A.; Ćwiek, A.; Ćwiok, M.; Mankiewicz, L.; Zaremba, M.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2013-10-01

    GLORIA stands for "GLObal Robotic-telescopes Intelligent Array" and it is the first free and open-access network of robotic telescopes on the world. Based on a Web 2.0 environment amateur and professional users can do research in astronomy by observing with robotic telescopes, and/or analyzing data acquired with GLORIA, or from other free access databases. GLORIA project develops free standards, protocols and tools for controlling Robotic Telescopes and related instrumentation, for scheduling observations in the telescope network, and for conducting so-called off-line experiments based on the analysis of astronomical data. This contribution summarizes the implementation and results from the first research level off-line demonstrator experiment implemented in GLORIA, which was base on the data collected with the "Pi of the Sky" telescope in Chile.

  12. Space Research Benefits Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An entranced youngster watches a demonstration of the enhanced resilience of undercooled metal alloys as compared to conventional alloys. Steel bearings are dropped onto plates made of steel, titanium alloy, and zirconium liquid metal alloy, so-called because its molecular structure is amorphous and not crystalline. The bearing on the liquid metal plate bounces for a minute or more longer than on the other plates. Experiments aboard the Space Shuttle helped scientists refine their understanding of the physical properties of certain metal alloys when undercooled (i.e., kept liquid below their normal solidification temperature). This new knowledge then allowed scientists to modify a terrestrial production method so they can now make limited quantities marketed under the Liquid Metal trademark. The exhibit was a part of the NASA outreach activity at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  13. ARJIS satellite demonstration project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severance, Steve; Williams, Carl

    2005-06-01

    In 2003, the California Space Authority (CSA) was provided funding by the U. S. Congress through the Defense Appropriations Act to develop a project that would demonstrate the U.S. space enterprise capability that would contribute to the effectiveness of those engaged in Homeland Security. The project was given broad latitude in selecting the area of Homeland Security to be addressed and the nature of the space technology to be applied. CSA became aware of a nascent law enforcement data-sharing project in the San Diego region known as the Automated Regional Justice Information System (ARJIS). First developed by the police departments in San Diego, ARJIS is an innovative system that shares criminal justice information among 50 federal, state, and local agencies. ARJIS was completing a pilot project that enabled officers to receive information on handheld computers, which was transmitted wirelessly through cellular networks. The accessed information came from several databases that collectively contained the entire region's crime and arrest reports, traffic citations, and incidents, as well as state and county wants and warrants. The fundamental limitations that plague all cellular-based devices caught CSA's attention and resulted in a cooperative effort to harden the communications link between the patrol officer and critical data. The principal goal of the SATCOM development task was to create a proof-of-concept application that would use SATCOM links to augment the current ARJIS handheld wireless (cellular) capability. The successful technical demonstration and the positive support for satellite communications from the law enforcement community showed that this project filled a need-both for improved information sharing and for highly reliable communications systems.

  14. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Gerard F; Jones, Ross J; Clode, Peta L; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L(-1)), with 2-37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water's surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water's surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  15. Suspended sediments limit coral sperm availability

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo, Gerard F.; Jones, Ross J.; Clode, Peta L.; Humanes, Adriana; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended sediment from dredging activities and natural resuspension events represent a risk to the reproductive processes of coral, and therefore the ongoing maintenance of reefal populations. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that could reduce the fertilisation success in turbid water, we conducted several experiments exposing gametes of the corals Acropora tenuis and A. millepora to two sediment types. Sperm limitation was identified in the presence of siliciclastic sediment (230 and ~700 mg L−1), with 2–37 fold more sperm required to achieve maximum fertilisation rates, when compared with sediment-free treatments. This effect was more pronounced at sub-optimum sperm concentrations. Considerable (>45%) decreases in sperm concentration at the water’s surface was recorded in the presence of siliciclastic sediment and a >20% decrease for carbonate sediment. Electron microscopy then confirmed sediment entangled sperm and we propose entrapment and sinking is the primary mechanism reducing sperm available to the egg. Longer exposure to suspended sediments and gamete aging further decreased fertilisation success when compared with a shorter exposure. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that high concentrations of suspended sediments effectively remove sperm from the water’s surface during coral spawning events, reducing the window for fertilisation with potential subsequent flow-on effects for recruitment. PMID:26659008

  16. The Seasat commercial demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandless, S. W.; Miller, B. P.; Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The background and development of the Seasat commercial demonstration program are reviewed and the Seasat spacecraft and its sensors (altimeter, wind field scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer) are described. The satellite data distribution system allows for selected sets of data, reformatted or tailored to specific needs and geographical regions, to be available to commercial users. Products include sea level and upper atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, marine winds, significant wave heights, primary wave direction and period, and spectral wave data. The results of a set of retrospective case studies performed for the commercial demonstration program are described. These are in areas of application such as marine weather and ocean condition forecasting, offshore resource exploration and development, commercial fishing, and marine transportation.

  17. TIDD PFBC Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    In fluidized bed combustion, coal and sorbent (dolomite or limestone) are fed into a boiler in which air, entering from the bottom, maintains the bed material in a highly turbulent suspended state called fluidization. This turbulence creates good contact between the air and fuel, allowing for high combustion efficiency and excellent adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during the combustion process. In PFBC applications, pressurized air is supplied to the combustor. Pressurizing the air concentrates a larger quantity of oxygen per unit volume. This results in a lower velocity of air through the fuel bed. The lower velocity reduces the total height required for the bed and freeboard above the bed. Also, a smaller plan area is required for the bed area as compared to an atmospheric fluidized bed. This has the advantage of requiring a much smaller pressure vessel to contain the boiler enclosure. The mean bed temperature of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor is typically maintained in the range 1540 to 1580 F. This is well below the ash fusion temperature of coal, yet above the ignition temperature of the coal. Advantages of the low bed temperature are no slag formation and a reduction of NO{sub x} emissions to less than half that of a conventional boiler. The Tidd Plant is a combined cycle pressurized fluidized bed combustion system with a topping gas cycle and a bottoming steam cycle.

  18. Contaminated soil stabilization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Sampson, A.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-10-01

    Long-term herbicide control along with a shotcrete cover was constructed at the Hanford Site in May 1991. The cover system allows for maintenance-free containment of contaminants by preventing wind and water transport of contaminants from the soil surface, preventing plant uptake of contaminants, and minimizing water infiltration through the soil column. The cover is composed of two parts: a commercial nonwoven geotextile material impregnated with trifluralin, and a >5-centimeter top cover of shotcrete containing polyethylene fibers. The herbicide-impregnated geotextile functions to prevent plant root growth into contaminated soil if any holes or cracks develop in the shotcrete layer. The herbicide component, trifluralin, is mixed into polymer nodules that degrade slowly over many years, thus releasing trifluralin slowly over time. The shotcrete topcover was sprayed using a sludge pump and air compressor to form a hard, impenetrable surface that prevents wind erosion and reduces water infiltration through the contaminated materials underneath. The benefits of the cover system are expected to last 20 to 30 years. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Plug cluster module demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.

    1978-01-01

    The low pressure, film cooled rocket engine design concept developed during two previous ALRC programs was re-evaluated for application as a module for a plug cluster engine capable of performing space shuttle OTV missions. The nominal engine mixture ratio was 5.5 and the engine life requirements were 1200 thermal cycles and 10 hours total operating life. The program consisted of pretest analysis; engine tests, performed using residual components; and posttest analysis. The pretest analysis indicated that operation of the operation of the film cooled engine at O/F = 5.5 was feasible. During the engine tests, steady state wall temperature and performance measurement were obtained over a range of film cooling flow rates, and the durability of the engine was demonstrated by firing the test engine 1220 times at a nominal performance ranging from 430 - 432 seconds. The performance of the test engine was limited by film coolant sleeve damage which had occurred during previous testing. The post-test analyses indicated that the nominal performance level can be increased to 436 seconds.

  20. Orbital construction demonstration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design and program plan for an Orbital Construction Demonstration Article (OCDA) was developed that can be used for evaluating and establishing practical large structural assembly operations. A flight plan for initial placement and continued utility is presented as a basic for an entirely new shuttle payload line-item having great future potential benefit for space applications. The OCDA is a three-axis stabilized platform in low-earth orbit with many structural nodals for mounting large construction and fabrication equipments. This equipment would be used to explore methods for constructing the large structures for future missions. The OCDA would be supported at regular intervals by the shuttle. Construction experiments and consumables resupply are performed during shuttle visit periods. A 250 kw solar array provides sufficient power to support the shuttle while attached to the OCDA and to run construction experiments at the same time. Wide band communications with a Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite compatible high gain antenna can be used between shuttle revisits to perform remote controlled, TV assisted construction experiments.

  1. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  2. NSF fellowships available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications are available for National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Fellowships and Minority Graduate Fellowships for 1986-1987. These fellowships include an annual stipend of $11,100 and a cost of education allowance of $6000 per year. The education allowance is provided to each fellow's educational institution in lieu of all tuition and fees. These fellowships are renewable for up to 3 years, depending on the availability of NSF funds.

  3. NSF Fellowships available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications are available for National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Fellowships and Minority Graduate Fellowships for 1987-1988. These fellowships provide an annual stipend of $11,100 and a cost-of-education allowance of $6000 per year. The education allowance is provided to each fellow's educational institution in lieu of all tuition and fees. These fellowships are renewable for up to 3 years, depending on the availability of NSF funds.

  4. NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Gray

    2006-01-01

    A state-of-the-art solar-panel array demonstration site at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center provides a unique opportunity for studying the latest in high-efficiency solar photovoltaic cells. This five-kilowatt solar-array site (see Figure 1) is a technology-transfer and commercialization success for NASA. Among the solar cells at this site are cells of a type that was developed in Dryden Flight Research Center s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program for use in NASA s Helios solar-powered airplane. This cell type, now denoted as A-300, has since been transferred to SunPower Corporation of Sunnyvale, California, enabling mass production of the cells for the commercial market. High efficiency separates these advanced cells from typical previously commercially available solar cells: Whereas typical previously commercially available cells are 12 to 15 percent efficient at converting sunlight to electricity, these advanced cells exhibit efficiencies approaching 23 percent. The increase in efficiency is due largely to the routing of electrical connections behind the cells (see Figure 2). This approach to increasing efficiency originated as a solution to the problem of maximizing the degree of utilization of the limited space available atop the wing of the Helios airplane. In retrospect, the solar cells in use at this site could be used on Helios, but the best cells otherwise commercially available could not be so used, because of their lower efficiencies. Historically, solar cells have been fabricated by use of methods that are common in the semiconductor industry. One of these methods includes the use of photolithography to define the rear electrical-contact features - diffusions, contact openings, and fingers. SunPower uses these methods to produce the advanced cells. To reduce fabrication costs, SunPower continues to explore new methods to define the rear electrical-contact features. The equipment at the demonstration site includes

  5. Kinesthetic Transverse Wave Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantidos, Panagiotis; Patapis, Stamatis

    2005-09-01

    This is a variation on the String and Sticky Tape demonstration "The Wave Game," suggested by Ron Edge. A group of students stand side by side, each one holding a card chest high with both hands. The teacher cues the first student to begin raising and lowering his card. When he starts lowering his card, the next student begins to raise his. As succeeding students move their cards up and down, a wave such as that shown in the figure is produced. To facilitate the process, students' motions were synchronized with the ticks of a metronome (without such synchronization it was nearly impossible to generate a satisfactory wave). Our waves typically had a frequency of about 1 Hz and a wavelength of around 3 m. We videotaped the activity so that the students could analyze the motions. The (17-year-old) students had not received any prior instruction regarding wave motion and did not know beforehand the nature of the exercise they were about to carry out. During the activity they were asked what a transverse wave is. Most of them quickly realized, without teacher input, that while the wave propagated horizontally, the only motion of the transmitting medium (them) was vertical. They located the equilibrium points of the oscillations, the crests and troughs of the waves, and identified the wavelength. The teacher defined for them the period of the oscillations of the motion of a card to be the total time for one cycle. The students measured this time and then several asserted that it was the same as the wave period. Knowing the length of the waves and the number of waves per second, the next step can easily be to find the wave speed.

  6. VLBI2010 Demonstrator Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niell, A.

    2008-12-01

    . Observations demonstrating the full four-band configuration are planned for October. In this talk the results of these tests, the improvements that are anticipated for the operational VLBI2010 network, and the status of other developments in the next generation of geodetic VLBI systems will be presented. * Bruce Whittier, Mike Titus, Jason SooHoo, Dan Smythe, Alan Rogers, Jay Redmond, Mike Poirier, Chuck Kodak, Alan Hinton, Ed Himwich, Skip Gordon, Mark Evangelista, Irv Diegel, Brian Corey, Tom Clark, Chris Beaudoin (in reverse alphabetical order)

  7. Advanced Measurement Systems Available to PIWG Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert; Lei, Jih-Fen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It was developed advanced measurement technologies to meet NASA goals: reduce design cycle time, reduce emission, reduce testing time, increase safety. The technology are saving money. This technology are available now for technology transfer: optical diagnostics, the film technology and MEMS devices.

  8. Thermal resource availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, P. M.; Lewis, L. F.

    1980-06-01

    The paper discusses thermal resource availability from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants. These plants require an ocean temperature difference sufficient to operate turbines as efficiently as possible. Ocean Data Systems (ODSI) assembled an ocean temperature data base for OTEC purposes for the NSF. From these data, summaries were prepared identifying seasonal OTEC thermal gradients for ocean areas surrounding the North American Continent. Under the Energy Research and Development Administration program, ODSI updated the historical file and identified the thermal resource for many specific sites on a monthly basis. Two charts of the world's oceans showing the gross resource available at depths of 500 and 1000 m are presented.

  9. Pitt Mill Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

    1990-05-01

    Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  10. Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This program assisted in the design and implementation of the composite casting demonstration for the Apollo 14 mission. Both flight and control samples were evaluated. Some conclusions resulting from a comparison of the flight and control samples were: (1) Solidification in neither the flight nor control samples was truly directional. (2) Apparent intermittent contact of the melt with the container in the flight samples led to unusual nucleation and growth structures. (3) There was greater uniformity, on a macro scale, of both pores and structural features in the flight sample; presumably the result of the reduced gravity conditions. (4) It seems quite feasible to produce enhanced dispersions of gases and dense phases in a melt which is solidified in reduced gravity. (5) A two-stage heating/cooling cycle may help directional solidification. (6) Sample materials should be selected from materials in which the dispersant fully wets the matrix material. (7) Experiments should be conducted in two modes: (1) where the melt is in good thermal contact with the container, and (2) where the melt is in a free-float condition.

  11. Coherent electron cooling demonstration experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Brutus, J.C.; Fedotov, A.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Mahler, G.; Marusic, A.; Meng, W.; McIntyre, G.; Minty, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Pinayev, I.; Rao, T.; Roser, T.; Sheehy, B.; Tepikian, S.; Than, R.; Trbojevic, D.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.; Yakimenko, V.; Hutton, A.; Krafft, G.; Poelker, M.; Rimmer, R.; Bruhwiler, D.; Abell, D.T.; Nieter, C.; Ranjbar, V.; Schwartz, B.; Kholopov M.; Shevchenko, O.; McIntosh, P.; Wheelhouse, A.

    2011-09-04

    Coherent electron cooling (CEC) has a potential to significantly boost luminosity of high-energy, high-intensity hadron-hadron and electron-hadron colliders. In a CEC system, a hadron beam interacts with a cooling electron beam. A perturbation of the electron density caused by ions is amplified and fed back to the ions to reduce the energy spread and the emittance of the ion beam. To demonstrate the feasibility of CEC we propose a proof-of-principle experiment at RHIC using SRF linac. In this paper, we describe the setup for CeC installed into one of RHIC's interaction regions. We present results of analytical estimates and results of initial simulations of cooling a gold-ion beam at 40 GeV/u energy via CeC. We plan to complete the program in five years. During first two years we will build coherent electron cooler in IP2 of RHIC. In parallel we will develop complete package of computer simulation tools for the start-to-end simulation predicting exact performance of a CeC. The later activity will be the core of Tech X involvement into the project. We will use these tools to predict the performance of our CeC device. The experimental demonstration of the CeC will be undertaken in years three to five of the project. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the cooling of ion beam and to compare its measured performance with predictions made by us prior to the experiments.

  12. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  13. Integrated Payload Data Handling Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGeorge, T.; Wishart, A.; Hann, M.; Phan, N.; Carr, C. M.; Cupido, E.; Fox, P.; Oddy, T.; McGregor, A.; Marshall, A.; Waltham, N.

    2013-09-01

    An integrated Payload Data Handling System (IPDHS) is one in which multiple instruments share a central payload processor for their on-board data processing tasks. This offers a number of advantages over the conventional decentralised architecture. Savings in payload mass and power can be realised because the total processing resource is matched to the requirement, as opposed to the decentralised architecture where the processing resource is in effect the sum of all the applications. Overall development cost can be reduced using a common processor. At individual instrument level the potential benefits include a standardised application development environment, and the opportunity to run the instrument data handling application on a fully redundant and more powerful processor. This paper describes a joint programme by Astrium Ltd, SCISYS UK Limited, Imperial College London and RAL Space to implement a realistic demonstration of an I-PDHS using engineering models of flight instruments (a magnetometer and a camera) and a laboratory demonstrator of a central payload processor which is functionally representative of a flight design. The objective is to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the centralised data processing technique by addressing the key areas of task partitioning to prevent fault propagation and the use of a common development process for the instrument applications. The project is supported by a UK Space Agency grant awarded under the National Space Technology Programme SpaceCITI scheme. The demonstration system is set up at the UK Space Agency's International Space Innovation Centre (ISIC) at Harwell and makes use of the ISIC Concurrent Design Facility (CDF).

  14. Clinically Available Pharmacogenomics Tests

    PubMed Central

    Flockhart, DA; Skaar, T; Berlin, DS; Klein, TE; Nguyen, AT

    2009-01-01

    The development of robust and clinically valuable pharmacogenomic tests has been anticipated to be one of the first tangible results of the Human Genome Project. Despite both obvious and unanticipated obstacles, a number of tests have now become available in various practice settings. Lessons can be learned from examination of these tests, the evidence that has catalyzed their use, their value to prescribers, and their merit as tools for personalizing therapeutics. PMID:19369936

  15. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  16. Favorite Demonstrations: Gaseous Diffusion: A Demonstration of Graham's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, George B.; Ebner, Ronald D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a demonstration in which gaseous ammonia and hydrochloric acid are used to illustrate rates of diffusion (Graham's Law). Simple equipment needed for the demonstration include a long tube, rubber stoppes, and cotton. Two related demonstrations are also explained. (DH)

  17. EPA shareware available

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This is a description of EPA shareware that is available. The shareware will run on a personal computer with a minimum 550K ram, hard drive and EGA monitor, some requires VGA monitor and additional memory. The topics of the software include septic waste disposal, community sewer system planning, drinking water regulations, design of private water systems, lead contamination, water conservation, landscape planning for water conservation, groundwater education, surface water education, wetlands education, soil erosion, site evaluation, pesticide storage, fertilizer storage, and pollution prevention.

  18. [Therapeutic plasmas available worldwide].

    PubMed

    Martinaud, C; Cauet, A; Sailliol, A

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic plasma is a current product; French guidelines were reviewed in 2012. Connections between more or less closed countries are frequent, during relief disasters as well as in war settings. This is associated with the increasing use of plasma in the management of casualties. Additionally, The real possibility of lack of plasma supply in some countries provides a fundamental interest of the knowledge of foreign blood supply organizations. We present here the main divergences and mutual point between plasmas available worldwide. We present the main characteristics of each product.

  19. Reducing Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timpane, Michael; And Others

    A group of three conference papers, all addressing the subject of effective programs to decrease the number of school dropouts, is presented in this document. The first paper, "Systemic Approaches to Reducing Dropouts" (Michael Timpane), asserts that dropping out is a symptom of failures in the social, economic, and educational systems. Dropping…

  20. Currently available antitussives.

    PubMed

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2009-04-01

    Cough is among the most common complaints for which patients seek medical attention. Acute cough, usually due to a viral upper respiratory tract infection, generates a huge expenditure on prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations worldwide. Most of these agents, however, have not been shown to be more effective than placebo in adequately performed clinical trials. The goal of management in chronic cough is treatment of its underlying cause. However, certain situations will necessitate cough suppressant therapy for symptomatic relief. Unfortunately, currently available antitussives, such as the opioids, are not consistently effective, or achieve therapeutic effect at the expense of unpleasant or intolerable side effects. Safer and more effective cough suppressants are desperately needed. Potential novel antitussives will need to be evaluated in properly formulated clinical trials, measuring relevant subjective and objective end points in appropriate subject populations. PMID:18771744

  1. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H. )

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO[sub 2] removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO[sub 2] removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20[degree]F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ([del]T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO[sub 2] removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, [del]T = 20--22[degree]F, and 70% SO[sub 2] removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO[sub 2] emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  2. The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.C.; Scandrol, R.O.; Statnick, R.M.; Stouffer, M.R.; Winschel, R.A.; Withum, J.A.; Wu, M.M.; Yoon, H.

    1992-02-01

    The Edgewater Coolside process demonstration met the program objectives which were to determine Coolside SO{sub 2} removal performance, establish short-term process operability, and evaluate the economics of the process versus a limestone wet scrubber. On a flue gas produced from the combustion of 3% sulfur coal, the Coolside process achieved 70% SO{sub 2} removal using commercially-available hydrated lime as the sorbent. The operating conditions were Ca/S mol ratio 2.0, Na/Ca mol ratio 0.2, and 20{degree}F approach to adiabatic saturation temperature ({del}T). During tests using fresh plus recycle sorbent, the recycle sorbent exhibited significant capacity for additional SO{sub 2} removal. The longest steady state operation was eleven days at nominally Ca/S = 2, Na/Ca = 0.22, {del}T = 20--22{degree}F, and 70% SO{sub 2} removal. The operability results achieved during the demonstration indicate that with the recommended process modifications, which are discussed in the Coolside process economic analysis, the process could be designed as a reliable system for utility application. Based on the demonstration program, the Coolside process capital cost for a hypothetical commercial installation was minimized. The optimization consisted of a single, large humidifier, no spare air compressor, no isolation dampers, and a 15 day on-site hydrated lime storage. The levelized costs of the Coolside and the wet limestone scrubbing processes were compared. The Coolside process is generally economically competitive with wet scrubbing for coals containing up to 2.5% sulfur and plants under 350 MWe. Site-specific factors such as plant capacity factor, SO{sub 2} emission limit, remaining plant life, retrofit difficulty, and delivered sorbent cost affect the scrubber-Coolside process economic comparison.

  3. Simple Buoyancy Demonstrations Using Saltwater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosby, Ronald M.; Petry, Douglas E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the use of saline solutions for demonstrations of buoyancy showing oscillations of the Cartesian diver. Describes the physical principles, preparation, and instructional uses for the demonstration. (YP)

  4. Demonstration of spectral calibration for stellar interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demers, Richard T.; An, Xin; Tang, Hong; Rud, Mayer; Wayne, Leonard; Kissil, Andrew; Kwack, Eug-Yun

    2006-01-01

    A breadboard is under development to demonstrate the calibration of spectral errors in microarcsecond stellar interferometers. Analysis shows that thermally and mechanically stable hardware in addition to careful optical design can reduce the wavelength dependent error to tens of nanometers. Calibration of the hardware can further reduce the error to the level of picometers. The results of thermal, mechanical and optical analysis supporting the breadboard design will be shown.

  5. Space Internet-Embedded Web Technologies Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foltz, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center recently demonstrated the ability to securely command and control space-based assets by using the Internet and standard Internet Protocols (IP). This is a significant accomplishment because future NASA missions will benefit by using Internet standards-based protocols. The benefits include reduced mission costs and increased mission efficiency. The Internet-Based Space Command and Control System Architecture demonstrated at the NASA Inspection 2000 event proved that this communications architecture is viable for future NASA missions.

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.; Rutter, A.; Briggs, D.

    2014-03-01

    In order to meet its energy goals, the Department of Defense (DOD) has partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy-efficiency technologies. The scope of this project was to demonstrate tools and technologies to reduce energy use in military housing, with particular emphasis on measuring and reducing loads related to consumer electronics (commonly referred to as 'plug loads'), hot water, and whole-house cooling.

  7. Demonstration of new PCSD capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    The new, more flexible and more friendly graphics capabilities to be available in later releases of the Pilot Climate Data System were demonstrated. The LIMS-LAMAT data set was chosen to illustrate these new capabilities. Pseudocolor and animation were used to represent the third and fourth dimensions, expanding the analytical capabilities available through the traditional two-dimensional x-y plot. In the new version, variables for the axes are chosen by scrolling through viable selections. This scrolling feature is a function of the new user interface customization. The new graphics are extremely user friendly and should free the scientist to look at data and converse with it, without doing any programming. The system is designed to rapidly plot any variable versus any other variable and animate by any variable. Any one plot in itself is not extraordinary; however, the fact that a user can generate the plots instead of a programmer distinguishes the graphics capabilities of the PCDS from other software packages. In addition, with the new CDF design, the system will become more generic, and the new graphics will become much more rigorous in the area of correlative studies.

  8. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  9. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Brecht, T. Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  10. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, T.; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  11. Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration: Plans and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cladouhos, T. T.; Petty, S.; Moore, M.; Nordin, Y.; De Rocher, T.; Callahan, O.; Perry, D.

    2012-12-01

    Engineered or Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) have the potential to expand the availability of clean renewable, baseload energy beyond conventional geothermal areas. An EGS reservoir is created by injecting large volumes of cold water into hot, low-permeability rock to induce seismic slip and enhance the permeability of pre-existing fractures. To date, EGS demonstrations have been limited to a single stimulation per well and sub-economic production rates because a method to isolate the first fracture in a hot well has been lacking. In addition, some recent EGS demonstrations have been negatively impacted by induced seismicity felt by area residents. The Newberry Volcano Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration in central Oregon, funded in part by DOE Grant DE-EE0002777, is now in the field operations phase after two years of planning. The stimulation well, NWG 55-29 drilled in 2008, has very little natural permeability but is very hot, with a bottom hole temperature over 300°C. The Demonstration will test recent technological advances designed to reduce the cost of power generated by EGS and the risk of felt seismicity. First, the stimulation pumps used were designed to run for weeks with little downtime and deliver large volumes of water (1000 gpm, 63 l/s) at relatively low well-head pressure (max. 3000 psi, 20 MPa). This pump specification is based on the rock mechanics-based model of hydroshearing, reduction of effective normal stress and friction on existing fractures, which promotes shear slip and enhances permeability. In contrast, pumps used in hydrofracking, creation of permeability through tensile failure of the rock, operate for shorter periods at much lower volumes and higher pressures. Second, multiple zone stimulation in the open-hole sections of EGS wells would significantly reduce the cost of EGS power production by increasing the productivity of each well. To facilitate multiple zone stimulation, AltaRock Energy has developed a suite of

  12. Sediment availability on burnt hillslopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary; Moody, John; Smith, Hugh; Noske, Philip; Lane, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    In general, erosion has been modeled as being proportional to some form of energy or force (such as shear stress or stream power) with the proportionality constant being erodibility, which is a characterization of sediment availability. It is unclear if erodibility is constant with depth on recently burnt hillslopes. This study used both field- and laboratory based experiments to quantify sediment availability as a depth-dependent parameter on burnt hillslopes. An explicit representation of fire-effect on sediment availability was achieved by assuming that fire-effects produce a non-cohesive soil layer of variable depth. This depth is characterized as a probability density function with a single parameter that changed during recovery (0-3 years) as the available soil was depleted. Measurements in southeastern Australia found that initially after a wildfire the hillslope had a layer (0.75-0.91 cm in depth) of non-cohesive soil, which represented 97-117 t/ha of transport limited sediment. The thickness of this layer decreased exponentially with time since the wildfire. Additional results showed that fine roots (< 2-mm diameter) reduce the erodibility of surface soils for depths < 2 cm. The soil depth and root density accounted for ~60 % of variation in the erodibility at soil depths < 2 cm. At greater depths the root effect diminished and other soil properties (% silt and clay in particular) became more important as predictors of erodibility. The results are organized into a conceptual framework for modeling fire-effects on sediment availability for systems with low and high pre-fire erodibility. The fire-effect produces an equal depth of non-cohesive soil for both systems but this represents a greater perturbation for systems with low pre-fire erodibility than for those systems with a high pre-fire erodibility.

  13. Test and Demonstration Assets of New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This document was developed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a DOE/NNSA grant. The NSPP has three primary components: business incubation, workforce development, and technology demonstration and validation. The document contains a survey of test and demonstration assets in New Mexico available for external users such as small businesses with security technologies under development. Demonstration and validation of national security technologies created by incubator sources, as well as other sources, are critical phases of technology development. The NSPP will support the utilization of an integrated demonstration and validation environment.

  14. Habitat, not resource availability, limits consumer production in lake ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Nicola; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Food web productivity in lakes can be limited by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which reduces fish production by limiting the abundance of their zoobenthic prey. We demonstrate that in a set of 10 small, north temperate lakes spanning a wide DOC gradient, these negative effects of high DOC concentrations on zoobenthos production are driven primarily by availability of warm, well-oxygenated habitat, rather than by light limitation of benthic primary production as previously proposed. There was no significant effect of benthic primary production on zoobenthos production after controlling for oxygen, even though stable isotope analysis indicated that zoobenthos do use this resource. Mean whole-lake zoobenthos production was lower in high-DOC lakes with reduced availability of oxygenated habitat, as was fish biomass. These insights improve understanding of lake food webs and inform management in the face of spatial variability and ongoing temporal change in lake DOC concentrations.

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  16. Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT): background document for K037. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berlow, J.R.; Jones, L.

    1988-08-01

    This document provides EPA's rationale and technical support for selecting the constituents to be regulated in K037 waste and for developing treatment standards for those regulated constituents. The document also provides waste characterization and treatment information that serves as a basis for determining whether variances may be warranted. EPA may grant a treatment variance in cases where the Agency determines that the waste in question is more difficult to treat than the wastes upon which the BDAT treatment standards are based.

  17. Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Mark E; Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y; Nkamany, Mary; Macdonald, Kenneth S

    2007-06-22

    The European medicinal leech is one of vanishingly few animal species with direct application in modern medicine. In addition to the therapeutic potential held by many protease inhibitors purified from leech saliva, and notwithstanding the historical association with quackery, Hirudo medicinalis has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a prescription medical device. Accurate annotation of bioactive compounds relies on precise species determination. Interpretations of developmental and neurophysiological characteristics also presuppose uniformity within a model species used in laboratory settings. Here, we show, with mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that there are at least three species of European medicinal leech, and that leeches marketed as H. medicinalis are actually Hirudo verbana. Beyond the obvious need for reconsideration of decades of biomedical research on this widely used model organism, these findings impact regulatory statutes and raise concerns for the conservation status of European medicinal leeches.

  18. Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Siddall, Mark E; Trontelj, Peter; Utevsky, Serge Y; Nkamany, Mary; Macdonald, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    The European medicinal leech is one of vanishingly few animal species with direct application in modern medicine. In addition to the therapeutic potential held by many protease inhibitors purified from leech saliva, and notwithstanding the historical association with quackery, Hirudo medicinalis has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a prescription medical device. Accurate annotation of bioactive compounds relies on precise species determination. Interpretations of developmental and neurophysiological characteristics also presuppose uniformity within a model species used in laboratory settings. Here, we show, with mitochondrial sequences and nuclear microsatellites, that there are at least three species of European medicinal leech, and that leeches marketed as H. medicinalis are actually Hirudo verbana. Beyond the obvious need for reconsideration of decades of biomedical research on this widely used model organism, these findings impact regulatory statutes and raise concerns for the conservation status of European medicinal leeches. PMID:17426015

  19. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration lessons learned: 1993 technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    An integrated technology demonstration was conducted by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cold Test Pit in the summer of 1993. This program and demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The demonstration included six technologies representing a synergistic system for the characterization and retrieval of a buried hazardous waste site. The integrated technology demonstration proved very successful and a summary of the technical accomplishments is presented. Upon completion of the integrated technology demonstration, cognizant program personnel participated in a lessons learned exercise. This exercise was conducted at the Simplot Decision Support Center at Idaho State University and lessons learned activity captured additional information relative to the integration of technologies for demonstration purposes. This information will be used by BWID to enhance program planning and strengthen future technology demonstrations.

  20. BINSYN a Publicly Available Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnell, Albert P.; DeStefano, P.

    2012-01-01

    A public version of the Binsyn program package now is available for download. Binsyn is a set of programs, running on Linux, that simulate binary star systems, either with or without an optically thick accretion disk. The package includes facilities for parameter optimization by differentials correction. Light curve generation optionally is on the black body approximation or by synthetic photometry. In the latter case, the filter response curves provided with the release are on the Bessell, 1990, PASP, 102, 1181 (Table 2) tabulation. Substitution of different response curves to represent other photometric systems can be accomplished easily. The package produces synthetic spectra and calculated radial velocities of system components as function of orbital phase for comparison with observational data. It has been used extensively in studies of cataclysmic variables (e.g., Linnell et al., 2010, ApJ, 719, 271). The presentation will demonstrate program performance in a variety of contexts.

  1. A Dramatic Flame Test Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristin A.; Schreiner, Rodney

    2001-01-01

    Flame tests are used for demonstration of atomic structure. Describes a demonstration that uses spray bottles filled with methanol and a variety of salts to produce a brilliantly colored flame. (Contains 11 references.) (ASK)

  2. Revisiting the Electric Pickle Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The electric pickle is a classic demonstration that is widely used in both high school and college settings to explain the general principles behind atomic emission. The demonstration fails to provide an interesting multi-line spectrum.

  3. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  4. Favorite Demonstrations for College Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Peer-reviewed, classroom-tested, and tailored specifically for introductory science courses, Favorite Demonstrations is a complement to every college instructor's lesson plans. The book is an all-in-one compilation of 36 popular classroom demonstrations published since 1993 in the "Favorite Demonstration" column of NSTA's Journal of College …

  5. Demonstration of an instrumented patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Renaud, G.; Backman, D.; Genest, M.; Delannoy, M.

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of various strain measurement techniques at detecting the disbonding of a composite repair patch and then using this information to validate a new capacitance based disbond detection technique. The instrumented repair patch was parametrically designed with the help of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to have a stress concentration at its tip. This stress concentration was designed to produce a disbond during fatigue testing, without the need for the introduction of any foreign material to create an artificial disbond condition. The aluminum substrate was grit blasted and the instrumented patch was bonded using FM ®73 adhesive, and was cured following the recommendations of the manufacturer. The geometric characteristics of the patch followed standard repair guidelines for such variables as material selection, taper angles and loading conditions, with the exception of the area designed for premature disbond. All test specimens were inspected using non-destructive testing technique (ultrasound pulse echo) to guarantee that no disbonding had occurred during curing of the specimen. The specimens were placed under fatigue loading to induce a disbond condition between the aluminum substrate and the patch. The specimens were cyclically loaded and strain gauges bonded to strategic locations on the aluminum and composite patch surface to be able to measure changes in surface strains as the disbond progressed. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was also used to measure full field strains over the gauge length of the coupon. The DIC results were compared with the strain gauge data and were used to provide a qualitative measure of the load transfer in the bonded specimen, which clearly demonstrated the change in surface strain that occurred as the composite patch disbonded from the aluminum substrate. Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) was also used to measure surface strains on the

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration test objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Heard, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technology solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1991. This document provides the test objectives against which the demonstrations will be tested during FY-93.

  7. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  8. Pacific Northwest Resources Inventory Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resource Inventory Demonstration project is designed to demonstrate to users from state and local agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho the cost effective role that Landsat derived information can play in natural resource planning and management when properly supported by ground and aircraft data. The project has been organized into five main phases: (1) maps and overlays, (2) early digital image analysis, (3) demonstration of applications using interactive image analysis, (4) Landsat products and land resources information systems, and (5) documentation. The demonstration project has been applied to Washington forestry, water inventory in southern Idaho, and monitoring of tansy ragwort in western Oregon.

  9. Detonation duct gas generator demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.; Othmer, P.; Rostafinski, W.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental demonstration is presented for the generation of detonation waves that move periodically across high speed channel flow; these waves can compress the outflow from a low pressure compressor, and thereby both reduce the compressor requirements associated with conventional gas turbines and enhance thermodynamic efficiency through isochoric energy addition. By generating transient transverse waves, rather than standing waves, shock-wave losses are reduced by an order of magnitude; the result is a Humphrey cycle augmenting the basic Brayton-cycle gas turbine. Attention is presently given to results from an experimental detonation duct.

  10. Environmentally conscious manufacturing integrated demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, D.E.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration was to show that several of the individually developed materials and processes to reduce hazardous materials and waste could be successfully used on a single assembly. A methodology was developed that could be used on any product to plan the approach to eliminating hazardous materials. Sample units of an existing design electronic unit were fabricated applying this methodology and substituting nonhazardous materials and processes. The results of this project show that total waste can be drastically reduced by at least an order of magnitude and hazardous material and waste can be essentially eliminated in the manufacture of this type of electronic devices.

  11. Syphilis intervention in pregnancy: Zambian demonstration project.

    PubMed Central

    Hira, S K; Bhat, G J; Chikamata, D M; Nkowane, B; Tembo, G; Perine, P L; Meheus, A

    1990-01-01

    Despite availability of simpler serologic tests for syphilis and near cure with penicillin, unacceptably high prevalence of infectious maternal syphilis exist in many developing countries, including Zambia. It is the foremost risk factor for mid-trimester abortions, stillbirths, prematurity and morbidity and mortality among infants born with congenital syphilis in Zambia. An intervention project was conducted in Lusaka aimed at demonstrating the effectiveness of new health education methods and prenatal screening for syphilis in reducing the adverse outcomes during pregnancy. During pre-intervention phase, approximately 150 consecutive pregnant women from each of the three study and the three control centres were recruited when they presented in labour at the University Teaching Hospital. The intervention phase lasted for one year at the three study centres during which new methods of health education were introduced to improve early attendances during pregnancy. Also, on-site syphilis screening was performed twice during pregnancy and seroreactive women, and in many cases their sexual partners, were treated by the existing prenatal clinic staff. During the post-intervention phase the steps of pre-intervention phase were repeated to evaluate the impact of intervention. Overall, 8.0% of women were confirmed seroreactive for syphilis; there was no difference between the study and the control centres (p greater than 0.05). Fifty seven percent (132/230) of syphilitic pregnancies ended with an adverse outcome, that is, abortion (RR 5.0), stillbirth (RR 3.6), prematurity (RR 2.6) and low birth weight (RR 7.8). The overall risk of adverse outcomes due to syphilis was 8.29 (95% confidence interval 6.53, 10.53). The new methods of health education were effective and the percentage of women who had their first prenatal visit under 16 weeks of gestation improved from 9.4 to 42.5. Although screening and treatment during intervention was suboptimal, the adverse outcomes

  12. Understanding Statistics Using Computer Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses programs that clarify some statistical ideas often discussed yet poorly understood by students. The programs adopt the approach of demonstrating what is happening, rather than using the computer to do the work for the students (and hide the understanding). The programs demonstrate normal probability plots, overfitting of…

  13. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  14. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  15. A Comprehensive General Chemistry Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeder, Ryan D.; Jeffery, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of a comprehensive demonstration suitable for a high school or first-year undergraduate introductory chemistry class. The demonstration involves placing a burning candle in a container adjacent to a beaker containing a basic solution with indicator. After adding a lid, the candle will extinguish and the produced…

  16. A Demonstration on Every Exam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that inclusion of demonstrations on examinations increases students' ability to observe carefully the physical world around them, translate from observation in terms of models, and make quantitative estimates and physicist-type "back-of-the-envelope" calculations. Presents demonstration ideas covering the following topics: mechanics,…

  17. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  18. A Demonstration of Sample Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Mark D.; Brumbach, Stephen B.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of sample segregation, which is simple, and visually compelling illustrates the importance of sample handling for students studying analytical chemistry and environmental chemistry. The mixture used in this demonstration has two components, which have big particle size, and different colors, which makes the segregation graphic.

  19. Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2002-01-01

    Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

  20. Rocket Ignition Demonstrations Using Silane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, Sibtosh; Santoro, Robert; Watkins, William B.; Kincaid, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Rocket ignition demonstration tests using silane were performed at the Penn State Combustion Research Laboratory. A heat sink combustor with one injection element was used with gaseous propellants. Mixtures of silane and hydrogen were used as fuel, and oxygen was used as oxidizer. Reliable ignition was demonstrated using fuel lead and and a swirl injection element.

  1. Three Mechanical Demonstrations of Chaos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations showing chaotic motion, which makes long-term prediction impossible. Discusses the apparatus for the demonstrations and procedures for illustrating chaotic motion of pendulum, balls rolling in a double potential well, and a ball rolling on a balanced beam. (YP)

  2. Teaching and Demonstrating Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, John; Fernald, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Discusses classroom demonstrations of classical conditioning and notes tendencies to misrepresent Pavlov's procedures. Describes the design and construction of the conditioner that is used for demonstrating classical conditioning. Relates how students experience conditioning, generalization, extinction, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery.…

  3. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration: Selection of potential demonstration locations

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The first step towards identifying primary Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration locations is the selection of potential demonstration sites within the Subsurface Disposal Area. The sites selected are Pits 4, 5, 6, and 9, containing transuranic waste of Rocky Flats origin, the Acid Pit, and Pad A. The criteria and methodology for selection of these sites, as well as a description of the wastes present in each area, are included in this report. At a later date, technology-specific demonstration locations will be selected from these six potential sites. The selected locations will be used as necessary to demonstrate technologies whose potential abilities may be optimal on waste forms present at these identified locations.

  4. Reliability prediction for the SLOWPOKE demonstration reactor building heating demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, D.J. ); Cole, D.; Bennett, L.G.I.

    1991-01-01

    The SLOWPOKE demonstration reactor (SDR) is a new prototype heating reactor, nominally 2 MW(thermal), developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited at the Whiteshell Laboratories. This project is part of a program to demonstrate the concept of supplying low-grade heat up to 10 MW(thermal) to localized district heating grids from an unpressurized nuclear heating source using a low-enriched, CANDU-type fuel. Reactor thermal-hydraulic and core physics commissioning experiments and analysis up to 1.2 MW(thermal) were completed in 1990. This report presents that part of the safety and reliability analysis program that provided reliability predictions for the associated building heating demonstration (BHD) systems. Proposed upgrades to test the 10-MW(thermal) core design have delayed the long-term heat demonstration commissioning tests.

  5. Tested Demonstrations. A Chemiluminescence Demonstration - Oxalyl Chloride Oxidation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilber, George L., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive, effective chemiluminescence demonstration requires minimal preparation. It is based on the oxidation of oxalyl chloride by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of an appropriate fluorescent sensitizer. The reaction mechanism is not completely understood. (BB)

  6. Tested Demonstrations: A Simple Demonstration of Reversible Oxygenation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kildahl, Nicholas K.

    1983-01-01

    Materials needed, reaction involved, and potential hazards are provided for a demonstration of reversible oxygenation. Also discusses the importance of the reaction in biological systems, focusing on hemoglobin/myoglobin and their function in mammals. (JM)

  7. Deep Space Station (DSS-13) automation demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, D. S.; Lorden, G.

    1980-01-01

    The data base collected during a six month demonstration of an automated Deep Space Station (DSS 13) run unattended and remotely controlled is summarized. During this period, DSS 13 received spacecraft telemetry data from Voyager, Pioneers 10 and 11, and Helios projects. Corrective and preventive maintenance are reported by subsystem including the traditional subsystems and those subsystems added for the automation demonstration. Operations and maintenance data for a comparable manned Deep Space Station (DSS 11) are also presented for comparison. The data suggests that unattended operations may reduce maintenance manhours in addition to reducing operator manhours. Corrective maintenance for the unmanned station was about one third of the manned station, and preventive maintenance was about one half.

  8. Global availability of cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Turk-Adawi, Karam; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Grace, Sherry L

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most-prevalent noncommunicable disease and leading cause of death globally. Over 80% of deaths from CVD occur in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). To limit the socioeconomic impact of CVD, a comprehensive approach to health care is needed. Cardiac rehabilitation delivers a cost-effective and structured exercise, education, and risk reduction programme, which can reduce mortality by up to 25% in addition to improving a patient's functional capacity and lowering rehospitalization rates. Despite these benefits and recommendations in clinical practice guidelines, cardiac rehabilitation programmes are grossly under-used compared with revascularization or medical therapy for patients with CVD. Worldwide, only 38.8% of countries have cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Specifically, 68.0% of high-income and 23% of LMICs (8.3% for low-income and 28.2% for middle-income countries) offer cardiac rehabilitation programmes to patients with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation density estimates range from one programme per 0.1 to 6.4 million inhabitants. Multilevel strategies to augment cardiac rehabilitation capacity and availability at national and international levels, such as supportive public health policies, systematic referral strategies, and alternative models of delivery are needed. PMID:25027487

  9. Solar energy parking canopy demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Cylwik, Joe; David, Lawrence

    2015-09-24

    The goal of this pilot/demonstration program is to measure the viability of using solar photovoltaic (PV) technology at three locations in a mountain community environment given the harsh weather conditions. An additional goal is to reduce long-term operational costs, minimize green house gas emissions, lower the dependency on energy produced from fossil fuels, and improve the working environment and health of city employees and residents.

  10. Commercial Demonstration of Wood Recovery, Recycling, and Value Adding Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Auburn Machinery, Inc.

    2004-07-15

    This commercial demonstration project demonstrated the technical feasibility of converting low-value, underutilized and waste stream solid wood fiber material into higher valued products. With a growing need to increase product/production yield and reduce waste in most sawmills, few recovery operations and practically no data existed to support the viability of recovery operations. Prior to our efforts, most all in the forest products industry believed that recovery was difficult, extremely labor intensive, not cost effective, and that recovered products had low value and were difficult to sell. This project provided an opportunity for many within the industry to see through demonstration that converting waste stream material into higher valued products does in fact offer a solution. Our work, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, throughout the project aimed to demonstrate a reasonable approach to reducing the millions of recoverable solid wood fiber tons that are annually treated as and converted into low value chips, mulch and fuel. Consequently sawmills continue to suffer from reduced availability of forest resources, higher raw material costs, growing waste disposal problems, increased global competition, and more pressure to operate in an Environmentally Friendly manner. It is our belief (based upon the experience of this project) that the successful mainstreaming of the recovery concept would assist in alleviating this burden as well as provide for a realistically achievable economic benefit to those who would seriously pursue the concept and tap into the rapidly growing ''GREEN'' building marketplace. Ultimately, with participation and aggressive pursuit of the recovery concept, the public would benefit in that: (1) Landfill/disposal waste volume could be reduced adding greater life to existing municipal landfill sites thereby minimizing the need to prematurely license and open added facilities. Also, there would be a cost avoidance benefit associated

  11. Offsite demonstrations for MWLID technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C.; Gruebel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The goal of the Offsite Demonstration Project for Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID)-developed environmental site characterization and remediation technologies is to facilitate the transfer, use, and commercialization of these technologies to the public and private sector. The meet this goal, the project identified environmental restoration needs of mixed waste and/or hazardous waste landfill owners (Native American, municipal, DOE, and DoD); documenting potential demonstration sites and the contaminants present at each site; assessing the environmental regulations that would effect demonstration activities; and evaluating site suitability for demonstrating MWLID technologies at the tribal and municipal sites identified. Eighteen landfill sites within a 40.2-km radius of Sandia National Laboratories are listed on the CERCLIS Site/Event Listing for the state of New Mexico. Seventeen are not located within DOE or DoD facilities and are potential offsite MWLID technology demonstration sites. Two of the seventeen CERCLIS sites, one on Native American land and one on municipal land, were evaluated and identified as potential candidates for off-site demonstrations of MWLID-developed technologies. Contaminants potentially present on site include chromium waste, household/commercial hazardous waste, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum products. MWLID characterization technologies applicable to these sites include Magnetometer Towed Array, Cross-borehole Electromagnetic Imaging, SitePlanner {trademark}/PLUME, Hybrid Directional Drilling, Seamist{trademark}/Vadose Zone Monitoring, Stripping Analyses, and x-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Heavy Metals.

  12. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  13. Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Optical Communications and Sensor Demonstration (OCSD) project addresses two cross-cutting capabilities of value to many future small spacecraft missions: high-speed optical transmission of data and small spacecraft proximity operations. Optical data rates demonstrated by OCSD are expected to be 200 megabits persecond (Mbs) or higher, a factor of 100 increase over current high-end CubeSat communications systems. The proximity sensors developed for this mission enable relative position measurement between two small satellites - a capability not previously demonstrated.

  14. Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmoyer, Allan

    2006-01-01

    U.S. space policy directs pursuit of commercial opportunities for providing transportation and other services low Earth orbit and beyond. COTS Project established to implement policy. COTS strategy: Phase 1) Assist industry with system development/demonstrations (COTS Demos); Phase 2) Procure commercial services for ISS logistics support. COTS Demonstrations competition completed in 10 months. Two industry partners selected for funded Space Act Agreements: 1) SpaceX & Rocketplane-Kistler; and 2) Unfunded Space Act Agreements in work with other competitors. COTS budget of $500 M thru 2010, with pay for performance milestone approach. Cargo flight demonstrations planned for 2008 and 2009: Crew flight demonstration options for 2011-2012. Commercial cargo transportation services potentially available as early as 2009-2010. Successful COTS partners may open new space markets and provide reliable, cost effective cargo and crew transportation services, a new era for commercial space.

  15. Status of ERA Airframe Technology Demonstrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela; Jegley, Dawn; Rigney, Tom

    2015-01-01

    NASA has created the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project to explore and document the feasibility, benefits and technical risk of advanced vehicle configurations and enabling technologies that will reduce the impact of aviation on the environment. A critical aspect of this pursuit is the development of a lighter, more robust airframe that will enable the introduction of unconventional aircraft configurations that have higher lift-to-drag ratios, reduced drag, and lower community noise. The Airframe Technology subproject contains two elements. Under the Damage Arresting Composite Demonstration an advanced material system is being explored which will lead to lighter airframes that are more structural efficient than the composites used in aircraft today. Under the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flight Experiment a new concept of a flexible wing trailing edge is being evaluated which will reduce weight and improve aerodynamic performance. This presentation will describe the development these two airframe technologies.

  16. The Savannah River integrated demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Leakage of solvents (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) from an underground process sewer line has contaminated soils and underlying groundwaters at the Savannah River facility of the Department of Energy (DOE). This site was chosen for an experimental project, conducted as part of DOE`s integrated demonstrated program for environmental remediation. The project demonstrated a new in situ remediation technology that has the potential to reduce clean-up costs and time. Known as in-situ air stripping, the new technology involves injection of air through underground horizontal wells to strip groundwater and soils of volatile organics; the resulting diffused air is collected, and the hazardous chemicals are removed to the surface for further processing. This brochure briefly describes the use of the integrated demonstration approach, and in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells as a viable new remediation method.

  17. The Savannah River integrated demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Leakage of solvents (trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene) from an underground process sewer line has contaminated soils and underlying groundwaters at the Savannah River facility of the Department of Energy (DOE). This site was chosen for an experimental project, conducted as part of DOE's integrated demonstrated program for environmental remediation. The project demonstrated a new in situ remediation technology that has the potential to reduce clean-up costs and time. Known as in-situ air stripping, the new technology involves injection of air through underground horizontal wells to strip groundwater and soils of volatile organics; the resulting diffused air is collected, and the hazardous chemicals are removed to the surface for further processing. This brochure briefly describes the use of the integrated demonstration approach, and in-situ air stripping with horizontal wells as a viable new remediation method.

  18. Milliken Station demonstration project FGD retrofit update

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.E.; Elia, G.G.

    1994-12-31

    The Milliken Clean Coal Demonstration Project is one of the nine Clean Coal Projects that were selected for funding in Round 4 of the US DOE`s Clean Coal Demonstration Program. The Project will provide full-scale demonstration of a combination of innovative emission-reducing technologies and plant upgrades for the control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions from a coal-fired steam generator without a significant loss of station efficiency. The overall Project goals are: 98% SO{sub 2} removal efficiency using limestone while burning high sulfur coal; up to 70% NO{sub x} reduction using the NOXOUT selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology in conjunction with combustion modifications; minimization of solid wastes by producing marketable by-products including commercial grade gypsum, calcium chloride and fly ash; zero wastewater discharge; and maintaining station efficiency by using a high efficiency heat pipe air heater system and a low power consuming scrubber system.

  19. Demonstrating Forces between Parallel Wires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Blane

    2000-01-01

    Describes a physics demonstration that dramatically illustrates the mutual repulsion (attraction) between parallel conductors using insulated copper wire, wooden dowels, a high direct current power supply, electrical tape, and an overhead projector. (WRM)

  20. CT Demonstration of Caput Medusae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Edward C.; Vilensky, Joel A.

    2009-01-01

    Maximum intensity and volume rendered CT displays of caput medusae are provided to demonstrate both the anatomy and physiology of this portosystemic shunt associated with portal hypertension. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Classroom Demonstrations of Auditory Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haws, LaDawn; Oppy, Brian J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents activities to help students gain understanding about auditory perception. Describes demonstrations that cover topics, such as sound localization, wave cancellation, frequency/pitch variation, and the influence of media on sound propagation. (CMK)

  2. Demonstration of the Fenton Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luehrs, Dean C.; Roher, Alex E.

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates the Fenton reaction, which is carried out using the Fenton reagent that is used for groundwater and soil remediation. The Fenton reaction can be implicated in DNA damage, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease and ageing in general.

  3. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.

    1990-01-01

    Classroom demonstrations of selected mechanical properties of polymers are described that can be used to make quantitative measurements. Stiffness, strength, and extensibility are mechanical properties used to distinguish one polymer from another. (KR)

  4. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE PAGES

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-08-06

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. Lastly, the current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  5. Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villa, Marco; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The CubeSat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) project will demonstrate rendezvous, proximity operations and docking (RPOD) using two 3-unit (3U) CubeSats. Each CubeSat is a satellite with the dimensions 4 inches x 4 inches x 13 inches (10 centimeters x 10 centimeters x 33 centimeters) and weighing approximately 11 pounds (5 kilograms). This flight demonstration will validate and characterize many new miniature low-power proximity operations technologies applicable to future missions. This mission will advance the state of the art in nanosatellite attitude determination,navigation and control systems, in addition to demonstrating relative navigation capabilities.The two CPOD satellites are scheduled to be launched together to low-Earth orbit no earlier than Dec. 1, 2015.

  6. Rubens Flame-Tube Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ficken, George W.; Stephenson, Francis C.

    1979-01-01

    Investigates and explains the phenomenon associated with Rubens flame-tube demonstration, specifically the persistance of flames at regular intervals along the tube for few minutes after the gas is turned off. (GA)

  7. Teacher Training: The Demonstration Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Alan C.

    1977-01-01

    A teacher training technique is discussed involving a demonstration class given by a local teacher and observed by prospective teachers. After the class a discussion is held analyzing lesson content and teaching techniques. (CHK)

  8. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-08-06

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. Lastly, the current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  9. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Buuck, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Detwiler, Jason A.; Efremenko, Yuri; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Jasinski, B. R.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; MacMullin, J.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Schmitt, C.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Tedeschi, D.; Timkin, V.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-09

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing the Majorana Demonstrator, an ultra-low background, 40-kg modular high purity Ge detector array to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double-beta decay searches that will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted hierarchy region, a major goal of the Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. The current status of the Demonstrator is discussed, as are plans for its completion.

  10. Novel Third-Law Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, William

    1995-01-01

    Presents an easy method to demonstrate Third-Law interactions using identical button magnets sliding along a smooth (nonmagnetic) knitting needle. Explains the gravitational and magnetic interactions in the case of horizontal and vertical positions of the needle. (JRH)

  11. Slant Borehole Demonstration Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER, M.G.

    2000-07-19

    This report provides a summary of the demonstration project for development of a slant borehole to retrieve soil samples from beneath the SX-108 single-shell tank. It provides a summary of the findings from the demonstration activities and recommendations for tool selection and methods to deploy into the SX Tank Farm. Daily work activities were recorded on Drilling and Sampling Daily Work Record Reports. The work described in this document was performed during March and April 2000.

  12. Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westley, Deborah; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Edison Demonstration of Smallsat Networks (EDSN) mission is to demonstrate interactive satellite swarms capable of collecting, exchanging and transmitting multi-point scientific measurements. Satellite swarms enable a wide array of scientific, commercial and academic research not achievable with a single satellite. The EDSN satellites are scheduled to be launched into space as secondary payloads on the first flight of the Super Strypi launch vehicle no earlier than Oct. 29, 2015.

  13. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is part of RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). RESOLVE is an ISRU ground demonstration: (1) A rover to explore a permanently shadowed crater at the south or north pole of the Moon (2) Drill core samples down to 1 meter (3) Heat the core samples to 150C (4) Analyze gases and capture water and/or hydrogen evolved (5) Use hydrogen reduction to extract oxygen from regolith

  14. Yo-Yo Pull Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2013-01-01

    A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in…

  15. Wave rotor demonstrator engine assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Philip H.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the program was to determine a wave rotor demonstrator engine concept using the Allison 250 series engine. The results of the NASA LERC wave rotor effort were used as a basis for the wave rotor design. A wave rotor topped gas turbine engine was identified which incorporates five basic requirements of a successful demonstrator engine. Predicted performance maps of the wave rotor cycle were used along with maps of existing gas turbine hardware in a design point study. The effects of wave rotor topping on the engine cycle and the subsequent need to rematch compressor and turbine sections in the topped engine were addressed. Comparison of performance of the resulting engine is made on the basis of wave rotor topped engine versus an appropriate baseline engine using common shaft compressor hardware. The topped engine design clearly demonstrates an impressive improvement in shaft horsepower (+11.4%) and SFC (-22%). Off design part power engine performance for the wave rotor topped engine was similarly improved including that at engine idle conditions. Operation of the engine at off design was closely examined with wave rotor operation at less than design burner outlet temperatures and rotor speeds. Challenges identified in the development of a demonstrator engine are discussed. A preliminary design was made of the demonstrator engine including wave rotor to engine transition ducts. Program cost and schedule for a wave rotor demonstrator engine fabrication and test program were developed.

  16. Insect endosymbiont proliferation is limited by lipid availability

    PubMed Central

    Herren, Jeremy K; Paredes, Juan C; Schüpfer, Fanny; Arafah, Karim; Bulet, Philippe; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma poulsonii is a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont that is naturally associated with Drosophila melanogaster. S. poulsonii resides extracellularly in the hemolymph, where it must acquire metabolites to sustain proliferation. In this study, we find that Spiroplasma proliferation specifically depletes host hemolymph diacylglyceride, the major lipid class transported by the lipoprotein, Lpp. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Lpp expression, which reduces the amount of circulating lipids, inhibits Spiroplasma proliferation demonstrating that bacterial proliferation requires hemolymph-lipids. Altogether, our study shows that an insect endosymbiont acquires specific lipidic metabolites from the transport lipoproteins in the hemolymph of its host. In addition, we show that the proliferation of this endosymbiont is limited by the availability of hemolymph lipids. This feature could limit endosymbiont over-proliferation under conditions of host nutrient limitation as lipid availability is strongly influenced by the nutritional state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02964.001 PMID:25027439

  17. Insect endosymbiont proliferation is limited by lipid availability.

    PubMed

    Herren, Jeremy K; Paredes, Juan C; Schüpfer, Fanny; Arafah, Karim; Bulet, Philippe; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma poulsonii is a maternally transmitted bacterial endosymbiont that is naturally associated with Drosophila melanogaster. S. poulsonii resides extracellularly in the hemolymph, where it must acquire metabolites to sustain proliferation. In this study, we find that Spiroplasma proliferation specifically depletes host hemolymph diacylglyceride, the major lipid class transported by the lipoprotein, Lpp. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Lpp expression, which reduces the amount of circulating lipids, inhibits Spiroplasma proliferation demonstrating that bacterial proliferation requires hemolymph-lipids. Altogether, our study shows that an insect endosymbiont acquires specific lipidic metabolites from the transport lipoproteins in the hemolymph of its host. In addition, we show that the proliferation of this endosymbiont is limited by the availability of hemolymph lipids. This feature could limit endosymbiont over-proliferation under conditions of host nutrient limitation as lipid availability is strongly influenced by the nutritional state. PMID:25027439

  18. Caterpillar MorElectric DOE Idle Reduction Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    John Bernardi

    2007-09-30

    This project titled 'Demonstration of the New MorElectric{trademark} Technology as an Idle Reduction Solution' is one of four demonstration projects awarded by the US Department of Energy in 2002. The goal of these demonstration and evaluation projects was to gather objective in-use information on the performance of available idle reduction technologies by characterizing the cost; fuel, maintenance, and engine life savings; payback; and user impressions of various systems and techniques. In brief, the Caterpillar Inc. project involved applying electrically driven accessories for cab comfort during engine-off stops and for reducing fuel consumption during on-highway operation. Caterpillar had equipped and operated five new trucks with the technology in conjunction with International Truck and Engine Corporation and COX Transfer. The most significant result of the project was a demonstrated average idle reduction of 13.8% for the 5 truck MEI fleet over the control fleet. It should be noted that the control fleet trucks were also equipped with an idle reduction device that would start and stop the main engine automatically in order to maintain cab temperature. The control fleet idle usage would have been reduced by 3858 hours over the 2 year period with the MEI system installed, or approximately 2315 gallons of fuel less (calculations assume a fuel consumption of 0.6 gallons per hour for the 13 liter engine at idle). The fuel saved will be significantly larger for higher displacement engines without idle reduction equipment such as the engine auto start/stop device used by COX Transfer. It is common for engines to consume 1.0 gallons per hour which would increase the fuel savings to approximately 1260 gallons per truck per year of typical idling (1800 hours idle/yr).

  19. Favorite Demonstrations: A Macroscopic Demonstration of a Microscopic Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellen, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Finding ways to demonstrate microscopic phenomena and contending with life science students' lack of interest in physical principles are two problems in laboratory courses. Describes a clinical laboratory test for parasite infection that can be used to effectively solve both of them. (RT)

  20. Demonstration Extension: Copper-to-Silver-to-Gold Penny Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    This demonstration, if done in the original way, can lead to fires in waste containers (sometimes in the middle of the night after the experiment has been conducted), because pyrophoric zinc is generated by suspending powdered zinc in hot sodium hydroxide. This is avoided by using hot ZnSO[subscript 4].

  1. Tested Demonstrations. Brownian Motion: A Classroom Demonstration and Student Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirksey, H. Graden; Jones, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Shows how video recordings of the Brownian motion of tiny particles may be made. Describes a classroom demonstration and cites a reported experiment designed to show the random nature of Brownian motion. Suggests a student experiment to discover the distance a tiny particle travels as a function of time. (MVL)

  2. Disassembling Iron Availability to Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Shaked, Yeala; Lis, Hagar

    2012-01-01

    The bioavailability of iron to microorganisms and its underlying mechanisms have far reaching repercussions to many natural systems and diverse fields of research, including ocean biogeochemistry, carbon cycling and climate, harmful algal blooms, soil and plant research, bioremediation, pathogenesis, and medicine. Within the framework of ocean sciences, short supply and restricted bioavailability of Fe to phytoplankton is thought to limit primary production and curtail atmospheric CO2 drawdown in vast ocean regions. Yet a clear-cut definition of bioavailability remains elusive, with elements of iron speciation and kinetics, phytoplankton physiology, light, temperature, and microbial interactions, to name a few, all intricately intertwined into this concept. Here, in a synthesis of published and new data, we attempt to disassemble the complex concept of iron bioavailability to phytoplankton by individually exploring some of its facets. We distinguish between the fundamentals of bioavailability – the acquisition of Fe-substrate by phytoplankton – and added levels of complexity involving interactions among organisms, iron, and ecosystem processes. We first examine how phytoplankton acquire free and organically bound iron, drawing attention to the pervasiveness of the reductive uptake pathway in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic autotrophs. Turning to acquisition rates, we propose to view the availability of various Fe-substrates to phytoplankton as a spectrum rather than an absolute “all or nothing.” We then demonstrate the use of uptake rate constants to make comparisons across different studies, organisms, Fe-compounds, and environments, and for gaging the contribution of various Fe-substrates to phytoplankton growth in situ. Last, we describe the influence of aquatic microorganisms on iron chemistry and fate by way of organic complexation and bio-mediated redox transformations and examine the bioavailability of these bio-modified Fe species. PMID:22529839

  3. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    program by other municipal agencies (as applicable). In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the following steps were performed: 1. Operation of a demonstration facility designed to receive 10,000 to 12,000 gallons of raw Trap Waste each day from private Trap Waste hauling companies. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Pacific Biodiesel Technologies (PBTech). The demonstration facility would also recover 300 gallons of Brown Grease per day from the raw Trap Waste. The recovered Brown Grease was expected to contain no more than 2% Moisture, Insolubles, and Unsaponifiables (MIU) combined. 2. Co-digestion of the side streams (generated during the recovery of 300 gallons of Brown Grease from the raw Trap Waste) with wastewater sludge in the WWTP's anaerobic digesters. The effects of the side streams on anaerobic digestion were quantified by comparison with baseline data. 3. Production of 240 gallons per day of ASTM D6751-S15 grade Biodiesel fuel via a Biodiesel conversion demonstration facility, with the use of recovered Brown Grease as a feedstock. The demonstration facility was designed and built by Blackgold Biofuels (BGB). Side streams from this process were also co-digested with wastewater sludge. Bench-scale anaerobic digestion testing was conducted on side streams from both demonstration facilities to determine potential toxicity and/or changes in biogas production in the WWTP anaerobic digester. While there is a lot of theoretical data available on the lab-scale production of Biodiesel from grease Trap Waste, this full-scale demonstration project was one of the first of its kind in the United States. The project's environmental impacts were expected to include: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by prevention of the release of methane at landfills. Although the combustion product of Biodiesel and Methane gas produced in the Anaerobic digester, Carbon Dioxide, is also a greenhouse gas; it is 20 times weaker for the same amount (per mole

  4. Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

  5. Demonstration of Active Combustion Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovett, Jeffrey A.; Teerlinck, Karen A.; Cohen, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this effort was to demonstrate active control of combustion instabilities in a direct-injection gas turbine combustor that accurately simulates engine operating conditions and reproduces an engine-type instability. This report documents the second phase of a two-phase effort. The first phase involved the analysis of an instability observed in a developmental aeroengine and the design of a single-nozzle test rig to replicate that phenomenon. This was successfully completed in 2001 and is documented in the Phase I report. This second phase was directed toward demonstration of active control strategies to mitigate this instability and thereby demonstrate the viability of active control for aircraft engine combustors. This involved development of high-speed actuator technology, testing and analysis of how the actuation system was integrated with the combustion system, control algorithm development, and demonstration testing in the single-nozzle test rig. A 30 percent reduction in the amplitude of the high-frequency (570 Hz) instability was achieved using actuation systems and control algorithms developed within this effort. Even larger reductions were shown with a low-frequency (270 Hz) instability. This represents a unique achievement in the development and practical demonstration of active combustion control systems for gas turbine applications.

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  7. Status of the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, C.; Buuck, M.; Detwiler, J. A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A. W.; Chan, Y.-D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A. W. P.; Arnquist, I. J.; Hoppe, E. W.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Orrell, J. L.; Avignone, F. T.; Baldenegro-Barrera, C. X.; Bertrand, F. E.; and others

    2015-10-28

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, modular, HPGe detector array with a mass of 44-kg (29 kg {sup 76}Ge and 15 kg {sup nat}Ge) to search for neutrinoless double beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. The next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based neutrinoless double beta decay searches will probe the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is envisioned to demonstrate a path forward to achieve a background rate at or below 1 count/tonne/year in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value of 2039 keV. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR follows a modular implementation to be easily scalable to the next generation experiment. First, the prototype module was assembled; it has been continuously taking data from July 2014 to June 2015. Second, Module 1 with more than half of the total enriched detectors and some natural detectors has been assembled and it is being commissioned. Finally, the assembly of Module 2, which will complete MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, is already in progress.

  8. Apollo 14 composite casting demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, I. C., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the demonstration was to show that mixtures of materials of different specific gravities would remain stable in the liquid state and during freezing in low g and not segregate as they do on earth. An inflight demonstration was performed on the Apollo 14 mission during the translunar and and transearth coast periods. The apparatus consisted of an electrical heater, a heat sink device for cooling, and sealed metal capsules containing matrix materials having a low-melting point and dispersants. The evaluation of the demonstration samples was accomplished by comparing space processed (flight) samples with (control) samples processed on the ground under otherwise similar conditions. In the low q environment of space flight the dispersions of particles, fibers, and gases in a liquid metal matrix were maintained during solidification. Dispersions of normally immiscible liquids were also maintained during solidification.

  9. Report on modular hydropower demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, F.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes an Energy Authority project to demonstrate the use of modular small hydropower systems at two sites. The project demonstrated that 'off-the-shelf' components can be used to construct a functionally reliable, cost-effective hydropower system at a significant savings over custom-designed systems. A key feature of the modular system is the replacement of the conventional hydroelectric turbine with a pump operated in reverse. Also, the construction of a water-intake system in the dam is replaced with a siphon penstock. Further cost and time savings are gained from the use of a prefabricated powerhouse and automated control equipment. The project demonstrated that modular systems are an attractive option for sites with capacities from under 100 to 500 kilowatts. The modular concept is applicable at about 250 sites Statewide, with a combined capacity of up to 400 MW.

  10. Yo-yo Pull Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, William

    2013-03-01

    A popular demonstration involves placing a yo-yo on a level table and gently pulling the string horizontally when it is wrapped to come out below the center of the yo-yo's axis. Students are then asked to predict which way the yo-yo will move. A similar demonstration is performed with a tricycle by pulling forward on a pedal with the pedal down in its lowest position.2,3 As well as pulling the yo-yo horizontally, often the string is lifted until the angle it makes with the table causes no motion. This occurs when the line extended from the string intersects the point of contact of the yo-yo with the table.4 This paper describes an apparatus that extends these demonstrations to the situation where the force pulling the yo-yo is still horizontal yet is below the level of the table.

  11. Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohair, Mark A.; Eucker, Shelly S.; Eucker, Brad A.; Lewis, Tim

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Infrared Targeting System (IRTS) is to successfully demonstrate the mission performance that can be achieved in manned air-to-ground targeting applications utilizing a synergistic combination of state of the art active/passive infrared sensor and automatic target recognizer (ATR) technologies. The IRTS program is centered around a demonstration FLIR/Laser Radar/ATR (FLASHER). The FLASHER consists of a dual field of view (2 x 2 degree and 6 x 6 degree) second generation FLIR pixel mapped to a CO2 laser radar, with a FLIR ATR processor, a laser radar ATR processor, and a sensor fusion ATR processor. Following construction and laboratory testing of the IRTS, the system will be installed on a test aircraft and demonstrated in flight against realistic tactical, strategic, and special operations scenarios.

  12. Laithwaite's Heavy Spinning Disk Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2014-09-01

    In 1974, Professor Eric Laithwaite demonstrated an unusually heavy gyroscope at a Royal Institution lecture in London. The demonstration was televised and can be viewed on YouTube.1 A recent version of the same experiment, together with partial explanations, attracted two million YouTube views in the first few months.2 In both cases, the gyroscope consisted of a 40-lb (18-kg) spinning disk on the end of a 3-ft (0.91-m) long axle. The most remarkable feature of the demonstration was that Laithwaite was able to lift the disk over his head with one hand, holding onto the far end of the axle. The impression was given that the 40-lb disk was almost weightless, or "as light as a feather" according to Laithwaite.

  13. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  14. TRUEX hot demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, D.B.; Leonard, R.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Gay, E.C.; Kalina, D.G.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1990-04-01

    In FY 1987, a program was initiated to demonstrate technology for recovering transuranic (TRU) elements from defense wastes. This hot demonstration was to be carried out with solution from the dissolution of irradiated fuels. This recovery would be accomplished with both PUREX and TRUEX solvent extraction processes. Work planned for this program included preparation of a shielded-cell facility for the receipt and storage of spent fuel from commercial power reactors, dissolution of this fuel, operation of a PUREX process to produce specific feeds for the TRUEX process, operation of a TRUEX process to remove residual actinide elements from PUREX process raffinates, and processing and disposal of waste and product streams. This report documents the work completed in planning and starting up this program. It is meant to serve as a guide for anyone planning similar demonstrations of TRUEX or other solvent extraction processing in a shielded-cell facility.

  15. SECURES: Austin, Texas demonstration results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Glynn; Shaw, Scott; Scharf, Peter; Stellingworth, Bob

    2003-09-01

    The Law Enforcement technology development community has a growing interest in the technologies associated with gunshot detection and localization. These interests revolve around community-oriented policing. Technologies of interest include those associated with muzzle blast and bullet shockwave detection and the inter-netting of these acoustic sensors with electro-optic sensors. To date, no one sensor technology has proven totally effective for a complete solution. PSI has a muzzle blast detection and localization product which is wireless, highly mobile and reconfigurable, with a user-friendly laptop processor and display unit, which completed a one-year demonstration in Austin, Texas on July 6, 2002. This demonstration was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice and in cooperation with the Austin Police Department. This paper will discuss the details of the demonstrations, provide a summarized evaluation, elucidate the lessons learned, make recommendations for future deployments and discuss the developmental directions indicated for the future.

  16. Reducing disinfectant wastage.

    PubMed

    Kaye, S B; Graham, R; McCarthy, K; Green, J R; Damjanovic, V; Austin, M

    1991-01-01

    In order to lower departmental costs in an ophthalmological outpatient department by reducing wastage, the stability of available chlorine at levels of 280 ppm and 560 ppm in litre solutions of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was investigated over a three-week period. There was no significant decay in available chlorine at these levels in solutions kept at 20 degrees C. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate may be prepared on a weekly instead of a daily basis with an annual saving of 1200 pounds to 1400 pounds. PMID:2060659

  17. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

  18. Reliability and availability requirements analysis for DEMO: fuel cycle system

    SciTech Connect

    Pinna, T.; Borgognoni, F.

    2015-03-15

    The Demonstration Power Plant (DEMO) will be a fusion reactor prototype designed to demonstrate the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. Two of the key elements of the engineering development of the DEMO reactor are the definitions of reliability and availability requirements (or targets). The availability target for a hypothesized Fuel Cycle has been analysed as a test case. The analysis has been done on the basis of the experience gained in operating existing tokamak fusion reactors and developing the ITER design. Plant Breakdown Structure (PBS) and Functional Breakdown Structure (FBS) related to the DEMO Fuel Cycle and correlations between PBS and FBS have been identified. At first, a set of availability targets has been allocated to the various systems on the basis of their operating, protection and safety functions. 75% and 85% of availability has been allocated to the operating functions of fuelling system and tritium plant respectively. 99% of availability has been allocated to the overall systems in executing their safety functions. The chances of the systems to achieve the allocated targets have then been investigated through a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis and Reliability Block Diagram analysis. The following results have been obtained: 1) the target of 75% for the operations of the fuelling system looks reasonable, while the target of 85% for the operations of the whole tritium plant should be reduced to 80%, even though all the tritium plant systems can individually reach quite high availability targets, over 90% - 95%; 2) all the DEMO Fuel Cycle systems can reach the target of 99% in accomplishing their safety functions. (authors)

  19. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  20. RADON MITIGATION STUDIES: NASHVILLE DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation demonstration project involving 14 houses in the Nashville, TN, area with indoor radon levels of 5.6-47.6 pCi/L, using a variety of techniques, designed to be the most cost effective methods possible to implement, and yet adequa...

  1. Demonstrations with an "LCR" Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2011-01-01

    The "LCR" circuit is an important topic in the course of electricity and magnetism. Papers in this field consider mainly the forced oscillations and resonance. Our aim is to show how to demonstrate the free and self-excited oscillations in an "LCR" circuit. (Contains 4 figures.)

  2. Solar heating demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bonicatto, L.; Kozak, C.

    1980-01-01

    The demonstration involved a 4-panel solar collector mounted on the industrial arts building. A 120 gallon storage tank supplements a 66 gallon electric hot water heater which supplies hot water for 5 shop wash basins, girl's and boy's lavatories, and a pressure washer in the auto shop. The installation and educational uses of the system are described. (MHR)

  3. Weed Identification Field Training Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Edward C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews efforts undertaken in weed identification field training sessions for agriprofessionals in South Carolina. Data over a four year period (1980-1983) revealed that participants showed significant improvement in their ability to identify weeds. Reaffirms the value of the field demonstration technique. (ML)

  4. Rotating Cylinder Treatment System Demonstration

    EPA Science Inventory

    In August 2008, a rotating cylinder treatment system (RCTSTM) demonstration was conducted near Gladstone, CO. The RCTSTM is a novel technology developed to replace the aeration/oxidation and mixing components of a conventional lime precipitation treatment s...

  5. Diffraction Plates for Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Richard B.

    1969-01-01

    Describes the computer generation of random and regular arrays of apertures on photographic film and their applications for classroom demonstrations of the Fraunhofer patterns produced by simple and complex apertures, Babinet's principle, resolution according to the Rayleigh criterion, and many other aspects of diffraction. (LC)

  6. A Demonstration of Simultaneous Electrochemiluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Sotomayor-Martinez Barranco, Biaani; Torres-Perez, Jonatan; Camacho-Zuniga, Claudia; Bohrmann-Linde, Claudia; Tausch, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Paired (simultaneous) electrochemical processes can increase energy savings in selected cases by using the reactions at both electrodes of an electrochemical cell to perform a desired process, as is the case in the commercially successful chlor-alkali process. In the demonstration described herein, simultaneous blue electrochemiluminescence (ECL)…

  7. Demonstrations To Save the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tom; Dias, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents two environmental modeling activities, biosphere bubbles and a crystal ball of population growth, along with a related online exercise and explains proven teaching methods that make demonstrations less teacher-centered and more engaging for groups of collaborating students. (KHR)

  8. Demonstrating Fermat's principle in optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either maximum or minimum geometrical lengths.

  9. Phenolphthalein-Pink Tornado Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prall, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The titration of HCl with NaOH has traditionally been used to introduce beginning chemistry students to the concepts of acid-base chemistry and stoichiometry. The demonstration described in this article utilizes this reaction as a means of providing students an opportunity to observe the dynamic motion associated with a swirling vortex and its…

  10. International Space Station technology demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the capability to test and demonstrate, and otherwise assist in the development and validation, of a wide range of advanced technologies. Technology tests and demonstrations for advanced communication systems, closed-loop environmental control systems, advanced power storage and generation systems, advanced electric and electromagnetic propulsion systems, and others are being assessed for inclusion in an ISS Pre-Planned Program Improvement (P3I), Technology/Improvement Roadmap. The P3I roadmap is an integrated set of technology and improvement requirements for: (1) ISS subsystem upgrades and improvements (addressing maintenance, logistics, sustainability, and enhancement functions), (2) payload hardware technology infusion, (3) ISS/Exploration technology development and tests (dual use/benefits), and (4) Engineering Research and Technology payloads. As examples of the International Space Station's technology testbed capabilities, implementation approaches for three types of propulsion technology demonstrations and research are described: (1) electric and electromagnetic propulsion technologies and systems (NASA Lewis Research Center), (2) technologies and sub-systems for a variable specific impulse (Isp), magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR), (Advanced Propulsion Lab, Sonny Carter Training Facility, Houston, Tx), and (3) candidates for innovative, deep space propulsion technology research and demonstrations (projections based on NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program, Propulsion Research and other R.&D activities.).

  11. Classroom Demonstrations of Polymer Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, F.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes several techniques to help students visualize the principles of polymer chemistry. Outlines demonstrations using simple materials (such as pop-it beads, thread, and wire) to illustrate the size of macromolecules, the composition of copolymers, and the concept of molecular mass. (TW)

  12. Demonstrating Fermat's Principle in Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleiov, Orr; Pupko, Ofir; Lipson, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate Fermat's principle in optics by a simple experiment using reflection from an arbitrarily shaped one-dimensional reflector. We investigated a range of possible light paths from a lamp to a fixed slit by reflection in a curved reflector and showed by direct measurement that the paths along which light is concentrated have either…

  13. Satellite Technology Demonstration; Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federation of Rocky Mountain States, Inc., Denver, CO.

    The goal of the Satellite Technology Demonstration project (STD) was to show the feasibility of a satellite-based media system for isolated, rural populations and to test and evaluate user acceptance and the cost of various delivery modes using a variety of materials. The STD amalgamated the resources of government, health, education, and…

  14. Demonstrating Sound Impulses in Pipes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymer, M. G.; Micklavzina, Stan

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple, direct method to demonstrate the effects of the boundary conditions on sound impulse reflections in pipes. A graphical display of the results can be made using a pipe, cork, small hammer, microphone, and fast recording electronics. Explains the principles involved. (LZ)

  15. Natural Hazard Demonstrations for Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents several demonstrations that have been developed or gathered from other sources in the general area of natural hazards (e.g. landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, wildfires, tsunamis, mass movements, asteroid impacts, etc.). There are many methods of teaching, but as university lecturers, particularly for large class sizes, we find ourselves too often presenting material to students by direct speaking, or some combination of blackboard/whiteboard/slide projector/digital projector. There are certainly a number of techniques to more actively involve students, so that teaching is not just `receiving of information', including breaking up students into small group discussions, encouraging students to actively participate in class through comments and questions, and/or some combination of hands-on activities and demonstrations. It is this latter which is concentrated on here. As a teaching tool, the students themselves became much more excited about what they are learning if use is made of 5--10 minute demonstrations, even if only peripherally related to the subject at hand. The resultant discussion with questions and comments by students keeps both the students and the lecturer (in this case the author) motivated and intrigued about the subjects being discussed. Days, weeks, and months later, the students remember these `demonstrations', but to set these up takes time, effort, and resources of equipment, although not necessarily a large amount of the latter. Several natural hazards demonstrations are presented here, most inexpensive, that have been used in front of large university classes and smaller `break-out groups', and which can also be adapted for secondary-school students.

  16. Demonstrator skill modulates observational aversive learning.

    PubMed

    Selbing, Ida; Lindström, Björn; Olsson, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Learning to avoid danger by observing others can be relatively safe, because it does not incur the potential costs of individual trial and error. However, information gained through social observation might be less reliable than information gained through individual experiences, underscoring the need to apply observational learning critically. In order for observational learning to be adaptive it should be modulated by the skill of the observed person, the demonstrator. To address this issue, we used a probabilistic two-choice task where participants learned to minimize the number of electric shocks through individual learning and by observing a demonstrator performing the same task. By manipulating the demonstrator's skill we varied how useful the observable information was; the demonstrator either learned the task quickly or did not learn it at all (random choices). To investigate the modulatory effect in detail, the task was performed under three conditions of available observable information; no observable information, observation of choices only, and observation of both the choices and their consequences. As predicted, our results showed that observable information can improve performance compared to individual learning, both when the demonstrator is skilled and unskilled; observation of consequences improved performance for both groups while observation of choices only improved performance for the group observing the skilled demonstrator. Reinforcement learning modeling showed that demonstrator skill modulated observational learning from the demonstrator's choices, but not their consequences, by increasing the degree of imitation over time for the group that observed a fast learner. Our results show that humans can adaptively modulate observational learning in response to the usefulness of observable information.

  17. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  18. Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability.

    PubMed

    Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Zeder, Christophe; Siriprapa, Pudsadee; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri

    2009-01-01

    Spices and herbs are extensively used in indigenous diets in tropical regions where prevalence of iron deficiency is still high. They are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are expected to inhibit iron absorption by forming iron complexes in the intestine, making dietary iron less available for absorption. The effects of six spices and herbs (chili pepper, garlic, 'Pak kyheng' (Thai leafy vegetable), shallot, tamarind, turmeric) and one mixture of spices (curry paste) on iron availability were determined by measuring the percentage dialyzable iron after addition of spices and herbs to a rice meal after simulated digestion. All tested spices and herbs contained from 0.5 to 33 mg polyphenol per meal and were potent inhibitors of iron availability (20-90%), reducing iron availability in a dose-dependent manner--with the exception of tamarind, which at 11 mg polyphenol per meal enhanced iron availability. Our findings demonstrate that culinary spices and herbs can play an important role in iron nutrition. PMID:18651292

  19. Geothermal demonstration: Zunil food dehydration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, O. ); Altseimer, J.; Thayer, G.R. ); Cooper, L. ); Caicedo, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1991-08-01

    A food dehydration facility was constructed near the town of Zunil, Guatemala, to demonstrate the use of geothermal energy for industrial applications. The facility, with some modifications to the design, was found to work quite satisfactorily. Tests using five different products were completed during the time geothermal energy was used in the plant. During the time the plant was not able to use geothermal energy, a temporary diesel-fueled boiler provided the energy to test dehydration on seven other crops available in this area. The system demonstrates that geothermal heat can be used successfully for dehydrating food products. Many other industrial applications of geothermal energy could be considered for Zunil since a considerable amount of moderate-temperature heat will become available when the planned geothermal electrical facility is constructed there. 6 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program: Program update 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (also referred to as the CCT Program) is a $6.9 billion cost-shared industry/government technology development effort. The program is to demonstrate a new generation of advanced coal-based technologies, with the most promising technologies being moved into the domestic and international marketplace. Technology has a vital role in ensuring that coal can continue to serve U.S. energy interests and enhance opportunities for economic growth and employment while meeting the national committment to a clean and healthy global environment. These technologies are being advanced through the CCT Program. The CCT Program supports three substantive national objectives: ensuring a sustainable environment through technology; enhancing energy efficiency and reliability; providing opportunities for economic growth and employment. The technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program reduce the emissions of sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, greenhouse gases, hazardous air pollutants, solid and liquid wastes, and other emissions resulting from coal use or conversion to other fuel forms. These emissions reductions are achieved with efficiencies greater than or equal to currently available technologies.