Science.gov

Sample records for demonstration soil characterization

  1. Uranium soils integrated demonstration: Soil characterization project report

    SciTech Connect

    Cunnane, J.C.; Gill, V.R.; Lee, S.Y.; Morris, D.E.; Nickelson, M.D.; Perry, D.L.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1993-08-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Critical to the design of relevant treatment technologies is detailed information on the chemical and physical characteristics of the uranium waste-form. To address this need a soil sampling and characterization program was initiated which makes use of a variety of standard analytical techniques coupled with state-of-the-art microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Sample representativeness is evaluated through the development of conceptual models in an effort to identify and understand those geochemical processes governing the behavior of uranium in FEMP soils. Many of the initial results have significant implications for the design of soil treatment technologies for application at the FEMP.

  2. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of transuranic contaminated soils for uranium soil integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.

    1994-10-01

    DOE has initiated the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) project. The objective of the USID project is to develop a remediation strategy that can be adopted for use at other DOE sites requiring remediation. Four major task groups within the USID project were formed, namely the Characterization Task Group (CTG), the Treatability Task Group (TTG), the Secondary Waste Treatment and Disposal Task Group (SWTDTG), and the Risk and Performance Assessment Task Group (RPATG). The CTG is responsible for determining the nature of the uranium contamination in both untreated and treated soil. The TTG is responsible for the selective removal of uranium from these soils in such a manner that the leaching does not seriously degrade the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generate a secondary waste form that is difficult to manage and/or dispose. The SWTDTG is responsible for developing strategies for the removal of uranium from all wastewaters generated by the TTGs. Finally the RPATG is responsible for developing the human health and environmental risk assessment of the untreated and treated soils. Because of the enormity of the work required to successfully remediate uranium-contaminated soils, an integrated approach was designed to avoid needless repetition of activities among the various participants in the USID project. Researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were assigned characterization and/or treatability duties in their areas of specialization. All tasks groups are involved in the integrated approach; however, the thrust of this report concentrates on the utility of the integrated approach among the various members of the CTG. This report illustrates the use of the integrated approach for the overall CTG and to provide the results generated specifically by the CTG or ORNL from FY1993 to the present.

  3. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Integrated Demonstration Site

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Timpson, M.E.

    1994-09-01

    An integrated approach that utilizes various characterization technologies has been developed for the Uranium Soil Integrated Demonstration program. The Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation site near Cincinnati, Ohio, was selected as the host facility for this demonstration. Characterization of background, untreated contaminated, and treated contaminated soils was performed to assess the contamination and the effect of treatment efforts to remove uranium from these soils. Carbonate minerals were present in the contaminated soils (added for erosion control) but were absent in the nearby background soils. Because of the importance of the carbonate anion to uranium solubility, the occurrence of carbonate minerals in these soils will be an important factor in the development of a successful remediation technology. Uranium partitioning data among several particle-size fractions indicate that conventional soil washing will be ineffective for remediation of these soils and that chemical extraction will be necessary to lower the uranium concentration to the target level (52 mg/kg). Carbonate-based (sodium carbonate/bicarbonate) and acid-based (sulfuric and citric acids) lixiviants were employed for the selective removal of uranium from these soils. Characterization results have identified uranium phosphate minerals as the predominant uranium mineral form in both the untreated and treated soils. The low solubility associated with phosphate minerals is primarily responsible for their occurrence in the posttreated soils. Artificial weathering of the treated soils caused by the treatments, particularly acid-based lixiviants, was documented by their detrimental effects on several physicochemical characteristics of these soils (e.g., soil pH, particle-size distribution, and mineralogy).

  4. Soil bioventing demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.S.; Kampbell, D.H.; Wilson, J.T.; DiGiulio, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot scale demonstration project of a soil bioventing system, which utilizes the biodegradation in soil and physical removal of VOC by induced air flow, is in operation at the U.S. Coast Guard Aviation Field in Traverse City, Michigan. The system is being tested to determine its suitability for remediation of the vadose zone in conjunction with aquifer remediation at a site contaminated by an aviation gas spill. Several microcosm studies with soil obtained from the vertical profile of the contaminated site showed rapid microbial decompositions of hydrocarbon fumes with NPK nutrient and moisture addition. Basic removal kinetics data were obtained from these experiments. Field pneumatic pump tests for soil-air characterization have been conducted. The soil-air permeability and pressure distributions under the air injection/withdrawal systems were obtained. On the basis of information from the laboratory and field tests, a conceptual design at a field scale was made. The system will be implemented on the selected study site and the operation will start in fall, 1990. Additional soil core samplings and continuous monitoring of operation are planned.

  5. Contaminated soil stabilization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Sampson, A.E.; Phillips, S.J.

    1991-10-01

    Long-term herbicide control along with a shotcrete cover was constructed at the Hanford Site in May 1991. The cover system allows for maintenance-free containment of contaminants by preventing wind and water transport of contaminants from the soil surface, preventing plant uptake of contaminants, and minimizing water infiltration through the soil column. The cover is composed of two parts: a commercial nonwoven geotextile material impregnated with trifluralin, and a >5-centimeter top cover of shotcrete containing polyethylene fibers. The herbicide-impregnated geotextile functions to prevent plant root growth into contaminated soil if any holes or cracks develop in the shotcrete layer. The herbicide component, trifluralin, is mixed into polymer nodules that degrade slowly over many years, thus releasing trifluralin slowly over time. The shotcrete topcover was sprayed using a sludge pump and air compressor to form a hard, impenetrable surface that prevents wind erosion and reduces water infiltration through the contaminated materials underneath. The benefits of the cover system are expected to last 20 to 30 years. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Uranium soils integrated demonstration, 1993 status

    SciTech Connect

    Nuhfer, K.

    1994-08-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), operated by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) for the DOE, was selected as the host site for the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration. The Uranium Soils ID was established to develop and demonstrate innovative remediation methods which address the cradle to grave elements involved in the remediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium. The participants in the ID are from FERMCO as well as over 15 other organizations from DOE, private industry and universities. Some of the organizations are technology providers while others are members of the technical support groups which were formed to provide technical reviews, recommendations and labor. The following six Technical Support Groups (TSGs) were formed to focus on the objective of the ID: Characterization, Excavation, Decontamination, Waste Treatment/Disposal, Regulatory, and Performance Assessment. This paper will discuss the technical achievements made to date in the program as well as the future program plans. The focus will be on the realtime analysis devices being developed and demonstrated, the approach used to characterize the physical/chemical properties of the uranium waste form in the soil and lab scale studies on methods to remove the uranium from the soil.

  7. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1993-11-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit.

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL WASHING SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three component technologies of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS). Tested in the SITE demonstration were a Soil Washer (SW), and Aqueous Treatment System (ATS), and a Slurry Bio-Reactor (SBR). The Soil Washer operates on the principle that a significant fraction of the...

  9. Effective Classroom Demonstration of Soil Reinforcing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Wharton; Fox, Dennis James

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for demonstrating soil mass stabilization. Explains how this approach can assist students in understanding the various types of soil reinforcement techniques, their relative contribution to increased soil strength, and some of their limitations. A working drawing of the model and directives for construction are included. (ML)

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL WASHING SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three component technologies of the BioTrol Soil Washing System (BSWS). Tested in the SITE demonstration were a Soil Washer (SW), and Aqueous Treatment System (ATS), and a Slurry Bio-Reactor (SBR). The Soil Washer operates on the principle that a significant fraction of the...

  11. Field Demonstration Report Applied Innovative Technologies for Characterization of Nitrocellulose- and Nitroglycerine Contaminated Buildings and Soils, Rev 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-05

    matrix during NC analysis. Dilutions of wood matrix standards failed to produce a usable response for NC, so the matrix effect could not be...Results (mg/kg) M od ifi ed C R R EL R es ul ts a s N C ( m g/ kg ) 1:1 STL Result Line CRREL RPD Line CRREL = 0.3836*STLLR R2 = 0.708 There are...of sample non-homogeneity 1/5/2007 ESTCP/BAAAP Field Demonstration Rev 1 C14811.doc 3-18 effects . The smaller a sample aliquot is that is used

  12. Soil quality demonstrations for building economically and environmentally sustainable soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are widely used terms but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. A packet of a dozen demonstrations for the field and classroom was compiled and titled ‘Building a Sustainable Soil’. In this packet, new meth...

  13. Three Soil Quality Demonstrations for Educating Extension Clientele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoorman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in educating youth, Master Gardeners, and agricultural producers about soil quality. Three soil demonstrations show how soil organic matter increases water holding capacity, improves soil structure, and increases nutrient retention. Exercise one uses clay bricks and sponges to represent mineral soils and soil organic…

  14. Three Soil Quality Demonstrations for Educating Extension Clientele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoorman, James J.

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in educating youth, Master Gardeners, and agricultural producers about soil quality. Three soil demonstrations show how soil organic matter increases water holding capacity, improves soil structure, and increases nutrient retention. Exercise one uses clay bricks and sponges to represent mineral soils and soil organic…

  15. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    A recent Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) study identified 59 waste sites at 14 DOE facilities across the nation that exhibit radionuclide contamination in excess of established limits. The rapid and efficient characterization of these sites, and the potentially contaminated regions that surround them represents a technological challenge with no existing solution. In particular, the past operations of uranium production and support facilities at several DOE sites have occasionally resulted in the local contamination of surface and subsurface soils. Such contamination commonly occurs within waste burial sites, cribs, pond bottom sediments and soils surrounding waste tanks or uranium scrap, ore, tailings, and slag heaps. The objective of the Uranium In Soils Integrated Demonstration is to develop optimal remediation methods for soils contaminated with radionuclides, principally uranium (U), at DOE sites. It is examining all phases involved in an actual cleanup, including all regulatory and permitting requirements, to expedite selection and implementation of the best technologies that show immediate and long-term effectiveness specific to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) and applicable to other radionuclide contaminated DOE sites. The demonstration provides for technical performance evaluations and comparisons of different developmental technologies at FEMP sites, based on cost-effectiveness, risk-reduction effectiveness, technology effectiveness, and regulatory and public acceptability. Technology groups being evaluated include physical and chemical contaminant separations, in situ remediation, real-time characterization and monitoring, precise excavation, site restoration, secondary waste treatment, and soil waste stabilization.

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BIOGENESIS SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY - BIOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BioGenesisSM soil washing technology was developed by BioGenesis Enterprises, Inc. to remove organic compounds from soil. The technology uses a proprietary solution (BioGenesisSM cleaner) to transfer organic compounds from the soil matrix to a liquid phase. BioGenesis claims...

  17. Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program: characterization of nonradioactive demonstration product

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J L

    1982-09-01

    An extensive characterization of specimens of the glass produced during Run 4 (ZVDP-4) of the nonradioactive phase of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Zeolite Vitrification Demonstration Program was conducted by the Materials characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The characteristics of the ZVDP-4 glass were compared with those of MCC's borosilicate reference glass, MCC 76-68. Tests included analyses of composition, density and phases present, the MCC-1P Static Leach Test Method, measurements of tensile strength and impact behavior, and evaluation of high-temperature vaporization.

  18. Field demonstration of technologies for delineating uranium contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.C.; Cunnane, J.C.; Schwing, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Perry, D.L.; Morris, D.E.

    1993-11-01

    An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort is the evaluation of field screening tools capable of acquiring high resolution information on the distribution of uranium contamination in surface soils in a cost-and-time efficient manner. Consistent with this need, four field screening technologies have been demonstrated at two hazardous waste sites at the FERMCO. The four technologies tested are wide-area gamma spectroscopy, beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). One of the important findings of this demonstration was just how difficult it is to compare data collected by means of multiple independent measurement techniques. Difficulties are attributed to differences in measurement scale, differences in the basic physics upon which the various measurement schemes are predicated, and differences in the general performance of detector instrumentation. It follows that optimal deployment of these techniques requires the development of an approach for accounting for the intrinsic differences noted above. As such, emphasis is given in this paper to the development of a methodology for integrating these techniques for use in site characterization programs as well as the development of a framework for interpreting the collected data. The methodology described here also has general application to other field-based screening technologies and soil sampling programs.

  19. EPA site demonstration of the Biotrol Soil Washing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K.; Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, was demonstrated on soil that was contaminated by wood treating waste. The BioTrol Soil Washing was demonstrated in a treatment train sequence with two other pilot-scale units of BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies of the treatment train were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW), the BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS), and the Slurry Bioreactor (SBR). The BioTrol processes were evaluated on pentachlorophenol (PCP) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which were the primary soil contaminants at the site. The sandy site soil, consisting of less than 10% of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (100% by weight) into 83% of washed soil, 10% of woody residues, and 7% of fines. The soil washer achieved up to 89% removal of PCP and PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the feed soil and in the washed soil. The BATS degraded up to 94% of PCP in the process water from soil washing. The SBR achieved over 90% removals of PCP and 70-90% removals of PAHs, respectively from the soil washing. Cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of treated soil.

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic fracturing is a physical process that creates fractures in silty clay soil to enhance its permeability. The technology, developed by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) and the University of Cincinnati, creates sand-filled horizontal fractures up to 1 in. i...

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic fracturing is a physical process that creates fractures in silty clay soil to enhance its permeability. The technology, developed by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) and the University of Cincinnati, creates sand-filled horizontal fractures up to 1 in. i...

  2. Fixed capital investments for the uranium soils integrated demonstration soil treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Stewart, R.N.

    1995-05-01

    The development of a nuclear industry in the United States required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) Program was formed to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium contaminated soils. The USID Program has five major tasks in developing and demonstrating these technologies. Each must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies developed by the USID Program. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

  3. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

  4. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE BIOTROL SOIL WASHING PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrate on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstra...

  5. 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program data report

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.; Cromer, M.V.; Newman, G.C.; Beiso, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    The 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration program, hosted by Fernald Environmental Management Project, was established to investigate technologies that are applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort was evaluating field-screening tools potentially capable of acquiring high-resolution information on uranium contamination distribution in surface soils. Further-more, the information needed to be obtained in a cost- and time-efficient manner. Seven advanced field-screening technologies were demonstrated at a uranium-contaminated site at Fernald, located 29 kilometers northwest of Cincinnati, Ohio. The seven technologies tested were: (1) alpha-track detectors, (2) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (3) electret ionization chambers, (4) and (5) two variants of gamma-ray spectrometry, (6) laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, and (7) long-range alpha detection. The goals of this field demonstration were to evaluate the capabilities of the detectors and to demonstrate their utility within the US Department of Energy`s Environmental Restoration Program. Identical field studies were conducted using four industry-standard characterization tools: (1) a sodium-iodide scintillometer, (2) a low-energy FIDLER scintillometer, (3) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence detector, and (4) standard soil sampling coupled with laboratory analysis. Another important aspect of this program was the application of a cost/risk decision model to guide characterization of the site. This document is a compilation of raw data submitted by the technologies and converted total uranium data from the 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration.

  6. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  7. Review of the Vortec soil remediation demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.S.

    1994-12-31

    The principal objective of the METC/Vortec program is to develop and demonstrate the effectiveness of the Vortec CMS in remediating soils contaminated with hazardous materials and/or low levels of radionuclides. To convincingly demonstrate the CMS`s capability, a Demonstration Plant will be constructed and operated at a DOE site that has a need for the remediation of contamination soil. The following objectives will be met during the program: (1) establish the glass chemistry requirements to achieve vitrification of contaminated soils found at the selected DOE site; (2) complete the design of a fully integrated soil vitrification demonstration plant with a capacity to process 25 TPD of soil; (3) establish the cost of a fully integrated soil demonstration plant with a capacity to process 25 TPD of soil; (4) construct and operate a fully integrated demonstration plant; (5) analyze all influent and effluent streams to establish the partitioning of contaminants and to demonstrate compliance with all applicable health, safety, and environmental requirements; (6) demonstrate that the CMS technology has the capability to produce a vitrified product that will immobilize the hazardous and radionuclide materials consistent with the needs of the specific DOE waste repositories.

  8. Detector Characterization for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliss, Thomas; Majorana Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is a neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) search, in the isotope 76Ge . Seeking measurement of the 0 νββ lifetime, and exploration of additional physics, MJD employs high-purity Ge detectors possessing superior energy resolution down to a low threshold. Characterization of these p-type point contact detectors is essential to understanding the backgrounds and sensitivity of the experiment. Progress in characterizing MJD detectors will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  9. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS SOIL RECYCLING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC), conducted a Superfund InnovativeTechnology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of the THC Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three technologies op...

  10. SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS SOIL RECYCLING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC), conducted a Superfund InnovativeTechnology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration of the THC Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three technologies op...

  11. Characterizing Soil Cracking at the Field Scale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical characterization of the soil cracking has always been a major challenge in scaling soil water interaction to the field level. This scaling would allow for the soil water flow in the field to be modeled in two distinct pools: across the soil matrix and in preferential flows thus tackling maj...

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

  13. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CYCLONE FURNACE SOIL VITRI- FICATION TECHNOLOGY - BABCOCK & WILCOX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Babcock and Wilcox's (B&W) cyclone furnace is an innovative thermal technology which may offer advantages in treating soils containing organics, heavy metals, and/or radionuclide contaminants. The furnace used in the SITE demonstration was a 4- to 6-million Btu/hr pilot system....

  14. Review of the Vortec soil remediation demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.S.

    1994-11-01

    The DOE`s clean-up of its nuclear complex require the development of innovative technologies to convert soils contaminated by hazardous and/or radioactive wastes to forms which can be readily disposed in accordance with current waste disposal methods. The unique features of Votec CMS technology should make it particularly cost-effective process for the vitrification of soils, sediments, sludges, and mill tailings containing organic metallic and/or radioactive contaminants. This article describes the technology (Votec`s combustion and melting system), the results of testing, the demonstration plant system, and summarizes the future schedule and the equipment needed. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. VOCs in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration: Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Non-Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (ID) was initiated in 1989. Objectives for the ID were to test the integrated demonstration concept, demonstrate and evaluate innovative technologies/systems for the remediation of VOC contamination in soils and groundwater, and to transfer technologies and systems to internal and external customers for use in fullscale remediation programs. The demonstration brought together technologies from DOE laboratories, other government agencies, and industry for demonstration at a single test bed. The Savannah River Site was chosen as the location for this ID as the result of having soil and groundwater contaminated with VOCS. The primary contaminants, trichlorethylene and tetrachloroethylene, originated from an underground process sewer line servicing a metal fabrication facility at the M-Area. Some of the major technical accomplishments for the ID include the successful demonstration of the following: In situ air stripping coupled with horizontal wells to remediate sites through air injection and vacuum extraction; Crosshole geophysical tomography for mapping moisture content and lithologic properties of the contaminated media; In situ radio frequency and ohmic heating to increase mobility, of the contaminants, thereby speeding recovery and the remedial process; High-energy corona destruction of VOCs in the off-gas of vapor recovery wells; Application of a Brayton cycle heat pump to regenerate carbon adsorption media used to trap VOCs from the offgas of recovery wells; In situ permeable flow sensors and the colloidal borescope to determine groundwater flow; Chemical sensors to rapidly quantify chlorinated solvent contamination in the subsurface; In situ bioremediation through methane/nutrient injection to enhance degradation of contaminants by methanotrophic bateria.

  16. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  17. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  18. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  19. Uranium removal from soils: An overview from the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, C.W.; Brainard, J.R.; York, D.A.; Chaiko, D.J.; Matthern, G.

    1994-09-01

    An integrated approach to remove uranium from uranium-contaminated soils is being conducted by four of the US Department of Energy national laboratories. In this approach, managed through the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration program at the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, these laboratories are developing processes that selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste that is difficult to manage or dispose of. These processes include traditional uranium extractions that use carbonate as well as some nontraditional extraction techniques that use citric acid and complex organic chelating agents such as naturally occurring microbial siderophores. A bench-scale engineering design for heap leaching; a process that uses carbonate leaching media shows that >90% of the uranium can be removed from the Fernald soils. Other work involves amending soils with cultures of sulfur and ferrous oxidizing microbes or cultures of fungi whose role is to generate mycorrhiza that excrete strong complexers for uranium. Aqueous biphasic extraction, a physical separation technology, is also being evaluated because of its ability to segregate fine particulate, a fundamental requirement for soils containing high levels of silt and clay. Interactions among participating scientists have produced some significant progress not only in evaluating the feasibility of uranium removal but also in understanding some important technical aspects of the task.

  20. Soil moisture estimation with limited soil characterization for decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanzy, A.; Richard, G.; Boizard, H.; Défossez, P.

    2009-04-01

    Ross model [Ross, 2003, Crevoisier et al, 2009]. To meet the decision support context, we evaluated the model ability of evaluating the soil moisture level in comparison to a moisture threshold that splits soil conditions into desirable and undesirable cases. This threshold depends on soil properties, the farming operation and equipment characteristics. We evaluate the rate of making good decisions using either the TEC model with and without soil moisture measurements or an empirical algorithm that simulate the decision processes followed by farmers, currently. This later is a reference case that allows appreciating the adding value of using soil water transfer models. We found a significant improvement with a rate of success, which increases from 65% with the reference case to 90% when using the model with soil moisture assimilation. Chanzy, A., Mumen M., Richard, G.. (2008), Accuracy of top soil moisture simulation using a mechanistic model with limited soil characterization, Water Resources Research, 44(3), W03432. Crevoisier, D., Chanzy, A., Voltz M. (2009), Evaluation of the Ross Fast Solution of Richards' Equation in Unfavourable Conditions for Standard Finite Element Methods, Advances in Water Ressources, In revision. Ross, P. J. (2003). Modeling soil water and solute transport - Fast, simplified numerical solutions. Agronomy Journal 95:1352-1361.

  1. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  2. Sampling Soil for Characterization and Site Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Elissa

    1999-01-01

    The sampling scheme for soil characterization within the GLOBE program is uniquely different from the sampling methods of the other protocols. The strategy is based on an understanding of the 5 soil forming factors (parent material, climate, biota, topography, and time) at each study site, and how each of these interact to produce a soil profile with unique characteristics and unique input and control into the atmospheric, biological, and hydrological systems. Soil profile characteristics, as opposed to soil moisture and temperature, vegetative growth, and atmospheric and hydrologic conditions, change very slowly, depending on the parameter being measured, ranging from seasonally to many thousands of years. Thus, soil information, including profile description and lab analysis, is collected only one time for each profile at a site. These data serve two purposes: 1) to supplement existing spatial information about soil profile characteristics across the landscape at local, regional, and global scales, and 2) to provide specific information within a given area about the basic substrate to which elements within the other protocols are linked. Because of the intimate link between soil properties and these other environmental elements, the static soil properties at a given site are needed to accurately interpret and understand the continually changing dynamics of soil moisture and temperature, vegetation growth and phenology, atmospheric conditions, and chemistry and turbidity in surface waters. Both the spatial and specific soil information can be used for modeling purposes to assess and make predictions about global change.

  3. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  4. Dielectric Constant Measurements for Characterizing Lunar Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Robert C.; Buehler, M.; Seshadri, S.; Kuhlman, G.; Schaap, M.

    2005-01-01

    The return to the Moon has ignited the need to characterize the lunar regolith using fast, reliable in-situ methods. Characterizing the physical properties of the rocks and soils can be very difficult because of the many complex parameters that influence the measurements. In particular, soil electrical property measurements are influenced by temperature, mineral type, grain size, porosity, and soil conductivity. Determining the dielectric constant of lunar materials may be very important in providing quick characterization of surface deposits, especially for the Moon. A close examination of the lunar regolith samples collected by the Apollo astronauts indicates that the rocks and soils on the Moon are dominated by silicates and oxides. In this presentation, we will show that determining the dielectric constant measurements can provide a simple, quick detection method for minerals that contain titanium, iron, and water. Their presence is manifest by an unusually large imaginary permittivity.

  5. Characterizing soils for hazardous waste site assessments.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R P; Keck, J F; Williams, J R

    1994-04-01

    This paper provides a review and justification of the minimum data needed to characterize soils for hazardous waste site assessments and to comply with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Scientists and managers within the regulatory agency and the liable party need to know what are the important soil characteristics needed to make decisions about risk assessment, what areas need remediation and what remediation options are available. If all parties involved in characterizing a hazardous waste site can agree on the required soils data set prior to starting a site investigation, data can be collected in a more efficient and less costly manner. Having the proper data will aid in reaching decisions on how to address concerns at, and close-out, hazardous waste sites.This paper was prepared to address two specific concerns related to soil characterization for CERCLA remedial response. The first concern is the applicability of traditional soil classification methods to CERCLA soil characterization. The second is the identification of soil characterization data type required for CERCLA risk assessment and analysis of remedial alternatives. These concerns are related, in that the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process addresses both. The DQO process was developed in part to assist CERCLA decision-makers in identifying the data types, data quality, and data quantity required to support decisions that must be made during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) process. Data Quality Objectives for Remedial Response Activities: Development Process (US EPA, 1987a) is a guidebook on developing DQOs. This process as it relates to CERCLA soil characterization is discussed in the Data Quality Objective Section of this paper.

  6. Soil washing: From characterization to implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Corden, F.L.; Groenendijk, E.

    1995-12-31

    Only recently has soil washing begun to be applied to remediation of contaminated soils in the US. The experience gained during full-scale and large pilot-scale projects points to the importance of soil and site characterization in correctly evaluating the applicability of soil washing to a site and determining accurate cost estimates for its implementation. This paper will discuss actual case studies of various treatability and pilot study approaches that led to successful evaluation and implementation of soil washing remedies. Soil washing is applicable to a broad variety of chemical contaminants. Target contaminants include metals, radionuclides, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and petroleum hydrocarbons, as well as combinations of these contaminants. Because the contaminants noted above are deposited in the soils in a variety of forms, the unit operations necessary to treat the soil vary. It is the diversity of the available treatment alternatives, and the ability to use the units in a variety of process flow configurations that result in a very broad definition of soil washing.

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  9. Test plan for the soils facility demonstration: A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lombard, K.H.

    1994-08-01

    The objectives of this test plan are to show the value added by using bioremediation as an effective and environmentally sound method to remediate petroleum contaminated soils (PCS) by: demonstrating bioremediation as a permanent method for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum products; establishing the best operating conditions for maximizing bioremediation and minimizing volatilization for SRS PCS during different seasons; determining the minimum set of analyses and sampling frequency to allow efficient and cost-effective operation; determining best use of existing site equipment and personnel to optimize facility operations and conserve SRS resources; and as an ancillary objective, demonstrating and optimizing new and innovative analytical techniques that will lower cost, decrease time, and decrease secondary waste streams for required PCS assays.

  10. Soil Characterization Using CCSEM Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R.; Hunt, A.

    2014-12-01

    An investigation is underway to determine elemental compounds of African Soils. Soil samples were taken from four territories in the Sahel and Saharan region of Africa and analyzed using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM). Optimized secondary electron detectors (SED) and back-scattered electron detectors (BSED) with adjustable quadrants was used with a light element Peltier-cooled energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. A variable pressure system was used for the analysis of insulating materials, which eliminated the need for special specimen coating to dissipate charge and remove artifacts. Data from these samples are being used to address two primary questions: (1) Can CCSEM technology accurately describe elemental compounds derived from soil samples, and (2) is there a correlation between particle chemistry and size? The creation of a 29-point elemental classification system was used to separate and analyze each of the data points. Findings show large amounts of Fe, Si, and Al-rich minerals in all samples, but vary in percentages by amounts large enough to distinguish between sample regions. Other elemental constituents within the samples include varying amounts of Na, S, Ti, Ca, and K. An initial run of samples show a similarity in chemical composition, leading to the hypothesis that Aeolian processes are contributing to the mineral content of surface dusts, but are still distinguishable from region to region. Further research on the effects of these wind driven dusts is needed to assess the potential problematic deposited in the Atlantic Ocean, which can cause overpressures within the sediments on slopes.

  11. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  12. ACTIVE SOIL DEPRESSURIZATION (ASD) DEMONSTRATION IN A LARGE BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of implementing radon resistant construction techniques -- especially active soil depressurization (ASD) -- in new large buildings in Florida. Indoor radon concentrations and radon entry were monitored in a finished bui...

  13. ACTIVE SOIL DEPRESSURIZATION (ASD) DEMONSTRATION IN A LARGE BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of implementing radon resistant construction techniques -- especially active soil depressurization (ASD) -- in new large buildings in Florida. Indoor radon concentrations and radon entry were monitored in a finished bui...

  14. EPA SITE demonstration of the BioTrol soil washing process

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, M.K. ); Skovronek, H.S.; Ellis, W.D. )

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrated on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstration, the treatment train that was evaluated included two other BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The cost of a commercial-scale soil washing, assuming use of all three technologies, was estimated to be $168 per ton of soil treated. Incineration of woody material accounts for 76% of the cost.

  15. CHARACTERIZING SOILS FOR HAZAROUDS WASTE SITE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers (RPM) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSC) concerning soil characterization data types required for decision-making in the CERCLA RI/FS process related to risk assessment and remedial alternative evaluation ...

  16. CHARACTERIZING SOILS FOR HAZAROUDS WASTE SITE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to Remedial Project Managers (RPM) and On-Scene Coordinators (OSC) concerning soil characterization data types required for decision-making in the CERCLA RI/FS process related to risk assessment and remedial alternative evaluation ...

  17. Near Field Characterization of the GeoSTAR Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Alan B.; Lambrigsten, B. H.; Gaier, T. M.; Torres, F.

    2006-01-01

    The GeoSTAR demonstrator can be characterized at close range by means of a simple near-to-far-field phase correction. This reduces the test set-up configuration to reasonable dimensions. In order to simulate the Earth as seen from GEO, the target consists of a disc of absorbent material at ambient temperature placed against the sky. This work presents the details of the near-to-far-field correction as well as some preliminary results that confirm its suitability to characterize the demonstrator.

  18. Electrokinetic demonstration at Sandia National Laboratories: Use of transference numbers for site characterization and process evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1997-03-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is generally an in situ method using direct current electric potentials to move ionic contaminants and/or water to collection electrodes. The method has been extensively studied for application in saturated clayey soils. Over the past few years, an electrokinetic extraction method specific for sandy, unsaturated soils has been developed and patented by Sandia National Laboratories. A RCRA RD&D permitted demonstration of this technology for the in situ removal of chromate contamination from unsaturated soils in a former chromic acid disposal pit was operated during the summer and fall of 1996. This large scale field test represents the first use of electrokinetics for the removal of heavy metal contamination from unsaturated soils in the United States and is part of the US EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. Guidelines for characterizing a site for electrokinetic remediation are lacking, especially for applications in unsaturated soil. The transference number of an ion is the fraction of the current carried by that ion in an electric field and represents the best measure of contaminant removal efficiency in most electrokinetic remediation processes. In this paper we compare the transference number of chromate initially present in the contaminated unsaturated soil, with the transference number in the electrokinetic process effluent to demonstrate the utility of evaluating this parameter.

  19. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Notes: Water Flow and Chemical Retardation in Soils: A Simple Effective Laboratory Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, R. S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory demonstration that illustrates principles of miscible displacement and chemical retardation in soils. Discusses how the experimental apparatus can be constructed from readily available materials. (TW)

  1. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL RECYCLING TREATMENT TRAIN - THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port...

  2. An Exercise to Demonstrate Soil Microbial Diversity in Introductory Environmental Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Sulzman, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    High diversity of microorganisms in the soil matrix has been the focus of extensive research in the fields of soil biology and microbial ecology, and is a key concept that students in the environmental or biological sciences should understand. Two activities to demonstrate diversity and highlight the challenges faced in studying soil microbial…

  3. An Exercise to Demonstrate Soil Microbial Diversity in Introductory Environmental Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarwood, Stephanie A.; Sulzman, Elizabeth W.

    2008-01-01

    High diversity of microorganisms in the soil matrix has been the focus of extensive research in the fields of soil biology and microbial ecology, and is a key concept that students in the environmental or biological sciences should understand. Two activities to demonstrate diversity and highlight the challenges faced in studying soil microbial…

  4. EPA SITE demonstration of the BioTrol soil washing process.

    PubMed

    Stinson, M K; Skovronek, H S; Ellis, W D

    1992-01-01

    A pilot-scale soil washing process, patented by BioTrol, Inc., was demonstrated on soil contaminated by wood treating waste, primarily pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote-derived polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although soil washing was the main object of this demonstration, the treatment train that was evaluated included two other BioTrol technologies for treatment of waste streams from the soil washer. The three technologies were: The BioTrol Soil Washer (BSW)--a volume reduction process, which uses water to separate contaminated soil fractions from the bulk of the soil. The BioTrol Aqueous Treatment System (BATS)--a biological water treatment process. The Slurry Bioreactor (SBR)--a BioTrol biological slurry treatment process conducted in an EIMCO BIOLIFT reactor. The sandy soil at the site, consisting of less than 10 percent of fines, was well suited for treatment by soil washing. The soil washer was evaluated in two tests on soil samples containing 130 ppm and 680 ppm of PCP, respectively. The BSW successfully separated the feed soil (dry weight basis) into 83 percent of washed soil, 10 percent of woody residues, and 7 percent of fines. The washed soil retained about 10 percent of the feed soil contamination while 90 percent of the feed soil contamination was contained within the woody residues, fines, and process water. The soil washer achieved up to 89 percent removal of PCP and 88 percent of total PAHs, based on the difference between their levels in the as-is (wet) feed soil and the washed soil.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Apollo 17 Soil Characterization for Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Patchen, A.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.; Wentworth, S.; McKay, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    It is the fine fractions that dominate the observed spectral signatures of bulk lunar soil, and the next to the smallest size fractions are the most similar to the overall properties of the bulk soil. Thus, our Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has concentrated on understanding the inter-relations of compositional, mineralogical, and optical properties of the <45-micron size fraction and its component sizes (20-44 micron, 10-20 micron, and <10 micron size fractions). To be able to generalize our results beyond the particular sample set studied, it is necessary to quantitatively identify the observed effects of space weathering and evaluate the processes involved. For this, it is necessary to know the chemistry of each size fraction, modal abundances of each phase, average compositions of the minerals and glasses, I(sub s)/FeO values, reflectance spectra, and the physical makeup of the individual particles and their patinas. This characterization includes the important dissection of the pyroxene minerals into four separate populations, with data on both modes and average chemical compositions. Armed with such data, it should be possible to effectively isolate spectral effects of space weathering from spectral properties related to mineral and glass chemistry. Four mare soils from the Apollo 17 site were selected for characterization based upon similarities in bulk composition and their contrasting maturities, ranging from immature to submature to mature. The methodology of our characterization has been discussed previously. Results of the Apollo 17 mare soils, outlined herein, are being prepared for publication in MAPS. As shown, with decreasing grain size, the agglutinitic (impact) glass content profoundly increases. This is the most impressive change for the mare soils. In several soils we have examined, there is an over two-fold increase in the agglutinitic glass contents between the 90-150- micron and the 10-20-micron size fractions. Accompanying this

  6. Apollo 17 Soil Characterization for Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Patchen, A.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.; Wentworth, S.; McKay, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    It is the fine fractions that dominate the observed spectral signatures of bulk lunar soil, and the next to the smallest size fractions are the most similar to the overall properties of the bulk soil. Thus, our Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has concentrated on understanding the inter-relations of compositional, mineralogical, and optical properties of the <45-micron size fraction and its component sizes (20-44 micron, 10-20 micron, and <10 micron size fractions). To be able to generalize our results beyond the particular sample set studied, it is necessary to quantitatively identify the observed effects of space weathering and evaluate the processes involved. For this, it is necessary to know the chemistry of each size fraction, modal abundances of each phase, average compositions of the minerals and glasses, Is/FeO values, reflectance spectra, and the physical makeup of the individual particles and their patinas. This characterization includes the important dissection of the pyroxene minerals into four separate populations, with data on both modes and average chemical compositions. Armed with such data, it should be possible to effectively isolate spectral effects of space weathering from spectral properties related to mineral and glass chemistry. Four mare soils from the Apollo 17 site were selected for characterization based upon similarities in bulk composition and their contrasting maturities, ranging from immature to submature to mature. The methodology of our characterization has been discussed previously. Results of the Apollo 17 mare soils, outlined herein, are being prepared for publication in MAPS. As shown, with decreasing grain size, the agglutinitic (impact) glass content profoundly increases. This is the most impressive change for the mare soils. In several soils we have examined, there is an over two-fold increase in the agglutinitic glass contents between the 90-150- micron and the 10-20-micron size fractions. Accompanying this increase in

  7. Apollo 17 Soil Characterization for Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Patchen, A.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.; Wentworth, S.; McKay, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    It is the fine fractions that dominate the observed spectral signatures of bulk lunar soil, and the next to the smallest size fractions are the most similar to the overall properties of the bulk soil. Thus, our Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has concentrated on understanding the inter-relations of compositional, mineralogical, and optical properties of the <45-micron size fraction and its component sizes (20-44 micron, 10-20 micron, and <10 micron size fractions). To be able to generalize our results beyond the particular sample set studied, it is necessary to quantitatively identify the observed effects of space weathering and evaluate the processes involved. For this, it is necessary to know the chemistry of each size fraction, modal abundances of each phase, average compositions of the minerals and glasses, I(sub s)/FeO values, reflectance spectra, and the physical makeup of the individual particles and their patinas. This characterization includes the important dissection of the pyroxene minerals into four separate populations, with data on both modes and average chemical compositions. Armed with such data, it should be possible to effectively isolate spectral effects of space weathering from spectral properties related to mineral and glass chemistry. Four mare soils from the Apollo 17 site were selected for characterization based upon similarities in bulk composition and their contrasting maturities, ranging from immature to submature to mature. The methodology of our characterization has been discussed previously. Results of the Apollo 17 mare soils, outlined herein, are being prepared for publication in MAPS. As shown, with decreasing grain size, the agglutinitic (impact) glass content profoundly increases. This is the most impressive change for the mare soils. In several soils we have examined, there is an over two-fold increase in the agglutinitic glass contents between the 90-150- micron and the 10-20-micron size fractions. Accompanying this

  8. Technical evaluation report for the demonstration of radio frequency soil decontamination at Site S-1

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, C.R.; Blanchard, C.F.; Whitt, L.H.

    1995-04-01

    The Air Force`s Armstrong Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, has supported the research and development of Radio Frequency Soil Decontamination. Radio frequency soil decontamination is essentially a heat-assisted soil vapor extraction process. Site S-1 at Kelly Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas, was selected for the demonstration of two patented techniques. The site is a former sump that collected spills and surface run-off from a waste petroleum, oils, and lubricants and solvent storage and transfer area. In 1993, a technique developed by the IIT Research Institute using an array of electrodes placed in the soil was demonstrated. In 1994, a technique developed by KAI Technologies, Inc. using a single applicator placed in a vertical borehole was demonstrated. Approximately 120 tons of soil were heated during each demonstration to a temperature of about 150 degrees Celsius.

  9. Demonstration of Virus in Groundwater after Effluent Discharge onto Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wellings, Flora Mae; Lewis, Arthur L.; Mountain, Carrol W.; Pierce, L. Virginia

    1975-01-01

    The survival of virus present in secondary effluents discharged into a cypress dome was studied. Isolations were made from concentrates of water drawn from 10-foot (304.80 cm) deep wells. Data presented show vertical and lateral virus movement as well as survival within the dome for 28 days during a period of heavy rains when no effluent was being applied. Due to the inefficiency of virus concentration procedures, it is proposed that much of the virus present was probably not demonstrated. A rapid, relatively inexpensive concentration technique for sewage influents and effluents is discussed. PMID:168809

  10. Mineralogical characterization of West Chestnut Ridge soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Kopp, O.C.; Lietzke, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    The morphological, physicochemical, and mineralogical properties of the soils and residua from the proposed site of the Central Waste Disposal Facility were characterized. The proposed site is underlain by cherty dolostones, limestones, and shales of the Knox Group covered by a thick residuum. Three diagnostic horizons from four soil profiles and six samples from residuum cores were selected for mineralogical analysis. The coarse fractions (gravel and sand) of the samples included different types of chert, iron-manganese oxide nodules, and quartz. The samples were high in clay content (except those from the A and E horizons) and low in pH and base saturation. The clay fractions were composed of varying amounts of kaolinite, mica, vermiculite, aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, amorphous iron and aluminum oxides, gibbsite, and quartz. Aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite is the major component in surface horizons, but kaolinite becomes dominant in subsurface horizons of the soils. Degradation of kaolinite and formation of aluminum hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite and iron and aluminum oxides are pronounced chemical weathering processes in the surface soils. The aluminum hydroxy interlayering of vermiculite reduces cation exchange and selective sorption capacities of soils. In the residua, micaceous minerals free of aluminum hydroxy interlayering, kaolinite, and amorphous iron and aluminum oxides are major components in the clay fraction. The sorption ratios of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and the uranium isotopes expected to be in the radioactive wastes should be very high for the clays having such mineralogical composition. The low acid-buffering capacity (base saturation) of the residua suggest that the fragile chemical and mineralogical equilibria can be easily broken if an extreme chemical condition is imposed on the residua.

  11. Evaluation of measurement reproducibility using the standard-sites data, 1994 Fernald field characterization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, C.A.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy conducted the 1994 Fernald (Ohio) field characterization demonstration project to evaluate the performance of a group of both industry-standard and proposed alternative technologies in describing the nature and extent of uranium contamination in surficial soils. Detector stability and measurement reproducibility under actual operating conditions encountered in the field is critical to establishing the credibility of the proposed alternative characterization methods. Comparability of measured uranium activities to those reported by conventional, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified laboratory methods is also required. The eleven (11) technologies demonstrated included (1) EPA-standard soil sampling and laboratory mass-spectroscopy analyses, and currently-accepted field-screening techniques using (2) sodium-iodide scintillometers, (3) FIDLER low-energy scintillometers, and (4) a field-portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Proposed advanced characterization techniques included (5) alpha-track detectors, (6) a high-energy beta scintillometer, (7) electret ionization chambers, (8) and (9) a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in two different configurations, (10) a field-adapted laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) technique, and (11) a long-range alpha detector. Measurement reproducibility and the accuracy of each method were tested by acquiring numerous replicate measurements of total uranium activity at each of two ``standard sites`` located within the main field demonstration area. Meteorological variables including temperature, relative humidity. and 24-hour rainfall quantities were also recorded in conjunction with the standard-sites measurements.

  12. RESOLVE Projects: Lunar Water Resource Demonstration and Regolith Volatile Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain affordable human and robotic space exploration, the ability to live off the land at the exploration site will be essential. NASA calls this ability in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and is focusing on finding ways to sustain missions first on the Moon and then on Mars. The ISRU project aims to develop capabilities to technology readiness level 6 for the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program and early human missions returning to the Moon. NASA is concentrating on three primary areas of ISRU: (1) excavating, handling, and moving lunar regolith, (2) extracting oxygen from lunar regolith, and (3) finding, characterizing, extracting, separating, and storing volatile lunar resources, especially in the permanently shadowed polar craters. To meet the challenges related to technology development for these three primary focus areas, the Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) project was initiated in February 2005, through funding by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. RESOLVE's objectives are to develop requirements and conceptual designs and to perform breadboard concept verification testing of each experiment module. The final goal is to deliver a flight prototype unit that has been tested in a relevant lunar polar environment. Here we report progress toward the third primary area creating ways to find, characterize, extract, separate, and store volatile lunar resources. The tasks include studying thermal, chemical, and electrical ways to collect such volatile resources as hydrogen, water, nitrogen, methane, and ammonia. We approached this effort through two subtasks: lunar water resource demonstration (LWRD) and regolith volatile characterization (RVC).

  13. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Health and safety plan (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1994-12-28

    This document is the Health and Safety Plan (HASP) for the demonstration of IITRI`s EM Treatment Technology. In this process, soil is heated in situ by means of electrical energy for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants. This process will be demonstrated on a small plot of contaminated soil located in the Pit Area of Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D, K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN. The purpose of the demonstration is to remove organic contaminants present in the soil by heating to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. The soil will be heated in situ by applying 60-Hz AC power to an array of electrodes placed in boreholes drilled through the soil. In this section a brief description of the process is given along with a description of the site and a listing of the contaminants found in the area.

  14. Fire vs. Metal: A Laboratory Study Demonstrating Microbial Responses to Soil Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberger, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Incubation studies are traditionally used in soil microbiology laboratory classes to demonstrate microbial respiration and N mineralization-immobilization processes. Sometimes these exercises are done to calculate a N balance in N fertilizer-amended soils. However, examining microbial responses to environmental perturbations would appeal to soil…

  15. Fire vs. Metal: A Laboratory Study Demonstrating Microbial Responses to Soil Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberger, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Incubation studies are traditionally used in soil microbiology laboratory classes to demonstrate microbial respiration and N mineralization-immobilization processes. Sometimes these exercises are done to calculate a N balance in N fertilizer-amended soils. However, examining microbial responses to environmental perturbations would appeal to soil…

  16. Soil characterization using electrical resistivity tomography and geotechnical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha, Kumari; Israil, M.; Mittal, S.; Rai, J.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been used in association with Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT) for Geotechnical investigations at two sites, proposed for thermal power plants, in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. SPT and DCPT tests were conducted at 28 points and two ERT profiles, each measuring 355 m long, were recorded using 72 electrodes deployed at 5 m spacing. Electrical characterization of subsurface soil was done using borehole data and grain size analysis of the soil samples collected from boreholes. The concept of electrical resistivity variation with soil strength related to the grain size distribution, cementation, porosity and saturation has been used to correlate the transverse resistance of soil with the number of blow counts ( N-values) obtained from SPT and DCPT data. It was thus observed that the transverse resistance of soil column is linearly related with the number of blow counts ( N-values) at these sites. The linear relationships are site-specific and the coefficients of linear relation are sensitive to the lithology of subsurface formation, which was verified by borehole data. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the ERT method in geotechnical investigations, which is economic, efficient and less time consuming in comparison to the other geotechnical methods, such as SPT and DCPT, used for the purpose.

  17. Color characterization of Arctic Biological Soil Crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Giacono; Gargiulo, Laura; Ventura, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Global climate change makes large areas lacking the vegetation coverage continuously available to primary colonization by biological soil crusts (BSCs). This happens in many different environments, included high mountains and Polar Regions where new areas can become available due to glaciers retreat. Presence of BSCs leads to the stabilization of the substrate and to a possible development of protosoil, with an increase of fertility and resilience against erosion. Polar BSCs can exhibit many different proportions of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens, and bryophytes which induce a large variability of the crust morphology and specific ecosystem functions. An effective and easy way for identifying the BSCs in the field would be very useful to rapidly recognize their development stage and help in understanding the overall impact of climate change in the delicate polar environments. Color analysis has long been applied as an easily measurable physical attribute of soil closely correlated with pedogenic processes and some soil functions. In this preliminary work we used RGB and CIE-L*a*b* color models in order to physically characterize fourteen different BSCs identified in Spitsbergen island of Svalbard archipelago in Arctic Ocean at 79° north latitude. We found that the "redness parameter "a*" of CIE-L*a*b* model was well correlated to the succession process of some BSCs at given geomorphology condition. Most of color parameters showed, moreover, a great potential to be correlated to photosynthetic activity and other ecosystem functions of BSCs.

  18. Guidance: Demonstrating Compliance with the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) Alternative Soil Treatment Standards

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guidance provides suggestions and perspectives on how members of the regulated community, states, and the public can demonstrate compliance with the alternative treatment standards for certain contaminated soils that will be land disposed.

  19. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-04-05

    This document is a final reports in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating.

  20. Characterization of thorium and uranium contaminated soil from a nuclear fuel facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Carlson, B.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes the utility of soil characterization using electron microscopy to support decontamination efforts of contaminated soil. Soil contaminated with thorium and uranium from the grounds of a nuclear fuel manufacturing facility was subjected to remediation efforts. A light acid leach was able to remove only 30% of the thorium suggesting that the thorium was present in two or more forms. Analytical electron microscopy determined that all of the thorium was present as ThO{sub 2}, but in a bimodal size distribution and occasionally closely associated with other minerals. Electron microscopy was useful in understanding the remediation data and demonstrates the need for characterization of contaminated soils.

  1. LET'S DEMONSTRATE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION FOR BETTER FARMING, BETTER LIVING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEYENDECKER, PHILIP J.

    EIGHTEEN DEMONSTRATIONS ON THE SUBJECT OF SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION ARE PRESENTED. THESE DEMONSTRATIONS UTILIZE SIMPLE AND INEXPENSIVE EQUIPMENT AND ARE SUITABLE FOR CLASSROOM OR OTHER GROUP USE, ALTHOUGH THEY WERE DESIGNED FOR 4-H CLUBS. LISTED ARE THE EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS NEEDED, PREVIOUS PREPARATION, STEPS IN THE DEMONSTRATION, AND…

  2. A Novel Method for Measurement and Characterization of Soil Macroporosity

    Treesearch

    Christopher Barton; Tasos Karathanasis

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative macropore characterizations were performed in large zero-tension soil lysimeters of a Maury silt loam (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Paleudalf) and a Loradale silt loam (fine, silty, mixed, mesic Typic Axgiudoll) soil in an effort to assess potential colloid transport. Steel pipe sections (50 cm diameter X 100 cm length) were hydraulically driven into the soil...

  3. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  4. Characterization of Soil Samples of Enzyme Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    Described are nine enzyme essays for distinguishing soil samples. Colorimetric methods are used to compare enzyme levels in soils from different sites. Each soil tested had its own spectrum of activity. Attention is drawn to applications of this technique in forensic science and in studies of soil fertility. (Author/AJ)

  5. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan (Revision 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-12-30

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85{degrees} to 95{degrees}C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern. This document is a Treatability Study Work Plan for the demonstration program. The document contains a description of the proposed treatability study, background of the EM heating process, description of the field equipment, and demonstration test design.

  6. Demonstration and characterization of phosphate transport in mammalian peroxisomes

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    It is now well established that the peroxisomal membrane is not freely permeable to small molecules in vivo, which implies the existence of metabolite transporters in the peroxisomal membrane. A few putative peroxisomal metabolite transporters have indeed been identified, but the function of these proteins has remained largely unresolved so far. The only peroxisomal transporter characterized to a significant extent is the adenine nucleotide transporter, which is presumably required to sustain the activity of the intraperoxisomal very-long-chain-acyl-CoA synthetase. In addition to AMP, this acyl-CoA synthetase also produces pyrophosphate, which must be exported from the peroxisome. In the present study, we demonstrate that the peroxisomal membrane contains a transporter activity that facilitates the passage of phosphate and possibly pyrophosphate across the peroxisomal membrane. By reconstitution of peroxisomal membrane proteins in proteoliposomes, some kinetic parameters of the transporter could be established in vitro. The transporter can be distinguished from the mitochondrial phosphate transporter by its different sensitivity to inhibitors. PMID:15727560

  7. Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.

    2010-05-05

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  8. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S; Michael Hay, M; Kristine Zeigler, K; Michael Stone, M

    2009-03-25

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  9. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  10. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN: XRF TECHNOLOGIES OF MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of field portable/mobile technologies for measuring trace elements in soil and sediments was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration took place from January 24 to 28, 200...

  11. A Simple Approach for Demonstrating Soil Water Retention and Field Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, A.; Heitman, J. L.; Bowman, D.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to demonstrate the soil water retention relationship and related concepts because the specialized equipment required for performing these measurements is unavailable in most classrooms. This article outlines a low-cost, easily visualized method by which these concepts can be demonstrated in most any classroom. Columns (62.5 cm…

  12. A Simple Approach for Demonstrating Soil Water Retention and Field Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, A.; Heitman, J. L.; Bowman, D.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult to demonstrate the soil water retention relationship and related concepts because the specialized equipment required for performing these measurements is unavailable in most classrooms. This article outlines a low-cost, easily visualized method by which these concepts can be demonstrated in most any classroom. Columns (62.5 cm…

  13. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report (Volume 1) for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees} to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  14. Bioremediation demonstration on Kwajalein Island: Site characterization and on-site biotreatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Korte, N.E.; Pickering, D.A. ); Phelps, T.J. )

    1991-09-01

    An environmental study was conducted during February 1991 on Kwajalein Island, a US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Base in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). This study was undertaken for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) acting in behalf of USAKA. The purpose of the study was to determine if selected locations for new construction on Kwajalein Island were contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons as suspected and, if so, whether bioremediation appeared to be a feasible technology for environmental restoration. Two different sites were evaluated: (1) the site planned freshwater production facility and (2) a site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank. Within the proposed construction zone for the freshwater production facility (a.k.a desalination plant), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) where either absent or at low levels. Characterization data for another potential construction site adjacent to an aboveground diesel fuel storage tank southeast of the old diesel power plant revealed high concentrations of diesel fuel in the soil and groundwater beneath the site. Results of this investigation indicate that there are petroleum-contaminated soils on Kwajalein Island and bioremediation appears to be a viable environmental restoration technique. Further experimentation and field demonstration are required to determine the design and operating conditions that provide for optimum biodegradation and restoration of the petroleum-contaminated soils. 17 refs., 7 figs., 26 figs.

  15. Demonstration to characterize watershed runoff potential by microwave techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics such as storage capacity of the soil, volume of storage in vegetative matter, and volume of storage available in local depressions are expressed in empirical watershed runoff equations as one or more coefficients. Conventional techniques for estimating coefficients representing the spatial distribution of these characteristics over a watershed drainage area are subjective and produce significant errors. Characteristics of the wear surface are described as a single coefficient called the curve number.

  16. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Budi; Mila, Oktri; Safni

    2014-03-01

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr+ ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10-2 g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  17. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    SciTech Connect

    Setiawan, Budi; Mila, Oktri; Safni

    2014-03-24

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr{sup +} ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10{sup −2} g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  18. Soil structure characterized using computed tomographic images

    Treesearch

    Zhanqi Cheng; Stephen H. Anderson; Clark J. Gantzer; J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Fractal analysis of soil structure is a relatively new method for quantifying the effects of management systems on soil properties and quality. The objective of this work was to explore several methods of studying images to describe and quantify structure of soils under forest management. This research uses computed tomography and a topological method called Multiple...

  19. Characterization of imidacloprid availability in subsurface soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Degradation and sorption/desorption are the most important processes affecting the leaching of pesticides through soil because they control the amount of pesticide available for transport. Once pesticides move past the surface soil layers, variations in subsurface soil physical, chemical, and biolog...

  20. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating: Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1993-12-31

    This document is the Management Plan for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. In this project IITRI will demonstrate an in situ soil heating technology for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants present in the soil. In situ heating will be accomplished by the application of 60 Hz ac power to the soil. The soil will be heated to a temperature of about 90{degrees}C. This technology is suited for the removal of those organic compounds which have a normal boiling point in the range of 100{degrees} to 210{degrees}C, or else for those which exhibit a pure component vapor pressure of at least 10 mm Hg in the 90{degrees} to 100{degrees}C temperature range. For example, perchloroethylene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, etc. may be removed by in situ ac heating. It is planned to demonstrate the technology by heating approximately 400 tons of soil in the K-1070 Classified Burial Ground located at DOE`s K-25 Site located in Oak Ridge, TN. It is estimated that the heating portion of the demonstration will take approximately 3 weeks at an average power input rate of 150 to 175 kW. IITRI expects to spend considerable time in the front end reviewing site characteristics, preparing detail design, developing Health and Safety Plans and other documents needed to obtain regulatory approval for the demonstration, arranging for site sampling, infrastructure development and document preparation. It is anticipated that site activities will begin in approximately 5 to 6 months. This contract was signed on September 30, 1993. IITRI started work on it in October 1993. It is planned to complete the demonstration and submit approved final reports by September 30, 1994. This project has 12 tasks and four major milestones. The major milestones and their planned completion dates are shown.

  1. Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography for NAPL Source Zone Characterization: Sandbox Experiment Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiff, M. A.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing the distribution and extent of NAPL contamination is an important step in determining appropriate remedial actions. NAPL has a complex mode of transportation in the heterogeneous subsurface domain, which results in difficulties for cleaning up contaminated sites. Here, we use sandbox experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography (OHT) for NAPL source zone characterization. In a saturated soil fluid system, the effective hydraulic conductivity (K) is dependent on the soil properties, fluid density, and fluid viscosity. By taking advantage of the differences of fluid properties before and after NAPL intrusion, we can estimate the NAPL source zone migration throughout time by imaging changes in effective K. Using OHT testing, we can derive the K heterogeneities before, during and after NAPL intrusion. NAPL source zone can be located by subtracting the background K from the K tomogram after NAPL intrusion. This approach can avoid mass extraction and injection that occurs in traditional hydraulic tomography approaches while obtain a good estimation of subsurface K heterogeneity and NAPL migration. We believe this method is more cost effective and efficient for field remediation applications.

  2. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  3. An integrated approach to the characterization and decontamination of uranium contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, V.; Francis, C.; Armstrong, A.; Dyer, R.

    1994-02-01

    An Integrated Demonstration (ID) Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Company, has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. Chemical and physical characterization of Fernald soils and the uranium wastes contained therein is being accomplished by means of standard analytical techniques as well as a suite of non-standard microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. Likewise, a suite of physical and chemical extraction technologies are being designed and tested for accomplishing soil decontamination. However, the main theme of this paper is not the technologies being tested but the approach taken to integrate characterization, decontamination, and risk assessment efforts. It is the authors intent to outline the critical components of an integrated approach for characterizing and remediating uranium contaminated soils as well as provide a real-world example based on the lessons learned in the ID program.

  4. Soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil is a diverse natural material characterized by solid, liquid, and gas phases that impart unique chemical, physical, and biological properties. Soil provides many key functions, including supporting plant growth and providing environmental remediation. Monitoring key soil properties and processe...

  5. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. . Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. ); Hills, R.G. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. )

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  6. Preliminary assessment of worker and ambient air exposures during soil remediation technology demonstration.

    PubMed

    Romine, James D; Barth, Edwin F

    2002-01-01

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead-contaminated soil sites. Industrial hygiene surveys and air monitoring programs for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling activities and during pilot scale technology demonstration activities at two lead-contaminated soil sites to assess whether worker protection or temporary resident relocation would be suggested during any subsequent remediation technology activities. The concentrations of lead and dust in the air during pilot scale technology demonstration studies were within applicable exposure guidelines, including Occupational Health and Safety Administration permissible exposure limits, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limits, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygiene threshold limit values, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's National Ambient Air Quality Standards program limits.

  7. DEMONSTRATION PLAN FIELD MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory



    The demonstration of innovative field measurement devices for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in June 2000 at the Navy Base Ventura County...

  8. Characterization of surface soils at a former uranium mill.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J A; Meyer, H R; Vidyasagar, M

    2006-02-01

    Dawn Mining Company operated a uranium mill in Stevens County, Washington, from 1957 to 1982, to process ore from the Midnite Mine, and from 1992 through 2000, to extract uranium from mine water treatment sludge. The mill was permanently shut down in 2001 when the Dawn Mining Company radioactive materials license was amended to allow direct disposal of water treatment sludge to a tailings disposal area at the mill. The mill building was demolished in 2003. Site soil characterization took place in 2004. Soil cleanup is ongoing. Contaminated soils on the site were characterized using a GPS-based gamma scanning system. A correlation between shielded gamma exposure rate and concentration of Ra in surface soils was developed. Subsurface soils were sampled using backhoe trenches. This system proved efficient and accurate in guiding development of the remedial action planning for the site and subsequent soil cleanup.

  9. Field Demonstration of Acetone Pretreatment and Composting of Particulate-TNT-Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, Corey William; Smith, D.; Owen, S.; Roberto, Francisco Figueroa

    2002-02-01

    Solid fragments of explosives in soil are common in explosives testing and training areas. In this study we initially sieved the upper 6 in of contaminated soil through a 3-mm mesh, and found 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) fragments. These contributed to an estimated concentration of 1.7 kg per cubic yard soil, or for 2000 ppm TNT in the soil. Most of the fragments ranged 4 mm to 10 mm diameter in size, but explosives particles weighing up to 56 g (about 4 cm diameter) were frequently observed. An acetone pretreatment/composting system was then demonstrated at field scale. The amount of acetone required for a TNT-dissolving slurry process was controlled by the viscosity of the soil/acetone mix rather than the TNT dissolution rate. The amount needed was estimated at about 55 gallons acetone per cubic yard soil. Smaller, 5- to 10-mm-diameter fragments went into solution in less than 15 min at a mixer speed of 36 rpm, with a minimum of 2 g TNT going into solution per 30 min for the larger chunks. The slurries were than mixed with compost starting materials and composted in a vented 1 yd3 container. After 34 days incubation time TNT was below the site-specific regulatory threshold of 44 ppm. TNT metabolites and acetone were also below their regulatory thresholds established for the site.

  10. Management Plan: Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.

    1993-11-01

    In this project IITRI will demonstrate an in situ soil heating technology for the removal of hazardous organic contaminants present in the soil. In Situ heating will be accomplished by the application of 60 Hz AC power to the soil. The soil will be heated to a temperature of about 90{degree}C. This technology is suited for the removal of those organic compounds which have a normal boiling point in the range of 100{degree} to 210{degree}C, or else for those which exhibit a pure component vapor pressure of at least 10 mm Hg in the 90{degree} to 100{degree}C temperature range. For example, perchloroethylene, dichlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, etc. may be removed by in situ AC heating. It is planned to demonstrate the technology by heating approximately 400 tons of soil in the K-1070 Classified Burial Ground located at DOE`s K-25 Site located in Oak Ridge, TN. It is estimated that the heating portion of the demonstration will take approximately 3 weeks at an average power input rate of 150 to 175 kill. IITRI expects to spend considerable time in the front end reviewing site characteristics, preparing detail design, developing Health and Safety Plans and other documents needed to obtain regulatory approval for the demonstration, arranging for site sampling, infrastructure development and document preparation. It is anticipated that site activities will begin in approximately 5 to 6 months. This contract was signed on September 30, 1993. IITRI started work on it in October 1993. It is planned to complete the demonstration and submit approved final reports by September 30, 1994. This project has 12 tasks and four major milestones. The major milestones and their planned completion dates are presented.

  11. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  12. Field Demonstrations of Five Geophysical Methods that Could Be Used to Characterize Deposits of Alluvial Aggregate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Burton, B.L.; Lucius, J.E.; Haines, S.S.; Fitterman, D.V.; Witty, J.A.; Carlson, D.; Milburn, B.; Langer, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey and Martin Marietta Aggregates, Inc., conducted field demonstrations of five different geophysical methods to show how these methods could be used to characterize deposits of alluvial aggregate. The methods were time-domain electromagnetic sounding, electrical resistivity profiling, S-wave reflection profiling, S-wave refraction profiling, and P-wave refraction profiling. All demonstrations were conducted at one site within a river valley in central Indiana, where the stratigraphy consisted of 1 to 2 meters of clay-rich soil, 20 to 35 meters of alluvial sand and gravel, 1 to 6 meters of clay, and multiple layers of limestone and dolomite bedrock. All geophysical methods, except time-domain electromagnetic sounding, provided information about the alluvial aggregate that was consistent with the known geology. Although time-domain electromagnetic sounding did not work well at this site, it has worked well at other sites with different geology. All of these geophysical methods complement traditional methods of geologic characterization such as drilling.

  13. Vascular dopamine receptors: Demonstration and characterization by in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Brodde, O E

    1982-07-26

    Substantial evidence has accumulated that in certain vascular beds dopamine produces its relaxant effect through stimulation of specific dopamine receptors. The goal of this review is to describe several in vitro models (perfused mesenteric vessels of the dog; renal, mesenteric, splenic, coronary and cerebral arterial strips of rabbits, dogs and cats; perfused kidney of the rat) recently developed to demonstrate such specific relaxations induced by dopamine and dopaminomimetics. On these models studies on structure-activity relationship for activation of the dopamine receptor resulted in the following order of potency for agonists: SK&F 38393 (partial agonist) greater than epinine greater than A-6, 7-DTN greater than or equal to dopamine greater than N, N-di-n-propyl-dopamine (partial agonist) greater than apomorphine (partial agonist). The dopamine receptor antagonists (+)-butaclamol, cis-alpha-flupenthixol, metoclopramide, droperidol and bulbocapnine were found to competitively antagonize dopamine induced relaxation. In addition, in two isolated organ systems (rabbit mesenteric artery, rat perfused kidney) stereospecificity of the vascular dopamine receptor was demonstrated with the isomers of butaclamol. With the development of several in vitro models demonstrating a specific antagonism against dopamine induced relaxation an important requirement for definition of a specific dopamine receptor if fulfilled according to classical pharmacological criteria. Thus, there can be do doubt on the existence of post-synaptic dopamine receptors mediating vasodilation in certain vascular tissues.

  14. Characterizing a novel and sensitive method to measure dsRNA in soil.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Joshua R; Zapata, Fatima; Dubelman, Samuel; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Jensen, Peter D; Levine, Steven L

    2016-10-01

    Performing environmental assessments for double-stranded RNA-based agricultural products require the development of sensitive and selective methods to measure biodegradation rates of dsRNAs. We developed and characterized a novel analytical procedure that uses a molecular hybridization assay (QuantiGene(®)) to accurately measure dsRNA extracted from diverse soils. In this report, we utilize this method to demonstrate that two dsRNAs with distinct size, structure, and sequence degrade rapidly in soil with indistinguishable kinetics.

  15. Demonstration of using crossed dipole GPR antennae for site characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Erich D.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.; Radzevicius, Stanley J.; Vendl, Mark A.

    Crossed dipole (cross-pole) and parallel dipole (co-pole) GPR data were acquired at an industrial site that formerly operated as a creosote wood treating facility in order to locate buried pipes and tanks or other possible contaminant-filled subsurface structures. Cross-pole data are not typically considered during GPR field studies, but proved essential for accurate site characterization at this location, as images produced using co-pole data had a poor signal to noise ratio. Data interpretations were confirmed through exploratory trenching conducted subsequent to this study. The GPR data proved successful in locating back-filled trenches that contained creosote-filled drainage tile, as well as vaults and a pit filled with pure creosote product at the site.

  16. Site characterization techniques used at a low-level waste shallow land burial field demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Rothschild, E.R.; Spalding, B.P.; Vaughan, N.D.; Haase, C.S.; Huff, D.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Walls, E.C.; Newbold, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    The Environmental Sciences Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating improved shallow land burial technology for application in the humd eastern United States. As part of this effort, a field demonstration facility (Engineered Test Facility, or ETF) has been established in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 for purposes of investigatig the ability of two trench treatments (waste grouting prior to cover emplacement and waste isolation with trench liners) to prevent water-waste contact and thus minimize waste leaching. As part of the experimental plan, the ETF site has been characterized for purposes of constructing a hydrologic model. Site characterization is an extremely important component of the waste disposal site selection process; during these activities, potential problems, which might obviate the site from further consideration, may be found. This report describes the ETF site characterization program and identifies and, where appropriate, evaluates those tests that are of most value in model development. Specific areas covered include site geology, soils, and hydrology. Each of these areas is further divided into numerous subsections, making it easy for the reader to examine a single area of interest. Site characterization is a multidiscipliary endeavor with voluminous data, only portions of which are presented and analyzed here. The information in this report is similar to that which will be required of a low-level waste site developer in preparing a license application for a potential site in the humid East, (a discussion of licensing requirements is beyond its scope). Only data relevant to hydrologic model development are included, anticipating that many of these same characterization methods will be used at future disposal sites with similar water-related problems.

  17. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  18. Successive DNA extractions improve characterization of soil microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    de Hollander, Mattias; Smidt, Hauke; van Veen, Johannes A.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, characterization of soil microbial communities relies heavily on the use of molecular approaches. Independently of the approach used, soil DNA extraction is a crucial step, and success of downstream procedures will depend on how well DNA extraction was performed. Often, studies describing and comparing soil microbial communities are based on a single DNA extraction, which may not lead to a representative recovery of DNA from all organisms present in the soil. The use of successive DNA extractions might improve soil microbial characterization, but the benefit of this approach has only been limitedly studied. To determine whether successive DNA extractions of the same soil sample would lead to different observations in terms of microbial abundance and community composition, we performed three successive extractions, with two widely used commercial kits, on a range of clay and sandy soils. Successive extractions increased DNA yield considerably (1–374%), as well as total bacterial and fungal abundances in most of the soil samples. Analysis of the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes using 454-pyrosequencing, revealed that microbial community composition (taxonomic groups) observed in the successive DNA extractions were similar. However, successive DNA extractions did reveal several additional microbial groups. For some soil samples, shifts in microbial community composition were observed, mainly due to shifts in relative abundance of a number of microbial groups. Our results highlight that performing successive DNA extractions optimize DNA yield, and can lead to a better picture of overall community composition. PMID:28168105

  19. A validation of a thermal inertia approach to map soil water content on soils characterized by low fractional cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; La Loggia, Goffredo; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of the spatial distribution of soil water content could improve the effectiveness of agro-hydrological models. Although it is possible to retrieve the spatial distribution of the soil water content using thermal inertia, the main limit is its applicability to bare soils only. Recently, a variation of the thermal inertia approach has been setup also on vegetated soils characterized by low fractional cover. In particular, the methodology proposes to attenuate the solar radiation at the top of the canopy to the one reaching the soil trough an extinction factor. In situ data were acquired in June 2011 and July 2012 over two fields of maize and sunflowers; both were at their early growing stages. An airborneplatform provided images in the visible/near infrared and thermal infrared, both in day and night time. Results of the 2011 experiment demonstrated that the vegetation cover correction is required even with low fractional cover; indeed, not applying this correction would results in strong overestimation. The 2012 experiment (REFLEX) further validates the model on an independent dataset, thus, confirming the reliability of the methodology. Furthermore, a spatial resolution analysis highlighted that retrievals at low spatial resolution best compares with in situsoil water content than those obtained at high-resolution. Finally, the availability of a thermal image acquired after irrigating demonstrated the unreliability of the method when soil water content significantly changes between the two thermal acquisitions.

  20. SOIL SAMPLING FOR CHARACTERIZING HAZARDOUS WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sampling of soil, or any heterogeneous media, requires an understanding of the spatial and temporal scales of interest to the decision makers. Depending on how the media is sampled and analyzed, and how the data are processed, almost any "valid" contaminant concentration can...

  1. 3D soil structure characterization of Biological Soil Crusts from Alpine Tarfala Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, Giacomo; Gargiulo, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; D'Acqui, Luigi; Ventura, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Cyanobacteria filaments, microfungal hyphae, lichen rhizinae and anchoring rhizoids of bryophytes all together contribute to induce formation of structure in the thin soil layer beneath the Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs). Quantitative assessment of the soil structure beneath the BSCs is primarily hindered by the fragile nature of the crusts. Therefore, the role of BSCs in affecting such soil physical property has been rarely addressed using direct measurements. In this work we applied non-destructive X-ray microtomography imaging on five different samples of BSCs collected in the Alpine Tarfala Valley (northern Sweden), which have already been characterized in terms of fungal biodiversity in a previous work. We obtained images of the 3D spatial organization of the soil underneath the BSCs and characterized its structure by applying procedures of image analysis allowing to determine pore size distribution, pore connectivity and aggregate size distribution. Results has then been correlated with the different fungal assemblages of the samples.

  2. Bioinformatic Approaches Reveal Metagenomic Characterization of Soil Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhuofei; Hansen, Martin Asser; Hansen, Lars H.; Jacquiod, Samuel; Sørensen, Søren J.

    2014-01-01

    As is well known, soil is a complex ecosystem harboring the most prokaryotic biodiversity on the Earth. In recent years, the advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has greatly facilitated the progress of soil ecological studies. However, how to effectively understand the underlying biological features of large-scale sequencing data is a new challenge. In the present study, we used 33 publicly available metagenomes from diverse soil sites (i.e. grassland, forest soil, desert, Arctic soil, and mangrove sediment) and integrated some state-of-the-art computational tools to explore the phylogenetic and functional characterizations of the microbial communities in soil. Microbial composition and metabolic potential in soils were comprehensively illustrated at the metagenomic level. A spectrum of metagenomic biomarkers containing 46 taxa and 33 metabolic modules were detected to be significantly differential that could be used as indicators to distinguish at least one of five soil communities. The co-occurrence associations between complex microbial compositions and functions were inferred by network-based approaches. Our results together with the established bioinformatic pipelines should provide a foundation for future research into the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem function. PMID:24691166

  3. Characterization of Soil Organic Matter in Peat Soil with Different Humification Levels using FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teong, I. T.; Felix, N. L. L.; Mohd, S.; Sulaeman, A.

    2016-07-01

    Peat soil is defined as an accumulation of the debris and vegetative under the water logging condition. Soil organic matter of peat soil was affected by the environmental, weather, types of vegetative. Peat soil was normally classified based on its level of humification. Humification can be defined as the transformation of numerous group of substances (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc.) and individual molecules present in living organic matter into group of substances with similar properties (humic substances). During the peat transformation process, content of soil organic matter also will change. Hence, that is important to determine out the types of the organic compound. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) is a machine which is used to differential soil organic matter by using infrared. Infrared is a types of low energy which can determine the organic minerals. Hence, FTIR can be suitable as an indicator on its level of humification. The main objective of this study is to identify an optimized method to characterization of the soil organic content in different level of humification. The case study areas which had been chosen for this study are Parit Sulong, Batu Pahat and UCTS, Sibu. Peat soil samples were taken by every 0.5 m depth until it reached the clay layer. However, the soil organic matter in different humification levels is not significant. FTIR is an indicator which is used to determine the types of soil, but it is unable to differentiate the soil organic matter in peat soil FTIR can determine different types of the soil based on different wave length. Generally, soil organic matter was found that it is not significant to the level of humification.

  4. Roughness characterizations in active and passive microwave soil moisture retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ying; Walker, Jeffrey; Panciera, Rocco; Monerris, Alessandra; Ryu, Dongryeol

    2014-05-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing at L-band is widely recognized as the preferred technique to measure surface soil moisture globally, with resolution ranging from 40-100km. However, passive microwave soil moisture retrieval is highly dependent on ancillary data such as surface roughness, which is difficult to characterize at such a large footprint by ground measurement. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch in Nov 2014, will deploy both active and passive microwave instruments to enhance soil moisture retrieval capabilities. This provides an opportunity to characterize the roughness parameter in passive observations with active measurements. However, the roughness parameters derived from active measurements cannot be directly used in the passive soil moisture retrieval models. While roughness is usually characterized by surface Root Mean Square (RMS) height in active microwave, roughness in passive microwave is described using a parameter HR. This paper compares the two roughness parameters, retrieved from active and passive scattering and emission models respectively, using data sets from the third Soil Moisture Active Passive Experiment (SMAPEx-3) conducted in south-eastern Australia in 2011. Analysis was done over a series of grassland surfaces located within the experiment focus areas. The retrieved surface RMS heights from active measurements were validated against ground samples, after which the relationship between HR and RMS was examined.

  5. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    SciTech Connect

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  6. Field demonstration for bioremediation treatment: Technology demonstration of soil vapor extraction off-gas at McClellan Air Force Base. Final report November 1997--April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Magar, V.S.; Tonga, P.; Webster, T.; Drescher, E.

    1999-01-12

    McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) is a National Test Location designated through the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), and was selected as the candidate test site for a demonstration of soil vapor extraction (SVE) off-gas treatment technology. A two-stage reactor system was employed for the treatment of the off-gas. The biological treatment was conducted at Operable Unit (OU) D Site S, located approximately 400 ft southwest of Building 1093. The SVE system at this area normally operates at a nominal volumetric flowrate of approximately 500 to 600 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm). The contaminated air stream from the SVE system that was fed to the reactor system operated at a flowrate of 5 to 10 scfm. The two-stage reactor system consisted of a fixed-film biofilter followed by a completely mixed (by continuous stirring), suspended-growth biological reactor. This reactor configuration was based on a review of the literature, on characterization of the off-gas from the SVE system being operated at McClellan AFB, and on the results of the laboratory study conducted by Battelle and Envirogen for this study.

  7. Development of an in-situ soil structure characterization methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debos, Endre; Kriston, Sandor

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  8. ECa-Directed Soil Sampling for Characterizing Spatial Variability: Monitoring Management- Induced Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwin, D. L.

    2006-05-01

    Characterizing spatial variability is an important consideration of any landscape-scale soil-related problem. Geospatial measurements of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) are useful for characterizing spatial variability by directing soil sampling. The objective of this presentation is to discuss equipment, protocols, sampling designs, and a case study of an ECa survey to characterize spatial variability. Specifically, a preliminary spatio-temporal study of management-induced changes to soil quality will be demonstrated for a drainage water reuse study site. The spatio-temporal study used electromagnetic induction ECa data and a response surface sampling design to select 40 sites that reflected the spatial variability of soil properties (i.e., salinity, Na levels, Mo, and B) impacting the intended agricultural use of a saline-sodic field in California's San Joaquin Valley. Soil samples were collected in August 1999 and April 2002. Data from 1999 indicate the presence of high salinity, which increased with depth, high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), which also increased with depth, and moderate to high B and Mo, which showed no specific trends with depth. The application of drainage water for 32 months resulted in leaching of B from the top 0.3 of soil, leaching of salinity from the top 0.6 m of soil, and leaching of Na and Mo from the top 1.2 m of soil. The leaching fraction over the time period from 1999-2002 was estimated to be 0.10. The level of salinity in the reused drainage water (i.e., 3-5 dS/m) allowed infiltration and leaching to occur even though high sodium and high expanding-lattice clay levels posed potential water flow problems. The leaching of salinity, Na, Mo, and B has resulted in increased forage yield and improved quality of those yields. Preliminary spatio-temporal analyses indicate at least short-term feasibility of drainage water reuse from the perspective of soil quality when the goal is forage production for grazing livestock. The

  9. Moment Analysis Characterizing Water Flow in Repellent Soils from On- and Sub-Surface Point Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yunwu; Furman, Alex; Wallach, Rony

    2010-05-01

    Water repellency has a significant impact on water flow patterns in the soil profile. Flow tends to become unstable in such soils, which affects the water availability to plants and subsurface hydrology. In this paper, water flow in repellent soils was experimentally studied using the light reflection method. The transient 2D moisture profiles were monitored by CCD camera for tested soils packed in a transparent flow chamber. Water infiltration experiments and subsequent redistribution from on-surface and subsurface point sources with different flow rates were conducted for two soils of different repellency degrees as well as for wettable soil. We used spatio-statistical analysis (moments) to characterize the flow patterns. The zeroth moment is related to the total volume of water inside the moisture plume, and the first and second moments are affinitive to the center of mass and spatial variances of the moisture plume, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that both the general shape and size of the wetting plume and the moisture distribution within the plume for the repellent soils are significantly different from that for the wettable soil. The wetting plume of the repellent soils is smaller, narrower, and longer (finger-like) than that of the wettable soil compared with that for the wettable soil that tended to roundness. Compared to the wettable soil, where the soil water content decreases radially from the source, moisture content for the water-repellent soils is higher, relatively uniform horizontally and gradually increases with depth (saturation overshoot), indicating that flow tends to become unstable. Ellipses, defined around the mass center and whose semi-axes represented a particular number of spatial variances, were successfully used to simulate the spatial and temporal variation of the moisture distribution in the soil profiles. Cumulative probability functions were defined for the water enclosed in these ellipses. Practically identical

  10. Ecotoxicological characterization of sugarcane vinasses when applied to tropical soils.

    PubMed

    Alves, Paulo Roger L; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2015-09-01

    The impact of sugarcane vinasse on soil invertebrates was assessed through ecotoxicological assays. Increasing concentrations of two vinasses from different distillery plants (VA and VB), and a vinasse from a laboratory production (VC), were amended on two natural tropical Oxisols (LV and LVA) and a tropical artificial soil (TAS) to characterize the effects of the vinasses on earthworms (Eisenia andrei), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus), mites (Hypoaspis aculeifer) and collembolans (Folsomia candida). The highest concentrations of VA and VB were avoided by earthworms in all soils and by collembolans especially in the natural soils. The presence of VC in all of the tested soils did not cause avoidance behavior in these species. The reproduction of earthworms, enchytraeids and collembolans was decreased in the highest concentrations of VA and VB in the natural soils. In TAS, VB reduced the reproduction of all test species, whereas VA was toxic exclusively to E. andrei and E. crypticus. The vinasse VC only reduced the number of earthworms in TAS and enchytraeids in LVA. The reproduction of mites was reduced by VB in TAS. Vinasses from distillery plants were more toxic than the vinasse produced in laboratory. The vinasse toxicities were influenced by soil type, although this result was most likely because of the way the organisms are exposed to the contaminants in the soils. Toxicity was attributed to the vinasses' high salt content and especially the high potassium concentrations. Data obtained in this study highlights the potential risk of vinasse disposal on tropical soils to soil biota. The toxic values estimated are even more relevant when considering the usual continuous use of vinasses in crop productions.

  11. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities

    PubMed Central

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J.; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of “take-all” disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous “Mapuche” communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control. PMID:28861064

  12. Screening and Characterization of Potentially Suppressive Soils against Gaeumannomyces graminis under Extensive Wheat Cropping by Chilean Indigenous Communities.

    PubMed

    Durán, Paola; Jorquera, Milko; Viscardi, Sharon; Carrion, Victor J; Mora, María de la Luz; Pozo, María J

    2017-01-01

    Wheat production around the world is severely compromised by the occurrence of "take-all" disease, which is caused by the soil-borne pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt). In this context, suppressive soils are those environments in which plants comparatively suffer less soil-borne pathogen diseases than expected, owing to native soil microorganism activities. In southern Chile, where 85% of the national cereal production takes place, several studies have suggested the existence of suppressive soils under extensive wheat cropping. Thus, this study aimed to screen Ggt-suppressive soil occurrence in 16 locations managed by indigenous "Mapuche" communities, using extensive wheat cropping for more than 10 years. Ggt growth inhibition in vitro screenings allowed the identification of nine putative suppressive soils. Six of these soils, including Andisols and Ultisols, were confirmed to be suppressive, since they reduced take-all disease in wheat plants growing under greenhouse conditions. Suppressiveness was lost upon soil sterilization, and recovered by adding 1% of the natural soil, hence confirming that suppressiveness was closely associated to the soil microbiome community composition. Our results demonstrate that long-term extensive wheat cropping, established by small Mapuche communities, can generate suppressive soils that can be used as effective microorganism sources for take-all disease biocontrol. Accordingly, suppressive soil identification and characterization are key steps for the development of environmentally-friendly and efficient biotechnological applications for soil-borne disease control.

  13. Microscopic characterization of radionuclide contaminated soils to assist remediation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.

    1994-11-01

    A combination of optical, scanning, and analytical electron microscopies have been used to describe the nature of radionuclide contamination at several sites. These investigations were conducted to provide information for remediation efforts. This technique has been used successfully with uranium-contaminated soils from Fernald, OH, and Portsmouth, OH, thorium-contaminated soil from a plant in Tennessee, plutonium-contamination sand from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and incinerator ash from Los Alamos, NM. Selecting the most suitable method for cleaning a particular site is difficult if the nature of the contamination is not understood. Microscopic characterization allows the most appropriate method to be selected for removing the contamination and can show the effect a particular method is having on the soil. A method of sample preparation has been developed that allows direct comparison of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, enabling characterization of TEM samples to be more representative of the bulk sample.

  14. An inexpensive and simple method to demonstrate soil water and nutrient flow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are concepts which are being widely used but are difficult to define and illustrate especially to a non-technical audience in the field or classroom. The USDA-NRCS/ARS Soil Quality Test Kit, as well as other commercially-available kits, contains ma...

  15. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: IN-SITU STEAM/HOT AIR SOIL STRIPPING TOXIC TREATMENT (USA) INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technology uses steam and hot air to strip volatile organics from contaminated soil. The treatment equipment is mobile and treats the soil in-situ without need for soil excavation or transportation. The organic contaminants volatilized from the soil are condensed and col...

  16. An in-situ soil structure characterization methodology for measuring soil compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, Endre; Kriston, András; Juhász, András; Sulyok, Dénes

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  17. Characterization of the core microbiota of the drainage and surrounding soil of a Brazilian copper mine

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Letícia Bianca; Vicentini, Renato; Ottoboni, Laura M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The core microbiota of a neutral mine drainage and the surrounding high heavy metal content soil at a Brazilian copper mine were characterized by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. The core microbiota of the drainage was dominated by the generalist genus Meiothermus. The soil samples contained a more heterogeneous bacterial community, with the presence of both generalist and specialist bacteria. Both environments supported mainly heterotrophic bacteria, including organisms resistant to heavy metals, although many of the bacterial groups identified remain poorly characterized. The results contribute to the understanding of bacterial communities in soils impacted by neutral mine drainage, for which information is scarce, and demonstrate that heavy metals can play an important role in shaping the microbial communities in mine environments. PMID:26537607

  18. Characterizing ponded infiltration in a dry cracked clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, J.; Wösten, J. H. M.

    1984-02-01

    Ponded infiltration in a dry cracked clay soil was studied in large blocks of soil (upper surface area 1500 cm 2, height 25-40 cm) using physical and morphological methods. Blocks were encased in gypsum. Physical measurements included: (1) infiltration rates into the block and into subsoil below the block during shallow ponding; (2) D- θ relations of soil in the block; and (3) depth and degree of wetting in soil adjacent to the cracks. Cracks in the block were then filled with a gypsum slurry. Morphological measurements included Quantimet ® counts of the surface area ( A) and the peripheral length ( L) of the gypsum-filled cracks, using in situ drawings. Simulation of horizontal infiltration from the cracks, using D( θ)- and L-values, yielded results that agreed well with in situ measurements, demonstrating the mutual compatibility of the morphological and physical methods.

  19. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of in situ vapor stripping

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Greene, D.W.; Schmunk, S.W.

    1993-06-01

    The goal of the study described in this report was to determine the efficiency of vapor stripping coupled with soil mixing for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from clay soils such as those that underlie the PORTS X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit. This was accomplished by conducting experiments wherein contaminated soil cores were treated in the laboratory using a system that simulated a field-scale vapor stripping/soil mixing treatment process. Treatment efficiencies obtained using several sets of process conditions, such as air temperature and flow rate, were determined through subsampling of the soil cores to establish pre- and posttreatment levels of VOCs in the soil. Two series of experiments were conducted under this study. In the first series, laboratory treatment was performed on intact soil cores that were taken from contaminated zones within the PORTS X-231B Unit using sampler liners that could be adapted as reaction lysimeters. Since soil core disturbance was minimized using this approach, the treatability experiments were conducted on soil that was fairly close to in situ conditions in terms of both soil structure and contaminant levels. The second series of experiments were performed on cores that were packed using X-231B soil and spiked with known amounts of trichloroethylene (TCE). This approach was taken for the second series because the VOC levels in the intact cores were found to be much lower than field values. In addition, the packed cores were smaller than the intact soil cores, with treatment volumes that were about a fifth of the treatment volumes in the intact soil cores. The smaller packed cores were not only easier to handle but were also more reliably characterized due to smaller treatment volumes from which samples were taken.

  20. Spectral characterization of Martian soil analogues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, David G.

    1987-01-01

    As previously reported, reflectance spectra of iron oxide precipitated as ultrafine particles, unlike ordinary fine grained hematite, have significant similarities to reflectance spectra from the bright regions of Mars. These particles were characterized according to composition, magnetic properties, and particle size distribution. Mossbauer, magnetic susceptibility, and optical data were obtained for samples with a range of concentrations of iron oxide in silica gel of varying pore diameters. To analyze the Mossbauer spectra, a versatile fitting program was enhanced to provide user friendly screen input and theoretical models appropriate for the superparamagnetic spectra obtained.

  1. An Innovative Application for SMOS: Characterization of Seasonal Soil Freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautiainen, Kimmo; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Schwank, Mike; Pulliainen, Jouni; Mätzler, Christian; Kontu, Anna; Wiesmann, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil freezing and thawing, including the winter-time evolution of soil frost, are important characteristics influencing hydrological and climate processes at the regions of seasonal frost and permafrost, which include major land areas of North America and northern Eurasia. Changes in the seasonal behaviour of soil frost have a major effect on the surface energy balance, as well as on the intensity of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. The monitoring of seasonal frost and the permafrost active layer is currently based mostly on sparse in-situ observations. Some research using satellite observations for global and continuous coverage has been conducted in the past using active and passive microwave data. The European Space Agency's (ESA) SMOS satellite (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) is the first passive instrument using a low microwave frequency band (1.403 - 1.424 GHz) for Earth remote sensing. The output signal of the SMOS payload instrument MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis) is highly sensitive to changes in soil permittivity (i.e. soil liquid water content), with relatively low influence of surface vegetation. Due to the instrument's low operating frequency, information on the soil processes can be achieved from deeper layers than from previously available satellite instruments. SMOS sensitivity to changes in soil permittivity and the deeper soil layer monitoring capabilities ensure new possibilities for soil freeze/thaw cycle monitoring. Within the frame of SMOS programme, ESA has initialized several innovation projects to extend the applicability of SMOS data. One such project is SMOS+ Innovation Permafrost, coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) with GAMMA Remote Sensing as a Swiss partner. The main objectives of the project are (1) to develop methods and algorithms for detection and monitoring of soil freezing/thawing processes using L-band passive microwave data and (2) to demonstrate the developed methods with soil frost

  2. Chemical characterization and metal abundance in Sri Lankan serpentine soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Ok, Y. S.; Oze, C.

    2012-12-01

    Chemical weathering of ultramafic rocks and their related soils provide localized sources of metal contamination. In Sri Lanka, rural communities live in close proximity to these rocks and soils and utilize associated groundwaters where human intake of these high metal sources may have adverse human health effects. This study investigates metal abundances and variations in Sri Lankan serpentine soils to begin evaluating potential human health hazards. Specifically, we examine serpentinite occurrences at Ussangoda, Wasgamuwa, Ginigalpelessa, and Indikolapelessa located at the geological boundary between the Highland and Vijayan Complexes. The pH of the soils are near neutral (6.26 to 7.69) with soil electrical conductivities (EC) ranging from 33.5 to 129.9 μS cm-1, a range indicative of relatively few dissolved salts and/or major dissolved inorganic solutes. The highest EC is from the Ussangoda soil which may be due to the atmospheric deposition of salt spray from the sea. Organic carbon contents of the soils range from 1.09% to 2.58%. The highest organic carbon percentage is from the Wasgamuwa soil which is located in a protected preserve. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and total metal digestion results show that all serpentine soils are Fe-, Cr-, and Ni-rich with abundant aluminosilicate minerals. Nickel is highest in the Ussangoda soil (6,459 mg kg-1), while Cr (>10,000 mg kg-1), Co (441 mg kg-1) and Mn (2,263 mg kg-1) are highest in the Wasgamuwa serpentine soil. Additionally, Mn (2,200 mg kg-1) and Co (400 mg kg-1) are present at high concentrations in the Wasgamuwa and Ginigalpelessa soils respectively. Electron microprobe mapping demonstrates that these heavy metals are not homogeneously distributed where Cr is specifically associated with Al and Fe phases. Metal speciation of these serpentine soils are currently being investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to provide better constraints with regards to their mobility and toxicity.

  3. Fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter fractions in soils in soil aquifer treatment.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shuang; Zhao, Qingliang; Wei, Liangliang; Song, Youtao; Tie, Mei

    2013-06-01

    This work investigated the effect of soil aquifer treatment (SAT) operation on the fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions in soils through laboratory-scale soil columns with a 2-year operation. The resin adsorption technique (with XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins) was employed to characterize the dissolved organic matter in soils into five fractions, i.e., hydrophobic acid (HPO-A), hydrophobic neutral (HPO-N), transphilic acid (TPI-A), transphilic neutral (TPI-N), and hydrophilic fraction (HPI). The synchronous fluorescence spectra revealed the presence of soluble microbial byproduct- and humic acid-like components and polycyclic aromatic compounds in DOM in soils, and SAT operation resulted in the enrichment of these fluorescent materials in all DOM fractions in the surface soil (0-12.5 cm). More importantly, the quantitative method of fluorescence regional integration was used in the analysis of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of DOM fractions in soils. The cumulative EEM volume (Φ T, n ) results showed that SAT operation led to the enrichment of more fluorescent components in HPO-A and TPI-A, as well as the dominance of less fluorescent components in HPO-N, TPI-N, and HPI in the bottom soil (75-150 cm). Total Φ T, n values, which were calculated as [Formula: see text], suggested an accumulation of fluorescent organic matter in the upper 75 cm of soil as a consequence of SAT operation. The distribution of volumetric fluorescence among five regions (i.e., P i, n ) results revealed that SAT caused the increased content of humic-like fluorophores as well as the decreased content of protein-like fluorophores in both HPO-A and TPI-A in soils.

  4. Demonstration of in situ-constructed horizontal soil containment barrier at Fernald

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, P.J.; Ridenour, D.; Walker, J.; Saugier, K.

    1994-08-01

    A new design of jet grouting tool that can be guided by horizontal well casings and that operates in the horizontal plane has been used for the in situ placement of grout and construction of a prototype horizontal barrier that is free of windows. Jet grouting techniques have been advanced to permit construction of horizontal barriers underneath contaminated soil without having to excavate or disturb the waste. The paper describes progress on the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) In Situ Land Containment Project which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) for DOE`s Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). The Fernald project is to demonstrate a novel, enabling technology for the controlled underground placement of horizontal panels of grout, and the joining of adjacent panels to construct practical, extensive barriers. Construction strategy, equipment mechanics and operating details of this new method are described.

  5. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Technology evaluation and screening

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L.; Morris, M.I.; Donaldson, T.L.; Palumbo, A.V.; Herbes, S.E.; Jenkins, R.A.; Morrissey, C.M.; Harris, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Ports) is located approximately 70 miles south of Columbus in southern Ohio. Among the several waste management units on the facility, the X-231B unit consists of two adjacent oil biodegradation plots. The plots encompass {approximately} 0.8 acres and were reportedly used from 1976 to 1983 for the treatment and disposal of waste oils and degreasing solvents, some containing uranium-235 and technetium-99. The X-231B unit is a regulated solid waste management unit (SWMU) under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The X-231B unit is also a designated SWMU located within Quadrant I of the site as defined in an ongoing RCRA Facilities Investigation and Corrective Measures Study (RFI/CMS). Before implementing one or more Technology Demonstration Project must be completed. The principal goal of this project was to elect and successfully demonstrate one ore more technologies for effective treatment of the contaminated soils associated with the X-231B unit at PORTS. The project was divided into two major phases. Phase 1 involved a technology evaluation and screening process. The second phase (i.e., Phase 2) was to involve field demonstration, testing and evaluation of the technology(s) selected during Phase 1. This report presents the methods, results, and conclusions of the technology evaluation and screening portion of the project.

  6. EVALUATION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION AS A BEST DEMONSTRATED AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involved the evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology as a BDAT for contaminated soil. Three binding agents were used on four different synthetically contaminated soils. Performance evaluation data included unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the T...

  7. Ecotoxicological and microbiological characterization of soils from heavy-metal- and hydrocarbon-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Płaza, Grazyna A; Nałecz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Pinyakong, Onruthai; Illmer, Paul; Margesin, Rosa

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize soils from industrial sites by combining physicochemical, microbiological, and ecotoxicological parameters and to assess the suitability of these assays for evaluation of contaminated sites and ecological risk assessment. The soil samples were taken from long-term contaminated sites containing high amounts of heavy metals (sites 1 and 2) or petroleum hydrocarbons (site 3) located in the upper Silesia Industrial Region in southern Poland. Due to soil heterogeneity, large differences between all investigated parameters were measured. Microbiological properties revealed the presence of high numbers of viable hetrotrophic microorganisms. Soil enzyme activities were considerably reduced or could not be detected in contaminated soils. Activities involved in N turnover (N mineralization and nitrification) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in samples from the metal-contaminated sites than in samples from the hydrocarbon-contaminated site, whereas the opposite was observed for phosphatase activity. The Microtox test system appeared to be the most appropriate to detect toxicity and significant differences in toxicity between the three sites. The Ostracodtoxkit test was the most appropriate test system to detect toxicity in the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil samples. Correlation analysis between principal components (obtained from factor analysis) determined for physicochemical, microbiological, and ecotoxicological soil properties demonstrated the impact of total and water-extractable contents of heavy metals on toxicity.

  8. Regional Scale Characterization of Soil Carbon Fractions with Pedometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskin, H.; Grunwald, S.; Myers, D. B.; Harris, W. G.

    2015-12-01

    Regional scale characterization of the spatial distribution of soil carbon (C) fractions can facilitate a better understanding of the lability and recalcitrance of C across diverse land uses, soils, and climatic gradients. While C lability is associated with decomposition and transport processes in soils in, the stable portion of soil C persists in soil for decades to millennia. To better understand storage, flux and processes of soil C from across the soil-landscape continuum, we upscaled different fractions of soil C. Recalcitrant carbon (RC), hydrolysable carbon (HC) and total carbon (TC) were derived from the topsoil (0-20 cm) at 1,014 georeferenced sites in Florida (~150 000 km2). These were identified using a random-stratified sampling design with landuse-soil suborders strata. The Boruta method was employed for identifying all-relevant variables from the available 327 soil-environmental variables in order to develop the most parsimonious model for TC, RC and HC. We compared eight methods: Classification and Regression Tree (CaRT), Bagged Regression Tree (BaRT), Boosted Regression Tree (BoRT), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR), Regression Kriging (RK), and Ordinary Kriging (OK). The accuracy of each method was assessed from 304 randomly chosen samples that were used for validation. Overall, 36, 20 and 25 variables stood out as all-relevant to TC, RC and HC, respectively. We predicted TC with a mean of 4.89 kg m-2 and standard error of 3.71 kg m-2. The prediction performance based on the ratio of prediction error to inter-quartile range in order of accuracy for TC was as follows: RF>BoRT>BaRT>SVM>PLSR>RK>CART>OK; however, BoRT outperformed RF for RC and HC, and the remaining order was identical for RC and HC. The best models, explained 71.6, 73.2, and 32.9 % of the total variation for TC, RC and HC, respectively. No residual spatial autocorrelation was left among the evaluated models. This indicates that

  9. Biases of chamber methods for measuring soil CO2 efflux demonstrated with a laboratory apparatus.

    Treesearch

    S. Mark Nay; Kim G. Mattson; Bernard T. Bormann

    1994-01-01

    Investigators have historically measured soil CO2 efflux as an indicator of soil microbial and root activity and more recently in calculations of carbon budgets. The most common methods estimate CO2 efflux by placing a chamber over the soil surface and quantifying the amount of CO2 entering the...

  10. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation - Demonstration Bulletin: In-Situ Soil Stabilization

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ stabilization technology immobilizes organics and inorganic compounds in wet or dry soils by using reagents (additives) to polymerize with the soils and sludges producing a cement-like mass. Two basic components of this technology are the Geo-Con/DSM Deep Soil Mixing Sy...

  11. Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation - Demonstration Bulletin: In-Situ Soil Stabilization

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ stabilization technology immobilizes organics and inorganic compounds in wet or dry soils by using reagents (additives) to polymerize with the soils and sludges producing a cement-like mass. Two basic components of this technology are the Geo-Con/DSM Deep Soil Mixing Sy...

  12. An Inexpensive and Simple Method to Demonstrate Soil Water and Nutrient Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, K. A.; Samson-Liebig, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are concepts that are being widely used but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. The objectives of this manuscript were to develop simple and inexpensive methodologies to both qualitatively and quantitatively estimate water infiltration rates (IR),…

  13. An Inexpensive and Simple Method to Demonstrate Soil Water and Nutrient Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, K. A.; Samson-Liebig, S.

    2011-01-01

    Soil quality, soil health, and soil sustainability are concepts that are being widely used but are difficult to define and illustrate, especially to a non-technical audience. The objectives of this manuscript were to develop simple and inexpensive methodologies to both qualitatively and quantitatively estimate water infiltration rates (IR),…

  14. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter: a historic overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of individual molecular components of soil organic matter started in the early 19th century, but proceeded slowly. The major focus at this time was on the isolation and differentiation of different humic and fulvic acid fractions, which were considered to have a defined chemical composition and structure. The isolation and structural anlysis of specific individual soil organic matter components became more popular in the early 20th century. In 1936 40 different individual compounds had been isolated and a specific chemical strucutre had been attributed. These structural attributions were confirmed later for some, but not all of these individual compounds. In the 1950 much more individual compounds could be isolated and characterized, using complicated and time consuming chromatography. It became obvious that soil also contains a number of compounds of microbial origin, such as e.g., amino sugars and lipids. With the improvement of chrmoatographic separation techniques and the use of gas chromatography in combination with thin layerchromatography in the 1960 hundreds of individual compounds have been isolated and identified, most of them after chemical degradation of humic or fulvic acids. The chemical degradative techniques were amended with analytical pyrolysis in the 1970s. More and more, bulk soil organic matter was analyzed with these techniques and the advent of solid-stae 13C NMR spectroscopy around the 1980s allowed for the characterization of the composition of bulk soil organic matter. The gas chromatographic separation of organic matter can nowadays be combined with specific detectors, such that specific attributes ofindividual molecules can be analyzed, e.g. the radiocarbon content or the stable isotope composition.

  15. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions.

  16. Hydrogeologic Characterization Data from the Area 5 Shallow Soil Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Four shallow soil trenches excavated in the vicinity of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site were sampled in 1994 to characterize important physical and hydrologic parameters which can affect the movement of water in the upper few meters of undisturbed alluvium. This report describes the field collection of geologic samples and the results of laboratory analyses made on these samples. This report provides only qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations.

  17. Characterization of Soil Deposits for Seismic Response Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Presti, Diego; Pallara, Oronzo; Mensi, Elena

    The paper critically reviews in situ and laboratory testing methods used to characterize soil deposits for seismic response analyses. Cyclic loading triaxial tests (CLTX), Cyclic loading torsional shear tests (CLTST) and Resonant column tests (RCT) are considered. As for the in situ testing, geophysical seismic tests and dynamic penetration tests are discussed. Influence of ground conditions on seismic response analyses in a number of real cases is shown. The database made available by the Regional Government of Tuscany (RT) has been used.

  18. Advanced Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Using Ultra High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Chu, R.; Tolic, N.; Roscioli, K.; Robinson, E. R.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Hess, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus on ecosystem stress and climate change is currently relevant as researchers and policymakers strive to understand the feedbacks between soil C dynamics and climate change. Successful development of molecular profiles that link soil microbiology with soil carbon (C) to ascertain soil vulnerability and resilience to climate change would have great impact on assessments of soil ecosystems in response to climate change. Additionally, better understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) plays a central role to climate modeling, and fate and transport of carbon. The use of ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) has enabled the examination of molecules, directly from mixtures, with ultrahigh mass resolution and sub-ppm mass accuracy. In this study, EMSL's extensive expertise and capabilities in UHR MS proteomics were leveraged to develop extraction protocols for the characterization of carbon compounds in SOM, thereby providing the chemical and structural detail needed to develop mechanistic descriptions of soil carbon flow processes. Our experiments have allowed us to identify thousands of individual compounds in complex soil mixtures with a wide range of C content representing diverse ecosystems within the USA. The yield of the chemical extraction was dependent on (1) the type of solvent used and its polarity, (2) sample-to-solvent ratios and (3) the chemical and physical nature of the samples including their origins. Hexane, a non-polar organic solvent, was efficient in extracting lipid-like compounds regardless of soil origin or organic carbon %. For samples with high organic carbon %, acetonitrile extracted a wide range of compounds characterized with high O/C ratios, identified as polyphenolic compounds that were not observed with methanol extraction. Soils extracted with pyridine showed a similar molecular distribution to those extracted by methanol. Solvent extraction followed by UHR MS is a promising tool to understand the

  19. Demonstration, testing, & evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Draft final report, Volume II: Appendices A to E

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Saboto, W.

    1996-02-12

    This document is a draft final report for US DOE contract entitled, {open_quotes}Demonstration Testing and Evaluation of In Situ Soil Heating,{close_quotes} Contract No. DE-AC05-93OR22160, IITRI Project No. C06787. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report This document is Volume II, containing appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cu. yd. of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOCs and other organic chemicals boiling up to 120{degrees}to 130{degrees}C in the vadose zone. Although it may applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by low air flow.

  20. Demonstration, testing, and evaluation of in situ heating of soil. Final report, Volume 2, Appendices A to E

    SciTech Connect

    Dev, H.; Enk, J.; Jones, D.; Sabato, W.

    1996-04-05

    This is a final report presented in two volumes. Volume I contains the technical report and Volume II contains appendices with background information and data. In this project approximately 300 cubic yards of clayey soil containing a low concentration plume of volatile organic chemicals was heated in situ by the application of electrical energy. It was shown that as a result of heating the effective permeability of soil to air flow was increased such that in situ soil vapor extraction could be performed. The initial permeability of soil was so low that the soil gas flow rate was immeasurably small even at high vacuum levels. It was demonstrated that the mass flow rate of the volatile organic chemicals was enhanced in the recovered soil gas as a result of heating. When scaled up, this process can be used for the environmental clean up and restoration of DOE sites contaminated with VOC`s and other organic chemicals. Although it may be applied to many types of soil formations, it is particularly attractive for low permeability clayey soil where conventional in situ venting techniques are limited by air flow.

  1. Operational strategy for soil concentration predictions of strontium/yttrium-90 and cesium-137 in surface soil at the West Valley Demonstration Project site

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.A.

    1995-06-05

    There are difficulties associated with the assessment of the interpretation of field measurements, determination of guideline protocols and control and disposal of low level radioactive contaminated soil in the environmental health physics field. Questions are raised among scientists and in public forums concerning the necessity and high costs of large area soil remediation versus the risks of low-dose radiation health effects. As a result, accurate soil activity assessments become imperative in decontamination situations. The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a US Department of Energy facility located in West Valley, New York is managed and operated by West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc. (WVNS). WVNS has identified contaminated on-site soil areas with a mixed variety of radionuclides (primarily fission product). Through the use of data obtained from a previous project performed during the summer of 1994 entitled ``Field Survey Correlation and Instrumentation Response for an In Situ Soil Measurement Program`` (Myers), the WVDP offers a unique research opportunity to investigate the possibility of soil concentration predictions based on exposure or count rate responses returned from a survey detector probe. In this study, correlations are developed between laboratory measured soil beta activity and survey probe response for the purposes of determining the optimal detector for field use and using these correlations to establish predictability of soil activity levels.

  2. SRS Data Report for Lynntech Soil Ozone Treatment Demonstration Adjacent to the 321-M Solvent Storage Tank Pad

    SciTech Connect

    Vangelas, K.M.

    2000-08-29

    At large industrial sites like the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), undissolved dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in soil and groundwater is the most significant barrier to successful clean up. DNAPL acts as a reservoir that will continue to generate contaminant levels far above remediation concentration goals well into the future. In an effort to achieve remediation goals and reduce future costs, the SRS DNAPL program is evaluating technologies that will recycle or destroy DNAPL. In situ oxidation is one class of DNAPL destruction technologies. A demonstration of this class of technologies was conducted at SRS in the winter of 1999 and spring of 2000 employing ozone as the oxidant. Lynntech Inc. through a Small Business Innovative Research grant partnered with the Savannah River Site to demonstrate their soil ozone treatment technology. The Savannah River Site provided the demonstration location and field support of the test. This demonstration involved treating a small vadose zone DNAPL plume in the A/M Area over a 29 day period. Approximately 2000 pounds of DNAPL (perchloroethylene [PCE] and trichloroethylene [TCE]) were removed through the soil vapor extraction unit (SVEU). Soil core data indicate that approximately 300 pounds of DNAPL were removed from the test site. This report documents the data collected by SRS personnel during the demonstration of Lynntech's Soil Ozone Treatment Technology.

  3. Characterization of transformations of maize residues into soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Song, Guixue; Novotny, Etelvino H; Mao, Jing-Dong; Hayes, Michael H B

    2017-02-01

    An awareness of the transformation of plant residues returned to cultivated soils is vital for a better understanding of carbon cycles, the maintenance of soil fertility and the practice of a sustainable agriculture. The transformation of maize (Zea mays L) straw residues into soil organic matter (SOM) in a one year incubation experiment was studied in a soil that had been under long term cultivation with wheat (Triticum aestivum L) for >30years. A novel sequential exhaustive extraction and fractionation procedure isolated a series of fractions of SOM. The samples were characterized by elemental and δ(13)C analyses, by amino acids and neutral sugars analyses, by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and by solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and with chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) -filter and dipolar dephasing (DD) spectral editing NMR techniques. The δ(13)C data indicated that 59% and 38% of the newly transformed organic carbon was in the humic and fulvic acid fractions, respectively, and in general a greater proportion of the transformed carbon was in the fractions isolated at the higher pH values. Results for SOM fractions from the amended soil indicate dominant contributions from carbohydrate and lignin-like material, and that can be clearly identified by FTIR, CP/TOSS, and spectral editing of CSA-filter and DD. The compositions of the fractions from the amended and non-amended soils fractions can be clearly differentiated using principal component analysis (PCA) for the data collected. The sequential extraction procedure showed that the hydrophilicity of humic fractions increased as the result of the maize amendment, and the aromaticity of the fraction decreased. The data may give some indications of transformations that take place during humification processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pilot demonstration for containment using in situ soil mixing techniques at a chemical disposal superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Zarlinski, S.J.; Kingham, N.W.; Semenak, R.

    1997-12-31

    Kiber Environmental Services, Inc. (Kiber), under contract to McLaren-Hart Corporation and the site PRP group, performed technical oversight and on-site sampling and analyses at the confidential site located in Texas. The site consists of 15,000 cubic meters (20,000 cubic yards) of contaminated materials that were to be solidified on-site. The contaminants included heavy metals, PAHs, oil and grease, and volatile organics. Groundwater is less than 1 meter from the surface. Kiber was retained after several unsuccessful efforts to find on-site containment methods that effectively solidified the waste pits while achieving the performance goals. The PRP group then contracted with Kiber to perform the treatability and pilot oversight studies. The full-scale pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con. Pilot-scale treatment was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of in situ solidification treatment at achieving the site specific performance criteria, including an unconfined compressive strength of greater than 170 kPa (25 psi) and a permeability of less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/sec. Technical oversight and on-site sampling and analysis were provided to evaluate pilot-scale application of the selected technology and verify treatment effectiveness. The project was divided into several subtasks. First, laboratory treatability testing was conducted to verify that performance specifications were achievable using the proposed reagent formulations. Next, a pilot demonstration was performed by Geo-Con using a Manotowoc 4000 crane equipped with a 1.5-meter diameter auger to evaluate shallow soil mixing. The final task included a comparative study between the performance of test specimens collected using wet sampling techniques versus in situ post-treatment coring.

  5. The characterization of oil-degrading microorganisms from lubricating oil contaminated (scale) soil.

    PubMed

    Jirasripongpun, K

    2002-01-01

    To isolate and characterize oil-degrading microorganisms from contaminated (scale) soil. Oil-degrading microorganisms were isolated from enrichment cultures of scale soil. Each isolate was identified using 16S rDNA gene and oil degradability was determined on both unused and used lubricating oil. The weight of the extracted remaining oil revealed that most isolates degraded unused lubricating oil more than used lubricating oil. Chemical composition of oil analysed by TLC-FID and GC-MS demonstrated that Nocardia simplex W9 degraded used oil the best, and resulted in a decrease in saturates, aromatics and resins to 52.46, 38.13 and 18.81%, respectively. Nocardia simplex W9 is the best degrader, among all the isolates, on both used and unused lubricating oil. The presence of Nocardia simplex W9 in scale soil enables iron to be recycled by biodegradation.

  6. Application of DRIFTS, (13)C NMR, and py-MBMS to Characterize the Effects of Soil Science Oxidation Assays on Soil Organic Matter Composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent.

    PubMed

    Margenot, Andrew J; Calderón, Francisco J; Magrini, Kimberly A; Evans, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Chemical oxidations are routinely employed in soil science to study soil organic matter (SOM), and their interpretation could be improved by characterizing oxidation effects on SOM composition with spectroscopy. We investigated the effects of routinely employed oxidants on SOM composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent representative of intensively managed agricultural soils in the California Central Valley. Soil samples were subjected to oxidation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Additionally, non-oxidized and oxidized soils were treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to evaluate reduction of the mineral component to improve spectroscopy of oxidation effects. Oxidized non-HF and HF-treated soils were characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), and for particle size distribution (PSD) using laser diffractometry (LD). Across the range of soil organic carbon (OC) removed by oxidations (14-72%), aliphatic C-H stretch at 3000-2800 cm(-1) (DRIFTS) decreased with OC removal, and this trend was enhanced by HF treatment due to significant demineralization in this soil (70%). Analysis by NMR spectroscopy was feasible only after HF treatment, and did not reveal trends between OC removal and C functional groups. Pyrolysis-MBMS did not detect differences among oxidations, even after HF treatment of soils. Hydrofluoric acid entailed OC loss (13-39%), and for H2O2 oxidized soils increased C:N and substantially decreased mean particle size. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HF to improve characterizations of SOM composition following oxidations as practiced in soil science, in particular for DRIFTS. Since OC removal by oxidants, mineral removal by HF, and the interaction of oxidants and HF observed for this soil

  7. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF WORKER AND AMBIENT AIR EXPOSURES DURING SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead contaminated soil sites. An industrial hygiene survey and air monitoring program for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling acti...

  8. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF WORKER AND AMBIENT AIR EXPOSURES DURING SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hazardous waste site remediation workers or neighboring residents may be exposed to particulates during the remediation of lead contaminated soil sites. An industrial hygiene survey and air monitoring program for both lead and dust were performed during initial soil sampling acti...

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM ALASKAN BATTERY ENTERPRISES SITE - BRICE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BESCORP Soil Washing System is an aqueous volume reduction system that utilizes trommel agitation, high-pressure washing, sizing, and density separation to remove lead, lead compounds, and battery casing chips from soil contaminated by broken lead batteries. The basic concept...

  10. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: BESCORP SOIL WASHING SYSTEM ALASKAN BATTERY ENTERPRISES SITE - BRICE ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BESCORP Soil Washing System is an aqueous volume reduction system that utilizes trommel agitation, high-pressure washing, sizing, and density separation to remove lead, lead compounds, and battery casing chips from soil contaminated by broken lead batteries. The basic concept...

  11. Characterization of Biochars Produced from Cornstovers for Soil Amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dr. James W; Kidder, Michelle; Evans, Barbara; Buchanan III, A C; Garten Jr, Charles T; Paik, Sok W; Brown, Dr. Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Through cation exchange capacity assay, nitrogen adsorption-desorption surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopic imaging, infrared spectra and elemental analyses, we characterized biochar materials produced from cornstover under two different pyrolysis conditions, fast pyrolysis at 450 C and gasification at 700 C. Our experimental results showed that the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the fastpyrolytic char is about twice as high as that of the gasification char as well as that of a standard soil sample. The CEC values correlate well with the increase in the ratios of the oxygen atoms to the carbon atoms (O:C ratios) in the biochar materials. The higher O:C ratio was consistent with the presence of more hydroxyl, carboxylate, and carbonyl groups in the fast pyrolysis char. These results show how control of biomass pyrolysis conditions can improve biochar properties for soil amendment and carbon sequestration. Since the CEC of the fast-pyrolytic cornstover char can be about double that of a standard soil sample, this type of biochar products would be suitable for improvement of soil properties such as CEC, and at the same time, can serve as a carbon sequestration agent.

  12. Changes in Soil Chemistry and Agricultural Return Flow in an Integrated Seawater Agriculture System (ISAS) Demonstration in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Q.; Matiin, W. A.; Ahmad, F.

    2012-12-01

    Growing halophytes using Integrated Seawater Agriculture Systems (ISAS) offers a sustainable solution for the generation of biomass feedstock for carbon neutral biofuels - halophytes do not enter the foodchain and they do not compete with food-crops for natural resources. A field demonstration of ISAS in the coastal regions of Abu Dhabi, UAE, scheduled to start in 2013, will likely face a number of region-specific challenges not encountered in past demonstrations of ISAS at coastal locations in Mexico and Eritrea. The arid climate, unique soil chemistry (evaporite deposits, especially gypsum), and hypersaline coastal hydrogeology of Abu Dhabi will affect long-term halophyte agricultural productivity when Arabian Gulf seawater is applied to coastal soils as part of ISAS. Therefore, the changes in irrigation return flow quality and soil chemistry must be monitored closely over time to establish transient salt and water balances in order to assess the sustainability of ISAS in the region. As an initial phase of the ISAS demonstration project, numerical modeling of different seawater loadings onto coastal soils was conducted to estimate the chemical characteristics of soil and the irrigation return flow over time. These modeling results will be validated with field monitoring data upon completion of one year of ISAS operation. The results from this study could be used to (i) determine the optimal saline water loading that the soils at the ISAS site can tolerate, (ii) potential for sodicity of the soil with saline water application, (iii) impacts of land application of saline water on underlying coastal groundwater, and (iv) develop strategies to control soil water activities in favor of halophyte agricultural productivity.

  13. Cone penetrometer deployed in situ video microscope for characterizing sub-surface soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, S.H.; Knowles, D.S.; Kertesz, J.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper we report on the development and field testing of an in situ video microscope that has been integrated with a cone penetrometer probe in order to provide a real-time method for characterizing subsurface soil properties. The video microscope system consists of a miniature CCD color camera system coupled with an appropriate magnification and focusing optics to provide a field of view with a coverage of approximately 20 mm. The camera/optic system is mounted in a cone penetrometer probe so that the camera views the soil that is in contact with a sapphire window mounted on the side of the probe. The soil outside the window is illuminated by diffuse light provided through the window by an optical fiber illumination system connected to a white light source at the surface. The video signal from the camera is returned to the surface where it can be displayed in real-time on a video monitor, recorded on a video cassette recorder (VCR), and/or captured digitally with a frame grabber installed in a microcomputer system. In its highest resolution configuration, the in situ camera system has demonstrated a capability to resolve particle sizes as small as 10 {mu}m. By using other lens systems to increase the magnification factor, smaller particles could be resolved, however, the field of view would be reduced. Initial field tests have demonstrated the ability of the camera system to provide real-time qualitative characterization of soil particle sizes. In situ video images also reveal information on porosity of the soil matrix and the presence of water in the saturated zone. Current efforts are focused on the development of automated imaging processing techniques as a means of extracting quantitative information on soil particle size distributions. Data will be presented that compares data derived from digital images with conventional sieve/hydrometer analyses.

  14. Use of photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy to characterize soil properties and soil organic matter stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltre, Clement; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen; Stoumann Jensen, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The persistence of soil organic matter (SOM) is recognized as a major ecosystem property due to its key role in earth carbon cycling, soil quality and ecosystem services. SOM stability is typically studied using biological methods such as measuring CO2-C evolution from microbial decomposition of SOM during laboratory incubation or by physical or chemical fractionation methods, allowing the separation of a labile fraction of SOM. However these methods are time consuming and there is still a need for developing reliable techniques to characterize SOM stability, providing both quantitative measurements and qualitative information, in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling SOM persistence. Several spectroscopic techniques have been used to characterize and predict SOM stability, such as near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). The latter allows a proper identification of spectral regions corresponding to vibrations of specific molecular or functional groups associated with SOM lability. However, reflectance spectroscopy for soil analyses raises some difficulties related to the low reflectance of soils, and to the high influence of particle size. In the last three decades, the progresses in microphone sensitivity dramatically increased the performance of photoacoustic Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). This technique offers benefits over reflectance spectroscopy techniques, because particle size and the level of sample reflectance have little effect of on the PAS signal, since FTIR-PAS is a direct absorption technique. Despite its high potential for soil analysis, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS for soil characterization and its potential for determining SOM degradability still needs to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterization of SOM decomposability during

  15. Characterization of plasma sprayed and explosively consolidated simulated lunar soil

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, S.J.; Inal, O.T.; Smith, M.F.

    1997-06-01

    Two methods for the use of lunar materials for the construction of shelters on the Moon are being proposed: explosive consolidation of the soil into structural components and plasma spraying of the soil to join components. The plasma-sprayed coating would also provide protection from the intense radiation. In this work, a mare simulant was plasma-sprayed onto a stainless steel substrate. Deposition of a 0.020 inch coating using power inputs of 23, 25, 27 and 29 kW were compared. Hardness of the coatings increased with each increase of power to the system, while porosity at the interface decreased. All coatings exhibited good adhesion. Simultaneously, an explosively consolidated sample was similarly characterized to afford a comparison of structural features associated with each mode of proposed use.

  16. Characterization of the geology and contaminant distribution at the six phase heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Keenan, M.A.; Parker, W.H.; Poppy, S.P.; Simmons, J.L.

    1994-06-30

    The objective of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-arid Soils Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The focus of the third phase of the Integrated Demonstration is to evaluate the use of heating technologies, both radio frequency and ohmic heating, to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers. This report documents characterization data collected in support of the ohmic heating demonstration performed by researchers from PNL. The data presented and discussed in this report include a general description of the site including location of piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process, and detailed geologic cross sections of the study site, sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples, tabulations of moisture and VOC content of the sediments, models of the distribution of contamination before and after the test, and a comparison of the volume estimations of contaminated material before and after the test. The results show that the heating process was successful in mobilizing and removing solvent from the heated interval.

  17. Results of the Lasagna{trademark} Phase IIa field demonstration for the remediation of TCE in clay soils

    SciTech Connect

    Athmer, C.J.; Ho, S.V.; Hughes, B.M.; Clausen, J.L.; Johnstone, F.; Hines, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    The Lasagna{trademark} technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated soil and electrokinetics is utilized to move the contaminants through those zones until the treatment is completed. The Phase IIa demonstration was the second field demonstration at a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site in Paducah, Ky. The first demonstration, Phase I, proved that TCE could be mobilized and captured using Lasagna{trademark}. This second demonstration measured 30 feet by 21 feet by 45 feet deep and showed for the first time TCE, including pure phase residual TCE, could be mobilized in tight soils using electrokinetics and degraded in-situ using iron filings. Over 95% removal of TCE was observed in areas of the demonstration site including pure phase residual TCE regions.

  18. The characterization of soil properties in in-situ conditions to develop "soil management/mapping units" using high-resolution remotely sensed data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, D. Keith

    The intent of this research was to assess the possible use of high resolution remotely sensed hyperspectral and multispectral data to characterize soil types, specifically focusing on organic matter content, in an associative manner with the results obtained from traditional Order 1 and Order 2 soil surveys. A chi-square analysis indicated a strong association between soil type and organic matter content. A Cramer's V analysis (of a supervised classification) indicated a stronger relationship between the Order 1 and organic matter. However, when an unsupervised classification scheme was applied to the aerial imagery, again using Cramer's analysis, the Order 2 out-performed the Order 1. This superior performance was due in part to the grouping of multi-band spectral response patterns into statistically separable clusters. A One-Way ANOVA analysis indicated that all soils were significantly different in the Order 2 survey for both the hyperspectral and the multispectral data sets. However, the Order 1 results show the ITD sensor more successfully grouping the darker soils than did the ATLAS which grouped the lighter soils. A linear discriminate analysis (LDA) demonstrates that the computer classification of images more successfully assessed the Order 2 survey than the Order 1. Again it is worth noting that the LDA also grouped the soils in a similar manner as did the ANOVA in that the ITD sensor grouped the darker soils and the ATLAS sensor grouped the lighter soils. This sensor preference is another significant secondary finding of this study. Despite the subjective nature of the soil mapping exercise and the use of un-calibrated data sets, high resolution imagery was able to differentiate different soil mapping scales. Even though associations were relatively low statistically, this study supports the hypothesis that high resolution imagery, although limited by its two-dimensional capabilities, can be effectively used as a predictive tool, although with the current

  19. A case study demonstration of the soil temperature extrema recovery rates after precipitation cooling at 10-cm soil depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, Jean Edward

    1991-01-01

    Since the invention of maximum and minimum thermometers in the 18th century, diurnal temperature extrema have been taken for air worldwide. At some stations, these extrema temperatures were collected at various soil depths also, and the behavior of these temperatures at a 10-cm depth at the Tifton Experimental Station in Georgia is presented. After a precipitation cooling event, the diurnal temperature maxima drop to a minimum value and then start a recovery to higher values (similar to thermal inertia). This recovery represents a measure of response to heating as a function of soil moisture and soil property. Eight different curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years, and both power and exponential curves were fitted to a wide variety of data sets for different stations and years. Both power and exponential curve fits were consistently found to be statistically accurate least-square fit representations of the raw data recovery values. The predictive procedures used here were multivariate regression analyses, which are applicable to soils at a variety of depths besides the 10-cm depth presented.

  20. Comprehensive sampling of an isolated dune system demonstrates clear patterns in soil fungal communities across a successional gradient.

    PubMed

    Roy-Bolduc, Alice; Bell, Terrence H; Boudreau, Stéphane; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Coastal sand dunes are extremely dynamic ecosystems, characterized by stark ecological succession gradients. Dune stabilization is mainly attributed to plant growth, but the establishment and survival of dune-inhabiting vegetation is closely linked to soil microorganisms and to the ecological functions they fulfill. Fungi are particularly important in this context, as some interact intimately with plant roots, while others are critical to soil structure and nutrient availability. Our study aimed to describe wholly fungal diversity and community composition in a secluded coastal dune ecosystem at eight different stages of succession. We comprehensively sampled a relic foredune plain, which is part of an archipelago in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (Québec, Canada), by collecting soils from 80 sites and measuring soil characteristics. Soil fungal communities were characterized by pyrosequencing, followed by taxonomic classification and assignment of putative roles. Even though we did not observe clear patterns in diversity, we were able to detect distinct taxonomic and community composition signatures across succession stages, which seemed to translate into variations in fungal life strategies. Our results show that a taxonomically and functionally diverse fungal community exists at each dune succession stage, even in the barren foredunes.

  1. Soil remediation demonstration project: Biodegradation of heavy fuel oils. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, C.M.; Bhunia, P.; Koenen, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    Treatment of oil-contaminated soils is necessary to protect water supplies, human health, and environmental quality; but because of limited funds, cleanup costs are often prohibitive. High costs are exacerbated in cold regions such as Alaska, where spills are often in areas inaccessible to heavy equipment and where there is limited infrastructure. Owing to the lack of infrastructure, widespread fuel distribution systems, and the need for heating in the cold climate, there are numerous small-scale oil spills. Low-cost treatments applicable to small-scale spills are needed. The object of this CPAR project was to examine using cost-effective, on-site bioremediation techniques for heavy-oil-contaminated soil in cold regions. Both heavy-oil and diesel-contaminated soils were used to compare landfarming, a low-intensity treatment, to pile bioventing, a costlier treatment. For each soil-contaminant combination, we compared nutrient additions to a control with no nutrient additions. Under the conditions of this study, landfarming with nutrient additions was as effective for treating diesel-contaminated soil as was bioventing with nutrient additions. For heavy oils, landfarming with nutrients resulted in lower soil concentrations after one year, but differences among treatments were not statistically significant. Because landfarming does not require pumps, electricity, or plumbing, all costs are less than for bioventing. The minimal requirements for infrastructure also make landfarming attractive in remote sites typical of cold regions.

  2. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  3. [Classification of Priority Area for Soil Environmental Protection Around Water Sources: Method Proposed and Case Demonstration].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Tie-yu; Wang, Xiaojun; Xiao, Rong-bo; Li, Qi-feng; Peng, Chi; Han, Cun-liang

    2016-04-15

    Based on comprehensive consideration of soil environmental quality, pollution status of river, environmental vulnerability and the stress of pollution sources, a technical method was established for classification of priority area of soil environmental protection around the river-style water sources. Shunde channel as an important drinking water sources of Foshan City, Guangdong province, was studied as a case, of which the classification evaluation system was set up. In detail, several evaluation factors were selected according to the local conditions of nature, society and economy, including the pollution degree of heavy metals in soil and sediment, soil characteristics, groundwater sensitivity, vegetation coverage, the type and location of pollution sources. Data information was mainly obtained by means of field survey, sampling analysis, and remote sensing interpretation. Afterwards, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was adopted to decide the weight of each factor. The basic spatial data layers were set up respectively and overlaid based on the weighted summation assessment model in Geographical Information System (GIS), resulting in a classification map of soil environmental protection level in priority area of Shunde channel. Accordingly, the area was classified to three levels named as polluted zone, risky zone and safe zone, which respectively accounted for 6.37%, 60.90% and 32.73% of the whole study area. Polluted zone and risky zone were mainly distributed in Lecong, Longjiang and Leliu towns, with pollutants mainly resulted from the long-term development of aquaculture and the industries containing furniture, plastic constructional materials and textile and clothing. In accordance with the main pollution sources of soil, targeted and differentiated strategies were put forward. The newly established evaluation method could be referenced for the protection and sustainable utilization of soil environment around the water sources.

  4. Characterization of soil spatial variability for site-specific management using soil electrical conductivity and other remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Jisu

    Field-scale characterization of soil spatial variability using remote sensing technology has potential for achieving the successful implementation of site-specific management (SSM). The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine the spatial relationships between apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC a) and soil chemical and physical properties to determine if EC a could be useful to characterize soil properties related to crop productivity in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of North Carolina; (ii) evaluate the effects of in-situ soil moisture variation on ECa mapping as a basis for characterization of soil spatial variability and as a data layer in cluster analysis as a means of delineating sampling zones; (iii) evaluate clustering approaches using different variable sets for management zone delineation to characterize spatial variability in soil nutrient levels and crop yields. Studies were conducted in two fields in the Piedmont and three fields in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Spatial measurements of ECa via electromagnetic induction (EMI) were compared with soil chemical parameters (extractable P, K, and micronutrients; pH, cation exchange capacity [CEC], humic matter or soil organic matter; and physical parameters (percentage sand, silt, and clay; and plant-available water [PAW] content; bulk density; cone index; saturated hydraulic conductivity [Ksat] in one of the coastal plain fields) using correlation analysis across fields. We also collected ECa measurements in one coastal plain field on four days with significantly different naturally occurring soil moisture conditions measured in five increments to 0.75 m using profiling time-domain reflectometry probes to evaluate the temporal variability of ECa associated with changes in in-situ soil moisture content. Nonhierarchical k-means cluster analysis using sensor-based field attributes including vertical ECa, near-infrared (NIR) radiance of bare-soil from an aerial color infrared (CIR) image

  5. Soil Characterization and Site Response of Marine and Continental Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Porras, R. S.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Collins, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    An in situ soil properties study was conducted to characterize both site and shallow layer sediments under marine and continental environments. Data from the SCoOBA (Sea of Cortez Ocean Bottom Array) seismic experiment and in land ambient vibration measurements on the urban areas of Tijuana, B. C., and Ensenada, B. C., Mexico were used in the analysis. The goal of this investigation is to identify and to analyze the effect of the physical/geotechnical properties of the ground on the site response upon seismic excitations in both marine and continental environments. The time series were earthquakes and background noise recorded within interval of 10/2005 to 10/2006 in the Gulf of California (GoC) with very-broadband Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBS), and ambient vibration measurements collected during different time periods on Tijuana and Ensenada urban areas. The data processing and analysis was conducted by means of the H/V Spectral Ratios (HVSPR) of multi component data, the Random Decrement Method (RDM), and Blind Deconvolution (BD). This study presents ongoing results of a long term project to characterize the local site response of soil layers upon dynamic excitations using digital signal processing algorithms on time series, as well as the comparison between the results these methodologies are providing.

  6. Environmental characterization of soils and sediments. Progress report, part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, N.Y.C.

    1994-01-01

    Elevated chromium level in the ground water at the SNL/CA site is a major concern. The author has developed an analytical methodology that allows one to identify the possible sources of the contamination. This methodology is focused on the integration of various analytical techniques to characterize physical and chemical properties of the soil samples from the contaminated area. The techniques include inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and electron microscopy with image analysis (EM/IA). This report describes the overall experimental approaches and findings for the soil samples from the area where the Cr-level was found to be elevated. Current findings suggest that the potential source of the Cr is the Cr-containing minerals that are present in natural abundance rather than externally introduced. In addition to chromium, other heavy metals, such as manganese, iron, and arsenic were also characterized and reported.

  7. Soil surface roughness characterization for microwave remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzahn, P.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-04-01

    With this poster we present a simple and efficient method to measure soil surface roughness in an agricultural environment. Micro scale soil surface roughness is a crucial parameter in many environmental applications. In recent studies it is strongly recognized that soil surface roughness significantly influences the backscatter of agricultural surface, especially on bare fields. Indeed, while different roughness indices depend on their measurement length, no satisfying roughness parametrization and measurement technique has been found yet, introducing large uncertainty in the interpretation of the radar backscattering. In this study, we introduce a photogrammetric system which consists of a customized consumer grade Canon EOS 5d camera and a reference frame providing ground control points. With the system one can generate digital surface models (DSM) with a minimum size of 1 x 2.5 m2, extendable to any desired size, with a ground x,y- resolution of 2 mm. Using this approach, we generated a set of DSM with sizes ranging from 2.5 m2 to 22 m2, acquired over different roughness conditions representing ploughed, harrowed as well as crusted fields on different test sites. For roughness characterization we calculated in microwave remote sensing common roughness indices such as the RMS- height s and the autocorrelation length l. In an extensive statistical investigation we show the behavior of the roughness indices for different acquisition sizes of the proposed method. Results indicate, compared to results from profiles generated out of the dataset, that using a three dimensional measuring device, the calculated roughness indices are more robust in their estimation. In addition, a strong directional dependency of the proposed roughness indices was observed which could be related to the orientation of the seedbed rows to the acqusition direction. In a geostatistical analysis, we decomposed the acquired roughness indices into different scales, yielding a roughness quantity

  8. Rapid and effective decontamination of chlorophenol-contaminated soil by sorption into commercial polymers: concept demonstration and process modeling.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Solid phase extraction performed with commercial polymer beads to treat soil contaminated by chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as single compounds and in a mixture has been investigated in this study. Soil-water-polymer partition tests were conducted to determine the relative affinities of single compounds in soil-water and polymer-water pairs. Subsequent soil extraction tests were performed with Hytrel 8206, the polymer showing the highest affinity for the tested chlorophenols. Factors that were examined were polymer type, moisture content, and contamination level. Increased moisture content (up to 100%) improved the extraction efficiency for all three compounds. Extraction tests at this upper level of moisture content showed removal efficiencies ≥70% for all the compounds and their ternary mixture, for 24 h of contact time, which is in contrast to the weeks and months, normally required for conventional ex situ remediation processes. A dynamic model characterizing the rate and extent of decontamination was also formulated, calibrated and validated with the experimental data. The proposed model, based on the simplified approach of "lumped parameters" for the mass transfer coefficients, provided very good predictions of the experimental data for the absorptive removal of contaminants from soil at different individual solute levels. Parameters evaluated from calibration by fitting of single compound data, have been successfully applied to predict mixture data, with differences between experimental and predicted data in all cases being ≤3%.

  9. X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil.

  10. Spatial characterization of soil properties and influence in soil formation in oak-grassland of Sierra Morena, S Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román-Sánchez, Andrea; Cáceres, Francisco; Pédèches, Remi; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean oak-grassland ecosystem is very important for the rural economy and for the biodiversity of south-western European countries like Spain and Portugal. Nevertheless these ecosystems are not well characterized especially their soils. In this report soil carbon has been evaluated and related to other properties. The principal factors controlling the structure, productivity and evolution of forest ecosystems are bedrock, climate, relief, vegetation and time. Soil carbon has an important influence in the soil and ecosystem structures. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between relief, soil properties, spatial distribution of soil carbon and their influence in soil formation and geomorphology. This work is part of another study which aims to elucidate the processes involved in the soil formation and to examine their behaviour on long-term with a modelling. In our study area, located in oak-grassland of Sierra Morena, in Cordoba, S Spain, have been studied 67 points at 6 depths in 262 hectares in order to determine carbon content varying between 0-6%, soil properties such as soil depth between 0-4 m, horizon depth and the rocks amount in surface. The relationship between the soil carbon, soil properties and the relief characteristic like slope, aspect, curvature can shed light the processes that affect the mechanisms of bedrock weathering and their interrelationship with geomorphological processes.

  11. SoilSaw{trademark} demonstration. Final report, September 1992--January 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Saugier, K.; Isaac, R.E.

    1996-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has identified leaking underground storage tanks and buried mixed waste at numerous sites within the DOE complex. Preventing these wastes from entering the environment is a challenging task. One method of preventing waste migration is to isolate the contaminants using subsurface containment barriers. Isolation and containment can be accomplished by both in situ and ex situ methods. This report describes a novel in situ construction method of forming vertical containment barriers (slurry walls) using the SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System. The SoilSaw{trademark} Barrier System is shown to be a feasible process for constructing subsurface vertical containment barriers to depths of fifty feet. The process is most efficient in sandy soil (including free flowing sand) with barrier construction rates of over 130 square feet per minute. Productivity diminishes to approximately 30 square feet per minute as soils become harder and more cohesive. The present hardware is designed to form a barrier of approximately 12 inch in width. Additional barrier widths can be constructed with this technology by application of wider jet heads. The requirement for a varied arrangement of barrier widths is an increase in hydraulic horse power and additional jet heads.

  12. Profile of a city: characterizing and classifying urban soils in the city of Ghent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbecque, Nele; Verdoodt, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Worldwide, urban lands are expanding rapidly. Conversion of agricultural and natural landscapes to urban fabric can strongly influence soil properties through soil sealing, excavation, leveling, contamination, waste disposal and land management. Urban lands, often characterized by intensive use, need to deliver many production, ecological and cultural ecosystem services. To safeguard this natural capital for future generations, an improved understanding of biogeochemical characteristics, processes and functions of urban soils in time and space is essential. Additionally, existing (inter)national soil classification systems, based on the identification of soil genetic horizons, do not always allow a functional classification of urban soils. This research aims (1) to gain insight into urban soils and their properties in the city of Ghent (Belgium), and (2) to develop a procedure to functionally incorporate urban soils into existing (inter)national soil classification systems. Undisturbed soil cores (depth up to 1.25 m) are collected at 15 locations in Ghent with different times since development and land uses. Geotek MSCL-scans are taken to determine magnetic susceptibility and gamma density and to obtain high resolution images. Physico-chemical characterization of the soil cores is performed by means of detailed soil profile descriptions, traditional lab analyses, as well as proximal soil sensing techniques (XRF). The first results of this research will be presented and critically discussed to improve future efforts to characterize, classify and evaluate urban soils and their ecosystem services.

  13. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  14. Manufactured Soil Field Demonstration for Constructing Wetlands to Treat Acid Mine Drainage on Abandoned Minelands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    constructing the wetlands including dredged material, residual waste paper fiber, sawdust, mush- room compost , cow manure, processed cow manure, and...Bony + Waste Paper Fiber + Mushroom Compost + BionsoilTM The RSMT procedures (Sturgis and Lee 1999) were applied in a randomized complete block design...than 100 percent Bony, 100 percent Donora, 3BD, and the 4 ERDC TN-DOER-D9 November 2007 fertile commercial potting soil. Blend 1BD was selected for

  15. Model demonstrating the potential for coupled nitrification denitrification in soil aggregates.

    PubMed

    Kremen, Arie; Bear, Jacob; Shavit, Uri; Shaviv, Avi

    2005-06-01

    A model of reactive, multi-species diffusion has been developed to describe N transformations in spherical soil aggregates, emphasizing the effects of irrigation with reclaimed wastewater. Oxygen demand for respiratory activity has been shown to promote the establishment of anaerobic conditions. Aggregate size and soil respiration rate were identified as the most significant parameters governing the existence and extent of the anaerobic volume in aggregates. The inclusion of kinetic models describing mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification facilitated the investigation of coupled nitrification/denitrification (CND), subject to O2 availability. N-transformations are shown to be affected by effluent-borne NH4+-N content, in addition to elevated BOD and pH levels. Their incremental contribution to O2 availability has been found to be secondary to respiratory activity. At the aggregate level, significant differences between apparent and gross rates of N-transformations were predicted (e.g., NH4+ oxidation and N2 formation), resulting from diffusive constraints due to aggregate size. With increasing anaerobic volume, the effective nitrification rate determined at the aggregates level decreases until its contribution to nitrification is negligible. It was found that the nitrification process was predominantly limited to aggregates <0.25 cm. Assuming that nitrification is the main source for NO3- formation, denitrification efficiency is predicted to peak in medium-sized aggregates, where aerobic and anaerobic conditions coexist, supporting CND. In effluent-irrigated soils, the predicted NO2- formation rate in small aggregates is enhanced when compared to freshwater-irrigated soils. The difference vanishes with increasing aggregate size as anaerobic NO2- consumption exceeds aerobic NO2- formation due to the coupling of nitrification and denitrification.

  16. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS USING FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed characterization of the underlying and adjacent soils near a chrome plating shop utilized field-portable X- ray fluorescence (XRF) as a screening tool. XRF permitted real-time acquisition of estimates for total metal content of soils. A trailer-mounted soil coring unit...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS USING FIELD-PORTABLE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed characterization of the underlying and adjacent soils near a chrome plating shop utilized field-portable X- ray fluorescence (XRF) as a screening tool. XRF permitted real-time acquisition of estimates for total metal content of soils. A trailer-mounted soil coring unit...

  19. Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Lunar Highland Regolith: Lessons Learned from Mare Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Cahill, J. T.; Patchen, A.; Pieters, C.; Morris, R.; Keller, L. P.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has begun study of the <45 m fractions of ten representative highland soils, chosen for their contrasting maturities. Difficulties are addressed in the modal and chemical analyses of these highland soils. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Lunar Highland Regolith: Lessons Learned from Mare Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Cahill, J. T.; Patchen, A.; Pieters, C.; Morris, R.; Keller, L. P.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has begun study of the <45 m fractions of ten representative highland soils, chosen for their contrasting maturities. Difficulties are addressed in the modal and chemical analyses of these highland soils. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Characterization of a soil ilmenite developed from basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulart, A. T.; de Jesus Filho, M. F.; Fabris, J. D.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1994-12-01

    A natural ilmenite was extracted from the silt fraction of a soil developed from basalt of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample was characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Mössbauer spectrum at 293 K shows two doublets: a major subspectrum of Fe2+ (relative area 74%) and a minor one of Fe3+ (26%). An incipient magnetic structure appears at 85 K, with a broadline sextet. These results may be explained by supposing that the separate is a solid solution xFeTiO3 · (1- x)Fe2O3, with x=0.85, which is magnetically ordered at low temperature. The lattice parameters for this hexagonal structure are a=0.5082±0.0001 nm and c=1.398±0.001 nm.

  2. Mechanistic characterization of adsorption and slow desorption of phenanthrene aged in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Abdul Abu; Steve Smith

    2006-09-01

    Long-term adsorption of phenanthrene to soils was characterized in a silt-loam (LHS), a sandy soil (SBS) from an uncontaminated area of a former coal treatment facility in the north of England and a podzolized soil (CNS) by use of the Polanyi-Manes model, a Langmuir-type model, and a black carbon-water distribution coefficient (K{sub BC}) at a relative aqueous concentration (C{sub e}/S{sub w}) of 0.002 - 0.32. Aqueous desorption kinetic tests and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) were also used to evaluate phenanthrene diffusivities and desorption activation energies. Adsorption contribution in soils was 48-70% after 30 days and 64-95% after 270 days. Significant increases in adsorption capacity with aging suggest that accessibility of phenanthrene to fractions of SBS soil matrix was controlled by sorptive diffusion at narrow meso- and micropore constrictions. Similar trends were not significant for LHS silt-loam or CNS podzol. Analysis of TPD profiles reveal desorption activation energies of 35-53 kJ/mol and diffusivities of 1.6 x 10{sup -7-}9.7 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}/s. TPD tests also indicate that the fraction of phenanthrene mass not diffusing from soils was located within micropores and narrow width mesopores with a corresponding volume of 1.83 10{sup -5-}6.3710{sup -5} cm{sup 3}/g. These values were consistent with the modeled adsorption contributions, thus demonstrating the need for such complimentary analytical approach in the risk assessment of organic contaminants. 41 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Effect of Spatial Resolution for Characterizing Soil Properties from Imaging Spectrometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of quantifying soil constituents over large areas using airborne hyperspectral data [0.35 - 2.5 μm] in an ensemble bootstrapping lasso algorithmic framework has been demonstrated previously [1]. However the effects of coarsening the spatial resolution of hyperspectral data on the quantification of soil constituents are unknown. We use Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected at 7.6m resolution over Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway for up-scaling and generating multiple coarser resolution datasets including the 60m Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) like data. HyspIRI is a proposed visible shortwave/thermal infrared mission, which will provide global data over a spectral range of 0.35 - 2.5μm at a spatial resolution of 60m. Our results show that the lasso method, which is based on point scale observational data, is scalable. We found consistent good model performance (R2) values (0.79 < R2 < 0.82) and correct classifications as per USDA soil texture classes at multiple spatial resolutions. The results further demonstrate that the attributes of the pdf for different soil constituents across the landscape and the within-pixel variance are well preserved across scales. Our analysis provides a methodological framework with a sufficient set of metrics for assessing the performance of scaling up analysis from point scale observational data and may be relevant for other similar remote sensing studies. [1] Dutta, D.; Goodwell, A.E.; Kumar, P.; Garvey, J.E.; Darmody, R.G.; Berretta, D.P.; Greenberg, J.A., "On the Feasibility of Characterizing Soil Properties From AVIRIS Data," Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on, vol.53, no.9, pp.5133,5147, Sept. 2015. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2417547.

  4. Soil Physical, Chemical, and Thermal Characterization, Teller Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Graham, David; Kholodov, Alexander; Busey, Bob; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Wilson, Cathy; Moon, Ji-Won

    2017-02-08

    This dataset provides the results of physical, chemical, and thermal characterization of soils at the Teller Road Site, Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Soil pits were dug from 7-14 September 2016 at designated Intensive Stations 2 through 9 at the Teller Road MM 27 Site. This dataset includes field observations and descriptions of soil layers or horizons, field measurements of soil volumetric water content, soil temperature, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Laboratory measurements of soil properties include gravimetric water content, bulk density, volumetric water content, and total carbon and nitrogen.

  5. Bearing capacity and characterization of compressible Clayev and Silty Foundation soils in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, C. J.

    1980-12-01

    A characterization of alluvial soils in two river systems from the surface down to bedrock is presented. Study sites were located in alluvial deposits where fill settlement is a problem. Continuous undisturbed soil samples were taken. Unconfined compression and consolidation tests were run on the soil layers. The field testing included the standard penetration test. Inclinometers were installed in an attempt to determine if creep existed in the weak soil layers of the alluvium.

  6. Links between plant and rhizoplane bacterial communities in grassland soils, characterized using molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Naoise; Daniell, Timothy J; Singh, Brajesh K; Papert, Artemis; McNicol, James W; Prosser, James I

    2005-11-01

    Molecular analysis of grassland rhizosphere soil has demonstrated complex and diverse bacterial communities, with resultant difficulties in detecting links between plant and bacterial communities. These studies have, however, analyzed "bulk" rhizosphere soil, rather than rhizoplane communities, which interact most closely with plants through utilization of root exudates. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plant species was a major driver for bacterial rhizoplane community composition on individual plant roots. DNA extracted from individual roots was used to determine plant identity, by analysis of the plastid tRNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron, and plant-related bacterial communities. Bacterial communities were characterized by analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes using two fingerprinting methods: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Links between plant and bacterial rhizoplane communities could not be detected by visual examination of T-RFLP patterns or DGGE banding profiles. Statistical analysis of fingerprint patterns did not reveal a relationship between bacterial community composition and plant species but did demonstrate an influence of plant community composition. The data also indicated that topography and other, uncharacterized, environmental factors are important in driving bacterial community composition in grassland soils. T-RFLP had greater potential resolving power than DGGE, but findings from the two methods were not significantly different.

  7. Possible stakeholder concerns regarding volatile organic compound in arid soils integrated demonstration technologies not evaluated in the stakeholder involvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.

    1995-12-01

    The Volatile Organic Compounds in Arid Soils Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) supported the demonstration of a number of innovative technologies, not all of which were evaluated in the integrated demonstration`s stakeholder involvement program. These technologies have been organized into two categories and the first category ranked in order of priority according to interest in the evaluation of the technology. The purpose of this report is to present issues stakeholders would likely raise concerning each of the technologies in light of commentary, insights, data requirements, concerns, and recommendations offered during the VOC-Arid ID`s three-year stakeholder involvement, technology evaluation program. A secondary purpose is to provide a closeout status for each of the technologies associated with the VOC-Arid ID. This report concludes with a summary of concerns and requirements that stakeholders have for all innovative technologies.

  8. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2009-04-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-10-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single-blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. Different PDPs evaluate the analyses of simulated headspace gases (HSGs), constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  10. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Ticoş, C M; Scurtu, A; Toader, D; Banu, N

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  11. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Scurtu, A.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  12. An in-situ land treatment demonstration employing alternative bioremediation supplements on historically impacted soils

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M.B.; Portier, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Two methods for bioassay of toxic metals were used to analyze landfarm soil bioremediation treatments for petroleum hydrocarbons. The MetPLATE{sup TM} is based on enzyme inhibition in a mutant strain of E. coli by bioavailable metals. The Microtox{sup TM} assay measures the light output of the bioluminescent marine bacteria Photobacterium phosphoreum before and after exposure to a water soluble sample. The effective concentration for 50% was determined for fractions extracted by methylene chloride after 5 and 15 minutes exposure time. In both cases, the toxicity appeared to increase because the decreasing effective concentration means less sample causes the same response. MetPLATE showed an increase in toxicity of the samples before the toxicity decreased on day 187. A treatment with nutrients and Permeox appeared to have the least metals toxicity.

  13. Initial Analyses and Demonstration of a Soil Moisture Smart Sensor Web Using Data Assimilation and Optimal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M.; Entekhabi, D.; Liu, M.; Teneketzid, D.; Goykhman, Y.; Shuman, D.; Mahajan, A.; Nayyar, A.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a new concept for a smart sensor web technology for measurements of soil moisture that include spaceborne and in-situ assets. The objective of the technology is to enable a guided/adaptive sampling strategy for the in-situ sensor network to meet the measurement validation objectives of the spaceborne sensors with respect to resolution and accuracy. The sensor nodes are guided to perform as a macro-instrument measuring processes at the scale of the satellite footprint, hence meeting the requirements for the difficult problem of validation of satellite measurements. The science measurement considered is the surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture estimated from satellite radars and radiometers, with calibration and validation using in- situ sensors. Satellites allow global mapping but with coarse footprints. The total variability in soil-moisture fields comes from variability in processes on various scales. Installing an in-situ network to sample the field for all ranges of variability is impractical. However, a sparser but smarter network can provide the validation estimates by operating in a guided fashion with guidance from its own sparse measurements. The feedback and control take place in the context of a dynamic data assimilation system. The overall design of the smart sensor web including the control architecture, assimilation framework, and actuation hardware will be presented in this paper. The results of initial numerical and laboratory demonstrations of the sensor web concept, which includes a small number of soil moisture sensors and their physical measurement model, a dynamic soil moisture time-evolution model (SWAP), and an optimal control strategy will then be shown.

  14. Characterization of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil from an alpine former military site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dechao; Margesin, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    We characterized the culturable, heterotrophic bacterial community in soil collected from a former alpine military site contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. The physiologically active eubacterial community, as revealed by fluorescence-in situ-hybridization, accounted for 14.9 % of the total (DAPI-stained) bacterial community. 4.0 and 1.2 % of the DAPI-stained cells could be attributed to culturable, heterotrophic bacteria able to grow at 20 and 10 °C, respectively. The majority of culturable bacterial isolates (23/28 strains) belonged to the Proteobacteria with a predominance of Alphaproteobacteria. The remaining isolates were affiliated with the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Five strains could be identified as representatives of novel species. Characterization of the 28 strains demonstrated their adaptation to the temperature and nutrient conditions prevailing in the studied soil. One-third of the strains was able to grow at subzero temperatures (-5 °C). Studies on the effect of temperature on growth and lipase production with two selected strains demonstrated their low-temperature adaptation.

  15. Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements for in Situ Characterization of Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic separation is a viable method for concentration of components of lunar soils and rocks for use as feedstocks for manufacture of metals, oxygen, and for recovery of volatiles such as He-3. Work with lunar materials indicates that immature soils are the best candidates for magnetic beneficiation. The magnetic susceptibility at which selected soil components such as anorthite, ilmenite, or metallic iron are separated is not affected by soil maturity, but the recovery of the concentrated components is. Increasing soil maturity lowers recovery. Mature soils contain significant amounts of glass-encased metallic iron. Magnetic susceptibility, which is sensitive to metallic iron content, can be used to measure soil maturity. The relationship between the ratio of magnetic susceptibility and iron oxide and the conventional maturity parameter, I(sub s)/FeO, ferromagnetic resonant intensity divided by iron oxide content is given. The magnetic susceptibilities were determined using apparatus designed for magnetic separation of the lunar soils.

  16. Characterization and on-sky demonstration of an integrated photonic spectrograph for astronomy.

    PubMed

    Cvetojevic, N; Lawrence, J S; Ellis, S C; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Haynes, R; Horton, A

    2009-10-12

    We present results from the first on-sky demonstration of a prototype astronomical integrated photonic spectrograph (IPS) using the Anglo-Australian Telescope near-infrared imaging spectrometer (IRIS2) at Siding Spring Observatory to observe atmospheric molecular OH emission lines. We have succeeded in detecting upwards of 27 lines, and demonstrated the practicality of the IPS device for astronomy. Furthermore, we present a laboratory characterization of the device, which is a modified version of a commercial arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer. We measure the spectral resolution full-width-half-maximum to be 0.75 +/- 0.05 nm (giving R = lambda/deltalambda = 2100 +/- 150 at 1500 nm). We find the free spectral range to be 57.4 +/- 0.6 nm and the peak total efficiency to be approximately 65%. Finally, we briefly discuss the future steps required to realize an astronomical instrument based on this technology concept.

  17. Modeling ecological data in soil ecosystems: A demonstration for heavy metal transport by earthworms using Stella II{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, J.M.; Tomlin, A.D.; Protz, R. ||

    1995-06-01

    Various modeling approaches have been developed for use in aquatic systems, but few exist for terrestrial systems. Using the modeling application software, Stella II{trademark}, we incorporated field data to parameterize the storage compartments and flux rates amongst compartments. This software is intuitive and easy to master yet robust in its application to many types of ecological systems. The applicability of Stella II{trademark} to modeling field data was demonstrated using contaminant cadmium residues as tracers of sludge applications to land near Guelph, Canada. Earthworms were found to be very significant in transporting the Cd (and the sludge) in this soil ecosystem. The utility of this modeling procedure can be extended to carbon and nutrient cycling as well as xenobiotics such as heavy metals and pesticides to predict their transport in soil ecosystems.

  18. Evaluation of a soil incubation method to characterize nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of slow-release fertilizers (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers, and are product-specific, based on the regulation and analysis of each SRF and CRF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize SRF and CRF materials, no standardized, validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of these materials in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify product claims and material performance. A soil incubation column leaching procedure was evaluated to determine its suitability as a standard method to estimate nitrogen (N) release patterns of SRFs and CRFs during 180 days. The influence of three soil/sand ratios, three incubation temperatures, and four soils on method behavior was assessed using five SRFs and three CRFs. In general, the highest soil/sand ratio increased the N release rate of all materials, but this effect was more marked for the SRFs. Temperature had the greatest influence on N release rates. For CRFs, the initial N release rates and the percentage N released/day increased as temperature increased. For SRFs, raising the temperature from 25 to 35 degreesC increased initial N release rate and the total cumulative N released, and almost doubled the percentage released/day. The percentage N released/day from all products generally increased as the texture of the soil changed from sandy to loamy (lowa>California>Pennsylvania>Florida). The soil incubation technique was demonstrated to be robust and reliable for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and variations in soil/sand ratio, temperature, and soil had little effect on the results.

  19. Front-End Electronics Characterization, Production, and QA for the Majorana Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elia, Sophia; Majorana Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay ββ (0 ν) of the isotope 76Ge. In anticipation of the future tonne-scale experiments, its goal is to demonstrate a path forward to a background rate of one cnt/(ROI-t-y) in a 4 keV region around the Q-value of the 76Ge ββ (0 ν) . Such a background requirement significantly constrains the design of the front end electronics. Low background and low noise qualifications are a necessity. This poster first presents the characterization and noise performance in single and multi detector systems of the front end electronics developed for Majorana. The poster next reviews the full production process and finally describes the Quality Assurance tests developed for the electronics before installation in the experiment. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay ββ (0 ν) of the isotope 76Ge. In anticipation of the future tonne-scale experiments, its goal is to demonstrate a path forward to a background rate of one cnt/(ROI-t-y) in a 4 keV region around the Q-value of the 76Ge ββ (0 ν) . Such a background requirement significantly constrains the design of the front end electronics. Low background and low noise qualifications are a necessity. This poster first presents the characterization and noise performance in single and multi detector systems of the front end electronics developed for Majorana. The poster next reviews the full production process and finally describes the Quality Assurance tests developed for the electronics before installation in the experiment. We acknowledge support from the Office of Nuclear Physics in the DOE Office of Science, the Particle and Nuclear Astrophysics Program of the National Science Foundation and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  20. Hanford tanks initiative work plan -- subsurface characterization to support the closure-readiness demonstration for tank 241-AX-104

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D.B.

    1996-09-27

    This document presents a plan for subsurface investigation near 241-AX-104 Single-Shell tank. Objectives of the investigation are soil sampling and analyses (physical and chemical), local stratigraphic correlation, groundwater background characterization, and geophysical surveys. The primary purpose of the investigation is to supply physical and hydraulic properties for numerical modeling of vadose zone flow and transport.

  1. Characterization of the Process Mechanical Cell at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John; Schneider, Ken; Choroser, Jeff; Hughes, Karl

    2003-02-27

    The West Valley Demonstration Project has initiated decontamination and dismantlement (D&D) of the most highly radioactive and contaminated cells in a former spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The goals of the D&D project are to remove loose debris in the cells and estimate the residual radioactivity level of legacy plant equipment. To support accomplishment of these goals, a unique characterization approach was developed to gather the information to meet anticipated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) acceptance criteria for remote-handled transuranic waste, and to facilitate segregation and packaging operations. Implementation of the characterization approach included the development and use of innovative, remote technology for measuring gamma radiation within the hot cell. The technology was used to identify and quantify radiation from individual debris items in radiation fields up to 2,000 R/hr (20 sieverts/hr). Sampling and analysis of the debris were also performed via remote handling means. Significant challenges associated with characterizing the highly radioactive and highly contaminated hot cells were encountered. The innovative solutions for meeting these challenges are applicable throughout the Department of Energy Complex and help support the goal of targeting D&D efforts toward reducing risks to public health and the environment.

  2. Hydraulic characterization of a sealed loamy soil in a Mediterranean vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagna, Vincenzo; Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Guaitoli, Fabio; Iovino, Massimo; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Water infiltration measurements constitute a common way for an indirect characterization of sealed/crusted soils (Alagna et al., 2013). The Beerkan Estimation of Soil Transfer (BEST) parameters procedure by Lassabatere et al. (2006) is very attractive for practical use since it allows an estimation of both the soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. The BEST method considers certain analytical formulae for the hydraulic characteristic curves and estimates their shape parameters, which are texture dependent, from particle-size analysis by physical-empirical pedotransfer functions. Structure dependent scale parameters are estimated by a beerkan experiment, i.e. a three-dimensional (3D) field infiltration experiment at ideally zero pressure head. BEST substantially facilitates the hydraulic characterization of unsaturated soils, and it is gaining popularity in soil science (Bagarello et al., 2014a; Di Prima, 2015; Di Prima et al., 2016b). Bagarello et al. (2014b) proposed a beerkan derived procedure to explain surface runoff and disturbance phenomena at the soil surface occurring during intense rainfall events. Di Prima et al. (2016a) applied this methodology in a vineyard with a sandy-loam texture. These authors compared this simple methodology with rainfall simulation experiments establishing a physical link between the two methodologies through the kinetic energy of the rainfall and the gravitational potential energy of the water used for the beerkan runs. They also indirectly demonstrated the occurrence of a certain degree of compaction and mechanical breakdown using a minidisk infiltrometer (Decagon, 2014). With this device, they reported a reduction of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity by 2.3 times, due to the seal formation. The ability of the BEST method to distinguish between crusted and non-crusted soils was demonstrated by Souza et al. (2014). However, the potential of the beerkan runs to detect the effect of the seal on flow and

  3. Characterization of interactions between soil solid phase and soil solution in the initial ecosystem development phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Claudia; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    analyzed in two weeks intervals for C and N contents (including δ13C), pH and ion concentrations. The results show that the initial phase of the experiment is characterized by intensive leaching of C and N from the litter and transformation as well as leaching from the substrate. Calcium leaching is caused mainly by carbonate dissolution from the substrates. In contrast, magnesium and especially potassium are leached in initially high amounts from the litter, but are strongly retained in the soil. The addition of litter promotes microbial CO2 production as shown by a strong increase of respiration due to easily available organic substances at the beginning of the experiment. Litter of L. corniculatus induced also a high initial peak in N2O emission as well as higher nitrification and NO3-N leaching. Leaching of DOC and TDN was clearly affected by the substrate texture, illustrated by intensive DOC leaching from the sand at the beginning of the experiment but shifting later to higher leaching rates from the loamy sand. References: Gerwin W, Schaaf W, Biemelt D, Fischer A, Winter S, Hüttl RF (2009) The artificial catchment 'Chicken Creek' (Lusatia, Germany) - a landscape laboratory for interdisciplinary studies of initial ecosystem development. Ecolological Engineering 35, 1786-1796.

  4. Mineralogical and chemical characterization of lunar highland soils: Insights into the space weathering of soils on airless bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Pieters, Carlé; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Dong-Hwa S.; Morris, Richard V.; Keller, Lindsay P.; McKay, David S.

    2010-02-01

    With reflectance spectroscopy, one is measuring only properties of the fine-grained regolith most affected by space weathering. The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has undertaken the task of coordinated characterization of lunar soils, with respect to their mineralogical and chemical makeup. It is these lunar soils that are being used as “ground truth” for all airless bodies. Modal abundances and chemistries of minerals and glasses in the finest size fractions (20-45, 10-20, and <10 μm) of four Apollo 14 and six Apollo 16 highland soils have been determined, as well as their bulk chemistry and IS/FeO values. Bidirectional reflectance measurements (0.3-2.6 μm) of all samples were performed in the Reflectance Experiment Laboratory. A significant fraction of nanophase Fe0 (np-Fe0) appears to reside in agglutinitic glasses. However, as grain size of a soil decreases, the percentage of total iron present as np-Fe0 increases significantly, whereas the agglutinitic glass content rises only slightly; this is evidence for a large contribution to the IS/FeO values from the surface-correlated nanophase Fe0, particularly in the <10 μm size fraction. The compositions of the agglutinitic glasses in these fine fractions of the highland soils are different from the bulk chemistry of that size; however, compositional trends of the glasses are not the same as those observed for mare soils. It is apparent that the glasses in the highland soils contain chemical components from outside their terrains. It is proposed that the Apollo 16 soils have been adulterated by the addition of impact-transported soil components from surrounding maria.

  5. Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Lunar Highland Soils: Insights into the Space Weathering of Soils on Airless Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Patchen, Allan; Taylor, Dong-Hwa S.; Pieters, Carle; Morris, Richard V.; Keller, Lindsay P.; McKay, David S.

    2010-01-01

    With reflectance spectroscopy, one is measuring only properties of the fine-grained regolith, most affected by space weathering. The Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has undertaken the task of coordinated characterization of lunar soils, with respect to their mineralogical and chemical makeup. It is these lunar soils that are being used as "ground-truth" for all air30 less bodies. Modal abundances and chemistries of minerals and glasses in the finest size fractions (20-45, 10-20, and <10 microns) of four Apollo 14 and six Apollo 16 highland soils have been determined, as well as their bulk chemistry and IS/FeO values. Bi-directional reflectance measurements (0.3-2.6 microns) of all samples were performed in the RELAB. A significant fraction of nanophase Fe(sup 0) (np-Fe(sup 0)) appears to reside in agglutinitic glasses. However, as grain size of a soil decreases, the percentage of total iron present as np-Fe0 increases significantly, whereas the agglutinitic glass content rises only slightly; this is evidence for a large contribution to the IS/FeO values from the surface-correlated nanophase Fe(sup 0), particularly in the <10 micron size fraction. The compositions of the agglutinitic glasses in these fine fractions of the highland soils are different from the bulk-chemistry of that size; however, compositional trends of the glasses are not the same as those observed for mare soils. It is apparent that the glasses in the highland soils contain chemical components from outside their terrains. It is proposed that the Apollo 16 soils have been adulterated by the addition of impact-transported soil components from surrounding maria.

  6. Regression-kriging for characterizing soils with remotesensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yufeng; Thomasson, J. Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Wooten, James

    2011-09-01

    In precision agriculture regression has been used widely to quantify the relationship between soil attributes and other environmental variables. However, spatial correlation existing in soil samples usually violates a basic assumption of regression: sample independence. In this study, a regression-kriging method was attempted in relating soil properties to the remote sensing image of a cotton field near Vance, Mississippi, USA. The regression-kriging model was developed and tested by using 273 soil samples collected from the field. The result showed that by properly incorporating the spatial correlation information of regression residuals, the regression-kriging model generally achieved higher prediction accuracy than the stepwise multiple linear regression model. Most strikingly, a 50% increase in prediction accuracy was shown in soil sodium concentration. Potential usages of regression-kriging in future precision agriculture applications include real-time soil sensor development and digital soil mapping.

  7. Summary report of the drilling technologies tested at the Integrated Demonstration Project for cleanup of organic contaminants in soils and groundwater at non-arid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of volatile organic compounds in soil and groundwater at SRS. The overall goal of the program is the demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Horizontal environmental well installation technology was one of the remediation technologies that was demonstrated at SRS. Four distinctly different systems of directional drilling and horizontal well installations were successfully demonstrated and evaluated. The four systems were developed in the petroleum industry, the river crossing industry, and the utility industry. The transfer of information concerning the horizontal environmental well installations has been facilitated by publishing a series of reports describing each individual demonstration. This is the final report in the series and provides a comprehensive evaluation of all four systems. The objectives of this report are to summarize the strengths and weaknesses of each drilling technology, describe and compare the problems encountered by each drilling technology, compare the compatibility of each technology with varying logistical and geological conditions, and discuss the expense of using each technology. This report is designed to be a horizontal environmental well reference document for the environmental remediation industry. An environmental problem holder may use this report to evaluate a directional drilling technology for use at his/her site.

  8. Risk-based ecological soil quality criteria for the characterization of contaminated soils. Combination of chemical and biological tools.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Dolores; Vega, María Milagrosa; Tarazona, José Vicente

    2006-08-01

    This paper describes the development of soil quality criteria for the characterization of soils focused on the potential risk to the ecosystem. The approach combines both Generic Soil Quality standards (GSQs) for individual chemicals and direct ecotoxicity assays on soil samples taken from the site. Criteria establish three main risk levels with their corresponding trigger values. The trigger values to determine high risk or "polluted" soils are exclusively based on direct toxicity assessments. The trigger values for the other categories are established by a combination of the application of GSQs and the results of bioassays. Low-risk is assumed when no toxicity is observed and GSQs based on precautionary ecotoxicity thresholds are not exceeded; high-risk must be considered if acute toxicity above the proposed trigger value is observed in soil or leachate samples. In between these levels, the risk cannot be elucidated and a site-specific assessment is required. The GSQs take into account the current or future land use, thus defining three categories: industrial soils, urban/residential soils and natural/agricultural/forest soils, each of them with different ecological requirements. The GSQ values are established following an inverse risk assessment methodology, integrating ecotoxicity and exposure models and setting the soil levels associated to pre-established criteria for the assumption of low risk. The proposed methodology covers all relevant ecological receptors and processes, soil organisms, potential contamination of ground and surface waters, and exposure of terrestrial vertebrates due to bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Exposure routes and protection criteria are defined in each protection goal. The relevance of each receptor and route is established according to the land use.

  9. Demonstration of the "conditioning effect" in soil organic matter in support of a pore deformation mechanism for sorption hysteresis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuefeng; Pignatello, Joseph J

    2002-11-01

    Hysteresis, or isotherm nonsingularity, is a confounding issue in sorption research that undermines the commonplace assumption of reversibility in environmental fate and effects models for organic compounds in soil media. Until now, a molecular-level mechanism for true hysteresis when the sorbate is retrievable, structurally intact, has not been forthcoming. We show here that two organic soils exhibit the "conditioning effect", which refers to the enhancement in sorption of a compound following brief exposure of the sorbent to high concentrations of the same or a similar compound. The conditioning effect has been used in support of a pore deformation mechanism for hysteresis in glassy polymers. By this mechanism, the sorbate causes irreversible changes in the structure of internal nanopores (holes) in the organic matrix upon its sorption. Trichloromethane was the test solute for dichloromethane-conditioned Pahokee soil (44.6% organic carbon), and chlorobenzene and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were the test solutes for benzene-conditioned Mount Pleasant silt loam (4.5% organic carbon). In each case, the isotherm of the test solute in the conditioned soil was shifted upward of, and was less linear than, the corresponding isotherm in the nonconditioned control. Application of the polymer-based Dual-Mode (partitioning-hole filling) Model shows an expansion of the hole domain as a result of conditioning. The memory of the conditioning effect persists for longer than 96 days at 21 degrees C but is lost upon heating the sample at 100 degrees C. A three-step (sorption-desorption-resorption) experiment demonstrated hysteresis followed by enhanced resorption, implying a mechanistic relationship between hysteresis and the conditioning effect. The results indicate that irreversible pore deformation is a mechanism for hysteresis in natural organic matter materials and suggest that slow matrix relaxation may contribute to the often-observed long-term resistance of some contaminants to

  10. Detection and characterization of Clostridium species in soil of Zambia.

    PubMed

    Hang'ombe, B M; Isogai, E; Lungu, J; Mubita, C; Nambota, A; Kirisawa, R; Kimura, K; Isogai, H

    2000-10-01

    In the retrospective study of soil-borne diseases of cattle in Zambia, malignant edema and blackquarter were widespread. One hundred and sixty-five cases with malignant edema and 103 cases with blackquarter were reported between 1985 and 1997. It was found that specific soil-conditions associate the emergence of the soil-borne diseases. Soil samples from five areas in Zambia were examined for the presence of genus Clostridium. Direct immunofluorescent assay (IFA) examination showed that C. septicum, C. novyi and C. chauvoei were detected in the soil of specific areas in Zambia, respectively. Causal organisms such as C. perfringens were isolated from the soil samples. The information of area-specific distribution of Clositridium species may give an efficient program in protecting cattle and man.

  11. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  12. FRACTURE ENHANCED SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION AT THE A-014 OUTFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Richard Hall , R

    2008-03-12

    Data collected during this study show that the performance of hydraulically fractured wells (with respect to mass removal rates) may tend to decrease with time following precipitation events. These effects are due to temporary increases in water saturation in the formation within the vicinity of the fractures, therefore, the wells should tend to rebound during subsequent dry periods. The data available for fractured well versus conventional well performance (with respect to flow rate versus vacuum pressure) are limited in this study. However, the data that we have to draw from suggest that, with the possible exception of a few extreme examples, hydraulically fractured wells tend to perform better than conventional wells during soil vapor extraction (SVE) operation at the A-14 Outfall. The pancake like geometry associated with hydraulic fractures also leads to a significant increase in zone of influence (ZOI), as compared to conventional wells. The increase in ZOI is due to the radially extending, horizontal, high-permeability conduit nature of the hydraulic fracture, however, air-flow into the fracture is predominately vertical (occurring at right angles to the fracture plane). Flow rates from above and below the fracture will tend to be equivalent when the formation is homogeneous, however, in the case of directionally fining depositional sequences flow rates will be greater from the direction of increasing permeability. The Upland Unit is a fining upward sequence, therefore flow rates (and contaminant mass flow rates) will tend to be higher below the fracture. This suggests that emplacing the fractures slightly above the source zone is an important strategy for accelerating contaminant removal at the A-014 Outfall site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. However, due to the multitude of previous borings at the A-014 Outfall site, the shallower fractures failed. More than 2500 lbs of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) were removed during approximately 6

  13. Payload characterization for CubeSat demonstration of MEMS deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinan, Anne; Cahoy, Kerri; Webber, Matthew; Belikov, Ruslan; Bendek, Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Coronagraphic space telescopes require wavefront control systems for high-contrast imaging applications such as exoplanet direct imaging. High-actuator-count MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) are a key element of these wavefront control systems yet have not been flown in space long enough to characterize their on-orbit performance. The MEMS Deformable Mirror CubeSat Testbed is a conceptual nanosatellite demonstration of MEMS DM and wavefront sensing technology. The testbed platform is a 3U CubeSat bus. Of the 10 x 10 x 34.05 cm (3U) available volume, a 10 x 10 x 15 cm space is reserved for the optical payload. The main purpose of the payload is to characterize and calibrate the onorbit performance of a MEMS deformable mirror over an extended period of time (months). Its design incorporates both a Shack Hartmann wavefront sensor (internal laser illumination), and a focal plane sensor (used with an external aperture to image bright stars). We baseline a 32-actuator Boston Micromachines Mini deformable mirror for this mission, though the design is flexible and can be applied to mirrors from other vendors. We present the mission design and payload architecture and discuss experiment design, requirements, and performance simulations.

  14. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, hydrology and microbiology of the in-situ air stripping demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, C.A.; Looney, B.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Hazen, T.C.; Kaback, D.S.

    1991-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is the location of an Integrated Demonstration Project designed to evaluate innovative remediation technologies for environmental restoration at sites contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. This demonstration utilizes directionally drilled horizontal wells to deliver gases and extract contaminants from the subsurface. Phase I of the Integrated Demonstration focused on the application and development of in-situ air stripping technologies to remediate soils and sediments above and below the water table as well as groundwater contaminated with volatile organic contaminants. The objective of this report is to provide baseline information on the geology, geochemistry, hydrology, and microbiology of the demonstration site prior to the test. The distribution of contaminants in soils and sediments in the saturated zone and groundwater is emphasized. These data will be combined with data collected after the demonstration in order to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air stripping. New technologies for environmental characterization that were evaluated include depth discrete groundwater sampling (HydroPunch) and three-dimensional modeling of contaminant data.

  15. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Marschman, Steven C.; Warmann, Stephan A.; Rusch, Chris

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology, has established the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) to conduct the research and development activities related to storage, transportation, and disposal of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The mission of the UFDC is to identify alternatives and conduct scientific research and technology development to enable storage, transportation and disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and wastes generated by existing and future nuclear fuel cycles. The UFDC Storage and Transportation staffs are responsible for addressing issues regarding the extended or long-term storage of UNF and its subsequent transportation. The near-term objectives of the Storage and Transportation task are to use a science-based approach to develop the technical bases to support the continued safe and secure storage of UNF for extended periods, subsequent retrieval, and transportation. While low burnup fuel [that characterized as having a burnup of less than 45 gigawatt days per metric tonne uranium (GWD/MTU)] has been stored for nearly three decades, the storage of high burnup used fuels is more recent. The DOE has funded a demonstration project to confirm the behavior of used high burnup fuel under prototypic conditions. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is leading a project team to develop and implement the Test Plan to collect this data from a UNF dry storage system containing high burnup fuel. The Draft Test Plan for the demonstration outlines the data to be collected; the high burnup fuel to be included; the technical data gaps the data will address; and the storage system design, procedures, and licensing necessary to implement the Test Plan. To provide data that is most relevant to high burnup fuel in dry storage, the design of the test storage system must closely mimic real conditions high burnup SNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying

  16. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; Miles, L.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earth's surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil. This presentation describes a new and less expensive technique for SM as well as RZSM direct measurement using Signal of Opportunity transmitters. Being less expensive and needing only passive simple RF receiver, the SoOp concept has the potential for being used for space borne applications, thus providing global SM and RZSM measurements. This study will describe

  17. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Alicia; Deshpande, Manohar; O'Neill, Peggy; Miles, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earth's surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil. This presentation describes a new and less expensive technique for SM as well as RZSM direct measurement using Signal of Opportunity transmitters. Being less expensive and needing only passive simple RF receiver, the SoOp concept has the potential for being used for space borne applications, thus providing global SM and RZSM measurements. This study will describe

  18. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-01-31

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP for boxed waste assay systems. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO’s). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the boxed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a modified standard waste box (SWB) emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. An SWB is a waste box with ends designed specifically to fit the TRUPACT-II shipping container. SWB’s will be used to package a substantial volume of the TRU waste for disposal. These PDP sample

  19. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil provides ecosystem services, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulates emissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agro-ecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about so...

  20. IN SITU TREATMENT OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH MANUFACTURED GAS PLANT WASTES, DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.; L. John Fahy

    1997-04-01

    The contained recovery of oily waste (CROW{trademark}) process developed by Western Research Institute (WRI) removes organic contaminants from the subsurface by means of adaptation of technology used for secondary and heavy oil recovery. The CROW technology was successfully tested in the laboratory as part of a project for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SITE Program's Emerging Technology Program (Johnson and Guffey 1990). The experimental program consisted of several one- and three-dimensional hot-water flushing tests to simulate the process. The tests were conducted with organically saturated, sand packed tubes and blocks. These experiments showed that hot-water flushing could reduce the organic contaminant content by approximately 60%. Further testing with totally biodegradable chemicals showed that the removal rate could be increased to approximately 90%. Additional testing showed that the CROW process did not hinder but helped in the biodegradation of the residual organics (Johnson and Leuschner 1992). Based on the laboratory performance of the process, the EPA advanced the process to the SITE Demonstration Program. Further development of the process has included the completion of a pilot test at an active wood treatment facility. The pilot test provided additional information for the design of a field-scale remediation effort in addition to verifying several of the prepilot design specifications and predictions. Verified by the pilot test were the abilities to: (1) establish and maintain desired injection and extraction rates, (2) heat the test area to the desired temperature, (3) achieve non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal rates equivalent to laboratory rates, and (4) show that the produced fluid can be treated for reinfection or disposal (Fahy et al. 1992).

  1. Advanced techniques for characterization of organic matter from anaerobically digested grapemarc distillery effluents and amended soils.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, Gennaro; Farrag, Karam; Plaza, Cesar; Senesi, Nicola

    2012-04-01

    The effects of grapemarc distillery effluents on the quality of soil organic matter is extremely important to ensure the environmentally-safe and agronomically efficient use of these materials as organic amendment. In this work, the effects of the application of untreated (UG) and anaerobically digested grapemarc distillery effluents, either added with (AGM) or without mycorrhiza (AG), on soil humic acid (HA) were investigated in field plot experiments in comparison to HAs from a control soil and an inorganic fertilized soil. The humic acid-like fractions (HALs) isolated from UG, AG and soils were characterized for compositional, structural and functional properties by the use of elemental and functional group analysis, and ultraviolet/visible, Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion of effluents produced an extended mineralization with loss of organic C and stabilization of residual organic matter by increasing the content of HALs in the effluent. With respect to control soil HA, HALs isolated from UG and AG were characterized by smaller acidic functional group contents, a prevalent aliphatic character and smaller aromatic polycondensation and humification degrees. The chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of native soil HA were not substantially modified by application of UG, AG and AGM to soil, which suggests the occurred incorporation of the effluent HAL into native soil HA. In conclusion, these results showed the possibility of a beneficial and safe recycling of grapemarc distillery effluents as soil amendment.

  2. Isolation and characterization of heavy-metal resistant microbes from roadside soil and phylloplane.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Rehab M; Abo-Amer, Aly E

    2012-02-01

    Contamination by heavy metals is one of the major environmental problems in many countries and these contaminants reach from various sources such as traffic cars and other activities. Soil and phylloplane samples were collected from eight traffic and two non-traffic sites in Sohag city, Egypt. Heavy metal contents of Cd²⁺, Zn²⁺ and Pb²⁺ of soil and phylloplane samples were determined and revealed high levels of Zn²⁺ and Pb²⁺ in traffic samples. A total of 112 bacterial and 62 fungal isolates were obtained from soil and phylloplane. Bacterial isolates were characterized on the basis of morphological, physicochemical and biochemical characteristics; and 16S rRNA gene sequences. Fungal isolates were identified according to morphological characterization. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Cd²⁺, Zn²⁺ and Pb²⁺ for each isolate were detected. All bacterial and fungal isolates demonstrated resistance to lead with MICs >0.528 mM and >0.211, respectively. Moreover, the maximum MICs of cadmium and zinc for bacteria were 0.821 mM and 1.471 mM, respectively, where as, MICs for fungi were 0.328 mM and 0.588 mM, respectively. The most resistant bacterial and fungal isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa RA65 and Penicillium corylophyllum, respectively. Therefore, P. aeruginosa RA65 was selected for further investigations. Growth curve study showed that 0.264 mM lead had no efficiently effect on the growth of P. aeruginosa RA65. Plasmid isolation evidenced by transformation studies indicated that P. aeruginosa RA65 harbored a single plasmid (~9.5 kb) which mediated heavy meal resistance. Consequently, these microbial isolates could be potentially used in bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated environment.

  3. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active

  4. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  5. Soils in our big back yard: characterizing the state, vulnerabilities, and opportunities for detecting changes in soil carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Loiesel, Julie; Ryals, Rebecca; Lawrence, Corey; Blankinship, Joseph; Phillips, Claire; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo; Hugelius, Gustaf; Nave, Luke; Malhotra, Avni; Silver, Whendee; Sanderman, Jon

    2017-04-01

    A number of diverse approaches and sciences can contribute to a robust understanding of the I. state, II. vulnerabilities, and III. opportunities for soil carbon in context of its potential contributions to the atmospheric C budget. Soil state refers to the current C stock of a given site, region, or ecosystem/landuse type. Soil vulnerabilities refers to the forms and bioreactivity of C stocks, which determine how soil C might respond to climate, disturbance, and landuse perturbations. Opportunities refer to the potential for soils in their current state to increase capacity for and rate of C storage under future conditions, thereby impacting atmospheric C budgets. In order to capture the state, vulnerability, and opportunities for soil C, a robust C accounting scheme must include at least three science needs: (1) a user-friendly and dynamic database with transparent, shared coding in which data layers of solid, liquid, and gaseous phases share relational metadata and allow for changes over time (2) a framework to characterize the capacity and reactivity of different soil types based on climate, historic, and landscape factors (3) a framework to characterize landuse practices and their impact on physical state, capacity/reactivity, and potential for C change. In order to transfer our science information to practicable implementations for land policies, societal and social needs must also include: (1) metrics for landowners and policy experts to recognize conditions of vulnerability or opportunity (2)communication schemes for accessing salient outcomes of the science. Importantly, there stands an opportunity for contributions of data, model code, and conceptual frameworks in which scientists, educators, and decision-makers can become citizens of a shared, scrutinized database that contributes to a dynamic, improved understanding of our soil system.

  6. Characterization of archaeological soils and sediments using VIS-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of past environments includes the analysis of former soil properties, which were different from recent topsoil characteristics. Ancient topsoil material can be preserved over millennia, e.g. in prehistoric pits that were filled with material from the former surface. Thus, the colors of pit fillings are specific for the time the soil material has been relocated. Early Neolithic pit fillings in the loess area of NW-Germany, e.g., have a black to dark brown color, while Iron Age pit fillings have a lighter grey color. Up to now, the reasons for these color differences are unknown. Soil colors reflect soil characteristics, and the correlations between color and soil components like charred organic matter or iron hydroxides can be measured using spectrophotometric data. The development of a quantitative spectroscopic method based on soil color spectra would enable the measurement of large amounts of samples, e.g. to investigate environmental or archaeological research questions on a regional scale. The aim of our study is the assessment of soil profile information using VIS-spectroscopy, with a main focus on archaeological soil features, and to establish spectrophotometry as a rapid and reliable tool for the analysis of soils and sediments. Furthermore, we evaluate the color differences of pit fillings that are typical for a prehistoric period, and the differences in colors between two regions dominated by different soil types. Soil color spectra were obtained in the 360 to 740nm range, in 10nm steps, using a field-spectrophotometer (CM-700d) and a lab spectrophotometer (CM-5). The spectrophotometric data was calibrated against soil sample sets that have been analysed on iron, carbonates, organic carbon, and pyrogenic carbon (BPCA). Samples were taken at archaeological excavations in the loess-covered regions of NW- and E-Germany. Mainly pit fillings were sampled that cover a chronological range from the Early Neolithic to the Roman period or Iron Age

  7. Sediment and process water characterization in support of 300 Area North Process Pond physical soil washing test

    SciTech Connect

    Field, J.G.

    1994-02-18

    The sediments in the 300 Area North Process Pond are being considered for clean-up using soil washing processes. Prior to site clean-up several preliminary pilot-scale physical washing campaigns were performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) staff in the summer of 1993. WHC used equipment that was obtained from the US Environmental Protection Agency. Specific details are found in the 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan. Physical soil washing includes separation and proper containment of the contaminant-rich fines and residual liquid effluent and release of the coarse ``clean`` fraction, should it meet minimum performance levels for residual contaminant concentration to the site being cleaned. A goal of the demonstration is to concentrate the contaminants into {le}10% of the soil volume excavated and, therefore, to release {ge}90% of the soil back to the site as clean soil. To support interpretation of the WHC soil washing treatability study, PNL performed some sediment and process water characterization on samples taken during three major and one small campaign. This report documents particle-size distributions in various field washed piles, and chemical and gama emitting radionuclide contents as a function of particle-size distribution for the field washed sediments and contents in the spent process water. All of the particle fractions were separated by wet sieving, but two field samples were also subjected to dry sieving and attrition scrubbing followed by wet sieving.

  8. Characterization of the spatial-temporal variability of soil moisture by remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gwangseob

    1999-11-01

    Characterization of spatial and temporal variabilities of soil moisture, spectral formalism of soil moisture estimation and sampling error simulation study were conducted to understand soil moisture field and to establish global monitoring strategy. Linear relation between soil moisture and porosity is dramatically improved with increasing pixel size although linear relation between soil moisture and soil properties is very weak. The relation between field variance and aggregation area follows power law between log scale 4 and 7. Scaling analysis indicates that the power law exponent becomes smaller with increasing area, which allows the assumption that the soil moisture field is stationary in large area. Variogram analysis shows that the stationarity of soil moisture field is changed by meteorological condition. Spectrum of soil moisture field shows there is no dominant spatial frequency. Two-dimensional correlogram of the soil moisture and brightness temperature fields shows strong anisotropy. Correlation structure of the soil moisture field is changed by drying or rainfall process. Average correlation length of the soil moisture consists of Long'-14km and Lat'-36km. Autoregressive exogenous model (ARX) with lag-1 correlation coefficient 0.9 is suggested for temporal soil moisture model. The Monsoon '90 soil moisture data indicate that diurnal cycle causes 1--4% sampling error. (5 a.m.--9a.m.: 1%, 1 p.m.--3 p.m.: 4%). North-Nakamoto formalism (1989) was used to compute the sampling error for the soil moisture field estimation. The space-time discrete design filter was evaluated and it is applicable to all kinds of sampling design. Missing temporal measurements in SGP '97 soil moisture field make it difficult to estimate the spectra directly from observed record. The soil moisture spectrum was estimated using rainfall and soil moisture models tuned parameter to SGP '97 data. Estimated sampling error of daily electronically scanned thinned army radiometer (ESTAR

  9. CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION WITH A 3 LITER TANK 51H SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M; John Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Daniel McCabe, D

    2008-02-29

    A 3-liter sludge slurry sample was sent to SRNL for demonstration of a low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The sludge was characterized before and after the aluminum dissolution. Post aluminum dissolution sludge settling and the stability of the decanted supernate were also observed. The characterization of the as-received 3-liter sample of Tank 51H sludge slurry shows a typical high aluminum HM sludge. The XRD analysis of the dried solids indicates Boehmite is the predominant crystalline form of aluminum in the sludge solids. However, amorphous phases of aluminum present in the sludge would not be identified using this analytical technique. The low temperature (55 C) aluminum dissolution process was effective at dissolving aluminum from the sludge. Over the three week test, {approx}42% of the aluminum was dissolved out of the sludge solids. The process appears to be selective for aluminum with no other metals dissolving to any appreciable extent. At the termination of the three week test, the aluminum concentration in the supernate had not leveled off indicating more aluminum could be dissolved from the sludge with longer contact times or higher temperatures. The slow aluminum dissolution rate in the test may indicate the dissolution of the Boehmite form of aluminum however; insufficient kinetic data exists to confirm this hypothesis. The aluminum dissolution process appears to have minimal impact on the settling rate of the post aluminum dissolution sludge. However, limited settling data were generated during the test to quantify the effects. The sludge settling was complete after approximately twelve days. The supernate decanted from the settled sludge after aluminum dissolution appears stable and did not precipitate aluminum over the course of several months. A mixture of the decanted supernate with Tank 11 simulated supernate was also stable with respect to precipitation.

  10. Bear Creek Valley characterization area mixed wastes passive in situ treatment technology demonstration project - status report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, D.; Leavitt, M.; Moss, D.

    1997-03-01

    Historical waste disposal activities within the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, have contaminated groundwater and surface water above human health risk levels and impacted the ecology of Bear Creek. Contaminates include nitrate, radioisotopes, metals, volatile organic chemicals (VOCS), and common ions. This paper provides a status report on a technology demonstration project that is investigating the feasibility of using passive in situ treatment systems to remove these contaminants. Although this technology may be applicable to many locations at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the project focuses on collecting the information needed to take CERCLA removal actions in 1998 at the S-3 Disposal Ponds site. Phase 1 has been completed and included site characterization, laboratory screening of treatment media (sorbents; and iron), and limited field testing of biological treatment systems. Batch tests using different Y-12 Plant waters were conducted to evaluate the removal efficiencies of most of the media. Phase 1 results suggest that the most promising treatment media are Dowex 21 k resin, peat moss, zero-valent iron, and iron oxides. Phase 2 will include in-field column testing of these media to assess loading rates, and concerns with clogging, by-products, and long-term treatment efficiency and media stability. Continued testing of wetlands and algal mats (MATs) will be conducted to determine if they can be used for in-stream polishing of surface water. Hydraulic testing of a shallow trench and horizontal well will also be completed during Phase 2. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin in soil and sediment is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan, at Green Point Environmental Learning Center fr...

  12. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The demonstration of technologies for determining the presence of dioxin in soil and sediment is being conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation Program in Saginaw, Michigan, at Green Point Environmental Learning Center fr...

  13. Assessing Wetland Hydroperiod and Soil Moisture with Remote Sensing: A Demonstration for the NASA Plum Brook Station Year 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Colin; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura; Endres, Sarah; Battaglia, Michael; Shuchman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Assist with the evaluation and measuring of wetlands hydroperiod at the Plum Brook Station using multi-source remote sensing data as part of a larger effort on projecting climate change-related impacts on the station's wetland ecosystems. MTRI expanded on the multi-source remote sensing capabilities to help estimate and measure hydroperiod and the relative soil moisture of wetlands at NASA's Plum Brook Station. Multi-source remote sensing capabilities are useful in estimating and measuring hydroperiod and relative soil moisture of wetlands. This is important as a changing regional climate has several potential risks for wetland ecosystem function. The year two analysis built on the first year of the project by acquiring and analyzing remote sensing data for additional dates and types of imagery, combined with focused field work. Five deliverables were planned and completed: (1) Show the relative length of hydroperiod using available remote sensing datasets, (2) Date linked table of wetlands extent over time for all feasible non-forested wetlands, (3) Utilize LIDAR data to measure topographic height above sea level of all wetlands, wetland to catchment area radio, slope of wetlands, and other useful variables (4), A demonstration of how analyzed results from multiple remote sensing data sources can help with wetlands vulnerability assessment; and (5) A MTRI style report summarizing year 2 results.

  14. Characterization and Design of Digital Pointing Subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Racho, C.; Portillo, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory-based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision bearn pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The. design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the, system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the. required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure. to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  15. Characterization of Streptococcus oligofermentans sucrose metabolism demonstrates reduced pyruvic and lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xu-Dong; Yue, Lin; Gao, Xue-Jun

    2011-11-01

    Streptococcus (S.) oligofermentans is a newly identified bacteria with a yet to be defined mechanism of sucrose metabolism that results in acid production. This study aimed to investigate the biochemical mechanisms of S. oligoferm-entans glucose metaolism. The S. oligofermentans LMG21532, Lactobacillus (L.) fermentum 38 and the S. mutans UA140 were used to characterize sucrose metabolism by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactic acid production. Continuous dynamics and high performance capillary electrophoresis were used to determine LDH activity and lactic acid production, respectively, from bacteria collected at 0, 10 and 30 minutes after cultured in 10% sucrose. These analyses demonstrated that LDH activity of the three bacterial strains examined remained stable but significantly different throughout the sucrose fermentation process. The S. oligofermentans LDH activity ((0.61 ± 0.05) U/mg) was significantly lower than that of L. fermentum ((52.91 ± 8.97) U/mg). In addition, the S. oligofermentans total lactate production ((0.048 ± 0.021) mmol/L) was also significantly lower than that of L. fermentum ((0.958 ± 0.201) mmol/L). Although the S. oligofermentans LDH production was almost double of that produced by S. mutans ((0.32 ± 0.07) U/mg), lactic acid production was approximately one sixth that of S. mutans ((0.296 ± 0.058) mmol/L). Additional tests examining pyruvic acid production (the LDH substrate) demonstrated that lactic acid concentrations correlated with pyruvic acid production. That is, pyruvic acid production by S. oligofermentans was undetectable following sucrose incubation, however, (0.074 ± 0.024) and (0.175 ± 0.098) mmol/L pyruvic acid were produced by S. mutans and L. fermentum, respectively. S. oligofermentans is incapable of fermenting carbohydrates to produce enough pyruvic acid, which results in reduced lactic acid production.

  16. Characterization and design of digital pointing subsystem for Optical Communication Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racho, Caroline S.; Portillo, Angel

    1999-04-01

    The Optical Communications Demonstrator (OCD) is a laboratory- based lasercom demonstration terminal designed to validate several key technologies, including beacon acquisition, high bandwidth tracking, precision beam pointing, and point-ahead compensation functions. It has been under active development over the past few years. The instrument uses a CCD array detector for both spatial acquisition and high-bandwidth tracking, and a fiber coupled laser transmitter. The array detector tracking concept provides wide field-of-view acquisition and permits effective platform jitter compensation and point-ahead control using only one steering mirror. This paper describes the detailed design and characterization of the digital control loop system which includes the Fast Steering Mirror (FSM), the CCD image tracker, and the associated electronics. The objective of this work is to improve the overall system performance using laboratory measured data. The design of the digital control loop is based on a linear time invariant open loop model. The closed loop performance is predicted using the theoretical model. With the digital filter programmed into the OCD control software, data is collected to verify the predictions. This paper presents the results of the system modeling and performance analysis. It has been shown that measurement data closely matches theoretical predictions. An important part of the laser communication experiment is the ability of FSM to track the laser beacon within the required tolerances. The pointing must be maintained to an accuracy that is much smaller than the transmit signal beamwidth. For an earth orbit distance, the system must be able to track the receiving station to within a few microradians. The failure to do so will result in a severely degraded system performance.

  17. Isolation and characterization of diesel degrading bacteria, Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii from petroleum contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Duanchao; Li, Mengmeng; Xiang, Wei-Ning; Achal, Varenyam

    2014-03-01

    Two indigenous bacteria of petroleum contaminated soil were characterized to utilize diesel fuel as the sole carbon and energy sources in this work. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these bacteria as Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii. The ability to degrade diesel fuel has been demonstrated for the first time by these isolates. The results of IR analyses showed that Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 degraded up to 82.6% and 75.8% of applied diesel over 15 days, respectively. In addition, Sphingomonas sp. VA1 possessed the higher cellular hydrophobicities of 94% for diesel compared to 81% by A. junii VA2. The isolates Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 exhibited 24% and 18%, respectively emulsification activity. This study reports two new diesel degrading bacterial species, which can be effectively used for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated sites.

  18. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Higbee, Bradley S.; Burks, Charles S.; Larsen, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management. PMID:26462827

  19. Characterization and demonstration results of a SQUID magnetometer system developed for geomagnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, J.; Miyamoto, M.; Kawabata, M.; Nosé, M.; Haruta, Y.; Uehara, G.

    2017-08-01

    We characterized a low temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system developed for high-sensitivity geomagnetic field measurement, and demonstrated the detection of weak geomagnetic signals. The SQUID magnetometer system is comprised of three-axis SQUID magnetometers housed in a glass fiber reinforced plastic cryostat, readout electronics with flux locked loop (FLL), a 24-bit data logger with a global positioning system and batteries. The system noise was approximately 0.2 pT √Hz- 1/2 in the 1-50 Hz frequency range. This performance was determined by including the thermal noise and the shielding effect of the copper shield, which covered the SQUID magnetometers to eliminate high-frequency interference. The temperature drift of the system was ˜0.8 pT °C- 1 in an FLL operation. The system operated for a month using 33 l liquid helium. Using this system, we performed the measurements of geomagnetic field in the open-air, far away from the city. The system could detect weak geomagnetic signals such as the Schumann resonance with sixth harmonics, and the ionospheric Alfvén resonance appearing at night, for the north-south and east-west components of the geomagnetic field. We confirm that the system was capable of high-sensitivity measurement of the weak geomagnetic activities.

  20. High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

    2002-02-26

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

  1. Soil/sediment characterization for 216-A-29 ditch

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the environmental samples collected from the 216-A-29 Ditch in 1988. Tables summarizing the laboratory data for radionuclides, metals, and soil chemistry are included.

  2. Sample preparation and characterization for a study of environmentally acceptable endpoints for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitinger, J.P.; Finn, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In the past, the interdisciplinary research effort required to investigate the acceptable cleanup endpoints for hydrocarbon-impacted soils has been limited by the lack of standardized soils for testing. To support the efforts of the various researchers participating in the EAE research initiative, soil samples were collected from ten sites representing hydrocarbon-impacted soils typical of exploration/production, refinery, and bulk storage terminal operations. The hydrocarbons in the standard soils include crude oil, mixed refinery products, diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Physical characterization included analysis of soil texture, water retention, particle density, nanoporosity, pH, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, buffer capacity, organic carbon, sodium adsorption ratio, and clay mineralogy. Chemical characterization included analysis of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons, total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and metals, and TCLP for metals and organics. An analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions was performed on each soil to support the use of various models for assessing soil toxicity. Screening-level toxicity tests were conducted using Microtox{trademark}, plant seed germination and growth, and earthworm mortality and growth. Biodegradability screening tests were performed in slurry shake flasks to estimate the availability of hydrocarbon fractions to soil microorganisms.

  3. Innovative technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P. ); Hartley, J.N. . Environmental Management Operations); Hinchee, R. )

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ.

  4. Innovative technology demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.B.; Luttrell, S.P.; Hartley, J.N.; Hinchee, R.

    1992-08-01

    Environmental Management Operations (EMO) is conducting an Innovative Technology Demonstration Program for Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). Several innovative technologies are being demonstrated to address specific problems associated with remediating two contaminated test sites at the base. Cone penetrometer testing (CPT) is a form of testing that can rapidly characterize a site. This technology was selected to evaluate its applicability in the tight clay soils and consolidated sandstone sediments found at TAFB. Directionally drilled horizontal wells was selected as a method that may be effective in accessing contamination beneath Building 3001 without disrupting the mission of the building, and in enhancing the extraction of contamination both in ground water and in soil. A soil gas extraction (SGE) demonstration, also known as soil vapor extraction, will evaluate the effectiveness of SGE in remediating fuels and TCE contamination contained in the tight clay soil formations surrounding the abandoned underground fuel storage vault located at the SW Tanks Site. In situ sensors have recently received much acclaim as a technology that can be effective in remediating hazardous waste sites. Sensors can be useful for determining real-time, in situ contaminant concentrations during the remediation process for performance monitoring and in providing feedback for controlling the remediation process. Following the SGE demonstration, the SGE system and SW Tanks test site will be modified to demonstrate bioremediation as an effective means of degrading the remaining contaminants in situ. The bioremediation demonstration will evaluate a bioventing process in which the naturally occurring consortium of soil bacteria will be stimulated to aerobically degrade soil contaminants, including fuel and TCE, in situ.

  5. Demonstration of thermal stripping of JP-4 and other VOCS from soils at Tinker Air Force Base Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Final report, September 1988-March 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, P.J.; Noland, J.W.; Nielson, R.K.

    1990-03-01

    The patented Low Temperature Thermal Treatment (LT3) System was previously proven to be successful in treating soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons. This demonstration broadened the applicability to include soils contaminated with aviation fuel and other halogenated solvents. Several test were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the LT3 system. While meeting all goal cleanup objectives, a processing rate of 20,000 lb/hr was demonstrated with a projected LT3 System processing cost of $86/ton. A number of system changes and process improvements are recommended. The system proved to be an efficient, cost-effective, and commercially available remediation alternative for decontaminating soils.

  6. Characterization of the spatial variability of soil available zinc at various sampling densities using grouped soil type information.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Liu, Feng; Li, De-Cheng; Zhao, Yu-Guo

    2016-11-01

    The influence of anthropogenic activities and natural processes involved high uncertainties to the spatial variation modeling of soil available zinc (AZn) in plain river network regions. Four datasets with different sampling densities were split over the Qiaocheng district of Bozhou City, China. The difference of AZn concentrations regarding soil types was analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA). Since the stationarity was not indicated and effective ranges of four datasets were larger than the sampling extent (about 400 m), two investigation tools, namely F3 test and stationarity index (SI), were employed to test the local non-stationarity. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique was performed to describe the spatial heterogeneity of AZn concentrations under the non-stationarity assumption. GWR based on grouped soil type information (GWRG for short) was proposed so as to benefit the local modeling of soil AZn within each soil-landscape unit. For reference, the multiple linear regression (MLR) model, a global regression technique, was also employed and incorporated the same predictors as in the GWR models. Validation results based on 100 times realization demonstrated that GWRG outperformed MLR and can produce similar or better accuracy than the GWR approach. Nevertheless, GWRG can generate better soil maps than GWR for limit soil data. Two-sample t test of produced soil maps also confirmed significantly different means. Variogram analysis of the model residuals exhibited weak spatial correlation, rejecting the use of hybrid kriging techniques. As a heuristically statistical method, the GWRG was beneficial in this study and potentially for other soil properties.

  7. Site and soil characterization of hazardous waste sites using an expert system guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Roy E.

    1993-03-01

    An expert system guide (knowledge book) has been devised to assist field personnel who must identify, describe, sample, and interpret size and soil characteristics of hazardous waste sites. The guide takes an approach that will be unfamiliar to most soil and environmental scientists and is directed to on-scene coordinators and project managers and others who may have little soil science training. It meets the need of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for standard procedures, guidelines, or protocols that address soil and site contamination, particularly heavy metals. The guide is organized to include: (1) general considerations and processes for collecting and using site and soils data, (2) detailed knowledge frames (descriptive profiles) of likely site and soil conditions, (3) a citation of references, (4) an appendix listing common sources of characterization data, and (5) a glossary of more than 900 general definitions.

  8. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  9. Characterizing Zinc Speciation in Soils from a Smelter-Affected Boreal Forest Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jordan G; Farrell, Richard E; Chen, Ning; Feng, Renfei; Reid, Joel; Peak, Derek

    2016-03-01

    HudBay Minerals, Inc., has mined and/or processed Zn and Cu ore in Flin Flon, MB, Canada, since the 1930s. The boreal forest ecosystem and soil surrounding these facilities have been severely impacted by mixed metal contamination and HSO deposition. Zinc is one of the most prevalent smelter-derived contaminants and has been identified as a key factor that may be limiting revegetation. Metal toxicity is related to both total concentrations and speciation; therefore, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence mapping were used to characterize Zn speciation in soils throughout the most heavily contaminated areas of the landscape. Zinc speciation was linked to two distinct soil types. Group I soils consist of exposed soils in weathered positions of bedrock outcrops with Zn present primarily as franklinite, a (ZnFeO) spinel mineral. Group II soils are stabilized by an invasive metal-tolerant grass species, with Zn found as a mixture of octahedral (Fe oxides) and tetrahedral Mn oxides) adsorption complexes with a franklinite component. Soil erosion influences Zn speciation through the redistribution of Zn and soil particulates from Group I landscape positions to Group II soils. Despite Group II soils having the highest concentrations of CaCl-extractable Zn, they support metal-tolerant plant growth. The metal-tolerant plants are probably preferentially colonizing these areas due to better soil and nutrient conditions as a result of soil deposition from upslope Group I areas. Zinc concentration and speciation appears to not influence the colonization by metal-tolerant grasses, but the overall soil properties and erosion effects prevent the revegetation by native boreal forest species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Characterization of soil bacterial community structure and physicochemical properties in created and natural wetlands.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Rita M; Ahn, Changwoo; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2013-01-15

    We used multi-tag pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA to characterize bacterial communities of wetland soils collected from created and natural wetlands located in the Virginia piedmont. Soils were also evaluated for their physicochemical properties [i.e., percent moisture, pH, soil organic matter (SOM), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C:N ratio]. Soil moisture varied from 15% up to 55% among the wetlands. Soil pH ranged between 4.2 and 5.8, showing the typical characteristic of acidic soils in the Piedmont region. Soil organic matter contents ranged from 3% up to 6%. Soil bacterial community structures and their differences between the wetlands were distinguished by pyrosequencing. Soil bacterial communities in the created wetlands were less dissimilar to each other than to those of either natural wetland, with little difference in diversity (Shannon's H') between created and natural wetlands, except one natural wetland consistently showing a lower H'. The greatest difference of bacterial community structure was observed between the two natural wetlands (R=0.937, p<0.05), suggesting these two natural wetlands were actually quite different reflecting differences in their soil physicochemistry. The major phylogenic groups of all soils included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Gemmatinomadetes, Nitrospira, and Proteobacteria with Proteobacteria being the majority of the community composition. Acidobacteria group was more abundant in natural wetlands than in created wetlands. We found a significant association between bacterial community structures and physicochemical properties of soils such as C:N ratio (ρ=0.43, p<0.01) and pH (ρ=0.39, p<0.01). The outcomes of the study show that the development of ecological functions, mostly mediated by microbial communities, is connected with the development of soil properties in created wetlands. Soil properties should be carefully monitored to examine the progress of

  11. Dynamics and characterization of soil organic matter in mine soils sixteen years after amendment with native soil, sawdust, and sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Bendfeldt, E.S.; Burger, J.A.; Daniels, W.L.; Feldhake, C.M.

    1999-07-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is an important indicator of soil quality and site productivity. Organic amendments may be a means for ameliorating mine soils and other soils that have been depleted of organic matter. In 1982, a mined site was amended with seven different surface treatments: a control, 30 cm of native soil, 112 Mg/ha sawdust, and municipal sewage sludge (SS) at rates of 22, 56, 112, and 224 Mg/ha. Four replicates of each treatment were installed as a randomized complete block design. Each replicate was subsequently split according to vegetation type: pitch x loblolly pine hybrid (Pinus rigda x taeda) trees and Kentucky-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Soil analyses of composite samples indicated that organic amendments initially improved C and N status of the mine soils, but after 16 years their levels converged to that of the control treatment. Tree volume and biomass were used as indices of the effects of organic matter content 16 years after initial amendment. Individual tree volumes of the sawdust and 22, 56, 112 Mg/ha. SS treatments retained 18 to 26% more volume than the control. Overall, forage production was the same among treatments. Organic amendments improved initial soil fertility for crop establishment, but it appears that they will have little or no long-lasting effect on plant productivity.

  12. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carrie L. Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Lowe, Kenneth A.; Pierce, Eric M.; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-08-15

    Historical use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0){sub l}) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, resulted in large deposits of Hg(0){sub l} in the soils. The fate and distribution of the spilled Hg(0) are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the contaminated soils and then used the analytical techniques to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collected at the site. These include x-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption (HgT). XRF was not found to be suitable for evaluating Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing low concentration of Hg or Hg(0) because Hg concentrations determined using this method were lower than those determined by HgT analysis and the XRF detection limit is 20 mg/kg. Hg(0){sub g} headspace analysis coupled with HgT measurements yielded good results for examining the presence of Hg(0){sub l} in soils and the speciation of Hg. The two soil cores are highly heterogeneous in both the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. In the first core, Hg(0){sub l} was distributed throughout the 3.2 m depth, whereas the second core, from a location 12 m away, contained Hg(0){sub l} in a 0.3 m zone only. Sequential extractions showed organically associated Hg dominant at depths with low Hg concentration. Soil from the zone of groundwater saturation showed reducing conditions and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this depth, lateral Hg transport in the groundwater may be a source of Hg detected in the soil at the deeper soil depths. Overall, characterization of soils containing Hg(0){sub l} is difficult because of the heterogeneous distribution of Hg within the soils. This is exacerbated in industrial facilities where fill materials make up much of the soils and historical

  13. Characterization of a metagenome-derived protease from contaminated agricultural soil microorganisms and its random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengjian; Zhang, Liang; Li, Fajia; Meng, Can; Zeng, Rong; Deng, Jie; Shen, Peihong; Ou, Qian; Wu, Bo

    2017-04-05

    Proteases are typical key enzymes that hydrolyze proteins into amino acids and peptides. Numerous proteases have been studied, but the discovery of metagenome-derived proteases is still significant for both commercial applications and basic research. An unexplored protease gene sep1A was identified by function-based screening from a plasmid metagenomic library derived from uncultured contaminated agricultural soil microorganisms. The putative protease gene was subcloned into pET-32a (+) vector and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) pLysS, then the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. The detailed biochemical characterization of the Sep1A protein was performed, including its molecular characterization, specific activity, pH-activity profile, metal ion-activity profile, and enzyme kinetic assays. Furthermore, the protein engineering approach of random mutagenesis via error-prone PCR was applied on the original Sep1A protein. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that the purified recombinant Ep48 protein could hydrolyze casein. Compared with the original Sep1A protein, the best variant of Ep48 in the random mutagenesis library, with the Gln307Leu and Asp391Gly changes, exhibited 2.62-fold activity at the optimal reaction conditions of 50 °C and pH 9.0. These results are the first step toward a better understanding of the properties of Sep1A protein. Protein engineering with error-prone PCR paves the way toward the metagenome-derived genes for biotechnological applications.

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  15. Evaluation and Demonstration of a Mobile Steam Applicator to Disinfest Soil in Field-grown California Strawberry and Flower Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Steam can effectively kill soil borne pests if soil temperatures can be raised to 70 °C for 20 min. The Ferrari Sterilter is capable of generating super heated steam to reach these temperatures within 5 to 7 min. Frontal plates on the machine allow it to thoroughly heat the soil to 30 cm depth, gran...

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CLOR-N-SOIL PCB TEST KIT L2000 PCB/CHLORIDE ANALYZER - DEXSIL CORP.

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEXSIL CORP(Environmental Test Kits)The Dexsil Corporation (Dexsil) produces two test kits that detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in soil: the Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit, and the Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer. The Dexsil Clor-N-Soil PCB Screening Kit extr...

  17. Regional Characterization of Soil Properties via a Combination of Methods from Remote Sensing, Geophysics and Geopedology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Uwe; Fries, Elke; Frei, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Soil is one of the most precious resources on Earth. Preserving, using and enriching soils are most complex processes that fundamentally need a sound regional data base. Many countries lack this sort of extensive data or the existing data must be urgently updated when land use recently changed in major patterns. The project "RECHARBO" (Regional Characterization of Soil Properties) aims at the combination of methods from remote sensing, geophysics and geopedology in order to develop a new system to map soils on a regional scale in a quick and efficient manner. First tests will be performed on existing soil monitoring districts, using newly available sensing systems as well as established techniques. Especially hyperspectral and infrared data measured from satellites or airborne platforms shall be combined. Moreover, a systematic correlation between hyperspectral imagery and gamma-ray spectroscopy shall be established. These recordings will be compared and correlated to measurements upon ground and on soil samples to get hold of properties such as soil moisture, soil density, specific resistance plus analytic properties like clay content, anorganic background, organic matter etc. The goal is to generate a system that enables users to map soil patterns on a regional scale using airborne or satellite data and to fix their characteristics with only a limited number of soil samples.

  18. Phase 1 Characterization sampling and analysis plan West Valley demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R. L.

    2011-06-30

    The Phase 1 Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan (CSAP) provides details about environmental data collection that will be taking place to support Phase 1 decommissioning activities described in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan for the West Valley Demonstration Project, Revision 2 (Phase I DP; DOE 2009). The four primary purposes of CSAP data collection are: (1) pre-design data collection, (2) remedial support, (3) post-remediation status documentation, and (4) Phase 2 decision-making support. Data collection to support these four main objectives is organized into two distinct data collection efforts. The first is data collection that will take place prior to the initiation of significant Phase 1 decommissioning activities (e.g., the Waste Management Area [WMA] 1 and WMA 2 excavations). The second is data collection that will occur during and immediately after environmental remediation in support of remediation activities. Both data collection efforts have a set of well-defined objectives that encompass the data needs of the four main CSAP data collection purposes detailed in the CSAP. The main body of the CSAP describes the overall data collection strategies that will be used to satisfy data collection objectives. The details of pre-remediation data collection are organized by WMA. The CSAP contains an appendix for each WMA that describes the details of WMA-specific pre-remediation data collection activities. The CSAP is intended to expand upon the data collection requirements identified in the Phase 1 Decommissioning Plan. The CSAP is intended to tightly integrate with the Phase 1 Final Status Survey Plan (FSSP). Data collection described by the CSAP is consistent with the FSSP where appropriate and to the extent possible.

  19. Characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium.

    PubMed

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Pavel, Lucian Vasile; Cretescu, Igor

    2009-04-30

    Environmental contamination caused by radionuclides, in particular by uranium and its decay products is a serious problem worldwide. The development of nuclear science and technology has led to increasing nuclear waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the techniques for the remediation of soils polluted with radionuclides (uranium in particular), considering: the chemical forms of uranium, including depleted uranium (DU) in soil and other environmental media, their characteristics and concentrations, and some of the effects on environmental and human health; research issues concerning the remediation process, the benefits and results; a better understanding of the range of uses and situations for which each is most appropriate. The paper addresses the main features of the following techniques for uranium remediation: natural attenuation, physical methods, chemical processes (chemical extraction methods from contaminated soils assisted by various suitable chelators (sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, two-stage acid leaching procedure), extraction using supercritical fluids such as solvents, permeable reactive barriers), biological processes (biomineralization and microbial reduction, phytoremediation, biosorption), and electrokinetic methods. In addition, factors affecting uranium removal from soils are furthermore reviewed including soil characteristics, pH and reagent concentration, retention time.

  20. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic fungi against potato scab pathogens from potato field soils.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Masahiro; Tamaki, Hideyuki; Manome, Akira; Koyama, Osamu; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2010-04-01

    Potato scab is a serious plant disease caused by several Streptomyces sp., and effective control methods remain unavailable. Although antagonistic bacteria and phages against potato scab pathogens have been reported, to the best of our knowledge, there is no information about fungi that are antagonistic to the pathogens. The aim of this study was to isolate fungal antagonists, characterize their phylogenetic positions, determine their antagonistic activities against potato scab pathogens, and highlight their potential use as control agents under lower pH conditions. Fifteen fungal stains isolated from potato field soils were found to have antagonistic activity against three well-known potato scab pathogens: Streptomyces scabiei, Streptomyces acidiscabiei, and Streptomyces turgidiscabiei. These 15 fungal strains were phylogenetically classified into at least six orders and nine genera based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. These fungal isolates were related to members of the genera Penicillium, Eupenicillium, Chaetomium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Mortierella, Kionochaeta, Pseudogymnoascus, and Lecythophora. The antagonistic activities of most of the fungal isolates were highly strengthened under the lower pH conditions, suggesting the advantage of combining their use with a traditional method such as soil acidification. This is the first report to demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse fungi show antagonistic activity against major potato scab pathogens. These fungal strains could be used as potential agents to control potato scab disease.

  1. Characterization of eastern US spruce-fir soils. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, I.J.

    1992-01-01

    The spruce-fir forest of the eastern United States encompasses a diverse range of edaphic conditions due to differences in surficial geology, mineralogy, elevation, and climate. This chapter describes the characteristics of soils supporting eastern spruce-fir ecosystems, including soil properties that are important in understanding forest function and the consequences of atmospheric deposition to forested ecosystems. Chapter 1 describes the silvical characteristics of the spruce-fir forest. The Spruce-Fir Research Cooperative included six intensive study sites; five were high-elevation research sites located from western North Carolina to New Hampshire, with one low-elevation site in Maine. Information gained from research at these sites, and other relevant research from these regions, provides the basis for this description of eastern U. S. spruce-fir soils.

  2. Characterization of soil and postlaunch pad debris from Cape Canaveral launch complex and analysis of soil interaction with aqueous HCl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Spangler, L. W.; Storey, R. W.; Bendura, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Soil samples were fractionated and analyzed in order to assess the physical and chemical interactions of entrained soil with solid-rocket exhaust clouds. The sandy soil consisted primarily of quartz (silica) particles, 30 to 500 microns in diameter, and also contained seashell fragments. Differential and cumulative soil-mass size distributions are presented along with mineralogy, elemental compositions, and solution pH histories. About 90 percent of the soil mass consisted of particles 165 microns in diameter. Characteristic reaction times in aqueous HC1 slurries varied from a few minutes to several days, and capacities for reaction under acidic conditions varied from 10 to 40 g HCl/kg soil, depending on particle size. Airborne lifetimes of particles 165 microns are conservatively 30 min, and this major grouping is predicted to represent a small short-term chemical sink for up to 5% of the total HC1. The smaller and more minor fractions, below a 165 micron diameter, may act as giant cloud condensation nuclei over much longer airborne lifetimes. Finally, the demonstrated time dependency of neutralization is a complicating factor; it can influence the ability to deduce in-cloud HCl scavenging with reaction and can affect the accuracy of measured chemical compositions of near-field wet deposition.

  3. Surface Wave Characterization of New Orleans Levee Soil Foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delisser, T. A.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Hayashi, K.; Craig, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Standard geotechnical tests such as the drilling of boreholes and cone penetration tests are able to assess soil stability at point locations vertically but lack lateral resolution in a complex sedimentary environment, such as the Louisiana Coastal system. Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) can complement geotechnical tests to improve certainty in resolving lateral features when predicting soil types in the near surface of levee soil foundations. A portion of the Inner-Harbor Navigation Canal levee wall that intersects the 9th Ward of New Orleans failed in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Failures were attributed to floodwaters overtopping the levee wall and eroding its base. Geotechnical and geological data from test points can be used to calibrate continuous shear strength estimates derived from MASW. It is important to understand soil stability and strength to prevent future failures in New Orleans levee foundation soils. MASW analyzes the dispersive property of Rayleigh waves to develop shear wave velocity profiles for the near surface. Data are acquired using a seismic land streamer containing 4.5-Hz vertical-component geophones and a sledgehammer as the source. We plot and contour 18 inverted models of the interpreted fundamental mode and generate a 200-m-long profile to help us (1) better understand the characteristics of levee foundation soils as well as (2) improve existing geological cross-sections to help in future planning and maintenance of the levees. In comparison to the prior geological models, we find unexpected large vertical and horizontal shear-velocity gradients, as well as relatively low shear strengths throughout the seismic profile.

  4. Characterization of Minerals: From the Classroom to Soils to Talc Deposits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools…

  5. Characterization of Minerals: From the Classroom to Soils to Talc Deposits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools…

  6. Applied Innovative Technologies for Characterization of Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerin Contaminated Buildings and Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Applied Innovative Technologies for Characterization of Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerin...Technologies for Characterization of Nitrocellulose and Nitroglycerin Contaminated Buildings and Soils July 2008 Report Documentation Page Form...SRI GC/TID. ......................................................................................................... 10 Figure 4 . Shaw Lab Trailer

  7. Multi and hyperspectral digital-imaging-based techniques for agricultural soil characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Menesatti, Paolo; Millozza, Mario

    2004-11-01

    Soil characterization and monitoring in agriculture represent the primary key-factors influencing its productivity and the quality of the produced products. A correct and continuous knowledge of agricultural soil characteristics can help to optimize its use and its degree of exploitation both in absolute terms and with reference to specific cultivations. Soil characterization is conventionally performed adopting integrated physical-chemical analyses based on soil portion (samples), properly sampled, classified and then delivered to specialized laboratories. Such an approach obviously requires a chain of actions and it is time consuming. In this work it is examined the possibility offered by multi and hyperspectral digital imaging based spectrophotometric techniques in order to perform fast, reliable and low cost "in situ" analyses to identify and quantify specific soil attributes, of primary importance in agriculture, as: water, basic nutrients and organic matter content. The proposed hardware and software (HW&SW) integrated architecture have been specifically developed, and their response investigated, with the specific aim to contribute to study a set of "flexible", and very simple, procedures to apply in order to be utilized to operate, not only in agricultural soil characterization, but also in other fields as the environmental monitoring and polluted soils reclamation.

  8. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Carrie L; Watson, David B; Liang, Liyuan; Lester, Brian P; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Pierce, Eric M

    2013-01-01

    Historic use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0)l) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA resulted in large deposits of Hg(0)l in the soils. An evaluation of analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the soils at the Y-12 facility was conducted and these tequniques were used to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collect at the site. These include X-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption. Hg concentrations determined using XRF, a tool that has been suggestions for quick onsite characterization of soils, were lower than concentrations determined by HgT analysis and as a result this technique is not suitable for the evaluation of Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing Hg(0)l. Hg(0)g headspace analysis can be used to examine the presence of Hg(0)l in soils and when coupled with HgT analysis an understanding of the speciation of Hg in soils can be obtained. Two soil cores collected within the Y-12 complex highlight the heterogeneity in the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400 mg/kg. At one location Hg(0)l was distributed throughout 3.2 meters of core whereas the core from a location only 12 meters away only contained Hg(0)l in 0.3 m zone of the core. Sequential extractions, used to examine the forms of Hg in the soils, indicated that at depths within the core that have low Hg concentrations organically associated Hg is dominant. Soil from the zone of groundwater inundation showed reduced characteristics and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this location it appears that Hg transported within the groundwater is a source of Hg to the soil. Overall the characterization of Hg in soils containing Hg(0) l is difficult due to the heterogeneous distribution within the soils and this challenge is enhanced in industrial facilities in which fill

  9. Application of DRIFTS, 13 C NMR, and py-MBMS to Characterize the Effects of Soil Science Oxidation Assays on Soil Organic Matter Composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent

    SciTech Connect

    Margenot, Andrew J.; Calderón, Francisco J.; Magrini, Kimberly A.; Evans, Robert J.

    2016-12-20

    Chemical oxidations are routinely employed in soil science to study soil organic matter (SOM), and their interpretation could be improved by characterizing oxidation effects on SOM composition with spectroscopy. We investigated the effects of routinely employed oxidants on SOM composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent representative of intensively managed agricultural soils in the California Central Valley. Soil samples were subjected to oxidation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Additionally, non-oxidized and oxidized soils were treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to evaluate reduction of the mineral component to improve spectroscopy of oxidation effects. Oxidized non-HF and HF-treated soils were characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), and for particle size distribution (PSD) using laser diffractometry (LD). Across the range of soil organic carbon (OC) removed by oxidations (14-72%), aliphatic C-H stretch at 3000-2800 cm-1 (DRIFTS) decreased with OC removal, and this trend was enhanced by HF treatment due to significant demineralization in this soil (70%). Analysis by NMR spectroscopy was feasible only after HF treatment, and did not reveal trends between OC removal and C functional groups. Pyrolysis-MBMS did not detect differences among oxidations, even after HF treatment of soils. Hydrofluoric acid entailed OC loss (13-39%), and for H2O2 oxidized soils increased C:N and substantially decreased mean particle size. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HF to improve characterizations of SOM composition following oxidations as practiced in soil science, in particular for DRIFTS. Since OC removal by oxidants, mineral removal by HF, and the interaction of oxidants and HF observed for this soil may

  10. Characterizing Soil Organic Matter Degradation Levels in Permafrost-affected Soils using Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matamala, R.; Jastrow, J. D.; Calderon, F.; Liang, C.; Miller, R. M.; Ping, C. L.; Michaelson, G. J.; Hofmann, S.

    2014-12-01

    Diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (MidIR) was used to (1) investigate soil quality along a latitudinal gradient of Alaskan soils, and in combination with soil incubations, (2) to assess the relative lability of soil organic matter in the active layer and upper permafrost for some of those soils. Twenty nine sites were sampled along a latitudinal gradient (78.79 N to 55.35 N deg). The sites included 8 different vegetation types (moss/lichen, non-acidic and acidic tundra, shrub areas, deciduous forests, mixed forests, coniferous forests, and grassland). At each site, soils were separated by soil horizons and analyzed for pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic and inorganic C, and total N. Samples were also scanned to obtain MidIR spectra, and ratios of characteristic bands previously suggested as indicators of organic matter quality or degradation level were calculated. Principal component analysis showed that axis 1 explained 70% of the variation and was correlated with the general Organic:Mineral ratio, soil organic C, total N, and CEC, but not with vegetation type. Axis 2 explained 25% of the variation and was correlated with most of the band ratios, with negative values for the condensation index (ratio of aromatic to aliphatic organic matter) and positive values for all humification ratios (HU1: ratio of aliphatic to polysaccharides; HU2: ratio of aromatics to polysaccharides; and HU3 ratio of lignin/phenols to polysaccharides) suggesting that axis 2 variations were related to differences in level of soil organic matter degradation. Active organic, active mineral and permafrost layers from selected tundra sites were incubated for two months at -1, 1, 4, 8 and 16 ⁰C. The same band ratios were correlated with total CO2 mineralized during the incubations. Data from 4⁰C showed that the cumulative respired CO2 from the active organic layer across all sites was negatively correlated with the HU1 humification ratio, suggesting

  11. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  12. Characterization of a novel beta-glucosidase-like activity from a soil metagenome.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengjian; Ma, Gefei; Li, Shuangxi; Hu, Tingting; Che, Zhiqun; Shen, Peihong; Yan, Bing; Wu, Bo

    2009-10-01

    We report the cloning of a novel beta-glucosidase-like gene by function-based screening of a metagenomic library from uncultured soil microorganisms. The gene was named bgllC and has an open reading frame of 1,443 base pairs. It encodes a 481 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted molecular mass of about 57.8 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence did not show any homology with known beta-glucosidases. The putative beta-glucosidase gene was subcloned into the pETBlue-2 vector and overexpressed in E. coli Tuner (DE3) pLacI; the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. Functional characterization with a high performance liquid chromatography method demonstrated that the recombinant BgllC protein hydrolyzed D-glucosyl-beta-(l-4)-D-glucose to glucose. The maximum activity for BgllC protein occurred at pH 8.0 and 42 degrees C using p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucoside as the substrate. A CaCl(2) concentration of 1 mM was required for optimal activity. The putative beta-glucosidase had an apparent K(m) value of 0.19 mM, a V(max) value of 4.75 U/mg and a k (cat) value of 316.7/min under the optimal reaction conditions. The biochemical characterization of BgllC has enlarged our understanding of the novel enzymes that can be isolated from the soil metagenome.

  13. Characterizing Gas Transport in Wetland Soil-Root Systems with Dissolved Gas Tracer Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Soil fluxes of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and other biogenic gases depend on coupling between microbial and physiochemical processes within soil media. The importance of plant-mediated transport in wetland CH4 emissions is well known, but a generalized understanding of gas transfer between pore water and root aerenchyma, and how this process competes with biogeochemical production/consumption of gases beyond CH4, is incomplete [1]. A lack of experimental approaches to characterize transport processes in complex soil-water-plant systems at field scale has limited efforts to close this knowledge gap. In this presentation we describe dissolved gas tracer techniques to tease apart effects of transport from simultaneous biochemical reaction on trace gas dynamics in soils. We discuss a push-pull test with helium and sulfur hexafluoride gas tracers to quantify in situ root-mediated gas transfer kinetics in a wetland soil [2]. A Damköhler number analysis is introduced to interpret the results and evaluate the balance between biochemical reaction and root-driven gas transfer in controlling the fate of CH4 and N2O in vegetated wetland soils. We conclude with a brief discussion of other problems in soil gas dynamics that can be addressed with gas tracer approaches. [1] Blagodatsky and Smith 2012. Soil physics meets soil biology: Towards better mechanistic prediction of greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 47, 78-92. [2] Reid et al. 2015. Dissolved gas dynamics in wetland soils: Root-mediated gas transfer kinetics determind via push-pull tracer tests. Water Resour. Res. 51, doi:10.1002/2014WR016803.

  14. Preliminary characterizations study on three soil samples from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory warm waste pond

    SciTech Connect

    Burchett, R.T.; Richardson, W.S.; Hay, S.

    1994-12-31

    Three soil samples (Soil 1,2,and 3) from the Warm Waste Pond (WWP) system at the Test Reactor Area (TRA) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were sent to the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) in Montgomery, Alabama, for soil characterization and analysis. Each sample was vigorously washed and separated by particle size using wet sieving and vertical-column hydroclassification. The resulting fractions were analyzed for radioactivity by gamma spectroscopy. The following conclusions are based on the results of these analyses: (1) The three samples examined are dissimilar in many characteristics examined in the study. (2) The optimal parameters for vigorously washing the soil samples are a washing time of 30 min 350 rpm using a liquid-to-solid ratio of 4/1 (volume of water/volume of soil). (3) The only size fraction from Soil 1 that is below the 690 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) cesium-137 Record of Division (ROD) criterion is the +25.4-mm(+1-in) fraction, which represents 17 percent of the total soil. (4) There is no size fraction from Soil 2 that is below the 690 pCi/g cesium-137 criterion. (5) At optimal conditions, at least 66 percent of Soil 3 can be recovered with a cesium-137 activity level below the 690 pCi/g criterion. (6) For Soil 3, lowering the liquid-to-solid ratio from 4/1 to 2/1 during vigorous washing produces a higher weight-percent recovery of soil below the 690 pCi/g criterion. At a liquid-to-solid ratio of 2/1, 76 percent of the soil can be recovered with a concentration below the removal criterion, indicating that attrition followed by particle-size separation represents a potential method for remediation.

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria isolated from soil and marine samples.

    PubMed

    Mujahid, Talat Yasmeen; Siddiqui, Khaizran; Ahmed, Rifat; Kazmi, Shahana U; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2014-09-01

    In the present study the potential of indigenous bacterial isolates from soil rhizosphere and marine environment to promote plant growth was determined. Eight bacterial strains isolated from soil and marine samples were characterized for the phosphate solubilizing activity. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of phosphate solubilization is done. MIC of antibiotic and heavy metals were checked for these strains. Strains show a diverse pattern of antibiotic and heavy metals resistance.

  16. First demonstration and detailed characterization of a multimode amplifier for Space Division Multiplexed transmission systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Y; Alam, S; Li, Z; Dhar, A; Giles, D; Giles, I P; Sahu, J K; Poletti, F; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Richardson, D J

    2011-12-12

    We present the first demonstration of a multimode (two mode-group) erbium-doped fiber amplifier for Space Division Multiplexed (SDM) applications and demonstrate various design and performance features of such devices. In particular we experimentally demonstrate that differential modal gains can be controlled and reduced both by fiber design and control of the pump field distribution. Using a suitably designed fiber we demonstrate simultaneous modal gains of ~20 dB for different pair-wise combinations of spatial and polarization modes in an EDFA supporting amplification of 6 distinct modes.

  17. Integrated use of soil physical and water isotope methods for ecohydrological characterization of desertified areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Külls, Christoph; Nunes, Alice; Köbel-Batista, Melanie; Branquinho, Cristina; Bianconi, Nadja; Costantini, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measures for monitoring desertification and soil degradation require a thorough understanding of soil physical properties and of the water balance in order to guide restoration efforts (Costantini et al. 2009). It is hypothesized that long term restoration success on degraded land depends on a series of interacting factors such as exposition, soil type, soil hydrology including lateral flow on hill-slope catenae. Recently, new soil water isotope measurement techniques have been developed (Garvelmann et al. 2012) that provide much faster and reliable stable water isotope profiles in soils. This technique yield information on groundwater recharge, soil water balance and on the origin of water available for plants, which in combination with conservative chemical tracers (chloride) can be validated. A multidisciplinary study including ecologists, soil physicists and hydrologists of the COST Action Desert Restoration Hub was carried out on four semi-arid sites in Portugal. A comparative characterization of soil physical parameters, soil water isotope and chloride profiles was performed in order to estimate pedoclimate, soil aridity, soil water balance and groundwater recharge. In combination with soil physical data a comprehensive and cross-validated characterization of pedoclimate and soil aridity was obtained. These indicators were then integrated and related to plant cover. The long-term rainfall of the four sites ranges from 512 to 638 mm, whereas air temperature is from 15.8 to 17.0°C. The De Martonne index of aridity spans from 19.3 to 24.6, pointing to semiarid to moderately arid climatic conditions. The long-term average number of days when the first 0.50 m of soil is dry ranges from 110 to 134, while the mean annual soil temperature at 0.50 m spans from 15.8 and 19.1°C. The studied profiles show different hydrological characteristics, in particular, the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1-1 to 10-100 µm/s. Three out of four profiles show a

  18. In-situ mineralization of actinides for groundwater cleanup: Laboratory demonstration with soil from the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Jensen, M.P.; Schmidt, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    An attractive approach to decreasing the probability of actinide migration in the subsurface is to transform the ions into less mobile forms by remote treatment. The process described herein relies on a polyfunctional organophosphorus complexant to sequester the mobile metal ions by complexation/cation exchange in the near term. The cation exchanger is designed to subsequently decompose, transforming the actinides into insoluble phosphate mineral forms as the medium of stable long-term isolation. This material can be generated in situ in the subsurface thus eliminating the need for excavation to immobilize the actinide ions. Previous investigations have identified a suitable organophosphorus reagent and profiled its decomposition kinetics, verified the formation of phosphate mineral phases upon decomposition of the reagent, determined solubility limits for appropriate metal phosphates under groundwater conditions, and examined the cation exchange behavior of the calcium salt of the organophosphorus reagent. In this report, the focus is on a laboratory-scale demonstration of the concept using a soil sample from the Fernald Environmental Management Plant.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Wetland Soil Bacterial Community in Constructed Mesocosms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not the official policy or position of the United States Marine ...and DNA cloning/sequencing. I am also indebted to the United States Marine Corps for providing this opportunity for professional education...anthracis), fungi (e.g. yeasts, molds), algae and Actinomycetes (e.g. Streptomyces). The PowerSoil DNA Kit distinguishes itself from Mo Bio’s

  20. Characterization of magnetically enhanced buried soil layer in arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovsky, E.; Grison, H.; Kapicka, A.; Silva, P. F.; Font, E.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) of soils, reflecting the presence of magnetite/maghemite, can be used in several environmental applications. Magnetic topsoil mapping is often used to outline areas polluted by atmospherically deposited dust. However, in these studies, the magnetically enhanced layer is usually shallow, some 5-6 cm under the surface. In our contribution, we present the case when the magnetic susceptibility is enhanced in deeper soil layers. Investigated soils are mostly sandy soils, from several localities in Portugal, in a zone with arid climate. Sample profiles were collected always in forests or forest stands with pines, cork oaks or eucalyptus trees in two areas: around the city of Sines (on the coast south of Lisbon) and around the city of Abrantes (inland, north-east of Lisbon). Both areas are presumably affected by one major source of pollution - power plant. Surface magnetic susceptibility measurements were performed by Bartington MS2D loop; values vary from 10 to 300 x 10-5 SI units. Vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility was measured already in situ using the SM400 (ZHInstruments) on profiles about 40cm in length. Mass-specific MS was determined using Bartington MS2B dual frequency meter and Agico MFK1. Nine vertical profiles were selected for detailed analyses including the ARM, IRM and hysteresis measurements. Distinctly enhanced magnetic layers were detected in deeper horizons. This enhancement can be ascribed to several mechanisms. Migration of magnetic particles seems to be probable, as observed in our model experiments with sand columns. In coastal areas, the enhanced layer could be due to tsunami deposits, as described in other areas. Finally, in particular at sites close to power plants, the construction works followed by surface remediation have to be also considered as one of the possible mechanisms.

  1. Protective barrier materials analysis: Fine soil site characterization: A research report for Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Last, G.V.; Glennon, M.A.; Young, M.A.; Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    We collected soil samples for the physical characterization of a potential fine-soil quarry site at the McGee Ranch, which is located approximately 1 km northwest of the Hanford Site's Yakima Barricade. Forty test borings were made using a hollow-stem auger. Field moisture content and grain-size distribution were determined. The samples were classified into one of 19 sediment classes based on their grain-size distributions. Maps and cross sections were constructed from both the field and laboratory data to delineate the distributions of the various sediment classes. Statistical evaluations were made to determine the variations within the fine-soil fraction of the various sediment classes. Volume estimates were then made of the amounts of soil meeting the preliminary grain-size criteria. The physical characterization of the fine soils sampled near the McGee Ranch site indicated that approximately 3.4 million cubic meters of soil met or exceeded the minimum grain-size criteria for the fine soils needed for the protective barriers program. 11 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterization facility for "next-generation" soil sampling aimed, for example, at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity in quantification of a set of exemplar parameters is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The theory of sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a more general fit-for-purpose soil heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale transect (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-0.5 m) replication sampling point variability. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results from a specific well-mixed soil type show that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among other soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas, e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  3. Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Miller, Carrie L; Watson, David B; Lester, Brian P; Lowe, Kenneth A; Pierce, Eric M; Liang, Liyuan

    2013-08-01

    Historical use of liquid elemental mercury (Hg(0)l) at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, resulted in large deposits of Hg(0)l in the soils. The fate and distribution of the spilled Hg(0) are not well characterized. In this study we evaluated analytical tools for characterizing the speciation of Hg in the contaminated soils and then used the analytical techniques to examine the speciation of Hg in two soil cores collected at the site. These include x-ray fluorescence (XRF), soil Hg(0) headspace analysis, and total Hg determination by acid digestion coupled with cold vapor atomic absorption (HgT). XRF was not found to be suitable for evaluating Hg concentrations in heterogeneous soils containing low concentration of Hg or Hg(0) because Hg concentrations determined using this method were lower than those determined by HgT analysis and the XRF detection limit is 20 mg/kg. Hg(0)g headspace analysis coupled with HgT measurements yielded good results for examining the presence of Hg(0)l in soils and the speciation of Hg. The two soil cores are highly heterogeneous in both the depth and extent of Hg contamination, with Hg concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 8400mg/kg. In the first core, Hg(0)l was distributed throughout the 3.2m depth, whereas the second core, from a location 12m away, contained Hg(0)l in a 0.3m zone only. Sequential extractions showed organically associated Hg dominant at depths with low Hg concentration. Soil from the zone of groundwater saturation showed reducing conditions and the Hg is likely present as Hg-sulfide species. At this depth, lateral Hg transport in the groundwater may be a source of Hg detected in the soil at the deeper soil depths. Overall, characterization of soils containing Hg(0)l is difficult because of the heterogeneous distribution of Hg within the soils. This is exacerbated in industrial facilities where fill materials make up much of the soils and historical and continued reworking of the subsurface has

  4. Spatially distributed characterization of soil-moisture dynamics using travel-time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heße, Falk; Zink, Matthias; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Attinger, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Travel-time distributions are a comprehensive tool for the characterization of hydrological system dynamics. Unlike the streamflow hydrograph, they describe the movement and storage of water within and throughout the hydrological system. Until recently, studies using such travel-time distributions have generally either been applied to lumped models or to real-world catchments using available time series, e.g., stable isotopes. Whereas the former are limited in their realism and lack information on the spatial arrangements of the relevant quantities, the latter are limited in their use of available data sets. In our study, we employ the spatially distributed mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM) and apply it to a catchment in central Germany. Being able to draw on multiple large data sets for calibration and verification, we generate a large array of spatially distributed states and fluxes. These hydrological outputs are then used to compute the travel-time distributions for every grid cell in the modeling domain. A statistical analysis indicates the general soundness of the upscaling scheme employed in mHM and reveals precipitation, saturated soil moisture and potential evapotranspiration as important predictors for explaining the spatial heterogeneity of mean travel times. In addition, we demonstrate and discuss the high information content of mean travel times for characterization of internal hydrological processes.

  5. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  6. Assessing Wetland Hydroperiod and Soil Moisture With Remote Sensing: A Demonstration for the NASA Plum Brook Station Year 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Colin; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura; Endres, Sarah; Battaglia, Michael; Shuchman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Primary Goal: Assist with the evaluation and measuring of wetlands hydroperiod at the PlumBrook Station using multi-source remote sensing data as part of a larger effort on projecting climate change-related impacts on the station's wetland ecosystems. MTRI expanded on the multi-source remote sensing capabilities to help estimate and measure hydroperiod and the relative soil moisture of wetlands at NASA's Plum Brook Station. Multi-source remote sensing capabilities are useful in estimating and measuring hydroperiod and relative soil moisture of wetlands. This is important as a changing regional climate has several potential risks for wetland ecosystem function. The year two analysis built on the first year of the project by acquiring and analyzing remote sensing data for additional dates and types of imagery, combined with focused field work. Five deliverables were planned and completed: 1) Show the relative length of hydroperiod using available remote sensing datasets 2) Date linked table of wetlands extent over time for all feasible non-forested wetlands 3) Utilize LIDAR data to measure topographic height above sea level of all wetlands, wetland to catchment area radio, slope of wetlands, and other useful variables 4) A demonstration of how analyzed results from multiple remote sensing data sources can help with wetlands vulnerability assessment 5) A MTRI style report summarizing year 2 results. This report serves as a descriptive summary of our completion of these our deliverables. Additionally, two formal meetings were held with Larry Liou and Amanda Sprinzl to provide project updates and receive direction on outputs. These were held on 2/26/15 and 9/17/15 at the Plum Brook Station. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a multivariate statistical technique used to identify dominant spatial and temporal backscatter signatures. PCA reduces the information contained in the temporal dataset to the first few new Principal Component (PC) images. Some advantages of PCA

  7. Characterization of field compaction using shrinkage analysis and visual soil examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Alice; Keller, Thomas; Weisskopf, Peter; Schulin, Rainer; Boivin, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    ) With compaction the sigmoidal shape characterizing a well-structured soil disappeared, and (ii) the basic slope became steeper, indicating lower hydrostructural stability. VESS scores were significantly different between compacted and uncompacted soil and strongly correlated with ShA properties. Based on these relationships, we propose a model characterizing the recovery potential of compacted soil structure. The good agreement between visual examinations and ShA indicates that both methods are well suited for the assessment of soil compaction. ShA is more elaborate, but also more precise and has the advantage to provide valuable addi¬tional quantitative information on the state of physical degradation. References Ball, B.C., Batey, T., Munkholm, L.J., 2007. Field assessment of soil structural quality-a development of the Peerlkamp test. Soil Use Manag. 23, 329-337. Braudeau, E., Frangi, J.P., Mohtar, R.H., 2004. Characterizing nonrigid aggregated soil-water medium using its shrinkage curve. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68, 359-370.

  8. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-06-05

    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6soil and the amended soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of soils at proposed Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7

    SciTech Connect

    Rothschild, E.R.; Huff, D.D.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Lietzke, D.A.; Stansfield, R.G.; Farrow, N.D.; Farmer, C.D.; Munro, I.L.

    1984-12-01

    To supplement other waste disposal operations on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation, the soils at a potential site for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste have been characterized. Proposed Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7 is located in Melton Valley, east of the current burial facilities in the valley. Physical, chemical, and hydraulic properties of the soils on the site are documented. The thin veneer of soil on proposed SWSA 7 has been mapped in detail and divided into 11 mappable units. In general, the upland soils are well drained, whereas the soils in the lower parts of the site may be poorly drained. Six soil types that are most likely to be affected by waste disposal operations were studied in detail. The soils examined contain little or no carbonate and exhibit low pH. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the moisture characteristic functions for the six soil types. The laboratory data were combined with field data to produce functions that are directly accessible by numerical models to be used for site evaluation in the future. A total of eighteen soil and sediment samples were collected for determination of their radionuclide adsorption properties. Radioisotopes of I, Cs, Sr, Co, and Am were studied, and all exhibited high Kd's (greater than 23 L/kg) with the exception of I, which had a consistently lower Kd. The cation exchange capacities of the soils averaged 169 meq/kg. Three soil profiles were examined in detail and the mineralogy of the horizons determined. Generally, the southern half of the site appears to be dominated by vermiculite-rich micaceous minerals, whereas in the northern half of the site, kaolinite and micaceous minerals dominate. A preliminary evaluation of the potential erosion on this hilly site was made. Once the site is grass covered, the erosion will be on the order of 0.4 to 4.5 metric tons ha/sup -1/ year/sup -1/.

  10. Evaluation of low-level radioactive waste characterization and classification programs of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taie, Karren R.

    1994-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is preparing to upgrade their low-level radioactive waste (LLW) characterization and classification program. This thesis describes a survey study of three other DOE sites conducted in support of this effort. The LLW characterization/classification programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Site, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory were critically evaluated. The evaluation was accomplished through tours of each site facility and personnel interviews. Comparative evaluation of the individual characterization/classification programs suggests the WVDP should purchase a real-time radiography unit and a passive/active neutron detection system, make additional mechanical modifications to the segmented gamma spectroscopy assay system, provide a separate building to house characterization equipment and perform assays away from waste storage, develop and document a new LLW characterization/classification methodology, and make use of the supercompactor owned by WVDP.

  11. Demonstration and immunochemical characterization of carcinoembryonic antigen in human pancreatic juice.

    PubMed

    McCabe, R P; Kupchik, H Z; Saravis, C A; Broitman, S A; Gregg, J A; Zamcheck, N

    1976-05-01

    Pancreatic juice collected from 10 patients without evidence of malignant disease of the pancreas or other organs was pooled, extracted, and fractionated by Sepharose 6-B and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) activity in the material was demonstrated and studied by: a) radioimmunoassay, b) competitive binding to antibodies against CEA, c) precipitin inhibition, and d) Ouchterlony analysis. The immunochemical identity of the active material to CEA purified from liver metastases of colon cancer was demonstrated.

  12. Characterization of Martian Soil Fines Fraction in SNC Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; McKay, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Some impact-melt glasses in shergottite meteorites contain large abundances of martian atmospheric noble gases with high (129)Xe/(132)Xe ratios, accompanied by varying (87)Sr/(86)Sr (initial) ratios. These glasses contain Martian Soil Fines (MSF) probably from young volcanic terrains such as Tharsis or Elysium Mons. The composition of the MSF bearing samples is different from the average bulk composition of the host rock. These samples show the following charecteristics: a) simultaeneous enrichment of the felsic component and depletion of the mafic component relative to the host phase and b) significant secondary sulfur/sulfate excesses over the host material. The degree of enrichment and associated depletion varies from one sample to another. Earlier, we found large enrichments of felsic (Al, Ca, Na and K) component and depletion of mafic (Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti) component in several impact melt glass veins and pods of samples ,77 ,78 , 18, and ,20A in EET79001 accompanied by large sulfur/sulfate excesses. Based on these results, we proposed a model where the comminution of basaltic rocks takes place by meteoroid bombardment on the martian surface, leading to the generation of fine-grained soil near the impact sites. This fine-grained soil material is subsequently mobilized by saltation and deflation processes on Mars surface due to pervasive aeolian activity. This movement results in mechanical fractionation leading to the felsic enrichment and mafic depletion in the martian dust. We report, here, new data on an impact-melt inclusion ,507 (PAPA) from EET79001, Lith B and ,506 (ALPHA) from EET79001, Lith A and compare the results with those obtained on Shergotty impact melt glass (DBS).

  13. Characterization of Martian Soil Fines Fraction in SNC Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; McKay, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Some impact-melt glasses in shergottite meteorites contain large abundances of martian atmospheric noble gases with high (129)Xe/(132)Xe ratios, accompanied by varying (87)Sr/(86)Sr (initial) ratios. These glasses contain Martian Soil Fines (MSF) probably from young volcanic terrains such as Tharsis or Elysium Mons. The composition of the MSF bearing samples is different from the average bulk composition of the host rock. These samples show the following charecteristics: a) simultaeneous enrichment of the felsic component and depletion of the mafic component relative to the host phase and b) significant secondary sulfur/sulfate excesses over the host material. The degree of enrichment and associated depletion varies from one sample to another. Earlier, we found large enrichments of felsic (Al, Ca, Na and K) component and depletion of mafic (Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti) component in several impact melt glass veins and pods of samples ,77 ,78 , 18, and ,20A in EET79001 accompanied by large sulfur/sulfate excesses. Based on these results, we proposed a model where the comminution of basaltic rocks takes place by meteoroid bombardment on the martian surface, leading to the generation of fine-grained soil near the impact sites. This fine-grained soil material is subsequently mobilized by saltation and deflation processes on Mars surface due to pervasive aeolian activity. This movement results in mechanical fractionation leading to the felsic enrichment and mafic depletion in the martian dust. We report, here, new data on an impact-melt inclusion ,507 (PAPA) from EET79001, Lith B and ,506 (ALPHA) from EET79001, Lith A and compare the results with those obtained on Shergotty impact melt glass (DBS).

  14. Isolation, identification and characterization of soil microbes which degrade phenolic allelochemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z-Y; Pan, L-P; Li, H-H

    2010-05-01

    To isolate and characterize microbes in the soils containing high contents of phenolics and to dissolve the allelopathic inhibition of plants through microbial degradation. Four microbes were isolated from plant soils using a screening medium containing p-coumaric acid as sole carbon source. The isolates were identified by biochemical analysis and sequences of their 16S or 18S rDNA, and designated as Pseudomonas putida 4CD1 from rice (Oryza sativa) soil, Ps. putida 4CD3 from pine (Pinus massoniana) soil, Pseudomonas nitroreducens 4CD2 and Rhodotorula glutinis 4CD4 from bamboo (Bambusa chungii) soil. All isolates degraded 1 g l(-1) of p-coumaric acid by 70-93% in inorganic and by 99% in Luria-Bertani solutions within 48 h. They also effectively degraded ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde. The microbes can degrade p-coumaric acid and reverse its inhibition on seed germination and seedling growth in culture solutions and soils. Low pHs inhibited the growth and phenolic degradation of the three bacteria. High temperature inhibited the R. glutinis. Co(2+) completely inhibited the three bacteria, but not the R. glutinis. Cu(2+), Al(3+), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) had varying degrees of inhibition for each of the bacteria. Phenolics in plant culture solutions and soils can be decomposed through application of soil microbes in laboratory or controlled conditions. However, modification of growth conditions is more important for acidic and ions-contaminated media. The four microbes were first isolated and characterized from the soils of bamboo, rice or pine. This study provides some evidence and methods for microbial control of phenolic allelochemicals.

  15. Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in Fractured Rock Aquifers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    USER’S GUIDE Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in... Fractured Rock Aquifers ESTCP Project ER-201118 JANUARY 2016 F.D. Day-Lewis C.D. Johnson U. S. Geological Survey, Office of Groundwater...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 01/01/2016 Guidance July 2011 - January 2016 Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical

  16. Field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings using phosphorus fertilizers*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zheng-miao; Wang, Bi-ling; Sun, Ye-fang; Li, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A field demonstration of reduction of lead availability in a soil and cabbage (Brassica Chinensis L.) contaminated by mining tailings, located in Shaoxing, China was carried out to evaluate the effects of applications of phosphorus fertilizers on Pb fractionation and Pb phytoavailability in the soil. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers including single super phosphate (SSP), phosphate rock (PR), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP) significantly decreased the percentage of water-soluble and exchangeable (WE) soil Pb and then reduced the uptake of Pb, Cd, and Zn by the cabbage compared to the control (CK). The results showed that the level of 300 g P/m2 soil was the most cost-effective application rate of P fertilizers for reducing Pb availability at the first stage of remediation, and that at this P level, the effect of WE fraction of Pb in the soil decreased by three phosphorus fertilizers followed the order: CMP (79%)>SSP (41%)>PR (23%); Effectiveness on the reduction of Pb uptake by cabbage was in the order: CMP (53%)>SSP (41%)>PR (30%). Therefore our field trial demonstrated that it was effective and feasible to reduce Pb availability in soil and cabbage contaminated by mining tailings using P fertilizers in China and PR would be a most cost-effective amendment. PMID:16365925

  17. Characterization of soil-derived dissolved organic matter from permafrost in northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Gao, L.; Zhou, Z.; Reyes, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The fate and transport of soil organic carbon accumulated in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems have received increasing attention due to recent significant changes in climate and the environment. However, end-member soil organic carbon from permafrost with different organic carbon contents, C-14 ages, and degradation states remain poorly characterized, especially for soil-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) which is the active component in carbon cycling. Soil samples collected from permafrost in northern Alaska were used to determine the yield of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the bulk soil organic carbon (SOC) pool. The soil-derived DOM was further characterized for organic composition using fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) coupled with PARAFAC analysis and for DOM size distribution using flow field-flow fractionation techniques. Degradation of soil-derived DOM was also carried out to examine the degradation rate and changes in DOM composition, size spectra and other optical properties. The soil DOC yield was generally low, ranging from ~1-5% of the total SOC, and was correlated to bulk SOC contents and C-14 age, with higher DOC yields in older soil. High SUVA (at 254 nm) values were measured for soil DOM samples, ranging from 8 to 10 mg-C/L/m. Major fluorescent DOM components include terrestrial fulvic-like, protein-like, and humic-like DOM with their Ex/Em at 245/444, <240/376, and 275/508 nm, respectively. Humic-like DOM was partitioned mostly in the <3-6 nm size range, while protein-like DOM partitioned in a much wider size spectrum. However, protein-like DOM in old soil became mostly in the small colloidal size range (<5-8 nm), indicating the preferential degradation of large MW protein compounds. Humic components seem to degrade preferentially compared to protein-like DOM components, resulting in a relatively higher percentage of protein-like DOM in old soil samples. Overall, different soil DOM components may have their distinct fate and

  18. Methanogenic communities in permafrost-affected soils of the Laptev Sea coast, Siberian Arctic, characterized by 16S rRNA gene fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Ganzert, Lars; Jurgens, German; Münster, Uwe; Wagner, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    Permafrost environments in the Arctic are characterized by extreme environmental conditions that demand a specific resistance from microorganisms to enable them to survive. In order to understand the carbon dynamics in the climate-sensitive Arctic permafrost environments, the activity and diversity of methanogenic communities were studied in three different permafrost soils of the Siberian Laptev Sea coast. The effect of temperature and the availability of methanogenic substrates on CH4 production was analysed. In addition, the diversity of methanogens was analysed by PCR with specific methanogenic primers and by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) followed by sequencing of DGGE bands reamplified from the gel. Our results demonstrated methanogenesis with a distinct vertical profile in each investigated permafrost soil. The soils on Samoylov Island showed at least two optima of CH4 production activity, which indicated a shift in the methanogenic community from mesophilic to psychrotolerant methanogens with increasing soil depth. Furthermore, it was shown that CH4 production in permafrost soils is substrate-limited, although these soils are characterized by the accumulation of organic matter. Sequence analyses revealed a distinct diversity of methanogenic archaea affiliated to Methanomicrobiaceae, Methanosarcinaceae and Methanosaetaceae. However, a relationship between the activity and diversity of methanogens in permafrost soils could not be shown.

  19. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-04-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil.

  20. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Montaña, José Salvador; Martínez, María Mercedes

    2011-07-01

    With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB) of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen Ashby-Sucrose agar obtaining a recovery of 40%. Twenty four isolates were evaluated for colony and cellular morphology, pigment production and metabolic activities. Molecular characterization was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). After digestion of 16S rDNA Y1-Y3 PCR products (1487pb) with AluI, HpaII and RsaI endonucleases, a polymorphism of 16% was obtained. Cluster analysis showed three main groups based on DNA fingerprints. Comparison between ribotypes generated by isolates and in silico restriction of 16S rDNA partial sequences with same restriction enzymes was done with Gen Workbench v.2.2.4 software. Nevertheless, Y1-Y2 PCR products were analysed using BLASTn. Isolate C5T from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown soils presented the same in silico restriction patterns with A. chroococcum (AY353708) and 99% of similarity with the same sequence. Isolate C5CO from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) grown soils showed black pigmentation in Ashby-Benzoate agar and high similarity (91%) with A. nigricans (AB175651) sequence. In this work we demonstrated the utility of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools as a support to conventional techniques in characterization of the genus Azotobacter from vegetable-grown soils.

  1. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Montaña, José Salvador; Martínez, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB) of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen Ashby-Sucrose agar obtaining a recovery of 40%. Twenty four isolates were evaluated for colony and cellular morphology, pigment production and metabolic activities. Molecular characterization was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). After digestion of 16S rDNA Y1-Y3 PCR products (1487pb) with AluI, HpaII and RsaI endonucleases, a polymorphism of 16% was obtained. Cluster analysis showed three main groups based on DNA fingerprints. Comparison between ribotypes generated by isolates and in silico restriction of 16S rDNA partial sequences with same restriction enzymes was done with Gen Workbench v.2.2.4 software. Nevertheless, Y1-Y2 PCR products were analysed using BLASTn. Isolate C5T from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown soils presented the same in silico restriction patterns with A. chroococcum (AY353708) and 99% of similarity with the same sequence. Isolate C5CO from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) grown soils showed black pigmentation in Ashby-Benzoate agar and high similarity (91%) with A. nigricans (AB175651) sequence. In this work we demonstrated the utility of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools as a support to conventional techniques in characterization of the genus Azotobacter from vegetable-grown soils. PMID:24031700

  2. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Demonstrating soil moisture remote sensing with observations from the UK TechDemoSat-1 satellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Clara; Shah, Rashmi; Zuffada, Cinzia; Hajj, George; Masters, Dallas; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2016-04-01

    The ability of spaceborne Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) bistatic radar receivers to sense changes in soil moisture is investigated using observations from the low Earth orbiting UK TechDemoSat-1 satellite (TDS-1). Previous studies using receivers on aircraft or towers have shown that ground-reflected GNSS signals are sensitive to changes in soil moisture, though the ability to sense this variable from space has yet to be quantified. Data from TDS-1 show a 7 dB sensitivity of reflected signals to temporal changes in soil moisture. If the effects of surface roughness and vegetation on the reflected signals can be quantified, spaceborne GNSS bistatic radar receivers could provide soil moisture on relatively small spatial and temporal scales.

  4. Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

  5. Characterization of a desert soil sequence at Yucca Mountain, NV

    SciTech Connect

    Guertal, W.R.; Hofmann, L.L. Hudson, D.B.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. Hydrologic evaluation of the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain is being conducted as an integrated set of surface and subsurface-based activities with a common objective to characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of water flux through the potential repository. Yucca Mountain is covered with a thin to thick layer of colluvial/alluvial materials, where there are not bedrock outcrops. It is across this surface boundary that all infiltration and all exfiltration occurs. This surface boundary effects water movement through the unsaturated zone. Characterization of the hydrologic properties of surficial materials is then a necessary step for short term characterization goals and for long term modeling.

  6. A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji; Li, Yun; Dong, Zhixin; Li, Zhongpei; Zhang, Xue-Xian

    2014-04-01

    The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically involves comparing indigenous microbial communities across spatial scales. Here, we report a long-term soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red Acrisol and purple Cambisol from Yingtan) were placed into two geographic locations of ∼1000 km apart (i.e., Yingtan in the mid-subtropical region and Fengqiu in warm-temperate region; both located in China). Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Additionally, bacteria and archaea involved in nitrogen cycling were estimated using clone library analysis of four genes: archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA,nirK, and nifH. Data of subsequent phylogenetic analysis show that bacteria, fungi, and other microbial eukaryotes, as well as the nitrogen cycling genes, are grouped primarily by the factor of geographic location rather than soil type. Moreover, a shift of microbial communities toward those in local soil (i.e., Chao soil in Fengqiu) has been observed. The results thus suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil.

  7. A long-term field experiment of soil transplantation demonstrating the role of contemporary geographic separation in shaping soil microbial community structure

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji; Li, Yun; Dong, Zhixin; Li, Zhongpei; Zhang, Xue-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The spatial patterns of microbial communities are largely determined by the combined effects of historical contingencies and contemporary environmental disturbances, but their relative importance remains poorly understood. Empirical biogeographic data currently available are mostly based on the traditional method of observational survey, which typically involves comparing indigenous microbial communities across spatial scales. Here, we report a long-term soil transplantation experiment, whereby the same two soils (red Acrisol and purple Cambisol from Yingtan) were placed into two geographic locations of ∼1000 km apart (i.e., Yingtan in the mid-subtropical region and Fengqiu in warm-temperate region; both located in China). Twenty years after the transplantation, the resulting soil microbial communities were subject to high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Additionally, bacteria and archaea involved in nitrogen cycling were estimated using clone library analysis of four genes: archaeal amoA, bacterial amoA,nirK, and nifH. Data of subsequent phylogenetic analysis show that bacteria, fungi, and other microbial eukaryotes, as well as the nitrogen cycling genes, are grouped primarily by the factor of geographic location rather than soil type. Moreover, a shift of microbial communities toward those in local soil (i.e., Chao soil in Fengqiu) has been observed. The results thus suggest that the historical effects persistent in the soil microbial communities can be largely erased by contemporary disturbance within a short period of 20 years, implicating weak effects of historical contingencies on the structure and composition of microbial communities in the soil. PMID:24772284

  8. ISRU Soil Mechanics Vacuum Facility: Soil Bin Preparation and Simulant Strength Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Wilkinson, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Testing in relevant environments is key to exploration mission hardware development. This is true on both the component level (in early development) and system level (in late development stages). During ISRU missions the hardware will interface with the soil (digging, roving, etc) in a vacuum environment. A relevant test environment will therefore involve a vacuum chamber with a controlled, conditioned simulant bed. However, in earth-based granular media, such as lunar soil simulant, gases trapped within the material pore structures and water adsorbed to all particle surfaces will release when exposed to vacuum. Early vacuum testing has shown that this gas release can occur violently, which loosens and weakens the simulant, altering the consolidation state. The Vacuum Facility #13, a mid-size chamber (3.66m tall, 1.5m inner diameter) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been modified to create a soil mechanics test facility. A 0.64m deep by 0.914m square metric ton bed of lunar simulant was placed under vacuum using a variety of pumping techniques. Both GRC-3 and LHT-3M simulant types have been used. An electric cone penetrometer was used to measure simulant strength properties at vacuum including: cohesion, friction angle, bulk density and shear modulus. Simulant disruptions, caused by off gassing, affected the strength properties, but could be mitigated by reducing pump rate. No disruptions were observed at pressures below 2.5Torr, regardless of the pump rate. However, slow off gassing of the soil lead to long test times, a full week, to reach 10-5Torr. This work highlights the need for robotic machine-simulant hardware and operations in vacuum to expeditiously perform (sub-)systems tests.

  9. Characterizing Martian Soils: Correlating Orbital Observations with Chemistry and Mineralogy from Landed Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Great advances have been achieved recently in our understanding of the surface of Mars at global scales from orbital missions and at local scales from landed missions. This presentation seeks to provide links between the chemistry and mineralogy observed by landed missions with remote detections of minerals from orbit. Spectral data from CRISM, OMEGA and TES characterize a mostly basaltic planet with some outcrops of hematite, clays, sulfates and carbonates at the surface. Recent alteration of these rocks to form soils has likely been dominated by physical processes; however, martian soils probably also contain relicts of early alteration involving aqueous processes. Clays, hydroxides, sulfates, carbonates and perchlorates are examples of surface components that may have formed early in the planet’s history in the presence of liquid water. Some of these minerals have not been detected in the soil, but all have likely contributed to the current soil composition. The grain size, shape, chemistry, mineralogy, and magnetic properties of Martian soils are similar to altered volcanic ash found at many analog sites on Earth. Reflectance and emission spectra of some of these analog soils are consistent with the basic soil spectral properties observed from orbit. The cemented soil units observed by rovers may have formed through interaction of the soil grains with salts, clays, and hydroxides. Lab experiments have shown that cementing of analog grains darkens the VN reflectance, which could explain the low reflectance of Martian soils compared to analog sites. Reflectance spectra of an analog soil mixture containing altered ash and sulfate are shown in Figure 1. A pellet was made by adding water and allowing the sample to dry in air. Finally, the pellet was crushed and ground again to <125 µm. Both the dried pellet spectrum and the crushed pellet spectrum are darker than the original spectrum of the same composition. Erosion and weathering are likely the dominant

  10. Developmemt, characterization, production, and demonstration of nanofluids for industrial cooling applications. Quarterly report #7.

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.; Singh, D.; Timofeeva, E.; Yu, W.; France, D.

    2010-07-30

    Pumping power measurements have been made on a series of 40-nm boehmite (AlOOH) alumina ''bricks'' (2 - 8 vol. percent in water). The alumina nanoparticles were obtained from Sasol and are designated as ''Catapal-200''. The pH of all compositions was adjusted to 3.2{+-}0.5. A complete characterization of the particles and their nanofluid thermal properties has been published in Journal of Applied Physics 106, 014304 (2009). While the nanofluid doesn't show large enhancements, it nevertheless serves as good comparisons between the experimental results and calculated results.

  11. Soils

    Treesearch

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  12. Molecular and metabolic characterization of cold-tolerant alpine soil Pseudomonas sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A F; Lipson, D A; Martin, A P; Schadt, C W; Schmidt, S K

    2004-01-01

    Alpine soils undergo dramatic temporal changes in their microclimatic properties, suggesting that the bacteria there encounter uncommon shifting selection gradients. Pseudomonads constitute important members of the alpine soil community. In order to characterize the alpine Pseudomonas community and to assess the impact of shifting selection on this community, we examined the ability of cold-tolerant Pseudomonas isolates to grow on a variety of carbon sources, and we determined their phylogenetic relationships based on 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. We found a high prevalence of Pseudomonas in our soil samples, and isolates from these soils exhibited extensive metabolic diversity. In addition, our data revealed that many of our isolates form a unique cold-adapted clade, representatives of which are also found in the Swedish tundra and Antarctica. Our data also show a lack of concordance between the metabolic properties and 16S phylogeny, indicating that the metabolic diversity of these organisms cannot be predicted by phylogeny.

  13. Characterization of humic acids from tundra soils of northern Western Siberia by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukov, S. N.; Ejarque, E.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    Humic acids from polar soils—cryozems (Cryosols), gleyezems (Gleysols), and peat soils (Histosols)—have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. First information was acquired on the content of free radicals in humic acids from polar soils for the northern regions of Western Siberia (Gydan Peninsula, Belyi Island). It was found that polar soils are characterized by higher contents of free radicals than other zonal soils. This is related to the lower degree of humification of organic matter and the enhanced hydromorphism under continuous permafrost conditions. The low degree of organic matter humification in the cryolithozone was confirmed by the increased content of free radicals as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance, which indicates a low biothermodynamic stability of organic matter.

  14. A multisensor system for detection and characterization of UXO(MM-0437) - Demonstration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gasperikova, Erika; Smith, J.T.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.

    2006-06-01

    The Berkeley UXO discriminator (BUD) (Figure 1) is a portable Active Electromagnetic (AEM) system for UXO detection and characterization that quickly determines the location, size, and symmetry properties of a suspected UXO. The BUD comprises of three orthogonal transmitters that 'illuminate' a target with fields in three independent directions in order to stimulate the three polarization modes that, in general, characterize the target EM response. In addition, the BUD uses eight pairs of differenced receivers for response recording. Eight receiver coils are placed horizontally along the two diagonals of the upper and lower planes of the two horizontal transmitter loops. These receiver coil pairs are located on symmetry lines through the center of the system and each pair sees identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They are wired in opposition to produce zero output during the on-time of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform over the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and greatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target response. The BUD performs target characterization from a single position of the sensor platform above a target. BUD was designed to detect and characterize UXO in the 20 mm to 155 mm size range for depths between 0 and 1 m. The relationship between the object size and the depth at which it can be detected is illustrated in Figure 2. This curve was calculated for BUD assuming that the receiver plane is 20 cm above the ground. Figure 2 shows that, for example, BUD can detect and characterize an object with 10 cm diameter down to the depth of 90 cm with depth uncertainty of 10%. Any

  15. 2010 Soil Characterization Report for the Area 11 Explosive Ordnance Disposal Unit, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-02-25

    This soil characterization report summarizes sampling activities and analytical results, provides copies of laboratory data reports, and meets the requirements of Section IV.G.2 of the Permit (NEV HW0021, November 2005) and Sections P.3.d.7.b and P.3.n of the Permit Application (DOE/NV--1053-VOL 4, May 2005).

  16. Isolation and characterization of Chilembwe and Sinda Rock Phosphate solubilizing soil microorganisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to isolate and characterize soil microorganisms capable of solubilizing Chilembwe and Sinda rock phosphates readily available in Zambia. Single isolates were obtained by direct plating and enrichment cultures with succinate, cellulose and glucose as the carbon sources. Isola...

  17. Characterization and Demonstrations of Laser-Induced Incandescence in both Normal and Low-Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of soot volume fraction is important to a wide range of combustion studies in microgravity. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) offers high sensitivity, high temporal and spatial resolution in addition to geometric versatility for real-time determination of soot volume fraction. Implementation of LII into the 2.2 see drop tower at The NASA-Lewis Research Center along with system characterization is described. Absolute soot volume fraction measurements are presented for laminar and turbulent gas-jet flames in microgravity to illustrate the capabilities of LII in microgravity. Comparison between LII radial intensity profiles with soot volume fraction profiles determined through a full-field light extinction technique are also reported validating the accuracy of LII for soot volume fraction measurements in a microgravity environment.

  18. Quantitative molecular biology and gas flux measurements demonstrate soil treatment and depth affects on the distribution and activity of denitrifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, M. M.; Jahangir, M.; Cardenas, L.; Khalil, M.; Richards, K. R.; O'Flaherty, V.

    2010-12-01

    The growing industrialisation of agriculture has led to a dramatic increase in organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) fertiliser inputs to agro-ecosystems. This increase has had negative effects on the quality of water ecosystems and greenhouse gas emissions.The study objective was to quantify denitrification and denitrifying microorganisms, using real-time PCR assays of the nitrite reductase(nir) and nitrous oxide reductase(nos) functional gene copy concentrations (GCC g[soil]-1) in Irish agricultural surface and subsoils. Soil cores from 3 soil horizons (A:0-10 cm; B:45-55 cm; C:120-130cm) were amended with 3 alternate N- and C-source amendments (NO3-; NO3-+glucose-C; NO3-+Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC). Real-time production of N2O and N2 was recorded by gas chromatography in a specialized He/O2 environment. N2O and Total Denitrification (TDN) (N2O+N2) production was generally greater in surface soil (2.052 mg/kg/d TDN) than in subsoils (0.120 mg/kg/d TDN). The abundance of denitrifying nirS, nirK (nir) and nos genes was higher in the surface soil, decreasing with soil depth, except in incubations amended with NO3- and DOC, where the carbon source directly positively affected gene copy numbers and fluxes of N2O and N2 production. C addition increased soil denitrification rates, and resulted in higher N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios in surface soil (0.39) than subsoils (0.005), indicating that the subsoil had higher potential for complete reduction of N2O to N2. In the subsoils, complete reduction of NO3- due to glucose-C and DOC addition was observed. Interestingly, at all 3 soil depths, lower nirK abundance (2.78 105 GCC) was recorded, compared to nirS (1.45 107 GCC), but the overall abundance of nir (S+K) i.e. (1.54 107GCC), corresponded with N2O emission fluxes (3.34 mg/kg/d) Statistical analysis indicates negative correlation between nirK GCC and N2O production, but a strong positive correlation was observed between nirS GCC and N2O. We therefore hypothesize that the

  19. Real-Time Soils Characterization and Analyses Systems Used at Ohio Closure Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, Lyle Gene; Carpenter, Michael Vance; Giles, John Robert; Hartwell, John Kelvin; Danahy, R.

    2003-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  20. Chemical characterization of iron-mediated soil organic matter stabilization in tropical subsoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coward, E.; Plante, A. F.; Thompson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils contribute disproportionately to the poorly-characterized and persistent deep soil carbon (C) pool. Highly-weathered and often extending one to two meters deep, these soils also contain an abundance of semicrystalline, Fe- and Al-containing short-range-order (SRO) minerals, metastable derivatives of framework silicate and ferromagnesian parent materials. SRO minerals are capable of soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization through sorption or co-precipitation, a faculty enhanced by their high specific surface area (SSA). As such, SRO-mediated organomineral associations may prove a critical, yet matrix-selective, driver of SOM stabilization capacity in tropical soils, particularly at depth. Surface (0-20 cm) and subsoil (50-80 cm) samples were taken from 20 quantitative soil pits dug in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, located in northeast Puerto Rico. Soils were stratified across granodiorite and volcaniclastic parent materials, spanning primary mineral contents of 5 to 40%. Selective dissolution procedures were used to isolate distinct forms of Fe-C interactions: (1) sodium pyrophosphate to isolate organo-mineral complexes, (2) hydroxylamine and (3) oxalate to isolate SRO phases, and (4) inorganic dithionite to isolate crystalline Fe oxides. Extracts were analysed for dissolved organic C (DOC) and Fe and Al concentrations to estimate SOM associated with each mineral phase. Soils were also subjected to SSA analysis, 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction before and after extraction to determine the contribution of extracted mineral phases to SOM stabilization capacity. Preliminary results indicate a dominance of secondary (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals in surface soils, strongly driven by parent material. With depth, however, we observe a marked shift towards SRO mineral phases across both parent materials, suggesting that SRO-mediated organomineral associations are significant contributors to observed C storage in tropical

  1. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-02-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2–based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology.

  2. Demonstration of Synaptic Behaviors and Resistive Switching Characterizations by Proton Exchange Reactions in Silicon Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yao-Feng; Fowler, Burt; Chen, Ying-Chen; Zhou, Fei; Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Lee, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiOx) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2–based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiOx-based resistive switching materials. The resistive switching SET transition is modeled as hydrogen (proton) release from (SiH)2 to generate the hydrogen bridge defect, and the RESET transition is modeled as an electrochemical reaction (proton capture) that re-forms (SiH)2. The experimental results suggest a simple, robust approach to realize programmable neuromorphic chips compatible with large-scale CMOS manufacturing technology. PMID:26880381

  3. Characterization of PPC Detectors for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR Using a Scanning Collimated Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rager, Jamin; MAJORANA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a 76Ge double-beta decay experiment located at Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) that boasts cutting edge sensitivity and low backgrounds. I report on recent work measuring how charge drift-times vary with respect to the vertical and azimuthal position of physics events within a single-crystal HPGe detector used in the DEMONSTRATOR. Understanding these variations will allow for position reconstruction of physics events and identification of the detector's crystal axis, the latter of which will increase the detector's sensitivity to coherently-scattered Primakoff solar axions. Drift-time data was collected with an automated scanning station located at SURF, which used a 133Ba source to create a beam of collimated 81keV gamma-rays. Maximum likelihood analysis was used to fit the data to a set of models for comparison to ongoing work in pulse-shape simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, the Particle Astrophysics and Nuclear Physics Programs of the National Science Foundation, and the Sanford Underground Research Facility.

  4. Characterization of sulfate reducing bacteria isolated from urban soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia

    2017-05-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) was isolated from urban soil and applied for the remediation of heavy metals pollution from acid mine drainage. The morphology and physiological characteristics (e.g. pH and heavy metals tolerance) of SRB was investigated. The SRB was gram-negative bacteria, long rod with slight curve, cell size 0.5× (1.5-2.0) μm. The pH of medium had significant effect on SRB growth and the efficiency of sulfate reduction, and it showed that the suitable pH range was 5-9 and SRB could not survive at pH less than 4. The maximum tolerance of Fe (II), Zn (II), Cd (II), and Cu (II) under acidic condition (pH 5.0) was about 600 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 25 mg/L, respectively. The result indicated that SRB isolated in this study could be used for the bioremediation of acid mine drainage (pH>4) within the heavy metals concentrations tolerance.

  5. Biochemical and structural characterization of a novel halotolerant cellulase from soil metagenome

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Roma; Srivastava, Ritika; Brahma, Vijaya; Verma, Lata; Karthikeyan, Subramanian; Sahni, Girish

    2016-01-01

    Cellulase catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-1,4-linkages of cellulose to produce industrially relevant monomeric subunits. Cellulases find their applications in pulp and paper, laundry, food and feed, textile, brewing industry and in biofuel production. These industries always have great demand for cellulases that can work efficiently even in harsh conditions such as high salt, heat, and acidic environments. While, cellulases with high thermal and acidic stability are already in use, existence of a high halotolerant cellulase is still elusive. Here, we report a novel cellulase Cel5R, obtained from soil metagenome that shows high halotolerance and thermal stability. The biochemical and functional characterization of Cel5R revealed its endoglucanase activity and high halostability. In addition, the crystal structure of Cel5R determined at 2.2 Å resolution reveals a large number of acidic residues on the surface of the protein that contribute to the halophilic nature of this enzyme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the four free and non-conserved cysteine residues (C65, C90, C231 and C273) contributes to the thermal stability of Cel5R by alanine scanning experiments. Thus, the newly identified endoglucanase Cel5R is a promising candidate for various industrial applications. PMID:28008971

  6. Isolation and characterization of Acanthamoeba strains from soil samples in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Todd, Cheridah D; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Cabello-Vilchez, Alfonso Martín; González, Ana C; Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; Lindo, John F; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Free-living Amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains that are currently classified in 18 different genotypes, T1-T18. In this study, a survey was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in soil samples collected between 2012 and 2013 in Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Samples were inoculated onto non-nutrient agar (NNA) plates and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Identification of Acanthamoeba strains was based on the morphology of the cyst and trophozoite forms. Subsequently, positive samples were cloned for their molecular characterization at the genotype level by sequencing the DF3 region located in the 18S rDNA gene of Acanthamoeba as previously described. Sequencing results revealed the presence of T2, T5 and T4 genotypes within the studied samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of Acanthamoeba in Gran Canaria Island and the first study at the genotype level in the Canary Islands.

  7. Diverse formulas for spider dragline fibers demonstrated by molecular and mechanical characterization of spitting spider silk.

    PubMed

    Correa-Garhwal, Sandra M; Garb, Jessica E

    2014-12-08

    Spider silks have outstanding mechanical properties. Most research has focused on dragline silk proteins (major ampullate spidroins, MaSps) from orb-weaving spiders. Using silk gland expression libraries from the haplogyne spider Scytodes thoracica, we discovered two novel spidroins (S. thoracica fibroin 1 and 2). The amino acid composition of S. thoracica silk glands and dragline fibers suggest that fibroin 1 is the major component of S. thoracica dragline silk. Fibroin 1 is dominated by glycine-alanine motifs, and lacks sequence motifs associated with orb-weaver MaSps. We hypothesize fibroin 2 is a piriform or aciniform silk protein, based on amino acid composition, spigot morphology, and phylogenetic analyses. S. thoracica's dragline silk is less tough than previously reported, but is still comparable to other dragline silks. Our analyses suggest that dragline silk proteins evolved multiple times. This demonstrates that spider dragline silk is more diverse than previously understood, providing alternative high performance silk designs.

  8. Demonstrating a directional detector based on neon for characterizing high energy neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexley, Allie

    2016-03-01

    MITPC is a gas-based time projection chamber used for detecting fast, MeV-scale neutrons. The standard version of the detector relies on a mixture of 600 torr gas composed of 87.5% helium-4 and 12.5% tetrafluoromethane for precisely measuring the energy and direction of neutron-induced nuclear recoils. I describe studies performed with a prototype detector investigating the use of neon, as a replacement for helium-4, in the gas mixture. My discussion focuses on the advantages of neon as the fast neutron target for high energy neutron events (100 MeV) and a demonstration that the mixture will be effective for this event class. I show that the achievable gain and transverse diffusion of drifting electrons in the neon mixture are acceptable and that the detector uptime lost due to voltage breakdowns in the amplification plane is negligible, compared to 20% with the helium-4 mixture.

  9. Georgia Tech Final Report Demonstration In Situ Plasma Vitrification Technology for Savannah River Site Contaminated Soils (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, R.F.

    1996-12-01

    Previous experience with in-situ (Joule-heated) vitrification (ISV) of Savannah River site (SRS) highly weathered soil, has shown that the SRS soil is very refractory and a poor electrical conductor. These findings bring into question the likelihood of utilizing the Joule-heat type of vitrification treatment for waste sites and basins at SRS. An alternative approach may be in-situ plasma vitrification (ISPV). The ISPV approach provides a similar vitrified product and also has a safety advantage in that the melting is initiated at the bottom of a borehole compared to top-down melting for Joule heated ISV.

  10. Laser demonstration and performance characterization of optically pumped Alkali Laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulham, Clifford V.

    Diode Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs) offer a promising approach for high power lasers in military applications that will not suffer from the long logistical trails of chemical lasers or the thermal management issues of diode pumped solid state lasers. This research focuses on characterizing a DPAL-type system to gain a better understanding of using this type of laser as a directed energy weapon. A rubidium laser operating at 795 nm is optically pumped by a pulsed titanium sapphire laser to investigate the dynamics of DPALs at pump intensities between 1.3 and 45 kW/cm2. Linear scaling as high as 32 times threshold is observed, with no evidence of second order kinetics. Comparison of laser characteristics with a quasi-two level analytic model suggests performance near the ideal steady-state limit, disregarding the mode mis-match. Additionally, the peak power scales linearly as high as 1 kW, suggesting aperture scaling to a few cm2 is sufficient to achieve tactical level laser powers. The temporal dynamics of the 100 ns pump and rubidium laser pulses are presented, and the continually evolving laser efficiency provides insight into the bottlenecking of the rubidium atoms in the 2P3/2 state. Lastly, multiple excited states of rubidium and cesium were accessed through two photon absorption in the red, yielding a blue and an IR photon through amplified stimulated emission. Threshold is modest at 0.3 mJ/pulse, and slope efficiencies increase dramatically with alkali concentrations and peak at 0.4%, with considerable opportunity for improvement. This versatile system might find applications for IR countermeasures or underwater communications.

  11. Characterization of basin concrete in support of structural integrity demonstration for extended storage

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.

    2014-09-30

    Concrete core samples from C basin were characterized through material testing and analysis to verify the design inputs for structural analysis of the L Basin and to evaluate the type and extent of changes in the material condition of the concrete under extended service for fuel storage. To avoid the impact on operations, core samples were not collected from L area, but rather, several concrete core samples were taken from the C Basin prior to its closure. C basin was selected due to its similar environmental exposure and service history compared to L Basin. The microstructure and chemical composition of the concrete exposed to the water was profiled from the water surface into the wall to evaluate the impact and extent of exposure. No significant leaching of concrete components was observed. Ingress of carbonation or deleterious species was determined to be insignificant. No evidence of alkali-silica reactions (ASR) was observed. Ettringite was observed to form throughout the structure (in air voids or pores); however, the sulfur content was measured to be consistent with the initial concrete that was used to construct the facility. Similar ettringite trends were observed in the interior segments of the core samples. The compressive strength of the concrete at the mid-wall of the basin was measured, and similar microstructural analysis was conducted on these materials post compression testing. The microstructure was determined to be similar to near-surface segments of the core samples. The average strength was 4148 psi, which is well-above the design strength of 2500 psi. The analyses showed that phase alterations and minor cracking in a microstructure did not affect the design specification for the concrete.

  12. Isotope tracer approaches for characterizing artificial recharge and demonstrating regulatory compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Moran, J.E.; Neimeyer, S.; Herndon, R., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    Potable reuse of groundwater from wastewater origins requires new methods to quantify proposed regulatory criteria such as subsurface residence times, dilution, and water quality transitions. Isotope tracers oxygen-18 ({sup 18}O), tritium ({sup 3}H), dissolved noble gases, and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) have been used together in Orange County to age-date groundwater, quantify mixing, and characterize changes in total organic carbon (TOC). Simultaneous measurements of {sup 3}H and helium-3 ({sup 3}He) are used to determine groundwater ages between 1 and 40 years with uncertainties of plus/minus one year. These ages map preferred groundwater flowpaths and identify groundwater ages of less than or equal to 1 year. Wells recharged from the Anaheim Lake spreading basin were used to monitor arrival times and dilution of 6000 acre-ft of {sup 18}O-distinct Colorado River (COR) water introduced during a controlled recharge experiment. In addition, isotopically enriched Xe was introduced into the basin to quantify COR dilution of greater than 90%. The COR arrived at 7 wells between 30 and 200 days after recharge commenced. The COR was diluted up to 90% at distances and depths less than 1000 feet from the lake. Results suggest that dilution of 50% is obtained within 6 months from time or recharge. {sup 14}C measured in TOC of Anaheim Lake bottom water was 3 pmc higher than the DOC. The same water collected one month later in a nearby monitoring well, as confirmed by {sup 18}O, showed a 50% reduction in TOC concentration, and a 7 pmc decrease in {sup 14}C relative to the surface water. This result suggests that older carbon components increase in TOC after recharge.

  13. Characterizing changes in soil bacterial community structure in response to short-term warming.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Sun, Huaibo; Peng, Fei; Zhang, Huayong; Xue, Xian; Gibbons, Sean M; Gilbert, Jack A; Chu, Haiyan

    2014-08-01

    High altitude alpine meadows are experiencing considerably greater than average increases in soil surface temperature, potentially as a result of ongoing climate change. The effects of warming on plant productivity and soil edaphic variables have been established previously, but the influence of warming on soil microbial community structure has not been well characterized. Here, the impact of 15 months of soil warming (both +1 and +2 °C) on bacterial community structure was examined in a field experiment on a Tibetan plateau alpine meadow using bar-coded pyrosequencing. Warming significantly changed (P < 0.05) the structure of the soil bacterial community, but the alpha diversity was not dramatically affected. Changes in the abundance of the Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were found to contribute the most to differences between ambient (AT) and artificially warmed conditions. A variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that warming directly explained 7.15% variation in bacterial community structure, while warming-induced changes in soil edaphic and plant phenotypic properties indirectly accounted for 28.3% and 20.6% of the community variance, respectively. Interestingly, certain taxa showed an inconsistent response to the two warming treatments, for example Deltaproteobacteria showed a decreased relative abundance at +1 °C, but a return to AT control relative abundance at +2 °C. This suggests complex microbial dynamics that could result from conditional dependencies between bacterial taxa.

  14. Characterizing changes in soil bacterial community structure in response to short-term warming

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, Sean M.; sun, Huaibo; Xiong, Jinbo; Gilbert, Jack A.; Peng, Fei; Chu, Haiyan; Chu, Haiyan

    2014-08-01

    High altitude alpine meadows are experiencing considerably greater than average increases in soil surface temperature, potentially as a result of ongoing climate change. The effects of warming on plant productivity and soil edaphic variables have been established previously, but the influence of warming on soil microbial community structure has not been well characterized. Here, the impact of 15 months of soil warming (both + 1 and + 2 degrees C) on bacterial community structure was examined in a field experiment on a Tibetan plateau alpine meadow using bar-coded pyrosequencing. Warming significantly changed (P < 0.05) the structure of the soil bacterial community, but the alpha diversity was not dramatically affected. Changes in the abundance of the Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria were found to contribute the most to differences between ambient (AT) and artificially warmed conditions. A variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that warming directly explained 7.15% variation in bacterial community structure, while warming-induced changes in soil edaphic and plant phenotypic properties indirectly accounted for 28.3% and 20.6% of the community variance, respectively. Interestingly, certain taxa showed an inconsistent response to the two warming treatments, for example Deltaproteobacteria showed a decreased relative abundance at + 1 degrees C, but a return to AT control relative abundance at + 2 degrees C. This suggests complex microbial dynamics that could result from conditional dependencies between bacterial taxa.

  15. Demonstration, testing and evaluation of nonintrusive characterization technologies at operable Unit 2 of Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution (HR) seismic reflection evaluation was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), near Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the applicability of nonintrusive characterization techniques to detect buried objects, contamination, and geological/hydrological features at RFP. The evaluation was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) request for demonstration, testing and evaluation (DT&E) of nonintrusive techniques, under DOE Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) No. DE-RA05-09OR22000.

  16. Demonstration and characterization of anti-human mitochondria autoantibodies in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and in other conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Betterle, C; Caretto, A; Zeviani, M; Pedini, B; Salviati, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied 32 patients with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP), 19 patients with organ-specific autoimmune diseases (OSAD) without IHP, 50 normal controls and a known serum with anti-mitochondrial autoantibodies (AMA). Patients' sera were tested by the classical indirect immunofluorescent technique and by the indirect immunofluorescent complement fixation technique on unfixed cryostat sections of normal human parathyroid, pancreas, thyroid, stomach, kidney, and rat kidney. Five out of 32 patients with IHP, three out of 19 patients with OSAD without IHP and one out of 50 normal controls revealed a bright reactivity against oxyphil cells and a weak reactivity against chief cells of normal parathyroid. These sera also brightly reacted with mitochondria-rich cells and weakly with the remaining cells of only human tissues. The absorption of positive sera with human mitochondria completely abolished this positivity but the absorption with rat mitochondria failed to prevent this reaction. This reactivity was due to an anti-human mitochondrial autoantibody (AHMA) of IgG class. By non-competitive ELISA and Western blot we also demonstrated that every AHMA-positive serum mainly reacted against a human mitochondrial membrane-bound protein of approximate mol. wt. of 46 kd, while the AMA-positive serum reacted against different mitochondrial antigens. The present study shows that a specific parathyroid autoantibody was not detectable in patients with IHP. Images Fig. 3 PMID:3910313

  17. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  18. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  19. Comprehensive assessment of regional selenium resources in soils based on the analytic hierarchy process: Assessment system construction and case demonstration.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ruoyu; Song, Shuai; Shi, Yajing; Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Xu, Xiangbo; Wang, Yurong; Han, Xuesong

    2017-12-15

    The redundancy or deficiency of selenium in soils can cause adverse effects on crops and even threaten human health. It was necessary to assess selenium resources with a rigorous scientific appraisal. Previous studies of selenium resource assessment were usually carried out using a single index evaluation. A multi-index evaluation method (analytic hierarchy process) was used in this study to establish a comprehensive assessment system based on consideration of selenium content, soil nutrients and soil environmental quality. The criteria for the comprehensive assessment system were classified by summing critical values in the standards with weights and a Geographical Information System was used to reflect the regional distribution of the assessment results. Boshan, a representative region for developing selenium-rich agriculture, was taken as a case area and classified into Zone I-V, which suggested priority areas for developing selenium-rich agriculture. Most parts of the North and Midlands of Boshan were relatively suitable for development of selenium-rich agriculture. Soils in south fractions were contaminated by Cd, PAHs, HCHs and DDTs, in which it was forbidden to farm. This study was expected to provide the basis for developing selenium-rich agriculture and an example for comprehensive evaluation of relevant resources in a region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION OF A THERMAL DESORPTION/UV PHOTOLYSIS PROCESS FOR DECONTAMINATING SOILS CONTAINING HERBICIDE ORANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This treatability study report presents the results of laboratory and field tests on the effectiveness of a new decontamination process for soils containing 2,4-D/2,4,5-T and traces of dioxin. The process employs three operations, thermal desorption, condensation and absorp...

  1. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  2. VHF SoOp (Signal of Opportunity) Technology Demonstration for Soil Moisture Measurement Using Microwave Hydraulic Boom Truck Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, A. T.; Deshpande, M.; O'Neill, P. E.; Miles, L.

    2017-01-01

    A goal of this research is to test deployable VHF antennas for 6U Cubesat platforms to enable validation of root zone soil moisture (RZSM) estimation algorithms for signal of opportunity (SoOp) remote sensing over the 240-270 MHz frequency band. The proposed work provides a strong foundation for establishing a technology development path for maturing a global direct surface soil moisture (SM) and RZSM measurement system over a variety of land covers. Knowledge of RZSM up to a depth of 1 meter and surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter on a global scale, at a spatial resolution of 1-10 km through moderate-to-heavy vegetation, is critical to understanding global water resources and the vertical moisture gradient in the Earths surface layer which controls moisture interactions between the soil, vegetation, and atmosphere. Current observations of surface SM from space by L-band radiometers (1.4 GHz) and radars (1.26 GHz) are limited to measurements of surface SM up to a depth of 0.05 meter through moderate amounts of vegetation. This limitation is mainly due to the inability of L-band signals to penetrate through dense vegetation and deep into the soil column. Satellite observations of the surface moisture conditions are coupled to sophisticated models which extrapolate the surface SM into the root zone, thus providing an indirect estimate rather than a direct measurement of RZSM. To overcome this limitation, low-frequency airborne radars operating at 435 MHz and 118 MHz have been investigated, since these lower frequencies should penetrate denser vegetation and respond to conditions deeper in the soil.

  3. High Resolution Imaging Spectroscopy for Characterizing Soil Properties over Large Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of high resolution surface soil texture (percentage sand, silt and clay), soil organic matter and chemical constituents are important for understanding infiltration, runoff and other surficial hydrologic processes at different scales. The Visible Near Infrared Analysis (VNIRA) method, which is a combination of imaging spectroscopy and laboratory chemical analysis with an underlying statistical model, has been established for the quantification of soil properties from imaging spectrometer data. In this study we characterize the feasibility of quantifying soil properties over large areas with the aim that these methods may be extended to space-borne sensors such as HyspIRI. Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is a space-borne NASA mission concept having 10nm contiguous bands in the VSWIR region (380nm to 2500nm) of the electromagnetic spectra. High resolution (7.6m) Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected by NASA immediately after the massive 2011 Mississippi River floods at the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway, coupled with in situ samples obtained at the time of the flight, is used to generate HyspIRI like data at 60m resolution. The VNIRA method is applied in a data-mining framework for quantification of the different soil textural properties and chemical constituents. The empirical models are further used for creating quantitative maps of the soil properties for the entire BPNM floodway. These maps are compared with the fine resolution AVIRIS maps of the same area for the different legacy landscape features and spatial correlations with the underlying topography immediately disturbed by the flooding event. The scales of variation in the soil constituents captured by the fine resolution data are also compared to the scales of variation captured by coarser resolution data. This study further explores the issues of applicability, challenges (such as the sensitivity of NDVI from mixed neighborhood pixels

  4. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  5. The integration of 3D electrical resistivity tomography and ET flux measurements to characterize water mass balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanella, Daniela; Boaga, Jacopo; Perri, Maria Teresa; Consoli, Simona; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    subsoil interactions between biomass, hydrosphere and atmosphere. This case study demonstrates that 3D micro-ERT is capable of characterizing the pathways of water distribution, and provides spatial information on root zone suction regions. The reliability of the method may suggest its integration into farm water management surveys to delineate zones of excessive water loss due to deep drainage and to improve the positioning of point measurement methods for measuring soil moisture, thereby improving irrigation scheduling. The integration with plant transpiration and local evapo-transpiration makes available a full set of complementing data to constrain predictive models for the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum.

  6. The relevance of in-situ and laboratory characterization of sandy soil hydraulic properties for soil water simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Shahidi, Reihaneh; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Al-Barri, Bashar; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Field water flow processes can be precisely delineated with proper sets of soil hydraulic properties derived from in situ and/or laboratory experiments. In this study we analyzed and compared soil hydraulic properties obtained by traditional laboratory experiments and inverse optimization tension infiltrometer data along the vertical direction within two typical Podzol profiles with sand texture in a potato field. The main goal was to identify proper sets of hydraulic parameters and to evaluate their relevance on hydrological model performance for irrigation management purposes. Tension disc infiltration experiments were carried out at four and five different depths for both profiles at consecutive negative pressure heads of 12, 6, 3 and 0.1 cm. At the same locations and depths undisturbed samples were taken to determine Mualem-van Genuchten (MVG) hydraulic parameters (θr, residual water content, θs, saturated water content, α and n, shape parameters and Kls, lab saturated hydraulic conductivity) in the laboratory. Results demonstrated horizontal differences and vertical variability of hydraulic properties. The tension disc infiltration data fitted well in inverse modeling using Hydrus 2D/3D in combination with final water content at the end of the experiment, θf. Four MVG parameters (θs, α, n and field saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs) were estimated (θr set to zero), with estimated Kls and α values being relatively similar to values from Wooding's solution which used as initial value and estimated θs corresponded to (effective) field saturated water content, θf. The laboratory measurement of Kls yielded 2-30 times higher values than the field method Kfs from top to subsoil layers, while there was a significant correlation between both Ks values (r = 0.75). We found significant differences of MVG parameters θs, n and α values between laboratory and field measurements, but again a significant correlation was observed between laboratory and field MVG

  7. Incorporation of satellite remote sensing pan-sharpened imagery into digital soil prediction and mapping models to characterize soil property variability in small agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E.; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P.

    2017-01-01

    Soil prediction models based on spectral indices from some multispectral images are too coarse to characterize spatial pattern of soil properties in small and heterogeneous agricultural lands. Image pan-sharpening has seldom been utilized in Digital Soil Mapping research before. This research aimed to analyze the effects of pan-sharpened (PAN) remote sensing spectral indices on soil prediction models in smallholder farm settings. This research fused the panchromatic band and multispectral (MS) bands of WorldView-2, GeoEye-1, and Landsat 8 images in a village in Southern India by Brovey, Gram-Schmidt and Intensity-Hue-Saturation methods. Random Forest was utilized to develop soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil exchangeable potassium (Kex) prediction models by incorporating multiple spectral indices from the PAN and MS images. Overall, our results showed that PAN remote sensing spectral indices have similar spectral characteristics with soil TN and Kex as MS remote sensing spectral indices. There is no soil prediction model incorporating the specific type of pan-sharpened spectral indices always had the strongest prediction capability of soil TN and Kex. The incorporation of pan-sharpened remote sensing spectral data not only increased the spatial resolution of the soil prediction maps, but also enhanced the prediction accuracy of soil prediction models. Small farms with limited footprint, fragmented ownership and diverse crop cycle should benefit greatly from the pan-sharpened high spatial resolution imagery for soil property mapping. Our results show that multiple high and medium resolution images can be used to map soil properties suggesting the possibility of an improvement in the maps' update frequency. Additionally, the results should benefit the large agricultural community through the reduction of routine soil sampling cost and improved prediction accuracy.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    del Papa, María F.; Balagué, Laura J.; Sowinski, Susana Castro; Wegener, Caren; Segundo, Eduardo; Abarca, Francisco Martínez; Toro, Nicolás; Niehaus, Karsten; Pühler, Alfred; Aguilar, O. Mario; Martínez-Drets, Gloria; Lagares, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and genomic PCR-fingerprinting with MBOREP1 and BOXC1 primers, demonstrated that the new isolates share a genetic background closely related to that of the previously reported Rhizobium sp. Or191 recovered from an acid soil in Oregon (B. D. Eardly, J. P. Young, and R. K. Selander, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58:1809–1815, 1992). Growth curves, melanin production, temperature tolerance, and megaplasmid profiles of the AT isolates were all coincident with these characteristics in strain Or191. In addition to the ability of all of these strains to nodulate alfalfa (Medicago sativa) inefficiently, the AT isolates also nodulated the common bean and Leucaena leucocephala, showing an extended host range for nodulation of legumes. In alfalfa, the time course of nodule formation by the AT isolate LPU 83 showed a continued nodulation restricted to the emerging secondary roots, which was probably related to the low rate of nitrogen fixation by the largely ineffective nodules. Results demonstrate the complexity of the rhizobial populations present in the acidic soils represented by a main group of N2-fixing rhizobia and a second group of ineffective and less-predominant isolates related to the AT strain Or191. PMID:10103231

  9. Bacterial community characterization in the soils of native and restored rainforest fragments.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Rafael L F; Zucchi, Tiago D; Taketani, Rodrigo G; Andreote, Fernando D; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest ("Mata Atlântica") has been largely studied due to its valuable and unique biodiversity. Unfortunately, this priceless ecosystem has been widely deforested and only 10 % of its original area is still untouched. Some projects have been successfully implemented to restore its fauna and flora but there is a lack of information on how the soil bacterial communities respond to this process. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the influence of soil attributes and seasonality on soil bacterial communities of rainforest fragments under restoration processes. Soil samples from a native site and two ongoing restoration fragments with different times of implementation (10 and 20 years) were collected and assayed by using culture-independent approaches. Our findings demonstrate that seasonality barely altered the bacterial distribution whereas soil chemical attributes and plant species were related to bacterial community structure during the restoration process. Moreover, the strict relationship observed for two bacterial groups, Solibacteriaceae and Verrucomicrobia, increasing from the more recently planted (10 years) to the native site, with the 20 year old restoration site in the middle, which may suggest their use as bioindicators of soil quality and recovery of forest fragments being restored.

  10. Characterization of a halotolerant-psychroloterant bacterium from dry valley Antarctic soil.

    PubMed

    Miller, K J; Leschine, S B; Huguenin, R L

    1983-01-01

    The saline soils of the ice free dry valleys of Victoria Land, Antarctica may provide the closest analog on Earth to Martian conditions. We have initiated a study aimed at examining microbial adaptations to the harsh environment of these dry valley soils. In this report we describe the characterization of one bacterium, strain A4a, isolated from Taylor Valley soil. Strain A4a was an obligately aerobic, orange-pigmented, Gram-positive coccus that grew over wide ranges of both temperature (0 degrees C-40 degrees C) and sodium chloride concentration (0-2.0M). The optimal temperature for growth at all NaCl concentrations was 25 degrees C. Phospholipid composition and guanine plus cytosine content of the DNA of the isolate indicate a close relation to the genus Planococcus.

  11. Characterization of soil lead by comparing sequential Gaussian simulation, simulated annealing simulation and kriging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Pin; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Teng, Tung-Po

    2001-11-01

    This study attempted to characterize the spatial patterns of lead (Pb) for further soil monitoring and remediation by comparing the sequential Gaussian simulation, simulated annealing techniques and ordinary kriging methods to delineate soil lead in a rice paddy field in the north of Changhua County, Taiwan. For reproducing the statistics of Pb and natural log Pb (ln(Pb)), simulation techniques yielded better results than ordinary kriging. Meanwhile, sequential Gaussian simulation and simulated annealing reproduced the spatial variation of the measured Pb and ln(Pb), as well as identified the global spatial continuity and discontinuity patterns. Furthermore, the simulated annealing method equaled the global measurement statistics and spatial patterns of Pb and ln(Pb) more so than sequential Gaussian simulation and kriging. Finally, the realizations generated by sequential Gaussian simulation displayed significantly higher local heterogeneity than those generated by simulated annealing. The realizations of simulated annealing simulation are consistent in presenting the spatial patterns of soil Pb.

  12. Microbial and mineralogical characterizations of soils collected from the deep biosphere of the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Engelhard, Mark; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Andersen, Gary L; Sani, Rajesh K

    2010-10-01

    A microbial census on deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Soil mineralogical characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable similarities in microbial communities (1,360 common OTUs) despite distinct geochemical characteristics. Fifty-seven phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity by capturing several physiological groups such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. High-density microarrays revealed the greatest prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

  13. Microbial and Mineralogical Characterizations of Soils Collected from the Deep Biosphere of the Former Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Osman, Shariff; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Andersen, Gary L.; Sani, Rajesh K.

    2010-03-13

    A microbial census on the deep biosphere (1.34 km depth) microbial communities was performed in two soil samples collected from the Ross and number 6 Winze sites of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota using high-density 16S microarrays (PhyloChip). Mineralogical characterization of soil samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron, and Mössbauer spectroscopic techniques which demonstrated the presence of silicates and iron minerals (phyllosilicates and clays) in both samples. Microarray data revealed extensive bacterial diversity in soils and detected the largest number of taxa in Proteobacteria phylum followed by Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The archael communities in the deep gold mine environments were less diverse and belonged to phyla Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota. Both the samples showed remarkable amount of similar microbial communities (1360 common OTUs) despite of distinct geochemical characteristics. A total of 57 phylotypes could not be classified even at phylum level representing a hitherto unidentified diversity in deep biosphere. PhyloChip data also suggested considerable metabolic diversity in deep biosphere by capturing several physiological groups of bacteria such as sulfur-oxidizer, ammonia-oxidizers, iron-oxidizers, methane-oxidizers, and sulfate-reducers in both samples. Application of high-density microarrays revealed the vast prokaryotic diversity ever reported from deep subsurface habitat of gold mines.

  14. The effects of space weathering on Apollo 17 mare soils: Petrographic and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Pieters, Carlé; Keller, Lindsay P.; Morris, Richard V.; McKay, David S.; Patchen, Allan; Wentworth, Susan

    2001-02-01

    The lunar soil characterization consortium, a group of lunar-sample and remote-sensing scientists, has undertaken the extensive task of characterization of the finest fractions of lunar soils, with respect to their mineralogical and chemical makeup. These compositional data form the basis for integration and modeling with the reflectance spectra of these same soil fractions. This endeavor is aimed at deciphering the effects of space weathering of soils on airless bodies with quantification of the links between remotely sensed reflectance spectra and composition. A beneficial byproduct is an understanding of the complexities involved in the formation of lunar soil. Several significant findings have been documented in the study of the <45 lm size fractions of selected Apollo 17 mare soils. As grain size decreases, the abundance of agglutinitic glass increases, as does the plagioclase, whereas the other minerals decrease. The composition of the agglutinitic glass is relatively constant for all size fractions, being more feldspathic than any of the bulk compositions; notably, TiO2 is substantially depleted in the agglutinitic glass. However, as grain size decreases, the bulk composition of each size fraction continuously changes, becoming more Al-rich and Fe-poor, and approaches the composition of the agglutinitic glasses. Between the smallest grain sizes (10-20 and <10 lm), the IS/FeO values (amount of total iron present as nanophase Fe0) increase by greater than 100% (>2´), whereas the abundance of agglutinitic glass increases by only 10-15%. This is evidence for a large contribution from surface-correlated nanophase Fe0 to the IS/FeO values, particularly in the <10 lm size fraction. The surface nanophase Fe0 is present largely as vapor-deposited patinas on the surfaces of almost every particle of the mature soils, and to a lesser degree for the immature soils (Keller et al., 1999a). It is reasoned that the vapor-deposited patinas may have far greater effects upon

  15. Characterization of bacterial communities and functions of two submerged soils from San Vitale park (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocali, Stefano; Chiellini, Carolina; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Ferronato, Chiara; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Vianello, Gilmo

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous soils has been introduced in the last edition of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil surveystaff, 2014), to describe soils covered by a water column of up to 2.5 m where different pedogenetic processes can be recognized. However, the role of bacterial community structure and function in such environments and its potential use as pedogenetic indicator is still largely unknown. Two submerged soils (WAS-2 and WAS-4) were collected from San Vitale park (Italy), a site where the evolution of the landscape from subaqueous wetland to interdunal and dunal system, and the interfacing of freshwater with saltwater, made this site particularly suitable for examining the pedogenetic indicators which can characterize and predict the soil hydromorphism in trasitional ecosystems. The two soils were classified and their physicochemical and morphological features were investigated. Selective media were used to isolate both culturable aerobic and anaerobic (microaerophilic) bacteria associated with each horizon. In WAS-2 seven horizons were identified (depths 4-0, 0-6, 6-13, 13-20, 20-36, 36-59/60, and 59/60-83 cm) while in WAS-4, five horizons were identified (depths 0-14, 14-20, 20-40, 40-45, 45-100 cm) for a total of 12 horizons (samples). For each sample, aerobic bacterial plate count was performed on solid LB medium, coupled with microaerophilic bacterial plate count either on SA500 minimal medium and AYE medium (0.5% soft agar each). Molecular identification (16S rRNA gene sequencing) of ~100 strains isolated from each of the three used medium was performed, for a total of ~300 strains for each sample. To complete the characterization of the microbial communities in all horizons, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was carried out with 454 platform on each of the 12 samples. Moreover, the N2O and CH4 emissions were determined from each pedon. All the parameters were used to highlight the similarities and the differences between and within the pedons. The results

  16. Forty years of 90Sr in situ migration: importance of soil characterization in modeling transport phenomena.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J M; Piault, E; Macouillard, D; Juncos, C

    2006-01-01

    In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of (90)Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The (90)Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of (90)Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the (90)Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year(-1) in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined.

  17. Characterization of minerals: From the classroom to soils to talc deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools to identify any mineral. Students begin with familiarizing themselves with the tools (e.g. Polarizing Light Microscope and refractive index liquids) and the methods (e.g. defining properties) needed to identify a mineral. Next, they work through characterizing the most common minerals to hone their skills. The students finish the semester with two projects: characterizing single mineral grains with a spindle stage and creating a mineral collection. Evaluation of mineralogical data from selected sand or silt fraction of soils from the USDA-NRCS National Cooperative Soil Survey database, show that soils in all states (except for Rhode Island) contain amphiboles. Forty-one of the fifty states had 10 % or more sampled pedons containing amphiboles. Overall, about 13 % of pedons sampled in the USA contained amphiboles. While amphibole asbestos deposits occur in mafic and ultramafic provinces, soil amphiboles occur evenly distributed across the USA. The majority of the amphiboles found in the soils would probably not meet the mineralogical definition of asbestos (i.e., they would not have been derived from asbestiform amphiboles); however, the majority would probably meet a commonly used regulatory definition to be considered a fiber (i.e., are over 5 microns in length with a greater that 3 to 1 aspect ratio). Furthermore, chemical and morphological characterization was done on minerals in talc deposits and R. T. Vanderbilt Co. processed talc products from the Gouverneur Mining District, New York. The main mineral phases detected within the samples are tremolite, anthophyllite, and talc. Compositional analyses were preformed by

  18. Distribution, occurrence and characterization of entomopathogenic fungi in agricultural soil in the Palestinian area.

    PubMed

    Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed S; Mara'i, Abdel-Basit B M; Jamous, Rana M

    2002-01-01

    The occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi was investigated in irrigated vegetable fields and citrus orchards soils, over a nine-month period (April-December 1999), using the Galleria bait method (GBM). Entomopathogenic fungi were found to occur in 33.6% of the soil samples studied, with positive samples yielding 70 fungal isolates, belonging to 20 species from 13 genera. Conidiobolus coronatus was the most frequent and abundant entomopathogenic species recovered, comprising 31.4% of the total number of isolates. Soil pH, soil moisture content and the geographical location had minor or no effect on the isolation of entomopathogenic fungi in the fields studied. On the other hand, organic matter content of soil, and vegetation type were found to significantly affect the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soil habitats, with orchard fields yielding larger numbers of isolates than vegetable fields. Using Koch's postulates the pathogenicity of fungal isolates to Galleria larvae was found to range from 16-100% (mortality rate). Isolates of C. coronatus proved to be the most virulent isolates recovered. The effect of media and temperature on mycelial growth rate, conidial production and conidial germination of six entomopathogenic fungal species (C. coronatus, Entomophaga grylli, Erynia castrans, Hirsutella jonesii, Paecilomyces farinosus and Sporodiniella umbellata) was also studied. Mycelial growth rate, spore production and spore germination were significantly affected by media, temperature and isolates. In view of the present results, C. coronatus appears to be a good candidate for pest control in agricultural soils, as it has a wide tolerance to agricultural practices, has frequently been isolated from both vegetable and orchard fields, and is characterized by high mycelial growth rate, conidial production and conidial germination.

  19. Characterization of soil behavior using electromagnetic wave-based technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaobo

    samples so that the beta value, i.e., the ratio between the conductivities of the sediment and the fluid, is smaller than 1. The beta value is greater than 1 in the Group B samples owing to an overcompensation of surface conduction. Sedimentation behavior of two kaolinite samples with distinct fabric associations is characterized using mechanical and electromagnetic wave-based techniques. The two different fabric formations, the edge-to-face (EF) flocculated structure (i.e., sample A) and the dispersed and deflocculated structure (i.e., sample B), were regulated by changing the pH of the pore fluid and are produced. The anisotropy of shear wave velocity and DC conductivity was not observed in the sediment of sample A because of EF isotropic fabric associations but it was detected in sample B as a result of face-to-face (FF) aggregation. An open card-house structure of the sample A sediment results in a higher relaxation strength of the bulk water, Deltakappaw owing to a higher water content; the smaller Deltakappaw measured in the sample B sediment indicates denser packing. In both samples, sediment consolidation gives rise to a decrease in the bulk-water relaxation strength but an increase in the bound-water relaxation strength owing to increasing particle content. In response to sediment consolidation, the sediment conductivity of sample A continuously decreases because of the reduced contribution from the fluid conductivity. In sample B, the surface conduction via the overlapped double layer overcompensates such a decreased contribution so that the sediment conductivity increases with increasing particle content. The slim-form open-ended coaxial probe is also used to conduct a local dielectric measurement. The measured results, i.e. dielectric relaxation strength of bulk water, Deltakappaw, and the DC conductivity of the saturated sample, sigmamix, are jointly used to characterize the spatial variability of different specimens including glass beads, sand and mica

  20. Black carbon and kerogen in soils and sediments. 1. Quantification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin

    2002-09-15

    A comprehensive wet chemical procedure was developed by combining acid demineralization, base extraction, and dichromate oxidation for fractionation and quantitative isolation of soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) into four fractions: (1) humic acids + kerogen + BC (HKB); (2) kerogen + BC (KB); (3) humic acid (HA); and (4) BC. The soil/sediment samples tested were collected from the suburban areas of Guangzhou, a rapidly developing city of China. The results show that BC and kerogen constitute 57.8-80.6% of the total organic carbon (TOC) and that the relative content of BC ranges from 18.3% to 41.0% of the TOC, indicating that both BC and kerogen are major organic components in soils and sediments from this industrialized region. Systematic characterization of the isolated SOMs shows that both BC and kerogen have sizes ranging from a few microns to above 100 microm, relatively low O/C and H/C atomic ratios, and low contents of oxygen-containing functional groups. The isolated BC has unique fusinite and semifusinite macerals, highly porous nature, and structures indicative of its possible origins. The study indicates that SOM is highly heterogeneous and that humin, the nonextractable humus fraction, consists mainly of kerogen and BC materials in the tested soil/sediment samples. The presence of these materials in soils and sediments may have significant impacts on pollutant mass transfer and transformation processes such as desorption and bioavailability of less polar organic chemicals in surface aquatic and groundwater environments.

  1. Characterization of water extractable organic matter in a deep soil profile.

    PubMed

    Corvasce, Maddalena; Zsolnay, Adam; D'Orazio, Valeria; Lopez, Raffaele; Miano, Teodoro M

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify qualitative and quantitative differences of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) isolated from each horizon along a deep soil profile and to evaluate any relationship between the WEOC and the total organic carbon (TOC) content. The soil profile "Monte Pietroso" is located in the Murge area, Apulia region in Southern Italy. Samples from the eight horizons (Ap1, Ap2, Ab1, Ab2, Bt1, 2B, 2Bt2, and 2B/C) were collected in October 2002. The WEOM characterization was carried out by means of UV absorbance, fluorescence spectroscopy in the emission and excitation/emission matrix (EEM) modes, and additional spectroscopic derived indexes. Soil organic carbon was shown to accumulate in the top horizons (Ap) and, in general, to decrease with depth, whereas, the WEOM/TOC ratio increases with increasing depth. The aromaticity and the humification index of the WEOM decrease dramatically downward the soil profile, whereas the fluorescence efficiency index tends to increase markedly. The WEOM fractions feature three main fluorophores with different wavelength and relative intensity. In general WEOM transport phenomena are suggested to occur downward the soil profile, depending on the nature of the organic material and on the chemical and mineral characteristics of the various horizons.

  2. Characterization of environmentally persistent Escherichia coli isolates leached from an Irish soil.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Fiona P; Abram, Florence; Chinalia, Fabio A; Richards, Karl G; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    Soils are typically considered to be suboptimal environments for enteric organisms, but there is increasing evidence that Escherichia coli populations can become resident in soil under favorable conditions. Previous work reported the growth of autochthonous E. coli in a maritime temperate Luvic Stagnosol soil, and this study aimed to characterize, by molecular and physiological means, the genetic diversity and physiology of environmentally persistent E. coli isolates leached from the soil. Molecular analysis (16S rRNA sequencing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and a multiplex PCR method) established the genetic diversity of the isolates (n = 7), while physiological methods determined the metabolic capability and environmental fitness of the isolates, relative to those of laboratory strains, under the conditions tested. Genotypic analysis indicated that the leached isolates do not form a single genetic grouping but that multiple genotypic groups are capable of surviving and proliferating in this environment. In physiological studies, environmental isolates grew well across a broad range of temperatures and media, in comparison with the growth of laboratory strains. These findings suggest that certain E. coli strains may have the ability to colonize and adapt to soil conditions. The resulting lack of fecal specificity has implications for the use of E. coli as an indicator of fecal pollution in the environment.

  3. Chemical Characterization of the Soil Organic Matter in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iñiguez, E.; Navarro-González, R.; Miranda, L. D.; McKay, C.

    2005-12-01

    The arid core region of the Atacama Desert located in Yungay, Chile contains Mars-like soils that have undetectable bacterial populations, low organic concentrations, and the presence of a non-chirally specific oxidant (Navarro-Gonzalez, et al., 2003, Science 302, 1018-1021). The level of organics in these soils would be undetectable by pyr-GC-MS at Viking temperatures (200-500°C) but detectable at higher temperatures (750°C). The chemical characterization of organics in these soils is relevant for the development of new methodologies for the search of organics in the Martian surface. Consequently we have extracted the organics from the soil matrix using organic solvents in a Soxhlet apparatus, and analyzed the dry residue by different analytical techniques such as 1H-NMR, FTIR, GC-MS, and pyr-GC-MS. Our preliminary results indicate that the organics present in the soil of the core region of the Atacama Desert are composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cyclic aliphatic chains, and different carboxylic and amino groups.

  4. Characterization of light gaseous hydrocarbons of the surface soils of Krishna-Godavari basin, India.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, M; Rasheed, M A; Madhavi, T; Kalpana, M S; Patil, D J; Dayal, A M

    2012-01-01

    Several techniques are used for the exploration of hydrocarbons, of which; the geochemical techniques involving the microbiological technique use the principle of detecting the light hydrocarbon seepage activities for indication of sub-surface petroleum accumulations. Asurvey was carried out to characterize the light gaseous hydrocarbons seeping in oil and gas fields of Krishna-Godavari basin ofAndhra Pradesh. Aset of 50 sub-soil samples were collected at depths of about 3 m for geochemical analyses and 1m for microbiological analysis. The microbial prospecting studies showed the presence of high bacterial population for methane 2.5 x 10(2) to 6.0 x 10(6) cfu g(-1), propane 1x10(2) to 8.0 x 10(6) cfu g(-1) in soil samples. The adsorbed soil gas analysis showed the presence of moderate to low concentrations of methane (26 to 139 ppb), ethane (0 to 17 ppb), propane (0 to 8 ppb), butane (0 to 5 ppb) and pentane (0 to 2 ppb) in the soil samples of the study area. Carbon isotope analysis for methane ('13C1) ranging from -36.6 to -22.7 per hundred Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB) suggests these gases are of thermogenic origin. Geo-microbial prospecting method coupled with adsorbed soil gas and carbon isotope ratio analysis have thus shown good correlation with existing oil/gas fields of Krishna-Godavari basin.

  5. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterisation facility for "next generation" sampling aimed at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity on quantification of a set of exemplar parameters, organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), biomass, soil microbiology, MCPA sorption and mineralization is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a fit-for-purpose heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale profile (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-1 m) replication sampling pattern. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results concludes that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  7. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi.

  8. Evaluation and characterization of thyroid-disrupting activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils.

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Advanced Test Reactor Demonstration Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; David Schwieder; Cherie Phelan; Anh Bui; Paul Bayless

    2012-08-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management with the aim to improve economics, reliability, and sustain safety of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced “RISMC toolkit” that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. This report describes the RISMC methodology demonstration where the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) was used as a test-bed for purposes of determining safety margins. As part of the demonstration, we describe how both the thermal-hydraulics and probabilistic safety calculations are integrated and used to quantify margin management strategies.

  10. Near-infrared spectroscopy integrated catheter for characterization of myocardial tissues: preliminary demonstrations to radiofrequency ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Moon, Rajinder P.; Marboe, Charles C.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2015-01-01

    Effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment of atrial fibrillation can be limited by the ability to characterize the tissue in contact. Parameters obtained by conventional catheters, such as impedance and temperature can be insufficient in providing physiological information pertaining to effective treatment. In this report, we present a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-integrated catheter capable of extracting tissue optical properties. Validation experiments were first performed in tissue phantoms with known optical properties. We then apply the technique for characterization of myocardial tissues in swine and human hearts, ex vivo. Additionally, we demonstrate the recovery of critical parameters relevant to RFA therapy including contact verification, and lesion transmurality. These findings support the application of NIRS for improved guidance in RFA therapeutic interventions. PMID:26203376

  11. Technology demonstration summary: Bio Trol soil-washing system for treatment of a wood-preserving site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was instituted in 1986 to promote the development and application of innovative technologies to the remediation of Superfund and other sites contaminated with hazardous wastes. The Project Summary highlights the results of an evaluation of a specific arrangement of the three technologies of the BSWS. The system consists of multiple stages of physical abrasion, attrition, flotation, and washing of excavated soil in the BSW. The site selected for the evaluation is a wood preserving facility in New Brighton, MN, where creosote and pentachlorophenol were used for several decades.

  12. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, A.B.; Craig, H.D.; Jenkins, T.F.; Sisk, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  13. Isolation, Characterization and Selection of Avermectin-Producing Streptomyces avermitilis Strains From Soil Samples

    PubMed Central

    Siddique, Samia; Syed, Quratulain; Adnan, Ahmad; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptomyces avermitilis, belonging to Actinomycetes, is specialized for production of avermectin, used as an anthelmintic and insecticidal agent. It is mostly found in soil and its isolation is very crucial for medically important avermectin production. Objectives: In the present study, 10 bacterial isolates lacking antimicrobial activities were isolated from the soil samples collected from different areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Three distinctive localities of Lahore were opted for soil assortment to isolate S. avermitilis. About 50 isolates of Streptomyces species were attained through selective prescreening procedures. All of these isolates were studied for production of the secondary metabolite, avermectin. Different test like soluble pigment color and melanin formation were used for identification. Biochemical characterizations of those isolates closely resembling the control in morphological characteristics, soluble pigment color and melanin formation tests were performed. Results: The 10 selected isolates were identified as the avermectin-producing strain by fermentation and characterized on ISP2 medium for aerial and reverse side mycelia color, soluble pigment color and melanin formation, in comparison with S. avermitilis DSM 41445. The best avermectin-producing isolate S1-C (10.15 mg/L) showed similar result as S. avermitilis DSM 41445, when subjected for culture characteristics analysis in different media along with biochemical characterization. Conclusions: From the results, it was concluded that agricultural lands around Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Campus Lahore were rich sources of industrially important Streptomyces, especially S. avermitilis. PMID:25371798

  14. Molecular and Spectroscopic Characterization of Water Extractable Organic Matter from Thermally Altered Soils Reveal Insight into Disinfection Byproduct Precursors.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Kaelin M; Hohner, Amanda K; Podgorski, David C; Cooper, William T; Korak, Julie A; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2017-01-17

    To characterize the effects of thermal-alteration on water extractable organic matter (WEOM), soil samples were heated in a laboratory at 225, 350, and 500 °C. Next, heated and unheated soils were leached, filtered, and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, optical properties, molecular size distribution, molecular composition, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation following the addition of chlorine. The soils heated to 225 °C leached the greatest DOC and had the highest C- and N-DBP precursor reactivity per unit carbon compared to the unheated material or soils heated to 350 or 500 °C. The molecular weight of the soluble compounds decreased with increasing heating temperature. Compared to the unheated soil leachates, all DBP yields were higher for the leachates of soils heated to 225 °C. However, only haloacetonitrile yields (μg/mgC) were higher for leachates of the soils heated to 350 °C, whereas trihalomethane, haloacetic acid and chloropicrin yields were lower compared to unheated soil leachates. Soluble N-containing compounds comprised a high number of molecular formulas for leachates of heated soils, which may explain the higher yield of haloacetonitriles for heated soil leachates. Overall, heating soils altered the quantity, quality, and reactivity of the WEOM pool. These results may be useful for inferring how thermal alteration of soil by wildfire can affect water quality.

  15. (13)C NMR spectroscopy characterization of particle-size fractionated soil organic carbon in subalpine forest and grassland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Shiau, Yo-Jin; Chen, Jenn-Shing; Chung, Tay-Lung; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) and carbon (C) functional groups in different particle-size fractions are important indicators of microbial activity and soil decomposition stages under wildfire disturbances. This research investigated a natural Tsuga forest and a nearby fire-induced grassland along a sampling transect in Central Taiwan with the aim to better understand the effect of forest wildfires on the change of SOC in different soil particle scales. Soil samples were separated into six particle sizes and SOC was characterized by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in each fraction. The SOC content was higher in forest than grassland soil in the particle-size fraction samples. The O-alkyl-C content (carbohydrate-derived structures) was higher in the grassland than the forest soils, but the alkyl-C content (recalcitrant substances) was higher in forest than grassland soils, for a higher humification degree (alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C ratio) in forest soils for all the soil particle-size fractions. High humification degree was found in forest soils. The similar aromaticity between forest and grassland soils might be attributed to the fire-induced aromatic-C content in the grassland that offsets the original difference between the forest and grassland. High alkyl-C content and humification degree and low C/N ratios in the fine particle-size fractions implied that undecomposed recalcitrant substances tended to accumulate in the fine fractions of soils.

  16. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities.

  17. Long-term increases in soil carbon due to ecosystem fertilization by atmospheric nitrogen deposition demonstrated by regional-scale modelling and observations.

    PubMed

    Tipping, E; Davies, J A C; Henrys, P A; Kirk, G J D; Lilly, A; Dragosits, U; Carnell, E J; Dore, A J; Sutton, M A; Tomlinson, S J

    2017-05-15

    Fertilization of nitrogen (N)-limited ecosystems by anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) may promote CO2 removal from the atmosphere, thereby buffering human effects on global radiative forcing. We used the biogeochemical ecosystem model N14CP, which considers interactions among C (carbon), N and P (phosphorus), driven by a new reconstruction of historical Ndep, to assess the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in British semi-natural landscapes to anthropogenic change. We calculate that increased net primary production due to Ndep has enhanced detrital inputs of C to soils, causing an average increase of 1.2 kgCm(-2) (c. 10%) in soil SOC over the period 1750-2010. The simulation results are consistent with observed changes in topsoil SOC concentration in the late 20(th) Century, derived from sample-resample measurements at nearly 2000 field sites. More than half (57%) of the additional topsoil SOC is predicted to have a short turnover time (c. 20 years), and will therefore be sensitive to future changes in Ndep. The results are the first to validate model predictions of Ndep effects against observations of SOC at a regional field scale. They demonstrate the importance of long-term macronutrient interactions and the transitory nature of soil responses in the terrestrial C cycle.

  18. Field demonstration of a full-scale in situ thermal desorption system for the remediation of soil containing PCBS and other hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, R.B.; Iben, I.E.T.; Edelstein, W.A.

    1996-12-31

    A field demonstration of a full-sale, innovative and cost-effective remediation system using in situ thermal description (ISTD) was conducted at a state Superfund site in the northeastern United States in early 1996. The Demonstration was performed as part of the regulatory process to obtain a nationwide Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) permit for the remediation of soils containing PCBs at concentrations up to 5,000 ppm. An area of approximately 4800 square feet was remediated during six applications of an in situ Thermal Blanket covering an area of 800 square feet. Each application utilized five 160 square foot, electrically heated, 100-kilowatt modules. The Thermal Blanket heaters were operated at temperatures as high as 925 C. The modules contain 10 in. of vermiculite insulation to reduce upward heat losses to less than 10% of total power. The modules are covered with an impermeable silicone sheet and the in situ process is run at negative pressure to collect contaminants, prevent contaminant migration and eliminate odors. Off-gas emissions are controlled by a vapor extraction system comprised of a cyclonic separator for particulate removal, a flameless thermal oxidizer for destruction of residual contaminants, and a carbon polishing unit. Treatment times ranged from slightly more than 24 hours to treat the upper six inches to approximately four days to treat soil 12 to 18 inches deep. Temperature profiles and remedial efficiency are consistent with results from a computer thermal simulator. Post-treatment soil samples demonstrated the capability to achieve stringent soil cleanup levels of less than 2 ppm for PCBs while concurrently meeting ambient air quality standards with respect to air emissions and worker exposure limits. The Thermal Blanket is less intrusive than other permanent remedies and produces less noise, generates less dust and has a minimum of other impacts on the surrounding community.

  19. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2–6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non

  20. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2-6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non

  1. Experimental design based on field spectrometry for characterization of fire-affected soils.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosero, Olga; Vlassova, Lidia; Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires can modify physical and chemical properties of soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011; Badía et al., 2014). These disturbances involve changes in soil spectral properties, which can be analyzed by using field spectrometry (VIS-SWIR) (Montorio et al., 2008; Guerrero et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to present an experimental design for hyperspectral characterization of fire affected soils in laboratory conditions. We analyzed soil samples from Montes de Zuera area (Aragón, Spain) repeatedly affected by wildfires in the period of 1979-2008. Fourteen samples, seven from the burned zones and the corresponding control samples were collected in spring of 2013. Spectral analysis was performed on subsamples of around 130 g (fine fraction, particle size < 2 mm), previously dried in a stove at 105°C during 36 hours, and placed in crystal petri dishes (90 mm x 15 mm). The spectra were obtained using spectroradiometer ASD FieldSpec® 4 (spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm) combined with a Contact Probe ensuring homogeneity of observation and illumination conditions. Spectralon reference panel Labsphere® was used for conversion to reflectance values. The resulting reflectance is an average of the measurements corresponding to five random points of the subsample, each of them representing a mean value of 10 spectra. The averaging of spectra improves the signal to noise ratio and, at the same time, it minimizes the variations caused by the samples surface roughness. Statistically significant differences have been detected between burned and control soils. Reflectance increase of 12% (average for the whole spectrum) was observed in 70% of the samples: 16%, 15% and 10% increase in visible, NIR and SWIR respectively. Therefore regardless of the wildfire date, an increase of reflectance is observed in burned soils due to changes on soil properties. A detailed analysis of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils will be used in further research to

  2. REMOVAL OF ISOPROPHYL ALCOHOL FROM A SURFACTANT-BASED SOIL REMEDIATION FLUID BY PERVAPORATION: PILOT SCALE FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, NRMRL participated in a field demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process. The main purpose of this field demonstration was to combine and optimize the subsurface extraction of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid with the above ground deconta...

  3. REMOVAL OF ISOPROPHYL ALCOHOL FROM A SURFACTANT-BASED SOIL REMEDIATION FLUID BY PERVAPORATION: PILOT SCALE FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, NRMRL participated in a field demonstration of a surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) process. The main purpose of this field demonstration was to combine and optimize the subsurface extraction of a dense non-aqueous phase liquid with the above ground deconta...

  4. Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Downhole Nd:YAG Laser-Based Laser Induced Fluorescence Validation Technology Demonstration Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    and a soil vapor extraction system. Although neither system is currently active, both are scheduled to be retrofitted to aid in a proposed bioventing ... Mexico . LA-UR-91-4016, December 1991. USEPA, “The Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF

  5. Characterization of stony soils' hydraulic conductivity using laboratory and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, Eléonore; Pichault, Mathieu; Pansak, Wanwisa; Degré, Aurore; Garré, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study. Although stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils, so that the literature describing the impact of stones on the hydraulic conductivity of a soil is still rather scarce. Most frequently, models characterizing the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils assume that the only effect of rock fragments is to reduce the volume available for water flow, and therefore they predict a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with an increasing stoniness. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of rock fragments on the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This was done by means of laboratory experiments and numerical simulations involving different amounts and types of coarse fragments. We compared our results with values predicted by the aforementioned predictive models. Our study suggests that it might be ill-founded to consider that stones only reduce the volume available for water flow. We pointed out several factors of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils that are not considered by these models. On the one hand, the shape and the size of inclusions may substantially affect the hydraulic conductivity. On the other hand, laboratory experiments show that an increasing stone content can counteract and even overcome the effect of a reduced volume in some cases: we observed an increase in saturated hydraulic conductivity with volume of inclusions. These differences are mainly important near to saturation. However, comparison of results from predictive models and our experiments in unsaturated conditions shows that models and data agree on a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with stone content, even though the experimental conditions did not allow testing for stone contents higher than 20 %.

  6. Characterization of stony soils' hydraulic conductivity using laboratory and numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichault, M.; Beckers, E.; Degré, A.; Garré, S.

    2015-10-01

    Determining soil hydraulic properties is of major concern in various fields of study. Though stony soils are widespread across the globe, most studies deal with gravel-free soils so that the literature describing the impact of stones on soil's hydraulic conductivity is still rather scarce. Most frequently, models characterizing the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils assume that the only effect of rock fragments is to reduce the volume available for water flow and therefore they predict a decrease in hydraulic conductivity with an increasing stoniness. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of rock fragments on the saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. This was done by means of laboratory and numerical experiments involving different amounts and types of coarse fragments. We compared our results with values predicted by the aforementioned models. Our study suggests that considering that stones only reduce the volume available for water flow might be ill-founded. We pointed out several drivers of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of stony soils, not considered by these models. On the one hand, the shape and the size of inclusions may substantially affect the hydraulic conductivity. On the other hand, the presence of rock fragments can counteract and even overcome the effect of a reduced volume in some cases. We attribute this to the creation of voids at the fine earth-stone interface. Nevertheless, these differences are mainly important near to saturation. However, we come up with a more nuanced view regarding the validity of the models under unsaturated conditions. Indeed, under unsaturated conditions, the models seem to represent the hydraulic behaviour of stones reasonably well.

  7. Characterization of Lunar Soils Using a Thermal Infrared Microscopic Spectral Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Diviner radiometer has provided the planetary science community with a large amount of thermal infrared spectral data. This data set offers rich opportunities for lunar science, but interpretation of the data is complicated by the limited data on lunar materials. While spectra of pure terrestrial minerals have been used effectively for Mars applications, lunar minerals and glasses have been affected by space weathering processes that may alter their spectral properties in important ways. For example, mineral grains acquire vapor deposited coatings, and agglutinate glass contains abundant nanophase iron as a result of exposure to the space environment. Producing mineral separates in sufficient quantities (at least tens of mg) for spectral characterization is painstaking, time consuming and labor intensive; as an alternative we have altered an infrared hyperspectral imaging system developed for remote sensing under funding from the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development program (PIDDP) to enable resolved microscopic spectral imaging. The concept is to characterize the spectral properties of individual grains in lunar soils, enabling a wide range of spectral behaviors of components to be measured rapidly. The instrument, sensitive from 8 to 15 microns at 15 wavenumber resolution, images a field of view of 8 millimeters at 30 micron resolution and scans at a rate of about 1 mm/second enabling relatively large areas to be scanned rapidly. Our experiments thus far use a wet-sieved 90-150 um size fraction with the samples arrayed on a heated substrate in a single layer in order to prevent spectral interactions between grains. We have begun with pure mineral separates, and unsurprisingly we find that the individual mineral grain emission spectra of a wide range of silicates are very similar to spectra of coarse grained powders. We have begun to obtain preliminary data on lunar soils as well. We plan to continue imaging of lunar soils

  8. Technical bases and guidance for the use of composite soil sampling for demonstrating compliance with radiological release criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Vitkus, Timothy J.

    2012-04-24

    This guidance provides information on methodologies and the technical bases that licensees should consider for incorporating composite sampling strategies into final status survey (FSS) plans. In addition, this guidance also includes appropriate uses of composite sampling for generating the data for other decommissioning site investigations such as characterization or other preliminary site investigations.

  9. Characterization of P status in forest soils: stocks, fluxes and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, D. L.; Morel, C.; Bakker, M.; Augusto, L.; Gallet-Budynek, A.; Gonzalez, M.; Jonard, M.

    2010-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical limiting factor of plant growth and production in many ecosystems, which often require to be fertilized. However, there is an increasing concern regarding appropriate local and global management of phosphorus resources, since the existing finite phosphate reserves are rapidly being depleted. This implies to understand what processes (biological, physico-chemical) are governing soil P availability in agroecosystems, and in particular in forests, which will be increasingly managed for their C-sink potential in the future. We characterized the P status in forest soils of the largest managed pine forest in Europe (Landes of Gascogne, southwest of France) using isotopic and extraction methods, as well as modelling approaches. Total P concentration in topsoils were extremely low, ranging from 7 to 195 mg Pkg-1. The concentration of phosphate ions in solution decreased with depth and was related to the Al and Fe oxide content, which controlled the diffusion of P from the soil solid phase to the solution. The gross amount of diffusive P in one week as determined by 32P isotopic dilution in batch experiments was low, ranging from 0.2 to 52 mg P kg-1 in the topsoil layer, and could be predicted by pedotransfer functions built on the Al and Fe oxide and soil organic matter contents. Organic P represented 80% of total P in litter and 60% in the surface mineral soil layer, suggesting a higher contribution of biological processes to soil P cycling. Biological mineralization of organic P was quantified using a long-term incubation study (154 days) of a low-sorbing soil labelled with 33P, associated with a batch experiment with 32P labelled soil: gross mineralization of dead soil organic matter and diffusive phosphate P were low (<1 mg kg-1 ) compared to the remineralization of microbial P (14mg kg-1). A modelling approach combined to these isotopic measurements showed that 80 % of microbial P turned over very quickly (5-9 days), while 20% turned over

  10. Characterizing the Influence of Plant Growth on Carbon Association with Fresh Soil Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neurath, R.; Jacoby, I. X.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.; Lipton, A.; Firestone, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    The zone of root influence (rhizosphere) is a dynamic soil environment with active carbon release, highly active and phylogentically distinct microbial communities, and unique edaphic properties (i.e. redox, pH). We hypothesize that mineral-SOM associations in the rhizosphere differ from those in bulk soil, possibly altering the persistance and fluxes of this carbon. We investigated how SOM first associates with soil minerals during growth of Avena barbata, a Mediterranean annual grass. We grew A. barbata with 99 atom% 13CO2 and tracked 13C-labeled photosynthate into soil where three minerals types were incubated: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. Our work suggests these different mineral types recruit different amounts of mineral-associated carbon and microbial community composition (16S and ITS with Illumina MiSeq). Here, we have focused on the micron scale to characterize the composition and source of mineral-associated SOM. Using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), we defined major classes of C compounds, and overlaid those data with characterization of Fe mineral speciation. In the same regions of interest, we used correlated nano-scale secondary ion mass-spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses to assess the isotopic enrichment of these C compounds. Based on the degree of 13C-labeling in each feature, we can determine whether the initial source of the OM was plant-derived, bulk soil, or mixed. For a more bulk-scale perspective, we also conducted sequential extractions of SOM associated with Fe and Al phases to look at the bonding chemistry of these compounds. We found that minerals in the rhizosphere had unique SOM compositions, notably, rhizosphere-incubated minerals were more enriched in aromatic compounds. The source of these aromatics is likely from the bulk soil and not from the plants, suggesting re-mobilization of SOM during plant growth. Our work also shows the importance of considering the microbial communities that associate with soil minerals

  11. Laboratory-Scale Demonstration Using Dilute Ammonia Gas-Induced Alkaline Hydrolysis of Soil Contaminants (Chlorinated Propanes and Explosives)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    ER D C/ EL T R- 16 -1 0 SERDP/ESTCP, USEPA, & FUDS-ITA Laboratory -Scale Demonstration Using Dilute Ammonia Gas-Induced Alkaline...library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. SERDP/ESTCP, USEPA, FUDS-ITA ERDC/EL TR-16-10 June 2016 Laboratory -Scale Demonstration...and Chris Griggs Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199

  12. Sensitivity of soil water content simulation to different methods of soil hydraulic parameter characterization as initial input values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Shahidi, Reihaneh; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydraulic parameters, which can be derived from in situ and/or laboratory experiments, are key input parameters for modeling water flow in the vadose zone. In this study, we measured soil hydraulic properties with typical laboratory measurements and field tension infiltration experiments using Wooding's analytical solution and inverse optimization along the vertical direction within two typical podzol profiles with sand texture in a potato field. The objective was to identify proper sets of hydraulic parameters and to evaluate their relevance on hydrological model performance for irrigation management purposes. Tension disc infiltration experiments were carried out at five different depths for both profiles at consecutive negative pressure heads of 12, 6, 3 and 0.1 cm. At the same locations and depths undisturbed samples were taken to determine the water retention curve with hanging water column and pressure extractors and lab saturated hydraulic conductivity with the constant head method. Both approaches allowed to determine the Mualem-van Genuchten (MVG) hydraulic parameters (residual water content θr, saturated water content θs,, shape parameters α and n, and field or lab saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs and Kls). Results demonstrated horizontal differences and vertical variability of hydraulic properties. Inverse optimization resulted in excellent matches between observed and fitted infiltration rates in combination with final water content at the end of the experiment, θf, using Hydrus 2D/3D. It also resulted in close correspondence of  and Kfs with those from Logsdon and Jaynes' (1993) solution of Wooding's equation. The MVG parameters Kfs and α estimated from the inverse solution (θr set to zero), were relatively similar to values from Wooding's solution which were used as initial value and the estimated θs corresponded to (effective) field saturated water content θf. We found the Gardner parameter αG to be related to the optimized van

  13. Characterization of drinking water treatment residuals for use as a soil substitute.

    PubMed

    Dayton, E A; Basta, N T

    2001-01-01

    The beneficial use of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) as a potential source of topsoil for land reclamation was evaluated. Seventeen WTRs were characterized for use as soil substitutes by comparing chemical and physical properties and plant nutrients of the WTRs with soil. A tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) bioassay was performed to determine the ability of soil chemical tests to measure WTR phosphorus (P) adequacy. The WTR chemical and physical properties were typically adequate for crop growth. None of the WTRs were considered unsuitable as soil substitutes based on plant nutrients, with the exception of P. Tomato vegetative yield and tissue P were poor either because of phytotoxic nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N) (> 10 mg/kg) generated during the bioassay or because of WTR P deficiency. Limited data suggest that WTRs with NO2-N less than 10 mg/kg and Olsen P greater than 50 mg/kg, water soluble P greater than 580 micrograms/L, or Mehlich III P greater than 54 mg/kg support growth but still produce inadequate tissue P in tomatoes.

  14. Characterization and mobility of geogenic chromium in soils and river bed sediments of Asopos basin.

    PubMed

    Lilli, Maria A; Moraetis, Daniel; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Karatzas, George P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-08

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to assess the origin and mobility of CrVI in Asopos basin in Greece. Sampling was designed in such way as to capture the spatial variability of chromium occurring in sediments and soils in different lithological units in the area. Physicochemical and geochemical characterization of surface agricultural soils obtained from river terraces and river bed sediments was conducted in order to determine the natural background of chromium. Lithologies with strong calcareous, siliceous and ultramafic components were identified using principal component analysis. Laboratory mobility studies quantified the rates of chromium sorption and release from soils and their capacity to adsorb chromium. Heavy metal analysis and local geology study support the hypothesis that the main source of chromium is of geogenic origin. Chromium distribution in Asopos river bed was influenced from the eroded products derived from extensive areas with ultramafic rocks the last 5Ma. The mobility studies showed that leaching process was very fast and sorption capacity was significant and capable to retain chromium in case of waste release in the river. Finally the mobility of chromium release is limited due to existing attenuation capacity controlled by ferric oxides coatings on the soil and sediments.

  15. Analytical electron microscopy characterization of Fernald soils. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Brown, N.R.; Dietz, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    A combination of backscattered electron imaging and analytical electron microscopy (AEM) with electron diffraction have been used to determine the physical and chemical properties of uranium contamination in soils from the Fernald Environmental Management Project in Ohio. The information gained from these studies has been used in the development and testing of remediation technologies. Most chemical washing techniques have been reasonably effective with uranyl [U(VI)] phases, but U(IV) phases have proven difficult to remove from the soils. Carbonate leaching in an oxygen environment (heap leaching) has removed some of the U(IV) phases, and it appears to be the most effective technique developed in the program. The uranium metaphosphate, which was found exclusively at an incinerator site, has not been removed by any of the chemical methods. We suggest that a physical extraction procedure (either a magnetic separation or aqueous biphasic process) be used to remove this phase. Analytical electron microscopy has also been used to determine the effect of the chemical agents on the uranium phases. It has also been used to examine soils from the Portsmouth site in Ohio. The contamination there took the form of uranium oxide and uranium calcium oxide phases. Technology transfer efforts over FY 1994 have led to industry-sponsored projects involving soil characterization.

  16. Development of a soil extraction procedure for ecotoxicity characterization of energetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Sunahara, G I; Dodard, S; Sarrazin, M; Paquet, L; Ampleman, G; Thiboutot, S; Hawari, J; Renoux, A Y

    1998-03-01

    The acetonitrile-sonication extraction method (US EPA Method 8330) associated with aquatic-based toxicity tests was examined to study the ecotoxicity of energetic substances in soil. Three studies were carried out: (1) toxicological characterization of different energetic substances to select a representative toxicant and to validate the choice of bioassays; (2) choice of an appropriate solvent to transfer acetonitrile extracts to the bioassay incubation media; and (3) optimization of Method 8330 using soil samples spiked with the toxicant. Initial studies indicated that pure 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was toxic to Vibrio fischeri [Microtox; IC50 (15 min) of 4.2 microM], whereas RDX was less toxic (IC20 = 181 microM) and HMX was not toxic up to its limit of water solubility (< 22 microM). Selected pure TNT metabolites were less toxic than TNT. Similar results were found using the 96-h Selenastrum capricornutum growth inhibition test. The toxicity of pure TNT in different solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, and DMSO) and that from Method 8330-extracted TNT-spiked soil samples were compared to TNT dissolved in water. Data indicated that DMSO was the most appropriate solvent to transfer the acetonitrile extracts. A modified Method 8330 may be used in conjunction with bioassays and chemical analyses to examine the ecotoxicity of soils contaminated with energetic substances.

  17. MARS-IRMA: a multispectral imager for the characterization of Martian soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, F.; Bellucci, G.; Amici, S.; Bianchi, R.; Capria, M. T.; Coradini, A.; Orosei, R.; Piccioni, G.; Poscolieri, M.; Formisano, V.; Fonti, S.; Mustard, J.; Pieters, C. M.; Erard, S.; Forni, O.; Blecka, M. I.

    1999-09-01

    The MARS-IRMA investigation has been proposed for inclusion in the payload of the Mars Sample Return Lander 1. Its goal is the quantitative characterization of the mineralogy and the microphysical structure of the materials in the Martian soils, down to the depth available to the sampling mechanism of the Lander. The instrument we intend to build is an infrared microscope with imaging and spectrometric capabilities which will provide the first ever detailed information on the texture, environment and microphysical properties (such as single particle albedo and porosity) of the grains and particulates of the Martian soil down to the size of tens of microns. It will also determine the mineralogical composition and relative abundances of the soil components, with a relative accuracy of the order of 1%. To do so it is required a SNR of about 100 coupled with a spectral resolution better than 10 nm in the range 1-5 micron. The instrument will perform microscopic analysis on Martian samples which are in all similar to those which will be returned to Earth by the MAV. Thus, MARS-IRMA will provide a detailed mineralogical analysis of the Martian soil approximately 4 years earlier than the Earth returned samples.

  18. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    H and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined in deionised water (1:2.5 and 1:5 w/v, respectively). The structural characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) was analysed by direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) performed at 500 °C (González-Vila et al., 2009). Only chromatogram peaks with an area higher than 0.2 % were identified and used to obtain the relative abundance of main chemical families in each vegetation cover. Results Our results show that soil water repellence is strongly correlated to microbial activity, pH and electrical conductivity. After Py-GC/MS analysis, soil organic matter in the Banksia woodland and the coastal dune showed a high heterogeneity. In the Banksia woodland two different patterns were observed. Samples under Banksia spp. showed a SOM with clear signs of altereation (humified) that included a high contribution of stable families like unspecific aromatic compounds and alkane/alkene pairs whereas under Eucalyptus spp. showed a less altered SOM with a high relative contribution from lignocellulose (lignin and carbohydrates), together with a low relative content of recalcitrant families. However in the soil samples from coastal dunes a very similar SOM chemical composition was found in all cases. The dominant family was unspecific aromatic compounds (>30%), followed by alkane/alkene pairs and a high relative contribution from N bearing peptide compounds. This, together with a low relative amount of carbohydrate and lignin derived (methoxyphenols) compounds points to a SOM that undergoes great alteration processes, possible because of high turn-over rates. Very low contents of SOM were found in the Pilbara system, under Py-GC/MS detection levels, and therefore it was not possible to establish its chemical composition. A principal components analysis (PCA) axes based on the relative abundances of chemical families of compounds released after SOM pyrolysis (70.9 % of total variation explained in the two first axes) indicate that

  19. New soil composition data for Europe and Australia: demonstrating comparability, identifying continental-scale processes and learning lessons for global geochemical mapping.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    New geochemical data from two continental-scale soil surveys in Europe and Australia are compared. Internal project standards were exchanged to assess comparability of analytical results. The total concentration of 26 oxides/elements (Al2O3, As, Ba, CaO, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe2O3, Ga, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, Nb, Ni, P2O5, Pb, Rb, SiO2, Sr, Th, TiO2, V, Y, Zn, and Zr), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH are demonstrated to be comparable. Additionally, directly comparable data for 14 elements in an aqua regia extraction (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are provided for both continents. Median soil compositions are close, though generally Australian soils are depleted in all elements with the exception of SiO2 and Zr. This is interpreted to reflect the generally longer and, in places, more intense weathering in Australia. Calculation of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) gives a median value of 72% for Australia compared to 60% for Europe. Element concentrations vary over 3 (and up to 5) orders of magnitude. Several elements (total As and Ni; aqua regia As, Co, Bi, Li, Pb) have a lower element concentration by a factor of 2-3 in the soils of northern Europe compared to southern Europe. The break in concentration coincides with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. The younger soils of northern Europe are more similar to the Australian soils than the older soils from southern Europe. In Australia, the central region with especially high SiO2 concentrations is commonly depleted in many elements. The new data define the natural background variation for two continents on both hemispheres based on real data. Judging from the experience of these two continental surveys, it can be concluded that analytical quality is the key requirement for the success of global geochemical mapping.

  20. Characterization and inventory of contaminants in WAG 2 floodplain soils of White Oak Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, C.J.; Nyquist, J.E.; Purucker, S.T.; Burgoa, B.B.; Winterfield, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A remedial investigation was conducted to determine the extent and type of contamination in the floodplain soils of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, in conjunction with environmental restoration activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). WAG 2 is located downstream from the main Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) plant area. As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989. Sites on this list must be investigated to determine if remedial actions are possible. This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of the WAG 2 floodplain soils by (1) presenting the characterization and inventory of contaminants, (2) comparing the walkover survey data to quantitative gamma-emitting radionuclide data, and (3) presenting an assessment of human health risk from exposure to these soils. Contaminant characterization results indicated that the primary contaminants in the WAG 2 floodplain are the gamma-emitting radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, although cobalt activity levels are 1/25th or less than those of cesium. Inorganic contaminants discussed in this report were limited to those contributing significantly to human exposure: antimony, barium, chromium(IV), manganese, mercury, and nickel.

  1. Characterization of the geology, geochemistry, and microbiology of the radio frequency heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Fliermans, C.B.; Looney, B.B.; Parker, W.H.

    1993-08-01

    The overall objective of the Integrated Demonstration Project for the Remediation of Organics at Nonarid Sites at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The first phase of the demonstration focused on the application and development of in situ air stripping technologies to remediate sediments and groundwater contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The second phase focused on the enhancement of the in situ air stripping process by adding selected nutrients to stimulate naturally occurring microorganisms that degrade VOCs. The purpose of the third phase was to evaluate the use of heating technologies [radio frequency (rf) and ohmic heating] to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers where mass transfer is limited. The objective of this report is to document pretest and post-test data collected in support of the rf heating demonstration. The following data are discussed in this report: (1) a general description of the site including piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process; (2) stratigraphy, lithology, and a detailed geologic cross section of the study site; (3) tabulations of pretest and post-test moisture and VOC content of the sediments; (4) sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples; (5) microbial abundance and diversity; (6) three-dimensional images of pretest and post-test contaminant distribution; (7) volumetric calculations.

  2. Characterization of tillage effects on soil permeability using different measures of macroporosity derived from tension infiltrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodner, G.; Schwen, A.; Scholl, P.; Kammerer, G.; Buchan, G.; Kaul, H.-P.; Loiskandl, W.

    2010-05-01

    approaches (direct vs. inverse evaluation, capillary vs. flow weighted pore radius). We will show the influence of the distinct evaluation procedures on the resulting effective macroporosity, as well as on the relationships between macropore radius and hydraulic conductivity (Moret and Arrúe, 2007) and pore fraction respectively (Carey et al., 2007). The infiltration measurements used in this study were obtained in a long-term tillage trial located in the semi-arid region of Eastern Austria. Measurements were taken five times over the vegetation period, starting immediately after tillage until harvest of the winter wheat crop. Three tillage systems were evaluated, being conventional tillage with plough, minimum tillage with chisel and no-tillage. Additional to infiltration measurements, also soil water content was monitored continuously by a capacitance probe in all three replicates of each tillage treatment in 10, 20 and 40 cm soil depth. Water content time series are used to derive flow velocity in the wet range by cross-correlation analysis (Wu et al., 1997). This effective parameter of water transmission will then be compared to the flow behaviour expected from the characterization of soil macroporosity. We will show that mainly in no-tillage systems large macropores contribute essentially to flow and therefore the decision on pore measure and evaluation procedure to be used leads to substantial differences. For a detailed comparison of tillage effects on soil hydraulic properties it is therefore essential to analyse the contribution of different tension infiltrometry based evaluation methods to explain effective water transmission through the complex porous network of the soil. References Carey, S.K., Quinton, W.L., Goeller, N.T. 2007. Field and laboratory estimates of pore size properties and hydraulic characteristics for subarctic organic soils. Hydrol. Process. 21, 2560-2571. Moret, D., Arrúe, J.L. 2007. Characterizing soil water conducting macro- and mesoporosity

  3. Petrographic characterization of lunar soils: Application of x ray digital-imaging to quantitative and automated analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, Stefan J.; Patchen, Allan; Chambers, John G.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Mckay, David S.

    1994-01-01

    The rocks and soils of the moon will be the raw materials for various engineering needs at a lunar base, such as sources of hydrogen, oxygen, metals, etc. The material of choice for most of the bulk needs is the regolith and its less than 1 cm fraction, the soil. For specific mineral resources it may be necessary to concentrate minerals from either rocks or soils. Therefore, quantitative characterizations of these rocks and soils are necessary in order to better define their mineral resource potential. However, using standard point-counting microscopic procedures, it is difficult to quantitatively determine mineral abundances and virtually impossible to obtain data on mineral distributions within grains. As a start to fulfilling these needs, Taylor et al. and Chambers et al. have developed a procedure for characterization of crushed lunar rocks using x ray digital imaging. The development of a similar digital imaging procedure for lunar soils as obtained from a spectrometer is described.

  4. K25/K27 Characterization for Demonstrating Criticality Incredibility K-25 / K-27 D and D Project

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighi, Mahmoud H.; Howe, Kathleen E.; Chandler, John R.

    2008-01-15

    The K-25 and K-27 Buildings are currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) as part of a non-time critical removal action. When the enrichment process was shut-down, the process gas equipment and piping was purged to remove UF{sub 6}, but the process gas system was not generally chemically treated to remove solid holdup. Generally, chemical treatment was completed it was not very effective in removing the larger deposits. Because of this, uranium deposits continue to reside throughout the process gas system. There is the potential for unreacted UF{sub 6} to be present, as well. A key part of this project is to locate the remaining significant uranium deposits and manage them appropriately. Since some process gas components in the K-25 and K-27 Buildings contain enriched uranium holdup, it is important to ensure nuclear criticality safety during demolition or subsequent loading and transport of waste. Therefore, a major task in preparation for demolition is to demonstrate that 'criticality is incredible (CI)' in each building area. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) are in agreement that proper and thorough characterization of fissile holdup material in the K-25 and K-27 process gas components is a key element in achieving and demonstrating that criticality is incredible, as well as in management of demolition wastes and collection of holdup material. While the classic project scheduling wisdom may indicate that performing all of the data quality objectives (DQO) and planning before the field work starts, the size of the K-25 / K-27 D and D Project combined with the evolving decommissioning plans and re-plans have indicated that a fresh look at what further characterization data are needed to meet the current project requirements. Performing a DQO in the middle of the project allowed a much greater degree of accuracy of the real project data needs than was possible even 22 months ago. The outcome of the

  5. NMR characterization and sorption behavior of agricultural and forest soil humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengliang; Berns, Anne E.; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Klumpp, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    Humic substances are the predominant components of the organic matter in the terrestrial system, which are not only important for the physicochemical properties of soil but are also dominant factors for controlling the environmental behaviors and fates of some organic contaminants, such as hydrophobic compounds. Nonylphenol [4-(1-ethyl-1, 3 dimethylpentyl) phenol] (NP), a ubiquitous hydrophobic pollutant, has recently focused the attention owing to its endocrine disruptors property. Sorption behavior of NP on humic substances, which were isolated from agricultural and forest soils, was investigated by using the dialysis technique at room temperature. 14C-labeled NP was used to quantify the partitioning behavior. Humic substances were characterized by 13C Cross-Polarization/Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS NMR). The results showed that the partition parameters of NP on various humic acids were slightly different. Relationships between partition coefficients and the functional groups of humic substances identified by CP/MAS NMR were analyzed.

  6. PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA’s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

  7. PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL - APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA’s Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this...

  8. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves and Standard Penetration Test for Sub-Soil Characterization: A Comparison Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagomez, Jessica

    2016-04-01

    Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) is a method used for sub-soil characterization. SASW has the advantage of being non-intrusive and non-invasive. Commonly used in current geotechnical engineering for being faster and cheaper than other laboratory tests. Standard Penetration test (SPT), which is used to obtain stratigraphic profiles of the sub-soil, contrary to SASW test, is invasive, destructive and not less important, expensive. The SASW method uses dispersive characteristics of Rayleigh waves in stratified or half-space media to obtain their physical parameters and henceforward its characterization. From this, a soil profile is estimated. A comparison between a geophysical method, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the N-value obtained from a classic geotechnical test (SPT) to estimate and characterize the in-site sub-soil properties at Patillas Dam, Puerto Rico, will be given in this work.

  9. Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

    2003-01-01

    Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  10. Chemical and Physical Characterization of the First West Valley Demonstration Project High-Level Waste Feed Batch

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Ronald A.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary L.; Smith, Monty R.; Russell, Renee L.; Patello, Gertrude K.

    2002-10-07

    To support the West Valley Demonstration Project's (WVDP) Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR) and data needs associated with the support flowsheet, equipment, and process testing, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked to completely characterize a sample of the first batch of high-level waste (HLW) slurry transferred to the Concentrator Feed Make-Up Tank (CFMT) identified as CW-H. Cation, anion, and radionuclide concentrations as well as the slurry physical properties including density, total solids, and suspended solids were measured. This data will be compared to the predicted inventory of the waste. Also, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma/mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP/MS) results for cation analysis will be compared to cation analysis results from inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Radionuclide analysis methods were developed during this work for iodine-129, selenium-79, actinium-227, and neptunium-236 and will also be presented.

  11. Subsurface soil characterization using geoelectrical and geotechnical investigations at a bridge site in Uttarakhand Himalayan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Anita; Israil, M.; Anbalagan, R.; Gupta, Pravin K.

    2017-09-01

    Geoelectrical characterization of subsurface soil has been done at a bridge foundation site on the banks of Bhagirathi River at Tehri reservoir site, Uttarakhand, India. For this purpose, the Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data, recorded at both banks of Bhagirathi River are analyzed. A total of six ERT profiles, recorded on both the West and East banks, were interpreted to determine an electrical resistivity image showing the resistivity variations with depth. The borehole data and geological inputs were used for lithological correlation and calibration of the resistivity values to the subsurface formation. Subsequently the electrical parameter (resistivity) for different subsurface lithological units has been inferred. Further, at selected points, the electrical resistivity sounding data, derived from the ERT, have been correlated with the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data. This correlation results from the fact that in the subsurface soil both the electrical resistivity variations and the soil strength measured by SPT are controlled by the soil properties: grain size distribution, compactness, porosity and water saturation. It has been observed that the N-values smaller than 16 are unreliable and inconsistent. In the River Borne Material (RBM) on the West Bank it is due to the presence of coarse gravels while on the East Bank it is due to the boulders. The N-values greater than 16 mainly correspond to the weathered rock formation. For these values, there exists a linear relationship between N-values and resistivity with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.80. The coefficients of linear relationship at the two banks vary due to varying amount of clay content. Such a relationship is important for any site in tough Himalayan terrain because it can be used as an alternative to the SPT for determining soil strength parameters from ERT.

  12. Isolation and characterization of efficient isoxaben-transforming Microbacterium sp strains from four European soils.

    PubMed

    Arrault, Sandra; Desaint, Stephane; Catroux, Colette; Sémon, Etienne; Mougin, Christian; Fournier, Jean Claude

    2002-12-01

    Nutrient-agar plates containing isoxaben (500 mg litre(-1)) were used to isolate isoxaben-metabolising bacteria from four European soils incubated with the herbicide under laboratory conditions. In flask experiments, inoculation of a basal salts medium containing nitrogen and [phenyl-U-14C]isoxaben with an isolate (B2b) resulted in 33% recovery of the initial radioactivity as [14C]carbon dioxide after 2 weeks. A major metabolite identified by GC-MS and NMR analysis as 3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)isoxazol-5-ylamine accumulated both in basal salts and nutrient broth media. 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoic acid, a suspected metabolite of isoxaben, was not detected in either liquid media. However, the capability of the B2b isolate to use 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid as a source of carbon was demonstrated. Soil inoculation with the B2b strain resulted in an increase in the recovery of [14C] carbon dioxide from both [phenyl-U-14C] and [isoxazole-5-14C]isoxaben. The metabolite identified as 3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)isoxazole-5-ylamine only accumulated if the soil was autoclaved before inoculation. This metabolite was rapidly mineralized by the microflora of a natural soil without history of isoxaben treatment. Homology patterns of sequenced 16S rDNA between isoxaben-transforming isolates and reference strains showed that the four isolates identified belonged to the genus Microbacterium.

  13. Characterization and validation of a Portuguese natural reference soil to be used as substrate for ecotoxicological purposes.

    PubMed

    Caetano, A L; Gonçalves, F; Sousa, J P; Cachada, A; Pereira, E; Duarte, A C; Ferreira da Silva, E; Pereira, R

    2012-03-01

    This study describes the first attempt to validate a Portuguese natural soil (PTRS1) to be used as reference soil for ecotoxicological purposes, aimed to both: (i) obtain ecotoxicological data for the derivation of Soil Screening Values (SSVs) with regional relevance, acting as a substrate to be spiked with ranges of concentrations of the chemicals under evaluation and (ii) act as control and as substrate for the dilution of contaminated soils in ecotoxicological assays performed to evaluate the ecotoxicity of contaminated soils, in tier 2 of risk assessment frameworks, applied to contaminated lands. The PTRS1 is a cambisol from a granitic area integrated in the Central Iberian Zone. After chemical characterization of the soil in terms of pseudo-total metals, PAHs, PCBs and pesticide contents, it was possible to perceive that some metals (Ba, Be, Co, Cr and V) surpass the Dutch Target Values (Dtvs) corrected for the percentage of organic matter and clay of the PTRS1. Nevertheless, these metals displayed total concentrations below the background total concentrations described for Portuguese soils in general. The same was observed for aldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II, heptachlor epoxide, and heptachlor; however the Dtvs corrected become negligible. The performance of invertebrate and plant species, commonly used in standard ecotoxicological assays, was not compromised by both soil properties and soil metal contents. The results obtained suggest that the PTRS1 can be used as a natural reference soil in ecotoxicological assays carried out under the scope of ecological risk assessment.

  14. Soils

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    Edaphic and climatic characteristics of a site quite well define the quality of that site for plant growth. The importance of soil characteristics to the growth and well-being of aspen in the West is apparent from observations by many authors, from inferences resulting from work with other trees and agricultural crops, and from detailed study of aspen soils and site...

  15. Medicina array demonstrator: calibration and radiation pattern characterization using a UAV-mounted radio-frequency source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pupillo, G.; Naldi, G.; Bianchi, G.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Perini, F.; Poloni, M.; Schiaffino, M.; Bolli, P.; Lingua, A.; Aicardi, I.; Bendea, H.; Maschio, P.; Piras, M.; Virone, G.; Paonessa, F.; Farooqui, Z.; Tibaldi, A.; Addamo, G.; Peverini, O. A.; Tascone, R.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the new-generation Low-Frequency Aperture Array (LFAA) radio telescopes is instrument calibration. The operational LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) instrument and the future LFAA element of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) require advanced calibration techniques to reach the expected outstanding performance. In this framework, a small array, called Medicina Array Demonstrator (MAD), has been designed and installed in Italy to provide a test bench for antenna characterization and calibration techniques based on a flying artificial test source. A radio-frequency tone is transmitted through a dipole antenna mounted on a micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) (hexacopter) and received by each element of the array. A modern digital FPGA-based back-end is responsible for both data-acquisition and data-reduction. A simple amplitude and phase equalization algorithm is exploited for array calibration owing to the high stability and accuracy of the developed artificial test source. Both the measured embedded element patterns and calibrated array patterns are found to be in good agreement with the simulated data. The successful measurement campaign has demonstrated that a UAV-mounted test source provides a means to accurately validate and calibrate the full-polarized response of an antenna/array in operating conditions, including consequently effects like mutual coupling between the array elements and contribution of the environment to the antenna patterns. A similar system can therefore find a future application in the SKA-LFAA context.

  16. Test Plan for the overburden removal demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.; Thompson, D.; Winberg, M.; Skaggs, J.

    1993-06-01

    The removal of soil overburdens from contaminated pits and trenches involves using equipment that will remove a small layer of soil from 3 to 6 in. at any time. As a layer of soil is removed, overburden characterization techniques perform surveys to a depth that exceeds each overburden removal layer to ensure that the removed soil will be free of contamination. It is generally expected that no contamination will be found in the soil overburden, which was brought in after the waste was put in place. It is anticipated that some containers in the waste zone have lost their integrity, and the waste leakage from those containers has migrated by gravity downward into the waste zone. To maintain a safe work environment, this method of overburden removal should allow safe preparation of a pit or trench for final remediation. To demonstrate the soil overburden techniques, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program has contracted vendor services to provide equipment and techniques demonstrating soil overburden removal technology. The demonstration will include tests that will evaluate equipment performance and techniques for removal of overburden soil, control of contamination spread, and dust control. To evaluate the performance of these techniques, air particulate samples, physical measurements of the excavation soil cuts, maneuverability measurements, and time versus volume (rate) of soil removal data will be collected during removal operations. To provide a medium for sample evaluation, the overburden will be spiked at specific locations and depths with rare earth tracers. This test plan will be describe the objectives of the demonstration, data quality objectives, methods to be used to operate the equipment and use the techniques in the test area, and methods to be used in collecting data during the demonstration.

  17. Hydraulic Anisotropy Characterization Using Azimuthal Self Potential Gradient [ASPG]: Results from Pneumatic Fracturing of Tight Clay Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, L.; Wishart, D.; Schnell, D.; Hermann, G.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that bulk hydraulic anisotropy associated with fractures in fractured rock aquifers can be inferred from Azimuthal Self Potential Gradient (ASPG) measurements. This extremely simple technique involves measuring the self potential gradient as a function of azimuth with a pair of non polarizing electrodes connected to a voltmeter. The electrokinetic effect associated with the flow of fluids within fractures is the source of the ASPG signal. Fracture strike mapping at multiple sites has repeatedly demonstrated the effectiveness of the method at the field scale and indicated that the direction of flow can be determined from the polarity of relatively large ASPG signals. A laboratory study was conducted to determine whether ASPG could also be used to characterize the hydraulic anisotropy associated with the enhancement of permeability and porosity of tight unconsolidated soils (e.g. clays) as a result of pneumatic fracturing, a technique to improve the effectiveness of remediation efforts. Compressed kaolinite sediments were pneumatically fractured following industry procedures. The resulting fracture geometry was quantified from strike analysis of visible fractures combined with strike data from optical borehole televiewer (BHTV) imaging. ASPG measurements were then made during injection of a simulated remedial treatment (electrolyte/dye) under an applied gas pressure. Consistent with previous findings in fractured rock aquifers, ASPG lobes are well correlated with azimuths of high fracture strike density suggesting that the ASPG anisotropy is a proxy measure of hydraulic anisotropy created by the pneumatic fracturing. The magnitude of the ASPG signal scales linearly (linear correlation coefficients > 0.74) with the applied gas pressure gradient for any particular hydraulically-active fracture set and the positive lobe of the ASP anomaly denotes the flow direction within that fracture set. These findings demonstrate that applications of the

  18. Ecological impacts of Al-Jalamid phosphate mining, Saudi Arabia: Soil elemental characterization and spatial distribution with INAA.

    PubMed

    El-Taher, A; García-Tenorio, R; Khater, Ashraf E M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphate (P) industries will be one of the main industrial sectors in Saudi Arabia within the next few years. Al-Jalamid phosphate mine, which started operation a few years ago, is one of the biggest mining locations in the Middle East region. It is planned to mine 12 million tons run of mine ore per year (Mty) and produce about 4.5 Mty of phosphate concentrate for the next 20 years. Long term ecological impacts of phosphate mining activities on soil and groundwater should be investigated. The contaminated soil acts as a long term source of environmental contamination. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil areas located in the vicinity of the phosphate mining activities. A total of sixty eight surface and subsurface soil samples from 34 locations around Al-Jalamid phosphate mine have been collected. The elemental characterization of soil samples was achieved using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pollution indices, geoaccumulation (I(geo)) and pollution load (PLI) indices were calculated from some elements to evaluate the soil pollution. Until now, there is no existing pre-operational elemental characterization in soil to evaluate the foreseen ecological impacts of phosphate mining. Our results are the first to evaluate the present situation that will be the base for the future evaluations. The main aim of this work was to shed more light on the elemental characterization and spatial distributions in soil and their relation to phosphate mining activities, and to better understand the behavior of different elements in soil in an arid environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 1. field experiments evaluating plant-relevant soil water behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Perkins, K.S.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.; Stock, J.D.; Singha, K.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the eff ect of pedogenesis on the soil moisture dynamics infl uencing the character and quality of ecological habitat, we conducted infi ltration and redistribution experiments on three alluvial deposits in the Mojave National Preserve: (i) recently deposited active wash sediments, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. At each, we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infi ltration ring for 2.3 h and monitored soil water content and matric pressure during and atier infi ltration, using probes and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). Infi ltration and downward fl ow rates were greater in younger material, favoring deep-rooted species. Deep-rooted species tend to colonize the margins of washes, where they are unaff ected by sediment transport that inhibits colonization. The ERI results support important generalizations, for example that shallower than 0.5 m, infi ltrated water persists longer in highly developed soil, favoring shallow-rooted species. Soil moisture data for the two youngest soils suggested that saturation overshoot, which may have signifi cant but unexplored hydroecologic and pedogenic eff ects, occurred at the horizontally advancing weting front. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties generally increased with pedogenic development. Evidence suggested that some early-stage developmental processes may promote uniformity; the intermediate- age soil appeared to have the least heterogeneity in terms of textural variation with depth, and also the least anisotropy. Lateral heterogeneity was pronounced in older soil, having a multitude of eff ects on the distribution and retention of soil water, and may facilitate certain water-conserving strategies of plants over what would be possible in a laterally homogeneous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  20. Characterization of Electricity Generated by Soil in Microbial Fuel Cells and the Isolation of Soil Source Exoelectrogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yun-Bin; Zhong, Wen-Hui; Han, Cheng; Deng, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Soil has been used to generate electrical power in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and exhibited several potential applications. This study aimed to reveal the effect of soil properties on the generated electricity and the diversity of soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected across China and packed into air-cathode MFCs to generate electricity over a 270 days period. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria in soil were enriched and sequenced by Illumina pyrosequencing. Culturable strains of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were isolated and identified phylogenetically. Their exoelectrogenic ability was evaluated by polarization measurement. The results showed that soils with higher organic carbon (OC) content but lower soil pH generated higher peak voltage and charge. The sequencing of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria showed that Clostridia were dominant in all soil samples. At the family level, Clostridiales Family XI incertae sedis were dominant in soils with lower OC content but higher pH (>8), while Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Planococcaceae were dominant in soils with higher OC content but lower pH. The isolated culturable strains were allied phylogenetically to 15 different species, of which 11 were Clostridium. The others were Robinsoniella peoriensis, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans, Eubacterium contortum, and Oscillibacter ruminantium. The maximum power density generated by the isolates in the MFCs ranged from 16.4 to 28.6 mW m-2. We concluded that soil OC content had the most important effect on power generation and that the Clostridiaceae were the dominant exoelectrogenic bacterial group in soil. This study might lead to the discovery of more soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria species. PMID:27877168

  1. Characterization of uranium- and plutonium-contaminated soils by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.

    1995-03-01

    Electron beam techniques have been used to characterize uranium-contaminated soils from the Fernald Site in Ohio, and also plutonium-bearing `hot particles, from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean. By examining Fernald samples that had undergone chemical leaching it was possible to observe the effect the treatment had on specific uranium-bearing phases. The technique of Heap leaching, using carbonate solution, was found to be the most successful in removing uranium from Fernald soils, the Heap process allows aeration, which facilitates the oxidation of uraninite. However, another refractory uranium(IV) phase, uranium metaphosphate, was not removed or affected by any soil-washing process. Examination of ``hot particles`` from Johnston Island revealed that plutonium and uranium were present in 50--200 nm particles, both amorphous and crystalline, within a partially amorphous aluminum oxide matrix. The aluminum oxide is believed to have undergone a crystalline-to-amorphous transition caused by alpha-particle bombardment during the decay of the plutonium.

  2. Characterization of basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils of the Urmia Lake National Park, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mokhtarnejad, Lachin; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah; Di Mauro, Simone; Onofri, Andrea; Buzzini, Pietro; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-11-01

    Urmia Lake, located in northwest Iran, is an oligotrophic and extremely hypersaline habitat that supports diverse forms of life. Owing to its unique biodiversity and special environmental conditions, Urmia Lake National Park has been designated as one of the biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This study was aimed to characterize basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils surrounding the Urmia Lake National Park using a polyphasic combination of molecular and physiological data. Soil samples were collected from eight sites in Lake Basin and six islands insides the lake. Yeast strains were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. When D1/D2 domain sequencing did not resolve the identity of the species, strain identification was obtained by ITS 1 & 2 sequencing. Twenty-one species belonging to the genera Cystobasidium, Holtermanniella, Naganishia, Rhodotorula, Saitozyma, Solicoccozyma, Tausonia, Vanrija, and Vishniacozyma were identified. Solicoccozyma aeria represented the dominant species. The ability of isolates to grow at 10 and 15 % of NaCl was checked; about two-thirds of the strains grew at 10 %, while about 13 % of the isolates grew in medium with 15 % NaCl. this study is the first study on the culturable yeast diversity in hypersaline soils surrounding an Asian lake.

  3. Chemical, physical and mineralogical characterization of soils from the Curitiba Metropolitan Region for forensic purpose.

    PubMed

    Melo, Vander F; Barbar, Leila C; Zamora, Patrício G P; Schaefer, Carlos E; Cordeiro, Gilcélia A

    2008-08-06

    The objective of this paper is to propose a soil characterization methodology for forensic use, based on physical (textural and spectroscopic analyses), chemical (extractions with hydrofluoric acid, ammonium oxalate, sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and NaOH solution) and mineralogical (thermal analyses and X-ray diffraction) analyses. The study was carried out in the State of Paraná, Brazil, in three neighborhoods of Curitiba city and in two cities within the Curitiba Metropolitan Region. In order to verify the similarity between samples, four composite samples (repetitions) were prepared in each of the five studied sites. It was obtained a great number of quantitative variables (56) from a reduced amount of soil sample (1g). The variables selected from the chemical extractions (16) were more precise in grouping similar samples (same horizon and sampling site) as well as in separating samples collected in different horizons or sites. Seven distinct groups were formed, each with high intragroup similarity, but the unexpected dispersion of two samples (from a total of 40 samples) reduced the distinction of three other studied groups. The placement of the two samples in a different group and the higher dispersion (24 samples) for samples collected in the city of Curitiba are due to the great pedological homogeneity of this area (physical-chemical horizon characteristics, soil color and parent material). The methodology used in this work (analytical method and data treatment) presents high potential for forensic studies and can be easily validated for other areas.

  4. Characterization and influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission from agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Zheng, Hao; Luo, Ye; Deng, Xia; Herbert, Stephen; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-03-01

    Extensive use of biochar to mitigate N(2)O emission is limited by the lack of understanding on the exact mechanisms altering N(2)O emissions from biochar-amended soils. Biochars produced from giant reed were characterized and used to investigate their influence on N(2)O emission. Responses of N(2)O emission varied with pyrolysis temperature, and the reduction order of N(2)O emission by biochar (BC) was: BC200 ≈ BC600 > BC500 ≈ BC300 ≈ BC350 > BC400. The reduced emission was attributed to enhanced N immobilization and decreased denitrification in the biochar-amended soils. The remaining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in low-temperature biochars (300-400 °C) played a major role in reducing N(2)O emission, but not for high-temperature biochars (500-600 °C). Removal of phenolic compounds from low-temperature (200-400 °C) biochars resulted in a surprising reduction of N(2)O emission, but the mechanism is still unknown. Overall, adding giant reed biochars could reduce N(2)O evolution from agricultural soil, thus possibly mitigating global warming.

  5. A simple approach to enhance multiprobe soil cone penetrometer analyses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil penetrometers are used to characterize soil strength measurements for many applications related to soil conservation and management using statistical analyses of depths and row positions combined with contour graphs. Our objective was to demonstrate a method to quantify soil strength differenc...

  6. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. |; Lowe, K.S.; Murdoch, L.D. |; Slack, W.W.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  7. Subsurface Characterization and Seismic Monitoring for the Southwest Partnerships Phase III Demonstration Project at Farnsworth Field, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, R. A.; Balch, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration is performing seismic based characterization and monitoring activities at an active CO2 EOR project at Farnsworth Field, Texas. CO2 is anthropogenically sourced from a fertilizer and an ethanol plant. The field has 13 CO2 injectors and has sequestered 302,982 metric tonnes of CO2 since October 2013. The field site provides an excellent laboratory for testing a range of monitoring technologies in an operating CO2 flood since planned development is sequential and allows for multiple opportunities to record zero CO2 baseline data, mid-flood data, and fully flooded data. The project is comparing and contrasting several scales of seismic technologies in order to determine best practices for large scale commercial sequestration projects. Characterization efforts include an 85 km2 3D surface seismic survey, baseline and repeat 3D VSP surveys centered on injection wells, cross-well tomography baseline and repeat surveys between injector/producer pairs, and a borehole passive seismic array to monitor induced seismicity. All surveys have contributed to detailed geologic models which were then used for fluid flow and risk assessment simulations. 3D VSP and cross-well data with repeat surveys have allowed for direct comparisons of the reservoir prior to CO2 injection and at eight months into injection, with a goal of imaging the CO2 plume as it moves away from injection wells. Additional repeat surveys at regular intervals will continue to refine the plume. The goal of this work is to demonstrate seismic based technologies to monitor CO2 sequestration projects, and to contribute to best practices manuals for commercial scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this talk the seismic plan will be outlined, progress towards goals enumerated, and preliminary results from baseline and repeat seismic data will be discussed. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  8. Health risk characterization of maximum legal exposures for persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides in residential soil: An analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zijian

    2017-10-02

    Regulations for pesticides in soil are important for controlling human health risk; humans can be exposed to pesticides by ingesting soil, inhaling soil dust, and through dermal contact. Previous studies focused on analyses of numerical standard values for pesticides and evaluated the same pesticide using different standards among different jurisdictions. To understand the health consequences associated with pesticide soil standard values, lifetime theoretical maximum contribution and risk characterization factors were used in this study to quantify the severity of damage using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) under the maximum "legal" exposure to persistent organic pollutant (POP) pesticides that are commonly regulated by the Stockholm Convention. Results show that computed soil characterization factors for some pesticides present lognormal distributions, and some of them have DALY values higher than 1000.0 per million population (e.g., the DALY for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT] is 14,065 in the Netherlands, which exceeds the tolerable risk of uncertainty upper bound of 1380.0 DALYs). Health risk characterization factors computed from national jurisdictions illustrate that values can vary over eight orders of magnitude. Further, the computed characterization factors can vary over four orders of magnitude within the same national jurisdiction. These data indicate that there is little agreement regarding pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) among worldwide national jurisdictions or even RGV standard values within the same jurisdiction. Among these POP pesticides, lindane has the lowest median (0.16 DALYs) and geometric mean (0.28 DALYs) risk characterization factors, indicating that worldwide national jurisdictions provide relatively conservative soil RGVs for lindane. In addition, we found that some European nations and members of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics share the same pesticide RGVs and data clusters for the

  9. Characterization and Demonstration of the Value of a Lethal Mouse Model of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xinrong; Garron, Tania; Agrawal, Anurodh Shankar; Algaissi, Abdullah; Peng, Bi-Hung; Wakamiya, Maki; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Lu, Lu; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Couch, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Characterized animal models are needed for studying the pathogenesis of and evaluating medical countermeasures for persisting Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. Here, we further characterized a lethal transgenic mouse model of MERS-CoV infection and disease that globally expresses human CD26 (hCD26)/DPP4. The 50% infectious dose (ID50) and lethal dose (LD50) of virus were estimated to be <1 and 10 TCID50 of MERS-CoV, respectively. Neutralizing antibody developed in the surviving mice from the ID50/LD50 determinations, and all were fully immune to challenge with 100 LD50 of MERS-CoV. The tissue distribution and histopathology in mice challenged with a potential working dose of 10 LD50 of MERS-CoV were subsequently evaluated. In contrast to the overwhelming infection seen in the mice challenged with 105 LD50 of MERS-CoV, we were able to recover infectious virus from these mice only infrequently, although quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) tests indicated early and persistent lung infection and delayed occurrence of brain infection. Persistent inflammatory infiltrates were seen in the lungs and brain stems at day 2 and day 6 after infection, respectively. While focal infiltrates were also noted in the liver, definite pathology was not seen in other tissues. Finally, using a receptor binding domain protein vaccine and a MERS-CoV fusion inhibitor, we demonstrated the value of this model for evaluating vaccines and antivirals against MERS. As outcomes of MERS-CoV infection in patients differ greatly, ranging from asymptomatic to overwhelming disease and death, having available both an infection model and a lethal model makes this transgenic mouse model relevant for advancing MERS research. IMPORTANCE Fully characterized animal models are essential for studying pathogenesis and for preclinical screening of vaccines and drugs against MERS-CoV infection and disease. When given a high dose of MERS-CoV, our transgenic

  10. Characterization and Demonstration of the Value of a Lethal Mouse Model of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection and Disease.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xinrong; Garron, Tania; Agrawal, Anurodh Shankar; Algaissi, Abdullah; Peng, Bi-Hung; Wakamiya, Maki; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Lu, Lu; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Couch, Robert B; Tseng, Chien-Te K

    2015-10-07

    Characterized animal models are needed for studying the pathogenesis of and evaluating medical countermeasures for persisting Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. Here, we further characterized a lethal transgenic mouse model of MERS-CoV infection and disease that globally expresses human CD26 (hCD26)/DPP4. The 50% infectious dose (ID50) and lethal dose (LD50) of virus were estimated to be <1 and 10 TCID50 of MERS-CoV, respectively. Neutralizing antibody developed in the surviving mice from the ID50/LD50 determinations, and all were fully immune to challenge with 100 LD50 of MERS-CoV. The tissue distribution and histopathology in mice challenged with a potential working dose of 10 LD50 of MERS-CoV were subsequently evaluated. In contrast to the overwhelming infection seen in the mice challenged with 10(5) LD50 of MERS-CoV, we were able to recover infectious virus from these mice only infrequently, although quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) tests indicated early and persistent lung infection and delayed occurrence of brain infection. Persistent inflammatory infiltrates were seen in the lungs and brain stems at day 2 and day 6 after infection, respectively. While focal infiltrates were also noted in the liver, definite pathology was not seen in other tissues. Finally, using a receptor binding domain protein vaccine and a MERS-CoV fusion inhibitor, we demonstrated the value of this model for evaluating vaccines and antivirals against MERS. As outcomes of MERS-CoV infection in patients differ greatly, ranging from asymptomatic to overwhelming disease and death, having available both an infection model and a lethal model makes this transgenic mouse model relevant for advancing MERS research. Fully characterized animal models are essential for studying pathogenesis and for preclinical screening of vaccines and drugs against MERS-CoV infection and disease. When given a high dose of MERS-CoV, our transgenic mice expressing h

  11. Preparation and characterization of a soil reference material from a mercury contaminated site for comparability studies.

    PubMed

    Kocman, David; Bloom, Nicolas S; Akagi, Hirokatso; Telmer, Kevin; Hylander, Lars; Fajon, Vesna; Jereb, Vesna; Jaćimović, Radojko; Smodis, Borut; Ikingura, Justinian R; Horvat, Milena

    2006-10-01

    The preparation and characterization of a soil reference material (SOIL-1) from a site polluted with mercury due to the past mercury mining in Idrija, Slovenia is reported. Homogeneity tests and intercomparison exercises for total (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were performed. In addition, selective sequential extraction was applied for Hg fractionation, and multielemental analyses were performed by k(0) standardization neutron activation analysis (k(0)-INAA) and inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for other trace elements. Comparison of different analytical methods, as well as the distribution of data were critically evaluated using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Due to the nugget effect (cinnabar particles representing more than 90% of the mercury), homogeneity for T-Hg determination was difficult to achieve. The intercomparison exercise indicated that in order to obtain comparable results for total mercury (T-Hg) sample decomposition by HF must be performed. These data are then in good agreement with non-destructive methods such as k(0)-INAA. Accepted reference values calculated taking into account the results obtained by six and three laboratories, respectively, were 67.1+/-11.3 mg kg(-1) for T-Hg and 4.0+/-1.3 ng g(-1) for MeHg (95% confidence intervals). However, the results obtained for Hg fractionation displayed significant differences in the organically bound fraction and elemental Hg. Results obtained by two laboratories using totally different analytical protocols for other elements showed excellent agreement for most elements. In summary, the results obtained for the SOIL-1 sample were of sufficient quality to suggest its use for quality control in laboratories dealing with mercury contaminated soils.

  12. Characterization and high resolution mapping of soil hydrogeophysical properties from ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction data in a vineyard in southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, F.; van Durmen, R.; Saussez, S.; van Leeuwen, C.; Moghadas, D.; Delvaux, B.; Vereecken, H.; Sebastien, L.

    2010-12-01

    Soil and climate are acknowledged to greatly affect vine growth and grape berry composition through their strong influence on vine water status. Over a limited area, climatic factors may be considered as rather homogeneous for a given vintage while soil characteristics may vary strongly over short distances. Therefore, detailed characterization of soil hydrogeophysical properties is of prime importance for the definition of optimal vineyard practices. In that respect, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) are effective geophysical techniques for fast and non-invasive determination of shallow subsurface properties through the measurement of soil dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity. Given contrasted sensitivities of GPR and EMI to soil electrical properties, combining measurements from both techniques allows to merge complementary information, thereby leading to more accurate quantitative characterisation of soil. Classical GPR and EMI data processing techniques for soil properties characterisation rely on strongly simplifying assumptions in the modelling of electromagnetic phenomena, leading to significant errors on the estimates and accounting for only a part of the data information content. We developed generalized multi-offset full-waveform approaches for modelling off-ground and on-ground GPR and EMI signals. GPR and EMI systems are modelled using sets of infinitesimal electric and magnetic dipoles, allowing us to properly describe the distribution of the scattered field when the subsurface is located in the near-field of the antenna. The antenna model is coupled with a three-dimensional Green’s function, corresponding to a specific solution of the Maxwell’s equations for wave propagation or diffusion in multilayered media. The approaches were applied in a vineyard in south of France (Saint-Emilion) over a 30-ha area characterized by strong spatial variations of soil types. Around 1 million GPR waveforms and 73

  13. Soil health in the Mediterranean region: Development and consolidation of a multifactor index to characterize the health of agricultural lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Eshel; Guy, Levy; Oshri, Rinot; Michael, Borisover; Uri, Yermiyahu; Leah, Tsror; Hanan, Eizenberg; Tal, Svoray; Alex, Furman; Yael, Mishael; Yosef, Steinberger

    2017-04-01

    that are difficult to control), soil-borne diseases, and pesticide fixation and release. We, a group of more than ten Israeli scientists, have recently started a multidisciplinary study aimed at developing and consolidating a multiparameter soil-health index to characterize the health of agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions. Such an index will enable us to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of different cultivation managements and reclamation activities. In order to achieve our goal, a three steps approach was adopted: 1) acquiring a multivariate component database (about 42 variables) that will be quantified in the laboratory and in the fields in two soil types of the most important agricultural region of Israel, at three different soil usage: orchard, field crops and "native" as a reference. The acquired biological, physical, and chemical variables comprise basic quantitative values in the soil health of agricultural land; (2) developing a multivariate soil-health index based on a multivariate correlation, in addition to conducting meetings with farmers and panel discussions with other scientists in the field. The whole study angled to evaluate the relative contribution of each of the biotic and abiotic parameters in order to develop a model related to soil health; and (3) to validate the efficiency of the developed index for characterizing and assessing soil-health state at the various agricultural regions in Israel where conservation and reclamation activities took place. We are open to extend our study to other areas with a Mediterranean climate and look forward to establishing cooperative activities with other research groups.

  14. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid [HNO{sub 3}]: 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate [(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}]: 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  15. Characterization of uranium contaminated soils from DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project Site: Results of Phase 1 characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Integrated Demonstration (ID) for remediation of uranium- contaminated soils has been established by the DOE Office of Technology Development. The Fernald (Feed Materials Production Center) site was selected as the DOE facility for the field demonstration. The principle objective of this ID is to evaluate and compare the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems for the removal of uranium from contaminated soils. Several leaching solutions were employed to determine their effectiveness in extracting uranium from the soil. The extractants and their means of preparation were: 0.1 N nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}): 6.25 mL of concentrated nitric acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 2% ammonium carbonate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3}): 20 g of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl): 50 mL of NaOCl reagent (Cl < 6%) was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetric acid, disodium salt (EDTA): 37.224 g EDTA was dissolved in distilled water and diluted to 1 L; 2% citric acid monohydrate solution (H{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}H{sub 2}O): 20 g of critic acid was diluted to 1 L with distilled water; 0.1 M hydroxylamine-hydrochloride (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) in 0.01 N nitric acid: 6.95 g (NH{sub 2}OH{center dot}HCl) was dissolved and diluted to 1 L with 0.01 N HNO{sub 3}. The 0.01 N nitric acid was prepared by diluting 3 mL concentrated nitric acid to 5 L with distilled water; and the sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) method: 0.3 M sodium citrate (88 g tribasic sodium citrate, Na{sub 3}C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O, per liter); 1 M sodium bicarbonate (84 g NaHCO{sub 3} per liter); and 5 g sodium dithionite, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  16. Characterization of novel antibiotic resistance genes identified by functional metagenomics on soil samples.

    PubMed

    Torres-Cortés, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C; Nisa-Martínez, Rafael; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco

    2011-04-01

    The soil microbial community is highly complex and contains a high density of antibiotic-producing bacteria, making it a likely source of diverse antibiotic resistance determinants. We used functional metagenomics to search for antibiotic resistance genes in libraries generated from three different soil samples, containing 3.6 Gb of DNA in total. We identified 11 new antibiotic resistance genes: 3 conferring resistance to ampicillin, 2 to gentamicin, 2 to chloramphenicol and 4 to trimethoprim. One of the clones identified was a new trimethoprim resistance gene encoding a 26.8 kDa protein closely resembling unassigned reductases of the dihydrofolate reductase group. This protein, Tm8-3, conferred trimethoprim resistance in Escherichia coli and Sinorhizobium meliloti (γ- and α-proteobacteria respectively). We demonstrated that this gene encoded an enzyme with dihydrofolate reductase activity, with kinetic constants similar to other type I and II dihydrofolate reductases (K(m) of 8.9 µM for NADPH and 3.7 µM for dihydrofolate and IC(50) of 20 µM for trimethoprim). This is the first description of a new type of reductase conferring resistance to trimethoprim. Our results indicate that soil bacteria display a high level of genetic diversity and are a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, supporting the use of this approach for the discovery of novel enzymes with unexpected activities unpredictable from their amino acid sequences.

  17. Characterization of the N2O-producing soil bacterium Rhizobium azooxidifex sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Undine; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Augustin, Jürgen; Ulrich, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    In the context of studying the bacterial community involved in nitrogen transformation processes in arable soils exposed to different extents of erosion and sedimentation in a long-term experiment (CarboZALF), a strain was isolated that reduced nitrate to nitrous oxide without formation of molecular nitrogen. The presence of the functional gene nirK, encoding the respiratory copper-containing nitrite reductase, and the absence of the nitrous oxide reductase gene nosZ indicated a truncated denitrification pathway and that this bacterium may contribute significantly to the formation of the important greenhouse gas N2O. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and the housekeeping genes recA and atpD demonstrated that the investigated soil isolate belongs to the genus Rhizobium. The closest phylogenetic neighbours were the type strains of Rhizobium. subbaraonis and Rhizobium. halophytocola. The close relationship with R. subbaraonis was reflected by similarity analysis of the recA and atpD genes and their amino acid positions. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed genetic differences at the species level, which were substantiated by analysis of the whole-cell fatty acid profile and several distinct physiological characteristics. Based on these results, it was concluded that the soil isolate represents a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium azooxidifex sp. nov. (type strain Po 20/26T=DSM 100211T=LMG 28788T) is proposed.

  18. Characterization of trichloroethylene adsorption onto waste biocover soil in the presence of landfill gas.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Kong, Jiaoyan

    2015-09-15

    Waste biocover soils (WBS) have been demonstrated to have great potential in mitigating trichloroethylene (TCE) emission from landfills, due to the relatively high TCE-degrading capacity. In this study, the characteristics of TCE adsorption on WBS in the presence of the major landfill gas components (i.e., CH4 and CO2) were investigated in soil microcosms. The adsorption isotherm of TCE onto WBS was fitted well with linear model within the TCE concentrations of 7000 ppmv. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto WBS was affected by temperature, soil moisture content and particle size, of which, temperature was the dominant factor. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto the experimental materials increased with the increasing organic matter content. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the adsorption capacity of TCE and the organic matter content of experimental materials that had relatively higher organic content (r = 0.988, P = 0.044). To better understand WBS application in practice, response surface methodology was developed to predict TCE adsorption capacity and emissions through WBS in different landfills in China. These results indicated that WBS had high adsorption capacity of TCE in LFG and temperature should be paid more attention to manipulate WBS to reduce TCE emissions from landfills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Geochemical characterization and biomonitoring of reclaimed soils in the Po River Delta (Northern Italy): implications for the agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Martucci, Annalisa; Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    This geochemical study is focused on the easternmost part of the Po River alluvial plain in Northern Italy, which is interested by widespread agricultural activities, investigating a reclaimed sector of the Province of Ferrara, known as "Valle del Mezzano" (Mezzano Low Land, hereafter reported as MLL) characterized by peat-rich soils. The chemical-mineralogical characterization of these reclaimed soils is important to compare the local geochemical backgrounds with those recorded in other sectors of the River Po plain and to monitor if the observed concentration exceeds critical thresholds. The reported analyses include (a) measurement of the soil salinity, (b) nutrient evaluation, (c) major and trace element concentrations carried out on bulk soils, (d) tests of metal extraction with both aqua regia and EDTA to highlight the distinct elemental mobility and (e) phyto-toxicological measurement of heavy metal concentrations in plants (Lactuca sativa acephala) grown on the studied soils. The results indicate (1) high soil salinity, often with drastic increase of sodium and chloride along the soil profiles, (2) high nitrogen content (in part related to anthropogenic activities) on superficial horizons and nitrate decrease along the soil profiles and (3) comparative enrichments in heavy metals with respect to other soils of the province, which indicate that peat deposits are effective in trapping metals from anthropogenic sources. This, in turn, implies potential geochemical risks for the agricultural activities. In this regard, specific concerns are related to the high nickel and arsenic content of MLL soils due to the mobility of these elements and their attitude to be taken up by plants.

  20. Iron-bound organic carbon in forest soils: quantification and characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Qian; Poulson, Simon R.; Obrist, Daniel; ...

    2016-08-24

    Iron oxide minerals play an important role in stabilizing organic carbon (OC) and regulating the biogeochemical cycles of OC on the earth surface. To predict the fate of OC, it is essential to understand the amount, spatial variability, and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in natural soils. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in soils collected from 14 forests in the United States and determined the impact of ecogeographical variables and soil physicochemical properties on the association of OC and Fe minerals. On average, Fe-bound OC contributed 37.8 % of total OC (TOC) in forestmore » soils. Atomic ratios of OC : Fe ranged from 0.56 to 17.7, with values of 1–10 for most samples, and the ratios indicate the importance of both sorptive and incorporative interactions. The fraction of Fe-bound OC in TOC (fFe-OC) was not related to the concentration of reactive Fe, which suggests that the importance of association with Fe in OC accumulation was not governed by the concentration of reactive Fe. Concentrations of Fe-bound OC and fFe-OC increased with latitude and reached peak values at a site with a mean annual temperature of 6.6 °C. Attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analyses revealed that Fe-bound OC was less aliphatic than non-Fe-bound OC. Fe-bound OC also was more enriched in 13C compared to the non-Fe-bound OC, but C/N ratios did not differ substantially. In summary, 13C-enriched OC with less aliphatic carbon and more carboxylic carbon was associated with Fe minerals in the soils, with values of fFe-OC being controlled by both sorptive and incorporative associations between Fe and OC. Overall, this study demonstrates that Fe oxides play an important role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of C in forest soils and uncovers the governing factors for the spatial variability and characteristics of Fe-bound OC.« less