Science.gov

Sample records for demonstration soil characterization

  1. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Gill, V.R.; Lee, S.Y.; Morris, D.E.; Nickelson, M.D.; Perry, D.L.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  2. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of transuranic contaminated soils for uranium soil integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1994-10-01

    DOE has initiated the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) project. The objective of the USID project is to develop a remediation strategy that can be adopted for use at other DOE sites requiring remediation. Four major task groups within the USID project were formed, namely the Characterization Task Group (CTG), the Treatability Task Group (TTG), the Secondary Waste Treatment and Disposal Task Group (SWTDTG), and the Risk and Performance Assessment Task Group (RPATG). The CTG is responsible for determining the nature of the uranium contamination in both untreated and treated soil. The TTG is responsible for the selective removal of uranium from these soils in such a manner that the leaching does not seriously degrade the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generate a secondary waste form that is difficult to manage and/or dispose. The SWTDTG is responsible for developing strategies for the removal of uranium from all wastewaters generated by the TTGs. Finally the RPATG is responsible for developing the human health and environmental risk assessment of the untreated and treated soils. Because of the enormity of the work required to successfully remediate uranium-contaminated soils, an integrated approach was designed to avoid needless repetition of activities among the various participants in the USID project. Researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were assigned characterization and/or treatability duties in their areas of specialization. All tasks groups are involved in the integrated approach; however, the thrust of this report concentrates on the utility of the integrated approach among the various members of the CTG. This report illustrates the use of the integrated approach for the overall CTG and to provide the results generated specifically by the CTG or ORNL from FY1993 to the present.

  3. Enhanced microbial degradation of cadusafos in soils from potato monoculture: demonstration and characterization.

    PubMed

    Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Karanasios, Evangelos; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania

    2004-08-01

    Rapid degradation of cadusafos was evident in soils collected from previously-treated field sites from a potato monoculture area in northern Greece. The slower degradation of cadusafos observed in corresponding antibiotic-treated soils as well as in soils from an adjacent previously-untreated field demonstrated the microbial involvement in the rapid degradation of cadusafos in the soils from the previously-treated sites. Application of the non-specific antibacterial antibiotic chloramphenicol or of the Gram+ bacteria-inhibiting antibiotics penicillin + lyncomycin + vancomycin significantly inhibited the rapid biodegradation of cadusafos suggesting that soil bacteria and probably Gram+ bacteria are mainly responsible for the rapid biodegradation of cadusafos in the specific soil. Further experiments showed that the bacterial population of the cadusafos-adapted soil was also able to rapidly degrade the chemically related nematicide ethoprophos but not fenamiphos and oxamyl. This is the first report of the occurrence of enhanced biodegradation of cadusafos in potato fields. In addition, the finding of cross-enhancement between cadusafos and ethoprophos significantly reduces the number of available chemicals which could be alternated to prevent the development of enhanced biodegradation and thus intensifies the problem in potato monoculture areas like the one in northern Greece. PMID:15212898

  4. Field demonstration of technologies for characterization of uranium contamination in surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Lee, S.Y.; Perry, D.L.; Tidwell, V.C.; Schwing, J.; Nuhfer, K.R.; Weigand, G.

    1993-03-01

    One means of improving the efficiency of studies associated with CERCLA and RCRA investigations of. sites contaminated with uranium is to introduce new field screening technologies capable of quickly delineating the contamination distribution in surface soils. To this end, the performance of four technologies suitable for field measurement of uranium concentrations in soils was evaluated at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The four technologies tested were high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, wide-area beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). The performance of each technique was assessed by comparing of the results obtained in the field and by comparing the field measurements to data obtained from laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  5. Field demonstration of technologies for characterization of uranium contamination in surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C. ); Lee, S.Y. ); Perry, D.L. ); Tidwell, V.C. ); Schwing, J.; Nuhfer, K.R. . Fernald Environmental Management P

    1993-01-01

    One means of improving the efficiency of studies associated with CERCLA and RCRA investigations of. sites contaminated with uranium is to introduce new field screening technologies capable of quickly delineating the contamination distribution in surface soils. To this end, the performance of four technologies suitable for field measurement of uranium concentrations in soils was evaluated at the Fernald Environmental Management Project. The four technologies tested were high-resolution gamma spectroscopy, wide-area beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). The performance of each technique was assessed by comparing of the results obtained in the field and by comparing the field measurements to data obtained from laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  6. Contaminated soil stabilization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Sampson, A.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-10-01

    Long-term herbicide control along with a shotcrete cover was constructed at the Hanford Site in May 1991. The cover system allows for maintenance-free containment of contaminants by preventing wind and water transport of contaminants from the soil surface, preventing plant uptake of contaminants, and minimizing water infiltration through the soil column. The cover is composed of two parts: a commercial nonwoven geotextile material impregnated with trifluralin, and a >5-centimeter top cover of shotcrete containing polyethylene fibers. The herbicide-impregnated geotextile functions to prevent plant root growth into contaminated soil if any holes or cracks develop in the shotcrete layer. The herbicide component, trifluralin, is mixed into polymer nodules that degrade slowly over many years, thus releasing trifluralin slowly over time. The shotcrete topcover was sprayed using a sludge pump and air compressor to form a hard, impenetrable surface that prevents wind erosion and reduces water infiltration through the contaminated materials underneath. The benefits of the cover system are expected to last 20 to 30 years. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Uranium soils integrated demonstration, 1993 status

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhfer, K.

    1994-08-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), operated by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) for the DOE, was selected as the host site for the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration. The Uranium Soils ID was established to develop and demonstrate innovative remediation methods which address the cradle to grave elements involved in the remediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium. The participants in the ID are from FERMCO as well as over 15 other organizations from DOE, private industry and universities. Some of the organizations are technology providers while others are members of the technical support groups which were formed to provide technical reviews, recommendations and labor. The following six Technical Support Groups (TSGs) were formed to focus on the objective of the ID: Characterization, Excavation, Decontamination, Waste Treatment/Disposal, Regulatory, and Performance Assessment. This paper will discuss the technical achievements made to date in the program as well as the future program plans. The focus will be on the realtime analysis devices being developed and demonstrated, the approach used to characterize the physical/chemical properties of the uranium waste form in the soil and lab scale studies on methods to remove the uranium from the soil.

  8. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit.

  9. Soil spectral characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    The spectral characterization of soils is discussed with particular reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor as a quantitative measure of soil spectral properties, the role of soil color, soil parameters affecting soil reflectance, and field characteristics of soil reflectance. Comparisons between laboratory-measured soil spectra and Landsat MSS data have shown good agreement, especially in discriminating relative drainage conditions and organic matter levels in unvegetated soils. The capacity to measure both visible and infrared soil reflectance provides information on other soil characteristics and makes it possible to predict soil response to different management conditions. Field and laboratory soil spectral characterization helps define the extent to which intrinsic spectral information is available from soils as a consequence of their composition and field characteristics.

  10. Effective Classroom Demonstration of Soil Reinforcing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Wharton; Fox, Dennis James

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for demonstrating soil mass stabilization. Explains how this approach can assist students in understanding the various types of soil reinforcement techniques, their relative contribution to increased soil strength, and some of their limitations. A working drawing of the model and directives for construction are included. (ML)

  11. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL WASHING SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three component technologies of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS). Tested in the SITE demonstration were a Soil Washer (SW), and Aqueous Treatment System (ATS), and a Slurry Bio-Reactor (SBR). The Soil Washer operates on the principle that a significant fraction of the...

  12. Soil quality demonstrations for building economically and environmentally sustainable soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are widely used terms but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. A packet of a dozen demonstrations for the field and classroom was compiled and titled ‘Building a Sustainable Soil’. In this packet, new meth...

  13. Uranium in soils integrated demonstration: 1992 update

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhfer, K.R.

    1992-04-01

    The Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1991. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), previously known as the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), was selected as the host site for the Uranium in Soils ID. The principle focus in 1991 was to establish the management structure and objectives for the ID. In 1992 the technical activities in support of the ID goals were initiated. The emphasis this year has been on the development and demonstration of improved field screening technologies, obtaining chemical and physical data on the uranium waste forms in the host site soils, and initiating the development of uranium/soil separation technologies. This document will discuss the established TSG charters, accomplishments to date, current activities and future activities in support of the 1992 emphasis and the long term goals of the ID.

  14. Three Soil Quality Demonstrations for Educating Extension Clientele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoorman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in educating youth, Master Gardeners, and agricultural producers about soil quality. Three soil demonstrations show how soil organic matter increases water holding capacity, improves soil structure, and increases nutrient retention. Exercise one uses clay bricks and sponges to represent mineral soils and soil organic…

  15. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    A recent Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study identified 59 waste sites at 14 DOE facilities across the nation that exhibit radionuclide contamination in excess of established limits. The rapid and efficient characterization of these sites, and the potentially contaminated regions that surround them represents a technological challenge with no existing solution. In particular, the past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of surface and subsurface soils. Such contamination commonly occurs within waste burial sites, cribs, pond bottom sediments and soils surrounding waste tanks or uranium scrap, ore, tailings, and slag heaps. The objective of the Uranium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop optimal remediation methods for soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium (U), at DOE sites. It is examining all phases involved in an actual cleanup, including all regulatory and permitting requirements, to expedite selection and implementation of the best technologies that show immediate and long-term effectiveness specific to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and applicable to other radionuclide contaminated DOE sites. The demonstration provides for technical performance evaluations and comparisons of different developmental technologies at FEMP sites, based on cost-effectiveness, risk-reduction effectiveness, technology effectiveness, and regulatory and public acceptability. Technology groups being evaluated include physical and chemical contaminant separations, in situ remediation, real-time characterization and monitoring, precise excavation, site restoration, secondary waste treatment, and soil waste stabilization.

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - BIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesisSM soil washing technology was developed by BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. to remove organic compounds from soil. The technology uses a proprietary solution (BioGenesisSM cleaner) to transfer organic compounds from the soil matrix to a liquid phase. BioGenesis claims...

  17. EPA site demonstration of the Biotrol Soil Washing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.; Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, was demonstrated on soil that was contaminated by wood treating waste. The BioTrol Soil Washing was demonstrated in a treatment train sequence with two other pilot-scale units of BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies of the treatment train were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW), the BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), and the Slurry Bioreactor (SBR). The BioTrol processes were evaluated on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were the primary soil contaminants at the site. The sandy site soil, consisting of less than 10% of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (100% by weight) into 83% of washed soil, 10% of woody residues, and 7% of fines. The soil washer achieved up to 89% removal of PCP and PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the feed soil and in the washed soil. The BATS degraded up to 94% of PCP in the process water from soil washing. The SBR achieved over 90% removals of PCP and 70-90% removals of PAHs, respectively from the soil washing. Cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of treated soil.

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic fracturing is a physical process that creates fractures in silty clay soil to enhance its permeability. The technology, developed by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) and the University of Cincinnati, creates sand-filled horizontal fractures up to 1 in. i...

  19. 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program data report

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Cromer, M.V.; Newman, G.C.; Beiso, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program, hosted by Fernald Environmental Management Project, was established to investigate technologies that are applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort was evaluating field-screening tools potentially capable of acquiring high-resolution information on uranium contamination distribution in surface soils. Further-more, the information needed to be obtained in a cost- and time-efficient manner. Seven advanced field-screening technologies were demonstrated at a uranium-contaminated site at Fernald, located 29 kilometers northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The seven technologies tested were: (1) alpha-track detectors, (2) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (3) electret ionization chambers, (4) and (5) two variants of gamma-ray spectrometry, (6) laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and (7) long-range alpha detection. The goals of this field demonstration were to evaluate the capabilities of the detectors and to demonstrate their utility within the US Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration Program. Identical field studies were conducted using four industry-standard characterization tools: (1) a sodium-iodide scintillometer, (2) a low-energy FIDLER scintillometer, (3) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence detector, and (4) standard soil sampling coupled with laboratory analysis. Another important aspect of this program was the application of a cost/risk decision model to guide characterization of the site. This document is a compilation of raw data submitted by the technologies and converted total uranium data from the 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration.

  20. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

  1. Detector Characterization for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliss, Thomas; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is a neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) search, in the isotope 76Ge . Seeking measurement of the 0 νββ lifetime, and exploration of additional physics, MJD employs high-purity Ge detectors possessing superior energy resolution down to a low threshold. Characterization of these p-type point contact detectors is essential to understanding the backgrounds and sensitivity of the experiment. Progress in characterizing MJD detectors will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  2. Review of the Vortec soil remediation demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    The principal objective of the METC/Vortec program is to develop and demonstrate the effectiveness of the Vortec CMS in remediating soils contaminated with hazardous materials and/or low levels of radionuclides. To convincingly demonstrate the CMS`s capability, a Demonstration Plant will be constructed and operated at a DOE site that has a need for the remediation of contamination soil. The following objectives will be met during the program: (1) establish the glass chemistry requirements to achieve vitrification of contaminated soils found at the selected DOE site; (2) complete the design of a fully integrated soil vitrification demonstration plant with a capacity to process 25 TPD of soil; (3) establish the cost of a fully integrated soil demonstration plant with a capacity to process 25 TPD of soil; (4) construct and operate a fully integrated demonstration plant; (5) analyze all influent and effluent streams to establish the partitioning of contaminants and to demonstrate compliance with all applicable health, safety, and environmental requirements; (6) demonstrate that the CMS technology has the capability to produce a vitrified product that will immobilize the hazardous and radionuclide materials consistent with the needs of the specific DOE waste repositories.

  3. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  4. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS SOIL RECYCLING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC), conducted a Superfund InnovativeTechnology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of the THC Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three technologies op...

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

  6. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  7. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  8. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  9. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria.

  10. Characterization of Soils Using Microwave Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, M. F. A.; Senin, H. B.; Jaafar, M. S.; Hashim, S. A.

    2008-05-20

    The aim of this study is to characterize of soils using microwave radiation by the reflection techniques. The sample of soils was collected in Northern Peninsular of Malaysia. There are six types of soil have been indentified, which, sand, clay, loam, silty clay loam, silty loam and clay loam. We use the transmission of microwave using Gunn Diode Transmitter with frequency of 10.525 GHz and the pipette method. The result shows that, the soil type can be indentified using intensity values based on the percentages of the clay. The proposed technique also can be used to characterize soils using by microwave radiation.

  11. Uranium removal from soils: An overview from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Brainard, J.R.; York, D.A.; Chaiko, D.J.; Matthern, G.

    1994-09-01

    An integrated approach to remove uranium from uranium-contaminated soils is being conducted by four of the US Department of Energy national laboratories. In this approach, managed through the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, these laboratories are developing processes that selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste that is difficult to manage or dispose of. These processes include traditional uranium extractions that use carbonate as well as some nontraditional extraction techniques that use citric acid and complex organic chelating agents such as naturally occurring microbial siderophores. A bench-scale engineering design for heap leaching; a process that uses carbonate leaching media shows that >90% of the uranium can be removed from the Fernald soils. Other work involves amending soils with cultures of sulfur and ferrous oxidizing microbes or cultures of fungi whose role is to generate mycorrhiza that excrete strong complexers for uranium. Aqueous biphasic extraction, a physical separation technology, is also being evaluated because of its ability to segregate fine particulate, a fundamental requirement for soils containing high levels of silt and clay. Interactions among participating scientists have produced some significant progress not only in evaluating the feasibility of uranium removal but also in understanding some important technical aspects of the task.

  12. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  13. Dielectric Constant Measurements for Characterizing Lunar Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert C.; Buehler, M.; Seshadri, S.; Kuhlman, G.; Schaap, M.

    2005-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using fast, reliable in-situ methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils can be very difficult because of the many complex parameters that influence the measurements. In particular, soil electrical property measurements are influenced by temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. Determining the dielectric constant of lunar materials may be very important in providing quick characterization of surface deposits, especially for the Moon. A close examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that the rocks and soils on the Moon are dominated by silicates and oxides. In this presentation, we will show that determining the dielectric constant measurements can provide a simple, quick detection method for minerals that contain titanium, iron, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  14. Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper. PMID:24213742

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  16. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, K.H.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays.

  17. Soil hydrologic characterization for modeling large scale soil remediation protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Nunzio; Palladino, Mario; Di Fiore, Paola; Sica, Benedetto; Speranza, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    In Campania Region (Italy), the Ministry of Environment identified a National Interest Priority Sites (NIPS) with a surface of about 200,000 ha, characterized by different levels and sources of pollution. This area, called Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano includes some polluted agricultural land, belonging to more than 61 municipalities in the Naples and Caserta provinces. In this area, a high level spotted soil contamination is moreover due to the legal and outlaw industrial and municipal wastes dumping, with hazardous consequences also on the quality of the water table. The EU-Life+ project ECOREMED (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS) has the major aim of defining an operating protocol for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated agricultural soils, also including the use of crops extracting pollutants to be used as biomasses for renewable energy production. In the framework of this project, soil hydrologic characterization plays a key role and modeling water flow and solute transport has two main challenging points on which we focus on. A first question is related to the fate of contaminants infiltrated from stormwater runoff and the potential for groundwater contamination. Another question is the quantification of fluxes and spatial extent of root water uptake by the plant species employed to extract pollutants in the uppermost soil horizons. Given the high variability of spatial distribution of pollutants, we use soil characterization at different scales, from field scale when facing root water uptake process, to regional scale when simulating interaction between soil hydrology and groundwater fluxes.

  18. Soil Characterization Using CCSEM Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R.; Hunt, A.

    2014-12-01

    An investigation is underway to determine elemental compounds of African Soils. Soil samples were taken from four territories in the Sahel and Saharan region of Africa and analyzed using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). Optimized secondary electron detectors (SED) and back-scattered electron detectors (BSED) with adjustable quadrants was used with a light element Peltier-cooled energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. A variable pressure system was used for the analysis of insulating materials, which eliminated the need for special specimen coating to dissipate charge and remove artifacts. Data from these samples are being used to address two primary questions: (1) Can CCSEM technology accurately describe elemental compounds derived from soil samples, and (2) is there a correlation between particle chemistry and size? The creation of a 29-point elemental classification system was used to separate and analyze each of the data points. Findings show large amounts of Fe, Si, and Al-rich minerals in all samples, but vary in percentages by amounts large enough to distinguish between sample regions. Other elemental constituents within the samples include varying amounts of Na, S, Ti, Ca, and K. An initial run of samples show a similarity in chemical composition, leading to the hypothesis that Aeolian processes are contributing to the mineral content of surface dusts, but are still distinguishable from region to region. Further research on the effects of these wind driven dusts is needed to assess the potential problematic deposited in the Atlantic Ocean, which can cause overpressures within the sediments on slopes.

  19. ACTIVE SOIL DEPRESSURIZATION (ASD) DEMONSTRATION IN A LARGE BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of implementing radon resistant construction techniques -- especially active soil depressurization (ASD) -- in new large buildings in Florida. Indoor radon concentrations and radon entry were monitored in a finished bui...

  20. SITE Technology Capsule. Demonstration of Rocky Mountain Remediation Services Soil Amendment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report briefly summarizes the Rocky Mountain Remediation Services treatment technology demonstration of a soil amendment process for lead contaminated soil at Roseville, OH. The evaluation included leaching, bioavailability, geotechnical, and geochemical methods.

  1. CHARACTERIZING SOILS FOR HAZAROUDS WASTE SITE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers (RPM) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSC) concerning soil characterization data types required for decision-making in the CERCLA RI/FS process related to risk assessment and remedial alternative evaluation ...

  2. INEL support to the plutonium in soil integrated demonstration (Nevada)

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    A grab sample of 14 metric tons of uncontaminated Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) soil was excavated, packaged, and shipped to the Nevada Test Site for soil separation testing. The grab sample was from the Lost River Settling Area-B, located north-663541.06, east-262153.12, and elevation-5013.83 ft. The sample material contained soil and unconsolidated sediments from the ground surface to approximately 3.3-m deep. The material was collected in exactly the same way and from exactly the same place as material used to landscape and backfill the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL. Qualitative observations, using polarizing light microscopy, indicated that the principal components of the material are quartz, plagioclase, and calcite. Iron oxide material was present as a coating on most sediment particles. Clay minerals were not observed but are probably present. The diameter of most of the particles was between 10 and 75 gm. Field observations indicated that the calcite was a cement and occurred in vertical trending veins in the unconsolidated sediments.

  3. Notes: Water Flow and Chemical Retardation in Soils: A Simple Effective Laboratory Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, R. S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory demonstration that illustrates principles of miscible displacement and chemical retardation in soils. Discusses how the experimental apparatus can be constructed from readily available materials. (TW)

  4. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. An Exercise to Demonstrate Soil Microbial Diversity in Introductory Environmental Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Sulzman, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    High diversity of microorganisms in the soil matrix has been the focus of extensive research in the fields of soil biology and microbial ecology, and is a key concept that students in the environmental or biological sciences should understand. Two activities to demonstrate diversity and highlight the challenges faced in studying soil microbial…

  6. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL RECYCLING TREATMENT TRAIN - THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port...

  7. [Demonstration of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in in cultivated soils].

    PubMed

    Barre, N; Louzis, C; Treignier, M; Dubois-Darnaudpeys, A

    1977-06-13

    The bacteriological analysis of 37 pools of cultivated soils collected in a limited area in the Parisian district permits the isolation of 14 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis: 9 strains are of serotype II, 3 of serotype I, 1 of serotype III, and of serotype IV. This diversity contrasts with the prevalence of serotype I in infections of man and animals and the scarcity of type III and IV in these species. The abundance of our isolates is in favour of a large distribution of the germ in this substratum, which can be considered as a potential contamination source. PMID:408041

  8. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  9. RESOLVE Projects: Lunar Water Resource Demonstration and Regolith Volatile Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain affordable human and robotic space exploration, the ability to live off the land at the exploration site will be essential. NASA calls this ability in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and is focusing on finding ways to sustain missions first on the Moon and then on Mars. The ISRU project aims to develop capabilities to technology readiness level 6 for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and early human missions returning to the Moon. NASA is concentrating on three primary areas of ISRU: (1) excavating, handling, and moving lunar regolith, (2) extracting oxygen from lunar regolith, and (3) finding, characterizing, extracting, separating, and storing volatile lunar resources, especially in the permanently shadowed polar craters. To meet the challenges related to technology development for these three primary focus areas, the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project was initiated in February 2005, through funding by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. RESOLVE's objectives are to develop requirements and conceptual designs and to perform breadboard concept verification testing of each experiment module. The final goal is to deliver a flight prototype unit that has been tested in a relevant lunar polar environment. Here we report progress toward the third primary area creating ways to find, characterize, extract, separate, and store volatile lunar resources. The tasks include studying thermal, chemical, and electrical ways to collect such volatile resources as hydrogen, water, nitrogen, methane, and ammonia. We approached this effort through two subtasks: lunar water resource demonstration (LWRD) and regolith volatile characterization (RVC).

  10. Soil Moisture Characterization for Biogenic Emissions Modeling in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGaughey, G.; Sun, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Huang, L.; Fu, R.; McDonald-Buller, E.

    2014-12-01

    The role of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the formation of tropospheric ozone has been recognized as critical for air quality planning in Texas. In the southwestern United States, drought has become a recurring phenomenon and, in addition to other extreme weather events, can impose profound and complex effects on human populations and the environment. Understanding these effects on vegetation and biogenic emissions is important as Texas concurrently faces requirements to achieve and maintain attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone in several large metropolitan areas. This research evaluated the impact of soil moisture through the use of simulated and observational datasets on emissions estimates of isoprene. Soil moisture measurements (e.g., Climate Reference Network, Soil Climate Analysis Network) at limited locations in eastern Texas during 2006-2011 showed spatial and temporal variability associated with environmental drivers such as meteorology and physical soil characteristics; low volumetric soil moisture values (< 0.05 m3/m3) were observed during 2011, a year characterized by all-time record drought over the majority of Texas. Comparisons of soil moisture observations in the upper one meter to predictions from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) indicated a tendency towards a dry bias for NLDAS especially at depths greater than 10 cm. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) was used to explore the sensitivity of biogenic emissions estimates to alternative soil moisture representations for year 2011. A range of soil moisture inputs over eastern Texas informed by the observed to simulated comparisons demonstrated that the impact on predicted isoprene emissions was affected by both the soil moisture and specific wilting point datasets employed.

  11. Apollo 17 Soil Characterization for Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Patchen, A.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.; Wentworth, S.; McKay, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    It is the fine fractions that dominate the observed spectral signatures of bulk lunar soil, and the next to the smallest size fractions are the most similar to the overall properties of the bulk soil. Thus, our Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has concentrated on understanding the inter-relations of compositional, mineralogical, and optical properties of the <45-micron size fraction and its component sizes (20-44 micron, 10-20 micron, and <10 micron size fractions). To be able to generalize our results beyond the particular sample set studied, it is necessary to quantitatively identify the observed effects of space weathering and evaluate the processes involved. For this, it is necessary to know the chemistry of each size fraction, modal abundances of each phase, average compositions of the minerals and glasses, I(sub s)/FeO values, reflectance spectra, and the physical makeup of the individual particles and their patinas. This characterization includes the important dissection of the pyroxene minerals into four separate populations, with data on both modes and average chemical compositions. Armed with such data, it should be possible to effectively isolate spectral effects of space weathering from spectral properties related to mineral and glass chemistry. Four mare soils from the Apollo 17 site were selected for characterization based upon similarities in bulk composition and their contrasting maturities, ranging from immature to submature to mature. The methodology of our characterization has been discussed previously. Results of the Apollo 17 mare soils, outlined herein, are being prepared for publication in MAPS. As shown, with decreasing grain size, the agglutinitic (impact) glass content profoundly increases. This is the most impressive change for the mare soils. In several soils we have examined, there is an over two-fold increase in the agglutinitic glass contents between the 90-150- micron and the 10-20-micron size fractions. Accompanying this

  12. In Situ Site Characterization Technologies Demonstrated at the INEEL in Decommissioning Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Kelly Clyde; Meservey, Richard Harlan; Whitmill, Larry Joseph

    1999-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)continually seeks safer, more cost-effective, and better performing technologies for decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) sponsors Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Projects (LSDDPs) which are conducted at various DOE sites. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is one of the DOE sites for demonstration of these newa and improved technologies. The INEEL needs statement defines specific needs or problems for their D&D program. One of the needs identified at the INEEL was for new or improved site characterization technologies. A variety of in-situ site characterization technologies have been demonstrated through the INEEL LSDDP. These technologies provide a safer means of characterization, improved documentation, real-time information, improved D&D schedules, and reduction in costs and radiation exposures to workers. These technologies have provided vast improvements to the D&D site characterizations. Some of these technologies include: • The Global Positioning Radiometric Scanner System for large-area, surface gamma radiation surveys • Remote underwater characterization system• Identifying heavy metals in painted surfaces and determining the alloy composition in metallic material • In-Situ Object Counting System for free release • Real-time radiological data acquisition with the Surveillance and Measurement’s sodium iodide detector • Electromagnetic radiography to locate contaminated soils. Historically, site characterization has been a slow, costly, and tedious process. However, through these demonstrations, new technologies have provided more accurate data, real-time information, and enhanced site characterization documentation. In addition, a safer work environment has been established as a result of decreasing the worker’s time

  13. Demonstration of Virus in Groundwater after Effluent Discharge onto Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wellings, Flora Mae; Lewis, Arthur L.; Mountain, Carrol W.; Pierce, L. Virginia

    1975-01-01

    The survival of virus present in secondary effluents discharged into a cypress dome was studied. Isolations were made from concentrates of water drawn from 10-foot (304.80 cm) deep wells. Data presented show vertical and lateral virus movement as well as survival within the dome for 28 days during a period of heavy rains when no effluent was being applied. Due to the inefficiency of virus concentration procedures, it is proposed that much of the virus present was probably not demonstrated. A rapid, relatively inexpensive concentration technique for sewage influents and effluents is discussed. PMID:168809

  14. Mineralogical characterization of West Chestnut Ridge soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Kopp, O.C.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    The morphological, physicochemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils and residua from the proposed site of the Central Waste Disposal Facility were characterized. The proposed site is underlain by cherty dolostones, limestones, and shales of the Knox Group covered by a thick residuum. Three diagnostic horizons from four soil profiles and six samples from residuum cores were selected for mineralogical analysis. The coarse fractions (gravel and sand) of the samples included different types of chert, iron-manganese oxide nodules, and quartz. The samples were high in clay content (except those from the A and E horizons) and low in pH and base saturation. The clay fractions were composed of varying amounts of kaolinite, mica, vermiculite, aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, amorphous iron and aluminum oxides, gibbsite, and quartz. Aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite is the major component in surface horizons, but kaolinite becomes dominant in subsurface horizons of the soils. Degradation of kaolinite and formation of aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and iron and aluminum oxides are pronounced chemical weathering processes in the surface soils. The aluminum hydroxy interlayering of vermiculite reduces cation exchange and selective sorption capacities of soils. In the residua, micaceous minerals free of aluminum hydroxy interlayering, kaolinite, and amorphous iron and aluminum oxides are major components in the clay fraction. The sorption ratios of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and the uranium isotopes expected to be in the radioactive wastes should be very high for the clays having such mineralogical composition. The low acid-buffering capacity (base saturation) of the residua suggest that the fragile chemical and mineralogical equilibria can be easily broken if an extreme chemical condition is imposed on the residua.

  15. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Health and safety plan (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1994-12-28

    This document is the Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the demonstration of IITRI`s EM Treatment Technology. In this process, soil is heated in situ by means of electrical energy for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants. This process will be demonstrated on a small plot of contaminated soil located in the Pit Area of Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D, K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN. The purpose of the demonstration is to remove organic contaminants present in the soil by heating to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. The soil will be heated in situ by applying 60-Hz AC power to an array of electrodes placed in boreholes drilled through the soil. In this section a brief description of the process is given along with a description of the site and a listing of the contaminants found in the area.

  16. Soil characterization using electrical resistivity tomography and geotechnical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha, Kumari; Israil, M.; Mittal, S.; Rai, J.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been used in association with Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT) for Geotechnical investigations at two sites, proposed for thermal power plants, in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. SPT and DCPT tests were conducted at 28 points and two ERT profiles, each measuring 355 m long, were recorded using 72 electrodes deployed at 5 m spacing. Electrical characterization of subsurface soil was done using borehole data and grain size analysis of the soil samples collected from boreholes. The concept of electrical resistivity variation with soil strength related to the grain size distribution, cementation, porosity and saturation has been used to correlate the transverse resistance of soil with the number of blow counts ( N-values) obtained from SPT and DCPT data. It was thus observed that the transverse resistance of soil column is linearly related with the number of blow counts ( N-values) at these sites. The linear relationships are site-specific and the coefficients of linear relation are sensitive to the lithology of subsurface formation, which was verified by borehole data. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the ERT method in geotechnical investigations, which is economic, efficient and less time consuming in comparison to the other geotechnical methods, such as SPT and DCPT, used for the purpose.

  17. Color characterization of Arctic Biological Soil Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Giacono; Gargiulo, Laura; Ventura, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change makes large areas lacking the vegetation coverage continuously available to primary colonization by biological soil crusts (BSCs). This happens in many different environments, included high mountains and Polar Regions where new areas can become available due to glaciers retreat. Presence of BSCs leads to the stabilization of the substrate and to a possible development of protosoil, with an increase of fertility and resilience against erosion. Polar BSCs can exhibit many different proportions of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, and bryophytes which induce a large variability of the crust morphology and specific ecosystem functions. An effective and easy way for identifying the BSCs in the field would be very useful to rapidly recognize their development stage and help in understanding the overall impact of climate change in the delicate polar environments. Color analysis has long been applied as an easily measurable physical attribute of soil closely correlated with pedogenic processes and some soil functions. In this preliminary work we used RGB and CIE-L*a*b* color models in order to physically characterize fourteen different BSCs identified in Spitsbergen island of Svalbard archipelago in Arctic Ocean at 79° north latitude. We found that the "redness parameter "a*" of CIE-L*a*b* model was well correlated to the succession process of some BSCs at given geomorphology condition. Most of color parameters showed, moreover, a great potential to be correlated to photosynthetic activity and other ecosystem functions of BSCs.

  18. Fire vs. Metal: A Laboratory Study Demonstrating Microbial Responses to Soil Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberger, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Incubation studies are traditionally used in soil microbiology laboratory classes to demonstrate microbial respiration and N mineralization-immobilization processes. Sometimes these exercises are done to calculate a N balance in N fertilizer-amended soils. However, examining microbial responses to environmental perturbations would appeal to soil…

  19. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S; Michael Hay, M; Kristine Zeigler, K; Michael Stone, M

    2009-03-25

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  20. Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.

    2010-05-05

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  1. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-04-05

    This document is a final reports in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating.

  2. Demonstration to characterize watershed runoff potential by microwave techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics such as storage capacity of the soil, volume of storage in vegetative matter, and volume of storage available in local depressions are expressed in empirical watershed runoff equations as one or more coefficients. Conventional techniques for estimating coefficients representing the spatial distribution of these characteristics over a watershed drainage area are subjective and produce significant errors. Characteristics of the wear surface are described as a single coefficient called the curve number.

  3. Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. ); Phelps, T.J. )

    1991-09-01

    An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

  4. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  5. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN: XRF TECHNOLOGIES OF MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of field portable/mobile technologies for measuring trace elements in soil and sediments was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration took place from January 24 to 28, 200...

  6. A Simple Approach for Demonstrating Soil Water Retention and Field Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, A.; Heitman, J. L.; Bowman, D.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to demonstrate the soil water retention relationship and related concepts because the specialized equipment required for performing these measurements is unavailable in most classrooms. This article outlines a low-cost, easily visualized method by which these concepts can be demonstrated in most any classroom. Columns (62.5 cm…

  7. Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography for NAPL Source Zone Characterization: Sandbox Experiment Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiff, M. A.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the distribution and extent of NAPL contamination is an important step in determining appropriate remedial actions. NAPL has a complex mode of transportation in the heterogeneous subsurface domain, which results in difficulties for cleaning up contaminated sites. Here, we use sandbox experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography (OHT) for NAPL source zone characterization. In a saturated soil fluid system, the effective hydraulic conductivity (K) is dependent on the soil properties, fluid density, and fluid viscosity. By taking advantage of the differences of fluid properties before and after NAPL intrusion, we can estimate the NAPL source zone migration throughout time by imaging changes in effective K. Using OHT testing, we can derive the K heterogeneities before, during and after NAPL intrusion. NAPL source zone can be located by subtracting the background K from the K tomogram after NAPL intrusion. This approach can avoid mass extraction and injection that occurs in traditional hydraulic tomography approaches while obtain a good estimation of subsurface K heterogeneity and NAPL migration. We believe this method is more cost effective and efficient for field remediation applications.

  8. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  9. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  10. [Field scale demonstration of fungi-bacteria augmented remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Han, Hui-long; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Jian-min; Miao, Chang-chun; Zhang, Kun; Jin, Wen-biao; Liu, Zheng

    2008-02-01

    Pilot demonstration of the fungal-bacterial augmented in situ remediation of petroleum contaminated soil was carried out in Zhongyuan Oilfield, Henan, using artificially prepared soil, newly and aged contaminated soil as sample, respectively. For the first run of the experiment started from Nov. 5, 2004 and lasted for 122 days, the removal of contaminate was 61.0%, 48.3% and 38.3% for diesel, lube and crude oil, respectively. For the second run started from May 18, 2005 and lasted for 161 days, the removal of TPH was 75% for the artificially contaminated soil sample while 46.0% and 56.6% for the fresh and aged contaminated soil. The removal of high concentration salt was involved in the remediation of the freshly and aged contaminated soil. The changes of the petroleum composition was monitored during the remediation process, which confirmed the effective degradation of alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons and non-hydrocarbon compounds by the fungi-bacteria consortia, as compared to that obtained without the inoculation of the consortia. To further demonstrate the remediation, wheat was planted in above reclaimed soil. While wheat production in the reclaimed artificially contaminated soil yielded nearly as much as that obtained in the normal farmland, the output of wheat in the reclaimed refresh and aged contaminated soil was 57.2% and 70.3% of the averaged output of the normal farmland. The above results further confirmed the workability of fungal-bacterial augmented in situ remediation of petroleum contaminated soil and its application potential as well.

  11. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating: Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1993-12-31

    This document is the Management Plan for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. In this project IITRI will demonstrate an in situ soil heating technology for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants present in the soil. In situ heating will be accomplished by the application of 60 Hz ac power to the soil. The soil will be heated to a temperature of about 90{degrees}C. This technology is suited for the removal of those organic compounds which have a normal boiling point in the range of 100{degrees} to 210{degrees}C, or else for those which exhibit a pure component vapor pressure of at least 10 mm Hg in the 90{degrees} to 100{degrees}C temperature range. For example, perchloroethylene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, etc. may be removed by in situ ac heating. It is planned to demonstrate the technology by heating approximately 400 tons of soil in the K-1070 Classified Burial Ground located at DOE`s K-25 Site located in Oak Ridge, TN. It is estimated that the heating portion of the demonstration will take approximately 3 weeks at an average power input rate of 150 to 175 kW. IITRI expects to spend considerable time in the front end reviewing site characteristics, preparing detail design, developing Health and Safety Plans and other documents needed to obtain regulatory approval for the demonstration, arranging for site sampling, infrastructure development and document preparation. It is anticipated that site activities will begin in approximately 5 to 6 months. This contract was signed on September 30, 1993. IITRI started work on it in October 1993. It is planned to complete the demonstration and submit approved final reports by September 30, 1994. This project has 12 tasks and four major milestones. The major milestones and their planned completion dates are shown.

  12. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    SciTech Connect

    Setiawan, Budi; Mila, Oktri; Safni

    2014-03-24

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr{sup +} ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10{sup −2} g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  13. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Budi; Mila, Oktri; Safni

    2014-03-01

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr+ ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10-2 g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  14. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. . Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. ); Hills, R.G. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  15. An integrated approach to the characterization and decontamination of uranium contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.; Francis, C.; Armstrong, A.; Dyer, R.

    1994-02-01

    An Integrated Demonstration (ID) Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company, has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Chemical and physical characterization of Fernald soils and the uranium wastes contained therein is being accomplished by means of standard analytical techniques as well as a suite of non-standard microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Likewise, a suite of physical and chemical extraction technologies are being designed and tested for accomplishing soil decontamination. However, the main theme of this paper is not the technologies being tested but the approach taken to integrate characterization, decontamination, and risk assessment efforts. It is the authors intent to outline the critical components of an integrated approach for characterizing and remediating uranium contaminated soils as well as provide a real-world example based on the lessons learned in the ID program.

  16. Field Demonstrations of Five Geophysical Methods that Could Be Used to Characterize Deposits of Alluvial Aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Burton, B.L.; Lucius, J.E.; Haines, S.S.; Fitterman, D.V.; Witty, J.A.; Carlson, D.; Milburn, B.; Langer, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey and Martin Marietta Aggregates, Inc., conducted field demonstrations of five different geophysical methods to show how these methods could be used to characterize deposits of alluvial aggregate. The methods were time-domain electromagnetic sounding, electrical resistivity profiling, S-wave reflection profiling, S-wave refraction profiling, and P-wave refraction profiling. All demonstrations were conducted at one site within a river valley in central Indiana, where the stratigraphy consisted of 1 to 2 meters of clay-rich soil, 20 to 35 meters of alluvial sand and gravel, 1 to 6 meters of clay, and multiple layers of limestone and dolomite bedrock. All geophysical methods, except time-domain electromagnetic sounding, provided information about the alluvial aggregate that was consistent with the known geology. Although time-domain electromagnetic sounding did not work well at this site, it has worked well at other sites with different geology. All of these geophysical methods complement traditional methods of geologic characterization such as drilling.

  17. Demonstration of using crossed dipole GPR antennae for site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Erich D.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Radzevicius, Stanley J.; Vendl, Mark A.

    Crossed dipole (cross-pole) and parallel dipole (co-pole) GPR data were acquired at an industrial site that formerly operated as a creosote wood treating facility in order to locate buried pipes and tanks or other possible contaminant-filled subsurface structures. Cross-pole data are not typically considered during GPR field studies, but proved essential for accurate site characterization at this location, as images produced using co-pole data had a poor signal to noise ratio. Data interpretations were confirmed through exploratory trenching conducted subsequent to this study. The GPR data proved successful in locating back-filled trenches that contained creosote-filled drainage tile, as well as vaults and a pit filled with pure creosote product at the site.

  18. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  19. DEMONSTRATION PLAN FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory



    The demonstration of innovative field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County...

  20. Characterizing recovery of soil hydrological properties impacted by wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Alicia; Borak, Jordan; Yatheendradas, Soni; Crosgrove, Brian; Gochis, David; Dugger, Aubrey; Goodrich, David

    2016-04-01

    Accurate characterization of the post-burn recovery of soil properties over time is important for hydrological modeling applications. Yet, this recovery remains not characterized well enough for effective usage as hydrologic model simulation guidelines, for example, by organizations like the NOAA NWS National Water Center for streamflow modeling or like USDA for flash flood modeling. By calibrating a model's soil properties to soil moisture at different short periods of post-fire rain events for an example test case, we attempt to characterize the soil recovery from wildfires as a function of the burn severity, soil properties, hydrologic states like moisture and antecedent rain history post-burn, and ecosystem vegetation type and plant cover density. This work is in line with similar recent work but focuses more on improving predictability for operational hydrologic applications.

  1. Field Demonstration of Acetone Pretreatment and Composting of Particulate-TNT-Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, Corey William; Smith, D.; Owen, S.; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

    2002-02-01

    Solid fragments of explosives in soil are common in explosives testing and training areas. In this study we initially sieved the upper 6 in of contaminated soil through a 3-mm mesh, and found 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) fragments. These contributed to an estimated concentration of 1.7 kg per cubic yard soil, or for 2000 ppm TNT in the soil. Most of the fragments ranged 4 mm to 10 mm diameter in size, but explosives particles weighing up to 56 g (about 4 cm diameter) were frequently observed. An acetone pretreatment/composting system was then demonstrated at field scale. The amount of acetone required for a TNT-dissolving slurry process was controlled by the viscosity of the soil/acetone mix rather than the TNT dissolution rate. The amount needed was estimated at about 55 gallons acetone per cubic yard soil. Smaller, 5- to 10-mm-diameter fragments went into solution in less than 15 min at a mixer speed of 36 rpm, with a minimum of 2 g TNT going into solution per 30 min for the larger chunks. The slurries were than mixed with compost starting materials and composted in a vented 1 yd3 container. After 34 days incubation time TNT was below the site-specific regulatory threshold of 44 ppm. TNT metabolites and acetone were also below their regulatory thresholds established for the site.

  2. Management Plan: Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1993-11-01

    In this project IITRI will demonstrate an in situ soil heating technology for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants present in the soil. In Situ heating will be accomplished by the application of 60 Hz AC power to the soil. The soil will be heated to a temperature of about 90{degree}C. This technology is suited for the removal of those organic compounds which have a normal boiling point in the range of 100{degree} to 210{degree}C, or else for those which exhibit a pure component vapor pressure of at least 10 mm Hg in the 90{degree} to 100{degree}C temperature range. For example, perchloroethylene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, etc. may be removed by in situ AC heating. It is planned to demonstrate the technology by heating approximately 400 tons of soil in the K-1070 Classified Burial Ground located at DOE`s K-25 Site located in Oak Ridge, TN. It is estimated that the heating portion of the demonstration will take approximately 3 weeks at an average power input rate of 150 to 175 kill. IITRI expects to spend considerable time in the front end reviewing site characteristics, preparing detail design, developing Health and Safety Plans and other documents needed to obtain regulatory approval for the demonstration, arranging for site sampling, infrastructure development and document preparation. It is anticipated that site activities will begin in approximately 5 to 6 months. This contract was signed on September 30, 1993. IITRI started work on it in October 1993. It is planned to complete the demonstration and submit approved final reports by September 30, 1994. This project has 12 tasks and four major milestones. The major milestones and their planned completion dates are presented.

  3. Determination and measurement of soil parameters for characterizing radon hazard of soils

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, T.E.; Jarzemba, M.S.

    1992-12-31

    There is little correlation between radon concentrations in soil and radon concentrations in homes. One explanation is that the soil radon concentration does not fully characterize the soil as a radon hazard. A mathematical model for the determination of important soil parameters for characterizing the flow of radon into a basement has been analyzed. We have identified important soil properties by mathematically modeling ventilated air enclosed in basement walls of thickness T (through which radon convects) and surrounded by soil of infinite extent (through which radon diffuses). The radon instantaneously mixed uniformly with the basement air and is lost from the basement air by ventilation ({lambda}{sub v}) and decay ({lambda}). It was found that not only the soil pore gas radon concentration, C{sub s}, but also the radon gas diffusion length, L{sub 3}, and the soil porosity, {epsilon}{sub 3}, are important to characterize the soil as a radon hazard. A model for determining the parameters C{sub s}, L{sub 3}, and {epsilon}{sub 3} has also been analyzed. It was found that it is possible to measure in situ these important soil parameters by monitoring the radon gas concentration time history of two cavities of different radii formed in the same soil.

  4. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  5. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics.

  6. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  7. A validation of a thermal inertia approach to map soil water content on soils characterized by low fractional cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; La Loggia, Goffredo; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of the spatial distribution of soil water content could improve the effectiveness of agro-hydrological models. Although it is possible to retrieve the spatial distribution of the soil water content using thermal inertia, the main limit is its applicability to bare soils only. Recently, a variation of the thermal inertia approach has been setup also on vegetated soils characterized by low fractional cover. In particular, the methodology proposes to attenuate the solar radiation at the top of the canopy to the one reaching the soil trough an extinction factor. In situ data were acquired in June 2011 and July 2012 over two fields of maize and sunflowers; both were at their early growing stages. An airborneplatform provided images in the visible/near infrared and thermal infrared, both in day and night time. Results of the 2011 experiment demonstrated that the vegetation cover correction is required even with low fractional cover; indeed, not applying this correction would results in strong overestimation. The 2012 experiment (REFLEX) further validates the model on an independent dataset, thus, confirming the reliability of the methodology. Furthermore, a spatial resolution analysis highlighted that retrievals at low spatial resolution best compares with in situsoil water content than those obtained at high-resolution. Finally, the availability of a thermal image acquired after irrigating demonstrated the unreliability of the method when soil water content significantly changes between the two thermal acquisitions.

  8. Characterizing mine detector performance over difficult soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R. C.; West, G. F.

    2006-05-01

    A variety of metal detectors are available for the detection of buried metallic targets in general and for humanitarian demining in particular. No one detector is optimal in all environments: variations in soil conductivity, and more importantly, frequency dependent soil magnetic susceptibility can favor one design over another. The use of computer modeling for assessing different designs is straightforward in principle, at least to first order, but still difficult in practice. The Geophysics Lab of the University of Toronto is attempting to address this problem in two ways. The first is by assembling the required computational algorithms to do this into a single simulation code with a straightforward GUI, intended to be public domain as a MATLAB code. The second, the subject of a companion paper in this conference, is by making measurements of the electromagnetic properties of difficult soils, and finding semi-analytic representations of these responses suitable for modeling purposes. The final version of the code, when completed, is to handle single or multiple transmitter and receiver coils of circular or polygonal shape, general transmitter current waveforms, arbitrary transmitter orientations and survey paths, small targets with frequency-dependent anisotropic responses (permitting both magnetic and inductive responses to be calculated), embedded in multi-layered half spaces with both conductivity and frequency-dependent susceptibility (so-called "difficult soils"). The current state of the simulation code and examples of its use will be described in this paper.

  9. Characterization of Soil Organic Matter from African Dark Earth (AfDE) Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, A. F.; Fujiu, M.; Ohno, T.; Solomon, D.; Lehmann, J.; Fraser, J. A.; Leach, M.; Fairhead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic Dark Earths are soils generated through long-term human inputs of organic and pyrogenic materials. These soils were originally discovered in the Amazon, and have since been found in Australia and in this case in Africa. While tropical soils are typically characterized by low soil organic matter (SOM) concentrations, African Dark Earths (AfDE) are black, highly fertile and carbon-rich soils formed through an extant but ancient soil management system. The objective of this study was to characterize the organic matter accumulated in AfDE and contrast it with non-AfDE soils. Characterization of bulk soil organic matter of several (n=11) AfDE and non-AfDE pairs of surface (0-15 cm) soils using thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC-EGA) resulted in substantial differences in SOM composition and the presence of pyrogenic C. Such pyrogenic organic matter is generally considered recalcitrant, but the fertility gains in AfDE are generated by labile, more rapidly cycling pools of SOM. As a result, we characterized hot water- and pyrophosphate-extractable pools of SOM using fluorescence (EEM/PARAFAC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). EEM/PARAFAC data suggests that AfDE samples had a greater fraction of their DOM that was more humic-like than the paired non-AfDE samples. Similarly, FT-ICR-MS analyses of extracts suggest that differences among the sites analyzed were larger than between the paired AfDE and non-AfDE extracts. Overall, in spite of substantial differences in the composition of bulk SOM, the extractable fractions appear to be relatively similar between the AfDE and non-AfDE soils.

  10. Analytical characterization of contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plants

    SciTech Connect

    Haeseler, F. |; Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P. |

    1999-03-15

    Detailed analytical characterization of the organic matter (OM) of aged polluted soils from five former manufactured gas plants (MGP) and of two coal tars was completed. It was aimed at obtaining information relevant to the physicochemical state of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants and to their in-situ evolution in time. Overall characterization of total OM (essentially polluting OM) was carried out directly on soil samples with or without prior extraction with solvent. It involved a technique of pyrolysis/oxidation coupled to flame ionization/thermal conductivity detection. Extracts in solvent were fractionated by liquid chromatography into saturated hydrocarbons, PAH, and resins, the first two fractions being further characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The compositions of OM of soils were found to be very similar. A total of 28% of organic carbon, including all PAH, was extractable by solvent. The compositions of coal tars were qualitatively similar to those of OM of MGP soils but with a higher proportion (48%) of total extractable OM and of PAH, in particular lower PAH. Contamination of MGP soils appeared essentially as coal tar having undergone natural attenuation. The constant association of PAH with heavy OM in MGP soils is important with respect to the mobility and bioaccessibility of these pollutants.

  11. Characterization of Soil Organic Matter in Peat Soil with Different Humification Levels using FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teong, I. T.; Felix, N. L. L.; Mohd, S.; Sulaeman, A.

    2016-07-01

    Peat soil is defined as an accumulation of the debris and vegetative under the water logging condition. Soil organic matter of peat soil was affected by the environmental, weather, types of vegetative. Peat soil was normally classified based on its level of humification. Humification can be defined as the transformation of numerous group of substances (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc.) and individual molecules present in living organic matter into group of substances with similar properties (humic substances). During the peat transformation process, content of soil organic matter also will change. Hence, that is important to determine out the types of the organic compound. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) is a machine which is used to differential soil organic matter by using infrared. Infrared is a types of low energy which can determine the organic minerals. Hence, FTIR can be suitable as an indicator on its level of humification. The main objective of this study is to identify an optimized method to characterization of the soil organic content in different level of humification. The case study areas which had been chosen for this study are Parit Sulong, Batu Pahat and UCTS, Sibu. Peat soil samples were taken by every 0.5 m depth until it reached the clay layer. However, the soil organic matter in different humification levels is not significant. FTIR is an indicator which is used to determine the types of soil, but it is unable to differentiate the soil organic matter in peat soil FTIR can determine different types of the soil based on different wave length. Generally, soil organic matter was found that it is not significant to the level of humification.

  12. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  13. Development of an in-situ soil structure characterization methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debos, Endre; Kriston, Sandor

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  14. ECa-Directed Soil Sampling for Characterizing Spatial Variability: Monitoring Management- Induced Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, D. L.

    2006-05-01

    Characterizing spatial variability is an important consideration of any landscape-scale soil-related problem. Geospatial measurements of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) are useful for characterizing spatial variability by directing soil sampling. The objective of this presentation is to discuss equipment, protocols, sampling designs, and a case study of an ECa survey to characterize spatial variability. Specifically, a preliminary spatio-temporal study of management-induced changes to soil quality will be demonstrated for a drainage water reuse study site. The spatio-temporal study used electromagnetic induction ECa data and a response surface sampling design to select 40 sites that reflected the spatial variability of soil properties (i.e., salinity, Na levels, Mo, and B) impacting the intended agricultural use of a saline-sodic field in California's San Joaquin Valley. Soil samples were collected in August 1999 and April 2002. Data from 1999 indicate the presence of high salinity, which increased with depth, high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), which also increased with depth, and moderate to high B and Mo, which showed no specific trends with depth. The application of drainage water for 32 months resulted in leaching of B from the top 0.3 of soil, leaching of salinity from the top 0.6 m of soil, and leaching of Na and Mo from the top 1.2 m of soil. The leaching fraction over the time period from 1999-2002 was estimated to be 0.10. The level of salinity in the reused drainage water (i.e., 3-5 dS/m) allowed infiltration and leaching to occur even though high sodium and high expanding-lattice clay levels posed potential water flow problems. The leaching of salinity, Na, Mo, and B has resulted in increased forage yield and improved quality of those yields. Preliminary spatio-temporal analyses indicate at least short-term feasibility of drainage water reuse from the perspective of soil quality when the goal is forage production for grazing livestock. The

  15. Ecotoxicological characterization of sugarcane vinasses when applied to tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Alves, Paulo Roger L; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2015-09-01

    The impact of sugarcane vinasse on soil invertebrates was assessed through ecotoxicological assays. Increasing concentrations of two vinasses from different distillery plants (VA and VB), and a vinasse from a laboratory production (VC), were amended on two natural tropical Oxisols (LV and LVA) and a tropical artificial soil (TAS) to characterize the effects of the vinasses on earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer) and collembolans (Folsomia candida). The highest concentrations of VA and VB were avoided by earthworms in all soils and by collembolans especially in the natural soils. The presence of VC in all of the tested soils did not cause avoidance behavior in these species. The reproduction of earthworms, enchytraeids and collembolans was decreased in the highest concentrations of VA and VB in the natural soils. In TAS, VB reduced the reproduction of all test species, whereas VA was toxic exclusively to E. andrei and E. crypticus. The vinasse VC only reduced the number of earthworms in TAS and enchytraeids in LVA. The reproduction of mites was reduced by VB in TAS. Vinasses from distillery plants were more toxic than the vinasse produced in laboratory. The vinasse toxicities were influenced by soil type, although this result was most likely because of the way the organisms are exposed to the contaminants in the soils. Toxicity was attributed to the vinasses' high salt content and especially the high potassium concentrations. Data obtained in this study highlights the potential risk of vinasse disposal on tropical soils to soil biota. The toxic values estimated are even more relevant when considering the usual continuous use of vinasses in crop productions. PMID:25933292

  16. Ecotoxicological characterization of sugarcane vinasses when applied to tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Alves, Paulo Roger L; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2015-09-01

    The impact of sugarcane vinasse on soil invertebrates was assessed through ecotoxicological assays. Increasing concentrations of two vinasses from different distillery plants (VA and VB), and a vinasse from a laboratory production (VC), were amended on two natural tropical Oxisols (LV and LVA) and a tropical artificial soil (TAS) to characterize the effects of the vinasses on earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer) and collembolans (Folsomia candida). The highest concentrations of VA and VB were avoided by earthworms in all soils and by collembolans especially in the natural soils. The presence of VC in all of the tested soils did not cause avoidance behavior in these species. The reproduction of earthworms, enchytraeids and collembolans was decreased in the highest concentrations of VA and VB in the natural soils. In TAS, VB reduced the reproduction of all test species, whereas VA was toxic exclusively to E. andrei and E. crypticus. The vinasse VC only reduced the number of earthworms in TAS and enchytraeids in LVA. The reproduction of mites was reduced by VB in TAS. Vinasses from distillery plants were more toxic than the vinasse produced in laboratory. The vinasse toxicities were influenced by soil type, although this result was most likely because of the way the organisms are exposed to the contaminants in the soils. Toxicity was attributed to the vinasses' high salt content and especially the high potassium concentrations. Data obtained in this study highlights the potential risk of vinasse disposal on tropical soils to soil biota. The toxic values estimated are even more relevant when considering the usual continuous use of vinasses in crop productions.

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  18. Characterization of the core microbiota of the drainage and surrounding soil of a Brazilian copper mine

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Letícia Bianca; Vicentini, Renato; Ottoboni, Laura M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The core microbiota of a neutral mine drainage and the surrounding high heavy metal content soil at a Brazilian copper mine were characterized by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. The core microbiota of the drainage was dominated by the generalist genus Meiothermus. The soil samples contained a more heterogeneous bacterial community, with the presence of both generalist and specialist bacteria. Both environments supported mainly heterotrophic bacteria, including organisms resistant to heavy metals, although many of the bacterial groups identified remain poorly characterized. The results contribute to the understanding of bacterial communities in soils impacted by neutral mine drainage, for which information is scarce, and demonstrate that heavy metals can play an important role in shaping the microbial communities in mine environments. PMID:26537607

  19. Spectral characterization of Martian soil analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, David G.

    1987-01-01

    As previously reported, reflectance spectra of iron oxide precipitated as ultrafine particles, unlike ordinary fine grained hematite, have significant similarities to reflectance spectra from the bright regions of Mars. These particles were characterized according to composition, magnetic properties, and particle size distribution. Mossbauer, magnetic susceptibility, and optical data were obtained for samples with a range of concentrations of iron oxide in silica gel of varying pore diameters. To analyze the Mossbauer spectra, a versatile fitting program was enhanced to provide user friendly screen input and theoretical models appropriate for the superparamagnetic spectra obtained.

  20. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass {approximately} 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project.

  1. Chemical characterization and metal abundance in Sri Lankan serpentine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Ok, Y. S.; Oze, C.

    2012-12-01

    Chemical weathering of ultramafic rocks and their related soils provide localized sources of metal contamination. In Sri Lanka, rural communities live in close proximity to these rocks and soils and utilize associated groundwaters where human intake of these high metal sources may have adverse human health effects. This study investigates metal abundances and variations in Sri Lankan serpentine soils to begin evaluating potential human health hazards. Specifically, we examine serpentinite occurrences at Ussangoda, Wasgamuwa, Ginigalpelessa, and Indikolapelessa located at the geological boundary between the Highland and Vijayan Complexes. The pH of the soils are near neutral (6.26 to 7.69) with soil electrical conductivities (EC) ranging from 33.5 to 129.9 μS cm-1, a range indicative of relatively few dissolved salts and/or major dissolved inorganic solutes. The highest EC is from the Ussangoda soil which may be due to the atmospheric deposition of salt spray from the sea. Organic carbon contents of the soils range from 1.09% to 2.58%. The highest organic carbon percentage is from the Wasgamuwa soil which is located in a protected preserve. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and total metal digestion results show that all serpentine soils are Fe-, Cr-, and Ni-rich with abundant aluminosilicate minerals. Nickel is highest in the Ussangoda soil (6,459 mg kg-1), while Cr (>10,000 mg kg-1), Co (441 mg kg-1) and Mn (2,263 mg kg-1) are highest in the Wasgamuwa serpentine soil. Additionally, Mn (2,200 mg kg-1) and Co (400 mg kg-1) are present at high concentrations in the Wasgamuwa and Ginigalpelessa soils respectively. Electron microprobe mapping demonstrates that these heavy metals are not homogeneously distributed where Cr is specifically associated with Al and Fe phases. Metal speciation of these serpentine soils are currently being investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to provide better constraints with regards to their mobility and toxicity.

  2. An in-situ soil structure characterization methodology for measuring soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Endre; Kriston, András; Juhász, András; Sulyok, Dénes

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  3. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of in situ vapor stripping

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Greene, D.W.; Schmunk, S.W.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the study described in this report was to determine the efficiency of vapor stripping coupled with soil mixing for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from clay soils such as those that underlie the PORTS X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit. This was accomplished by conducting experiments wherein contaminated soil cores were treated in the laboratory using a system that simulated a field-scale vapor stripping/soil mixing treatment process. Treatment efficiencies obtained using several sets of process conditions, such as air temperature and flow rate, were determined through subsampling of the soil cores to establish pre- and posttreatment levels of VOCs in the soil. Two series of experiments were conducted under this study. In the first series, laboratory treatment was performed on intact soil cores that were taken from contaminated zones within the PORTS X-231B Unit using sampler liners that could be adapted as reaction lysimeters. Since soil core disturbance was minimized using this approach, the treatability experiments were conducted on soil that was fairly close to in situ conditions in terms of both soil structure and contaminant levels. The second series of experiments were performed on cores that were packed using X-231B soil and spiked with known amounts of trichloroethylene (TCE). This approach was taken for the second series because the VOC levels in the intact cores were found to be much lower than field values. In addition, the packed cores were smaller than the intact soil cores, with treatment volumes that were about a fifth of the treatment volumes in the intact soil cores. The smaller packed cores were not only easier to handle but were also more reliably characterized due to smaller treatment volumes from which samples were taken.

  4. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics. PMID:27441991

  5. EVALUATION OF A SOIL AMENDMENT PROCESS DEMONSTRATION FOR REDUCING THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA evaluated an in situ application of a soil amendment process at a residential site that was contaminated with lead. The goal of the evaluation was to determine if the soil amendment process resulted in lower concentrations of bioavailable lead in the contaminated soils...

  6. An Inexpensive and Simple Method to Demonstrate Soil Water and Nutrient Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, K. A.; Samson-Liebig, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are concepts that are being widely used but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. The objectives of this manuscript were to develop simple and inexpensive methodologies to both qualitatively and quantitatively estimate water infiltration rates (IR),…

  7. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation - Demonstration Bulletin: In-Situ Soil Stabilization

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ stabilization technology immobilizes organics and inorganic compounds in wet or dry soils by using reagents (additives) to polymerize with the soils and sludges producing a cement-like mass. Two basic components of this technology are the Geo-Con/DSM Deep Soil Mixing Sy...

  8. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter: a historic overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of individual molecular components of soil organic matter started in the early 19th century, but proceeded slowly. The major focus at this time was on the isolation and differentiation of different humic and fulvic acid fractions, which were considered to have a defined chemical composition and structure. The isolation and structural anlysis of specific individual soil organic matter components became more popular in the early 20th century. In 1936 40 different individual compounds had been isolated and a specific chemical strucutre had been attributed. These structural attributions were confirmed later for some, but not all of these individual compounds. In the 1950 much more individual compounds could be isolated and characterized, using complicated and time consuming chromatography. It became obvious that soil also contains a number of compounds of microbial origin, such as e.g., amino sugars and lipids. With the improvement of chrmoatographic separation techniques and the use of gas chromatography in combination with thin layerchromatography in the 1960 hundreds of individual compounds have been isolated and identified, most of them after chemical degradation of humic or fulvic acids. The chemical degradative techniques were amended with analytical pyrolysis in the 1970s. More and more, bulk soil organic matter was analyzed with these techniques and the advent of solid-stae 13C NMR spectroscopy around the 1980s allowed for the characterization of the composition of bulk soil organic matter. The gas chromatographic separation of organic matter can nowadays be combined with specific detectors, such that specific attributes ofindividual molecules can be analyzed, e.g. the radiocarbon content or the stable isotope composition.

  9. Hydrogeologic Characterization Data from the Area 5 Shallow Soil Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Four shallow soil trenches excavated in the vicinity of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site were sampled in 1994 to characterize important physical and hydrologic parameters which can affect the movement of water in the upper few meters of undisturbed alluvium. This report describes the field collection of geologic samples and the results of laboratory analyses made on these samples. This report provides only qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations.

  10. Characterization of the geology and contaminant distribution at the six phase heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Keenan, M.A.; Parker, W.H.; Poppy, S.P.; Simmons, J.L.

    1994-06-30

    The objective of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-arid Soils Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The focus of the third phase of the Integrated Demonstration is to evaluate the use of heating technologies, both radio frequency and ohmic heating, to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers. This report documents characterization data collected in support of the ohmic heating demonstration performed by researchers from PNL. The data presented and discussed in this report include a general description of the site including location of piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process, and detailed geologic cross sections of the study site, sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples, tabulations of moisture and VOC content of the sediments, models of the distribution of contamination before and after the test, and a comparison of the volume estimations of contaminated material before and after the test. The results show that the heating process was successful in mobilizing and removing solvent from the heated interval.

  11. Advanced Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Using Ultra High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Chu, R.; Tolic, N.; Roscioli, K.; Robinson, E. R.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Hess, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus on ecosystem stress and climate change is currently relevant as researchers and policymakers strive to understand the feedbacks between soil C dynamics and climate change. Successful development of molecular profiles that link soil microbiology with soil carbon (C) to ascertain soil vulnerability and resilience to climate change would have great impact on assessments of soil ecosystems in response to climate change. Additionally, better understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) plays a central role to climate modeling, and fate and transport of carbon. The use of ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) has enabled the examination of molecules, directly from mixtures, with ultrahigh mass resolution and sub-ppm mass accuracy. In this study, EMSL's extensive expertise and capabilities in UHR MS proteomics were leveraged to develop extraction protocols for the characterization of carbon compounds in SOM, thereby providing the chemical and structural detail needed to develop mechanistic descriptions of soil carbon flow processes. Our experiments have allowed us to identify thousands of individual compounds in complex soil mixtures with a wide range of C content representing diverse ecosystems within the USA. The yield of the chemical extraction was dependent on (1) the type of solvent used and its polarity, (2) sample-to-solvent ratios and (3) the chemical and physical nature of the samples including their origins. Hexane, a non-polar organic solvent, was efficient in extracting lipid-like compounds regardless of soil origin or organic carbon %. For samples with high organic carbon %, acetonitrile extracted a wide range of compounds characterized with high O/C ratios, identified as polyphenolic compounds that were not observed with methanol extraction. Soils extracted with pyridine showed a similar molecular distribution to those extracted by methanol. Solvent extraction followed by UHR MS is a promising tool to understand the

  12. SRS Data Report for Lynntech Soil Ozone Treatment Demonstration Adjacent to the 321-M Solvent Storage Tank Pad

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2000-08-29

    At large industrial sites like the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), undissolved dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in soil and groundwater is the most significant barrier to successful clean up. DNAPL acts as a reservoir that will continue to generate contaminant levels far above remediation concentration goals well into the future. In an effort to achieve remediation goals and reduce future costs, the SRS DNAPL program is evaluating technologies that will recycle or destroy DNAPL. In situ oxidation is one class of DNAPL destruction technologies. A demonstration of this class of technologies was conducted at SRS in the winter of 1999 and spring of 2000 employing ozone as the oxidant. Lynntech Inc. through a Small Business Innovative Research grant partnered with the Savannah River Site to demonstrate their soil ozone treatment technology. The Savannah River Site provided the demonstration location and field support of the test. This demonstration involved treating a small vadose zone DNAPL plume in the A/M Area over a 29 day period. Approximately 2000 pounds of DNAPL (perchloroethylene [PCE] and trichloroethylene [TCE]) were removed through the soil vapor extraction unit (SVEU). Soil core data indicate that approximately 300 pounds of DNAPL were removed from the test site. This report documents the data collected by SRS personnel during the demonstration of Lynntech's Soil Ozone Treatment Technology.

  13. Pilot demonstration for containment using in situ soil mixing techniques at a chemical disposal superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Zarlinski, S.J.; Kingham, N.W.; Semenak, R.

    1997-12-31

    Kiber Environmental Services, Inc. (Kiber), under contract to McLaren-Hart Corporation and the site PRP group, performed technical oversight and on-site sampling and analyses at the confidential site located in Texas. The site consists of 15,000 cubic meters (20,000 cubic yards) of contaminated materials that were to be solidified on-site. The contaminants included heavy metals, PAHs, oil and grease, and volatile organics. Groundwater is less than 1 meter from the surface. Kiber was retained after several unsuccessful efforts to find on-site containment methods that effectively solidified the waste pits while achieving the performance goals. The PRP group then contracted with Kiber to perform the treatability and pilot oversight studies. The full-scale pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con. Pilot-scale treatment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ solidification treatment at achieving the site specific performance criteria, including an unconfined compressive strength of greater than 170 kPa (25 psi) and a permeability of less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/sec. Technical oversight and on-site sampling and analysis were provided to evaluate pilot-scale application of the selected technology and verify treatment effectiveness. The project was divided into several subtasks. First, laboratory treatability testing was conducted to verify that performance specifications were achievable using the proposed reagent formulations. Next, a pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con using a Manotowoc 4000 crane equipped with a 1.5-meter diameter auger to evaluate shallow soil mixing. The final task included a comparative study between the performance of test specimens collected using wet sampling techniques versus in situ post-treatment coring.

  14. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant: Phase 2 demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Bujewski, G.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive sampling programs provide real opportunities to save considerable time and money when characterizing hazardous waste sites. This Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project demonstrated two decision-support technologies, SitePlanner{trademark} and Plume{trademark}, that can facilitate the design and deployment of an adaptive sampling program. A demonstration took place at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), and was unique in that it was tightly coupled with ongoing Army characterization work at the facility, with close scrutiny by both state and federal regulators. The demonstration was conducted in partnership with the Army Environmental Center`s (AEC) Installation Restoration Program and AEC`s Technology Development Program. AEC supported researchers from Tufts University who demonstrated innovative field analytical techniques for the analysis of TNT and DNT. SitePlanner{trademark} is an object-oriented database specifically designed for site characterization that provides an effective way to compile, integrate, manage and display site characterization data as it is being generated. Plume{trademark} uses a combination of Bayesian analysis and geostatistics to provide technical staff with the ability to quantitatively merge soft and hard information for an estimate of the extent of contamination. Plume{trademark} provides an estimate of contamination extent, measures the uncertainty associated with the estimate, determines the value of additional sampling, and locates additional samples so that their value is maximized.

  15. Autonomous real-time adaptive management of soil salinity using a receding horizon control algorithm: a pilot-scale demonstration.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonjeong; Harmon, Thomas C

    2011-10-01

    Soil salinization is a potentially negative side effect of irrigation with reclaimed water. While optimization schemes have been applied to soil salinity control, these have typically failed to take advantage of real-time sensor feedback. This study incorporates current soil observation technologies into the optimal feedback-control scheme known as Receding Horizon Control (RHC) to enable successful autonomous control of soil salinization. RHC uses real-time sensor measurements, physically-based state prediction models, and optimization algorithms to drive field conditions to a desired environmental state by manipulating application rate or irrigation duration/frequency. A simulation model including the Richards equation coupled to energy and solute transport equations is employed as a state estimator. Vertical multi-sensor arrays installed in the soil provide initial conditions and continuous feedback to the control scheme. An optimization algorithm determines the optimal irrigation rate or frequency subject to imposed constraints protective of soil salinization. A small-scale field test demonstrates that the RHC scheme is capable of autonomously maintaining specified salt levels at a prescribed soil depth. This finding suggests that, given an adequately structured and trained simulation model, sensor networks, and optimization algorithms can be integrated using RHC to autonomously achieve water reuse and agricultural objectives while managing soil salinization.

  16. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Final report, Volume 2, Appendices A to E

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-04-05

    This is a final report presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOC`s and other organic chemicals. Although it may be applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by air flow.

  17. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.A.

    1995-06-05

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ``Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program`` (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels.

  18. Cone penetrometer deployed in situ video microscope for characterizing sub-surface soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, S.H.; Knowles, D.S.; Kertesz, J.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper we report on the development and field testing of an in situ video microscope that has been integrated with a cone penetrometer probe in order to provide a real-time method for characterizing subsurface soil properties. The video microscope system consists of a miniature CCD color camera system coupled with an appropriate magnification and focusing optics to provide a field of view with a coverage of approximately 20 mm. The camera/optic system is mounted in a cone penetrometer probe so that the camera views the soil that is in contact with a sapphire window mounted on the side of the probe. The soil outside the window is illuminated by diffuse light provided through the window by an optical fiber illumination system connected to a white light source at the surface. The video signal from the camera is returned to the surface where it can be displayed in real-time on a video monitor, recorded on a video cassette recorder (VCR), and/or captured digitally with a frame grabber installed in a microcomputer system. In its highest resolution configuration, the in situ camera system has demonstrated a capability to resolve particle sizes as small as 10 {mu}m. By using other lens systems to increase the magnification factor, smaller particles could be resolved, however, the field of view would be reduced. Initial field tests have demonstrated the ability of the camera system to provide real-time qualitative characterization of soil particle sizes. In situ video images also reveal information on porosity of the soil matrix and the presence of water in the saturated zone. Current efforts are focused on the development of automated imaging processing techniques as a means of extracting quantitative information on soil particle size distributions. Data will be presented that compares data derived from digital images with conventional sieve/hydrometer analyses.

  19. Characterization of Biochars Produced from Cornstovers for Soil Amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dr. James W; Kidder, Michelle; Evans, Barbara; Buchanan III, A C; Garten Jr, Charles T; Paik, Sok W; Brown, Dr. Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Through cation exchange capacity assay, nitrogen adsorption-desorption surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopic imaging, infrared spectra and elemental analyses, we characterized biochar materials produced from cornstover under two different pyrolysis conditions, fast pyrolysis at 450 C and gasification at 700 C. Our experimental results showed that the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the fastpyrolytic char is about twice as high as that of the gasification char as well as that of a standard soil sample. The CEC values correlate well with the increase in the ratios of the oxygen atoms to the carbon atoms (O:C ratios) in the biochar materials. The higher O:C ratio was consistent with the presence of more hydroxyl, carboxylate, and carbonyl groups in the fast pyrolysis char. These results show how control of biomass pyrolysis conditions can improve biochar properties for soil amendment and carbon sequestration. Since the CEC of the fast-pyrolytic cornstover char can be about double that of a standard soil sample, this type of biochar products would be suitable for improvement of soil properties such as CEC, and at the same time, can serve as a carbon sequestration agent.

  20. Disturbed soil characterization workshop: post-meeting summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, J. Michael

    2010-04-01

    Disturbance of ground surfaces can arise from a variety of processes, both manmade and natural. Burying landmines, vehicle movement, and walking are representative examples of processes that disturb ground surfaces. The nature of the specific disturbance process can lead to the observables that can aid the detection and identification of that process. While much research has been conducted in this area, fundamental questions related to the remote detection and characterization of disturbed soil surfaces remain unanswered. Under the sponsorship of the Army Research Office (ARO), the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Engineering Research and Development Center (ERDC), Georgia Tech hosted a workshop to address Remote Sensing Methods for Disturbed Soil Characterization. The workshop was held January 15-17, 2008 in Atlanta. The primary objective of this workshop was to take a new look at the disturbed soil problem in general as well as its relation to buried explosive detection and other manmade disturbances. In particular, the participants sought to outline the basic science and technology questions that need to be addressed across the full spectrum of military applications to fully exploit this phenomenon. This presentation will outline the approach taken during the workshop and provide a summary of the conclusions.

  1. Changes in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Return Flow in an Integrated Seawater Agriculture System (ISAS) Demonstration in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Q.; Matiin, W. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-12-01

    Growing halophytes using Integrated Seawater Agriculture Systems (ISAS) offers a sustainable solution for the generation of biomass feedstock for carbon neutral biofuels - halophytes do not enter the foodchain and they do not compete with food-crops for natural resources. A field demonstration of ISAS in the coastal regions of Abu Dhabi, UAE, scheduled to start in 2013, will likely face a number of region-specific challenges not encountered in past demonstrations of ISAS at coastal locations in Mexico and Eritrea. The arid climate, unique soil chemistry (evaporite deposits, especially gypsum), and hypersaline coastal hydrogeology of Abu Dhabi will affect long-term halophyte agricultural productivity when Arabian Gulf seawater is applied to coastal soils as part of ISAS. Therefore, the changes in irrigation return flow quality and soil chemistry must be monitored closely over time to establish transient salt and water balances in order to assess the sustainability of ISAS in the region. As an initial phase of the ISAS demonstration project, numerical modeling of different seawater loadings onto coastal soils was conducted to estimate the chemical characteristics of soil and the irrigation return flow over time. These modeling results will be validated with field monitoring data upon completion of one year of ISAS operation. The results from this study could be used to (i) determine the optimal saline water loading that the soils at the ISAS site can tolerate, (ii) potential for sodicity of the soil with saline water application, (iii) impacts of land application of saline water on underlying coastal groundwater, and (iv) develop strategies to control soil water activities in favor of halophyte agricultural productivity.

  2. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM ALASKAN BATTERY ENTERPRISES SITE - BRICE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BESCORP Soil Washing System is an aqueous volume reduction system that utilizes trommel agitation, high-pressure washing, sizing, and density separation to remove lead, lead compounds, and battery casing chips from soil contaminated by broken lead batteries. The basic concept...

  3. Use of photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy to characterize soil properties and soil organic matter stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltre, Clement; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen; Stoumann Jensen, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The persistence of soil organic matter (SOM) is recognized as a major ecosystem property due to its key role in earth carbon cycling, soil quality and ecosystem services. SOM stability is typically studied using biological methods such as measuring CO2-C evolution from microbial decomposition of SOM during laboratory incubation or by physical or chemical fractionation methods, allowing the separation of a labile fraction of SOM. However these methods are time consuming and there is still a need for developing reliable techniques to characterize SOM stability, providing both quantitative measurements and qualitative information, in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling SOM persistence. Several spectroscopic techniques have been used to characterize and predict SOM stability, such as near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). The latter allows a proper identification of spectral regions corresponding to vibrations of specific molecular or functional groups associated with SOM lability. However, reflectance spectroscopy for soil analyses raises some difficulties related to the low reflectance of soils, and to the high influence of particle size. In the last three decades, the progresses in microphone sensitivity dramatically increased the performance of photoacoustic Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). This technique offers benefits over reflectance spectroscopy techniques, because particle size and the level of sample reflectance have little effect of on the PAS signal, since FTIR-PAS is a direct absorption technique. Despite its high potential for soil analysis, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS for soil characterization and its potential for determining SOM degradability still needs to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterization of SOM decomposability during

  4. Characterization of plasma sprayed and explosively consolidated simulated lunar soil

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, S.J.; Inal, O.T.; Smith, M.F.

    1997-06-01

    Two methods for the use of lunar materials for the construction of shelters on the Moon are being proposed: explosive consolidation of the soil into structural components and plasma spraying of the soil to join components. The plasma-sprayed coating would also provide protection from the intense radiation. In this work, a mare simulant was plasma-sprayed onto a stainless steel substrate. Deposition of a 0.020 inch coating using power inputs of 23, 25, 27 and 29 kW were compared. Hardness of the coatings increased with each increase of power to the system, while porosity at the interface decreased. All coatings exhibited good adhesion. Simultaneously, an explosively consolidated sample was similarly characterized to afford a comparison of structural features associated with each mode of proposed use.

  5. Comprehensive sampling of an isolated dune system demonstrates clear patterns in soil fungal communities across a successional gradient.

    PubMed

    Roy-Bolduc, Alice; Bell, Terrence H; Boudreau, Stéphane; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Coastal sand dunes are extremely dynamic ecosystems, characterized by stark ecological succession gradients. Dune stabilization is mainly attributed to plant growth, but the establishment and survival of dune-inhabiting vegetation is closely linked to soil microorganisms and to the ecological functions they fulfill. Fungi are particularly important in this context, as some interact intimately with plant roots, while others are critical to soil structure and nutrient availability. Our study aimed to describe wholly fungal diversity and community composition in a secluded coastal dune ecosystem at eight different stages of succession. We comprehensively sampled a relic foredune plain, which is part of an archipelago in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (Québec, Canada), by collecting soils from 80 sites and measuring soil characteristics. Soil fungal communities were characterized by pyrosequencing, followed by taxonomic classification and assignment of putative roles. Even though we did not observe clear patterns in diversity, we were able to detect distinct taxonomic and community composition signatures across succession stages, which seemed to translate into variations in fungal life strategies. Our results show that a taxonomically and functionally diverse fungal community exists at each dune succession stage, even in the barren foredunes.

  6. A case study demonstration of the soil temperature extrema recovery rates after precipitation cooling at 10-cm soil depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1991-01-01

    Since the invention of maximum and minimum thermometers in the 18th century, diurnal temperature extrema have been taken for air worldwide. At some stations, these extrema temperatures were collected at various soil depths also, and the behavior of these temperatures at a 10-cm depth at the Tifton Experimental Station in Georgia is presented. After a precipitation cooling event, the diurnal temperature maxima drop to a minimum value and then start a recovery to higher values (similar to thermal inertia). This recovery represents a measure of response to heating as a function of soil moisture and soil property. Eight different curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years, and both power and exponential curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years. Both power and exponential curve fits were consistently found to be statistically accurate least-square fit representations of the raw data recovery values. The predictive procedures used here were multivariate regression analyses, which are applicable to soils at a variety of depths besides the 10-cm depth presented.

  7. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs.

  8. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  9. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources. PMID:27548986

  10. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  11. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil.

  12. Rapid and effective decontamination of chlorophenol-contaminated soil by sorption into commercial polymers: concept demonstration and process modeling.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Solid phase extraction performed with commercial polymer beads to treat soil contaminated by chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as single compounds and in a mixture has been investigated in this study. Soil-water-polymer partition tests were conducted to determine the relative affinities of single compounds in soil-water and polymer-water pairs. Subsequent soil extraction tests were performed with Hytrel 8206, the polymer showing the highest affinity for the tested chlorophenols. Factors that were examined were polymer type, moisture content, and contamination level. Increased moisture content (up to 100%) improved the extraction efficiency for all three compounds. Extraction tests at this upper level of moisture content showed removal efficiencies ≥70% for all the compounds and their ternary mixture, for 24 h of contact time, which is in contrast to the weeks and months, normally required for conventional ex situ remediation processes. A dynamic model characterizing the rate and extent of decontamination was also formulated, calibrated and validated with the experimental data. The proposed model, based on the simplified approach of "lumped parameters" for the mass transfer coefficients, provided very good predictions of the experimental data for the absorptive removal of contaminants from soil at different individual solute levels. Parameters evaluated from calibration by fitting of single compound data, have been successfully applied to predict mixture data, with differences between experimental and predicted data in all cases being ≤3%.

  13. Characterization Activities Conducted at the 183-DR Site in Support of an In Situ Gaseous Reduction Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Edward C.; Gilmore, Tyler J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Schalla, Ronald; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2001-03-30

    In Situ Gaseous Reduction (ISGR) is a technology developed by DOE for the remediation of soil waste sites contaminated with hexavalent chromium. This document presents information associated with characterization activities conducted at the 183-DR site at Hanford, which is associated with a significant groundwater contaminant plume and was formerly a water treatment facility that utilized chromate as a corrosion inhibitor. Geotechnical and chemical data were collected during the excavation of trenches and the drilling of two vadose zone boreholes to support a possible ISGR demonstration at 183-DR. Although elevated total chromium and trace levels of hexavalent chromium were identified from one of the trenches and one of the boreholes, it appears that the boreholes missed the vadose zone contaminant source responsible for the chromium groundwater plume located downgradient of the 183-DR site. Recommendations are provided, however, for future work at 183-DR that may serve to identify the source for the groundwater plume and possibly provide an opportunity for an ISGR demonstration.

  14. SoilSaw{trademark} demonstration. Final report, September 1992--January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Saugier, K.; Isaac, R.E.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified leaking underground storage tanks and buried mixed waste at numerous sites within the DOE complex. Preventing these wastes from entering the environment is a challenging task. One method of preventing waste migration is to isolate the contaminants using subsurface containment barriers. Isolation and containment can be accomplished by both in situ and ex situ methods. This report describes a novel in situ construction method of forming vertical containment barriers (slurry walls) using the SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System. The SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System is shown to be a feasible process for constructing subsurface vertical containment barriers to depths of fifty feet. The process is most efficient in sandy soil (including free flowing sand) with barrier construction rates of over 130 square feet per minute. Productivity diminishes to approximately 30 square feet per minute as soils become harder and more cohesive. The present hardware is designed to form a barrier of approximately 12 inch in width. Additional barrier widths can be constructed with this technology by application of wider jet heads. The requirement for a varied arrangement of barrier widths is an increase in hydraulic horse power and additional jet heads.

  15. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  16. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  17. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  18. Spatial characterization of soil properties and influence in soil formation in oak-grassland of Sierra Morena, S Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Sánchez, Andrea; Cáceres, Francisco; Pédèches, Remi; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean oak-grassland ecosystem is very important for the rural economy and for the biodiversity of south-western European countries like Spain and Portugal. Nevertheless these ecosystems are not well characterized especially their soils. In this report soil carbon has been evaluated and related to other properties. The principal factors controlling the structure, productivity and evolution of forest ecosystems are bedrock, climate, relief, vegetation and time. Soil carbon has an important influence in the soil and ecosystem structures. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between relief, soil properties, spatial distribution of soil carbon and their influence in soil formation and geomorphology. This work is part of another study which aims to elucidate the processes involved in the soil formation and to examine their behaviour on long-term with a modelling. In our study area, located in oak-grassland of Sierra Morena, in Cordoba, S Spain, have been studied 67 points at 6 depths in 262 hectares in order to determine carbon content varying between 0-6%, soil properties such as soil depth between 0-4 m, horizon depth and the rocks amount in surface. The relationship between the soil carbon, soil properties and the relief characteristic like slope, aspect, curvature can shed light the processes that affect the mechanisms of bedrock weathering and their interrelationship with geomorphological processes.

  19. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2005-08-03

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  20. Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy.

    PubMed

    Cvetojevic, N; Lawrence, J S; Ellis, S C; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Haynes, R; Horton, A

    2009-10-12

    We present results from the first on-sky demonstration of a prototype astronomical integrated photonic spectrograph (IPS) using the Anglo-Australian Telescope near-infrared imaging spectrometer (IRIS2) at Siding Spring Observatory to observe atmospheric molecular OH emission lines. We have succeeded in detecting upwards of 27 lines, and demonstrated the practicality of the IPS device for astronomy. Furthermore, we present a laboratory characterization of the device, which is a modified version of a commercial arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer. We measure the spectral resolution full-width-half-maximum to be 0.75 +/- 0.05 nm (giving R = lambda/deltalambda = 2100 +/- 150 at 1500 nm). We find the free spectral range to be 57.4 +/- 0.6 nm and the peak total efficiency to be approximately 65%. Finally, we briefly discuss the future steps required to realize an astronomical instrument based on this technology concept.

  1. Characterization and remediation of highly radioactive contaminated soil at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, M.A.; Erickson, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1,500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI/FS is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste sites within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. These data were then used. to develop remedial alternatives during the FS evaluation. The preferred alternative resulting from the RI/FS process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit is to construct a surface isolation barrier. The multi-layered earthen barrier will be designed to prevent migration of contaminants resulting from water infiltration, biointrusion, and wind and water erosion.

  2. INEL support to the plutonium in soil integrated demonstration (Nevada). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    A grab sample of 14 metric tons of uncontaminated Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) soil was excavated, packaged, and shipped to the Nevada Test Site for soil separation testing. The grab sample was from the Lost River Settling Area-B, located north-663541.06, east-262153.12, and elevation-5013.83 ft. The sample material contained soil and unconsolidated sediments from the ground surface to approximately 3.3-m deep. The material was collected in exactly the same way and from exactly the same place as material used to landscape and backfill the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL. Qualitative observations, using polarizing light microscopy, indicated that the principal components of the material are quartz, plagioclase, and calcite. Iron oxide material was present as a coating on most sediment particles. Clay minerals were not observed but are probably present. The diameter of most of the particles was between 10 and 75 gm. Field observations indicated that the calcite was a cement and occurred in vertical trending veins in the unconsolidated sediments.

  3. Characterization of a desert soil sequence at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Guertal, W.R.; Hofmann, L.L.; Hudson, D.B.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Morphological descriptions, borehole geophysics, hydraulic properties from samples, and a ponding experiment were used to characterize a layered, heterogeneous, desert soil sequence at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Nine major horizon units were identified using standard morphologic techniques and borehole geophysics. The borehole geophysical logging data correlated well with the observed horizons from the exposure and/or the corresponding washout zones. In addition, the geophysical logs provide a quantitative estimate of porosity for the horizons with porosity ranging from 25 to 55 percent. As part of an infiltration experiment, over 50,000 liters of water were applied to a 3.5 m diameter ring during a 14 day period. The final wetting depth was 5 meters. When water application was stopped, redistribution allowed water to continue downward to a maximum depth of 7.4 meters in the next several months. Water content measurements made over time indicate that the horizons had a major influence on the flow of water in the soil and may have caused over 80 percent of the water applied to move laterally.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS USING FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed characterization of the underlying and adjacent soils near a chrome plating shop utilized field-portable X- ray fluorescence (XRF) as a screening tool. XRF permitted real-time acquisition of estimates for total metal content of soils. A trailer-mounted soil coring unit...

  5. Mechanistic characterization of adsorption and slow desorption of phenanthrene aged in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul Abu; Steve Smith

    2006-09-01

    Long-term adsorption of phenanthrene to soils was characterized in a silt-loam (LHS), a sandy soil (SBS) from an uncontaminated area of a former coal treatment facility in the north of England and a podzolized soil (CNS) by use of the Polanyi-Manes model, a Langmuir-type model, and a black carbon-water distribution coefficient (K{sub BC}) at a relative aqueous concentration (C{sub e}/S{sub w}) of 0.002 - 0.32. Aqueous desorption kinetic tests and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were also used to evaluate phenanthrene diffusivities and desorption activation energies. Adsorption contribution in soils was 48-70% after 30 days and 64-95% after 270 days. Significant increases in adsorption capacity with aging suggest that accessibility of phenanthrene to fractions of SBS soil matrix was controlled by sorptive diffusion at narrow meso- and micropore constrictions. Similar trends were not significant for LHS silt-loam or CNS podzol. Analysis of TPD profiles reveal desorption activation energies of 35-53 kJ/mol and diffusivities of 1.6 x 10{sup -7-}9.7 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s. TPD tests also indicate that the fraction of phenanthrene mass not diffusing from soils was located within micropores and narrow width mesopores with a corresponding volume of 1.83 10{sup -5-}6.3710{sup -5} cm{sup 3}/g. These values were consistent with the modeled adsorption contributions, thus demonstrating the need for such complimentary analytical approach in the risk assessment of organic contaminants. 41 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Effect of Spatial Resolution for Characterizing Soil Properties from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of quantifying soil constituents over large areas using airborne hyperspectral data [0.35 - 2.5 μm] in an ensemble bootstrapping lasso algorithmic framework has been demonstrated previously [1]. However the effects of coarsening the spatial resolution of hyperspectral data on the quantification of soil constituents are unknown. We use Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected at 7.6m resolution over Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway for up-scaling and generating multiple coarser resolution datasets including the 60m Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) like data. HyspIRI is a proposed visible shortwave/thermal infrared mission, which will provide global data over a spectral range of 0.35 - 2.5μm at a spatial resolution of 60m. Our results show that the lasso method, which is based on point scale observational data, is scalable. We found consistent good model performance (R2) values (0.79 < R2 < 0.82) and correct classifications as per USDA soil texture classes at multiple spatial resolutions. The results further demonstrate that the attributes of the pdf for different soil constituents across the landscape and the within-pixel variance are well preserved across scales. Our analysis provides a methodological framework with a sufficient set of metrics for assessing the performance of scaling up analysis from point scale observational data and may be relevant for other similar remote sensing studies. [1] Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A.E.; Kumar, P.; Garvey, J.E.; Darmody, R.G.; Berretta, D.P.; Greenberg, J.A., "On the Feasibility of Characterizing Soil Properties From AVIRIS Data," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.53, no.9, pp.5133,5147, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2417547.

  7. Comparative analysis of different measurement techniques for characterizing soil surface roughness in agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Agirre, Alex; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Valle, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Álvaro; Giménez, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Soil surface roughness can be defined as the variation in soil surface elevations, and as such, it is a key element in hydrology and soil erosion processes. In agricultural soils, roughness is mainly an anthropic factor determined by the type of tillage and management. Roughness is also a property with a high spatial variability, since the same type of tillage can result in surfaces with different roughness depending on the physical characteristics of the soil and atmospheric conditions. In order to quantify roughness and to parameterize its role in different processes, different measurement techniques have been used and several parameters have been proposed in the literature. The objective of this work is to evaluate different measurement techniques and assess their accuracy and suitability for quantifying surface roughness in agricultural soils. With this aim, a comparative analysis of three roughness measurement techniques has been carried out; (1) laser profilometer, (2) convergent photogrammetry and (3) terrestrial laser scanner. Roughness measurements were done in 3 experimental plots (5x5 meters) with different tillage treatments (representing different roughness conditions) obtained with typical agricultural tools. The laser profilometer registered vertically the distance from a reference bar down to the surface. It had a vertical accuracy of 1.25 mm, a sampling interval of 5 mm and a total length profile of 5 m. Eight profiles were taken per plot, four in parallel to tillage direction and four in perpendicular. Convergent photogrammetry consisted of 20-30 images taken per plot from a height of 5-10 m above ground (using an elevation platform), leading to point clouds of ~25 million points per plot. Terrestrial laser scanner measurements were taken from the four sides of each plot at a measurement height of ~1.75 m above ground. After orientating and corregistering the four scans, point clouds of ~60 million points were obtained per plot. The comparative

  8. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-04-06

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  9. Hanford tanks initiative work plan -- subsurface characterization to support the closure-readiness demonstration for tank 241-AX-104

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.

    1996-09-27

    This document presents a plan for subsurface investigation near 241-AX-104 Single-Shell tank. Objectives of the investigation are soil sampling and analyses (physical and chemical), local stratigraphic correlation, groundwater background characterization, and geophysical surveys. The primary purpose of the investigation is to supply physical and hydraulic properties for numerical modeling of vadose zone flow and transport.

  10. Arid site characterization and technology assessment: Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program was initiated in March 1991 to evaluate technologies for all phases of remediation of VOCs in soils and groundwater at DOE arid/semiarid sites. The primary site for field demonstrations under the VOC-Arid ID program is the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to describe (1) the bases for technologies currently under evaluation in the VOC-Arid ID program; (2) the types of subsurface contamination at DOE arid/semiarid sites; and (3) the areas of potential common technology interests based on perceived technology needs at other DOE sites. This report was compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in response to DOE`s Office of Technology Development`s mission to carry out an aggressive program to accelerate the development and implementation of new and existing technologies to meet a 30-year goal set by DOE in June 1989 to clean up all of its sites and to bring all sites into compliance with current and future environmental regulations. A key component of this program is the development of technologies that are better, faster, safer, and cheaper than those technologies currently available. Included in this report are an evaluation of technologies currently (fiscal year 1993) being pursued at the Hanford Site under the auspices of the VOC-Arid ID program, an assessment of subsurface contaminants at arid/semiarid sites, a summarization of technologies under consideration at other DOE sites, a discussion of areas of potential common technology interests, and the conclusions. Also included are a summary of the extent of contamination at the DOE arid/semiarid sites under consideration and a bibliography of source documents from which this report was prepared.

  11. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Scurtu, A.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  12. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Ticoş, C M; Scurtu, A; Toader, D; Banu, N

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  13. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Ticoş, C M; Scurtu, A; Toader, D; Banu, N

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic. PMID:25832231

  14. Payload characterization for CubeSat demonstration of MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinan, Anne; Cahoy, Kerri; Webber, Matthew; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Coronagraphic space telescopes require wavefront control systems for high-contrast imaging applications such as exoplanet direct imaging. High-actuator-count MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) are a key element of these wavefront control systems yet have not been flown in space long enough to characterize their on-orbit performance. The MEMS Deformable Mirror CubeSat Testbed is a conceptual nanosatellite demonstration of MEMS DM and wavefront sensing technology. The testbed platform is a 3U CubeSat bus. Of the 10 x 10 x 34.05 cm (3U) available volume, a 10 x 10 x 15 cm space is reserved for the optical payload. The main purpose of the payload is to characterize and calibrate the onorbit performance of a MEMS deformable mirror over an extended period of time (months). Its design incorporates both a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (internal laser illumination), and a focal plane sensor (used with an external aperture to image bright stars). We baseline a 32-actuator Boston Micromachines Mini deformable mirror for this mission, though the design is flexible and can be applied to mirrors from other vendors. We present the mission design and payload architecture and discuss experiment design, requirements, and performance simulations.

  15. Evaluation of a soil incubation method to characterize nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of slow-release fertilizers (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers, and are product-specific, based on the regulation and analysis of each SRF and CRF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize SRF and CRF materials, no standardized, validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of these materials in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify product claims and material performance. A soil incubation column leaching procedure was evaluated to determine its suitability as a standard method to estimate nitrogen (N) release patterns of SRFs and CRFs during 180 days. The influence of three soil/sand ratios, three incubation temperatures, and four soils on method behavior was assessed using five SRFs and three CRFs. In general, the highest soil/sand ratio increased the N release rate of all materials, but this effect was more marked for the SRFs. Temperature had the greatest influence on N release rates. For CRFs, the initial N release rates and the percentage N released/day increased as temperature increased. For SRFs, raising the temperature from 25 to 35 degreesC increased initial N release rate and the total cumulative N released, and almost doubled the percentage released/day. The percentage N released/day from all products generally increased as the texture of the soil changed from sandy to loamy (lowa>California>Pennsylvania>Florida). The soil incubation technique was demonstrated to be robust and reliable for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and variations in soil/sand ratio, temperature, and soil had little effect on the results. PMID:25051610

  16. Evaluation of a soil incubation method to characterize nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of slow-release fertilizers (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers, and are product-specific, based on the regulation and analysis of each SRF and CRF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize SRF and CRF materials, no standardized, validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of these materials in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify product claims and material performance. A soil incubation column leaching procedure was evaluated to determine its suitability as a standard method to estimate nitrogen (N) release patterns of SRFs and CRFs during 180 days. The influence of three soil/sand ratios, three incubation temperatures, and four soils on method behavior was assessed using five SRFs and three CRFs. In general, the highest soil/sand ratio increased the N release rate of all materials, but this effect was more marked for the SRFs. Temperature had the greatest influence on N release rates. For CRFs, the initial N release rates and the percentage N released/day increased as temperature increased. For SRFs, raising the temperature from 25 to 35 degreesC increased initial N release rate and the total cumulative N released, and almost doubled the percentage released/day. The percentage N released/day from all products generally increased as the texture of the soil changed from sandy to loamy (lowa>California>Pennsylvania>Florida). The soil incubation technique was demonstrated to be robust and reliable for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and variations in soil/sand ratio, temperature, and soil had little effect on the results.

  17. Modeling ecological data in soil ecosystems: A demonstration for heavy metal transport by earthworms using Stella II{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.M.; Tomlin, A.D.; Protz, R. ||

    1995-06-01

    Various modeling approaches have been developed for use in aquatic systems, but few exist for terrestrial systems. Using the modeling application software, Stella II{trademark}, we incorporated field data to parameterize the storage compartments and flux rates amongst compartments. This software is intuitive and easy to master yet robust in its application to many types of ecological systems. The applicability of Stella II{trademark} to modeling field data was demonstrated using contaminant cadmium residues as tracers of sludge applications to land near Guelph, Canada. Earthworms were found to be very significant in transporting the Cd (and the sludge) in this soil ecosystem. The utility of this modeling procedure can be extended to carbon and nutrient cycling as well as xenobiotics such as heavy metals and pesticides to predict their transport in soil ecosystems.

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay for the TRU Waste Characterization Program. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests conducted on a regular frequency to evaluate the capability for nondestructive assay of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed with TRU waste characterization systems. Measurement facility performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples according to the criteria set by this Program Plan. Intercomparison between measurement groups of the DOE complex will be achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar or identical blind samples reported by the different measurement facilities. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs). As defined for this program, a PDP sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components, once manufactured, will be secured and stored at each participating measurement facility designated and authorized by Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) under secure conditions to protect them from loss, tampering, or accidental damage.

  19. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Marschman, Steven C.; Warmann, Stephan A.; Rusch, Chris

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology, has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The mission of the UFDC is to identify alternatives and conduct scientific research and technology development to enable storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. The UFDC Storage and Transportation staffs are responsible for addressing issues regarding the extended or long-term storage of UNF and its subsequent transportation. The near-term objectives of the Storage and Transportation task are to use a science-based approach to develop the technical bases to support the continued safe and secure storage of UNF for extended periods, subsequent retrieval, and transportation. While low burnup fuel [that characterized as having a burnup of less than 45 gigawatt days per metric tonne uranium (GWD/MTU)] has been stored for nearly three decades, the storage of high burnup used fuels is more recent. The DOE has funded a demonstration project to confirm the behavior of used high burnup fuel under prototypic conditions. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is leading a project team to develop and implement the Test Plan to collect this data from a UNF dry storage system containing high burnup fuel. The Draft Test Plan for the demonstration outlines the data to be collected; the high burnup fuel to be included; the technical data gaps the data will address; and the storage system design, procedures, and licensing necessary to implement the Test Plan. To provide data that is most relevant to high burnup fuel in dry storage, the design of the test storage system must closely mimic real conditions high burnup SNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying

  20. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements for in Situ Characterization of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic separation is a viable method for concentration of components of lunar soils and rocks for use as feedstocks for manufacture of metals, oxygen, and for recovery of volatiles such as He-3. Work with lunar materials indicates that immature soils are the best candidates for magnetic beneficiation. The magnetic susceptibility at which selected soil components such as anorthite, ilmenite, or metallic iron are separated is not affected by soil maturity, but the recovery of the concentrated components is. Increasing soil maturity lowers recovery. Mature soils contain significant amounts of glass-encased metallic iron. Magnetic susceptibility, which is sensitive to metallic iron content, can be used to measure soil maturity. The relationship between the ratio of magnetic susceptibility and iron oxide and the conventional maturity parameter, I(sub s)/FeO, ferromagnetic resonant intensity divided by iron oxide content is given. The magnetic susceptibilities were determined using apparatus designed for magnetic separation of the lunar soils.

  1. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of the demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.

  2. Summary report of the drilling technologies tested at the Integrated Demonstration Project for cleanup of organic contaminants in soils and groundwater at non-arid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of volatile organic compounds in soil and groundwater at SRS. The overall goal of the program is the demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Horizontal environmental well installation technology was one of the remediation technologies that was demonstrated at SRS. Four distinctly different systems of directional drilling and horizontal well installations were successfully demonstrated and evaluated. The four systems were developed in the petroleum industry, the river crossing industry, and the utility industry. The transfer of information concerning the horizontal environmental well installations has been facilitated by publishing a series of reports describing each individual demonstration. This is the final report in the series and provides a comprehensive evaluation of all four systems. The objectives of this report are to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of each drilling technology, describe and compare the problems encountered by each drilling technology, compare the compatibility of each technology with varying logistical and geological conditions, and discuss the expense of using each technology. This report is designed to be a horizontal environmental well reference document for the environmental remediation industry. An environmental problem holder may use this report to evaluate a directional drilling technology for use at his/her site.

  3. Demonstration and partial characterization of the interferon-gamma receptor on human mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Celada, A; Allen, R; Esparza, I; Gray, P W; Schreiber, R D

    1985-01-01

    Radioiodinated recombinant human interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) bound to human monocytes, U937, and HL60 cells in a specific, saturable, and reversible manner. At 4 degrees C, the different cell types bound 3,000-7,000 molecules of IFN gamma, and binding was of comparable affinity (Ka = 4-12 X 10(8) M-1). No change in the receptor was observed after monocytes differentiated to macrophages or when the cell lines were pharmacologically induced to differentiate. The functional relevance of the receptor was validated by the demonstration that receptor occupancy correlated with induction of Fc receptors on U937. Binding studies using U937 permeabilized with digitonin showed that only 46% of the total receptor pool was expressed at the cell surface. The receptor appears to be a protein, since treatment of U937 with trypsin or pronase reduced 125I-IFN gamma binding by 87 and 95%, respectively. At 37 degrees C, ligand was internalized, since 32% of the cell-associated IFN gamma became resistant to trypsin stripping. Monocytes degraded 125I-IFN gamma into trichloroacetic acid-soluble counts at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C, at an approximate rate of 5,000 molecules/cell per h. The receptor was partially characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of purified U937 membranes that had been incubated with 125I-IFN gamma. After cross-linking, the receptor-ligand complex migrated as a broad band that displayed an Mr of 104,000 +/- 18,000 at the top and 84,000 +/- 6,000 at the bottom. These results thereby define and partially characterize the IFN gamma receptor of human mononuclear phagocytes. Images PMID:2934408

  4. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Characterization of the Resource Potential of Martian Soil using the Integrated Dust/Soil Experiment Package (IDEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Mckay, David S.; Allen, Carlton C.; Hoffman, John H.; Gittleman, Mark E.

    1997-01-01

    The Integrated Dust/Soil Experiment Package (IDEP) is a suite of instruments that can detect and quantify the abundances of useful raw materials on Mars. We focus here on its capability for resource characterization in the martian soil; however, it is also capable of detecting and quantifying gases in the atmosphere. This paper describes the scientific rationale and the engineering design behind the IDEP.

  6. Characterizing adsorptive properties and DOC concentrations in soils of Northern European Russian tundra and taiga.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterwoud, Marieke; Temminghoff, Erwin; van der Zee, Sjoerd

    2010-05-01

    Subarctic river basins have an enormous potential to mobilize and transport terrestrial OC to the Arctic Ocean, because 23-48% of the worlds soils organic carbon (SOC) is stored in the high latitude region. Currently the Arctic drainage basin (~24 x 106 km2) processes about 11% of the global dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is exported to the ocean. About 10-25% of annual C input to the organic surface layer with litter is leached from the organic surface layers. As climate changes, the amount and chemical composition of DOC exported from these basins are expected to change. Adsorption of DOC on mineral phases is the key geochemical process for the release and removal of DOC from this potentially soluble carbon pool. Most DOC leached from organic horizons is adsorbed and retained in the subsoils. The adsorption depends much on the content of sesquioxides and amount of carbon previously accumulated in soils. Besides adsorption, polyvalent metal ions in solution, such as Al and Ca, can cause precipitation of DOC. Along with the decrease of DOC concentrations on its passage through mineral soil, there are major biochemical alterations of DOC composition. Hydrophobic compounds (humic and fulvic acids) of high molecular weight that are rich in acidic functional groups and aromatic compounds adsorb most strongly. Hydrophilic compounds can contribute to DOC adsorption but are also easily desorbed because of the weaker bonding strength. The aim of this study was to characterize the DOC concentrations and their chemical composition as well as the DOC adsorptive properties of soils found in a tundra and taiga catchment of Northern Russia. We sampled soil and soil solution from two catchments in the Komi Republic of European Northern Russia: a tundra (67N/62E) and a taiga (62N/50E). The soil samples were analysed for total organic carbon (Ct) and the content of sequioxides. By extracting soil samples with water we got an impression of the potentially extractable organic

  7. Characterization and Design of Digital Pointing Subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racho, C.; Portillo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory-based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision bearn pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The. design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the, system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the. required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure. to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  8. Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Lunar Highland Soils: Insights into the Space Weathering of Soils on Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Dong-Hwa S.; Pieters, Carle; Morris, Richard V.; Keller, Lindsay P.; McKay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    With reflectance spectroscopy, one is measuring only properties of the fine-grained regolith, most affected by space weathering. The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has undertaken the task of coordinated characterization of lunar soils, with respect to their mineralogical and chemical makeup. It is these lunar soils that are being used as "ground-truth" for all air30 less bodies. Modal abundances and chemistries of minerals and glasses in the finest size fractions (20-45, 10-20, and <10 microns) of four Apollo 14 and six Apollo 16 highland soils have been determined, as well as their bulk chemistry and IS/FeO values. Bi-directional reflectance measurements (0.3-2.6 microns) of all samples were performed in the RELAB. A significant fraction of nanophase Fe(sup 0) (np-Fe(sup 0)) appears to reside in agglutinitic glasses. However, as grain size of a soil decreases, the percentage of total iron present as np-Fe0 increases significantly, whereas the agglutinitic glass content rises only slightly; this is evidence for a large contribution to the IS/FeO values from the surface-correlated nanophase Fe(sup 0), particularly in the <10 micron size fraction. The compositions of the agglutinitic glasses in these fine fractions of the highland soils are different from the bulk-chemistry of that size; however, compositional trends of the glasses are not the same as those observed for mare soils. It is apparent that the glasses in the highland soils contain chemical components from outside their terrains. It is proposed that the Apollo 16 soils have been adulterated by the addition of impact-transported soil components from surrounding maria.

  9. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  10. [Effect freezing and thawing cycles on fluorescence characterization of black soil dissolved organic matter].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tai-Ming; Wang, Ye-Yao; Xiang, Bao; Hu, Yu

    2011-08-01

    Fluorescence characterization of soil dissolved organic matter (DOM), which is one of the most important indexes concerning study on soil organic matter, can be effected by freezing and thawing cycles. In this paper, the fluorescence characterization of black soil DOM under the effect of freezing and thawing cycles was studied, using three-dimensional excitation-emission-matrix fluorescence spectroscopic (EEM). Based on the transformation of fluorescence characterization, the influences of humification degree and active humus in black soil were analysed. The result showed, compared with untreated by freezing and thawing cycles, (1) The phenomena red-shift of UV fulvic-like was found in soil DOM. It meant that the aromatization and humification degree increased. (2) Protein-like fluorescence peak was observed in some soil samples, which meant microbial activity was enhanced. (3) Active humus and humification degree are the indexs of soil fertility. The content of TOC in the active humus rose, just the same as the value of humification degree. It meant that soil fertility was improved. (4) Compared with the ratio of UV: visible humic-like fluorescence (r(a,c)), there were positive correlations with the active humus and humification degree. It meant that r(a, c) of soil DOM was one of the indexs on active humus, humification degree and soil fertility effected by freezing and thawing cycles.

  11. 3D fluorescence-based characterization of dissolved organic matter components and their impact on soil-structure stability indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Guy; Lordian, Anna; Borisover, Mikhail

    2010-05-01

    Stable soil aggregates and structure are usually associated with increased levels of soil organic matter. A significant fraction of the latter is comprised of humic substances (HS). Opposing findings on the contribution of HS to both stabilization and increased dispersivity of soil aggregates have been reported; these findings could be related to the heterogeneity in the chemical composition of the HS. The objectives of this research were: (i) to characterize the compositional heterogeneity of HS and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil solutions, (ii) to evaluate the relations between general soil properties (e.g., organic matter, clay and calcium carbonate content, cation exchange capacity) and concentration and composition of DOM and HS in soil solution, and (iii) to examine the relationships between properties associated with soil structure such as aggregate stability and hydraulic conductivity and the composition of DOM and HS. The composition of HS and DOM in aqueous extracts, obtained from samples collected from cultivated fields of four Israeli soils (loamy sand, loam, sandy clay and clay), was characterized and quantified using 3D fluorescence (and UV-absorption) spectroscopy together with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) supported by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) measurements. Variability in the HS/DOM composition was obtained by including soils with a different history of irrigation, i.e. irrigated by fresh water and by treated wastewater. PARAFAC analysis provided scores proportional to concentrations of three major fluorescent DOM components, two were considered to represent HS and the third to represent proteinous matter (containing tryptophan). Soil structure had been characterized by saturated hydraulic conductivity and an index for aggregate stability. PARAFAC analysis demonstrated that concentrations of fluorescent DOM components in aqueous extracts were influenced by the type of water used for irrigation. This influence was distinctly

  12. FRACTURE ENHANCED SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION AT THE A-014 OUTFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Richard Hall , R

    2008-03-12

    Data collected during this study show that the performance of hydraulically fractured wells (with respect to mass removal rates) may tend to decrease with time following precipitation events. These effects are due to temporary increases in water saturation in the formation within the vicinity of the fractures, therefore, the wells should tend to rebound during subsequent dry periods. The data available for fractured well versus conventional well performance (with respect to flow rate versus vacuum pressure) are limited in this study. However, the data that we have to draw from suggest that, with the possible exception of a few extreme examples, hydraulically fractured wells tend to perform better than conventional wells during soil vapor extraction (SVE) operation at the A-14 Outfall. The pancake like geometry associated with hydraulic fractures also leads to a significant increase in zone of influence (ZOI), as compared to conventional wells. The increase in ZOI is due to the radially extending, horizontal, high-permeability conduit nature of the hydraulic fracture, however, air-flow into the fracture is predominately vertical (occurring at right angles to the fracture plane). Flow rates from above and below the fracture will tend to be equivalent when the formation is homogeneous, however, in the case of directionally fining depositional sequences flow rates will be greater from the direction of increasing permeability. The Upland Unit is a fining upward sequence, therefore flow rates (and contaminant mass flow rates) will tend to be higher below the fracture. This suggests that emplacing the fractures slightly above the source zone is an important strategy for accelerating contaminant removal at the A-014 Outfall site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. However, due to the multitude of previous borings at the A-014 Outfall site, the shallower fractures failed. More than 2500 lbs of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) were removed during approximately 6

  13. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  14. Risk-based ecological soil quality criteria for the characterization of contaminated soils. Combination of chemical and biological tools.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Dolores; Vega, María Milagrosa; Tarazona, José Vicente

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the development of soil quality criteria for the characterization of soils focused on the potential risk to the ecosystem. The approach combines both Generic Soil Quality standards (GSQs) for individual chemicals and direct ecotoxicity assays on soil samples taken from the site. Criteria establish three main risk levels with their corresponding trigger values. The trigger values to determine high risk or "polluted" soils are exclusively based on direct toxicity assessments. The trigger values for the other categories are established by a combination of the application of GSQs and the results of bioassays. Low-risk is assumed when no toxicity is observed and GSQs based on precautionary ecotoxicity thresholds are not exceeded; high-risk must be considered if acute toxicity above the proposed trigger value is observed in soil or leachate samples. In between these levels, the risk cannot be elucidated and a site-specific assessment is required. The GSQs take into account the current or future land use, thus defining three categories: industrial soils, urban/residential soils and natural/agricultural/forest soils, each of them with different ecological requirements. The GSQ values are established following an inverse risk assessment methodology, integrating ecotoxicity and exposure models and setting the soil levels associated to pre-established criteria for the assumption of low risk. The proposed methodology covers all relevant ecological receptors and processes, soil organisms, potential contamination of ground and surface waters, and exposure of terrestrial vertebrates due to bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Exposure routes and protection criteria are defined in each protection goal. The relevance of each receptor and route is established according to the land use.

  15. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Elless, M P; Armstrong, A Q; Lee, S Y

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the U.S. Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment. We recommend that characterization and measurement of target radionuclides/metals solubilities should also be required by the regulatory

  16. Phase 1 Characterization sampling and analysis plan West Valley demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. L.

    2011-06-30

    The Phase 1 Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan (CSAP) provides details about environmental data collection that will be taking place to support Phase 1 decommissioning activities described in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the West Valley Demonstration Project, Revision 2 (Phase I DP; DOE 2009). The four primary purposes of CSAP data collection are: (1) pre-design data collection, (2) remedial support, (3) post-remediation status documentation, and (4) Phase 2 decision-making support. Data collection to support these four main objectives is organized into two distinct data collection efforts. The first is data collection that will take place prior to the initiation of significant Phase 1 decommissioning activities (e.g., the Waste Management Area [WMA] 1 and WMA 2 excavations). The second is data collection that will occur during and immediately after environmental remediation in support of remediation activities. Both data collection efforts have a set of well-defined objectives that encompass the data needs of the four main CSAP data collection purposes detailed in the CSAP. The main body of the CSAP describes the overall data collection strategies that will be used to satisfy data collection objectives. The details of pre-remediation data collection are organized by WMA. The CSAP contains an appendix for each WMA that describes the details of WMA-specific pre-remediation data collection activities. The CSAP is intended to expand upon the data collection requirements identified in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan. The CSAP is intended to tightly integrate with the Phase 1 Final Status Survey Plan (FSSP). Data collection described by the CSAP is consistent with the FSSP where appropriate and to the extent possible.

  17. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil provides ecosystem services, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulates emissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agro-ecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about so...

  18. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active

  19. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  20. Characterization of soil bacterial communities in rhizospheric and nonrhizospheric soil of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Ying, Yi Xin; Ding, Wan Long; Li, Yong

    2012-12-01

    A culture-independent approach was used to evaluate the bacterial community in rhizospheric and nonrhizospheric soil in which Panax ginseng had grown for 3 years. For each sample, soil was randomly collected from multiple sampling points and mixed thoroughly before genomic DNA extraction. Universal primers 27f and 1492r were used to amplify 16S rRNA genes. Clone libraries were constructed using the amplified 16S rRNA genes, and 192 white clones were chosen for further sequencing. After digestion with restriction endonuclease, 44 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were generated for rhizospheric and 21 OTUs for nonrhizospheric soils, and the clones of each OTU were sequenced. Blast analysis showed that bacillus, acidobacteria, and proteobacteria were the dominant populations in rhizospheric soil, and proteobacteria were dominant in nonrhizospheric soil. Phylogenetic results showed that bacillus and acidobacteria were clustered into the group of uncultured bacteria in rhizospheric soil; however, proteobacteria were the unique dominant in nonrhizospheric soil.

  1. Isolation and characterization of diesel degrading bacteria, Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii from petroleum contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Duanchao; Li, Mengmeng; Xiang, Wei-Ning; Achal, Varenyam

    2014-03-01

    Two indigenous bacteria of petroleum contaminated soil were characterized to utilize diesel fuel as the sole carbon and energy sources in this work. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these bacteria as Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii. The ability to degrade diesel fuel has been demonstrated for the first time by these isolates. The results of IR analyses showed that Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 degraded up to 82.6% and 75.8% of applied diesel over 15 days, respectively. In addition, Sphingomonas sp. VA1 possessed the higher cellular hydrophobicities of 94% for diesel compared to 81% by A. junii VA2. The isolates Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 exhibited 24% and 18%, respectively emulsification activity. This study reports two new diesel degrading bacterial species, which can be effectively used for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated sites.

  2. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin in soil and sediment is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan, at Green Point Environmental Learning Center fr...

  3. Field demonstration of pervaporation for the separation of volatile organic compounds from a surfactant-based soil remediation fluid.

    PubMed

    Vane, L M; Hitchens, L; Alvarez, F R; Giroux, E L

    2001-01-29

    As part of a Department of Defense project, the US Environmental Protection Agency was responsible for designing, building and field operating a pilot-scale pervaporation unit. The field site was an active dry cleaning facility on the grounds of Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in Jacksonville, NC. The overall goal of the project was to remove tetrachloroethylene (PCE) from the soil beneath the dry cleaning shop using a surfactant-based soil remediation fluid and to recycle/reuse the surfactant. In order to reinject the recovered surfactant, the pervaporation unit was required to achieve an average 95% removal of contaminants from the extracted fluid over the duration of the test period. PCE removal averaged 95.8% during peak surfactant levels and exceeded 99.9% in the absence of surfactant, thereby meeting the reinjection requirement. Removal of a group of secondary contaminants at the site, termed Varsol compounds, was monitored via concentrations of three Varsol marker compounds: decane, undecane and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. The pervaporation system processed 100,000 gal of groundwater and surfactant solution over a period of 70 days. In order to evaluate and validate process performance, a variety of process variables and properties were monitored over the course of the demonstration. Pervaporation costs are projected to be on the order of $20 per 1000 gal of surfactant solution treated for a moderate size system (10 gpm).

  4. Microstructural characterization of copper corrosion in aqueous and soil environments

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.; Balasubramaniam, R. . E-mail: bala@iitk.ac.in

    2005-08-15

    Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface films on pure copper after exposure to different aqueous and soil environments, containing chloride, sulfide and ammonium salts. The morphology of the films formed on copper surface in aqueous and soil environments was different for the same amount of pollutants. The surface films formed in soil environments were not homogenous in contrast to the films formed in aqueous environments. The damaging effect of chloride ions and the benign role of sulfide ions were revealed in both the environments. Local compositional analysis confirmed that the surface films formed on copper consisted predominantly of copper and oxygen.

  5. Soil/sediment characterization for 216-A-29 ditch

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the environmental samples collected from the 216-A-29 Ditch in 1988. Tables summarizing the laboratory data for radionuclides, metals, and soil chemistry are included.

  6. Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

  7. Site and soil characterization of hazardous waste sites using an expert system guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Roy E.

    1993-03-01

    An expert system guide (knowledge book) has been devised to assist field personnel who must identify, describe, sample, and interpret size and soil characteristics of hazardous waste sites. The guide takes an approach that will be unfamiliar to most soil and environmental scientists and is directed to on-scene coordinators and project managers and others who may have little soil science training. It meets the need of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for standard procedures, guidelines, or protocols that address soil and site contamination, particularly heavy metals. The guide is organized to include: (1) general considerations and processes for collecting and using site and soils data, (2) detailed knowledge frames (descriptive profiles) of likely site and soil conditions, (3) a citation of references, (4) an appendix listing common sources of characterization data, and (5) a glossary of more than 900 general definitions.

  8. Isolation and characterization of indigenous Streptomyces and Lentzea strains from soils containing boron compounds in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moraga, Norma Beatriz; Poma, Hugo Ramiro; Amoroso, María Julia; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2014-06-01

    The Salta Province - in the northwest of Argentina - is the main worldwide producer of hydroboracite and leads in exports of boron mineral and its derivatives in Latin America. In addition to the natural presence of boron compounds in the soils, there are others contaminated due to the boron mining industry. Although some bacteria are known to require boron for their growth or to be capable of storing boron, no studies have been published about Streptomyces or Lentzea genera's capacity to tolerate high boron concentrations, or about their metabolic capacities in boron contaminated environments. The results of this research show the isolation and molecular characterization of eight strains belonging to the actinobacteria phylum collected from different soils contaminated with high boron concentration in Salta state. The boron tolerance assays, which show that three of the strains were able to tolerate up 60-80 mM boron, demonstrate the potential capability of this group of bacteria to grow and maybe to remove boron from the environment. They appear to be promising, considering that these microorganisms are infrequent pathogens, are metabolically versatile and many Streptomyces can synthesize boron containing metabolites. PMID:23686918

  9. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic fungi against potato scab pathogens from potato field soils.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Masahiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Manome, Akira; Koyama, Osamu; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2010-04-01

    Potato scab is a serious plant disease caused by several Streptomyces sp., and effective control methods remain unavailable. Although antagonistic bacteria and phages against potato scab pathogens have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information about fungi that are antagonistic to the pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate fungal antagonists, characterize their phylogenetic positions, determine their antagonistic activities against potato scab pathogens, and highlight their potential use as control agents under lower pH conditions. Fifteen fungal stains isolated from potato field soils were found to have antagonistic activity against three well-known potato scab pathogens: Streptomyces scabiei, Streptomyces acidiscabiei, and Streptomyces turgidiscabiei. These 15 fungal strains were phylogenetically classified into at least six orders and nine genera based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. These fungal isolates were related to members of the genera Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Kionochaeta, Pseudogymnoascus, and Lecythophora. The antagonistic activities of most of the fungal isolates were highly strengthened under the lower pH conditions, suggesting the advantage of combining their use with a traditional method such as soil acidification. This is the first report to demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse fungi show antagonistic activity against major potato scab pathogens. These fungal strains could be used as potential agents to control potato scab disease.

  10. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  11. Characterization of soil bacterial community structure and physicochemical properties in created and natural wetlands.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Rita M; Ahn, Changwoo; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2013-01-15

    We used multi-tag pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA to characterize bacterial communities of wetland soils collected from created and natural wetlands located in the Virginia piedmont. Soils were also evaluated for their physicochemical properties [i.e., percent moisture, pH, soil organic matter (SOM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C:N ratio]. Soil moisture varied from 15% up to 55% among the wetlands. Soil pH ranged between 4.2 and 5.8, showing the typical characteristic of acidic soils in the Piedmont region. Soil organic matter contents ranged from 3% up to 6%. Soil bacterial community structures and their differences between the wetlands were distinguished by pyrosequencing. Soil bacterial communities in the created wetlands were less dissimilar to each other than to those of either natural wetland, with little difference in diversity (Shannon's H') between created and natural wetlands, except one natural wetland consistently showing a lower H'. The greatest difference of bacterial community structure was observed between the two natural wetlands (R=0.937, p<0.05), suggesting these two natural wetlands were actually quite different reflecting differences in their soil physicochemistry. The major phylogenic groups of all soils included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatinomadetes, Nitrospira, and Proteobacteria with Proteobacteria being the majority of the community composition. Acidobacteria group was more abundant in natural wetlands than in created wetlands. We found a significant association between bacterial community structures and physicochemical properties of soils such as C:N ratio (ρ=0.43, p<0.01) and pH (ρ=0.39, p<0.01). The outcomes of the study show that the development of ecological functions, mostly mediated by microbial communities, is connected with the development of soil properties in created wetlands. Soil properties should be carefully monitored to examine the progress of

  12. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carrie L. Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Lowe, Kenneth A.; Pierce, Eric M.; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-08-15

    Historical use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0){sub l}) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, resulted in large deposits of Hg(0){sub l} in the soils. The fate and distribution of the spilled Hg(0) are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the contaminated soils and then used the analytical techniques to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collected at the site. These include x-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption (HgT). XRF was not found to be suitable for evaluating Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing low concentration of Hg or Hg(0) because Hg concentrations determined using this method were lower than those determined by HgT analysis and the XRF detection limit is 20 mg/kg. Hg(0){sub g} headspace analysis coupled with HgT measurements yielded good results for examining the presence of Hg(0){sub l} in soils and the speciation of Hg. The two soil cores are highly heterogeneous in both the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. In the first core, Hg(0){sub l} was distributed throughout the 3.2 m depth, whereas the second core, from a location 12 m away, contained Hg(0){sub l} in a 0.3 m zone only. Sequential extractions showed organically associated Hg dominant at depths with low Hg concentration. Soil from the zone of groundwater saturation showed reducing conditions and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this depth, lateral Hg transport in the groundwater may be a source of Hg detected in the soil at the deeper soil depths. Overall, characterization of soils containing Hg(0){sub l} is difficult because of the heterogeneous distribution of Hg within the soils. This is exacerbated in industrial facilities where fill materials make up much of the soils and historical

  13. Characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Pavel, Lucian Vasile; Cretescu, Igor

    2009-04-30

    Environmental contamination caused by radionuclides, in particular by uranium and its decay products is a serious problem worldwide. The development of nuclear science and technology has led to increasing nuclear waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the techniques for the remediation of soils polluted with radionuclides (uranium in particular), considering: the chemical forms of uranium, including depleted uranium (DU) in soil and other environmental media, their characteristics and concentrations, and some of the effects on environmental and human health; research issues concerning the remediation process, the benefits and results; a better understanding of the range of uses and situations for which each is most appropriate. The paper addresses the main features of the following techniques for uranium remediation: natural attenuation, physical methods, chemical processes (chemical extraction methods from contaminated soils assisted by various suitable chelators (sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, two-stage acid leaching procedure), extraction using supercritical fluids such as solvents, permeable reactive barriers), biological processes (biomineralization and microbial reduction, phytoremediation, biosorption), and electrokinetic methods. In addition, factors affecting uranium removal from soils are furthermore reviewed including soil characteristics, pH and reagent concentration, retention time.

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  15. Characterization of Minerals: From the Classroom to Soils to Talc Deposits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools…

  16. Evaluation of low-level radioactive waste characterization and classification programs of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taie, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is preparing to upgrade their low-level radioactive waste (LLW) characterization and classification program. This thesis describes a survey study of three other DOE sites conducted in support of this effort. The LLW characterization/classification programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were critically evaluated. The evaluation was accomplished through tours of each site facility and personnel interviews. Comparative evaluation of the individual characterization/classification programs suggests the WVDP should purchase a real-time radiography unit and a passive/active neutron detection system, make additional mechanical modifications to the segmented gamma spectroscopy assay system, provide a separate building to house characterization equipment and perform assays away from waste storage, develop and document a new LLW characterization/classification methodology, and make use of the supercompactor owned by WVDP.

  17. Characterization of eastern US spruce-fir soils. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    The spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. This chapter describes the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, including soil properties that are important in understanding forest function and the consequences of atmospheric deposition to forested ecosystems. Chapter 1 describes the silvical characteristics of the spruce-fir forest. The Spruce-Fir Research Cooperative included six intensive study sites; five were high-elevation research sites located from western North Carolina to New Hampshire, with one low-elevation site in Maine. Information gained from research at these sites, and other relevant research from these regions, provides the basis for this description of eastern U. S. spruce-fir soils.

  18. Characterization of soils using photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Changwen, Du; Linker, Raphael; Shaviv, Avi

    2007-10-01

    This study investigates the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for rapid soil analysis. Photoacoustic spectroscopy requires very minimal sample preparation (air-drying), which is a major advantage compared to the more traditional transmittance technique, which requires time-consuming preparation of pellets. The amount of information contained in the PAS spectra appears to be similar to that contained in transmittance spectra, and the PAS spectra exhibit a large number of bands that can be associated with various soil constituents such as quartz, calcium carbonate, and various types of clay. Comparison with attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectra of saturated soil pastes shows that the PAS spectra provide much more information than the ATR spectra due to the strong water bands present in the latter. PAS quantitative analysis of clay, calcium carbonate, and organic matter is presented, with respective determination errors of approximately 12% clay, approximately 5% CaCO(3), and approximately 0.2% organic matter.

  19. Dynamics and characterization of soil organic matter in mine soils sixteen years after amendment with native soil, sawdust, and sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Bendfeldt, E.S.; Burger, J.A.; Daniels, W.L.; Feldhake, C.M.

    1999-07-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important indicator of soil quality and site productivity. Organic amendments may be a means for ameliorating mine soils and other soils that have been depleted of organic matter. In 1982, a mined site was amended with seven different surface treatments: a control, 30 cm of native soil, 112 Mg/ha sawdust, and municipal sewage sludge (SS) at rates of 22, 56, 112, and 224 Mg/ha. Four replicates of each treatment were installed as a randomized complete block design. Each replicate was subsequently split according to vegetation type: pitch x loblolly pine hybrid (Pinus rigda x taeda) trees and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Soil analyses of composite samples indicated that organic amendments initially improved C and N status of the mine soils, but after 16 years their levels converged to that of the control treatment. Tree volume and biomass were used as indices of the effects of organic matter content 16 years after initial amendment. Individual tree volumes of the sawdust and 22, 56, 112 Mg/ha. SS treatments retained 18 to 26% more volume than the control. Overall, forage production was the same among treatments. Organic amendments improved initial soil fertility for crop establishment, but it appears that they will have little or no long-lasting effect on plant productivity.

  20. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carrie L; Watson, David B; Liang, Liyuan; Lester, Brian P; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Pierce, Eric M

    2013-01-01

    Historic use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0)l) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA resulted in large deposits of Hg(0)l in the soils. An evaluation of analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the soils at the Y-12 facility was conducted and these tequniques were used to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collect at the site. These include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption. Hg concentrations determined using XRF, a tool that has been suggestions for quick onsite characterization of soils, were lower than concentrations determined by HgT analysis and as a result this technique is not suitable for the evaluation of Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing Hg(0)l. Hg(0)g headspace analysis can be used to examine the presence of Hg(0)l in soils and when coupled with HgT analysis an understanding of the speciation of Hg in soils can be obtained. Two soil cores collected within the Y-12 complex highlight the heterogeneity in the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. At one location Hg(0)l was distributed throughout 3.2 meters of core whereas the core from a location only 12 meters away only contained Hg(0)l in 0.3 m zone of the core. Sequential extractions, used to examine the forms of Hg in the soils, indicated that at depths within the core that have low Hg concentrations organically associated Hg is dominant. Soil from the zone of groundwater inundation showed reduced characteristics and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this location it appears that Hg transported within the groundwater is a source of Hg to the soil. Overall the characterization of Hg in soils containing Hg(0) l is difficult due to the heterogeneous distribution within the soils and this challenge is enhanced in industrial facilities in which fill

  1. Characterization of soil and postlaunch pad debris from Cape Canaveral launch complex and analysis of soil interaction with aqueous HCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Spangler, L. W.; Storey, R. W.; Bendura, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Soil samples were fractionated and analyzed in order to assess the physical and chemical interactions of entrained soil with solid-rocket exhaust clouds. The sandy soil consisted primarily of quartz (silica) particles, 30 to 500 microns in diameter, and also contained seashell fragments. Differential and cumulative soil-mass size distributions are presented along with mineralogy, elemental compositions, and solution pH histories. About 90 percent of the soil mass consisted of particles 165 microns in diameter. Characteristic reaction times in aqueous HC1 slurries varied from a few minutes to several days, and capacities for reaction under acidic conditions varied from 10 to 40 g HCl/kg soil, depending on particle size. Airborne lifetimes of particles 165 microns are conservatively 30 min, and this major grouping is predicted to represent a small short-term chemical sink for up to 5% of the total HC1. The smaller and more minor fractions, below a 165 micron diameter, may act as giant cloud condensation nuclei over much longer airborne lifetimes. Finally, the demonstrated time dependency of neutralization is a complicating factor; it can influence the ability to deduce in-cloud HCl scavenging with reaction and can affect the accuracy of measured chemical compositions of near-field wet deposition.

  2. Characterizing Zinc Speciation in Soils from a Smelter-Affected Boreal Forest Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jordan G; Farrell, Richard E; Chen, Ning; Feng, Renfei; Reid, Joel; Peak, Derek

    2016-03-01

    HudBay Minerals, Inc., has mined and/or processed Zn and Cu ore in Flin Flon, MB, Canada, since the 1930s. The boreal forest ecosystem and soil surrounding these facilities have been severely impacted by mixed metal contamination and HSO deposition. Zinc is one of the most prevalent smelter-derived contaminants and has been identified as a key factor that may be limiting revegetation. Metal toxicity is related to both total concentrations and speciation; therefore, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping were used to characterize Zn speciation in soils throughout the most heavily contaminated areas of the landscape. Zinc speciation was linked to two distinct soil types. Group I soils consist of exposed soils in weathered positions of bedrock outcrops with Zn present primarily as franklinite, a (ZnFeO) spinel mineral. Group II soils are stabilized by an invasive metal-tolerant grass species, with Zn found as a mixture of octahedral (Fe oxides) and tetrahedral Mn oxides) adsorption complexes with a franklinite component. Soil erosion influences Zn speciation through the redistribution of Zn and soil particulates from Group I landscape positions to Group II soils. Despite Group II soils having the highest concentrations of CaCl-extractable Zn, they support metal-tolerant plant growth. The metal-tolerant plants are probably preferentially colonizing these areas due to better soil and nutrient conditions as a result of soil deposition from upslope Group I areas. Zinc concentration and speciation appears to not influence the colonization by metal-tolerant grasses, but the overall soil properties and erosion effects prevent the revegetation by native boreal forest species. PMID:27065416

  3. Characterizing Soil Organic Matter Degradation Levels in Permafrost-affected Soils using Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamala, R.; Jastrow, J. D.; Calderon, F.; Liang, C.; Miller, R. M.; Ping, C. L.; Michaelson, G. J.; Hofmann, S.

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (MidIR) was used to (1) investigate soil quality along a latitudinal gradient of Alaskan soils, and in combination with soil incubations, (2) to assess the relative lability of soil organic matter in the active layer and upper permafrost for some of those soils. Twenty nine sites were sampled along a latitudinal gradient (78.79 N to 55.35 N deg). The sites included 8 different vegetation types (moss/lichen, non-acidic and acidic tundra, shrub areas, deciduous forests, mixed forests, coniferous forests, and grassland). At each site, soils were separated by soil horizons and analyzed for pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic and inorganic C, and total N. Samples were also scanned to obtain MidIR spectra, and ratios of characteristic bands previously suggested as indicators of organic matter quality or degradation level were calculated. Principal component analysis showed that axis 1 explained 70% of the variation and was correlated with the general Organic:Mineral ratio, soil organic C, total N, and CEC, but not with vegetation type. Axis 2 explained 25% of the variation and was correlated with most of the band ratios, with negative values for the condensation index (ratio of aromatic to aliphatic organic matter) and positive values for all humification ratios (HU1: ratio of aliphatic to polysaccharides; HU2: ratio of aromatics to polysaccharides; and HU3 ratio of lignin/phenols to polysaccharides) suggesting that axis 2 variations were related to differences in level of soil organic matter degradation. Active organic, active mineral and permafrost layers from selected tundra sites were incubated for two months at -1, 1, 4, 8 and 16 ⁰C. The same band ratios were correlated with total CO2 mineralized during the incubations. Data from 4⁰C showed that the cumulative respired CO2 from the active organic layer across all sites was negatively correlated with the HU1 humification ratio, suggesting

  4. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin. PMID:26951448

  5. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  6. Soil characterization by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence: sampling strategy for in situ analysis.

    PubMed

    Custo, Graciela; Boeykens, Susana; Dawidowski, L; Fox, L; Gómez, D; Luna, F; Vázquez, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    This work describes a sampling strategy that will allow the use of portable EDXRF (energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence) instruments for "in situ" soil analysis. The methodology covers a general approach to planning field investigations for any type of environmental studies and it was applied for a soil characterization study in the zone of Campana, Argentina, by evaluating data coming from an EDXRF spectrometer with a radioisotope excitation source. Simulating non-treated sampled as "in situ" samples and a soil characterization for Campana area was intended. "In situ" EDXRF methodology is a powerful analytical modality with the advantage of providing data immediately, allowing a fast general screening of the soil composition. PMID:16038489

  7. Developmemt, characterization, production, and demonstration of nanofluids for industrial cooling applications. Quarterly report #7.

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.; Singh, D.; Timofeeva, E.; Yu, W.; France, D.

    2010-07-30

    Pumping power measurements have been made on a series of 40-nm boehmite (AlOOH) alumina ''bricks'' (2 - 8 vol. percent in water). The alumina nanoparticles were obtained from Sasol and are designated as ''Catapal-200''. The pH of all compositions was adjusted to 3.2{+-}0.5. A complete characterization of the particles and their nanofluid thermal properties has been published in Journal of Applied Physics 106, 014304 (2009). While the nanofluid doesn't show large enhancements, it nevertheless serves as good comparisons between the experimental results and calculated results.

  8. Physical and chemical characterization of actinides in soil from Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.F.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Brown, N.R.

    1997-02-01

    Characterization of the actinide content of a sample of contaminated coral soil from Johnston Atoll, the site of three non-nuclear destructs of nuclear warhead-carrying THOR missiles in 1962, revealed that >99% of the total actinide content is associated with discrete bomb fragments. After removal of these fragments, there was an inverse correlation between actinide content and soil particle size in particles from 43 to 0.4 {mu}m diameter. Detailed analyses of this remaining soil revealed no discrete actinide phase in these soil particles, despite measurable actinide content. Observations indicate that exposure to the environment has caused the conversion of relatively insoluble actinide oxides to the more soluble actinyl oxides and actinyl carbonate coordinated complexes. This process has led to dissolution of actinides from discrete particles and migration to the surrounding soil surfaces, resulting in a dispersion greater than would be expected by physical transport of discrete particles alone. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Isolation and partial characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from soil and marine samples.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Talat Yasmeen; Siddiqui, Khaizran; Ahmed, Rifat; Kazmi, Shahana U; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2014-09-01

    In the present study the potential of indigenous bacterial isolates from soil rhizosphere and marine environment to promote plant growth was determined. Eight bacterial strains isolated from soil and marine samples were characterized for the phosphate solubilizing activity. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of phosphate solubilization is done. MIC of antibiotic and heavy metals were checked for these strains. Strains show a diverse pattern of antibiotic and heavy metals resistance.

  10. Integrated use of soil physical and water isotope methods for ecohydrological characterization of desertified areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külls, Christoph; Nunes, Alice; Köbel-Batista, Melanie; Branquinho, Cristina; Bianconi, Nadja; Costantini, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measures for monitoring desertification and soil degradation require a thorough understanding of soil physical properties and of the water balance in order to guide restoration efforts (Costantini et al. 2009). It is hypothesized that long term restoration success on degraded land depends on a series of interacting factors such as exposition, soil type, soil hydrology including lateral flow on hill-slope catenae. Recently, new soil water isotope measurement techniques have been developed (Garvelmann et al. 2012) that provide much faster and reliable stable water isotope profiles in soils. This technique yield information on groundwater recharge, soil water balance and on the origin of water available for plants, which in combination with conservative chemical tracers (chloride) can be validated. A multidisciplinary study including ecologists, soil physicists and hydrologists of the COST Action Desert Restoration Hub was carried out on four semi-arid sites in Portugal. A comparative characterization of soil physical parameters, soil water isotope and chloride profiles was performed in order to estimate pedoclimate, soil aridity, soil water balance and groundwater recharge. In combination with soil physical data a comprehensive and cross-validated characterization of pedoclimate and soil aridity was obtained. These indicators were then integrated and related to plant cover. The long-term rainfall of the four sites ranges from 512 to 638 mm, whereas air temperature is from 15.8 to 17.0°C. The De Martonne index of aridity spans from 19.3 to 24.6, pointing to semiarid to moderately arid climatic conditions. The long-term average number of days when the first 0.50 m of soil is dry ranges from 110 to 134, while the mean annual soil temperature at 0.50 m spans from 15.8 and 19.1°C. The studied profiles show different hydrological characteristics, in particular, the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1-1 to 10-100 µm/s. Three out of four profiles show a

  11. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterization facility for "next-generation" soil sampling aimed, for example, at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity in quantification of a set of exemplar parameters is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The theory of sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a more general fit-for-purpose soil heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale transect (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-0.5 m) replication sampling point variability. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results from a specific well-mixed soil type show that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among other soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas, e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  12. Protective barrier materials analysis: Fine soil site characterization: A research report for Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Glennon, M.A.; Young, M.A.; Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    We collected soil samples for the physical characterization of a potential fine-soil quarry site at the McGee Ranch, which is located approximately 1 km northwest of the Hanford Site's Yakima Barricade. Forty test borings were made using a hollow-stem auger. Field moisture content and grain-size distribution were determined. The samples were classified into one of 19 sediment classes based on their grain-size distributions. Maps and cross sections were constructed from both the field and laboratory data to delineate the distributions of the various sediment classes. Statistical evaluations were made to determine the variations within the fine-soil fraction of the various sediment classes. Volume estimates were then made of the amounts of soil meeting the preliminary grain-size criteria. The physical characterization of the fine soils sampled near the McGee Ranch site indicated that approximately 3.4 million cubic meters of soil met or exceeded the minimum grain-size criteria for the fine soils needed for the protective barriers program. 11 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carrie L; Watson, David B; Lester, Brian P; Lowe, Kenneth A; Pierce, Eric M; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-08-01

    Historical use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0)l) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, resulted in large deposits of Hg(0)l in the soils. The fate and distribution of the spilled Hg(0) are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the contaminated soils and then used the analytical techniques to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collected at the site. These include x-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption (HgT). XRF was not found to be suitable for evaluating Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing low concentration of Hg or Hg(0) because Hg concentrations determined using this method were lower than those determined by HgT analysis and the XRF detection limit is 20 mg/kg. Hg(0)g headspace analysis coupled with HgT measurements yielded good results for examining the presence of Hg(0)l in soils and the speciation of Hg. The two soil cores are highly heterogeneous in both the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400mg/kg. In the first core, Hg(0)l was distributed throughout the 3.2m depth, whereas the second core, from a location 12m away, contained Hg(0)l in a 0.3m zone only. Sequential extractions showed organically associated Hg dominant at depths with low Hg concentration. Soil from the zone of groundwater saturation showed reducing conditions and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this depth, lateral Hg transport in the groundwater may be a source of Hg detected in the soil at the deeper soil depths. Overall, characterization of soils containing Hg(0)l is difficult because of the heterogeneous distribution of Hg within the soils. This is exacerbated in industrial facilities where fill materials make up much of the soils and historical and continued reworking of the subsurface has

  14. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  15. Characterization and Demonstrations of Laser-Induced Incandescence in both Normal and Low-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of soot volume fraction is important to a wide range of combustion studies in microgravity. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) offers high sensitivity, high temporal and spatial resolution in addition to geometric versatility for real-time determination of soot volume fraction. Implementation of LII into the 2.2 see drop tower at The NASA-Lewis Research Center along with system characterization is described. Absolute soot volume fraction measurements are presented for laminar and turbulent gas-jet flames in microgravity to illustrate the capabilities of LII in microgravity. Comparison between LII radial intensity profiles with soot volume fraction profiles determined through a full-field light extinction technique are also reported validating the accuracy of LII for soot volume fraction measurements in a microgravity environment.

  16. Evaluation of soil characterization technologies using a stochastic, value-of-information approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy has initiated an integrated demonstration program to develop and compare new technologies for the characterization of uranium-contaminated soils. As part of this effort, a performance-assessment task was funded in February, 1993 to evaluate the field tested technologies. Performance assessment can be cleaned as the analysis that evaluates a system`s, or technology`s, ability to meet the criteria specified for performance. Four new technologies were field tested at the Fernald Environmental Management Restoration Co. in Ohio. In the next section, the goals of this performance assessment task are discussed. The following section discusses issues that must be resolved if the goals are to be successfully met. The author concludes with a discussion of the potential benefits to performance assessment of the approach taken. This paper is intended to be the first of a series of documentation that describes the work. Also in this proceedings is a paper on the field demonstration at the Fernald site and a description of the technologies (Tidwell et al, 1993) and a paper on the application of advanced geostatistical techniques (Rautman, 1993). The overall approach is to simply demonstrate the applicability of concepts that are well described in the literature but are not routinely applied to problems in environmental remediation, restoration, and waste management. The basic geostatistical concepts are documented in Clark (1979) and in Issaks and Srivastava (1989). Advanced concepts and applications, along with software, are discussed in Deutsch and Journel (1992). Integration of geostatistical modeling with a decision-analytic framework is discussed in Freeze et al (1992). Information-theoretic and probabilistic concepts are borrowed from the work of Shannon (1948), Jaynes (1957), and Harr (1987). The author sees the task as one of introducing and applying robust methodologies with demonstrated applicability in other fields to the problem at hand.

  17. Characterization of field compaction using shrinkage analysis and visual soil examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Alice; Keller, Thomas; Weisskopf, Peter; Schulin, Rainer; Boivin, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    ) With compaction the sigmoidal shape characterizing a well-structured soil disappeared, and (ii) the basic slope became steeper, indicating lower hydrostructural stability. VESS scores were significantly different between compacted and uncompacted soil and strongly correlated with ShA properties. Based on these relationships, we propose a model characterizing the recovery potential of compacted soil structure. The good agreement between visual examinations and ShA indicates that both methods are well suited for the assessment of soil compaction. ShA is more elaborate, but also more precise and has the advantage to provide valuable addi¬tional quantitative information on the state of physical degradation. References Ball, B.C., Batey, T., Munkholm, L.J., 2007. Field assessment of soil structural quality-a development of the Peerlkamp test. Soil Use Manag. 23, 329-337. Braudeau, E., Frangi, J.P., Mohtar, R.H., 2004. Characterizing nonrigid aggregated soil-water medium using its shrinkage curve. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68, 359-370.

  18. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2–based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology. PMID:26880381

  19. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C

    2016-01-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiO(x)) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiO(x)-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology. PMID:26880381

  20. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-02-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of novel oxazines and demonstration that they specifically target cyclooxygenase 2.

    PubMed

    Srinivas, V; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Baburajeev, C P; Rangappa, Shobith; Jagadish, Swamy; Fuchs, Julian E; Sukhorukov, Alexey Yu; Chandra; Mason, Daniel J; Sharath Kumar, Kothanahally Shivaramu; Madegowda, Mahendra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal Subbegowda

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we used solution combustion synthesis-bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) as catalyst for the simple and efficient synthesis of 1,2-oxazine based derivatives of 6-fluoro-3-(piperidin-4-yl)benzo[d]isoxazoles, 1-arylpiperazine and carbazoles. (4aR,8aR)-4-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-3-((4-(4-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)methyl)-4a,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-4H-benzo[e][1,2]oxazine was found to be the most potent compound with a high degree of selectivity in inhibition towards COX2 (1.7 μM) over COX1 (40.4 μM) demonstrating the significance of 1,2-oxazine derivatives in developing COX2 specific inhibitors. Molecular docking analyses demonstrated that an isoleucine residue in the active site of COX1 is responsible for lower affinity to COX1 and increased potency towards COX2. Overall, our study reveals that the new 1,2-oxazine-based small molecules qualify as lead structures in developing COX2-specific inhibitors for anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:26048794

  2. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP), Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon–Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

  3. Evaluation of sampling techniques to characterize topographically-dependent variability for soil moisture downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbylo, Kevin L.; Niemann, Jeffrey D.

    2014-08-01

    Downscaling methods have been proposed to estimate catchment-scale soil moisture patterns from coarser resolution patterns. These methods usually infer the fine-scale variability in soil moisture using variations in ancillary variables like topographic attributes that have relationships to soil moisture. Previously, such relationships have been observed in catchments using soil moisture observations taken on uniform grids at hundreds of locations on multiple dates, but collecting data in this manner limits the applicability of this approach. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of two strategic sampling techniques for characterizing the relationships between topographic attributes and soil moisture for the purpose of constraining downscaling methods. The strategic sampling methods are conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS) and stratified random sampling (SRS). Each sampling method is used to select a limited number of locations or dates for soil moisture monitoring at three catchments with detailed soil moisture datasets. These samples are then used to calibrate two available downscaling methods, and the effectiveness of the sampling methods is evaluated by the ability of the downscaling methods to reproduce the known soil moisture patterns. cLHS outperforms random sampling in almost every case considered. SRS usually performs better than cLHS when very few locations are sampled, but it can perform worse than random sampling for intermediate and large numbers of locations.

  4. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-06-01

    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6soil and the amended soil. PMID:26897569

  5. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-06-01

    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6soil and the amended soil.

  6. Characterization of Selenium Pollution in the Western United States by Coupling Soil Moisture with Geochemical Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, M.; Liang, X.; Guo, J.

    2004-12-01

    Due to the arid conditions of the Western United States, selenium released from sandstone and shale hillslopes is transported by overland runoff and is shown to cause fish and aquatic bird death and reproductive failure. Precipitation in contact with exposed seleniferous soils, carry dissolved and particulate forms of selenium in runoff and groundwater to the valley floor to be redistributed throughout the hillslope and alluvial fan. Impervious clay soils and the arid climate impede the flushing of selenium below the groundwater table so that selenium is continually cycled in the alluvial fan. A physically based model that couples hydrologic land surface interactions and geochemical transport based on soil moisture was developed to characterize the loading, transport, and distribution of selenium. The soil moisture distribution and overland flow patterns determined by the hydrologic model for the watershed are factors that control soil chemical movement and transformation. The main geochemical and physical transport mechanisms of selenite and selenate, dissolution from soil, speciation, adsorption, advection, and mass transfer from pore water to overland form, are characterized as functions of surface flow and the soil moisture of the fifteen centimeter deep soil layer for each model grid. The movement of overland flow within each grid is routed to the outlet of the watershed. Flow patterns and measured selenium concentrations at two sites; the Panoche/ Silver Creek watershed in Central California, and the Leach Creek watershed in Colorado, are compared to model results. Selenium pollution characterization at a watershed scale will add to the understanding of the cycling of selenium within and across watersheds and aid in the mitigation of selenium pollution.

  7. Demonstration of high-resolution inverse VSP for reservoir characterization applications

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is the determination of inverse vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements using new experimental field instrumentation capable of providing at least an order of magnitude improvement in the resolution of structural details in comparison with conventional seismic images. This two-year project will entail instrumentation tests under controlled field conditions during the first year followed by full-scale field demonstration tests in a representative oil-bearing reservoir formation during the second year. An automatic time-picking program and a tomographic inversion program developed for processing interwell seismic data were generalized for processing reverse VSP data. A technical paper was submitted for publication to Geophysics. The paper is entitled; A Wax-Embedded Borehole Seismic Detector for High-Resolution Measurements.'' A copy of this manuscript is enclosed in the Appendix. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Demonstration of geophysical methods for burial ground geophysical characterization study at the DOE Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.C.; MacLean, H.D.; Geotech, R.

    1996-11-01

    Rust Geotech, operating contractor at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO), conducted a demonstration of the trench boundary and large-object location capabilities of five nonintrusive geophysical methods in the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) at the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS). The plan for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure of the SRS LLRWDF specifies inplace compaction of {open_quotes}B-25{close_quotes} metal boxes containing low-level radioactive wastes. The boxes are buried in Engineered Low-Level Trenches (ELLTs) at the facility. To properly guide and control the compaction operation, the coordinates of the trench boundaries must be determined to an accuracy within 5 feet and the outer edges of the metal boxes in the trenches must be determined to within 2 feet.

  9. Demonstration, testing and evaluation of nonintrusive characterization technologies at operable Unit 2 of Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution (HR) seismic reflection evaluation was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), near Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the applicability of nonintrusive characterization techniques to detect buried objects, contamination, and geological/hydrological features at RFP. The evaluation was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) request for demonstration, testing and evaluation (DT&E) of nonintrusive techniques, under DOE Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) No. DE-RA05-09OR22000.

  10. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  11. 3D front face solid-phase fluorescence spectroscopy combined with Independent Components Analysis to characterize organic matter in model soils.

    PubMed

    Ammari, Faten; Bendoula, Ryad; Jouan-Rimbaud Bouveresse, Delphine; Rutledge, Douglas N; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2014-07-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a very complex and heterogeneous system which complicates its characterization. In fact, the methods classically used to characterize SOM are time- and solvent-consuming and insufficiently informative. The aim of this work is to study the potential of 3D solid-phase front face fluorescence (3D-SPFFF) spectroscopy to quickly provide a relevant and objective characterization of SOM as an alternative to the existing methods. Different soil models were prepared to simulate natural soil composition and were analyzed by 3D front-face fluorescence spectroscopy without prior preparation. The spectra were then treated using Independent Components Analysis. In this way, different organic molecules such as cellulose, proteins and amino acids used in the soil models were identified. The results of this study clearly indicate that 3D-SPFFF spectroscopy could be an easy, reliable and practical analytical method that could be an alternative to the classical methods in order to study SOM. The use of solid samples revealed some interactions that may occur in natural soils (self-quenching in the case of cellulose) and gave more accurate fluorescence signals for different components of the analyzed soil models. Independent Components Analysis (ICA) has demonstrated its power to extract the most informative signals and thus facilitate the interpretation of the complex 3D fluorescence data. PMID:24840426

  12. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Montaña, José Salvador; Martínez, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB) of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen Ashby-Sucrose agar obtaining a recovery of 40%. Twenty four isolates were evaluated for colony and cellular morphology, pigment production and metabolic activities. Molecular characterization was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). After digestion of 16S rDNA Y1-Y3 PCR products (1487pb) with AluI, HpaII and RsaI endonucleases, a polymorphism of 16% was obtained. Cluster analysis showed three main groups based on DNA fingerprints. Comparison between ribotypes generated by isolates and in silico restriction of 16S rDNA partial sequences with same restriction enzymes was done with Gen Workbench v.2.2.4 software. Nevertheless, Y1-Y2 PCR products were analysed using BLASTn. Isolate C5T from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown soils presented the same in silico restriction patterns with A. chroococcum (AY353708) and 99% of similarity with the same sequence. Isolate C5CO from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) grown soils showed black pigmentation in Ashby-Benzoate agar and high similarity (91%) with A. nigricans (AB175651) sequence. In this work we demonstrated the utility of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools as a support to conventional techniques in characterization of the genus Azotobacter from vegetable-grown soils. PMID:24031700

  13. Characterization of basin concrete in support of structural integrity demonstration for extended storage

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.

    2014-09-30

    Concrete core samples from C basin were characterized through material testing and analysis to verify the design inputs for structural analysis of the L Basin and to evaluate the type and extent of changes in the material condition of the concrete under extended service for fuel storage. To avoid the impact on operations, core samples were not collected from L area, but rather, several concrete core samples were taken from the C Basin prior to its closure. C basin was selected due to its similar environmental exposure and service history compared to L Basin. The microstructure and chemical composition of the concrete exposed to the water was profiled from the water surface into the wall to evaluate the impact and extent of exposure. No significant leaching of concrete components was observed. Ingress of carbonation or deleterious species was determined to be insignificant. No evidence of alkali-silica reactions (ASR) was observed. Ettringite was observed to form throughout the structure (in air voids or pores); however, the sulfur content was measured to be consistent with the initial concrete that was used to construct the facility. Similar ettringite trends were observed in the interior segments of the core samples. The compressive strength of the concrete at the mid-wall of the basin was measured, and similar microstructural analysis was conducted on these materials post compression testing. The microstructure was determined to be similar to near-surface segments of the core samples. The average strength was 4148 psi, which is well-above the design strength of 2500 psi. The analyses showed that phase alterations and minor cracking in a microstructure did not affect the design specification for the concrete.

  14. Characterization of a desert soil sequence at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Guertal, W.R.; Hofmann, L.L. Hudson, D.B.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. Hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain is being conducted as an integrated set of surface and subsurface-based activities with a common objective to characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of water flux through the potential repository. Yucca Mountain is covered with a thin to thick layer of colluvial/alluvial materials, where there are not bedrock outcrops. It is across this surface boundary that all infiltration and all exfiltration occurs. This surface boundary effects water movement through the unsaturated zone. Characterization of the hydrologic properties of surficial materials is then a necessary step for short term characterization goals and for long term modeling.

  15. Methanogenic communities in permafrost-affected soils of the Laptev Sea coast, Siberian Arctic, characterized by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Ganzert, Lars; Jurgens, German; Münster, Uwe; Wagner, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    Permafrost environments in the Arctic are characterized by extreme environmental conditions that demand a specific resistance from microorganisms to enable them to survive. In order to understand the carbon dynamics in the climate-sensitive Arctic permafrost environments, the activity and diversity of methanogenic communities were studied in three different permafrost soils of the Siberian Laptev Sea coast. The effect of temperature and the availability of methanogenic substrates on CH4 production was analysed. In addition, the diversity of methanogens was analysed by PCR with specific methanogenic primers and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by sequencing of DGGE bands reamplified from the gel. Our results demonstrated methanogenesis with a distinct vertical profile in each investigated permafrost soil. The soils on Samoylov Island showed at least two optima of CH4 production activity, which indicated a shift in the methanogenic community from mesophilic to psychrotolerant methanogens with increasing soil depth. Furthermore, it was shown that CH4 production in permafrost soils is substrate-limited, although these soils are characterized by the accumulation of organic matter. Sequence analyses revealed a distinct diversity of methanogenic archaea affiliated to Methanomicrobiaceae, Methanosarcinaceae and Methanosaetaceae. However, a relationship between the activity and diversity of methanogens in permafrost soils could not be shown. PMID:16978241

  16. Demonstration and characterization of anti-human mitochondria autoantibodies in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and in other conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Betterle, C; Caretto, A; Zeviani, M; Pedini, B; Salviati, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied 32 patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP), 19 patients with organ-specific autoimmune diseases (OSAD) without IHP, 50 normal controls and a known serum with anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). Patients' sera were tested by the classical indirect immunofluorescent technique and by the indirect immunofluorescent complement fixation technique on unfixed cryostat sections of normal human parathyroid, pancreas, thyroid, stomach, kidney, and rat kidney. Five out of 32 patients with IHP, three out of 19 patients with OSAD without IHP and one out of 50 normal controls revealed a bright reactivity against oxyphil cells and a weak reactivity against chief cells of normal parathyroid. These sera also brightly reacted with mitochondria-rich cells and weakly with the remaining cells of only human tissues. The absorption of positive sera with human mitochondria completely abolished this positivity but the absorption with rat mitochondria failed to prevent this reaction. This reactivity was due to an anti-human mitochondrial autoantibody (AHMA) of IgG class. By non-competitive ELISA and Western blot we also demonstrated that every AHMA-positive serum mainly reacted against a human mitochondrial membrane-bound protein of approximate mol. wt. of 46 kd, while the AMA-positive serum reacted against different mitochondrial antigens. The present study shows that a specific parathyroid autoantibody was not detectable in patients with IHP. Images Fig. 3 PMID:3910313

  17. Characterization and demonstration of a 12-channel Laser-Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haist, T.; Lingel, C.; Osten, W.; Bendel, K.; Giesen, M.; Gartner, M.; Rembe, C.

    2013-04-01

    Scanning laser-Doppler vibrometry is the standard optical, non-contact technology for vibration measurement applications in all areas of mechanical engineering. The vibration signals are measured from the different measurement points at different time points. This requires synchronization and the technology is limited to repeatable or periodic events. We have explored a new solution for the optical setup of the sensing system of a multi-channel vibrometer that we present in this paper. Our optical system is a 12-channel vibrometer and consists of a 12-channel interferometer unit which is connected with 12 optical fibers to a sensor head with 12 fiber-coupled objective lenses. Every objective lens can be focused manually and is placed in a sphere which can be tilted and fixed by a blocking screw. Thus it is possible to adjust a user defined measurement grid by hand. The user can define the geometry of the measurement grid in a camera image displayed in the software by just clicking on the laser foci. We use synchronous analog-digital conversion for the 12 heterodyne detector signals and a digital 12-channel-demodulator which is connected via USB to a computer. We can realize high deflection angles, good sensitivity, proper resolution, sufficient vibration bandwidth, and high maximum vibration amplitudes. In this paper, we demonstrate the optical and electrical setup of the manually adjustable 12-channel vibrometer, we present the experimentally evaluated performance of our device, and we present first measurements from real automotive applications.

  18. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-04-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil.

  19. Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

  20. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradative soil Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, S L; Rodriguez Lemoine, V

    1992-01-01

    Nine Pseudomonas strains, able to degrade polycycle aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were isolated from enriched cultures with naphthalene, as carbon source, and soil samples from a land farming process applied on oil sludge, as inocula. Degradative tests showed that all the strains were capable to catabolize naphthalene (Nah) and phenanthrene (Phn). U2 strain transferred the selected function (Nah) to P. aeruginosa T1 (Hgr Oct+), however some of the transconjugants lost the Oct character, suggesting that it is of plasmidic nature. T1 derivatives as well the wild strains U28 and U31 transferred Nah function to P. putida AC165. All of the examined transconjugants also catabolized phenanthrene, suggesting that Nah and Phn functions in U2, U28, and U31 strains are linked and probably encoded by transferable plasmids.

  1. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes.

  2. Demonstrating soil moisture remote sensing with observations from the UK TechDemoSat-1 satellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Clara; Shah, Rashmi; Zuffada, Cinzia; Hajj, George; Masters, Dallas; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2016-04-01

    The ability of spaceborne Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) bistatic radar receivers to sense changes in soil moisture is investigated using observations from the low Earth orbiting UK TechDemoSat-1 satellite (TDS-1). Previous studies using receivers on aircraft or towers have shown that ground-reflected GNSS signals are sensitive to changes in soil moisture, though the ability to sense this variable from space has yet to be quantified. Data from TDS-1 show a 7 dB sensitivity of reflected signals to temporal changes in soil moisture. If the effects of surface roughness and vegetation on the reflected signals can be quantified, spaceborne GNSS bistatic radar receivers could provide soil moisture on relatively small spatial and temporal scales.

  3. ISRU Soil Mechanics Vacuum Facility: Soil Bin Preparation and Simulant Strength Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Wilkinson, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Testing in relevant environments is key to exploration mission hardware development. This is true on both the component level (in early development) and system level (in late development stages). During ISRU missions the hardware will interface with the soil (digging, roving, etc) in a vacuum environment. A relevant test environment will therefore involve a vacuum chamber with a controlled, conditioned simulant bed. However, in earth-based granular media, such as lunar soil simulant, gases trapped within the material pore structures and water adsorbed to all particle surfaces will release when exposed to vacuum. Early vacuum testing has shown that this gas release can occur violently, which loosens and weakens the simulant, altering the consolidation state. The Vacuum Facility #13, a mid-size chamber (3.66m tall, 1.5m inner diameter) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been modified to create a soil mechanics test facility. A 0.64m deep by 0.914m square metric ton bed of lunar simulant was placed under vacuum using a variety of pumping techniques. Both GRC-3 and LHT-3M simulant types have been used. An electric cone penetrometer was used to measure simulant strength properties at vacuum including: cohesion, friction angle, bulk density and shear modulus. Simulant disruptions, caused by off gassing, affected the strength properties, but could be mitigated by reducing pump rate. No disruptions were observed at pressures below 2.5Torr, regardless of the pump rate. However, slow off gassing of the soil lead to long test times, a full week, to reach 10-5Torr. This work highlights the need for robotic machine-simulant hardware and operations in vacuum to expeditiously perform (sub-)systems tests.

  4. Isolation and characterization of Chilembwe and Sinda Rock Phosphate solubilizing soil microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to isolate and characterize soil microorganisms capable of solubilizing Chilembwe and Sinda rock phosphates readily available in Zambia. Single isolates were obtained by direct plating and enrichment cultures with succinate, cellulose and glucose as the carbon sources. Isola...

  5. 2010 Soil Characterization Report for the Area 11 Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-02-25

    This soil characterization report summarizes sampling activities and analytical results, provides copies of laboratory data reports, and meets the requirements of Section IV.G.2 of the Permit (NEV HW0021, November 2005) and Sections P.3.d.7.b and P.3.n of the Permit Application (DOE/NV--1053-VOL 4, May 2005).

  6. A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji; Li, Yun; Dong, Zhixin; Li, Zhongpei; Zhang, Xue-Xian

    2014-04-01

    The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically involves comparing indigenous microbial communities across spatial scales. Here, we report a long-term soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red Acrisol and purple Cambisol from Yingtan) were placed into two geographic locations of ∼1000 km apart (i.e., Yingtan in the mid-subtropical region and Fengqiu in warm-temperate region; both located in China). Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Additionally, bacteria and archaea involved in nitrogen cycling were estimated using clone library analysis of four genes: archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA,nirK, and nifH. Data of subsequent phylogenetic analysis show that bacteria, fungi, and other microbial eukaryotes, as well as the nitrogen cycling genes, are grouped primarily by the factor of geographic location rather than soil type. Moreover, a shift of microbial communities toward those in local soil (i.e., Chao soil in Fengqiu) has been observed. The results thus suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil.

  7. A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji; Li, Yun; Dong, Zhixin; Li, Zhongpei; Zhang, Xue-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically involves comparing indigenous microbial communities across spatial scales. Here, we report a long-term soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red Acrisol and purple Cambisol from Yingtan) were placed into two geographic locations of ∼1000 km apart (i.e., Yingtan in the mid-subtropical region and Fengqiu in warm-temperate region; both located in China). Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Additionally, bacteria and archaea involved in nitrogen cycling were estimated using clone library analysis of four genes: archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA,nirK, and nifH. Data of subsequent phylogenetic analysis show that bacteria, fungi, and other microbial eukaryotes, as well as the nitrogen cycling genes, are grouped primarily by the factor of geographic location rather than soil type. Moreover, a shift of microbial communities toward those in local soil (i.e., Chao soil in Fengqiu) has been observed. The results thus suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil. PMID:24772284

  8. Real-Time Soils Characterization and Analyses Systems Used at Ohio Closure Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, Lyle Gene; Carpenter, Michael Vance; Giles, John Robert; Hartwell, John Kelvin; Danahy, R.

    2003-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  9. Characterization of Soil Heterogeneity Across Scales in an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Nemes, Attila; Dathe, Annette; French, Helen; Bloem, Esther; Koestel, John; Jarvis, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous water flow in undisturbed soils is a natural occurrence that is complex to model due to potential changes in hydraulic properties in soils over changes in space. The use of geophysical methods, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), can provide a minimally-invasive approximation of the spatial heterogeneity of the soil. This spatial distribution can then be combined with measured hydraulic properties to inform a model. An experiment was conducted on an Intensively Investigated Soil Volume (IISV), with dimensions of 2m x 1m x 0.8m, located in an agricultural field that is part of the Gryteland catchment in Ås, Norway. The location of the IISV was determined through surface ERT runs at two sequential resolutions. The first run was used to find an area of higher apparent electrical resistivity in a 23.5 x 11.5 m area with 0.5 m spacing. The second run measured apparent electrical resistivity in a 4.7 x 1 m area with 0.1 m spacing, from which the final IISV volume was derived. Distinct features found in the higher resolution run of the IISV, including a recent tire track from a harvester, were used as a spatial reference point for the installation of 20 pairs of TDR probes and tensiometers. The instruments measured water content, temperature and pressure potential at 10 minute intervals and ran continuously for a period of two weeks. After completion of the data collection the IISV was intensively sampled, with 30 samples taken for bulk density, 62 for hydraulic property measurements, and 20 to be used for both CT scanning and hydraulic property measurements. The measurement of hydraulic properties is ongoing and retention will be measured in the 0 - 100 cm range on a sand table, and from 100 - approx. 900 cm with an automated evaporation method. The formation of spatial clusters to represent the soil heterogeneity as relatively homogeneous units based on mesoscale properties like apparent electrical resistivity, bulk density, texture, in

  10. Quantitative molecular biology and gas flux measurements demonstrate soil treatment and depth affects on the distribution and activity of denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, M. M.; Jahangir, M.; Cardenas, L.; Khalil, M.; Richards, K. R.; O'Flaherty, V.

    2010-12-01

    The growing industrialisation of agriculture has led to a dramatic increase in organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) fertiliser inputs to agro-ecosystems. This increase has had negative effects on the quality of water ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions.The study objective was to quantify denitrification and denitrifying microorganisms, using real-time PCR assays of the nitrite reductase(nir) and nitrous oxide reductase(nos) functional gene copy concentrations (GCC g[soil]-1) in Irish agricultural surface and subsoils. Soil cores from 3 soil horizons (A:0-10 cm; B:45-55 cm; C:120-130cm) were amended with 3 alternate N- and C-source amendments (NO3-; NO3-+glucose-C; NO3-+Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Real-time production of N2O and N2 was recorded by gas chromatography in a specialized He/O2 environment. N2O and Total Denitrification (TDN) (N2O+N2) production was generally greater in surface soil (2.052 mg/kg/d TDN) than in subsoils (0.120 mg/kg/d TDN). The abundance of denitrifying nirS, nirK (nir) and nos genes was higher in the surface soil, decreasing with soil depth, except in incubations amended with NO3- and DOC, where the carbon source directly positively affected gene copy numbers and fluxes of N2O and N2 production. C addition increased soil denitrification rates, and resulted in higher N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios in surface soil (0.39) than subsoils (0.005), indicating that the subsoil had higher potential for complete reduction of N2O to N2. In the subsoils, complete reduction of NO3- due to glucose-C and DOC addition was observed. Interestingly, at all 3 soil depths, lower nirK abundance (2.78 105 GCC) was recorded, compared to nirS (1.45 107 GCC), but the overall abundance of nir (S+K) i.e. (1.54 107GCC), corresponded with N2O emission fluxes (3.34 mg/kg/d) Statistical analysis indicates negative correlation between nirK GCC and N2O production, but a strong positive correlation was observed between nirS GCC and N2O. We therefore hypothesize that the

  11. Chemical characterization of iron-mediated soil organic matter stabilization in tropical subsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coward, E.; Plante, A. F.; Thompson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils contribute disproportionately to the poorly-characterized and persistent deep soil carbon (C) pool. Highly-weathered and often extending one to two meters deep, these soils also contain an abundance of semicrystalline, Fe- and Al-containing short-range-order (SRO) minerals, metastable derivatives of framework silicate and ferromagnesian parent materials. SRO minerals are capable of soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization through sorption or co-precipitation, a faculty enhanced by their high specific surface area (SSA). As such, SRO-mediated organomineral associations may prove a critical, yet matrix-selective, driver of SOM stabilization capacity in tropical soils, particularly at depth. Surface (0-20 cm) and subsoil (50-80 cm) samples were taken from 20 quantitative soil pits dug in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, located in northeast Puerto Rico. Soils were stratified across granodiorite and volcaniclastic parent materials, spanning primary mineral contents of 5 to 40%. Selective dissolution procedures were used to isolate distinct forms of Fe-C interactions: (1) sodium pyrophosphate to isolate organo-mineral complexes, (2) hydroxylamine and (3) oxalate to isolate SRO phases, and (4) inorganic dithionite to isolate crystalline Fe oxides. Extracts were analysed for dissolved organic C (DOC) and Fe and Al concentrations to estimate SOM associated with each mineral phase. Soils were also subjected to SSA analysis, 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction before and after extraction to determine the contribution of extracted mineral phases to SOM stabilization capacity. Preliminary results indicate a dominance of secondary (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals in surface soils, strongly driven by parent material. With depth, however, we observe a marked shift towards SRO mineral phases across both parent materials, suggesting that SRO-mediated organomineral associations are significant contributors to observed C storage in tropical

  12. Characterization of extractable soil organic matter pools from African Dark Earths (AfDE): A case study in historical biochar and organic waste amendments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiu, Manna; Plante, Alain; Ohno, Tsutomu; Solomon, Dawit; Lehmann, Johannes; Fraser, James; Leach, Melissa; Fairhead, James

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic Dark Earths are soils generated through long-term human inputs of organic and pyrogenic materials. These soils were originally discovered in the Amazon, and have since been found in Australia and in this case in Africa. African Dark Earths (AfDE) are black, highly fertile and carbon-rich soils that were formed from the original highly-weathered infertile yellowish to red Oxisols and Ultisols through an extant but hitherto overlooked climate-smart sustainable soil management system that has long been an important feature of the indigenous West African agricultural repertoire. Studies have demonstrated that ADE soils in general have significantly different organic matter properties compared to adjacent non-DE soils, largely attributable to the presence of high concentrations of ash-derived carbon. Quantification and characterization of bulk soil organic matter of several (n=11) AfDE and non-AfDE pairs of surface (0-15 cm) soils using thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC-EGA) confirmed substantial differences in SOM composition and the presence of pyrogenic C. Such pyrogenic organic matter is generally considered recalcitrant or relatively stable, but the goal of the current study was to characterize the presumably labile, more rapidly cycling, pools of C in AfDEs through the characterization of hot water- and pyrophosphate-extractable fractions, referred to as HWEOC and PyroC respectively. Extracts were analyzed for carbon content, as well as composition using fluorescence (EEM/PARAFAC) and high resolution mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The amount of extractable C as a proportion of total soil C was relatively low: less than ~0.8% for HWEOC and 2.8% for PyroC. The proportion of HWEOC did not differ (P = 0.18, paired t-test) between the AfDE and the non-AfDE soils, while the proportions of PyroC were significantly larger (P = 0.001) in the AfDE soils compared to the non-AfDE soils. Preliminary analysis of the EEM/PARAFAC data suggests that AfDE samples had

  13. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

    2012-08-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

  14. Full-scale incineration-system demonstration at the Naval Battalion Construction Center, Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 6. Soil excavation. Final report, Sep 86-Feb 89

    SciTech Connect

    Deiro, S.W.

    1991-07-01

    During the third phase of the NCBC Demonstration Project, 1,006 20 by 20-foot plots were excavated from a depth of 3 inches up to as much as 51 inches. The total soil excavated from these plots was approximately 15,000 cu. d. The equipment used in the soil excavation task were a bulldozer, front-end loader, dump truck, asphalt mill (planer), and track hoe. Air monitoring was performed at all times during excavation to minimize the possibility of movement of contaminated dust offsite. Immediately after the excavation of a plot, a bottom-of-hole sample was taken from the plot and shipped to an analytical laboratory for 2,3,7,8-TCDD analysis. As the soil was excavated, it was placed in one of three soil storage tents located near the incinerator. A material handler, using a front-end loader, transferred the soil from the storage tents to the weigh hopper/shredder unit where it was weighed, shredded into small pieces, and dropped onto a covered feed conveyor. The covered conveyor belt carried the soil to the feed hopper where the auger fed the soil into the rotary kiln incinerator. The soil in the rotary kiln was subjected to a minimum temperature of 1,450 F for 20 to 40 minutes to volatilize the organics. At the outlet of the kiln, the burned solids (ash) fell into a water quench tank, while the gases and submicron particulate flowed upward through the cyclones and crossover duct to the Secondary Combustion Chamber.

  15. Georgia Tech Final Report Demonstration In Situ Plasma Vitrification Technology for Savannah River Site Contaminated Soils (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1996-12-01

    Previous experience with in-situ (Joule-heated) vitrification (ISV) of Savannah River site (SRS) highly weathered soil, has shown that the SRS soil is very refractory and a poor electrical conductor. These findings bring into question the likelihood of utilizing the Joule-heat type of vitrification treatment for waste sites and basins at SRS. An alternative approach may be in-situ plasma vitrification (ISPV). The ISPV approach provides a similar vitrified product and also has a safety advantage in that the melting is initiated at the bottom of a borehole compared to top-down melting for Joule heated ISV.

  16. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  17. A demonstration of remote survey and characterization of a buried waste site using the SRIP (Soldier Robot Interface Project) testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Burks, B.L.; Richardson, B.S.; Armstrong, G.A.; Hamel, W.R.; Jansen, J.F.; Killough, S.M.; Thompson, D.H.; Emery, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    During FY 1990, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) supported the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER WM) Office of Technology Development through several projects including the development of a semiautonomous survey of a buried waste site using a remotely operated all-terrain robotic testbed borrowed from the US Army. The testbed was developed for the US Army's Human Engineering Laboratory (HEL) for the US Army's Soldier Robot Interface Project (SRIP). Initial development of the SRIP testbed was performed by a team including ORNL, HEL, Tooele Army Depot, and Odetics, Inc., as an experimental testbed for a variety of human factors issues related to military applications of robotics. The SRIP testbed was made available to the DOE and ORNL for the further development required for a remote landfill survey. The robot was modified extensively, equipped with environmental sensors, and used to demonstrate an automated remote survey of Solid Waste Storage Area No. 3 (SWSA 3) at ORNL on Tuesday, September 18, 1990. Burial trenches in this area containing contaminated materials were covered with soil nearly twenty years ago. This paper describes the SRIP testbed and work performed in FY 1990 to demonstrate a semiautonomous landfill survey at ORNL. 5 refs.

  18. Characterizing changes in soil bacterial community structure in response to short-term warming.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Sun, Huaibo; Peng, Fei; Zhang, Huayong; Xue, Xian; Gibbons, Sean M; Gilbert, Jack A; Chu, Haiyan

    2014-08-01

    High altitude alpine meadows are experiencing considerably greater than average increases in soil surface temperature, potentially as a result of ongoing climate change. The effects of warming on plant productivity and soil edaphic variables have been established previously, but the influence of warming on soil microbial community structure has not been well characterized. Here, the impact of 15 months of soil warming (both +1 and +2 °C) on bacterial community structure was examined in a field experiment on a Tibetan plateau alpine meadow using bar-coded pyrosequencing. Warming significantly changed (P < 0.05) the structure of the soil bacterial community, but the alpha diversity was not dramatically affected. Changes in the abundance of the Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were found to contribute the most to differences between ambient (AT) and artificially warmed conditions. A variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that warming directly explained 7.15% variation in bacterial community structure, while warming-induced changes in soil edaphic and plant phenotypic properties indirectly accounted for 28.3% and 20.6% of the community variance, respectively. Interestingly, certain taxa showed an inconsistent response to the two warming treatments, for example Deltaproteobacteria showed a decreased relative abundance at +1 °C, but a return to AT control relative abundance at +2 °C. This suggests complex microbial dynamics that could result from conditional dependencies between bacterial taxa.

  19. Weighted exponential regression for characterizing radionuclide concentrations in soil depth profiles

    SciTech Connect

    C.P.Oertel; J.R.Giles

    2009-11-01

    Characterization of radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles requires accurate evaluation of the depth distribution of the concentrations as measured by gamma emissions. An ongoing study based on 137Cs activity has shown that such concentration data generally follow an exponential trend when the fraction of radioactivity below depth is plotted against the depth. The slope of the exponential regression fit is defined as alpha/rho, the depth profile parameter. A weighted exponential regression procedure has been developed to compute a mean ??? for a group of related soil samples. Regression results from different areas or from different time periods can be used to compare representative radionuclide concentrations for the specified groupings.

  20. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  1. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    del Papa, María F.; Balagué, Laura J.; Sowinski, Susana Castro; Wegener, Caren; Segundo, Eduardo; Abarca, Francisco Martínez; Toro, Nicolás; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Aguilar, O. Mario; Martínez-Drets, Gloria; Lagares, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809–1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191. PMID:10103231

  3. High Resolution Imaging Spectroscopy for Characterizing Soil Properties over Large Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of high resolution surface soil texture (percentage sand, silt and clay), soil organic matter and chemical constituents are important for understanding infiltration, runoff and other surficial hydrologic processes at different scales. The Visible Near Infrared Analysis (VNIRA) method, which is a combination of imaging spectroscopy and laboratory chemical analysis with an underlying statistical model, has been established for the quantification of soil properties from imaging spectrometer data. In this study we characterize the feasibility of quantifying soil properties over large areas with the aim that these methods may be extended to space-borne sensors such as HyspIRI. Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is a space-borne NASA mission concept having 10nm contiguous bands in the VSWIR region (380nm to 2500nm) of the electromagnetic spectra. High resolution (7.6m) Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected by NASA immediately after the massive 2011 Mississippi River floods at the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway, coupled with in situ samples obtained at the time of the flight, is used to generate HyspIRI like data at 60m resolution. The VNIRA method is applied in a data-mining framework for quantification of the different soil textural properties and chemical constituents. The empirical models are further used for creating quantitative maps of the soil properties for the entire BPNM floodway. These maps are compared with the fine resolution AVIRIS maps of the same area for the different legacy landscape features and spatial correlations with the underlying topography immediately disturbed by the flooding event. The scales of variation in the soil constituents captured by the fine resolution data are also compared to the scales of variation captured by coarser resolution data. This study further explores the issues of applicability, challenges (such as the sensitivity of NDVI from mixed neighborhood pixels

  4. Spatial variability structure of soil CO2 emission and soil physical and chemical properties characterized by fractal dimension in sugarcane areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicalho, E. S.; Teixeira, D. B.; Panosso, A. R.; Perillo, L. I.; Iamaguti, J. L.; Pereira, G. T.; La Scala, N., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    Soil CO2 emission (FCO2) is influenced by chemical, physical and biological factors that affect the production of CO2 in the soil and its transport to the atmosphere, varying in time and space depending on environmental conditions, including the management of agricultural area. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of spatial variability of FCO2 and soil properties by using fractal dimension (DF), derived from isotropic variograms at different scales, and construction of fractograms. The experimental area consisted of a regular grid of 60 × 60 m on sugarcane area under green management, containing 141 points spaced at minimum distances ranging from 0.5 to 10 m. Soil CO2 emission, soil temperature and soil moisture were evaluated over a period of 7 days, and soil chemical and physical properties were determined by sampling at a depth of 0.0 to 0.1 m. FCO2 showed an overall average of 1.51 µmol m-2 s-1, correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with soil physical factors such as soil bulk density, air-filled pore space, macroporosity and microporosity. Significant DF values were obtained in the characterization of FCO2 in medium and large scales (from 20 m). Variations in DF with the scale, which is the fractogram, indicate that the structure of FCO2 variability is similar to that observed for the soil temperature and total pore volume, and reverse for the other soil properties, except for macroporosity, sand content, soil organic matter, carbon stock, C/N ratio and CEC, which fractograms were not significantly correlated to the FCO2 fractogram. Thus, the structure of spatial variability for most soil properties, characterized by fractogram, presents a significant relationship with the structure of spatial variability of FCO2, generally with similar or dissimilar behavior, indicating the possibility of using the fractogram as tool to better observe the behavior of the spatial dependence of the variables along the scale.

  5. The integration of 3D electrical resistivity tomography and ET flux measurements to characterize water mass balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanella, Daniela; Boaga, Jacopo; Perri, Maria Teresa; Consoli, Simona; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    subsoil interactions between biomass, hydrosphere and atmosphere. This case study demonstrates that 3D micro-ERT is capable of characterizing the pathways of water distribution, and provides spatial information on root zone suction regions. The reliability of the method may suggest its integration into farm water management surveys to delineate zones of excessive water loss due to deep drainage and to improve the positioning of point measurement methods for measuring soil moisture, thereby improving irrigation scheduling. The integration with plant transpiration and local evapo-transpiration makes available a full set of complementing data to constrain predictive models for the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.

  6. An Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration report. Volume 1, Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Quadrel, M.J.; Hunter, V.L.; Young, J.K.; Lini, D.C.; Goldberg, C.

    1993-04-01

    The Waste Characterization Data and Technology Development Needs Assessment provides direct support to the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID). Key users of the study`s products may also include individuals and programs within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30), and the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40). The goal of this work is to provide the UST-ID with a procedure for allocating funds across competing characterization technologies in a timely and defensible manner. It resulted in three primary products: 1. It organizes and summarizes information on underground storage tank characterization data needs. 2. It describes current technology development activity related to each need and flags areas where technology development may be beneficial. 3. It presents a decision process, with supporting software, for evaluating, prioritizing, and integrating possible technology development funding packages. The data presented in this document can be readily updated as the needs of the Waste Operations and Environmental Restoration programs mature and as new and promising technology development options emerge.

  7. Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2010-03-13

    A microbial census on the deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated the presence of silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable amount of similar microbial communities (1360 common OTUs) despite of distinct geochemical characteristics. A total of 57 phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity in deep biosphere by capturing several physiological groups of bacteria such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. Application of high-density microarrays revealed the vast prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

  8. The relevance of in-situ and laboratory characterization of sandy soil hydraulic properties for soil water simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Shahidi, Reihaneh; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Al-Barri, Bashar; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Field water flow processes can be precisely delineated with proper sets of soil hydraulic properties derived from in situ and/or laboratory experiments. In this study we analyzed and compared soil hydraulic properties obtained by traditional laboratory experiments and inverse optimization tension infiltrometer data along the vertical direction within two typical Podzol profiles with sand texture in a potato field. The main goal was to identify proper sets of hydraulic parameters and to evaluate their relevance on hydrological model performance for irrigation management purposes. Tension disc infiltration experiments were carried out at four and five different depths for both profiles at consecutive negative pressure heads of 12, 6, 3 and 0.1 cm. At the same locations and depths undisturbed samples were taken to determine Mualem-van Genuchten (MVG) hydraulic parameters (θr, residual water content, θs, saturated water content, α and n, shape parameters and Kls, lab saturated hydraulic conductivity) in the laboratory. Results demonstrated horizontal differences and vertical variability of hydraulic properties. The tension disc infiltration data fitted well in inverse modeling using Hydrus 2D/3D in combination with final water content at the end of the experiment, θf. Four MVG parameters (θs, α, n and field saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs) were estimated (θr set to zero), with estimated Kls and α values being relatively similar to values from Wooding's solution which used as initial value and estimated θs corresponded to (effective) field saturated water content, θf. The laboratory measurement of Kls yielded 2-30 times higher values than the field method Kfs from top to subsoil layers, while there was a significant correlation between both Ks values (r = 0.75). We found significant differences of MVG parameters θs, n and α values between laboratory and field measurements, but again a significant correlation was observed between laboratory and field MVG

  9. Bacterial community characterization in the soils of native and restored rainforest fragments.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Rafael L F; Zucchi, Tiago D; Taketani, Rodrigo G; Andreote, Fernando D; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest ("Mata Atlântica") has been largely studied due to its valuable and unique biodiversity. Unfortunately, this priceless ecosystem has been widely deforested and only 10 % of its original area is still untouched. Some projects have been successfully implemented to restore its fauna and flora but there is a lack of information on how the soil bacterial communities respond to this process. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the influence of soil attributes and seasonality on soil bacterial communities of rainforest fragments under restoration processes. Soil samples from a native site and two ongoing restoration fragments with different times of implementation (10 and 20 years) were collected and assayed by using culture-independent approaches. Our findings demonstrate that seasonality barely altered the bacterial distribution whereas soil chemical attributes and plant species were related to bacterial community structure during the restoration process. Moreover, the strict relationship observed for two bacterial groups, Solibacteriaceae and Verrucomicrobia, increasing from the more recently planted (10 years) to the native site, with the 20 year old restoration site in the middle, which may suggest their use as bioindicators of soil quality and recovery of forest fragments being restored.

  10. Characterization of bacterial communities and functions of two submerged soils from San Vitale park (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Chiellini, Carolina; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Ferronato, Chiara; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Vianello, Gilmo

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous soils has been introduced in the last edition of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil surveystaff, 2014), to describe soils covered by a water column of up to 2.5 m where different pedogenetic processes can be recognized. However, the role of bacterial community structure and function in such environments and its potential use as pedogenetic indicator is still largely unknown. Two submerged soils (WAS-2 and WAS-4) were collected from San Vitale park (Italy), a site where the evolution of the landscape from subaqueous wetland to interdunal and dunal system, and the interfacing of freshwater with saltwater, made this site particularly suitable for examining the pedogenetic indicators which can characterize and predict the soil hydromorphism in trasitional ecosystems. The two soils were classified and their physicochemical and morphological features were investigated. Selective media were used to isolate both culturable aerobic and anaerobic (microaerophilic) bacteria associated with each horizon. In WAS-2 seven horizons were identified (depths 4-0, 0-6, 6-13, 13-20, 20-36, 36-59/60, and 59/60-83 cm) while in WAS-4, five horizons were identified (depths 0-14, 14-20, 20-40, 40-45, 45-100 cm) for a total of 12 horizons (samples). For each sample, aerobic bacterial plate count was performed on solid LB medium, coupled with microaerophilic bacterial plate count either on SA500 minimal medium and AYE medium (0.5% soft agar each). Molecular identification (16S rRNA gene sequencing) of ~100 strains isolated from each of the three used medium was performed, for a total of ~300 strains for each sample. To complete the characterization of the microbial communities in all horizons, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was carried out with 454 platform on each of the 12 samples. Moreover, the N2O and CH4 emissions were determined from each pedon. All the parameters were used to highlight the similarities and the differences between and within the pedons. The results

  11. Characterization of minerals: From the classroom to soils to talc deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools to identify any mineral. Students begin with familiarizing themselves with the tools (e.g. Polarizing Light Microscope and refractive index liquids) and the methods (e.g. defining properties) needed to identify a mineral. Next, they work through characterizing the most common minerals to hone their skills. The students finish the semester with two projects: characterizing single mineral grains with a spindle stage and creating a mineral collection. Evaluation of mineralogical data from selected sand or silt fraction of soils from the USDA-NRCS National Cooperative Soil Survey database, show that soils in all states (except for Rhode Island) contain amphiboles. Forty-one of the fifty states had 10 % or more sampled pedons containing amphiboles. Overall, about 13 % of pedons sampled in the USA contained amphiboles. While amphibole asbestos deposits occur in mafic and ultramafic provinces, soil amphiboles occur evenly distributed across the USA. The majority of the amphiboles found in the soils would probably not meet the mineralogical definition of asbestos (i.e., they would not have been derived from asbestiform amphiboles); however, the majority would probably meet a commonly used regulatory definition to be considered a fiber (i.e., are over 5 microns in length with a greater that 3 to 1 aspect ratio). Furthermore, chemical and morphological characterization was done on minerals in talc deposits and R. T. Vanderbilt Co. processed talc products from the Gouverneur Mining District, New York. The main mineral phases detected within the samples are tremolite, anthophyllite, and talc. Compositional analyses were preformed by

  12. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, and microbiology of the radio frequency heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Fliermans, C.B.; Looney, B.B.; Parker, W.H.

    1993-08-01

    The overall objective of the Integrated Demonstration Project for the Remediation of Organics at Nonarid Sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The first phase of the demonstration focused on the application and development of in situ air stripping technologies to remediate sediments and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The second phase focused on the enhancement of the in situ air stripping process by adding selected nutrients to stimulate naturally occurring microorganisms that degrade VOCs. The purpose of the third phase was to evaluate the use of heating technologies [radio frequency (rf) and ohmic heating] to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers where mass transfer is limited. The objective of this report is to document pretest and post-test data collected in support of the rf heating demonstration. The following data are discussed in this report: (1) a general description of the site including piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process; (2) stratigraphy, lithology, and a detailed geologic cross section of the study site; (3) tabulations of pretest and post-test moisture and VOC content of the sediments; (4) sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples; (5) microbial abundance and diversity; (6) three-dimensional images of pretest and post-test contaminant distribution; (7) volumetric calculations.

  13. Molecular characterization of fungal communities in non-tilled, cover-cropped upland rice field soils.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Zhaorigetu; Komatsuzaki, Masakazu; Sato, Yoshinori; Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil fungal communities in upland rice fields managed with tillage/non-tillage and winter cover-cropping (hairy vetch and cereal rye) practices, using PCR-based molecular methods. The study plots were maintained as upland fields for 5 years and the soils sampled in the second and fifth years were analyzed using T-RFLP (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) profiling and clone libraries with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and domain 1 (D1) of the fungal large-subunit (fLSU) rRNA (D1(fLSU)) as the target DNA sequence. From the 2nd-year-sample, 372 cloned sequences of fungal ITS-D1(fLSU) were obtained and clustered into 80 nonredundant fungal OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in 4 fungal phyla. The T-RFLP profiling was performed with the 2nd- and 5th-year-samples and the major T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments) were identified using a theoretical fragment analysis of the ITS-D1(fLSU) clones. These molecular analyses showed that the fungal community was influenced more strongly by the cover-cropping than tillage practices. Moreover, the non-tilled, cover-cropped soil was characterized by a predominance of Cryptococcus sp. in the phylum Basidiomycota. We provided a genetic database of the fungal ITS-D1(fLSU)s in the differently managed soils of upland rice fields.

  14. Chemical and biological characterization of non-extractable sulfonamide residues in soil.

    PubMed

    Heise, Julia; Höltge, Sibylla; Schrader, Stefan; Kreuzig, Robert

    2006-12-01

    For sulfonamides, the formation of non-extractable residues has been identified by laboratory testing as the most relevant concentration determining process in manured soil. Therefore, the present study has been focused on the chemical and biological characterization of non-extractable residues of (14)C-labeled sulfadiazine or sulfamethoxazole. In laboratory batch experiments, the test substances were spiked via standard solution or test slurry to microbially active soil samples. After incubation periods of up to 102d, a sequential extraction technique was applied. Despite the exhaustive extraction procedure, sulfadiazine residues mainly remained non-extractable, indicating the high affinity to the soil matrix. The remobilization of non-extractable (14)C-sulfadiazine residues was monitored in the activated sludge test and the Brassica rapa test. Only small amounts (<3%) were transferred into the extractable fractions and 0.1% was taken up by the plants. In the Lumbricus terrestris test A, the release of non-extractable (14)C-sulfamethoxazole residues by the burrowing activity of the earthworms was investigated. The residues mainly remained non-extractable (96%). The L. terrestris test B was designed to study the immobilization of (14)C-sulfamethoxazole in soil directly after the test slurry application. The mean uptake by earthworms was 1%. Extractable and non-extractable residues amounted to 5% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, the results of all tests confirmed the high affinity of the non-extractable sulfonamide residues to the soil matrix.

  15. Chemical and biological characterization of non-extractable sulfonamide residues in soil.

    PubMed

    Heise, Julia; Höltge, Sibylla; Schrader, Stefan; Kreuzig, Robert

    2006-12-01

    For sulfonamides, the formation of non-extractable residues has been identified by laboratory testing as the most relevant concentration determining process in manured soil. Therefore, the present study has been focused on the chemical and biological characterization of non-extractable residues of (14)C-labeled sulfadiazine or sulfamethoxazole. In laboratory batch experiments, the test substances were spiked via standard solution or test slurry to microbially active soil samples. After incubation periods of up to 102d, a sequential extraction technique was applied. Despite the exhaustive extraction procedure, sulfadiazine residues mainly remained non-extractable, indicating the high affinity to the soil matrix. The remobilization of non-extractable (14)C-sulfadiazine residues was monitored in the activated sludge test and the Brassica rapa test. Only small amounts (<3%) were transferred into the extractable fractions and 0.1% was taken up by the plants. In the Lumbricus terrestris test A, the release of non-extractable (14)C-sulfamethoxazole residues by the burrowing activity of the earthworms was investigated. The residues mainly remained non-extractable (96%). The L. terrestris test B was designed to study the immobilization of (14)C-sulfamethoxazole in soil directly after the test slurry application. The mean uptake by earthworms was 1%. Extractable and non-extractable residues amounted to 5% and 93%, respectively. Consequently, the results of all tests confirmed the high affinity of the non-extractable sulfonamide residues to the soil matrix. PMID:16774778

  16. Characterization of vegetation and soils of rehabilitated sandy wastelands at the Usinsk oilfields (the Komi Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhanova, I. A.; Khabibullina, F. M.; Kurakov, A. V.

    2008-09-01

    The soils and phytocenoses developed over 13 years after four procedures of rehabilitation of sandy wastelands in the area of Usinsk oilfields (the northernmost taiga) are characterized. The planting of pine seedlings and especially the sowing of perennial grasses, along with the improvement of the substrate by application of peat and fertilizers, were the most efficient rehabilitation technologies as compared to the planting of only willow cuttings or 7-to 19-year-old pine wildings. On the plots where grasses were sown and pine seedlings were planted, the plant communities were at the preclimax succession stage (small-leaved tree species and shrubs) before the regeneration of the coniferous forest. The input of abundant plant residues have led to the formation of weakly developed soils with higher contents of organic carbon and hydrolyzable nitrogen as compared to their concentrations in the initial substrate. However, they were much lower as compared with the reference peaty-podzolic iron-illuvial soil. In the upper horizons of the weakly developed soils, the number of colony-forming units of bacteria and fungi and the mycobiota diversity were close to those in the reference soil, but the activity of the microbiological processes remained substantially lower in these horizons.

  17. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter.

  18. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterisation facility for "next generation" sampling aimed at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity on quantification of a set of exemplar parameters, organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), biomass, soil microbiology, MCPA sorption and mineralization is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a fit-for-purpose heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale profile (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-1 m) replication sampling pattern. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results concludes that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  19. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities.

  20. Evaluation and characterization of thyroid-disrupting activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils. PMID:27526021

  1. Evaluation and characterization of thyroid-disrupting activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils.

  2. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  3. Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

    2003-01-01

    Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  4. Demonstration and partial characterization of 22-nm HBsAg and Dane particles of subtype HBsAg/ady.

    PubMed

    Hess, G; Shih, J W; Arnold, W; Gerin, J L; zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1979-09-01

    The present paper describes the demonstration of d, y, w, and r HBsAg determinants in one serum. It was shown that there are two populations of HBsAg particles: HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ady. All complete Dane particles were of subtype HBsAg/ady. Further characterization of HBsAg/ady particles did not reveal morphologic differences when they were compared with HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay particles. An HBsAg/ady phenotype may be the result of a double infection with hepatitis B viruses or exchanges of DNA sequences that determine HBsAg/ay and HBsAg/ad to form a new genotype. PMID:89163

  5. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the First West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Feed Batch

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Ronald A.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary L.; Smith, Monty R.; Russell, Renee L.; Patello, Gertrude K.

    2002-10-07

    To support the West Valley Demonstration Project's (WVDP) Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR) and data needs associated with the support flowsheet, equipment, and process testing, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to completely characterize a sample of the first batch of high-level waste (HLW) slurry transferred to the Concentrator Feed Make-Up Tank (CFMT) identified as CW-H. Cation, anion, and radionuclide concentrations as well as the slurry physical properties including density, total solids, and suspended solids were measured. This data will be compared to the predicted inventory of the waste. Also, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP/MS) results for cation analysis will be compared to cation analysis results from inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Radionuclide analysis methods were developed during this work for iodine-129, selenium-79, actinium-227, and neptunium-236 and will also be presented.

  6. Demonstration and partial characterization of 22-nm HBsAg and Dane particles of subtype HBsAg/ady.

    PubMed

    Hess, G; Shih, J W; Arnold, W; Gerin, J L; zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1979-09-01

    The present paper describes the demonstration of d, y, w, and r HBsAg determinants in one serum. It was shown that there are two populations of HBsAg particles: HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ady. All complete Dane particles were of subtype HBsAg/ady. Further characterization of HBsAg/ady particles did not reveal morphologic differences when they were compared with HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay particles. An HBsAg/ady phenotype may be the result of a double infection with hepatitis B viruses or exchanges of DNA sequences that determine HBsAg/ay and HBsAg/ad to form a new genotype.

  7. REMOVAL OF ISOPROPHYL ALCOHOL FROM A SURFACTANT-BASED SOIL REMEDIATION FLUID BY PERVAPORATION: PILOT SCALE FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, NRMRL participated in a field demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process. The main purpose of this field demonstration was to combine and optimize the subsurface extraction of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid with the above ground deconta...

  8. Characterization of Isotopomer Factionation During Consumption of Nitrous Oxide in Pure Culture and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrom, P. H.; Pitt, A. J.; Sutka, R. L.; Ostrom, N. E.; Fang, L.; Gandhi, H.

    2004-12-01

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrates that the intermolecular distribution of 15N in the N2O molecule can be used distinguish N2O derived from nitrification and denitrification in pure culture. However, if consumption of N2O during denitrification also imparts an isotopomeric effect, it needs to be accounted for. We determined fractionation factors associated with N2O consumption for bulk 15N, 18O and site preference (difference in δ 15N between the central and outer N atoms) in a pure culture of Pseudomonas denitrificans and soils from the Kellogg Biological Station's Long Term Ecosystem Research Site. The soils derive from a deciduous forest and agricultural fields with different management histories. Soils were collected by auger, homogenized and stored dry prior to initiation of mesocosm experiments. Denitrification in soil mesocosms was promoted by a headspace of pure N2 and addition of water to near saturation levels. The isotopic enrichment factor, ɛ (defined as (α -1)*1000)) for 15N, 18O and site preference during N2O consumption by Pseudomonas denitrificans was found to be 10.9, 24.8, and 20.3 ‰ , respectively. Isotopic enrichment factors in soils ranged from 1.0 to 9.2 ‰ for 15N, 2.7 to 24.5 ‰ for 18O, and 6 to 11.9 ‰ for the site preference. The enrichment factors in soils were generally less than those observed in pure culture. This likely reflects suppression of fractionation during diffusion in wet soils. Isotopic enrichment factors for nitrogen and oxygen were strongly correlated such that fractionation for 18O exceeded that associated with 15N by a factor of 2.5. This relationship may provide a basis to identify N2O consumption and account for it in models of source apportionment.

  9. Characterization of sorption properties of selected soils from Lublin region by using water vapour adsorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    *The studies were carried out within the framework of a research project. The project was financed from funds of National Science Center on the base of decision number DEC-2013/11/D/NZ9/02545 Among many methods proposed to study sorption properties of soils an analysis of adsorption/ desorption isotherm is probably the easiest and most convenient one. It characterizes both quantity and quality of mineral and organic components and also their physical and physicochemical properties. The main aim of this study is comparison of sorption properties of selected Polish soils by using water vapour adsorption method. Samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 cm, from the Lublin region, eastern Poland. Soils were selected on the basis of their different physicochemical properties and were classified as: Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem, Mollic Gleysol, Rendzic Phaeozem, Stagnic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol (WG WRB 2006). Data taken from experimental adsorption isotherms were used to determine parameters of monolayer capacity, specific surface area and the total amount of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure of 0.974. Obtained adsorption and desorption isotherms reviled that adsorbate molecules interacted with the soil particles in different extent. Similar monolayer capacity was observed for Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem and Stagnic Luvisol, while for Mollic Gleysol was more than 4 times higher. Mollic Gleysol was also characterized by highest values of specific surface area as well as quantity of adsorbed vapour at relative pressure of 0.974. Higher sorption was caused by presence of soil colloids which contains functional groups of a polar nature (mainly hydroxyls, phenolic and carboxyls). These groups similarly to silicates, oxides, hydratable cations as well as electric charge form adsorption centres for water vapour molecules.

  10. Medicina array demonstrator: calibration and radiation pattern characterization using a UAV-mounted radio-frequency source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Naldi, G.; Bianchi, G.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Perini, F.; Poloni, M.; Schiaffino, M.; Bolli, P.; Lingua, A.; Aicardi, I.; Bendea, H.; Maschio, P.; Piras, M.; Virone, G.; Paonessa, F.; Farooqui, Z.; Tibaldi, A.; Addamo, G.; Peverini, O. A.; Tascone, R.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the new-generation Low-Frequency Aperture Array (LFAA) radio telescopes is instrument calibration. The operational LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) instrument and the future LFAA element of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) require advanced calibration techniques to reach the expected outstanding performance. In this framework, a small array, called Medicina Array Demonstrator (MAD), has been designed and installed in Italy to provide a test bench for antenna characterization and calibration techniques based on a flying artificial test source. A radio-frequency tone is transmitted through a dipole antenna mounted on a micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) (hexacopter) and received by each element of the array. A modern digital FPGA-based back-end is responsible for both data-acquisition and data-reduction. A simple amplitude and phase equalization algorithm is exploited for array calibration owing to the high stability and accuracy of the developed artificial test source. Both the measured embedded element patterns and calibrated array patterns are found to be in good agreement with the simulated data. The successful measurement campaign has demonstrated that a UAV-mounted test source provides a means to accurately validate and calibrate the full-polarized response of an antenna/array in operating conditions, including consequently effects like mutual coupling between the array elements and contribution of the environment to the antenna patterns. A similar system can therefore find a future application in the SKA-LFAA context.

  11. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2-6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non

  12. Experimental design based on field spectrometry for characterization of fire-affected soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero, Olga; Vlassova, Lidia; Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires can modify physical and chemical properties of soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011; Badía et al., 2014). These disturbances involve changes in soil spectral properties, which can be analyzed by using field spectrometry (VIS-SWIR) (Montorio et al., 2008; Guerrero et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to present an experimental design for hyperspectral characterization of fire affected soils in laboratory conditions. We analyzed soil samples from Montes de Zuera area (Aragón, Spain) repeatedly affected by wildfires in the period of 1979-2008. Fourteen samples, seven from the burned zones and the corresponding control samples were collected in spring of 2013. Spectral analysis was performed on subsamples of around 130 g (fine fraction, particle size < 2 mm), previously dried in a stove at 105°C during 36 hours, and placed in crystal petri dishes (90 mm x 15 mm). The spectra were obtained using spectroradiometer ASD FieldSpec® 4 (spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm) combined with a Contact Probe ensuring homogeneity of observation and illumination conditions. Spectralon reference panel Labsphere® was used for conversion to reflectance values. The resulting reflectance is an average of the measurements corresponding to five random points of the subsample, each of them representing a mean value of 10 spectra. The averaging of spectra improves the signal to noise ratio and, at the same time, it minimizes the variations caused by the samples surface roughness. Statistically significant differences have been detected between burned and control soils. Reflectance increase of 12% (average for the whole spectrum) was observed in 70% of the samples: 16%, 15% and 10% increase in visible, NIR and SWIR respectively. Therefore regardless of the wildfire date, an increase of reflectance is observed in burned soils due to changes on soil properties. A detailed analysis of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils will be used in further research to

  13. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2–6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non

  14. Characterization of Lunar Soils Using a Thermal Infrared Microscopic Spectral Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Diviner radiometer has provided the planetary science community with a large amount of thermal infrared spectral data. This data set offers rich opportunities for lunar science, but interpretation of the data is complicated by the limited data on lunar materials. While spectra of pure terrestrial minerals have been used effectively for Mars applications, lunar minerals and glasses have been affected by space weathering processes that may alter their spectral properties in important ways. For example, mineral grains acquire vapor deposited coatings, and agglutinate glass contains abundant nanophase iron as a result of exposure to the space environment. Producing mineral separates in sufficient quantities (at least tens of mg) for spectral characterization is painstaking, time consuming and labor intensive; as an alternative we have altered an infrared hyperspectral imaging system developed for remote sensing under funding from the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development program (PIDDP) to enable resolved microscopic spectral imaging. The concept is to characterize the spectral properties of individual grains in lunar soils, enabling a wide range of spectral behaviors of components to be measured rapidly. The instrument, sensitive from 8 to 15 microns at 15 wavenumber resolution, images a field of view of 8 millimeters at 30 micron resolution and scans at a rate of about 1 mm/second enabling relatively large areas to be scanned rapidly. Our experiments thus far use a wet-sieved 90-150 um size fraction with the samples arrayed on a heated substrate in a single layer in order to prevent spectral interactions between grains. We have begun with pure mineral separates, and unsurprisingly we find that the individual mineral grain emission spectra of a wide range of silicates are very similar to spectra of coarse grained powders. We have begun to obtain preliminary data on lunar soils as well. We plan to continue imaging of lunar soils

  15. Technical bases and guidance for the use of composite soil sampling for demonstrating compliance with radiological release criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Vitkus, Timothy J.

    2012-04-24

    This guidance provides information on methodologies and the technical bases that licensees should consider for incorporating composite sampling strategies into final status survey (FSS) plans. In addition, this guidance also includes appropriate uses of composite sampling for generating the data for other decommissioning site investigations such as characterization or other preliminary site investigations.

  16. Characterization of stony soils' hydraulic conductivity using laboratory and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichault, M.; Beckers, E.; Degré, A.; Garré, S.

    2015-10-01

    Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study. Though stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils so that the literature describing the impact of stones on soil's hydraulic conductivity is still rather scarce. Most frequently, models characterizing the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils assume that the only effect of rock fragments is to reduce the volume available for water flow and therefore they predict a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with an increasing stoniness. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of rock fragments on the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This was done by means of laboratory and numerical experiments involving different amounts and types of coarse fragments. We compared our results with values predicted by the aforementioned models. Our study suggests that considering that stones only reduce the volume available for water flow might be ill-founded. We pointed out several drivers of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils, not considered by these models. On the one hand, the shape and the size of inclusions may substantially affect the hydraulic conductivity. On the other hand, the presence of rock fragments can counteract and even overcome the effect of a reduced volume in some cases. We attribute this to the creation of voids at the fine earth-stone interface. Nevertheless, these differences are mainly important near to saturation. However, we come up with a more nuanced view regarding the validity of the models under unsaturated conditions. Indeed, under unsaturated conditions, the models seem to represent the hydraulic behaviour of stones reasonably well.

  17. Fractionation and characterization of soil organic carbon during transition to organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahman, H.; Olk, D.; Cocozza, C.; Miano, T.

    2012-04-01

    The transition from conventional to organic farming is the most difficult period faced by organic growers as it could be characterized by unstable conditions, such as nutrient availability, production reductions, mineralization extents. As soil organic matter (SOM), specifically soil organic carbon (SOC), is known to play important roles in maintenance and improvement of many soil properties, it is important to define its changes during the transition period. Total SOC might not be the suitable tool to track the changes in organically based soil fertility within a 3- to 5-yr transition period. Labile fractions that are important for nutrient cycling and supply are likely to be controlled by management to a much greater extent than is total SOM. Two field experiments, in south of Italy, were established in 2009 to study the changes in SOC during transition to organic farming. Experiments included a cereal/leguminous rotation with triplicates treatments of permitted amendments (compost and fertilizers). Soils were sampled at the beginning of the project, and after each crop harvest in 2010 and 2011. A sequential fractionation procedure was used to separate different SOC-fractions: light fraction (LF), two size classes of particulate organic matter (POM), mobile humic acid (MHA) and Ca++ bound humic acid (CaHA). Isolated fractions were quantified and analyzed for their content of C, N, carbohydrates and amino compounds fingerprints. The obtained results showed that compost application contributed to significantly higher quantities of LF, POM and MHA than did fertilizers application. Carbohydrates content decreased in LF while increased noticeably in POM and slightly in MHA fractions, which indicates that decomposing materials are converted, within the time span of humification, from young fractions into more mature fractions. Amino compounds were found to provide up to 40% of total soil N with a major contribution of the humified fractions, MHA and CaHA. The utilized

  18. Characterization of stony soils' hydraulic conductivity using laboratory and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Eléonore; Pichault, Mathieu; Pansak, Wanwisa; Degré, Aurore; Garré, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study. Although stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils, so that the literature describing the impact of stones on the hydraulic conductivity of a soil is still rather scarce. Most frequently, models characterizing the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils assume that the only effect of rock fragments is to reduce the volume available for water flow, and therefore they predict a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with an increasing stoniness. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of rock fragments on the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This was done by means of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations involving different amounts and types of coarse fragments. We compared our results with values predicted by the aforementioned predictive models. Our study suggests that it might be ill-founded to consider that stones only reduce the volume available for water flow. We pointed out several factors of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils that are not considered by these models. On the one hand, the shape and the size of inclusions may substantially affect the hydraulic conductivity. On the other hand, laboratory experiments show that an increasing stone content can counteract and even overcome the effect of a reduced volume in some cases: we observed an increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity with volume of inclusions. These differences are mainly important near to saturation. However, comparison of results from predictive models and our experiments in unsaturated conditions shows that models and data agree on a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with stone content, even though the experimental conditions did not allow testing for stone contents higher than 20 %.

  19. Characterization and mobility of geogenic chromium in soils and river bed sediments of Asopos basin.

    PubMed

    Lilli, Maria A; Moraetis, Daniel; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Karatzas, George P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to assess the origin and mobility of CrVI in Asopos basin in Greece. Sampling was designed in such way as to capture the spatial variability of chromium occurring in sediments and soils in different lithological units in the area. Physicochemical and geochemical characterization of surface agricultural soils obtained from river terraces and river bed sediments was conducted in order to determine the natural background of chromium. Lithologies with strong calcareous, siliceous and ultramafic components were identified using principal component analysis. Laboratory mobility studies quantified the rates of chromium sorption and release from soils and their capacity to adsorb chromium. Heavy metal analysis and local geology study support the hypothesis that the main source of chromium is of geogenic origin. Chromium distribution in Asopos river bed was influenced from the eroded products derived from extensive areas with ultramafic rocks the last 5Ma. The mobility studies showed that leaching process was very fast and sorption capacity was significant and capable to retain chromium in case of waste release in the river. Finally the mobility of chromium release is limited due to existing attenuation capacity controlled by ferric oxides coatings on the soil and sediments.

  20. Analytical electron microscopy characterization of Fernald soils. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    A combination of backscattered electron imaging and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) with electron diffraction have been used to determine the physical and chemical properties of uranium contamination in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. The information gained from these studies has been used in the development and testing of remediation technologies. Most chemical washing techniques have been reasonably effective with uranyl [U(VI)] phases, but U(IV) phases have proven difficult to remove from the soils. Carbonate leaching in an oxygen environment (heap leaching) has removed some of the U(IV) phases, and it appears to be the most effective technique developed in the program. The uranium metaphosphate, which was found exclusively at an incinerator site, has not been removed by any of the chemical methods. We suggest that a physical extraction procedure (either a magnetic separation or aqueous biphasic process) be used to remove this phase. Analytical electron microscopy has also been used to determine the effect of the chemical agents on the uranium phases. It has also been used to examine soils from the Portsmouth site in Ohio. The contamination there took the form of uranium oxide and uranium calcium oxide phases. Technology transfer efforts over FY 1994 have led to industry-sponsored projects involving soil characterization.

  1. Characterization and inventory of contaminants in WAG 2 floodplain soils of White Oak Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, C.J.; Nyquist, J.E.; Purucker, S.T.; Burgoa, B.B.; Winterfield, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A remedial investigation was conducted to determine the extent and type of contamination in the floodplain soils of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, in conjunction with environmental restoration activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). WAG 2 is located downstream from the main Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) plant area. As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989. Sites on this list must be investigated to determine if remedial actions are possible. This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of the WAG 2 floodplain soils by (1) presenting the characterization and inventory of contaminants, (2) comparing the walkover survey data to quantitative gamma-emitting radionuclide data, and (3) presenting an assessment of human health risk from exposure to these soils. Contaminant characterization results indicated that the primary contaminants in the WAG 2 floodplain are the gamma-emitting radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, although cobalt activity levels are 1/25th or less than those of cesium. Inorganic contaminants discussed in this report were limited to those contributing significantly to human exposure: antimony, barium, chromium(IV), manganese, mercury, and nickel.

  2. Subsurface Characterization and Seismic Monitoring for the Southwest Partnerships Phase III Demonstration Project at Farnsworth Field, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, R. A.; Balch, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration is performing seismic based characterization and monitoring activities at an active CO2 EOR project at Farnsworth Field, Texas. CO2 is anthropogenically sourced from a fertilizer and an ethanol plant. The field has 13 CO2 injectors and has sequestered 302,982 metric tonnes of CO2 since October 2013. The field site provides an excellent laboratory for testing a range of monitoring technologies in an operating CO2 flood since planned development is sequential and allows for multiple opportunities to record zero CO2 baseline data, mid-flood data, and fully flooded data. The project is comparing and contrasting several scales of seismic technologies in order to determine best practices for large scale commercial sequestration projects. Characterization efforts include an 85 km2 3D surface seismic survey, baseline and repeat 3D VSP surveys centered on injection wells, cross-well tomography baseline and repeat surveys between injector/producer pairs, and a borehole passive seismic array to monitor induced seismicity. All surveys have contributed to detailed geologic models which were then used for fluid flow and risk assessment simulations. 3D VSP and cross-well data with repeat surveys have allowed for direct comparisons of the reservoir prior to CO2 injection and at eight months into injection, with a goal of imaging the CO2 plume as it moves away from injection wells. Additional repeat surveys at regular intervals will continue to refine the plume. The goal of this work is to demonstrate seismic based technologies to monitor CO2 sequestration projects, and to contribute to best practices manuals for commercial scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this talk the seismic plan will be outlined, progress towards goals enumerated, and preliminary results from baseline and repeat seismic data will be discussed. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  3. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    H and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined in deionised water (1:2.5 and 1:5 w/v, respectively). The structural characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) was analysed by direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) performed at 500 °C (González-Vila et al., 2009). Only chromatogram peaks with an area higher than 0.2 % were identified and used to obtain the relative abundance of main chemical families in each vegetation cover. Results Our results show that soil water repellence is strongly correlated to microbial activity, pH and electrical conductivity. After Py-GC/MS analysis, soil organic matter in the Banksia woodland and the coastal dune showed a high heterogeneity. In the Banksia woodland two different patterns were observed. Samples under Banksia spp. showed a SOM with clear signs of altereation (humified) that included a high contribution of stable families like unspecific aromatic compounds and alkane/alkene pairs whereas under Eucalyptus spp. showed a less altered SOM with a high relative contribution from lignocellulose (lignin and carbohydrates), together with a low relative content of recalcitrant families. However in the soil samples from coastal dunes a very similar SOM chemical composition was found in all cases. The dominant family was unspecific aromatic compounds (>30%), followed by alkane/alkene pairs and a high relative contribution from N bearing peptide compounds. This, together with a low relative amount of carbohydrate and lignin derived (methoxyphenols) compounds points to a SOM that undergoes great alteration processes, possible because of high turn-over rates. Very low contents of SOM were found in the Pilbara system, under Py-GC/MS detection levels, and therefore it was not possible to establish its chemical composition. A principal components analysis (PCA) axes based on the relative abundances of chemical families of compounds released after SOM pyrolysis (70.9 % of total variation explained in the two first axes) indicate that

  4. Sensitivity of soil water content simulation to different methods of soil hydraulic parameter characterization as initial input values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Shahidi, Reihaneh; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydraulic parameters, which can be derived from in situ and/or laboratory experiments, are key input parameters for modeling water flow in the vadose zone. In this study, we measured soil hydraulic properties with typical laboratory measurements and field tension infiltration experiments using Wooding's analytical solution and inverse optimization along the vertical direction within two typical podzol profiles with sand texture in a potato field. The objective was to identify proper sets of hydraulic parameters and to evaluate their relevance on hydrological model performance for irrigation management purposes. Tension disc infiltration experiments were carried out at five different depths for both profiles at consecutive negative pressure heads of 12, 6, 3 and 0.1 cm. At the same locations and depths undisturbed samples were taken to determine the water retention curve with hanging water column and pressure extractors and lab saturated hydraulic conductivity with the constant head method. Both approaches allowed to determine the Mualem-van Genuchten (MVG) hydraulic parameters (residual water content θr, saturated water content θs,, shape parameters α and n, and field or lab saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs and Kls). Results demonstrated horizontal differences and vertical variability of hydraulic properties. Inverse optimization resulted in excellent matches between observed and fitted infiltration rates in combination with final water content at the end of the experiment, θf, using Hydrus 2D/3D. It also resulted in close correspondence of  and Kfs with those from Logsdon and Jaynes' (1993) solution of Wooding's equation. The MVG parameters Kfs and α estimated from the inverse solution (θr set to zero), were relatively similar to values from Wooding's solution which were used as initial value and the estimated θs corresponded to (effective) field saturated water content θf. We found the Gardner parameter αG to be related to the optimized van

  5. PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA’s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

  6. Characterization of tillage effects on soil permeability using different measures of macroporosity derived from tension infiltrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, G.; Schwen, A.; Scholl, P.; Kammerer, G.; Buchan, G.; Kaul, H.-P.; Loiskandl, W.

    2010-05-01

    approaches (direct vs. inverse evaluation, capillary vs. flow weighted pore radius). We will show the influence of the distinct evaluation procedures on the resulting effective macroporosity, as well as on the relationships between macropore radius and hydraulic conductivity (Moret and Arrúe, 2007) and pore fraction respectively (Carey et al., 2007). The infiltration measurements used in this study were obtained in a long-term tillage trial located in the semi-arid region of Eastern Austria. Measurements were taken five times over the vegetation period, starting immediately after tillage until harvest of the winter wheat crop. Three tillage systems were evaluated, being conventional tillage with plough, minimum tillage with chisel and no-tillage. Additional to infiltration measurements, also soil water content was monitored continuously by a capacitance probe in all three replicates of each tillage treatment in 10, 20 and 40 cm soil depth. Water content time series are used to derive flow velocity in the wet range by cross-correlation analysis (Wu et al., 1997). This effective parameter of water transmission will then be compared to the flow behaviour expected from the characterization of soil macroporosity. We will show that mainly in no-tillage systems large macropores contribute essentially to flow and therefore the decision on pore measure and evaluation procedure to be used leads to substantial differences. For a detailed comparison of tillage effects on soil hydraulic properties it is therefore essential to analyse the contribution of different tension infiltrometry based evaluation methods to explain effective water transmission through the complex porous network of the soil. References Carey, S.K., Quinton, W.L., Goeller, N.T. 2007. Field and laboratory estimates of pore size properties and hydraulic characteristics for subarctic organic soils. Hydrol. Process. 21, 2560-2571. Moret, D., Arrúe, J.L. 2007. Characterizing soil water conducting macro- and mesoporosity

  7. Petrographic characterization of lunar soils: Application of x ray digital-imaging to quantitative and automated analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, Stefan J.; Patchen, Allan; Chambers, John G.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the moon will be the raw materials for various engineering needs at a lunar base, such as sources of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, etc. The material of choice for most of the bulk needs is the regolith and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil. For specific mineral resources it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from either rocks or soils. Therefore, quantitative characterizations of these rocks and soils are necessary in order to better define their mineral resource potential. However, using standard point-counting microscopic procedures, it is difficult to quantitatively determine mineral abundances and virtually impossible to obtain data on mineral distributions within grains. As a start to fulfilling these needs, Taylor et al. and Chambers et al. have developed a procedure for characterization of crushed lunar rocks using x ray digital imaging. The development of a similar digital imaging procedure for lunar soils as obtained from a spectrometer is described.

  8. NMR characterization and sorption behavior of agricultural and forest soil humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengliang; Berns, Anne E.; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    Humic substances are the predominant components of the organic matter in the terrestrial system, which are not only important for the physicochemical properties of soil but are also dominant factors for controlling the environmental behaviors and fates of some organic contaminants, such as hydrophobic compounds. Nonylphenol [4-(1-ethyl-1, 3 dimethylpentyl) phenol] (NP), a ubiquitous hydrophobic pollutant, has recently focused the attention owing to its endocrine disruptors property. Sorption behavior of NP on humic substances, which were isolated from agricultural and forest soils, was investigated by using the dialysis technique at room temperature. 14C-labeled NP was used to quantify the partitioning behavior. Humic substances were characterized by 13C Cross-Polarization/Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS NMR). The results showed that the partition parameters of NP on various humic acids were slightly different. Relationships between partition coefficients and the functional groups of humic substances identified by CP/MAS NMR were analyzed.

  9. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves and Standard Penetration Test for Sub-Soil Characterization: A Comparison Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagomez, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) is a method used for sub-soil characterization. SASW has the advantage of being non-intrusive and non-invasive. Commonly used in current geotechnical engineering for being faster and cheaper than other laboratory tests. Standard Penetration test (SPT), which is used to obtain stratigraphic profiles of the sub-soil, contrary to SASW test, is invasive, destructive and not less important, expensive. The SASW method uses dispersive characteristics of Rayleigh waves in stratified or half-space media to obtain their physical parameters and henceforward its characterization. From this, a soil profile is estimated. A comparison between a geophysical method, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the N-value obtained from a classic geotechnical test (SPT) to estimate and characterize the in-site sub-soil properties at Patillas Dam, Puerto Rico, will be given in this work.

  10. GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THE PREPARATION OF DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS FOR THE VERIFICATION OF FIELD CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work represents the technical and editorial contributions of a large number of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) employees and others familiar with or interested in the demonstration and evaluation of innovative site characterization and monitoring technologies. In ...

  11. Characterization of preferential flow in undisturbed, structured soil columns using a vertical TDR probe.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Horton, R; Noborio, K; Jaynes, D B

    2001-10-01

    Rapid movement of agricultural chemicals through soil to groundwater via preferential flow pathways is one cause of water contamination. Previous studies have shown that time domain reflectometry (TDR) could be used to characterize solute transport in soil. However, previous studies have only scarcely addressed preferential flow. This study presents an extended application of TDR for determining preferential flow properties. A TDR method was tested in carefully controlled laboratory experiments using 20-cm long and 12-cm diameter undisturbed, structured soil columns. The method used a vertically installed TDR probe and a short pulse of tracer application to obtain residual mass (RM) breakthrough curves (BTC). The RM BTC obtained from TDR were used to estimate mobile/immobile model (MIM) parameters that were compared to the parameter estimates from effluent data. A conventional inverse curve fitting method (CXTFIT) was used to estimate parameters. The TDR-determined parameters were then used to generate calculated effluent BTC for comparison with observed effluent BTC for the same soil columns. Time moments of the calculated and observed BTC were calculated to quantitatively evaluate the calculated BTC. Overall, the RM BTC obtained from TDR were similar to the RM BTC obtained from effluent data. The TDR-determined parameters corresponded well to the parameters obtained from the effluent data, although they were not within the 95% confidence intervals. Correlation coefficients between the parameters obtained from TDR and from effluent data for the immobile water fraction (theta im/theta), mass exchange coefficient (alpha), and dispersion coefficient (Dm) were 0.95, 0.95, and 0.99, respectively. For three of the four soil cores, theta im/theta ranged from 0.42 to 0.82, indicating considerable preferential flow. The TDR-calculated effluent BTC also were similar to the observed effluent BTC having an average coefficient of determination of 0.94. Time moments obtained

  12. Characterization of ‘Aged’ Metolachlor Sorption in Soil Using an Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption interactions of pesticides with soil determine pesticide availability for transport and degradation in soil. Thus, knowing and understanding pesticide sorption, particularly in aged soils, is important in determining pesticide fate in soils. Sorption of pesticides is traditionally character...

  13. Hydraulic Anisotropy Characterization Using Azimuthal Self Potential Gradient [ASPG]: Results from Pneumatic Fracturing of Tight Clay Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L.; Wishart, D.; Schnell, D.; Hermann, G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that bulk hydraulic anisotropy associated with fractures in fractured rock aquifers can be inferred from Azimuthal Self Potential Gradient (ASPG) measurements. This extremely simple technique involves measuring the self potential gradient as a function of azimuth with a pair of non polarizing electrodes connected to a voltmeter. The electrokinetic effect associated with the flow of fluids within fractures is the source of the ASPG signal. Fracture strike mapping at multiple sites has repeatedly demonstrated the effectiveness of the method at the field scale and indicated that the direction of flow can be determined from the polarity of relatively large ASPG signals. A laboratory study was conducted to determine whether ASPG could also be used to characterize the hydraulic anisotropy associated with the enhancement of permeability and porosity of tight unconsolidated soils (e.g. clays) as a result of pneumatic fracturing, a technique to improve the effectiveness of remediation efforts. Compressed kaolinite sediments were pneumatically fractured following industry procedures. The resulting fracture geometry was quantified from strike analysis of visible fractures combined with strike data from optical borehole televiewer (BHTV) imaging. ASPG measurements were then made during injection of a simulated remedial treatment (electrolyte/dye) under an applied gas pressure. Consistent with previous findings in fractured rock aquifers, ASPG lobes are well correlated with azimuths of high fracture strike density suggesting that the ASPG anisotropy is a proxy measure of hydraulic anisotropy created by the pneumatic fracturing. The magnitude of the ASPG signal scales linearly (linear correlation coefficients > 0.74) with the applied gas pressure gradient for any particular hydraulically-active fracture set and the positive lobe of the ASP anomaly denotes the flow direction within that fracture set. These findings demonstrate that applications of the

  14. Ecological impacts of Al-Jalamid phosphate mining, Saudi Arabia: Soil elemental characterization and spatial distribution with INAA.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; García-Tenorio, R; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (P) industries will be one of the main industrial sectors in Saudi Arabia within the next few years. Al-Jalamid phosphate mine, which started operation a few years ago, is one of the biggest mining locations in the Middle East region. It is planned to mine 12 million tons run of mine ore per year (Mty) and produce about 4.5 Mty of phosphate concentrate for the next 20 years. Long term ecological impacts of phosphate mining activities on soil and groundwater should be investigated. The contaminated soil acts as a long term source of environmental contamination. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil areas located in the vicinity of the phosphate mining activities. A total of sixty eight surface and subsurface soil samples from 34 locations around Al-Jalamid phosphate mine have been collected. The elemental characterization of soil samples was achieved using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pollution indices, geoaccumulation (I(geo)) and pollution load (PLI) indices were calculated from some elements to evaluate the soil pollution. Until now, there is no existing pre-operational elemental characterization in soil to evaluate the foreseen ecological impacts of phosphate mining. Our results are the first to evaluate the present situation that will be the base for the future evaluations. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil and their relation to phosphate mining activities, and to better understand the behavior of different elements in soil in an arid environment.

  15. Demonstration and characterization of zeta (zeta), a growth-related opioid receptor, in a neuroblastoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Zagon, I S; Goodman, S R; McLaughlin, P J

    1990-03-19

    Endogenous opioids and opioid receptors (i.e. endogenous opioid systems) are involved in carcinogenesis. Using homogenates of S20Y neuroblastoma (NB) cells grown in culture, the binding of a growth-selective ligand, [Met5]enkephalin, was examined to ascertain the zeta (zeta) opioid receptor. Specific and saturable binding of [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin was detected in NB cells; the data were consistent with a single binding site. Scatchard analysis yielded a Kd of 1.6 nM and a binding capacity (Bmax) of 48.1 fmol/mg protein; 14,000 receptors per cell were estimated. Binding was dependent on protein concentration, time, temperature, and pH, and was sensitive to 100 nM, but not 5 nM, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+; GppNHp at concentrations of 100-500 mM had little effect on binding. Optimal binding required protease inhibitors, and pretreatment of the tumor cell homogenates with trypsin markedly reduced [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin binding, suggesting that the binding site was proteinaceous in character. Displacement experiments indicated that [Met5]enkephalin was the most potent displacer of [3H]-[Met5]enkephalin. Cell density (log, confluence, postconfluence) did not alter the Kd or Bmax. This study serves as the first demonstration and characterization of the zeta (zeta) opioid receptor in tissue culture cells. The homogeneous nature of NB cell cultures, along with the enrichment in receptor number, provides an excellent model system to isolate and purify the zeta receptor.

  16. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. |; Lowe, K.S.; Murdoch, L.D. |; Slack, W.W.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  17. Characterization of uranium- and plutonium-contaminated soils by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.

    1995-03-01

    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site in Ohio, and also plutonium-bearing `hot particles, from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean. By examining Fernald samples that had undergone chemical leaching it was possible to observe the effect the treatment had on specific uranium-bearing phases. The technique of Heap leaching, using carbonate solution, was found to be the most successful in removing uranium from Fernald soils, the Heap process allows aeration, which facilitates the oxidation of uraninite. However, another refractory uranium(IV) phase, uranium metaphosphate, was not removed or affected by any soil-washing process. Examination of ``hot particles`` from Johnston Island revealed that plutonium and uranium were present in 50--200 nm particles, both amorphous and crystalline, within a partially amorphous aluminum oxide matrix. The aluminum oxide is believed to have undergone a crystalline-to-amorphous transition caused by alpha-particle bombardment during the decay of the plutonium.

  18. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 1. field experiments evaluating plant-relevant soil water behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Perkins, K.S.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.; Stock, J.D.; Singha, K.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the eff ect of pedogenesis on the soil moisture dynamics infl uencing the character and quality of ecological habitat, we conducted infi ltration and redistribution experiments on three alluvial deposits in the Mojave National Preserve: (i) recently deposited active wash sediments, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. At each, we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infi ltration ring for 2.3 h and monitored soil water content and matric pressure during and atier infi ltration, using probes and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). Infi ltration and downward fl ow rates were greater in younger material, favoring deep-rooted species. Deep-rooted species tend to colonize the margins of washes, where they are unaff ected by sediment transport that inhibits colonization. The ERI results support important generalizations, for example that shallower than 0.5 m, infi ltrated water persists longer in highly developed soil, favoring shallow-rooted species. Soil moisture data for the two youngest soils suggested that saturation overshoot, which may have signifi cant but unexplored hydroecologic and pedogenic eff ects, occurred at the horizontally advancing weting front. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties generally increased with pedogenic development. Evidence suggested that some early-stage developmental processes may promote uniformity; the intermediate- age soil appeared to have the least heterogeneity in terms of textural variation with depth, and also the least anisotropy. Lateral heterogeneity was pronounced in older soil, having a multitude of eff ects on the distribution and retention of soil water, and may facilitate certain water-conserving strategies of plants over what would be possible in a laterally homogeneous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  19. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    H and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined in deionised water (1:2.5 and 1:5 w/v, respectively). The structural characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) was analysed by direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) performed at 500 °C (González-Vila et al., 2009). Only chromatogram peaks with an area higher than 0.2 % were identified and used to obtain the relative abundance of main chemical families in each vegetation cover. Results Our results show that soil water repellence is strongly correlated to microbial activity, pH and electrical conductivity. After Py-GC/MS analysis, soil organic matter in the Banksia woodland and the coastal dune showed a high heterogeneity. In the Banksia woodland two different patterns were observed. Samples under Banksia spp. showed a SOM with clear signs of altereation (humified) that included a high contribution of stable families like unspecific aromatic compounds and alkane/alkene pairs whereas under Eucalyptus spp. showed a less altered SOM with a high relative contribution from lignocellulose (lignin and carbohydrates), together with a low relative content of recalcitrant families. However in the soil samples from coastal dunes a very similar SOM chemical composition was found in all cases. The dominant family was unspecific aromatic compounds (>30%), followed by alkane/alkene pairs and a high relative contribution from N bearing peptide compounds. This, together with a low relative amount of carbohydrate and lignin derived (methoxyphenols) compounds points to a SOM that undergoes great alteration processes, possible because of high turn-over rates. Very low contents of SOM were found in the Pilbara system, under Py-GC/MS detection levels, and therefore it was not possible to establish its chemical composition. A principal components analysis (PCA) axes based on the relative abundances of chemical families of compounds released after SOM pyrolysis (70.9 % of total variation explained in the two first axes) indicate that

  20. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}]: 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}]: 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  1. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}): 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}): 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  2. Characterization of the structural and functional diversity of indigenous soil microbial communities in smelter-impacted and nonimpacted soils.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jennifer A H; Hooper, Michael J; Zak, John C; Cox, Stephen B

    2009-03-01

    A century of mining and smelting activity at the Anaconda Smelter site in Anaconda, Montana, USA, has contaminated the surrounding soils and groundwater with metals. Soil microbial communities from six smelter-impacted sites and a nonimpacted site were compared to determine the long-term effects of a gradient of metal concentrations on microbial activity, biomass, functional diversity (Biolog microtiter plates), and structural diversity (denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S ribosomal DNA). Microbial activity and biomass were decreased in the smelter-impacted soils. Likewise, the functional and structural diversity of the microbial communities native to the smelter-impacted soils were shifted, relative to the microbial community, from the nonimpacted site. These shifts were significantly correlated with soil metal concentration and several soil physicochemical properties (pH, organic matter, NO(3), NH(4), etc.), which provides evidence of the importance of many environmental variables on microbial community dynamics in soils. Preliminary evidence of functional redundancy was observed within microbial communities native to the smelter-impacted sites, based on overlapping carbon substrate utilization patterns. However, due to culture-based selection bias, redundancy pertains only to a subset of the community and may not be ecologically relevant. Nevertheless, the effects of metal contamination on microbial communities in the present study are pronounced and results provide preliminary insight into the complex relationship between soil microbial community structure and function in anthropogenically disturbed soils.

  3. Characterization of trichloroethylene adsorption onto waste biocover soil in the presence of landfill gas.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Kong, Jiaoyan

    2015-09-15

    Waste biocover soils (WBS) have been demonstrated to have great potential in mitigating trichloroethylene (TCE) emission from landfills, due to the relatively high TCE-degrading capacity. In this study, the characteristics of TCE adsorption on WBS in the presence of the major landfill gas components (i.e., CH4 and CO2) were investigated in soil microcosms. The adsorption isotherm of TCE onto WBS was fitted well with linear model within the TCE concentrations of 7000 ppmv. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto WBS was affected by temperature, soil moisture content and particle size, of which, temperature was the dominant factor. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto the experimental materials increased with the increasing organic matter content. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the adsorption capacity of TCE and the organic matter content of experimental materials that had relatively higher organic content (r = 0.988, P = 0.044). To better understand WBS application in practice, response surface methodology was developed to predict TCE adsorption capacity and emissions through WBS in different landfills in China. These results indicated that WBS had high adsorption capacity of TCE in LFG and temperature should be paid more attention to manipulate WBS to reduce TCE emissions from landfills.

  4. Characterization of trichloroethylene adsorption onto waste biocover soil in the presence of landfill gas.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Kong, Jiaoyan

    2015-09-15

    Waste biocover soils (WBS) have been demonstrated to have great potential in mitigating trichloroethylene (TCE) emission from landfills, due to the relatively high TCE-degrading capacity. In this study, the characteristics of TCE adsorption on WBS in the presence of the major landfill gas components (i.e., CH4 and CO2) were investigated in soil microcosms. The adsorption isotherm of TCE onto WBS was fitted well with linear model within the TCE concentrations of 7000 ppmv. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto WBS was affected by temperature, soil moisture content and particle size, of which, temperature was the dominant factor. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto the experimental materials increased with the increasing organic matter content. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the adsorption capacity of TCE and the organic matter content of experimental materials that had relatively higher organic content (r = 0.988, P = 0.044). To better understand WBS application in practice, response surface methodology was developed to predict TCE adsorption capacity and emissions through WBS in different landfills in China. These results indicated that WBS had high adsorption capacity of TCE in LFG and temperature should be paid more attention to manipulate WBS to reduce TCE emissions from landfills. PMID:25909498

  5. Characterization of the N2O-producing soil bacterium Rhizobium azooxidifex sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Augustin, Jürgen; Ulrich, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    In the context of studying the bacterial community involved in nitrogen transformation processes in arable soils exposed to different extents of erosion and sedimentation in a long-term experiment (CarboZALF), a strain was isolated that reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide without formation of molecular nitrogen. The presence of the functional gene nirK, encoding the respiratory copper-containing nitrite reductase, and the absence of the nitrous oxide reductase gene nosZ indicated a truncated denitrification pathway and that this bacterium may contribute significantly to the formation of the important greenhouse gas N2O. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the housekeeping genes recA and atpD demonstrated that the investigated soil isolate belongs to the genus Rhizobium. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were the type strains of Rhizobium. subbaraonis and Rhizobium. halophytocola. The close relationship with R. subbaraonis was reflected by similarity analysis of the recA and atpD genes and their amino acid positions. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed genetic differences at the species level, which were substantiated by analysis of the whole-cell fatty acid profile and several distinct physiological characteristics. Based on these results, it was concluded that the soil isolate represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium azooxidifex sp. nov. (type strain Po 20/26T=DSM 100211T=LMG 28788T) is proposed. PMID:27030972

  6. Iron-bound organic carbon in forest soils: quantification and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Poulson, Simon R.; Obrist, Daniel; Sumaila, Samira; Dynes, James J.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Yang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Iron oxide minerals play an important role in stabilizing organic carbon (OC) and regulating the biogeochemical cycles of OC on the earth surface. To predict the fate of OC, it is essential to understand the amount, spatial variability, and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in natural soils. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in soils collected from 14 forests in the United States and determined the impact of ecogeographical variables and soil physicochemical properties on the association of OC and Fe minerals. On average, Fe-bound OC contributed 37.8 % of total OC (TOC) in forest soils. Atomic ratios of OC : Fe ranged from 0.56 to 17.7, with values of 1-10 for most samples, and the ratios indicate the importance of both sorptive and incorporative interactions. The fraction of Fe-bound OC in TOC (fFe-OC) was not related to the concentration of reactive Fe, which suggests that the importance of association with Fe in OC accumulation was not governed by the concentration of reactive Fe. Concentrations of Fe-bound OC and fFe-OC increased with latitude and reached peak values at a site with a mean annual temperature of 6.6 °C. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analyses revealed that Fe-bound OC was less aliphatic than non-Fe-bound OC. Fe-bound OC also was more enriched in 13C compared to the non-Fe-bound OC, but C / N ratios did not differ substantially. In summary, 13C-enriched OC with less aliphatic carbon and more carboxylic carbon was associated with Fe minerals in the soils, with values of fFe-OC being controlled by both sorptive and incorporative associations between Fe and OC. Overall, this study demonstrates that Fe oxides play an important role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of C in forest soils and uncovers the governing factors for the spatial variability and characteristics of Fe-bound OC.

  7. Geochemical characterization and biomonitoring of reclaimed soils in the Po River Delta (Northern Italy): implications for the agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Martucci, Annalisa; Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    This geochemical study is focused on the easternmost part of the Po River alluvial plain in Northern Italy, which is interested by widespread agricultural activities, investigating a reclaimed sector of the Province of Ferrara, known as "Valle del Mezzano" (Mezzano Low Land, hereafter reported as MLL) characterized by peat-rich soils. The chemical-mineralogical characterization of these reclaimed soils is important to compare the local geochemical backgrounds with those recorded in other sectors of the River Po plain and to monitor if the observed concentration exceeds critical thresholds. The reported analyses include (a) measurement of the soil salinity, (b) nutrient evaluation, (c) major and trace element concentrations carried out on bulk soils, (d) tests of metal extraction with both aqua regia and EDTA to highlight the distinct elemental mobility and (e) phyto-toxicological measurement of heavy metal concentrations in plants (Lactuca sativa acephala) grown on the studied soils. The results indicate (1) high soil salinity, often with drastic increase of sodium and chloride along the soil profiles, (2) high nitrogen content (in part related to anthropogenic activities) on superficial horizons and nitrate decrease along the soil profiles and (3) comparative enrichments in heavy metals with respect to other soils of the province, which indicate that peat deposits are effective in trapping metals from anthropogenic sources. This, in turn, implies potential geochemical risks for the agricultural activities. In this regard, specific concerns are related to the high nickel and arsenic content of MLL soils due to the mobility of these elements and their attitude to be taken up by plants.

  8. Hyper-temporal remote sensing for digital soil mapping: Characterizing soil-vegetation response to climatic variability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indices derived from remotely-sensed imagery are commonly used to predict soil properties with digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques. The use of images from single dates or a small number of dates is most common for DSM; however, selection of the appropriate images is complicated by temporal variabi...

  9. Caresoil: A multidisciplinar Project to characterize, remediate, monitor and evaluate the risk of contaminated soils in Madrid (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Antón, Loreto; Granja, Jose Luis; Villarroya, Fermín; Montero, Esperanza; Rodríguez, Vanesa

    2016-04-01

    Soil contamination can come from diffuse sources (air deposition, agriculture, etc.) or local sources, these last being related to anthropogenic activities that are potentially soil contaminating activities. According to data from the EU, in Spain, and particularly for the Autonomous Community of Madrid, it can be considered that heavy metals, toxic organic compounds (including Non Aqueous Phases Liquids, NAPLs) and combinations of both are the main problem of point sources of soil contamination in our community. The five aspects that will be applied in Caresoil Program (S2013/MAE-2739) in the analysis and remediation of a local soil contamination are: 1) the location of the source of contamination and characterization of soil and aquifer concerned, 2) evaluation of the dispersion of the plume, 3) application of effective remediation techniques, 4) monitoring the evolution of the contaminated soil and 5) risk analysis throughout this process. These aspects involve advanced technologies (hydrogeology, geophysics, geochemistry,...) that require new developing of knowledge, being necessary the contribution of several researching groups specialized in the fields previously cited, as they are those integrating CARESOIL Program. Actually two cases concerning hydrocarbon spills, as representative examples of soil local contamination in Madrid area, are being studied. The first is being remediated and we are monitoring this process to evaluate its effectiveness. In the second location we are defining the extent of contamination in soil and aquifer to define the most effective remediation technique.

  10. Characterization of biosurfactants from indigenous soil bacteria recovered from oil contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Govind; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates (G1, G2 and G3) characterized as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Lysinibacillus fusiformis and Bacillus safensis were recovered from contaminated soil of oil refinery. These bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants in MSM medium in stationary phase. Biosurfactants were characterized on the basis of their emulsifying properties with petrol, diesel, mobil oil and petrol engine oil. Reduction in surface tension (below 40 mN m(-1)) and blood hemolysis were also included in biosurfactants characterization. Emulsification indices of G1, G2 and G3 were in the range of 98.82, 23.53 and 58.82 for petrol; 29.411,1.05 and 70.588 for diesel; 35.31, 2.93 and 17.60 for mobil oil and 35.284, 58.82 and 17.647 for petrol engine oil respectively. Dry weight of the extracted biosurfactant was 4.6, 1.4 and 2.4 g I(-1) for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. Structural analysis of the biosurfactants by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed significant differences in the bonding pattern of individual biosurfactant. PMID:26521551

  11. Are We Under-Estimating Mercury in Soils? Experimental Acidification and Sample Collection Timing Demonstrate Variability in Estimates of Mercury in O-Horizon Soils at a Maine Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, S. J.; Johnson, K. B.

    2009-12-01

    ongoing scientific discussions regarding the fate of ‘old’ Hg versus ‘new’ Hg. If ‘new’ Hg is subject to rapid transformations that depend, in part, on antecedent weather conditions, this could account for some of the temporal variability in the proportion of ‘new’ Hg in streamwater flux. Although potential mechanisms that explain the temporal variability and acidification effect need to be more thoroughly studied, our results clearly demonstrate that there is large variability within the O-horizon component of watershed-scale budgets of Hg. The effects of long storage times, heating or air-drying samples, and freezing samples have not been explicitly discussed in the literature, though potential sources of variability, including those we investigated, are listed by US EPA. A standardized sampling protocol for soils, based on rigorous tests of field and laboratory handling and preparation, should be developed to support cross-site comparison such as that proposed in the national mercury monitoring network.

  12. Characterization of H2S removal and microbial community in landfill cover soils.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yao; He, Ruo

    2015-12-01

    H2S is a source of odors at landfills and poses a threat to the surrounding environment and public health. In this work, compared with a usual landfill cover soil (LCS), H2S removal and biotransformation were characterized in waste biocover soil (WBS), an alternative landfill cover material. With the input of landfill gas (LFG), the gas concentrations of CH4, CO2, O2, and H2S, microbial community and activity in landfill covers changed with time. Compared with LCS, lower CH4 and H2S concentrations were detected in the WBS. The potential sulfur-oxidizing rate and sulfate-reducing rate as well as the contents of acid-volatile sulfide, SO4(2-), and total sulfur in the WBS and LCS were all increased with the input of LFG. After exposure to LFG for 35 days, the sulfur-oxidizing rate of the bottom layer of the WBS reached 82.5 μmol g dry weight (d.w.)(-1) day(-1), which was 4.3-5.4 times of that of LCS. H2S-S was mainly deposited in the soil covers, while it escaped from landfills to the atmosphere. The adsorption, absorption, and biotransformation of H2S could lead to the decrease in the pH values of landfill covers; especially, in the LCS with low pH buffer capacity, the pH value of the bottom layer dropped to below 4. Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene showed that the known sulfur-metabolizing bacteria Ochrobactrum, Paracoccus, Comamonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter dominated in the WBS and LCS. Among them, Comamonas and Acinetobacter might play an important role in the metabolism of H2S in the WBS. These findings are helpful to understand sulfur bioconversion process in landfill covers and to develop techniques for controlling odor pollution at landfills.

  13. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling.

    PubMed

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Passoni, Alice; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia; Bagnati, Renzo; Lodi, Marco; Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity and the predicted environmental concentrations based on the conditions of use are lower than the NOAEC for soils but higher than the NOAEC for water, posing a potential risk to the waters due to the levels of foaming agents in the muck.

  14. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

    2011-07-14

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  15. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-03-01

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  16. Chemical characterization of synthetic soil from composting coal combustion and pharmaceutical by-products.

    PubMed

    Guest, C A; Johnston, C T; King, J J; Alleman, J E; Tishmack, J K; Norton, L D

    2001-01-01

    Land application of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) mixed with solid organic wastes (SOWs), such as municipal sewage sludge, has become increasingly popular as a means of productively using what were once considered waste products. Although bulk chemical and physical properties of several of these CCB-SOW materials have been reported, detailed information about their synthesis and mineralogy of the CCB-SOW materials has not been reported. In this paper, chemical and mineralogical properties of a soil-like material obtained from composting a mixture of CCBs with a pharmaceutical fermentation by-product (FB) were investigated at the laboratory and field scale. All starting materials and products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FFIR) spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. The results showed that the FB was strongly bound to the CCBs and could not be removed by washing. Within 2 wk of the start of a composting study, there was a rapid drop in pH from 12 to 8, an increase in temperature to 70 degrees C, and a reduction in the dissolved oxygen content, attributed to the rapid establishment of a highly active microbial population. Composting produced a soil-like material with high levels of plant nutrients, a high nutrient retention capacity, and metal contents similar to median levels of those metals reported for soils. The levels of boron and soluble salts are such that sensitive plants may initially show toxicity symptoms. However, with adequate rainfall, leaching should rapidly remove most of the B and soluble salts. With care, the material produced is safe for use as a synthetic topsoil. PMID:11215661

  17. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian L.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry C.

    2011-04-29

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  18. Spatially Distributed Characterization of Soil Dynamics Using Travel-Time Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Falk; Zink, Matthias; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The description of storage and transport of both water and solved contaminants in catchments is very difficult due to the high heterogeneity of the subsurface properties that govern their fate. This heterogeneity, combined with a generally limited knowledge about the subsurface, results in high degrees of uncertainty. As a result, stochastic methods are increasingly applied, where the relevant processes are modeled as being random. Within these methods, quantities like the catchment travel or residence time of a water parcel are described using probability density functions (PDF). The derivation of these PDF's is typically done by using the water fluxes and states of the catchment. A successful application of such frameworks is therefore contingent on a good quantification of these fluxes and states across the different spatial scales. The objective of this study is to use travel times for the characterization of an ca. 1000 square kilometer, humid catchment in Central Germany. To determine the states and fluxes, we apply the mesoscale Hydrological Model mHM, a spatially distributed hydrological model to the catchment. Using detailed data of precipitation, land cover, morphology and soil type as inputs, mHM is able to determine fluxes like recharge and evapotranspiration and states like soil moisture as outputs. Using these data, we apply the above theoretical framework to our catchment. By virtue of the aforementioned properties of mHM, we are able to describe the storage and release of water with a high spatial resolution. This allows for a comprehensive description of the flow and transport dynamics taking place in the catchment. The spatial distribution of such dynamics is then compared with land cover and soil moisture maps as well as driving forces like precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to determine the most predictive factors. In addition, we investigate how non-local data like the age distribution of discharge flows are impacted by, and

  19. Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

    2011-07-01

    A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was <10% for most elements. LIBS limits of detection were <33 ppm and bias <40% for most elements. In a proof of principle study, the LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization.

  20. Properties of Subsurface Soil Cores from Four Geologic Provinces Surrounding Mars Desert Research Station, Utah: Characterizing Analog Martian Soil in a Human Exploration Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Direito, S.; Foing, B.

    2011-01-01

    The DOMEX program is a NASA-MMAMA funded project featuring simulations of human crews on Mars focused on science activities that involve collecting samples from the subsurface using both manual and robotic equipment methods and analyzing them in the field and post mission. A crew simulating a human mission to Mars performed activities focused on subsurface science for 2 weeks in November 2009 at Mars Desert Research Station near Hanksville, Utah --an important chemical and morphological Mars analog site. Activities performed included 1) survey of the area to identify geologic provinces, 2) obtaining soil and rock samples from each province and characterizing their mineralogy, chemistry, and biology; 3) site selection and reconnaissance for a future drilling mission; 4) deployment and testing of Mars Underground Mole, a percussive robotic soil sampling device; and 5) recording and analyzing how crew time was used to accomplish these tasks. This paper summarizes results from analysis of soil cores

  1. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents.

  2. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Noelle R.; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M.; Magnuson, Roberta J.; Cook, Shaun R.; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R.; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A.; Gow, Sheryl P.; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L.; Boucher, Christina A.; McAllister, Tim A.; Belk, Keith E.; Morley, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents. PMID:27095377

  3. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    PubMed

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents. PMID:27095377

  4. Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of a suite of Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, L. M.; Banin, A.; Orenberg, J. B.; Carle, G. C.; Chang, S.; Scattergood, T. W.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has begun preparations for the flight of the Mars Observer Mission in the early 1990s. An advanced ground-based study is being conducted on a usefully limited suite of Mars Soil Analog Materials (MarSAM) intended to simulate the aeolian material covering the surface of Mars. A series of variably proportioned iron/calcium smectite clays were prepared from a typical montmorillonite clay using the Banin method. The effect of increasing iron on a diverse set of chemical and spectroscopic properties of the suite of clays is discussed. In order to chemically characterize the MarSAM and compare them with the Martian soil studied by Viking, the clays were analyzed for their major and minor elemental compositions by X-ray fluorescence and ion-coupled plasma techniques. It was concluded that the surface iron has a complex and hitherto uninvestigated impact on the catalytic and spectroscopic properties of clays and on the ability of these material to store energy.

  5. Controlled release formulations of Atrazine and Mesotrione: characterization and sorption on soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Gomes de Ávila, L.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Raffin Pohlmann, A.

    2009-04-01

    Atrazine is a widely used herbicide on corn and sugar cane plantations, which, along with soybeans, are the most productive crops in Brazil and are responsible for 36.5% of the annual national consumption of herbicides. Mesotrione is a new herbicide registered in the last years used for controlling weeds in corn plantations as a tentative substitution for atrazine. After its application in the field, reactions between the herbicide and chemical groups from the soil matrix surface occur, and this complexed form remains in the soil, representing a potential source for environmental contamination and also affecting its agronomic efficiency. Therefore, the application of herbicides associated to carrier systems may represent an alternative to mitigate the environmental impact caused by their intense usage, considering that the interaction between the soil matrix and the xenobiotic is reduced, and thus, diminishes the recommended dosis and reduces the environmental pollution. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the chemical and morphological characteristics of controlled release formulations of atrazine (ATZ) and of mesotrione (MES) and to investigate their sorptive behavior in three representative Brazilian soils. To assess the feasibility of using these associated systems, four formulations (SGATZ) containing different concentrations of atrazine and four formulations (SGMES) containing different levels of mesotrione (MES) were synthesized by the sol-gel method (SG), using tetraetil-ortho-silicate as precursor and NaF as catalyst. The formulations were characterized by elemental analysis, adsorption and desorption isotherms of nitrogen, thermal analysis (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For comparison, samples of pure xerogel (SG), commercial MES (Callisto-Syngenta), pure ATZ (99% of active principle, Milênia), granulated ATZ (Gesaprim GrDA Syngenta) and dried commercial ATZ (Nortox 500 SC) were analyzed. The

  6. Molecular Characterization of Microbial Communities in a JP-5 Fuel Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Barcelona, M.J.; Chang, Y.-J.; Gan, Y.D.; Macnaughton, S.J.; Peacock, A.; Stephen, J.R.; White, D.C.

    1999-04-19

    In this study, lipid biomarker characterization of the bacterial and eukaryotic communities was combined with PCR-DGGE analysis of the eubacterial community to evaluate correlation between JP-4 fuel concentration and community structure shifts. Vadose, capillary fringe and saturated-soils were taken from cores within, up- and down-gradient of the contaminant plume. Significant differences in biomass and proportion of Gram negative bacteria were found inside and outside the plume. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands from within the spill site suggested dominance by a limited number of phylogenetically diverse bacteria. Used in tandem with pollutant quantification, these molecular techniques should facilitate significant improvements over current assessment procedures for determination of remediation end points.

  7. Chemical characterization and screening of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial soils by headspace solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Havenga, W J; Rohwer, E R

    1999-07-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction method, followed by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis, has been developed for the screening of soil samples polluted by coal tar or refined petroleum products. Vapor pressures of target analytes were determined using a capillary GC method to identify environmentally important components with a sufficiently high vapor pressure to be analyzed in the headspace mode. The method was optimized under non-equilibrium conditions with simplicity and automation in mind and does not require any extraction procedure or sample preparation, other than grinding, drying and homogenizing. The analytical performance and the significance of the results for the purpose of chemical characterization, source discrimination, determination of individual isomer distributions and to calculate source or weathering ratios, is discussed.

  8. Relationships between nuclear magnetic resonance parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity in central Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Stella Maris; Barquin, Mercedes; Katusich, Ofelia; Nudelman, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill in the Central Patagonian zone was studied to evaluate if any relationship exists between the parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity for two plant species and to evaluate if the phytotoxicity to local species would be a good index for the soil contamination. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural indexes and column chromatography compositional indexes were determined to characterize the oil spill in the soil samples. Bioassays were also carried out using Lactuca sativa L (reference) and Atriplex lampa (native species) as test organisms. Measurements of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and the electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil were carried out to evaluate the effect on the bioassays. The principal components analysis of the parameters determined by NMR, compositional indexes, EC, TPH, and toxicology data shows that the first three principal components accounted for the 78% of the total variance (40%, 25%, and 13% for the first, second, and third PC, respectively). A good agreement was found between information obtained by compositional indexes and NMR structural indexes. Soil toxicity increases with the increase of EC and TPH. Other factors, such as, the presence of branched and aromatic hydrocarbons is also significant. The statistical evaluation showed that the Euclidean distances (3D) between the background and each one of the samples might be a better indicator of the soil contamination, compared with chemical criterion of TPH. PMID:25145179

  9. Relationships between nuclear magnetic resonance parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity in central Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Stella Maris; Barquin, Mercedes; Katusich, Ofelia; Nudelman, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Oil spill in the Central Patagonian zone was studied to evaluate if any relationship exists between the parameters used to characterize weathering spilled oil and soil toxicity for two plant species and to evaluate if the phytotoxicity to local species would be a good index for the soil contamination. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural indexes and column chromatography compositional indexes were determined to characterize the oil spill in the soil samples. Bioassays were also carried out using Lactuca sativa L (reference) and Atriplex lampa (native species) as test organisms. Measurements of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and the electrical conductivity (EC) of the soil were carried out to evaluate the effect on the bioassays. The principal components analysis of the parameters determined by NMR, compositional indexes, EC, TPH, and toxicology data shows that the first three principal components accounted for the 78% of the total variance (40%, 25%, and 13% for the first, second, and third PC, respectively). A good agreement was found between information obtained by compositional indexes and NMR structural indexes. Soil toxicity increases with the increase of EC and TPH. Other factors, such as, the presence of branched and aromatic hydrocarbons is also significant. The statistical evaluation showed that the Euclidean distances (3D) between the background and each one of the samples might be a better indicator of the soil contamination, compared with chemical criterion of TPH.

  10. Automatic framework for extraction and characterization of wetting front propagation using tomographic image sequences of water infiltrated soils.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Dionicio; Scharcanski, Jacob; Wong, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new automatic framework for extracting and characterizing the dynamic shape of the 3D wetting front and its propagation, based in a sequence of tomographic images acquired as water (moisture) infiltrates in unsaturated soils. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the shape of the 3D wetting front and its propagation and progress over time has not been previously produced as a whole by methods in existing literature. The proposed automatic framework is composed two important and integrated modules: i) extraction of the 3D wetting front, and ii) characterization and description of the 3D wetting front to obtain important information about infiltration process. The 3D wetting front surface is segmented from 3D CT imagery provided as input via a 3D stochastic region merging strategy using quadric-regressed bilateral space-scale representations. Based on the 3D segmentation results, the normal directions at local curvature maxima of the wetting front surface are computed for 3D images of soil moisture, and its propagation is analyzed at the local directions in sites of maximal water adsorption, and described using histograms of curvature changes over time in response to sample saturation. These curvature change descriptors provide indirect measurements of moisture infiltration in soils, and soil saturation. Results using a field tomograph equipment specific for soil studies are encouraging, and suggest that the proposed automatic framework can be applied to estimate the infiltration of water in soils in 3D and in time. PMID:25602498

  11. Real Time Demonstration Project XRF Performance Evaluation Report for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AOC 492

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Robert L

    2008-04-03

    This activity was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of market-available XRF instruments to quantify metal concentrations relative to background and risk-based action and no action levels in Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) soils. As such, the analysis below demonstrates the capabilities of the instruments relative to soil characterization applications at the PGDP.

  12. Large scale characterization of unsaturated soil properties in a semi-arid region combining infiltration, pedotransfer functions and evaporation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabou, Marouen; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Lassabatère, Laurent; Boulet, Gilles; Mougenot, Bernard; Lili Chabaane, Zohra; Zribi, Mehrez

    2016-04-01

    Water resource management is a major issue in semi-arid regions, especially where irrigated agriculture is dominant on soils with highly variable clay content. Indeed, topsoil clay content has a significant importance on infiltration and evaporation processes and therefore in the estimation of the volume of water needed for crops. In this poster we present several methods to estimate wilting point, field capacity volumetric water contents and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Kairouan plain (680 km2), central Tunisia (North Africa). The first method relies on the Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer parameters (BEST) method, which consists in local estimate of unsaturated soil hydraulic properties from a single-ring infiltration test, combined with the use of pedotransfer functions applied to the Kairouan plain different soil types. Results are obtained over six different topsoil texture classes along the Kairouan plain. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is high for coarse textured and some of the fine textured soils due to shrinkage cracking-macropore soil structure. The saturated hydraulic conductivity values are respectively 1.31E-5 m.s-1 and 1.71E-05 m.s-1. The second method is based on evaporation tests on different test plots. It consists of analyzing soil moisture profile changes during the dry down periods to detect the time-to-stress that can be obtained from observation of soil moisture variation, albedo measurements and variation of soil temperature. Results show that the estimated parameters with the evaporation method are close to those obtained by combining the BEST method and pedotransfer functions. The results validate that combining local infiltration tests and pedotransfer functions is a promising tool for the large scale hydraulic characterization of region with strong spatial variability of soils properties.

  13. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used.

  14. Hydrologic characterization of the Fry Canyon, Utah site prior to field demonstration of reactive chemical barriers to control radionuclide and trace-element contamination in ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Naftz, D.L.; Freethey, G.W.; Davis, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The Fry Canyon Site in southeastern Utah has been selected as a long term demonstration site to assess the performance of selected reaction barrier technologies for the removal of uranium and other trace elements from ground water. Objectives include site characterization and evaluation of barrier technologies.

  15. Biological markers to characterize potential sources of soil-derived particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, M.A.; Graham, K.J.; Scow, K.M.; VanCuren, T.

    1998-12-31

    Principal sources of soil-derived fugitive dust in California`s Central Valley need to be identified to reduce levels of respirable particulate matter (PM10) that exceed air quality standards. As a means to differentiate soils and identify sources of fugitive dust, the authors have developed methods to produce fingerprints from microorganisms in soil. Fingerprinting methods described in this report are based on the relative amounts of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) extracted from soil or dust and identified by gas chromatography. These fingerprinting methods generate multivariate data (fatty acid percentages), which can be used in principal component analysis (PCA) to assess relationships among samples. Soil samples from California`s Central Valley, representing different soil types, crops and locations, were analyzed for their PLFA fingerprints. PCA plots of fingerprint data showed clear separation of cotton and almond soils. In these plots cotton soils of similar texture were grouped by geographic location, while almond soils from the same location were grouped by soil texture. Redundancy analysis revealed that both soil texture and crop type were significantly correlated with variation in PLFA fingerprints across soils. The results indicate that PLFA fingerprinting of soil microbial communities will differentiate soils in a reproducible manner and that PLFA data can also be used to relate bulk dust samples to their source soils from individual fields. Adaptation of fingerprinting technology to field monitoring of PM10 from multiple sources will require further development of multivariate data analysis procedures as a prerequisite for use in source apportionment.

  16. Characterization of soil fauna under the influence of mercury atmospheric deposition in Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Teixeira, Daniel Cabral; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2015-06-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere arising from anthropogenic sources, have been the object of great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of strong importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transference to the soil through litter, playing an important role as sink of this element. Soil microarthropods are keys to understanding the soil ecosystem, and for such purpose were characterized by the soil fauna of two Units of Forest Conservation of the state of the Rio de Janeiro, inwhich one of the areas suffer quite interference from petrochemicals and industrial anthropogenic activities and other area almost exempts of these perturbations. The results showed that soil and litter of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil tend to stock high mercury concentrations, which could affect the abundance and richness of soil fauna, endangering its biodiversity and thereby the functioning of ecosystems.

  17. Application of flow field-flow fractionation and laser sizing to characterize soil colloids in drained and undrained lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Gimbert, Laura J; Haygarth, Philip M; Worsfold, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a new technique, flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF), for the characterization of soil sampled under grassland. FlFFF can be used to determine the fine colloidal material in the <1 microm fraction obtained by gravitational settling of 1% m/v soil suspensions. The aim of this work was to determine the potential of FIFFF to characterize soil colloids in drained and undrained field lysimeters from soil cores sampled at different depths. Two different grassland lysimeter plots of 1 ha, one drained and one undrained, were investigated, and the soil was sampled at 20-m intervals along a single diagonal transect at three different depths (0-2, 10-12, and 30-32 cm). The results showed that there was a statistically significant (P = 0.05) increase in colloidal material at 30- to 32-cm depth along the transect under the drained lysimeter, which correlates with disturbance of the soil at this depth due to the installation of tile drains at 85-cm depth backfilled to 30-cm depth with gravel. Laser sizing was also used to determine the particles in the size range 1 to 2000 microm and complement the data obtained using FlFFF because laser sizing lacks resolution for the finer colloidal material (0.1-1.0 microm). The laser sizing data showed increased heterogeneity at 30- to 32-cm depth, particularly in the 50 to 250 microm size fraction. Therefore FIFFF characterized the finer material and laser sizing the coarser soil fraction (<2000 microm) at depth in drained and undrained grassland. This is of importance as colloidal material is more mobile than the larger material and consequently an important vector for contaminant transport from agricultural land to catchments.

  18. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology.

    PubMed

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme. PMID:26552540

  19. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology.

    PubMed

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme.

  20. Research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation characterization technology project: FY90 year-end report on subsurface detection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sandness, G.A.; Stewart, T.L.

    1992-03-01

    Most of the site cleanup projects to be conducted at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities will include subsurface investigations using geophysical sensors. When performed at an early state of a site characterization effort, they will help define site boundaries and waste distributions, provide guidance for the optimization of subsurface sampling plans, reduce the cost of site exploration tasks, and enhance the safety of personnel involved in sampling and excavation activities. In FY 89, researchers of Pacific Northwest Laboratory constructed a digital data acquisition system (DAS) to be used in geophysical surveys of hazardous waste burial sites. The DAS is essentially a specialized microcomputer that has been ruggedized to permit operation on a moving off-road vehicle. It was designed primarily to record and display ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data, but it is capable of simultaneously or separately recording data produced by other types of geophysical sensors. Our work in FY 90 focused primarily on improving certain hardware components of the DAS and on writing the software needed to process and display the recorded data on a personal computer (PC)-based data processing system. A secondary aspect of our work during the past year was constructed and testing a breadboard version of a time-domain metal detector. Metal detectors are commonly used in site characterization surveys to detect and map metallic wastes such as 55-gal drums, storage tanks, pipes, and cables. However, currently available instruments tend to be unstable, difficult to use, and generally unsuitable for quantitative site characterization measurements.

  1. Morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated the potential of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jihong; Li, Yinxin; Li, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a worldwide environmental problem, and remediation of Cd pollution is of great significance for food production as well as human health. Here, the responses of sweet sorghum cv. 'M-81E' to cadmium stress were studied for its potential as an energy plant in restoring soils contaminated by cadmium. In hydroponic experiments, the biomass of 'M-81E' showed no obvious change under 10 μM cadmium treatment. Cadmium concentration was the highest in roots of seedlings as well as mature plants, but in agricultural practice, the valuable and harvested parts of sweet sorghum are shoots, so promoting the translocation of cadmium to shoots is of great importance in order to improve its phytoremediation capacity. Further histochemical assays with dithizone staining revealed that cadmium was mainly concentrated in the stele of roots and scattered in intercellular space of caulicles. Moreover, the correlation analysis showed that Cd had a negative relationship with iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in caulicles and leaves and a positive relationship with Fe in roots. These results implied that cadmium might compete with Fe, Zn, and Mn for the transport binding sites and further prevent their translocation to shoots. In addition, transmission electron microscopic observations showed that under 100 μM cadmium treatment, the structure of chloroplast was impaired and the cell wall of vascular bundle cells in leaves and xylem and phloem cells in roots turned thicker compared to control. In summary, morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated sweet sorghum can absorb cadmium and the growth is not negatively affected by mild level cadmium stress; thus, it is a promising material for the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils considering its economic benefit. This study also points out potential strategies to improve the phytoremediation capacity of sweet sorghum through genetic modification of transporters and cell wall

  2. Characterization and Glass Formation of JSC-1 Lunar and Martian Soil Simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Chandra S.; Reis, Signo T.; Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    The space exploration mission of NASA requires human and robotic presence for long duration beyond the low earth orbit (LEO), especially on Moon and Mars. Developing a human habitat or colony on these planets would require a diverse range of materials, whose applications would range from structural foundations, (human) life support, (electric) power generation to components for scientific instrumentations. A reasonable and cost-effective approach for fabricating the materials needed for establishing a self-sufficient human outpost would be to primarily use local (in situ) resources on these planets. Since ancient times, glass and ceramics have been playing a vital role on human civilization. A long term project on studying the feasibility of developing glass and ceramic materials has been undertaken using Lunar and Martian soil simulants (JSC-1) as developed by Johnson Space Center. The first step in this on-going project requires developing a data base on results that fully characterize the simulants to be used for further investigations. The present paper reports characterization data of both JSC-1 Lunar and JSC Mars-1 simulants obtained up to this time via x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis (DTA, TGA) and chemical analysis. The critical cooling rate for glass formation for the melts of the simulants was also measured in order to quantitatively assess the glass forming tendency of these melts. The importance of the glasses and ceramics developed using in-situ resources for constructing human habitats on Moon or Mars is discussed.

  3. Characterization and Glass Formation of JSC-1 Lunar and Martian Soil Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    The space exploration mission of NASA requires long duration presence of human being beyond the low earth orbit (LEO), especially on Moon and Mars. Developing a human habitat or colony on these planets would require a diverse range of materials, whose applications would range from structural foundations, (human) life support, (electric) power generation to components for scientific instrumentation. A reasonable and cost-effective approach for fabricating the materials needed for establishing a self-sufficient human outpost would be to primarily use local (in situ) resources on these planets. Since ancient times, glass and ceramics have been playing a vital role on human civilization. A long term project on studying the feasibility of developing glass and ceramic materials using Lunar and Martian soil simulants (JSC-1) as developed by Johnson Space Center has been undertaken. The first step in this on-going project requires developing a data base on results that fully characterize the simulants to be used for further investigations. The present paper reports characterization data of both JSC-1 Lunar and JSC Mars-1 simulants obtained up to this time via x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis (DTA, TGA) and chemical analysis. The critical cooling rate for glass formation for the melts of the simulants was also measured in order to quantitatively assess the glass forming tendency of these melts. The importance of the glasses and ceramics developed using in-situ resources for constructing human habitats on Moon or Mars is discussed.

  4. Isolation and characterization of a biosurfactant-producing Fusarium sp. BS-8 from oil contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Muneer A; Kanwal, Tayyaba; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Fatima, Nighat

    2014-01-01

    This study reports characterization of a biosurfactant-producing fungal isolate from oil contaminated soil of Missa Keswal oil field, Pakistan. It was identified as Fusarium sp. BS-8 on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic morphology, and 18S rDNA gene sequence homology. The biosurfactant-producing capability of the fungal isolates was screened using oil displacement activity, emulsification index assay, and surface tension (SFT) measurement. The optimization of operational parameters and culture conditions resulted in maximum biosurfactant production using 9% (v/v) inoculum at 30°C, pH 7.0, using sucrose and yeast extract, as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. A C:N ratio of 0.9:0.1 (w/w) was found to be optimum for growth and biosurfactant production. At optimal conditions, it attained lowest SFT (i.e., 32 mN m(-1) ) with a critical micelle concentration of ≥ 1.2 mg mL(-1) . During 5 L shake flask fermentation experiments, the biosurfactant productivity was 1.21 g L(-1) pure biosurfactant having significant emulsifying index (E24 , 70%) and oil-displacing activity (16 mm). Thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analyses indicated a lipopeptide type of the biosurfactant. The Fusarium sp. BS-8 has substantial potential of biosurfactant production, yet it needs to be fully characterized with possibility of relatively new class of biosurfactants.

  5. Real-Time Soil Characterization and Analysis Systems Used at US Department of Energy Closure Sites in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L. G.; Carpenter, M. V.; Giles, J. R.; Danahy, R. J.

    2003-02-25

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  6. Soil Organic Matter Characterization by 13C-NMR and Thermal Analysis in Deep Tropical Soil Profiles from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, A. F.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils store large quantities of carbon (C) as soil organic matter (SOM), a substantial proportion of which is stored deep (> 30 cm) in the soil profile. Characterization of tropical SOM remains difficult, in part due to the analytical challenges associated high iron and low C concentrations. In this study, we combined solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with analytical thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC; evolved CO2 gas analysis, CO2-EGA) to explore patterns in SOM composition in deep soil profiles from two contrasting soil types at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) in northeast Puerto Rico. Prior to 13C NMR, soils were repeatedly demineralized with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to remove paramagnetic compounds and concentrate organic matter. Given the scant information on tropical subsoil OM, we also sought to evaluate the effect of HF acid treatments on tropical subsoil SOM. HF treatments effectively enriched sample C and removed paramagnetic compounds, allowing us to obtain high-quality NMR spectra for low-C subsoils. C:N ratios before and after HF treatment were nearly identical (mean = 16.6 ± 0.8), suggesting that the SOM pool was not substantially fractionated, though C recoveries were low and variable. Thermal analyses confirmed the loss of a substantial fraction of the soil mineral matrix, however, retention of several endothermic regions in post-HF Inceptisol soils indicated that not all minerals were completely solubilized. In addition, important differences in the DSC and CO2-EGA thermograms were observed in comparing samples before versus after HF treatments. These results suggest that the organo-mineral associations were substantially altered, though it is not immediately clear the degree to which alterations in chemical composition versus binding association have changed. In addition to these qualitative changes, quantitative interpretations of 13C-NMR results from low-C and high

  7. Characterization of copper-resistant bacteria and bacterial communities from copper-polluted agricultural soils of central Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Copper mining has led to Cu pollution in agricultural soils. In this report, the effects of Cu pollution on bacterial communities of agricultural soils from Valparaiso region, central Chile, were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA genes was used for the characterization of bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from Cu-polluted soils and characterized. Results DGGE showed a similar high number of bands and banding pattern of the bacterial communities from Cu-polluted and non-polluted soils. The presence of copA genes encoding the multi-copper oxidase that confers Cu-resistance in bacteria was detected by PCR in metagenomic DNA from the three Cu-polluted soils, but not in the non-polluted soil. The number of Cu-tolerant heterotrophic cultivable bacteria was significantly higher in Cu-polluted soils than in the non-polluted soil. Ninety two Cu-resistant bacterial strains were isolated from three Cu-polluted agricultural soils. Five isolated strains showed high resistance to copper (MIC ranged from 3.1 to 4.7 mM) and also resistance to other heavy metals. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate that these isolates belong to the genera Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter. The Sphingomonas sp. strains O12, A32 and A55 and Stenotrophomonas sp. C21 possess plasmids containing the Cu-resistance copA genes. Arthrobacter sp. O4 possesses the copA gene, but plasmids were not detected in this strain. The amino acid sequences of CopA from Sphingomonas isolates (O12, A32 and A55), Stenotrophomonas strain (C21) and Arthrobacter strain (O4) are closely related to CopA from Sphingomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Arthrobacter strains, respectively. Conclusions This study suggests that bacterial communities of agricultural soils from central Chile exposed to long-term Cu-pollution have been adapted by acquiring Cu genetic determinants. Five bacterial isolates

  8. Distribution and characterization of soils and landform relationships in Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, Pedro Adnet; Francelino, Marcio R.; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G. R.; Simas, Felipe N. B.; de Mendonça, Bruno A. F.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the spatial distribution of soils from the northern part of Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island, which is the largest ice-free area of the South Shetlands archipelago, Maritime Antarctica. Physical and chemical characteristics are presented for 23 soil profiles. Soil parent materials vary from marine sedimentary to volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks, intruded by igneous bodies. To assess soil-landscape relationships, twenty-three soil profiles were described and sampled. Soil samples of selected horizons were submitted to chemical, physical and mineralogical analyses. Soil mapping was based on the soil profiles, integrated with the existent topographic map (1:25.000 scale), a digital elevation model, the geological map and a satellite image. Twenty different soil units were identified and mapped. According to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) system, soils were classified as Fluvisols, Regosols, Leptosols or Cryosols, which correspond mostly to Fluvents, Orthents/Psamments, Inceptsols and Gelisols, respectively, according to the Soil Taxonomy. Soils from northern Byers Peninsula are generally shallow and coarse textured, with low organic matter content. Three soils from the rocky platforms of the northern coastal region possess ornithogenic character, with lower pH, higher P, Al3 + and organic C values when compared to soils not influenced by sea birds. In non-ornithogenic soils, the presence of easily weatherable minerals in the clay fraction indicates that physical weathering occurs with limited chemical alteration of primary minerals. The influence of penguin and other birds on coastal soils alters clay mineralogy, with formation of poorly crystalline P-rich phases. A better understanding of the depth of the permafrost table and the spatial distribution of permafrost is necessary for a more conclusive classification of Cryosols or Gelisols.

  9. A simplified extraction schema to for the analytical characterization of apple orchard soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sager, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    In agriculture, soil analysis is mainly done to monitor available nutrients as well contaminants, in order to find the optimum fertilization resp. remediation strategy. Traditionally, available nutrients in soils have been obtained from a series of different extractions, some just for one single parameter. In order to simplify the entire procedures, multi-element techniques, like ICP-OES and ICP-MS, have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0,16M acetic acid and 0,1M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1+1 HCl. The results of total digestion could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The method was applied to 34 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0,9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. The Rare Earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach. Factor analysis was utilized to prove if the obtained fractions part into groups in a geochemically feasible way. The fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as

  10. Characterizing Nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms in soils using multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz Ferreiro, Jorge; Miranda, José G. V.; Vidal Vázquez, Eva

    2010-05-01

    The specific surface area is an attribute known to characterize the soil ability to retain and transport nutrients and water. A number of studies have shown that specific surface area correlates cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, water retention, aggregate stability and clay swelling. In the past fractal theory has been widely used to study different gas adsorption isotherms like water vapour and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. More recently we have shown that nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed multifractal nature. In this work, both N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms measured in a Mollisol were examined as a probability measure using the multifractal formalism in order to determinate its possible multifractal behaviour. Soil samples were collected in two different series of an Argiudoll located in the north of Buenos Aires and in the south of Santa Fe provinces, Argentina. Two treatments of each soil series were sampled at three depths, without replication, resulting in six samples per soil series and a total of twelve samples analyzed. Multifractal analysis was performed using the box counting method. Both, the N2 adsorption and desorption isotherms exhibited a well defined scaling behaviour indicating a fully developed multifractal structure of each isotherm branch. The singularity spectra and Rényi dimension spectra obtained for adsorption and also for desorption isotherms had shapes similar to the spectra of multifractal measures and several parameters were extracted from these spectra. The capacity dimension, D0, for both N2 adsorption and desorption data sets were not significantly different from 1.00. However, nitrogen adsorption and desorption data showed significantly different values of entropy dimension, D1, and correlation dimension, D2. For instance, entropy dimension values extracted from multifractal spectra of adsorption isotherms were on average 0.578 and varied from 0.501 to 0.666. In contrast, the corresponding figures for

  11. Natural attenuation of oil spills in Patagonian soils. Characterization by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ríos, S M; Nudelman, N S

    2008-01-01

    The natural attenuation of oil spill contaminated soils, with different exposure times, in Patagonian environment was evaluated by the use of several parameters to quantify the degree of changes in the composition. Column (CC) and gas chromatography (GC); UV-visible and 1H NMR techniques were used to determine compositional and structural indexes. The results show that the nC18/Phytane GC index, that was 1.5 for crude oil, decreased with exposure time to values between 0.97-0.17 in the residues. The percentages for the four aliphatic (H1-H4) and the aromatic (H(A)), proton types, determined by 1H NMR, were: 12.9-34.4 (H1), 43.3-60.2 (H2), 4.24-24.2 (H), 1.33-17.9 (H4), and 0.44-4.81 (HA), in crude oil and residues, respectively. Furthermore, the characterization of significant 1H NMR signals indicated the presence of carboxylic acid hydrogens in the polar fraction of the crude oil and of residues of two years age. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) of the parameters determined by CC, GC and NMR showed that the first three principal components (1st, 2nd, and 3 rd PC), accounted for more than 84% of variance. The 1st PC is largely influenced by H, H,, H, H, and the nC,,/Phytane GC parameter, in the order given. The evaluation of the different parameters by PCA suggests that 1H NMR is more useful than GC to evaluate the degree of the chemical transformations of oil spills in soils

  12. Biochemical and molecular characterization of methanotrophs in soil from a pristine New Zealand beech forest.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brajesh K; Tate, Kevin

    2007-10-01

    Methane (CH4) oxidation and the methanotrophic community structure of a pristine New Zealand beech forest were investigated using biochemical and molecular methods. Phospholipid-fatty acid-stable-isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) was used to identify the active population of methanotrophs in soil beneath the forest floor, while terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and cloning and sequencing of the pmoA gene were used to characterize the methanotrophic community. PLFA-SIP suggested that type II methanotrophs were the predominant active group. T-RFLP and cloning and sequencing of the pmoA genes revealed that the methanotrophic community was diverse, and a slightly higher number of type II methanotrophs were detected in the clone library. Most of the clones from type II methanotrophs were related to uncultured pmoA genes obtained directly from environmental samples, while clones from type I were distantly related to Methylococcus capsulatus. A combined data analysis suggested that the type II methanotrophs may be mainly responsible for atmospheric CH4 consumption. Further sequence analysis suggested that most of the methanotrophs detected shared their phylogeny with methanotrophs reported from soils in the Northern Hemisphere. However, some of the pmoA sequences obtained from this forest had comparatively low similarity (<97%) to known sequences available in public databases, suggesting that they may belong to novel groups of methanotrophic bacteria. Different methods of methanotrophic community analysis were also compared, and it is suggested that a combination of molecular methods with PLFA-SIP can address several shortcomings of stable isotope probing.

  13. Characterizing the distribution of selected PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Na, Guangshui; Ma, Xindong; Ge, Linke; Lin, Zhongsheng; Yao, Ziwei

    2015-10-01

    Distribution of 12 selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was characterized in soil, moss and reindeer dung samples collected simultaneously at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic. The average PBDE concentrations were 42 pg/g (dry weight) in soil, 122 pg/g in moss and 72 pg/g in reindeer dung. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the soil/moss quotients (QSM) and the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of PBDEs (r(2)=0.80). Moreover, excellent log/log-linear relationships between QSM and the octanol/air partition coefficients as well as between the moss/dung quotient (QMD) and the octanol/water partition coefficients of PBDEs were also observed, indicating that the physicochemical properties of PBDEs are appropriate parameters for characterizing the distribution of PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund. Capsule abstract: Significant log-linear correlations were observed between physicochemical properties of PBDEs and their soil/moss (moss/dung) quotients. PMID:25965290

  14. Characterizing the distribution of selected PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Na, Guangshui; Ma, Xindong; Ge, Linke; Lin, Zhongsheng; Yao, Ziwei

    2015-10-01

    Distribution of 12 selected polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was characterized in soil, moss and reindeer dung samples collected simultaneously at Ny-Ålesund of the Arctic. The average PBDE concentrations were 42 pg/g (dry weight) in soil, 122 pg/g in moss and 72 pg/g in reindeer dung. Significant log/log-linear relationship was observed between the soil/moss quotients (QSM) and the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures of PBDEs (r(2)=0.80). Moreover, excellent log/log-linear relationships between QSM and the octanol/air partition coefficients as well as between the moss/dung quotient (QMD) and the octanol/water partition coefficients of PBDEs were also observed, indicating that the physicochemical properties of PBDEs are appropriate parameters for characterizing the distribution of PBDEs in soil, moss and reindeer dung at Ny-Ålesund. Capsule abstract: Significant log-linear correlations were observed between physicochemical properties of PBDEs and their soil/moss (moss/dung) quotients.

  15. Isolation and characterization of novel bacterial taxa from extreme alkali-saline soil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Takano, Tetsuo; Liu, Shenkui

    2012-05-01

    bacteria, and facultative alkalophilic salt-tolerant bacteria. This is the first study reporting the isolation and characterization of bacterial resources from extreme saline-alkali soils from northeast China.

  16. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  17. Characterization and immobilization of cesium-137 in soil at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ningping; Mason, C.F.V.; Turney, W.R.J.R.

    1996-06-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is a major contaminant in soils of Technical Area 21 (TA-21) and is mainly associated with soil particles {<=}2.00 mm. Cesium-137 was not leached by synthetic groundwater or acid rainwater. Soil erosion is a primary mechanism of {sup 137}Cs transport in TA-21. The methodology that controls soil particle runoff can prevent the transport of {sup 137}Cs.

  18. Hydraulic characterization of aquifers, reservoir rocks, and soils: A history of ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    1998-01-01

    Estimation of the hydraulic properties of aquifers, petroleum reservoir rocks, and soil systems is a fundamental task in many branches of Earth sciences and engineering. The transient diffusion equation proposed by Fourier early in the 19th century for heat conduction in solids constitutes the basis for inverting hydraulic test data collected in the field to estimate the two basic parameters of interest, namely, hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic capacitance. Combining developments in fluid mechanics, heat conduction, and potential theory, the civil engineers of the 19th century, such as Darcy, Dupuit, and Forchheimer, solved many useful problems of steady state seepage of water. Interest soon shifted towards the understanding of the transient flow process. The turn of the century saw Buckingham establish the role of capillary potential in governing moisture movement in partially water-saturated soils. The 1920s saw remarkable developments in several branches of the Earth sciences; Terzaghi's analysis of deformation of watersaturated earth materials, the invention of the tensiometer by Willard Gardner, Meinzer's work on the compressibility of elastic aquifers, and the study of the mechanics of oil and gas reservoirs by Muskat and others. In the 1930s these led to a systematic analysis of pressure transients from aquifers and petroleum reservoirs through the work of Theis and Hurst. The response of a subsurface flow system to a hydraulic perturbation is governed by its geometric attributes as well as its material properties. In inverting field data to estimate hydraulic parameters, one makes the fundamental assumption that the flow geometry is known a priori. This approach has generally served us well in matters relating to resource development primarily concerned with forecasting fluid pressure declines. Over the past two decades, Earth scientists have become increasingly concerned with environmental contamination problems. The resolution of these problems

  19. Identification and characterization of lipolytic enzymes from a peat-swamp forest soil metagenome.

    PubMed

    Bunterngsook, Benjarat; Kanokratana, Pattanop; Thongaram, Taksawan; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn; Rachdawong, Sansanalak; Vichitsoonthonkul, Taweerat; Eurwilaichitr, Lily

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a metagenomic library was generated from peat-swamp forest soil obtained from Narathiwat Province, Thailand. From a fosmid library of approximately 15,000 clones, six independent clones were found to possess lipolytic activity at acidic pH. Analysis of pyrosequencing data revealed six ORFs, which exhibited 34-71% protein similarity to known lipases/esterases. A fosmid clone, designated LP8, which demonstrated the highest level of lipolytic activity under acidic conditions and demonstrated extracellular activity, was subsequently subcloned and sequenced. The full-length lipase/esterase gene, estPS2, was identified. Its deduced amino acid was closely related to a lipolytic enzyme of an uncultured bacterium, and contained the highly conserved motif of a hormone-sensitive family IV lipase. The EstPS2 enzyme exhibited highest activity toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C⁴) at 37 °C at pH 5, indicating that it was an esterase with activity and secretion characteristics suitable for commercial development.

  20. A sitewide approach to the characterization and use of soil and groundwater background at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, J.D.; Ruck, F.A.; LeGore, T.; Thompson, K.M.

    1993-10-01

    A Sitewide approach to the characterization and use of soil and groundwater background has been developed for use in environmental restoration activities on the Hanford Site. Sitewide background more accurately represents the range of background compositions that exist in soil and groundwater at the over 140 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 facilities and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 operable units, and provides a more consistent, credible, integrated, and efficient basis for identifying and evaluating contamination in these media than using unit-specific backgrounds.

  1. Airborne geophysical surveys in the north-central region of Goias (Brazil): implications for radiometric characterization of tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo

    2013-02-01

    Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have

  2. Airborne geophysical surveys in the north-central region of Goias (Brazil): implications for radiometric characterization of tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Suze Nei P; Hamza, Valiya M; da Silva, Joney Justo

    2013-02-01

    Progress obtained in analysis aerogammaspectrometric and aeromagnetic survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil) are presented. The results obtained have allowed not only determination of the abundances of naturally radioactive elements but also new insights into the processes that determine the radiometric characteristics of the main soil types. There are indications that the radioelement abundances of soils are not only related to their physical properties, but also chemical characteristics of source rocks from which they are derived. For example, oxisol soils derived from the felsic source rocks of the Mara Rosa and Green stone belts have equivalent uranium (eU) values higher than 1.7 ppm, while those derived from source rocks of the relatively more basic Uruaçu Group and sediment sequences of Proterozoic age are characterized by eU contents of less than 1 ppm. Oxisol soils of the Median massif, ultisol soils of the Paranoá, Canastra and Araxá Groups, cambisol soils of the Araí Group and plintosol soils of the Bambuí Group constitute an intermediate class with eU contents in the range of 1-1.3 ppm. Equivalent thorium abundances of soil types display similar trends, the range of variation being 4-16 ppm. Potassium abundances on the other hand are rather uniform with values in the range of 1-1.3%, the only exception being the sedimentary sequences of Proterozoic age, which has a mean value of 0.7%. These observations have been considered as indicative of characteristic features of tropical soils in the study area. In this context, we point out the possibility of using results of aerogammaspectrometry surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in tropical environments. The ratios of eU/K are found to fall in the range of 1-1.7, which is typical of common soils. The ratios of eTh/K exhibit a relatively wide interval, with values in the range of 4-16. The ratios of eTh/eU are found to have

  3. Somatostatin receptors on rat pancreatic acinar cells. Pharmacological and structural characterization and demonstration of down-regulation in streptozotocin diabetes.

    PubMed

    Srikant, C B; Patel, Y C

    1986-06-15

    The binding of somatostatin-14 (S-14) to rat pancreatic acinar cell membranes was characterized using [125I-Tyr11]S-14 as the radioligand. Maximum binding was observed at pH 7.4 and was Ca2+-dependent. Such Ca2+ dependence of S-14 receptor binding was not observed in other tissues. Scatchard analysis of the competitive inhibition by S-14 of [125I-Tyr11]S-14 binding revealed a single class of high affinity sites (Kd = 0.5 +/- 0.07 nM) with a binding capacity (Bmax) of 266 +/- 22 fmol/mg of protein. [D-Trp8]S-14 and structural analogs with halogenated Trp moiety exhibited 2-32-fold greater binding affinity than S-14, [D-F5-Trp8]S-14 being the most potent. [Tyr11]S-14 was equipotent with S-14. The affinity of somatostatin-28 for binding to these receptors was 50% of that of S-14. Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) inhibited the binding of [125I-Tyr11]S-14, but its inhibition curve was not parallel to that of S-14. In the presence of 1 nM CCK-8, the Bmax of S-14 receptors was reduced to 150 +/- 17 fmol/mg of protein. Dibutyryl cyclic GMP, a CCK receptor antagonist, partially reversed the inhibitory action of CCK-8, suggesting that CCK receptors mediate the inhibition of S-14 receptor binding. GDP, GTP, and guanyl-5'-yl imidodiphosphate inhibit S-14 receptor binding in this tissue. The inhibition was shown to be due to decrease in binding capacity and not due to change in affinity. Specifically bound [125I-Tyr11]S-14 cross-linked to the S-14 receptors was found associated with three proteins of approximate Mr = 200,000, 80,000, and 70,000 which could be detected under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Finally, pancreatic acinar cell S-14 receptors were shown to be down-regulated by persistent hypersomatostatinemia 1 week after streptozotocin-induced diabetes characterized by decreased Bmax (105 +/- 13 fmol/mg of protein) without any change in affinity. We conclude that pancreatic acinar cell membrane S-14 receptors require Ca2+ for maximal binding and thus

  4. The path to a successful one-million tonne demonstration of geological sequestration: Characterization, cooperation, and collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finley, R.J.; Greenberg, S.E.; Frailey, S.M.; Krapac, I.G.; Leetaru, H.E.; Marsteller, S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Illinois Basin-Decatur USA test site for a 1 million tonne injection of CO2 into the Mount Simon Sandstone saline reservoir beginning in 2011 has been a multiphase process requiring a wide array of personnel and resources that began in 2003. The process of regional characterization took two years as part of a Phase I effort focused on the entire Illinois Basin, located in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. Seeking the cooperation of an industrial source of CO2 and site selection within the Basin took place during Phase II while most of the concurrent research emphasis was on a set of small-scale tests of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and CO2 injection into a coal seam. Phase III began the commitment to the 1 million-tonne test site development through the collaboration of the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) who is providing a site, the CO2, and developing a compression facility, of Schlumberger Carbon Services who is providing expertise for operations, drilling, geophysics, risk assessment, and reservoir modelling, and of the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) whose geologists and engineers lead the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). Communications and outreach has been a collaborative effort of ADM, ISGS and Schlumberger Carbon Services. The Consortium is one of the seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships, a carbon sequestration research program supported by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Demonstrating the benefits and pitfalls of various acidity characterization techniques by a case study on bimodal aluminosilicates.

    PubMed

    Van Oers, Cynthia J; Góra-Marek, Kinga; Prelot, Bénédicte; Datka, Jerzy; Meynen, Vera; Cool, Pegie

    2014-02-25

    A new combination of a volumetric with a dynamic method to investigate the acidity properties of aluminosilicates is introduced. In the first step, the total acidity is determined volumetrically by the measurement of two-cycle adsorption (TCA) isotherms with ammonia as a probe, directly followed by a dynamic temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiment to define the acid strength distribution. Furthermore, the results obtained by the new direct combination of TCA and TPD are validated by comparison with an in-situ FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) study with the same probe molecule on the same materials. Both acidity characterization techniques are compared, and we comment on their complementarity, benefits, and pitfalls. The material under investigation is a new type of bimodal microporous and mesoporous material with zeolitic characteristics, synthesized by a mesotemplate-free method. The acidic nature of the novel material is compared to two reference materials: a crystalline zeolite and a mesoporous aluminum incorporated mesocellular foam (Al-MCF) with amorphous characteristics.

  6. Sea-Level Flight Demonstration and Altitude Characterization of a LO2/LCH4 Based Accent Propulsion Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jacob; Hurlbert, Eric; Romig, Kris; Melcher, John; Hobson, Aaron; Eaton, Phil

    2009-01-01

    A 1,500 lbf thrust-class liquid oxygen (LO2)/Liquid Methane (LCH4) rocket engine was developed and tested at both sea-level and simulated altitude conditions. The engine was fabricated by Armadillo Aerospace (AA) in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center. Sea level testing was conducted at Armadillo Aerospace facilities at Caddo Mills, TX. Sea-level tests were conducted using both a static horizontal test bed and a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) test bed capable of lift-off and hover-flight in low atmosphere conditions. The vertical test bed configuration is capable of throttling the engine valves to enable liftoff and hover-flight. Simulated altitude vacuum testing was conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), which is capable of providing altitude simulation greater than 120,000 ft equivalent. The engine tests demonstrated ignition using two different methods, a gas-torch and a pyrotechnic igniter. Both gas torch and pyrotechnic ignition were demonstrated at both sea-level and vacuum conditions. The rocket engine was designed to be configured with three different nozzle configurations, including a dual-bell nozzle geometry. Dual-bell nozzle tests were conducted at WSTF and engine performance data was achieved at both ambient pressure and simulated altitude conditions. Dual-bell nozzle performance data was achieved over a range of altitude conditions from 90,000 ft to 50,000 ft altitude. Thrust and propellant mass flow rates were measured in the tests for specific impulse (Isp) and C* calculations.

  7. Characterizing Feedback Control Mechanisms in Nonlinear Microbial Models of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition by Stability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, K.; Tang, J.; Riley, W. J.; Torn, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is regulated by biotic and abiotic processes. Feedback interactions between such processes may act to dampen oscillatory responses to perturbations from equilibrium. Indeed, although biological oscillations have been observed in small-scale laboratory incubations, the overlying behavior at the plot-scale exhibits a relatively stable response to disturbances in input rates and temperature. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of microbial models to capture nonlinear feedbacks in SOM decomposition that linear Century-type models are unable to reproduce, such as soil priming in response to increased carbon input. However, these microbial models often exhibit strong oscillatory behavior that is deemed unrealistic. The inherently nonlinear dynamics of SOM decomposition have important implications for global climate-carbon and carbon-concentration feedbacks. It is therefore imperative to represent these dynamics in Earth System Models (ESMs) by introducing sub-models that accurately represent microbial and abiotic processes. In the present study we explore, both analytically and numerically, four microbe-enabled model structures of varying levels of complexity. The most complex model combines microbial physiology, a non-linear mineral sorption isotherm, and enzyme dynamics. Based on detailed stability analysis of the nonlinear dynamics, we calculate the system modes as functions of model parameters. This dependence provides insight into the source of state oscillations. We find that feedback mechanisms that emerge from careful representation of enzyme and mineral interactions, with parameter values in a prescribed range, are critical for both maintaining system stability and capturing realistic responses to disturbances. Corroborating and expanding upon the results of recent studies, we explain the emergence of oscillatory responses and discuss the appropriate microbe-enabled model structure for inclusion in ESMs.

  8. Characterization of high temperature-tolerant rhizobia isolated from Prosopis juliflora grown in alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Suneeta; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    1999-10-01

    A method was developed for the fast screening and selection of high-temperature tolerant rhizobial strains from root nodules of Prosopis juliflora growing in alkaline soils. The high-temperature tolerant rhizobia were selected from 2,500 Rhizobium isolates with similar growth patterns on yeast mannitol agar plates after 72 h incubation at 30 and 45 degrees C, followed by a second screening at 47.5 degrees C. Seventeen high-temperature tolerant rhizobial strains having distinguishable protein band patterns were finally selected for further screening by subjecting them to temperature stress up to 60 degrees C in yeast mannitol broth for 6 h. The high-temperature tolerant strains were NBRI12, NBRI329, NBRI330, NBRI332, and NBRI133. Using this procedure, a large number of rhizobia from root nodules of P. juliflora were screened for high-temperature tolerance. The assimilation of several carbon sources, tolerance to high pH and salt stress, and ability to nodulate P. juliflora growing in a glasshouse and nursery of the strains were studied. All five isolates had higher plant dry weight in the range of 29.9 to 88.6% in comparison with uninoculated nursery-grown plants. It was demonstrated that it is possible to screen in nature for superior rhizobia exemplified by the isolation of temperature-tolerant strains, which established effective symbiosis with nursery-grown P. juliflora. These findings indicate a correlation between strain performance under in vitro stress in pure culture and strain behavior under symbiotic conditions. Pure culture evaluation may be a useful tool in search for Rhizobium strains better suited for soil environments where high temperature, pH, and salt stress constitutes a limitation for symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation.

  9. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport- Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Fuel Performance Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, Harold; Geelhood, Ken; Koeppel, Brian; Coleman, Justin; Bignell, John; Flores, Gregg; Wang, Jy-An; Sanborn, Scott; Spears, Robert; Klymyshyn, Nick

    2013-09-30

    This document addresses Oak Ridge National Laboratory milestone M2FT-13OR0822015 Demonstration of Approach and Results on Used Nuclear Fuel Performance Characterization. This report provides results of the initial demonstration of the modeling capability developed to perform preliminary deterministic evaluations of moderate-to-high burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) mechanical performance under normal conditions of storage (NCS) and normal conditions of transport (NCT) conditions. This report also provides results from the sensitivity studies that have been performed. Finally, discussion on the long-term goals and objectives of this initiative are provided.

  10. Advanced solvent based methods for molecular characterization of soil organic matter by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tfaily, Malak M; Chu, Rosalie K; Tolić, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M; Anderton, Christopher R; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Robinson, Errol W; Hess, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM), a complex, heterogeneous mixture of above and belowground plant litter and animal and microbial residues at various degrees of decomposition, is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in soil based ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM limits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and accurately predict how terrestrial carbon fluxes will respond to changing climatic conditions and land use. To elucidate the molecular-level structure of SOM, we selectively extracted a broad range of intact SOM compounds by a combination of different organic solvents from soils with a wide range of C content. Our use of electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and a suite of solvents with varying polarity significantly expands the inventory of the types of organic molecules present in soils. Specifically, we found that hexane is selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O/C ratios (<0.1); water (H2O) was selective for carbohydrates with high O/C ratios; acetonitrile (ACN) preferentially extracts lignin, condensed structures, and tannin polyphenolic compounds with O/C > 0.5; methanol (MeOH) has higher selectivity toward compounds characterized with low O/C < 0.5; and hexane, MeOH, ACN, and H2O solvents increase the number and types of organic molecules extracted from soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Our study of SOM molecules by ESI FTICR MS revealed new insight into the molecular-level complexity of organics contained in soils. We present the first comparative study of the molecular composition of SOM from different ecosystems using ultra high-resolution mass spectrometry.

  11. Advanced solvent based methods for molecular characterization of soil organic matter by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Robinson, Errol W.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2015-05-19

    Soil organic matter (SOM) a complex, heterogeneous mixture of above and belowground plant litter and animal and microbial residues at various degrees of decomposition, is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in soil based ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM limits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and predict accurately how terrestrial carbon fluxes will response to changing climatic conditions and land use. To elucidate the molecular-level structure of SOM, we selectively extracted a broad range of intact SOM compounds by a combination of different organic solvents from soils with a wide range of C content. Our use of Electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and a suite of solvents with varying polarity significantly expands the inventory of the types of organic molecules present in soils. Specifically, we found that hexane is selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O:C ratios; water was selective for carbohydrates with high O:C ratios; acetonitrile preferentially extracts lignin, condensed structures, and tannin poly phenolic compounds with O:C > 0.5; methanol has higher selectivity towards compounds characterized with low O:C < 0.5; and hexane, MeOH, ACN and water solvents increase the number and types of organic molecules extracted from soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Our study of SOM molecules by ESI-FTICR MS revealed new insight into the molecular-level complexity of organics contained in soils.

  12. Spatiotemporal characterization of soil moisture fields in agricultural areas using cosmic-ray neutron probes and data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Trenton; Wang, Tiejun

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 40% of global food production comes from irrigated agriculture. With the increasing demand for food even greater pressures will be placed on water resources within these systems. In this work we aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at the field-scale (~500 m) using the newly developed cosmic-ray neutron rover near Waco, NE USA. Here we mapped soil moisture of 144 quarter section fields (a mix of maize, soybean, and natural areas) each week during the 2014 growing season (May to September). The 12 by 12 km study domain also contained three stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes for independent validation of the rover surveys. Basic statistical analysis of the domain indicated a strong relationship between the mean and variance of soil moisture at several averaging scales. The relationships between the mean and higher order moments were not significant. Scaling analysis indicated strong power law behavior between the variance of soil moisture and averaging area with minimal dependence of mean soil moisture on the slope of the power law function. In addition, we combined the data from the three stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes and mobile surveys using linear regression to derive a daily soil moisture product at 1, 3, and 12 km spatial resolutions for the entire growing season. The statistical relationships derived from the rover dataset offer a novel set of observations that will be useful in: 1) calibrating and validating land surface models, 2) calibrating and validating crop models, 3) soil moisture covariance estimates for statistical downscaling of remote sensing products such as SMOS and SMAP, and 4) provide daily center-pivot scale mean soil moisture data for optimal irrigation timing and volume amounts.

  13. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for two demonstrations are presented. The first is a demonstration of chemiluminescence. The second is a demonstration using a secondary battery constructed from common household articles. (JN)

  14. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the following chemistry lecture demonstrations and experiments: (1) a versatile kinetic demonstration; (2) the Bakelite Demonstration; (3) applying Beer's law; and (4) entropy calculations. (HM)

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Access to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Demonstration of Two Recursive Partitioning Tools

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Katherine; Addiss, David G.; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) – a class of parasites that affect billions of people – can be mitigated using mass drug administration, though reinfection following treatment occurs within a few months. Improvements to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) likely provide sustained benefit, but few rigorous studies have evaluated the specific WASH components most influential in reducing infection. There is a need for alternative analytic approaches to help identify, characterize and further refine the WASH components that are most important to STH reinfection. Traditional epidemiological approaches are not well-suited for assessing the complex and highly correlated relationships commonly seen in WASH. Methodology We introduce two recursive partitioning approaches: classification and regression trees (C&RT) and conditional inference trees (CIT), which can be used to identify complex interactions between WASH indicators and identify sub-populations that may be susceptible to STH reinfection. We illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches utilizing school- and household-level WASH indicators gathered as part of a school-based randomized control trial in Kenya that measured STH reinfection of pupils 10 months following deworming treatment. Principal Findings C&RT and CIT analyses resulted in strikingly different decision trees. C&RT may be the preferred approach if interest lies in using WASH indicators to classify individuals or communities as STH infected or uninfected, whereas CIT is most appropriate for identifying WASH indicators that may be causally associated with STH infection. Both tools are well-suited for identifying complex interactions among WASH indicators. Conclusions/Significance C&RT and CIT are two analytic approaches that may offer valuable insight regarding the identification, selection and refinement of WASH indicators and their interactions with regards to STH control programs; however, they represent solutions

  16. Quantification and Characterization of Phagocytosis in the Soil Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii by Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Avery, S. V.; Harwood, J. L.; Lloyd, D.

    1995-01-01

    Phagocytosis in the common grazing soil amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was characterized by flow cytometry. Uptake of fluorescently labelled latex microbeads by cells was quantified by appropriate setting of thresholds on light scatter channels and, subsequently, on fluorescence histograms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to verify the effectiveness of sodium azide as a control for distinguishing between cell surface binding and internalization of beads. It was found that binding of beads at the cell surface was complete within 5 min and 80% of cells had beads associated with them after 10 min. However, the total number of phagocytosed beads continued to rise up to 2 h. The prolonged increase in numbers of beads phagocytosed was due to cell populations containing increasing numbers of beads peaking at increasing time intervals from the onset of phagocytosis. Fine adjustment of thresholds on light scatter channels was used to fractionate cells according to cell volume (cell cycle stage). Phagocytotic activity was approximately threefold higher in the largest (oldest) than in the smallest (newly divided) cells of A. castellanii and showed some evidence of periodicity. At no stage in the cell cycle did phagocytosis cease. Binding and phagocytosis of beads were also markedly influenced by culture age and rate of rotary agitation of cell suspensions. Saturation of phagocytosis (per cell) at increasing bead or decreasing cell concentrations occurred at bead/cell ratios exceeding 10:1. This was probably a result of a limitation of the vacuolar uptake system of A. castellanii, as no saturation of bead binding was evident. The advantages of flow cytometry for characterization of phagocytosis at the single-cell level in heterogeneous protozoal populations and the significance of the present results are discussed. PMID:16534962

  17. Bacterial community composition in Brazilian Anthrosols and adjacent soils characterized using culturing and molecular identification.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B; Grossman, J; Tsai, M T; Gomes, J E; Lehmann, J; Peterson, J; Neves, E; Thies, J E

    2009-07-01

    Microbial community composition was examined in two soil types, Anthrosols and adjacent soils, sampled from three locations in the Brazilian Amazon. The Anthrosols, also known as Amazonian dark earths, are highly fertile soils that are a legacy of pre-Columbian settlement. Both Anthrosols and adjacent soils are derived from the same parent material and subject to the same environmental conditions, including rainfall and temperature; however, the Anthrosols contain high levels of charcoal-like black carbon from which they derive their dark color. The Anthrosols typically have higher cation exchange capacity, higher pH, and higher phosphorus and calcium contents. We used culture media prepared from soil extracts to isolate bacteria unique to the two soil types and then sequenced their 16S rRNA genes to determine their phylogenetic placement. Higher numbers of culturable bacteria, by over two orders of magnitude at the deepest sampling depths, were counted in the Anthrosols. Sequences of bacteria isolated on soil extract media yielded five possible new bacterial families. Also, a higher number of families in the bacteria were represented by isolates from the deeper soil depths in the Anthrosols. Higher bacterial populations and a greater diversity of isolates were found in all of the Anthrosols, to a depth of up to 1 m, compared to adjacent soils located within 50-500 m of their associated Anthrosols. Compared to standard culture media, soil extract media revealed diverse soil microbial populations adapted to the unique biochemistry and physiological ecology of these Anthrosols. PMID:19381712

  18. Use of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) to characterize soil moisture for the Little River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashion, J. E.; Lakshmi, V.; Bosch, D.

    2003-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in many hydrological processes including infiltration, evaporation, and runoff. Additionally, soil moisture has a direct effect on weather patterns. Satellite based passive microwave sensors offer an effective way to observe soil moisture data over vast areas, and there are currently several satellite systems that detect soil moisture. Long-term in situ (field) measurements of soil moisture are collected in the Little River Watershed (LRWS) located in Tifton, Georgia and compared with the remotely sensed data collected over the watershed. The LRWS has been selected by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to represent the south eastern costal plains region of North America. The LRWS is composed primarily of sandy soils and has a flat topography with meandering streams. The in-situ measurements were collected by stationary soil moisture probes attached to rain gage stations throughout the LRWS for the period 2000-2002. The remotely sensed data was acquired by two satellites viz. - the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Microwave Imager (TMI) for soil moisture and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for vegetation. The TMI is equipped with a passive vertically and horizontally polarized 10.65GHz sensor that is capable of detecting soil moisture. Soil moisture collected in the field is related to the TMI brightness temperatures. However, vegetation has a strong affect on the 10.65GHz brightness temperature. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, provided by the (MODIS), are used to evaluate the effect of vegetation on soil microwave emission.

  19. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba. PMID:22017108

  20. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba.

  1. Characterization of bacterial strains capable of desulphurisation in soil and sediment samples from Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Boniek, Douglas; Figueiredo, Débora; Pylro, Victor Satler; Duarte, Gabriela Frois

    2010-09-01

    The presence of sulphur in fossil fuels and the natural environment justifies the study of sulphur-utilising bacterial species and genes involved in the biodesulphurisation process. Technology has been developed based on the natural ability of microorganisms to remove sulphur from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chains. This biotechnology aims to minimise the emission of sulphur oxides into the atmosphere during combustion and prevent the formation of acid rain. In this study, the isolation and characterization of desulphurising microorganisms in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from Antarctica that were either contaminated with oil or uncontaminated was described. The growth of selected isolates and their capacity to utilise sulphur based on the formation of the terminal product of desulphurisation via the 4S pathway, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, was analysed. DNA was extracted from the isolates and BOX-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to obtain a genomic diversity profile of cultivable desulphurising bacterial species. Fifty isolates were obtained showing the ability of utilising dibenzothiophene as a substrate and sulphur source for maintenance and growth when plated on selective media. However, only seven genetically diverse isolates tested positive for sulphur removal using the Gibbs assay. DNA sequencing revealed that these isolates were related to the genera Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas.

  2. Characterization and screening of bacteria from rhizosphere of maize grown in Indonesian and Pakistani soils.

    PubMed

    Naureen, Zakira; Yasmin, Sumera; Hameed, Sohail; Malik, K A; Hafeez, Fauzia Y

    2005-01-01

    Thirty rhizobacteria isolated from maize grown in Pakistani and Indonesian soils were evaluated for their morphological characteristics, nitrogen fixation, P-solubilization, indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores production. Nitrogenase activity was detected in nineteen isolates ranging from 21.8-3624 n moles C2H4 produced/h/mg protein. Most of the isolates produced IAA, ten were capable of siderophore production while four were P-solubilizers. Ultrastructural studies of Pseudomonas sp. F14 indicated characteristic rhizospheric colonization within 48 h that was observed to change considerably with the passage of time from few bacteria to micro colonies. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 30 bacterial strains using 30 oligonucleotide primers resulted in considerable level of genetic diversity, with genetic distance ranging from 2-16%. Indonesian isolates were found to be more diverse as compared to Pakistani isolates. The characterization and screening of rhizobacteria of maize rhizosphere has helped in selection of isolates F7, LS-1, 3.1.1.C, F2, F3 and F13 as superior strains for use as bioinoculant. Moreover isolate F14 identified, as Pseudomonas fulgida by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis is a novel strain regarding its tremendous potentials for inoculum production to enhance the yield of maize. PMID:16304707

  3. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    PubMed

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-05-11

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.

  4. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  5. Demonstrating comparative in vitro bioequivalence for animal drug products through chemistry and manufacturing controls and physicochemical characterization: a proposal.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marilyn N; Fahmy, Raafat

    2015-03-01

    The assessment of in vivo bioequivalence (BE) of nonsystemically absorbed drug products has been a longstanding challenge facing drug manufacturers and regulators of human or animal health products. Typically, in situations where blood level BE studies are not feasible, clinical endpoint BE trials have provided the only option for generating interproduct comparisons. Given the imprecision and logistic challenges associated with these studies, there has been an effort to identify alternative pathways that can reliably ensure the equivalence of product performance and quality. This commentary provides a proposal for an in vitro approach for evaluating the in vivo BE of veterinary drug products that are either nonsystemically absorbed or that act both locally and systemically but where the local site of action is proximal to the absorption window. The assumption underlying this approach is that equivalence in product physicochemical attributes and in vitro product performance translates to equivalence in product in vivo behavior. For sponsors with a right of reference to underlying safety and effectiveness data, this approach could be used to support pre and post-approval changes. When comparing a generic test product to the pioneer (reference listed new animal drug, RLNAD) product, a demonstration of sameness across a battery of in vitro test procedures could be used to confirm that the test and RLNAD products are bioequivalent.

  6. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States.

    PubMed

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  7. Characterization of dual-electrode CMUTs: demonstration of improved receive performance and pulse echo operation with dynamic membrane shaping.

    PubMed

    Guldiken, Rasim O; Balantekin, Mujdat; Zahorian, Jaime; Degertekin, F Levent

    2008-10-01

    A 1-D dual-electrode CMUT array for intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) with a center frequency of 8 MHz has been designed, fabricated, and used to demonstrate the potential of dual-electrode CMUTs. Using a dual-electrode CMUT, 9 dB higher receive signal level is obtained over the 6 dB fractional bandwidth as compared with a conventional CMUT with an identical center electrode biased close to its collapse voltage. Because the same device shows a 7.4 dB increase in maximum pressure output, 16.4 dB overall improvement in transduction performance has been achieved as compared with conventional CMUT. A net peak output pressure of 1.6 MPa on the dual-electrode CMUT membrane with tone burst excitation at 12 MHz is also reported. The frequency response of the dual-electrode CMUT is similar to that of a conventional CMUT with the same membrane geometry with about 15% increase in the center frequency. Monostatic operation of dual-electrode CMUTs shows that the high performance of the transducer is applicable in typical pulse-echo imaging mode of operation. With dynamic shaping of the CMUT membrane to optimize the transmit-and-receive modes of operation separately during each pulse-echo cycle, dual-electrode CMUT is a highly competitive alternative to its piezoelectric counterparts. PMID:18986882

  8. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Details three demonstrations for use in chemistry classrooms. Includes: "A Demonstration of Corrosion by Differential Aeration"; "A Simple Demonstration of the Activation Energy Concept"; and "A Boiling Demonstration at Room Temperature." Each description includes equipment, materials, and methods. (CW)

  9. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two chemistry demonstrations including a demonstration of chemical inhibition and "The Rayleigh Fountain" which demonstrates the polarity of the water molecule. Provides instructions and explanations for each demonstration. (CW)

  10. Characterization of non-extractable ¹⁴C- and ¹³C-sulfadiazine residues in soil including simultaneous amendment of pig manure.

    PubMed

    Junge, Thorsten; Meyer, Katrin Charlot; Ciecielski, Katrin; Adams, Alina; Schaffer, Andreas; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we reported on soil fate of SDZ residues amended with pig manure treated with ¹⁴C-labeled sulfadiazine ¹⁴C-SDZ). The first objective of the present study was to determine whether this strategy can be substituted by application of ¹⁴C-SDZ to soil. The second objective was to characterize non-extractable SDZ residues by fractionation, size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and solid state ¹³C-NMR. The fate of ¹⁴C-SDZ was examined for 28 d, using two soils with and without amendment of pig manure. Mineralization of ¹⁴C-SDZ was low; extractable residues decreased to 7-30%. Compared to the previous study, results were similar. ¹⁴C-SDZ derived bound radioactivity was found in HCl-washings, fulvic, humic acids and humin. According to SEC, one bound ¹⁴C portion (70%) co-eluted with fulvic acids (above 910 g mol⁻¹); the other consisted of adsorbed/entrapped ¹⁴C-SDZ. The ¹³C-SDZ study was performed for 30 d; humic acids were examined by ¹³C-NMR. A signal (100-150 ppm) was referred to ¹³C-SDZ. SEC and ¹³C-NMR demonstrated rapid integration of SDZ into humics.

  11. Effects of silver nanoparticles (NM-300K) on Lumbricus rubellus earthworms and particle characterization in relevant test matrices including soil.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, Merel J C; Handy, Richard D; Waalewijn-Kool, Pauline L; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Herrera Rivera, Zahira E; Bovenschen, Jan; Molleman, Bastiaan; Baveco, Johannes M; Tromp, Peter; Peters, Ruud J B; Koopmans, Gerwin F; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van den Brink, Nico W

    2014-04-01

    The impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNP; at 0 mg Ag/kg, 1.5 mg Ag/kg, 15.4 mg Ag/kg, and 154 mg Ag/kg soil) and silver nitrate (AgNO3 ; 15.4 mg Ag/kg soil) on earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus, was assessed. A 4-wk exposure to the highest AgNP treatment reduced growth and reproduction compared with the control. Silver nitrate (AgNO3 ) exposure also impaired reproduction, but not as much as the highest AgNP treatment. Long-term exposure to the highest AgNP treatment caused complete juvenile mortality. All AgNP treatments induced tissue pathology. Population modeling demonstrated reduced population growth rates for the AgNP and AgNO3 treatments, and no population growth at the highest AgNP treatment because of juvenile mortality. Analysis of AgNP treated soil samples revealed that single AgNP and AgNP clusters were present in the soil, and that the total Ag in soil porewater remained high throughout the long-term experiment. In addition, immune cells (coelomocytes) of earthworms showed sensitivity to both AgNP and AgNO3 in vitro. Overall, the present study indicates that AgNP exposure may affect earthworm populations and that the exposure may be prolonged because of the release of a dissolved Ag fraction to soil porewater.

  12. Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Richman, JE; Erickson, JS; Wackett, LP

    2011-03-25

    OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C(8) to C(16) in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C(14)), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [(14)C] myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be the physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.

  13. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  14. Characterizing Temporal and Spatial Trends in Soil Geochemistry on Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, J. C.; Fry, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Soil samples were collected during three field campaigns to determine seasonal and spatial trends of soil salinity, soil acidity and arsenic concentrations on Polder 32 in coastal Bangladesh. Many farmers on Polder 32 use a crop rotation of rice cultivation in the wet season and shrimp farming in the dry season, and studies have shown that this rotation can increase soil salinity and acidity. Soil samples were collected in May 2013, October 2013 and May 2014 from rice paddies and shrimp ponds on the polder, from adjacent tidal channels, and from the Sunderbans mangrove forest to the SE of the polder, and analyzed for both geochemical and physical parameters and then subjected to statistical tests and mapped using geographic information system software to find correlations. Results support the belief that soil salinity, acidity and arsenic concentration exhibit spatial variation, and soil salinity and acidity show seasonal variation with salinity elevated in the dry season (May) and acidity elevated in the wet season (October). Results suggest that Hydrous Ferric Oxyhydroxides (HFOs) are present in October and sulfides are present in May, so that reducing conditions that lead to reduction of HFOs and precipitation of sulfides must occur between October and May. Rice grown in paddies should be unaffected by salt concentrations in the wet season, while arsenic concentrations in soil may be high enough to cause unsafe As levels in produced rice. No evidence of soil acidification was found, most likely due to the presence of soil carbonate.

  15. The role of reservoir characterization in the reservoir management process (as reflected in the Department of Energy`s reservoir management demonstration program)

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, M.L.; Young, M.A.; Madden, M.P.

    1997-08-01

    Optimum reservoir recovery and profitability result from guidance of reservoir practices provided by an effective reservoir management plan. Success in developing the best, most appropriate reservoir management plan requires knowledge and consideration of (1) the reservoir system including rocks, and rock-fluid interactions (i.e., a characterization of the reservoir) as well as wellbores and associated equipment and surface facilities; (2) the technologies available to describe, analyze, and exploit the reservoir; and (3) the business environment under which the plan will be developed and implemented. Reservoir characterization is the essential to gain needed knowledge of the reservoir for reservoir management plan building. Reservoir characterization efforts can be appropriately scaled by considering the reservoir management context under which the plan is being built. Reservoir management plans de-optimize with time as technology and the business environment change or as new reservoir information indicates the reservoir characterization models on which the current plan is based are inadequate. BDM-Oklahoma and the Department of Energy have implemented a program of reservoir management demonstrations to encourage operators with limited resources and experience to learn, implement, and disperse sound reservoir management techniques through cooperative research and development projects whose objectives are to develop reservoir management plans. In each of the three projects currently underway, careful attention to reservoir management context assures a reservoir characterization approach that is sufficient, but not in excess of what is necessary, to devise and implement an effective reservoir management plan.

  16. Pyrolysis-Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Soil Organic Matter Composition in Chemically Isolated Fractions from Differing Land Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Plante, A. F.; Magrini-Bair, K.; Vigil, M.; Paul, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    Today's questions concerning the role of soil organic matter (SOM) in soil fertility, ecosystem functioning and global change can only be addressed through knowledge of the controls on SOM stabilization and their interactions. Pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) provides a powerful and rapid means of assessing the biochemical composition of SOM. However, characterization of SOM composition alone is insufficient to predict its dynamic behavior. Chemical fractionation is frequently used to isolate more homogeneous SOM components, but the composition of fractions is frequently unknown. We characterized biochemical SOM composition in two previously studied soils from the USA, under contrasting land uses: cultivated agriculture and native vegetation. Bulk soils, as well as chemically isolated SOM fractions (humic acid, humin and non-acid hydrolysable), were analyzed using py-MBMS. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed distinct differences in the SOM composition of isolated fractions. Py-MBMS spectra and PCA loadings were dominated by low molecular weight fragments associated with peptides and other N-containing compounds. The py-MBMS spectra were similar for native whole-soil samples under different vegetation, while cultivation increased heterogeneity. An approach based on previously published data on marker signals also suggests the importance of peptides in distinguishing samples. While the approach described here represents significant progress in the characterization of changing SOM composition, a truly quantitative analysis will only be achieved using multiple internal standards and by correcting for inorganic interference during py-MBMS analysis. Overall, we have provided proof of principle that py-MBMS can be a powerful tool to understand the controls on SOM dynamics, and further method development is underway.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  18. Molecular-scale characterization of uranium sorption by bone apatite materials for a permeable reactive barrier demonstration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, C.C.; Bargar, J.R.; Davis, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Uranium binding to bone charcoal and bone meal apatite materials was investigated using U LIII-edge EXAFS spectroscopy and synchrotron source XRD measurements of laboratory batch preparations in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Pelletized bone char apatite recovered from a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at Fry Canyon, UT, was also studied. EXAFS analyses indicate that U(VI) sorption in the absence of dissolved carbonate occurred by surface complexation of U(VI) for sorbed concentrations ??? 5500 ??g U(VI)/g for all materials with the exception of crushed bone char pellets. Either a split or a disordered equatorial oxygen shell was observed, consistent with complexation of uranyl by the apatite surface. A second shell of atoms at a distance of 2.9 A?? was required to fit the spectra of samples prepared in the presence of dissolved carbonate (4.8 mM total) and is interpreted as formation of ternary carbonate complexes with sorbed U(VI). A U-P distance at 3.5-3.6 A?? was found for most samples under conditions where uranyl phosphate phases did not form, which is consistent with monodentate coordination of uranyl by phosphate groups in the apatite surface. At sorbed concentrations ??? 5500 ??g U(VI)/g in the absence of dissolved carbonate, formation of the uranyl phosphate solid phase, chernikovite, was observed. The presence of dissolved carbonate (4.8 mM total) suppressed the formation of chernikovite, which was not detected even with sorbed U(VI) up to 12 300 ??g U(VI)/g in batch samples of bone meal, bone charcoal, and reagent-grade hydroxyapatite. EXAFS spectra of bone char samples recovered from the Fry Canyon PRB were comparable to laboratory samples in the presence of dissolved carbonate where U(VI) sorption occurred by surface complexation. Our findings demonstrate that uranium uptake by bone apatite will probably occur by surface complexation instead of precipitation of uranyl phosphate phases under the groundwater conditions found at many U

  19. An integrated array of microfluidic oxygenators as a neonatal lung assist device: in vitro characterization and in vivo demonstration.

    PubMed

    Rochow, Niels; Manan, Asmaa; Wu, Wen-I; Fusch, Gerhard; Monkman, Shelley; Leung, Jennifer; Chan, Emily; Nagpal, Dipen; Predescu, Dragos; Brash, John; Selvaganapathy, Ponnambalam Ravi; Fusch, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    A miniaturized oxygenator device that is perfused like an artificial placenta via the umbilical vessels may have significant potential to save the lives of newborns with respiratory insufficiency. Recently we presented the concept of an integrated modular lung assist device (LAD) that consists of stacked microfluidic single oxygenator units (SOUs) and demonstrated the technical details and operation of SOU prototypes. In this article, we present a LAD prototype that is designed to accommodate the different needs of term and preterm infants by permitting changing of the number of parallel-stacked microfluidic SOUs according to the actual body weight. The SOUs are made of polydimethylsiloxane, arranged in parallel, and connected though 3D-printed polymeric interconnects to form the LAD. The flow characteristics and the gas exchange properties were tested in vitro using human blood. We found that the pressure drop of the LAD increased linearly with flow rate. Gas exchange rates of 2.4-3.8 μL/min/cm(2) (0.3-0.5 mL/kg/min) and 6.4-10.1 μL/min/cm(2) (0.8-1.3 mL/kg/min) for O2 and CO2 , respectively, were achieved. We also investigated protein adsorption to provide preliminary information on the need for application of anticoagulant coating of LAD materials. Albumin adsorption, as measured by gold staining, showed that surface uptake was evenly distributed and occurred at the monolayer level (>0.2 μg/cm(2) ). Finally, we also tested the LAD under in vivo conditions using a newborn piglet model (body weight 1.65-2.0 kg). First, the effect of an arteriovenous bypass via a carotid artery-to-jugular vein shortcut on heart rate and blood pressure was investigated. Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure remained stable for extracorporeal flow rates of up to 61 mL/kg/min (101 mL/min). Next, the LAD was connected to umbilical vessels (maximum flow rate of 24 mL/min [10.4 mL/kg/min]), and O2 gas exchange was measured under hypoxic conditions (Fi O2

  20. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2: Site characterization report of the Pit 1 area

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Bogle, M.A.; Cline, S.R.; Naney, M.T.; Gu, B.

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993, initially encompassing the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was to have supported a possible Interim Record of Decision (IROD) or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches as early as FY 1997. The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 7, which contains these seven seepage pits and trenches, will probably not begin until after the year 2000. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability to overlap melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. This report summarizes the site characterization information gathered through the end of September 1996 which supports the planning and assessment of ISV for Pit 1 (objective 4 above).

  1. Laboratory-based characterization of plutonium in soil particles using micro-XRF and 3D confocal XRF

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Cordes, Nikolaus Lynn; Patterson, Brian M.; Havrilla, George Joseph

    2015-03-29

    The investigation of plutonium (Pu) in a soil matrix is of interest in safeguards, nuclear forensics, and environmental remediation activities. The elemental composition of two plutonium contaminated soil particles was characterized nondestructively using a pair of micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) techniques including high resolution X-ray (hiRX) and 3D confocal XRF. The three dimensional elemental imaging capability of confocal XRF permitted the identification two distinct Pu particles within the samples: one external to the Ferich soil matrix and another co-located with Cu within the soil matrix. The size and morphology of the particles was assessed with X-ray transmission microscopy and micro X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) providing complementary morphological information. Limits of detection for a 30 μm Pu particle are <10 ng for each of the XRF techniques. Ultimately, this study highlights the capability for lab-based, nondestructive, spatially resolved characterization of heterogeneous matrices on the micrometer scale with nanogram sensitivity.

  2. Laboratory-based characterization of plutonium in soil particles using micro-XRF and 3D confocal XRF

    DOE PAGES

    McIntosh, Kathryn Gallagher; Cordes, Nikolaus Lynn; Patterson, Brian M.; Havrilla, George Joseph

    2015-03-29

    The investigation of plutonium (Pu) in a soil matrix is of interest in safeguards, nuclear forensics, and environmental remediation activities. The elemental composition of two plutonium contaminated soil particles was characterized nondestructively using a pair of micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (micro-XRF) techniques including high resolution X-ray (hiRX) and 3D confocal XRF. The three dimensional elemental imaging capability of confocal XRF permitted the identification two distinct Pu particles within the samples: one external to the Ferich soil matrix and another co-located with Cu within the soil matrix. The size and morphology of the particles was assessed with X-ray transmission microscopy andmore » micro X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) providing complementary morphological information. Limits of detection for a 30 μm Pu particle are <10 ng for each of the XRF techniques. Ultimately, this study highlights the capability for lab-based, nondestructive, spatially resolved characterization of heterogeneous matrices on the micrometer scale with nanogram sensitivity.« less

  3. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain ecosystems are often complex and remarkably diverse and are seen as important sources of biological diversity. They play a key role in the water and sediment cycle for lowland regions as well as preventing and mitigating natural hazards especially those related to drought such as fire risk. However, these ecosystems are fragile and vulnerable to changes due to their particular and extreme climatic and biogeographic conditions. Some of the main pressures on mountain biodiversity are caused by changes in land use practices, infrastructure and urban development, unsustainable tourism, overexploitation of natural resources, fragmentation of habitats, particularly when located close to large population centers, as well as by pressures related toclimate change. The objective of this work is to select soil and geomorphological parameters in order to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the newly created National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Central Spain, where the presence of the Madrid metropolitan area is the main factor of impact. This is carried out within the framework of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) of the Campus de ExcelenciaInternacionalMoncloa, where long-term monitoring of the atmosphere, soil and bedrock are priority. This network has a total of ten stations located to the NW of Madrid and in this case, three stations have been selected to represent different ecosystems that include: 1) an alluvial plain in a lowland pasture area (La Herreria at 920 m a.s.l.), 2) mid mountain pine-forested and pasture area (Raso del Pino at 1801 m a.s.l.) and 3) high mountain grassland and rock area (Dos Hermanas at 2225 m a.s.l.). At each station a site geomorphological description, soil profile description and sampling was carried out. In the high mountain area information was obtained for monitoring frost heave activity and downslope soil movement. Basic soil laboratory analyses have been carried out

  4. Suitability of the normalized difference vegetation index and the adjusted transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index for spatially characterizing loggerhead shrike habitats in North American mixed prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; He, Yuhong; Guo, Xulin

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss has become one major cause of prairie loggerhead shrike population decline, which is associated with some important grassland biophysical features. However, our understanding of what and how biophysical variables can spatially characterize shrike habitats is poor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the suitability of two vegetation indices (VIs) for spatially characterizing shrike habitats in North American mixed prairies. Our research, conducted in Grasslands National Park of Canada, is based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the adjusted transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index (ATSAVI) as derived from both in situ measurements and SPOT imagery for three types of nesting categories at three spatial scales. Our results demonstrated that shrikes in mixed North American prairies prefer sparsely vegetated areas with a leaf area index less than 2.01 and shrub cover of around 25%. Our results also demonstrated that ATSAVI is superior to NDVI in estimating vegetation abundance and structure. Loggerhead shrikes seems to prefer habitats characterized by NDVI ranging from 0.562 to 0.616 and ATSAVI ranging from 0.319 to 0.372 with the spatial scale varying from 100 to 20 m. ATSAVI also had better performance in detecting the spatial variation of shrike habitats due to its higher sensitivity to background information.

  5. Assessment of diversity indices for the characterization of the soil prokaryotic community by metagenomic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, T. I.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Kutovaya, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    The diversity indices used in ecology for assessing the metagenomes of soil prokaryotic communities at different phylogenetic levels were compared. The following indices were considered: the number of detected taxa and the Shannon, Menhinick, Margalef, Simpson, Chao1, and ACE indices. The diversity analysis of the prokaryotic communities in the upper horizons of a typical chernozem (Haplic Chernozem (Pachic)), a dark chestnut soil (Haplic Kastanozem (Chromic)), and an extremely arid desert soil (Endosalic Calcisol (Yermic)) was based on the analysis of 16S rRNA genes. The Menhinick, Margalef, Chao1, and ACE indices gave similar results for the classification of the communities according to their diversity levels; the Simpson index gave good results only for the high-level taxa (phyla); the best results were obtained with the Shannon index. In general, all the indices used showed a decrease in the diversity of the soil prokaryotes in the following sequence: chernozem > dark chestnut soil > extremely arid desert soil.

  6. Metagenomic characterization of biodiversity in the extremely arid desert soils of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutovaya, O. V.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Ivanova, E. A.; Andronov, E. E.

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the composition of microbiomes in the biological crust (AKL) horizons of extremely arid desert soils (Aridic Calcisols) developed from saline and nonsaline alluvial deposits in the Ili Depression (eastern Kazakhstan) was analyzed. To describe the diversity of microorganisms in the soil samples, a novel method of pyrosequencing (Roche/454 Life Sciences) was applied. It was shown that bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes phyla predominate in all the samples; these are typical representatives of the microbiome of soil crusts. A distinctive feature of the extremely arid soils is the high contribution of cyanobacteria (25-30%) to the total DNA. In the soils developed from saline sediments, representatives from the Rubrobacteraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Caulobacteraceae families and from the Firmicutes phylum predominated. In the soils developed from nonsaline gypsiferous deposits, bacteria from the class of Acidobacteria, subgroup Gp3, of the Methylobacteriaceae family and the class of Subdivision 3 from the Verrucomicrobia phylum predominated.

  7. Free and bound aroma compounds characterization by GC-MS of Negroamaro wine as affected by soil management.

    PubMed

    Toci, Aline T; Crupi, Pasquale; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Antonacci, Donato; Coletta, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Negroamaro is an autochthonous wine grape variety of Southern Italy, which is becoming very important for the Italian wine market. The wine aroma is primary affected by the chemical composition of grapes, which can be influenced also by agronomic practices such as soil management. In this study, the free and bound aroma characterization was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, and the influence of two soil managements (cover cropping and soil tillage) was evaluated. A total of 40 volatile compounds were observed in the wine samples. Alcohols (55.7 mg/L), fatty acids (7.0 mg/L) and esters (6.6 mg/L) were found as the main classes in Negroamaro wine. The results showed that the aroma composition of Negroamaro wine was positively affected by soil tillage probably because of the higher water stress (ψ(s)) recorded in the vines from this treatment. Indeed, among the free volatile compounds, higher contents of esters, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenolics and acetamides together with lower contents of sulfurs compounds were found in soil tillage wine. Conversely, no difference was observed in glycoside volatile compounds.

  8. Biochemical Characterization of CPS-1, a Subclass B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium Soil Isolate.

    PubMed

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Bortolaia, Valeria; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-03-01

    CPS-1 is a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium isolate collected from soil, showing 68% amino acid identity to the GOB-1 enzyme. CPS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), purified by chromatography, and biochemically characterized. This enzyme exhibits a broad-spectrum substrate profile, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, which overall resembles those of L1, GOB-1, and acquired subclass B3 enzymes AIM-1 and SMB-1. PMID:26666948

  9. Characterization of Non-Organized Soils at Gusev Crater with the Spirit Rover Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Greeley, R.

    2005-01-01

    We surveyed the characteristic of non-organized soils at Gusev crater at microscale and macroscale in four main traverse regions: (1) Landing site to Bonneville crater; (2) Bonneville to West Spur; (3) the West Spur region; and (4) the Columbia Hills up to sol 363. Non-organized soils are defined as soils traversed by Spirit that do not include drifts, ripples, or dunes.

  10. Characterizing soil water dynamics on steep hillslopes from long-term lysimeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augenstein, Michael; Goeppert, Nadine; Goldscheider, Nico

    2015-10-01

    Understanding soil water dynamics on hillslopes is of crucial importance to the prediction of floods and other hydrological events in mountainous catchments, to the identification of natural vegetation patterns, and to the optimization of agricultural land use. In principle, such information can be obtained from lysimeters, but most experimental lysimeter facilities have been installed on flat terrain. This study presents a long-term and high-resolution investigation of soil moisture, surface and subsurface flow using three large-scale lysimeters on a slope with 23.5° inclination on a landfill site in Karlsruhe, Germany. Data from a 10-year observation period were evaluated for this study, including weekly soil moisture data obtained by neutron probes, continuous discharge data from the land surface and several layers within the soil zone, and hydrometeorological data from a climate station. The results reveal (i) clear temporal and spatial patterns of soil moisture variations down to a depth of 250 cm, (ii) substantially higher discharge and faster percolation rates in the lower part of the lysimeter field, indicating significant downhill flow at various depths within the soil profile, (iii) characteristic threshold values for flow processes in the soil, associated with a hysteresis effect between soil moisture and flow processes. These results can be used as a basis of improved numerical models for the simulation of floods, soil moisture distributions, and vegetation patterns.

  11. Characterization and production and consumption processes of N2O emitted from temperate agricultural soils determined via isotopomer ratio analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Nishimura, Sei-Ichi; Akiyama, Hiroko; Hayakawa, Atsushi; Koba, Keisuke; Sudo, Shigeto; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Makabe, Akiko; Tobari, Yoshifumi; Ogawa, Nanako O.; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2011-06-01

    Isotopomer ratios of N2O (bulk nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, δ15Nbulk and δ18O, and intramolecular 15N site preference, SP) are useful parameters that characterize sources of this greenhouse gas and also provide insight into production and consumption mechanisms. We measured isotopomer ratios of N2O emitted from typical Japanese agricultural soils (Fluvisols and Andisols) planted with rice, wheat, soybean, and vegetables, and treated with synthetic (urea or ammonium) and organic (poultry manure) fertilizers. The results were analyzed using a previously reported isotopomeric N2O signature produced by nitrifying/denitrifying bacteria and a characteristic relationship between δ15Nbulk and SP during N2O reduction by denitrifying bacteria. Relative contributions from nitrification (hydroxylamine oxidation) and denitrification (nitrite reduction) to gross N2O production deduced from the analysis depended on soil type and fertilizer. The contribution from nitrification was relatively high (40%-70%) in Andisols amended with synthetic ammonium fertilizer, while denitrification was dominant (50%-90%) in the same soils amended with poultry manure during the period when N2O production occurred in the surface layer. This information on production processes is in accordance with that obtained from flux/concentration analysis of N2O and soil inorganic nitrogen. However, isotopomer analysis further revealed that partial reduction of N2O was pronounced in high-bulk density, alluvial soil (Fluvisol) compared to low-bulk density, volcanic ash soil (Andisol), and that the observed difference in N2O flux between normal and pelleted manure could have resulted from a similar mechanism with different rates of gross production and gross consumption. The isotopomeric analysis is based on data from pure culture bacteria and would be improved by further studies on in situ biological processes in soils including those by fungi. When flux/concentration-weighted average isotopomer

  12. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes three flame test demonstrations including "Student-Presented Demonstrations on the Colors of Transition Metal Complexes,""A Flame Test Demonstration Device," and "Vivid Flame Tests." Preparation and procedures are discussed. Included in the first demonstration is an evaluation scheme for grading student demonstrations. (CW)

  13. Characterization of carotenoids in soil bacteria and investigation of their photodegradation by UVA radiation via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumar B N, Vinay; Kampe, Bernd; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    A soil habitat consists of an enormous number of pigmented bacteria with the pigments mainly composed of diverse carotenoids. Most of the pigmented bacteria in the top layer of the soil are photoprotected from exposure to huge amounts of UVA radiation on a daily basis by these carotenoids. The photostability of these carotenoids depends heavily on the presence of specific features like a carbonyl group or an ionone ring system on its overall structure. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive and powerful techniques to detect and characterize these carotenoids and also monitor processes associated with them in their native system at a single cell resolution. However, most of the resonance Raman profiles of carotenoids have very minute differences, thereby making it extremely difficult to confirm if these differences are attributed to the presence of different carotenoids or if it is a consequence of their interaction with other cellular components. In this study, we devised a method to overcome this problem by monitoring also the photodegradation of the carotenoids in question by UVA radiation wherein a differential photodegradation response will confirm the presence of different carotenoids irrespective of the proximities in their resonance Raman profiles. Using this method, the detection and characterization of carotenoids in pure cultures of five species of pigmented coccoid soil bacteria is achieved. We also shed light on the influence of the structure of the carotenoid on its photodegradation which can be exploited for use in the characterization of carotenoids via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  14. TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANERO- CHAETE SORDIDA: A FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of large-scale fungal bioaugmentation was evaluated by assessing the ability of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida to decrease the soil concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 13 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic (PNA) creosote component...

  15. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  16. Development of soft extraction method for structural characterization of boreal forest soil proteins with MALDI-TOF/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanerva, Sanna; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kitunen, Veikko; Smolander, Aino; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is usually the nutrient restricting productivity in boreal forests. Forest soils contain a great amount of nitrogen, but only a small part of it is in mineral form. Most part of soil N is bound in the structures of different organic compounds such as proteins, peptides, amino acids and more stabilized, refractory compounds. Due to the fact that soil organic N has a very important role in soil nutrient cycling and in plant nutrition, there is a need for more detailed knowledge of its chemistry in soil. Conventional methods to extract and analyze soil organic N are usually very destructive for structures of higher molecular weight organic compounds, such as proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize proteins extracted from boreal forest soil by "soft" extraction methods in order to maintain their molecular structure. The organic layer (F) from birch forest floor containing 78% of organic matter was sieved, freeze dried, pulverized, and extracted with a citrate or phosphate buffer (pH 6 or 8). Sequential extraction with the citrate or phosphate buffer and an SDS buffer (pH 6.8), slightly modified from the method of Chen et al. (2009, Proteomics 9: 4970-4973), was also done. Proteins were purified from the soil extract by extraction with buffered phenol and precipitated with methanol + 0.1M ammonium acetate at -20°C. Characterization of proteins was performed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the concentration of total proteins was measured using Bradford's method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a positive control in the extractions and as a standard protein in Bradford's method. Our results showed that sequential extraction increased the amount of extracted proteins compared to the extractions without the SDS-buffer; however, it must be noted that the use of SDS-buffer very probably increased denaturization of proteins. Purification of proteins from crude soil extracts

  17. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Three chemistry demonstrations are described: (1) partition coefficients; (2) Rutherford simulation experiment; and (3) demonstration of the powerful oxidizing property of dimanganeseheptoxide. Background information, materials needed, and procedures are provided for each demonstration. (JN)

  18. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Presented are three demonstrations for chemical education. The activities include: (1) demonstration of vapor pressure; (2) a multicolored luminol-based chemiluminescence demonstration; and (3) a Charles's Law/Vapor pressure apparatus. (RH)

  19. Reflectance Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Presents a demonstration in which a mirror "disappears" upon rotation. The author has used the demonstration with students from fourth grade up through college. Suggestions are given for making the demonstration into a permanent hallway display. (MVL)

  20. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Provides procedures for demonstrations: (1) the ferrioxalate actinometer, which demonstrates a photochemical reaction; and (2) the silver mirror, which demonstrates the reduction of a metal salt to the metal and/or the reducing power of sugars. (CS)

  1. GPR waveguide and full-waveform inversion for the hydrogeophysical characterization of soils and aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Kruk, J.; Mangel, A. R.; Gueting, N.; Busch, S.; Klotzsche, A.; Moysey, S. M.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a powerful tool for characterizing hydrologic processes. Coupled hydrogeophysical inversion can be used to invert time-lapse GPR data to obtain soil hydraulic properties. However, the inversion will fail if the hydrological model is not appropriately conceptualized, or when the ray-based methods that are often used to limit the computation time are not appropriate. Ray-based approaches cannot be used in the case of wetting fronts in the vadose zone due to precipitation/infiltration or thawing events, where low-velocity layers with high water content can trap the GPR waves and act as a waveguide such that multiple internal reflections cause dispersion. Utilizing the dispersion, manifested as a singled appearance of arrivals on multi-offset data, we can invert for waveguide properties. Single- or two-layer waveguide inversion approaches return average water contents but are incapable of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution of the shallow subsurface. Recently, a shuffled complex evolution algorithm was implemented that used a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile present for early-time infiltration events for different n-parameter values of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D. Similar waveguide phenomena can arise in the presence of high porosity layers in saturated aquifers for crosshole GPR. These high porosity layers result in significant late arrival high-amplitude elongated wave trains that were detected in crosshole data from the Widen, Boise and Krauthausen aquifers. Full-waveform inversion of these data that uses an accurate forward model to explain the measured data is able to return decimeter scale resolution of the porosity based on the GPR velocity. With increasing computer power, it is expected that these advanced processing can be soon included in the coupled inversion approaches.

  2. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This article details two demonstrations involving color changes. Included are "Manganese Color Reactions" and "Flame Colors Demonstration." Include a list of materials needed, procedures, cautions, and results. (CW)

  3. Tested Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Background information (including chemical reactions) and procedures used are provided for (1) three buffer demonstrations and (2) a demonstration of phase transfer catalysis and carbanion formation. (JN)

  4. Characterization of a soil amendment derived from co-composting of agricultural wastes and biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Meier, Sebastián; Medina, Jorge; Panichini, Marcelo; Borie, Fernando; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a compost blend prepared from sheep manure and oat straw in a co-composting process enriched with oat husk biochar (BC). For this, a co-composting trial was carried out in rotatories bins of 200 L capacity. Three mixtures (piles) were assayed: BC0: sheep manure (SM) 65% w/w with 35% w/w oat straw (OS) and no biochar; BC5: SM 62.5% w/w, 32.5% of OS and 5% of BC and BC10: SM 60% w/w, 30% of OS and 10% of BC. The piles were turned 3 times per week in the first week, and then once a week until the end of the composting process (140 days). The temperature and humidity of the piles were monitored continually and the humidity was maintained in a range from 55% to 65%. The maturity of final compost was evaluated by FTIR and Solvita Test analysis. At the same time a chemical characterization including macro and micro nutrient for each compost was performed and the compost phytotoxic effect was evaluated by a germination test using aqueous extract over lettuce, radish and wheat seeds. FTIR analysis showed bands attributed to aromatic C=C, C=O stretching of amide groups, quinone C=O and/or C=O of H-bonded conjugated ketones (1640 cm‑1) which are typical in biological stabilized composts and compost with high concentration of highly aromatic materials such as biochar, which seems to become relatively more intense specially in BC10 treatment. Both composts were characterized by a Solvita maturity index of 7, reflecting an adequate degree of maturation. The CO2 emission was lower in the piles enriched with BC compared to control treatment without BC. In the same way, NH3 index was 5 for all the treatments indicating a null NH3 emission. In this respect, a decrease in the N-NH4 content was related with the use of BC which indicate that BC could reduce N-losses during composting favoring nitrification process. Chemical characterization showed pH values higher than 8 for all piles and EC ranged from 8.6 to 14.7 dS cm‑1. The Total N and

  5. Characterization of a soil amendment derived from co-composting of agricultural wastes and biochar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Meier, Sebastián; Medina, Jorge; Panichini, Marcelo; Borie, Fernando; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a compost blend prepared from sheep manure and oat straw in a co-composting process enriched with oat husk biochar (BC). For this, a co-composting trial was carried out in rotatories bins of 200 L capacity. Three mixtures (piles) were assayed: BC0: sheep manure (SM) 65% w/w with 35% w/w oat straw (OS) and no biochar; BC5: SM 62.5% w/w, 32.5% of OS and 5% of BC and BC10: SM 60% w/w, 30% of OS and 10% of BC. The piles were turned 3 times per week in the first week, and then once a week until the end of the composting process (140 days). The temperature and humidity of the piles were monitored continually and the humidity was maintained in a range from 55% to 65%. The maturity of final compost was evaluated by FTIR and Solvita Test analysis. At the same time a chemical characterization including macro and micro nutrient for each compost was performed and the compost phytotoxic effect was evaluated by a germination test using aqueous extract over lettuce, radish and wheat seeds. FTIR analysis showed bands attributed to aromatic C=C, C=O stretching of amide groups, quinone C=O and/or C=O of H-bonded conjugated ketones (1640 cm-1) which are typical in biological stabilized composts and compost with high concentration of highly aromatic materials such as biochar, which seems to become relatively more intense specially in BC10 treatment. Both composts were characterized by a Solvita maturity index of 7, reflecting an adequate degree of maturation. The CO2 emission was lower in the piles enriched with BC compared to control treatment without BC. In the same way, NH3 index was 5 for all the treatments indicating a null NH3 emission. In this respect, a decrease in the N-NH4 content was related with the use of BC which indicate that BC could reduce N-losses during composting favoring nitrification process. Chemical characterization showed pH values higher than 8 for all piles and EC ranged from 8.6 to 14.7 dS cm-1. The Total N and P

  6. A comparison of regression and regression-kriging for soil characterization using remote sensing imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In precision agriculture regression has been used widely to quality the relationship between soil attributes and other environmental variables. However, spatial correlation existing in soil samples usually makes the regression model suboptimal. In this study, a regression-kriging method was attemp...

  7. Characterizing the Soil Ecology of Red Raspberry Produced under Different Production Regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and rhizosphere ecology play important roles in plant health and development. Using culture-independent microbial community profiling, we investigated the effects of fertilizer (composted dairy solids + mustard seed meal) on fungal communities in soil and endophytic in a raspberry production sy...

  8. The characterization and composition of bacterial communities in soils blended with spent foundry sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spent foundry sands (SFSs) are a likely replacement for virgin aggregate used in manufactured soils, such as topsoils, potting soils, and landscaping mixes. While SFSs generally contain low concentrations of trace elements and xenobiotics, concerns about their impact upon environmental receptors ha...

  9. Error characterization of microwave satellite soil moisture data sets using fourier analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture is a key geophysical variable in hydrological and meteorological processes. Accurate and current observations of soil moisture over meso to global scales used as inputs to hydrological, weather and climate modelling will benefit the predictability and understanding of these processes. ...

  10. Error characterization of microwave satellite soil moisture data sets using fourier analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key geophysical variable in hydrological and meteorological processes. Accurate and current observations of soil moisture over mesoscale to global scales as inputs to hydrological, weather and climate modelling will benefit the predictability and understanding of these p...

  11. Characterization of a Wide Array of Fluorinated Organic Compounds in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herein we report the results of analyses on the concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in soils from a site that has been impacted by human activities. Soil samples were collected from several locations that had been impacted and one...

  12. Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Jones, G.; Janke, R.; Nelson, K.

    1998-03-01

    During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete.

  13. Environmental technology demonstrations involving explosives contamination at the Volunteer Site

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.J.; Broder, M.F.; Jayne, E.A.

    1997-08-01

    Managed by the US Army Environmental Center, the Army`s test site at Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant encompasses a 300-acre area formerly used for batch production of TNT. Soil and groundwater contamination in the test area is well characterized. A network of monitoring wells and detailed information regarding the volume, location, and concentration of soil contamination is available to potential demonstrators. On-site field and laboratory support is provided by ICI Americas Incorporated, the facility`s operator. Four demonstrations have been conducted at the test site and several are scheduled for 1997. Preliminary findings from the four demonstrations discussed will be available sometime in 1997.

  14. Tested Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Three demonstrations are described: paramagnetic properties of Fe(11) and Fe(111), the preparation of polyurethane foam: a lecture demonstration and the electrolysis of water-fuel cell reactions. A small discussion of the concepts demonstrated is included in each demonstration's description. (MR)

  15. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Being a source of mineral nutrients, organic matter contributes to soil chemical fertility and acts on soil physical fertility through its role in soil structure. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of soils. Despite the paramount importance of SOM, information on its chemistry and behaviour in soils is incomplete. Numerous methods are used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics in soils using different approaches (Kogel-Knabner, 2000). Two of the main approaches are evaluated and compared in this study. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) provides a description of a SOM's general evolution using its thermal resistance. The second tool (13C CPMAS NMR) aims to give precise and accurate chemical information on OM characterization. The RE pyrolysis technique was designed for petroleum exploration (Lafargue et al., 1998) and because of its simplicity, it has been applied to a variety of other materials such as soils or Recent sediments (Disnar et al., 2000; Sebag, 2006). Recently, RE pyrolysis became a conventional tool to study OM dynamics in soils. In RE pyrolysis, a peak deconvolution is applied to the pyrolysis signal in order to get four main components related to major classes of organic constituents. These components differ in origin and resistance to pyrolysis: labile biological constituents (F1), resistant biological constituents (F2), immature non-biotic constituents (F3) and a mature refractory fraction (F4) (Sebag, 2006; Coppard, 2006). Main advantages of the technique are its repeatability, and rapidity to provide an overview of OM properties and stocks. However, do the four major classes used in the literature reflect a pertinent chemical counterpart? To answer this question, we used 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the solid state (13C CPMAS NMR) to collect direct information on structural and conformational characteristics of OM. NMR resonances were assigned to chemical structures according to five dominant forms: alkyl C, O

  16. The Impact of Model and Rainfall Forcing Errors on Characterizing Soil Moisture Uncertainty in Land Surface Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maggioni, V.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Reichle, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of rainfall forcing errors relative to model (structural and parameter) uncertainty in the prediction of soil moisture is investigated by integrating the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM), forced with hydro-meteorological data, in the Oklahoma region. Rainfall-forcing uncertainty is introduced using a stochastic error model that generates ensemble rainfall fields from satellite rainfall products. The ensemble satellite rain fields are propagated through CLSM to produce soil moisture ensembles. Errors in CLSM are modeled with two different approaches: either by perturbing model parameters (representing model parameter uncertainty) or by adding randomly generated noise (representing model structure and parameter uncertainty) to the model prognostic variables. Our findings highlight that the method currently used in the NASA GEOS-5 Land Data Assimilation System to perturb CLSM variables poorly describes the uncertainty in the predicted soil moisture, even when combined with rainfall model perturbations. On the other hand, by adding model parameter perturbations to rainfall forcing perturbations, a better characterization of uncertainty in soil moisture simulations is observed. Specifically, an analysis of the rank histograms shows that the most consistent ensemble of soil moisture is obtained by combining rainfall and model parameter perturbations. When rainfall forcing and model prognostic perturbations are added, the rank histogram shows a U-shape at the domain average scale, which corresponds to a lack of variability in the forecast ensemble. The more accurate estimation of the soil moisture prediction uncertainty obtained by combining rainfall and parameter perturbations is encouraging for the application of this approach in ensemble data assimilation systems.

  17. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision.

    PubMed

    Goavec-Mérou, G; Chrétien, N; Friedt, J-M; Sandoz, P; Martin, G; Lenczner, M; Ballandras, S

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates. PMID:24517814

  18. Fast contactless vibrating structure characterization using real time field programmable gate array-based digital signal processing: Demonstrations with a passive wireless acoustic delay line probe and vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goavec-Mérou, G.; Chrétien, N.; Friedt, J.-M.; Sandoz, P.; Martin, G.; Lenczner, M.; Ballandras, S.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrating mechanical structure characterization is demonstrated using contactless techniques best suited for mobile and rotating equipments. Fast measurement rates are achieved using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices as real-time digital signal processors. Two kinds of algorithms are implemented on FPGA and experimentally validated in the case of the vibrating tuning fork. A first application concerns in-plane displacement detection by vision with sampling rates above 10 kHz, thus reaching frequency ranges above the audio range. A second demonstration concerns pulsed-RADAR cooperative target phase detection and is applied to radiofrequency acoustic transducers used as passive wireless strain gauges. In this case, the 250 ksamples/s refresh rate achieved is only limited by the acoustic sensor design but not by the detection bandwidth. These realizations illustrate the efficiency, interest, and potentialities of FPGA-based real-time digital signal processing for the contactless interrogation of passive embedded probes with high refresh rates.

  19. Static SIMS and MS2 Characterization of the Chemical Warfare Agent HD on Soil Particle Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gresham, Garold Linn; Groenewold, Gary Steven; Appelhans, Anthony David; Olson, John Eric; Benson, Michael Timothy; Jeffery, M. T.; Rowland, B.; Weibe, M. A.

    2001-07-01

    Detection of the blister agent HD [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide] or distilled mustard directly on the surface of soil particles using ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometry in the static mode is demonstrated. HD by its very nature is adsorptive; this attribute makes detection of surface adsorbed HD by gas-phase approaches difficult, but renders the compound amenable to surface detection. Two different ion trap (IT) mass spectrometers, modified to perform secondary ionization mass spectrometry using a ReO4- primary ion beam, were employed in the present study. Sputtered ions were trapped in the gas phase in the IT, where they could be scanned out (MS1), or isolated and fragmented (MS2). The intact HD molecular ion was not observed, however an abundant ion corresponding to [HD - Cl]+ was formed, as were lower mass fragment ions, and ions derived from the chemical background. Ab initio calculations were used to propose structures of the fragment ions. At 0.5 monolayers surface coverage, [HD - Cl]+ and lower mass HD fragment ions were significantly more abundant than the background. At lower concentrations, however, the HD secondary ion signal became masked by the background. Sensitivity and selectivity were significantly improved in the MS2 mode of operation. MS2 of [HD - Cl]+ resulted in production of analytically diagnostic C2H4SH+ and other S- and Cl-bearing fragment ions. HD was detected at 0.07 monolayers using the MS2 approach, which corresponds to 108 ppm on a mass/mass basis.

  20. Characterization and Low-Cost Remediation of Soils Contaminated by Timbers in Community Gardens.

    PubMed

    Heiger-Bernays, W; Fraser, A; Burns, V; Diskin, K; Pierotti, D; Merchant-Borna, K; McClean, M; Brabander, D; Hynes, H P

    2009-01-01

    Urban community gardens worldwide provide significant health benefits to those gardening and consuming fresh produce from them. Urban gardens are most often placed in locations and on land in which soil contaminants reflect past practices and often contain elevated levels of metals and organic contaminants. Garden plot dividers made from either railroad ties or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure treated lumber contribute to the soil contamination and provide a continuous source of contaminants. Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from railroad ties and arsenic from CCA pressure treated lumber are present in the gardens studied. Using a representative garden, we 1) determined the nature and extent of urban community garden soil contaminated with PAHs and arsenic by garden timbers; 2) designed a remediation plan, based on our sampling results, with our community partner guided by public health criteria, local regulation, affordability, and replicability; 3) determined the safety and advisability of adding city compost to Boston community gardens as a soil amendment; and 4) made recommendations for community gardeners regarding healthful gardening practices. This is the first study of its kind that looks at contaminants other than lead in urban garden soil and that evaluates the effect on select soil contaminants of adding city compost to community garden soil. PMID:21804925

  1. Characterization and Low-Cost Remediation of Soils Contaminated by Timbers in Community Gardens

    PubMed Central

    Heiger-Bernays, W.; Fraser, A.; Burns, V.; Diskin, K.; Pierotti, D.; Merchant-Borna, K.; McClean, M.; Brabander, D.; Hynes, H. P.

    2011-01-01

    Urban community gardens worldwide provide significant health benefits to those gardening and consuming fresh produce from them. Urban gardens are most often placed in locations and on land in which soil contaminants reflect past practices and often contain elevated levels of metals and organic contaminants. Garden plot dividers made from either railroad ties or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure treated lumber contribute to the soil contamination and provide a continuous source of contaminants. Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from railroad ties and arsenic from CCA pressure treated lumber are present in the gardens studied. Using a representative garden, we 1) determined the nature and extent of urban community garden soil contaminated with PAHs and arsenic by garden timbers; 2) designed a remediation plan, based on our sampling results, with our community partner guided by public health criteria, local regulation, affordability, and replicability; 3) determined the safety and advisability of adding city compost to Boston community gardens as a soil amendment; and 4) made recommendations for community gardeners regarding healthful gardening practices. This is the first study of its kind that looks at contaminants other than lead in urban garden soil and that evaluates the effect on select soil contaminants of adding city compost to community garden soil. PMID:21804925

  2. Evaluating the importance of characterizing soil structure and horizons in parameterizing a hydrologic process model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the influence of soil structure and horizons into parameterizations of distributed surface water/groundwater models remains a challenge. Often, only a single soil unit is employed, and soil-hydraulic properties are assigned based on textural classification, without evaluating the potential impact of these simplifications. This study uses a distributed physics-based model to assess the influence of soil horizons and structure on effective parameterization. This paper tests the viability of two established and widely used hydrogeologic methods for simulating runoff and variably saturated flow through layered soils: (1) accounting for vertical heterogeneity by combining hydrostratigraphic units with contrasting hydraulic properties into homogeneous, anisotropic units and (2) use of established pedotransfer functions based on soil texture alone to estimate water retention and conductivity, without accounting for the influence of pedon structures and hysteresis. The viability of this latter method for capturing the seasonal transition from runoff-dominated to evapotranspiration-dominated regimes is also tested here. For cases tested here, event-based simulations using simplified vertical heterogeneity did not capture the state-dependent anisotropy and complex combinations of runoff generation mechanisms resulting from permeability contrasts in layered hillslopes with complex topography. Continuous simulations using pedotransfer functions that do not account for the influence of soil structure and hysteresis generally over-predicted runoff, leading to propagation of substantial water balance errors. Analysis suggests that identifying a dominant hydropedological unit provides the most acceptable simplification of subsurface layering and that modified pedotransfer functions with steeper soil-water retention curves might adequately capture the influence of soil structure and hysteresis on hydrologic response in headwater catchments.

  3. Characterization of Pu concentration and its isotopic composition in soils of Gansu in northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi; Wu, Fengchang; Liao, Haiqing

    2009-01-01

    The total 239+240Pu activities and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in surface soil samples (0-5cm) in the Kumtag Desert in western Gansu Province, and in a soil core sample in Lanzhou were investigated using a sector-field ICP-MS. In the surface soil samples, 239+240Pu activities in fine particles (<150microm) were 1.3-2.1 times of those in coarse particles (150microm-1mm) which ranged from 0.005 to 0.157mBq/g. Atom ratios of 240Pu/239Pu in the surface soils ranged from 0.168 to 0.192 with a mean of 0.182+/-0.008. The mean ratio was similar to the typical global fallout value although the Kumtag Desert was believed to have received close-in fallout derived from Chinese nuclear weapons tests mainly conducted in the 1970s. Furthermore, the mean 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio observed in the soil core sample in Lanzhou was similar to the typical global fallout value. In the soil core sample, 239+240Pu activities in the various layers ranged from 0.012 to 0.23mBq/g, and the inventory of 239+240Pu (32.4Bq/m2, 0-23cm) was slightly lower than that expected from global fallout (42Bq/m2) at the same latitude. Rapid downward migration of Pu isotopes was observed in Lanzhou soil core sample layers. The contribution of the 10-cm deep top layers of surface soils to total inventory was only 17%, while the contribution of deeper layers (10-23cm) was as high as 83%. The 239+240Pu activity levels and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in soils in Gansu Province, China are similar to those in atmospheric deposition samples collected in the spring in recent years in Japan.

  4. Characterization of metal-resistant plant-growth promoting Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolated from serpentine soil in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Mani; Ma, Ying; Freitas, Helena

    2008-12-01

    A metal-resistant bacterial strain SM3 isolated from a serpentine soil in the north-east of Portugal was characterized as Bacillus weihenstephanensis based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics and on the comparative analysis of the partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. Bacillus weihenstephanensis SM3 showed a high degree of resistance to nickel (1500 mg l(-1)), copper (500 mg l(-1)) and zinc (700 mg l(-1)) and also to antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin, kanamycin and streptomycin). Strain SM3 has also exhibited the capability of solubilizing phosphate and producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) both in the absence and in the presence of metals (Ni, Cu and Zn). A pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of strain SM3 on plant growth and uptake of Ni, Cu or Zn by Helianthus annuus. Inoculation with strain SM3 increased the shoot and root biomass of H. annuus grown in both non-contaminated and contaminated soil. Furthermore, strain SM3 increased the accumulation of Cu and Zn in the root and shoot systems. A batch experiment was also conducted to assess the metal mobilization potential of strain SM3 in soil. Inoculation with this strain increased the concentrations of water soluble Ni, Cu and Zn in soil. Metal solubilization by this bacterial strain may be an important process to promote the uptake of heavy metals by plants. This study elucidates the multifarious role of strain SM3 in plant growth promotion and its metal mobilizing potential. PMID:18785659

  5. Characterization of metal-resistant plant-growth promoting Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolated from serpentine soil in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Mani; Ma, Ying; Freitas, Helena

    2008-12-01

    A metal-resistant bacterial strain SM3 isolated from a serpentine soil in the north-east of Portugal was characterized as Bacillus weihenstephanensis based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics and on the comparative analysis of the partial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. Bacillus weihenstephanensis SM3 showed a high degree of resistance to nickel (1500 mg l(-1)), copper (500 mg l(-1)) and zinc (700 mg l(-1)) and also to antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin, kanamycin and streptomycin). Strain SM3 has also exhibited the capability of solubilizing phosphate and producing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) both in the absence and in the presence of metals (Ni, Cu and Zn). A pot experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of strain SM3 on plant growth and uptake of Ni, Cu or Zn by Helianthus annuus. Inoculation with strain SM3 increased the shoot and root biomass of H. annuus grown in both non-contaminated and contaminated soil. Furthermore, strain SM3 increased the accumulation of Cu and Zn in the root and shoot systems. A batch experiment was also conducted to assess the metal mobilization potential of strain SM3 in soil. Inoculation with this strain increased the concentrations of water soluble Ni, Cu and Zn in soil. Metal solubilization by this bacterial strain may be an important process to promote the uptake of heavy metals by plants. This study elucidates the multifarious role of strain SM3 in plant growth promotion and its metal mobilizing potential.

  6. Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil.

    PubMed

    García-Jaramillo, Manuel; Cox, Lucía; Knicker, Heike E; Cornejo, Juan; Spokas, Kurt A; Hermosín, M Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Biochars, from different organic residues, are increasingly proposed as soil amendments for their agronomic and environmental benefits. A systematic detection method that correlates biochar properties to their abilities to adsorb organic compounds is still lacking. Seven biochars obtained after pyrolysis at different temperatures and from different feedstock (alperujo compost, rice hull, and woody debris), were characterized and tested to reveal potential remedial forms for pesticide capture in flooded soils. Biochar properties were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area (SSA) assessment and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from these biochars was extracted and quantified in order to evaluate the effect on pesticide sorption. The biochars from alperujo compost presented very high affinity to the fungicide tricyclazole (55.9, 83.5, and 90.3% for B1, B4, and B5, respectively). This affinity was positively correlated with the pyrolysis temperature, the pH, the increased SSA of the biochars, and the enhanced aromaticity. Sorptive capacities were negatively related to DOM contents. The amendment with a mixture of compost and biochar endows the alluvial soil with high sorptive properties (from K(fads(soil)) = 9.26 to K(fads(mixture)) = 17.89) without impeding the slow release of tricyclazole.

  7. Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil.

    PubMed

    García-Jaramillo, Manuel; Cox, Lucía; Knicker, Heike E; Cornejo, Juan; Spokas, Kurt A; Hermosín, M Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Biochars, from different organic residues, are increasingly proposed as soil amendments for their agronomic and environmental benefits. A systematic detection method that correlates biochar properties to their abilities to adsorb organic compounds is still lacking. Seven biochars obtained after pyrolysis at different temperatures and from different feedstock (alperujo compost, rice hull, and woody debris), were characterized and tested to reveal potential remedial forms for pesticide capture in flooded soils. Biochar properties were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area (SSA) assessment and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from these biochars was extracted and quantified in order to evaluate the effect on pesticide sorption. The biochars from alperujo compost presented very high affinity to the fungicide tricyclazole (55.9, 83.5, and 90.3% for B1, B4, and B5, respectively). This affinity was positively correlated with the pyrolysis temperature, the pH, the increased SSA of the biochars, and the enhanced aromaticity. Sorptive capacities were negatively related to DOM contents. The amendment with a mixture of compost and biochar endows the alluvial soil with high sorptive properties (from K(fads(soil)) = 9.26 to K(fads(mixture)) = 17.89) without impeding the slow release of tricyclazole. PMID:25643874

  8. [Stabilization of Cadmium Contaminated Soils by Ferric Ion Modified Attapulgite (Fe/ATP)--Characterizations and Stabilization Mechanism].

    PubMed

    Rong, Yang; Li, Rong-bo; Zhou, Yong-li; Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2015-08-01

    Ferric ion modified attapulgite (Fe/ATP) was prepared by impregnation and its structure and morphology were characterized. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effect of Cadmium( Cd) stabilization in soil with the addition of attapulgite (ATP) and Fe/ATP. The stabilization mechanism of Cd was further elucidated by comparing the morphologies and structure of ATP and Fe/ATP before and after Cd adsorption. Fe/ATP exhibited much better adsorption capacity than ATP, suggesting different adsorption mechanisms occurred between ATP and Fe/ATP. The leaching concentrations of Cd in soil decreased by 45% and 91% respectively, with the addition of wt. 20% ATP and Fe/ATP. The former was attributed to the interaction between Cd2 and --OH groups by chemical binding to form inner-sphere complexes in ATP and the attachment between Cd2+ and the defect sites in ATP framework. Whereas Cd stabilization with Fe/ATP was resulted from the fact that the active centers (--OH bonds or O- sites) on ATP could react with Fe3+ giving Fe--O--Cd-- bridges, which helped stabilize Cd in surface soil. What'more, the ferric oxides and metal hydroxides on the surface of ATP could interact with Cd, probably by the formation of cadmium ferrite. In conclusion, Fe/ATP, which can be easily prepared, holds promise as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly stabilizing agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  9. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentration