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Sample records for dense cores vi

  1. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. VI. THE PROTOSTARS OF LYNDS DARK NEBULA 1221

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Chadwick H.; Young, Kaisa E.; Popa, Victor; Bourke, Tyler L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Shirley, Yancy L.; De Vries, Christopher; Claussen, Mark J.

    2009-09-01

    Observations of Lynds Dark Nebula 1221 from the Spitzer Space Telescope are presented. These data show three candidate protostars toward L1221, only two of which were previously known. The infrared observations also show signatures of outflowing material, an interpretation which is also supported by radio observations with the Very Large Array. In addition, molecular line maps from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory are shown. One-dimensional dust continuum modeling of two of these protostars, IRS1 and IRS3, is described. These models show two distinctly different protostars forming in very similar environments. IRS1 shows a higher luminosity and a larger inner radius of the envelope than IRS3. The disparity could be caused by a difference in age or mass, orientation of outflow cavities, or the impact of a binary in the IRS1 core.

  2. Model For Dense Molecular Cloud Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Steven D.; Neufeld, David A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical model for the thermal balance, chemistry, and radiative transfer within quiescent dense molecular cloud cores that contain a central protostar. In the interior of such cores, we expect the dust and gas temperatures to be well coupled, while in the outer regions CO rotational emissions dominate the gas cooling and the predicted gas temperature lies significantly below the dust temperature. Large spatial variations in the gas temperature are expected to affect the gas phase chemistry dramatically; in particular, the predicted water abundance varies by more than a factor of 1000 within cloud cores that contain luminous protostars. Based upon our predictions for the thermal and chemical structure of cloud cores, we have constructed self-consistent radiative transfer models to compute the line strengths and line profiles for transitions of (12)CO, (13)CO, C(18)O, ortho- and para-H2(16)O, ortho- and para-H2(18)O, and O I. We carried out a general parameter study to determine the dependence of the model predictions upon the parameters assumed for the source. We expect many of the far-infrared and submillimeter rotational transitions of water to be detectable either in emission or absorption with the use of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite. Quiescent, radiatively heated hot cores are expected to show low-gain maser emission in the 183 GHz 3(sub 13)-2(sub 20) water line, such as has been observed toward several hot core regions using ground-based telescopes. We predict the (3)P(sub l) - (3)P(sub 2) fine-structure transition of atomic oxygen near 63 micron to be in strong absorption against the continuum for many sources. Our model can also account successfully for recent ISO observations of absorption in rovibrational transitions of water toward the source AFGL 2591.

  3. Two Rab2 interactors regulate dense-core vesicle maturation.

    PubMed

    Ailion, Michael; Hannemann, Mandy; Dalton, Susan; Pappas, Andrea; Watanabe, Shigeki; Hegermann, Jan; Liu, Qiang; Han, Hsiao-Fen; Gu, Mingyu; Goulding, Morgan Q; Sasidharan, Nikhil; Schuske, Kim; Hullett, Patrick; Eimer, Stefan; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2014-04-01

    Peptide neuromodulators are released from a unique organelle: the dense-core vesicle. Dense-core vesicles are generated at the trans-Golgi and then sort cargo during maturation before being secreted. To identify proteins that act in this pathway, we performed a genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We identified two conserved Rab2-binding proteins: RUND-1, a RUN domain protein, and CCCP-1, a coiled-coil protein. RUND-1 and CCCP-1 colocalize with RAB-2 at the Golgi, and rab-2, rund-1, and cccp-1 mutants have similar defects in sorting soluble and transmembrane dense-core vesicle cargos. RUND-1 also interacts with the Rab2 GAP protein TBC-8 and the BAR domain protein RIC-19, a RAB-2 effector. In summary, a pathway of conserved proteins controls the maturation of dense-core vesicles at the trans-Golgi network. PMID:24698274

  4. Geophysical Age Dating of Seamounts using Dense Core Flexure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Gyuha; Kim, Seung-Sep

    2016-04-01

    Lithospheric flexure of oceanic plate is thermo-mechanical response of an elastic plate to the given volcanic construct (e.g., seamounts and ocean islands). If the shape and mass of such volcanic loads are known, the flexural response is governed by the thickness of elastic plate, Te. As the age of oceanic plate increases, the elastic thickness of oceanic lithosphere becomes thicker. Thus, we can relate Te with the age of plate at the time of loading. To estimate the amount of the driving force due to seamounts on elastic plate, one needs to approximate their density structure. The most common choice is uniform density model, which utilizes constant density value for a seamount. This approach simplifies computational processes for gravity prediction and error estimates. However, the uniform density model tends to overestimate the total mass of the seamount and hence produces more positive gravitational contributions from the load. Minimization of gravity misfits using uniform density, therefore, favors thinner Te in order to increase negative contributions from the lithospheric flexure, which can compensate for the excessive positives from the seamount. An alternative approach is dense core model, which approximate the heterogeneity nature of seamount density as three bodies of infill sediment, edifice, and dense core. In this study, we apply the dense core model to the Louisville Seamount Chain for constraining flexural deformation. We compare Te estimates with the loading time of the examined seamounts to redefine empirical geophysical age dating of seamounts.

  5. Contraction Signatures toward Dense Cores in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Friesen, R. K.; Martin, P. G.; Caselli, P.; Kauffmann, J.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of an HCO+ (3-2) and N2D+ (3-2) molecular line survey performed toward 91 dense cores in the Perseus molecular cloud using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, to identify the fraction of starless and protostellar cores with systematic radial motions. We quantify the HCO+ asymmetry using a dimensionless asymmetry parameter δv, and identify 20 cores with significant blue or red line asymmetries in optically thick emission indicative of collapsing or expanding motions, respectively. We separately fit the HCO+ profiles with an analytic collapse model and determine contraction (expansion) speeds toward 22 cores. Comparing the δv and collapse model results, we find that δv is a good tracer of core contraction if the optically thin emission is aligned with the model-derived systemic velocity. The contraction speeds range from subsonic (0.03 km s-1) to supersonic (0.4 km s-1), where the supersonic contraction speeds may trace global rather than local core contraction. Most cores have contraction speeds significantly less than their free-fall speeds. Only 7 of 28 starless cores have spectra well-fit by the collapse model, which more than doubles (15 of 28) for protostellar cores. Starless cores with masses greater than the Jeans mass (M/MJ > 1) are somewhat more likely to show contraction motions. We find no trend of optically thin non-thermal line width with M/MJ, suggesting that any undetected contraction motions are small and subsonic. Most starless cores in Perseus are either not in a state of collapse or expansion, or are in a very early stage of collapse.

  6. Dense cores in the dark cloud complex LDN 1188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi , E.; Könyves, V.; Nikolić, S.; Kiss, Cs.; Moór, A.; Ábrahám, P.; Kun, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a molecular line emission study of the LDN 1188 dark cloud complex located in Cepheus. In this work we focused on the densest parts of the cloud and on the close neighbourhood of infrared point sources. We made ammonia mapping with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope and identified 3 dense cores. CS(1-0), CS(2-1) and HCO+(1-0) measurements performed with the Onsala 20 m telescope revealed the distribution of dense molecular material. The molecular line measurements were supplemented by mapping the dust emission at 1.2 mm in some selected directions using the IRAM 30 m telescope. With these data we could work out a likely evolutionary sequence in this dark cloud complex.

  7. Parallel Access of Out-Of-Core Dense Extendible Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Otoo, Ekow J; Rotem, Doron

    2007-07-26

    Datasets used in scientific and engineering applications are often modeled as dense multi-dimensional arrays. For very large datasets, the corresponding array models are typically stored out-of-core as array files. The array elements are mapped onto linear consecutive locations that correspond to the linear ordering of the multi-dimensional indices. Two conventional mappings used are the row-major order and the column-major order of multi-dimensional arrays. Such conventional mappings of dense array files highly limit the performance of applications and the extendibility of the dataset. Firstly, an array file that is organized in say row-major order causes applications that subsequently access the data in column-major order, to have abysmal performance. Secondly, any subsequent expansion of the array file is limited to only one dimension. Expansions of such out-of-core conventional arrays along arbitrary dimensions, require storage reorganization that can be very expensive. Wepresent a solution for storing out-of-core dense extendible arrays that resolve the two limitations. The method uses a mapping function F*(), together with information maintained in axial vectors, to compute the linear address of an extendible array element when passed its k-dimensional index. We also give the inverse function, F-1*() for deriving the k-dimensional index when given the linear address. We show how the mapping function, in combination with MPI-IO and a parallel file system, allows for the growth of the extendible array without reorganization and no significant performance degradation of applications accessing elements in any desired order. We give methods for reading and writing sub-arrays into and out of parallel applications that run on a cluster of workstations. The axial-vectors are replicated and maintained in each node that accesses sub-array elements.

  8. ON THE FORMATION OF GLYCOLALDEHYDE IN DENSE MOLECULAR CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Paul M.; Kelly, George; Viti, Serena; Slater, Ben; Brown, Wendy A.; Puletti, Fabrizio; Burke, Daren J.; Raza, Zamaan

    2012-05-01

    Glycolaldehyde is a simple monosaccharide sugar linked to prebiotic chemistry. Recently, it was detected in a molecular core in the star-forming region G31.41+0.31 at a reasonably high abundance. We investigate the formation of glycolaldehyde at 10 K to determine whether it can form efficiently under typical dense core conditions. Using an astrochemical model, we test five different reaction mechanisms that have been proposed in the astrophysical literature, finding that a gas-phase formation route is unlikely. Of the grain-surface formation routes, only two are efficient enough at very low temperatures to produce sufficient glycolaldehyde to match the observational estimates, with the mechanism culminating in CH{sub 3}OH + HCO being favored. However, when we consider the feasibility of these mechanisms from a reaction chemistry perspective, the second grain-surface route looks more promising, H{sub 3}CO + HCO.

  9. Massive Star Formation: Characterising Infall and Outflow in dense cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shaila; Cunningham, Maria; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Jones, Paul Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Walsh, Andrew John

    2015-08-01

    Massive stars are some of the most important objects in the Universe, shaping the evolution of galaxies, creating chemical elements, and hence shaping the evolution of the Universe. However, the processes by which they form, and how they shape their environment during their birth processes, are not well understood. We are using NH3 data from the "The H2O Southern Galactic Plane Survey" (HOPS) to define the positions of dense cores/clumps of gas in the southern Galactic plane that are likely to form stars. Due to its effective critical density, NH3 can detect massive star forming regions effectively compared to other tracers. We did a comparative study with different methods for finding clumps and found Fellwalker as the best. We found ~ 10% of the star forming clumps with multiple components and ~ 90% clumps with single component along the line of sight. Then, using data from the "The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz" (MALT90) survey, we search for the presence of infall and outflow associated with these cores. We will subsequently use the "3D Molecular Line Radiative Transfer Code" (MOLLIE) to constrain properties of the infall and outflow, such as velocity and mass flow. The aim of the project is to determine how common infall and outflow are in star forming cores, hence providing valuable constraints on the timescales and physical process involved in massive star formation.

  10. Dense Cores in The Pipe Nebula: An Improved Core Mass Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Lada, C. J.; Muench, A. A.; Alves, J. F.; Kainulainen, J.; Lombardi, M.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we derive an improved core mass function (CMF) for the Pipe Nebula from a detailed comparison between measurements of visual extinction and molecular-line emission. We have compiled a refined sample of 201 dense cores toward the Pipe Nebula using a two-dimensional threshold identification algorithm informed by recent simulations of dense core populations. Measurements of radial velocities using complimentary C18O (1-0) observations enable us to cull out from this sample those 43 extinction peaks that are either not associated with dense gas or are not physically associated with the Pipe Nebula. Moreover, we use the derived C18O central velocities to differentiate between single cores with internal structure and blends of two or more physically distinct cores, superposed along the same line of sight. We then are able to produce a more robust dense core sample for future follow-up studies and a more reliable CMF than was possible previously. We confirm earlier indications that the CMF for the Pipe Nebula departs from a single power-law-like form with a break or knee at M ~ 2.7 ± 1.3 M sun. Moreover, we also confirm that the CMF exhibits a similar shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), but is scaled to higher masses by a factor of ~4.5. We interpret this difference in scaling to be a measure of the star formation efficiency (22% ± 8%). This supports earlier suggestions that the stellar IMF may originate more or less directly from the CMF.

  11. Phosphorus-bearing Molecules in Massive Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Rivilla, V. M.; Caselli, P.; Vasyunin, A.; Palau, A.

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element for the development of life, but so far P-bearing molecules have been detected only in a few astrophysical objects; hence, its interstellar chemistry is almost totally unknown. Here, we show new detections of phosphorus nitride (PN) in a sample of dense cores in different evolutionary stages of the intermediate- and high-mass star formation process: starless, with protostellar objects, and with ultracompact H ii regions. All detected PN line widths are smaller than ≃5 km s-1, and they arise from regions associated with kinetic temperatures smaller than 100 K. Because the few previous detections reported in the literature are associated with warmer and more turbulent sources, the results of this work show that PN can arise from relatively quiescent and cold gas. This information is challenging for theoretical models that invoke either high desorption temperatures or grain sputtering from shocks to release phosphorus into the gas phase. Derived column densities are of the order of 1011-12 cm-2, marginally lower than the values derived in the few high-mass star-forming regions detected so far. New constraints on the abundance of phosphorus monoxide, the fundamental unit of biologically relevant molecules, are also given. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM-30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  12. Motions and Initial Conditions in Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2001-01-01

    Under this grant in the past year we have pursued spectral-line observations of star-forming regions over size scales from 0.01 pc to 0.5 pc. Our main goal has been to measure the systematic and turbulent motions of condensing and collapsing gas. In this area, our results include (1) in 67 starless dense cores, some 19 show clear evidence of spatially extended inward motions, with typical line-of-sight inward speed 0.05-0.09 km s(sup -1) and with typical plane-of-the-sky extent 0.1-0.3 pc, (2) In some 40 nearby regions with embedded groups and clusters, we see extended infall asymmetry in lines of CS and HCO(+) clearly in 4 regions and less clearly in 4 others, (3) Using finer resolution (15 arcsec or 0.01-0.02 pc) and lines tracing higher density, we see spatial concentration of infall asymmetry near the protostars in NGC 1333 IRS 4A and B, L483, and L1251B, and with still finer resolution (2 arcsec or 0.003 pc or 600 AU) we detect inverse P Cyg profiles, indicating absorption of continuum emission from the protostellar envelope by infalling gas in NGC 1333 IRS 4A and 4B. Further, at high resolution we identify regions of stellar mass and low turbulence ("kernels") which are good candidates to become the next generation of stars in embedded clusters. In addition we have completed a survey for the OH Zeeman effect in absorption against nearby H II regions, indicating that the large-scale magnetic field may be nearly critical if it typically threads a flattened structure. We have also developed a model of spatially extended infall motions based on dissipation of turbulence in a magnetized, selfgravitating layer. In the following we describe some of these results in more detail.

  13. CARBON ISOTOPE AND ISOTOPOMER FRACTIONATION IN COLD DENSE CLOUD CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2011-04-10

    We construct a gas-grain chemical network model which includes carbon isotopes ({sup 12}C and {sup 13}C) with an emphasis on isotopomer-exchange reactions. Temporal variations of molecular abundances, the carbon isotope ratios ({sup 12}CX/{sup 13}CX), and the isotopomer ratios ({sup 12}C{sup 13}CX/{sup 13}C{sup 12}CX) of CCH and CCS in cold dense cloud cores are investigated by numerical calculations. We confirm that the isotope ratios of molecules, both in the gas phase and grain surfaces, are significantly different depending on whether the molecule is formed from the carbon atom (ion) or the CO molecule. Molecules formed from carbon atoms have CX/{sup 13}CX ratios greater than the elemental abundance ratio of [{sup 12}C/{sup 13}C]. On the other hand, molecules formed from CO molecules have CX/{sup 13}CX ratios smaller than the [{sup 12}C/{sup 13}C] ratio. We reproduce the observed C{sup 13}CH/{sup 13}CCH ratio in TMC-1, if the isotopomer-exchange reaction, {sup 13}CCH + H {r_reversible} C{sup 13}CH + H + 8.1 K, proceeds with the forward rate coefficient k{sub f} > 10{sup -11} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}. However, the C{sup 13}CS/{sup 13}CCS ratio is lower than that observed in TMC-1. We then assume the isotopomer-exchange reaction catalyzed by the H atom, {sup 13}CCS + H {r_reversible} C{sup 13}CS + H + 17.4 K. In the model with this reaction, we reproduce the observed C{sup 13}CS/{sup 13}CCS, CCS/C{sup 13}CS, and CCS/{sup 13}CCS ratios simultaneously.

  14. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M–Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  15. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M-Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  16. Nucleation of strange matter in dense stellar cores

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E. Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo ); Benvenuto, O.G. La Plata ); Vucetich, H. La Plata )

    1992-05-15

    We investigate the nucleation of strange quark matter inside hot, dense nuclear matter. Applying Zel'dovich's kinetic theory of nucleation we find a lower limit of the temperature {ital T} for strange-matter bubbles to appear, which happens to be satisfied inside the Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling era of a compact star life but not much after it. Our bounds thus suggest that a prompt conversion could be achieved, giving support to earlier expectations for nonstandard type-II supernova scenarios.

  17. Motions and Initial Conditions in Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    The main focus was the study of star-forming regions through high spectral- and spatial resolution observations of mm-wavelength lines, and through models of the observations. The main accomplishments were a) demonstration that more than 15 starless cores show substantial evidence of extended inward motion at about half the sound speed; b) observations of infall asymmetry in several cores, in lines of N2H(+) and DCO(+), low- depletion tracers of the "inner core"; c) observation of "infall asymmetry" of spectral lines over approx. 0.5 pc in the NGC1333 cluster-forming region; d) observations indicating that cores are nearly at rest with respect to their envelopes; and e) development of analytic, power-series solutions to the equations of motions for condensing 1-D systems (layers, cylinders and spheres).

  18. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at Dense Cores in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1-2 × 1023 cm-2, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 1023 cm-2, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  19. A Complete Census of Dense Cores in Chamaeleon I: Results from an ALMA Cycle 1 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Michael; Schnee, Scott; Pineda, Jaime E.; Offner, Stella; Price, Daniel; Arce, Hector G.; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug I.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Tobin, John J.; Chen, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Stars form from the gravitational collapse of dense molecular cloud cores, yet many details relating to the onset of collapse and fragmentation into multiple systems remain unknown. I will present the results of an ALMA cycle 1 survey of all known dense cores (starless and protostellar) in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud complex (d~170pc). The goals of this survey are to provide a complete census of protostars, including those too young, too low in luminosity, and/or too deeply embedded to detect in previous infrared and (sub)millimeter surveys, and to characterize when and how dense cores fragment into multiple systems. With these results we will report new detections of protostellar multiplicity and provide updated constraints on the fraction of starless cores that are truly starless, the lifetime of the first hydrostatic core phase, and the relative durations of the starless and protostellar core populations. We will also report a lack of detections among the starless cores and discuss implications of these results.

  20. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment. PMID:27191843

  1. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; Pappas, Andrea L; Cooper, Kirsten; Merrihew, Gennifer E; MacCoss, Michael J; Ailion, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment.

  2. Galactic cold cores. VI. Dust opacity spectral index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvela, M.; Demyk, K.; Doi, Y.; Hughes, A.; Lefèvre, C.; Marshall, D. J.; Meny, C.; Montillaud, J.; Pagani, L.; Paradis, D.; Ristorcelli, I.; Malinen, J.; Montier, L. A.; Paladini, R.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The Galactic Cold Cores project has carried out Herschel photometric observations of 116 fields where the Planck survey has found signs of cold dust emission. The fields contain sources in different environments and different phases of star formation. Previous studies have revealed variations in their dust submillimetre opacity. Aims: The aim is to measure the value of dust opacity spectral index and to understand its variations spatially and with respect to other parameters, such as temperature, column density, and Galactic location. Methods: The dust opacity spectral index β and the dust colour temperature T are derived using Herschel and Planck data. The relation between β and T is examined for the whole sample and inside individual fields. Results: Based on IRAS and Planck data, the fields are characterised by a median colour temperature of 16.1 K and a median opacity spectral index of β = 1.84. The values are not correlated with Galactic longitude. We observe a clear T-β anti-correlation. In Herschel observations, constrained at lower resolution by Planck data, the variations follow the column density structure and βFIR can rise to ~2.2 in individual clumps. The highest values are found in starless clumps. The Planck 217 GHz band shows a systematic excess that is not restricted to cold clumps and is thus consistent with a general flattening of the dust emission spectrum at millimetre wavelengths. When fitted separately below and above 700 μm, the median spectral index values are βFIR ~ 1.91 and β(mm) ~ 1.66. Conclusions: The spectral index changes as a function of column density and wavelength. The comparison of different data sets and the examination of possible error sources show that our results are robust. However, β variations are partly masked by temperature gradients and the changes in the intrinsic grain properties may be even greater. Planck http://www.esa.int/Planck is a project of the European Space Agency - ESA - with instruments

  3. Magnetic processes in a collapsing dense core. I. Accretion and ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennebelle, P.; Fromang, S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: To understand the star formation process, it is important to study the collapse of a prestellar dense core. Aims: We investigate the effect of the magnetic field during the first collapse up to the formation of the first core, focusing particularly on the magnetic braking and the launching of outflows. Methods: We perform 3D AMR high resolution numerical simulations of a magnetically supercritical collapsing dense core using the RAMSES MHD code and develop semi-analytical models that we compare with the numerical results. Results: We study in detail the various profiles within the envelope of the collapsing core for various magnetic field strengths. Even modest values of magnetic field strength modify the collapse significantly. This is largely due to the amplification of the radial and toroidal components of the magnetic field by the differential motions within the collapsing core. For a weak magnetic intensity corresponding to an initial mass-to-flux over critical mass-to-flux ratio, μ equals 20 a centrifugally supported disk forms. The strong differential rotation triggers the growth of a slowly expanding magnetic tower. For higher magnetic field strengths corresponding to μ=2, the collapse occurs primarily along the field lines, therefore delivering weaker angular momentum into the inner part whereas at the same time, strong magnetic braking occurs. As a consequence no centrifugally supported disk forms. An outflow is launched from the central thermally supported core. Detailed comparisons with existing analytical predictions indicate that it is magneto-centrifugally driven. Conclusions: For cores having a mass-to-flux over critical mass-to-flux radio μ < 5, the magnetic field appears to have a significant impact. The collapsing envelope is denser and flatter than in the hydrodynamical case and no centrifugally supported disk forms. For values μ < 20, the magnetic field drastically modifies the disk evolution. In a companion paper, the influence of

  4. Chemical and Physical Characterization of Collapsing Low-mass Prestellar Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincelin, U.; Commerçon, B.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S.; Herbst, E.

    2016-05-01

    The first hydrostatic core, also called the first Larson core, is one of the first steps in low-mass star formation as predicted by theory. With recent and future high-performance telescopes, the details of these first phases are becoming accessible, and observations may confirm theory and even present new challenges for theoreticians. In this context, from a theoretical point of view, we study the chemical and physical evolution of the collapse of prestellar cores until the formation of the first Larson core, in order to better characterize this early phase in the star formation process. We couple a state-of-the-art hydrodynamical model with full gas-grain chemistry, using different assumptions for the magnetic field strength and orientation. We extract the different components of each collapsing core (i.e., the central core, the outflow, the disk, the pseudodisk, and the envelope) to highlight their specific physical and chemical characteristics. Each component often presents a specific physical history, as well as a specific chemical evolution. From some species, the components can clearly be differentiated. The different core models can also be chemically differentiated. Our simulation suggests that some chemical species act as tracers of the different components of a collapsing prestellar dense core, and as tracers of the magnetic field characteristics of the core. From this result, we pinpoint promising key chemical species to be observed.

  5. Resident CAPS on dense-core vesicles docks and primes vesicles for fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kabachinski, Greg; Kielar-Grevstad, D. Michelle; Zhang, Xingmin; James, Declan J.; Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells requires a priming step during which SNARE protein complexes assemble. CAPS (aka CADPS) is one of several factors required for vesicle priming; however, the localization and dynamics of CAPS at sites of exocytosis in live neuroendocrine cells has not been determined. We imaged CAPS before, during, and after single-vesicle fusion events in PC12 cells by TIRF micro­scopy. In addition to being a resident on cytoplasmic dense-core vesicles, CAPS was present in clusters of approximately nine molecules near the plasma membrane that corresponded to docked/tethered vesicles. CAPS accompanied vesicles to the plasma membrane and was present at all vesicle exocytic events. The knockdown of CAPS by shRNA eliminated the VAMP-2–dependent docking and evoked exocytosis of fusion-competent vesicles. A CAPS(ΔC135) protein that does not localize to vesicles failed to rescue vesicle docking and evoked exocytosis in CAPS-depleted cells, showing that CAPS residence on vesicles is essential. Our results indicate that dense-core vesicles carry CAPS to sites of exocytosis, where CAPS promotes vesicle docking and fusion competence, probably by initiating SNARE complex assembly. PMID:26700319

  6. Chains of Dense Cores in the Taurus L1495/B213 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, Mario; Hacar, Alvaro

    2014-07-01

    We study the formation of dense cores in the filamentary L1495/B213 region of Taurus. Observations of its C18O emission show that what appears as a single 10pc-long filament in optical and continuum images is in fact a complex web of smaller filamentary structures that we call fibers. These fibers are typically 0.5~pc long and velocity coherent, and seem to have decoupled from the turbulent velocity field of the large-scale cloud. Fibers appear as the true parent structures of the cores, but only a small subset of them seem able to form cores ("fertile fibers") while the rest remain sterile. The fertile-sterile dychotomy of fibers is striking, since sterile fibers do not form cores but fertile fibers form three cores on average. As a result, most cores in the L1495/B213 region are part of linear groups or chains that have a typical core spacing of 0.1pc. Our observations and analysis suggest that core formation out of a large-scale filament is a two-step process that involves first the dissipation of turbulence via shock interaction and then the fragmentation of those disspated structures that exceed the mass per unit length limit of gravitational instability.

  7. Dense core formation by fragmentation of velocity-coherent filaments in L1517

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacar, A.; Tafalla, M.

    2011-09-01

    Context. Low-mass star-forming cores differ from their surrounding molecular cloud in turbulence, shape, and density structure. Aims: We aim to understand how dense cores form out of the less dense cloud material by studying the connection between these two regimes. Methods: We observed the L1517 dark cloud in C18O(1-0), N2H+(J = 1-0), and SO(JN = 32 - 21) with the FCRAO 14 m telescope, and in the 1.2 mm dust continuum with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Results: Most of the gas in the cloud lies in four filaments that have typical lengths of 0.5 pc. Five starless cores are embedded in these filaments and have chemical compositions indicative of different evolutionary stages. The filaments have radial profiles of C18O(1-0) emission with a central flattened region and a power-law tail, and can be fitted approximately as isothermal, pressure-supported cylinders. The filaments, in addition, are extremely quiescent. They have subsonic internal motions and are coherent in velocity over their whole length. The large-scale motions in the filaments can be used to predict the velocity inside the cores, indicating that core formation has not decoupled the dense gas kinematically from its parental material. In two filaments, these large-scale motions consist of oscillations in the velocity centroid, and a simple kinematic model suggests that they may be related to core-forming flows. Conclusions: Core formation in L1517 seems to have occurred in two steps. First, the subsonic, velocity-coherent filaments have condensed out of the more turbulent ambient cloud. Then, the cores fragmented quasi-statically and inherited the kinematics of the filaments. Turbulence dissipation has therefore occurred mostly on scales on the order of 0.5 pc or larger, and seems to have played a small role in the formation of the individual cores. Based on observations carried out with the FCRAO 14 m and IRAM 30 m telescopes. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  8. Fragmentation of Massive Dense Cores Down to <~ 1000 AU: Relation between Fragmentation and Density Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, Aina; Estalella, Robert; Girart, Josep M.; Fuente, Asunción; Fontani, Francesco; Commerçon, Benoit; Busquet, Gemma; Bontemps, Sylvain; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Zapata, Luis A.; Zhang, Qizhou; Hennebelle, Patrick; di Francesco, James

    2014-04-01

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the spectral energy distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. Even though the estimated fragmentation level is strictly speaking a lower limit, its relative value is significant and several trends could be explored with our data. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered the effects of rotational-to-gravitational energy ratio, non-thermal velocity dispersion, and turbulence mode on the density structure of the cores, and found that compressive turbulence seems to yield higher central densities. Finally, a possible explanation for the origin of cores with concentrated density profiles, which are the cores showing no fragmentation, could be related with a strong magnetic field, consistent with the outcome of radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre on behalf of the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research, and the National Research Council of Canada.

  9. Kinetic Temperatures of the Dense Gas Clumps in the Orion KL Molecular Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kuo-Song; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Charnley, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    High angular-resolution images of the J = 18(sub K)-17(sub K) emission of CH3CN in the Orion KL molecular core were observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our high-resolution observations clearly reveal that CH3CN emission originates mainly from the Orion Hot Core and the Compact Ridge, both within approximately 15 inches of the warm and dense part of Orion KL. The clumpy nature of the molecular gas in Orion KL can also be readily seen from our high-resolution SMA images. In addition, a semi-open cavity-like kinematic structure is evident at the location between the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. We performed excitation analysis with the "population diagram" method toward the Hot Core, IRc7, and the northern part of the Compact Ridge. Our results disclose a non-uniform temperature structure on small scales in Orion KL, with a range of temperatures from 190-620 K in the Hot Core. Near the Compact Ridge, the temperatures are found to be 170-280 K. Comparable CH3CN fractional abundances of 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -7) are found around both in the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. Such high abundances require that a hot gas phase chemistry, probably involving ammonia released from grain mantles, plays an important role in forming these CH3CN molecules.

  10. Colliding filaments and a massive dense core in the Cygnus OB 7 molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Akisato, Ko; Ohashi, Kenjiro; Nakagomi, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saito, Hiro

    2014-12-10

    We report the results of molecular line observations carried out toward a massive dense core in the Cyg OB 7 molecular cloud. The core has an extraordinarily large mass (∼1.1 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) and size (∼2 × 5 pc{sup 2}), but there is no massive young star forming therein. We observed this core in various molecular lines such as C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) using the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. We find that the core has an elongated morphology consisting of several filaments and core-like structures. The filaments are massive (10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}), and they are apparently colliding with one another. Some candidates for young stellar objects are distributed around their intersection, suggesting that the collisions of the filaments may have influenced their formation. To understand the formation and evolution of such colliding filaments, we performed numerical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement technique, adopting the observed core parameters (the mass and size) as the initial conditions. The results indicate that the filaments are formed as seen in other earlier simulations for small cores in the literature, but we could not reproduce the collisions of the filaments simply by assuming a large initial mass and size. We find that collisions of the filaments occur only when there is a large velocity gradient in the initial core, in a sense compressing it. We suggest that the observed core was actually compressed by an external effect, e.g., shocks from nearby supernova remnants, including HB 21 which has been suggested to be interacting with the Cyg OB 7 molecular cloud.

  11. STAR FORMATION IN THE TAURUS FILAMENT L 1495: FROM DENSE CORES TO STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalzl, Markus; Kainulainen, Jouni; Henning, Thomas; Launhardt, Ralf; Quanz, Sascha P.; Alves, Joao; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.

    2010-12-10

    We present a study of dense structures in the L 1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud and examine its star-forming properties. In particular, we construct a dust extinction map of the filament using deep near-infrared observations, exposing its small-scale structure in unprecedented detail. The filament shows highly fragmented substructures and a high mass-per-length value of M{sub line} = 17 M{sub sun} pc{sup -1}, reflecting star-forming potential in all parts of it. However, a part of the filament, namely B 211, is remarkably devoid of young stellar objects. We argue that in this region the initial filament collapse and fragmentation is still taking place and star formation is yet to occur. In the star-forming part of the filament, we identify 39 cores with masses from 0.4 to 10 M{sub sun} and preferred separations in agreement with the local Jeans length. Most of these cores exceed the Bonnor-Ebert critical mass, and are therefore likely to collapse and form stars. The dense core mass function follows a power law with exponent {Gamma} = 1.2 {+-} 0.2, a form commonly observed in star-forming regions.

  12. How is kinematic structure connected to the core scale from filament scale?; Mopra mapping observations with multi-lines of dense cores in Lupus I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokane, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao; Tachihara, Kengo; Saigo, Kazuya; van Kempen, Tim; Cortes, Paulo; Hill, Tracey; Knee, Lewis; Kurono, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Satoko; Aya, Higuchi; Nyman, Lars-Ake

    2014-06-01

    Recently, high sensitivity mappings of nearby molecular clouds in far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths with Hershel and AzTEC/ASTE show ubiquitous existence of the filamentary structures with 0.1-pc uniform width. It is important to investigate dense core formation from large scale structure via fragmentation. We have conducted MOPRA multi-line mapping observations covered on 0.02 - 0.2 pc scales of 8 dense cores in a filamentary cloud of nearby Lupus I at 140 pc. A class 0/I protostellar core IRAS 15398-3359 is included as a sample, which has an adjacent prestellar core with the separation of 0.13pc in the west. The maps of N2H+, HNC, HC3N show well associated with each core. The velocity field of C18O shows 1.4 km/s/pc from north to south over the region containing two dense cores, which is consistent with past observation of NANTEN. In contrast to C18O results, the velocity field of HC3N shows different structures, which suggest counter rotation of two dense cores; 1.2 km/s/pc from north-west to south-east around a protostellar core and 0.8 km/s/pc from east to west around a presteller core. The filament will be fragmentized and collapsed to dense cores when the line density is over 2Cs/G (where Cs is sound speed and G is gravitational constant). If that velocity gradient was caused by such situation, it should be red-blue-red-blue across two dense cores but the observed kinematics is not consistent with this scenario, which requires that the filament structure would be extremely curved with a skew angle. Although we cannot reject the collapsing interruption, those results suggest the spin-up rotating picture separated from large-scale structure.

  13. Dense Cores in Perseus: The Influence of Stellar Content and Cluster Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.; Kauffmann, Jens; Pineda, Jaime E.; Borkin, Michelle A.; Caselli, Paola; Myers, Phil C.; Goodman, Alyssa A.

    2009-05-01

    We present the chemistry, temperature, and dynamical state of a sample of 193 dense cores or core candidates in the Perseus Molecular cloud and compare the properties of cores associated with young stars and clusters with those which are not. The combination of our NH3 and CCS observations with previous millimeter, submillimeter, and Spitzer data available for this cloud enables us both to determine core properties precisely and to accurately classify cores as starless or protostellar. The properties of cores in different cluster environments and before-and-after star formation provide important constraints on simulations of star formation, particularly under the paradigm that the essence of star formation is set by the turbulent formation of prestellar cores. We separate the influence of stellar content from that of the cluster environment and find that cores within clusters have (1) higher kinetic temperatures (12.9 K versus 10.8 K) and, (2) lower fractional abundances of CCS (0.6 × 10-9 versus 2.0 × 10-9) and NH3 (1.2 × 10-8 versus 2.9 × 10-8). Cores associated with protostars have (1) slightly higher kinetic temperatures (11.9 K versus 10.6 K), (2) higher NH3 excitation temperatures (7.4 K versus 6.1 K), (3) are at higher column density (1.2 × 1022 cm-2 versus 0.6 × 1022 cm-2), have (4) slightly more nonthermal/turbulent NH3 line widths (0.14 km s-1 versus 0.11 km s-1 FWHM), have (5) higher masses (1.5 M sun versus 1.0 M sun), and have (6) lower fractional abundance of CCS (1.4 × 10-9 versus 2.4 × 10-9). All values are medians. We find that neither cluster environment nor protostellar content makes a significant difference to the dynamical state of cores as estimated by the virial parameter—most cores in each category are gravitationally bound. Only the high precision of our measurements and the size of our sample make such distinctions possible. Overall, cluster environment and protostellar content have a smaller influence on the properties of the

  14. On the relative motions of dense cores and envelopes in star-forming molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayliffe, Ben A.; Langdon, James C.; Cohl, Howard S.; Bate, Matthew R.

    2007-02-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations of star formation indicate that the motions of protostars through their natal molecular clouds may be crucial in determining the properties of stars through competitive accretion and dynamical interactions. Walsh, Myers & Burton recently investigated whether such motions might be observable in the earliest stages of star formation by measuring the relative shifts of line-centre velocities of low- and high-density tracers of low-mass star-forming cores. They found very small (~0.1kms-1) relative motions. In this paper, we analyse the hydrodynamical simulation of Bate, Bonnell & Bromm and find that it also gives small relative velocities between high-density cores and low-density envelopes, despite the fact that competitive accretion and dynamical interactions occur between protostars in the simulation. Thus, the simulation is consistent with the observations in this respect. However, we also find some differences between the simulation and the observations. Overall, we find that the high-density gas has a higher velocity dispersion than that observed by Walsh et al. We explore this by examining the dependence of the gas velocity dispersion on density and its evolution with time during the simulation. We find that early in the simulation the gas velocity dispersion decreases monotonically with increasing density, while later in the simulation, when the dense cores have formed multiple objects, the velocity dispersion of the high-density gas increases. Thus, the simulation is in best agreement with the observations early on, before many objects have formed in each dense core.

  15. Biogenesis and structure of a type VI secretion membrane core complex.

    PubMed

    Durand, Eric; Nguyen, Van Son; Zoued, Abdelrahim; Logger, Laureen; Péhau-Arnaudet, Gérard; Aschtgen, Marie-Stéphanie; Spinelli, Silvia; Desmyter, Aline; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Dujeancourt, Annick; Roussel, Alain; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Fronzes, Rémi

    2015-07-30

    Bacteria share their ecological niches with other microbes. The bacterial type VI secretion system is one of the key players in microbial competition, as well as being an important virulence determinant during bacterial infections. It assembles a nano-crossbow-like structure in the cytoplasm of the attacker cell that propels an arrow made of a haemolysin co-regulated protein (Hcp) tube and a valine-glycine repeat protein G (VgrG) spike and punctures the prey's cell wall. The nano-crossbow is stably anchored to the cell envelope of the attacker by a membrane core complex. Here we show that this complex is assembled by the sequential addition of three type VI subunits (Tss)-TssJ, TssM and TssL-and present a structure of the fully assembled complex at 11.6 Å resolution, determined by negative-stain electron microscopy. With overall C5 symmetry, this 1.7-megadalton complex comprises a large base in the cytoplasm. It extends in the periplasm via ten arches to form a double-ring structure containing the carboxy-terminal domain of TssM (TssMct) and TssJ that is anchored in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of the TssMct-TssJ complex coupled to whole-cell accessibility studies suggest that large conformational changes induce transient pore formation in the outer membrane, allowing passage of the attacking Hcp tube/VgrG spike.

  16. Prestellar core modeling in the presence of a filament. The dense heart of L1689B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, J.; Bacmann, A.; Henning, Th.; Heigl, S.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Lacking a paradigm for the onset of star formation, it is important to derive basic physical properties of prestellar cores and filaments like density and temperature structures. Aims: We aim to disentangle the spatial variation in density and temperature across the prestellar core L1689B, which is embedded in a filament. We want to determine the range of possible central densities and temperatures that are consistent with the continuum radiation data. Methods: We apply a new synergetic radiative transfer method: the derived 1D density profiles are both consistent with a cut through the Herschel PACS/SPIRE and JCMT SCUBA-2 continuum maps of L1689B and with a derived local interstellar radiation field. Choosing an appropriate cut along the filament major axis, we minimize the impact of the filament emission on the modeling. Results: For the bulk of the core (5000-20 000 au) an isothermal sphere model with a temperature of around 10 K provides the best fits. We show that the power law index of the density profile, as well as the constant temperature can be derived directly from the radial surface brightness profiles. For the inner region (<5000 au), we find a range of densities and temperatures that are consistent with the surface brightness profiles and the local interstellar radiation field. Based on our core models, we find that pixel-by-pixel single temperature spectral energy distribution fits are incapable of determining dense core properties. Conclusions: We conclude that, to derive physical core properties, it is important to avoid azimuthally-averaging core and filament. Correspondingly, derived core masses are too high since they include some mass of the filament, and might introduce errors when determining core mass functions. The forward radiative transfer methods also avoids the loss of information owing to smearing of all maps to the coarsest spatial resolution. We find the central core region to be colder and denser than estimated in recent

  17. Star Forming Dense Cloud Cores in the TeV -ray SNR RX J1713.7-3946

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, H.; Sato, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Torii, K.; Moribe, N.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H.; Inoue, T.; Inutsuka, S.; Tanaka, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Stutzki, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Anderl, S.; Bronfman, L.; Koo, B.C.

    2010-10-27

    RX J1713.7-3946 is one of the TeV {gamma}-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting synchrotron X rays. The SNR is associated with molecular gas located at {approx}1 kpc. We made new molecular observations toward the dense cloud cores, peaks A, C and D, in the SNR in the {sup 12}CO(J=2-1) and {sup 13}CO(J=2-1) transitions at angular resolution of 90 degrees. The most intense core in {sup 13}CO, peak C, was also mapped in the {sup 12}CO(J=4-3) transition at angular resolution of 38 degrees. Peak C shows strong signs of active star formation including bipolar outflow and a far-infrared protostellar source and has a steep gradient with a r{sup -2.2 {+-} 0.4} variation in the average density within radius r. Peak C and the other dense cloud cores are rim-brightened in synchrotron X rays, suggesting that the dense cloud cores are embedded within or on the outer boundary of the SNR shell. This confirms the earlier suggestion that the X rays are physically associated with the molecular gas (Fukui et al. 2003). We present a scenario where the densest molecular core, peak C, survived against the blast wave and is now embedded within the SNR. Numerical simulations of the shock-cloud interaction indicate that a dense clump can indeed survive shock erosion, since shock propagation speed is stalled in the dense clump. Additionally, the shock-cloud interaction induces turbulence and magnetic field amplification around the dense clump that may facilitate particle acceleration in the lower-density inter-clump space leading to the enhanced synchrotron X rays around dense cores.

  18. ON THE SURVIVABILITY AND METAMORPHISM OF TIDALLY DISRUPTED GIANT PLANETS: THE ROLE OF DENSE CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    A large population of planetary candidates in short-period orbits have been found recently through transit searches, mostly with the Kepler mission. Radial velocity surveys have also revealed several Jupiter-mass planets with highly eccentric orbits. Measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect indicate that the orbital angular momentum vector of some planets is inclined relative to the spin axis of their host stars. This diversity could be induced by post-formation dynamical processes such as planet-planet scattering, the Kozai effect, or secular chaos which brings planets to the vicinity of their host stars. In this work, we propose a novel mechanism to form close-in super-Earths and Neptune-like planets through the tidal disruption of gas giant planets as a consequence of these dynamical processes. We model the core-envelope structure of gas giant planets with composite polytropes which characterize the distinct chemical composition of the core and envelope. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of close encounters between Jupiter-like planets and their host stars, we find that the presence of a core with a mass more than 10 times that of the Earth can significantly increase the fraction of envelope which remains bound to it. After the encounter, planets with cores are more likely to be retained by their host stars in contrast with previous studies which suggested that coreless planets are often ejected. As a substantial fraction of their gaseous envelopes is preferentially lost while the dense incompressible cores retain most of their original mass, the resulting metallicity of the surviving planets is increased. Our results suggest that some gas giant planets can be effectively transformed into either super-Earths or Neptune-like planets after multiple close stellar passages. Finally, we analyze the orbits and structure of known planets and Kepler candidates and find that our model is capable of producing some of the shortest-period objects.

  19. A census of dense cores in the Taurus L1495 cloud from the Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Kirk, J. M.; André, Ph.; Griffin, M. J.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Benedettini, M.; Bresnahan, D. W.; Francesco, J. Di; Elia, D.; Motte, F.; Peretto, N.; Pezzuto, S.; Roy, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Schneider, N.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a catalogue of dense cores in a ˜4° × 2° field of the Taurus star-forming region, inclusive of the L1495 cloud, derived from Herschel SPIRE and PACS observations in the 70 μm, 160 μm, 250 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm continuum bands. Estimates of mean dust temperature and total mass are derived using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions. We detect 525 starless cores of which ˜10-20 per cent are gravitationally bound and therefore presumably prestellar. Our census of unbound objects is ˜85 per cent complete for M > 0.015 M⊙ in low-density regions (AV ≲ 5 mag), while the bound (prestellar) subset is ˜85 per cent complete for M > 0.1 M⊙ overall. The prestellar core mass function (CMF) is consistent with lognormal form, resembling the stellar system initial mass function, as has been reported previously. All of the inferred prestellar cores lie on filamentary structures whose column densities exceed the expected threshold for filamentary collapse, in agreement with previous reports. Unlike the prestellar CMF, the unbound starless CMF is not lognormal, but instead is consistent with a power-law form below 0.3 M⊙ and shows no evidence for a low-mass turnover. It resembles previously reported mass distributions for CO clumps at low masses (M ≲ 0.3 M⊙). The volume density PDF, however, is accurately lognormal except at high densities. It is consistent with the effects of self-gravity on magnetized supersonic turbulence. The only significant deviation from lognormality is a high-density tail which can be attributed unambiguously to prestellar cores.

  20. XFEL resonant photo-pumping of dense plasmas and dynamic evolution of autoionizing core hole states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmej, F. B.; Moinard, A.; Renner, O.; Galtier, E.; Lee, J. J.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P. A.; Schlotter, W.; Turner, J. J.; Lee, R. W.; Makita, M.; Riley, D.; Seely, J.

    2016-03-01

    Similarly to the case of LIF (Laser-Induced Fluorescence), an equally revolutionary impact to science is expected from resonant X-ray photo-pumping. It will particularly contribute to a progress in high energy density science: pumped core hole states create X-ray transitions that can escape dense matter on a 10 fs-time scale without essential photoabsorption, thus providing a unique possibility to study matter under extreme conditions. In the first proof of principle experiment at the X-ray Free Electron Laser LCLS at SCLAC [Seely, J., Rosmej, F.B., Shepherd, R., Riley, D., Lee, R.W. Proposal to Perform the 1st High Energy Density Plasma Spectroscopic Pump/Probe Experiment”, approved LCLS proposal L332 (2010)] we have successfully pumped inner-shell X-ray transitions in dense plasmas. The plasma was generated with a YAG laser irradiating solid Al and Mg targets attached to a rotating cylinder. In parallel to the optical laser beam, the XFEL was focused into the plasma plume at different delay times and pump energies. Pumped X-ray transitions have been observed with a spherically bent crystal spectrometer coupled to a Princeton CCD. By using this experimental configuration, we have simultaneously achieved extremely high spectral (λ/δλ ≈ 5000) and spatial resolution (δx≈70 μm) while maintaining high luminosity and a large spectral range covered (6.90 - 8.35 Å). By precisely measuring the variations in spectra emitted from plasma under action of XFEL radiation, we have successfully demonstrated transient X- ray pumping in a dense plasma.

  1. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Mai; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Kakeyama, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  2. The Deuterium Fractionation Timescale in Dense Cloud Cores: A Parameter Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shuo; Caselli, Paola; Tan, Jonathan C.; Wakelam, Valentine; Sipilä, Olli

    2015-05-01

    The deuterium fraction, [N2D+]/[N2H+], may provide information about the ages of dense, cold gas structures, which are important for comparing dynamical models of cloud core formation and evolution. Here we introduce a complete chemical network with species containing up to three atoms, with the exception of the oxygen chemistry, where reactions involving H3O+ and its deuterated forms have been added, significantly improving the consistency with comprehensive chemical networks. Deuterium chemistry and spin states of H2 and H3+ isotopologues are included in this primarily gas-phase chemical model. We investigate the dependence of deuterium chemistry on these model parameters: density ({{n}H}), temperature, cosmic ray ionization rate, and gas-phase depletion factor of heavy elements ({{f}D}). We also explore the effects of time-dependent freeze-out of gas-phase species and the dynamical evolution of density at various rates relative to free-fall collapse. For a broad range of model parameters, the timescales to reach large values of Dfrac{{N2}{{H}+}}≳ 0.1, observed in some low- and high-mass starless cores, are relatively long compared to the local free-fall timescale. These conclusions are unaffected by introducing time-dependent freeze-out and considering models with evolving density, unless the initial {{f}D} ≳ 10. For fiducial model parameters, achieving Dfrac{{N2}{{H}+}}≳ 0.1 requires collapse to be proceeding at rates at least several times slower than that of free-fall collapse, perhaps indicating a dynamically important role for magnetic fields in supporting starless cores and thus the regulation of star formation.

  3. Highly sensitive detection of copper ions by densely grafting fluorescein inside polyethyleneimine core-silica shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yali; Zheng, Xingwang

    2015-12-21

    In this work, polyethyleneimine (PEI) core-silica shell nanoparticles were synthesized and used for densely grafting fluorescent receptor units inside the core of these particles to result in multi-receptor units collectively sensing a target. Herein, copper ion quenching of the fluorescence intensity of a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) system was selected as a model to confirm our proof-of-concept strategy. Our results showed that, compared to free FITC in solution, a 10-fold enhancement of the Stern-Volmer constant value for Cu(2+) quenching of the fluorescence intensity of the grafted state of FITC in PEI core-silica shell nanoparticles was achieved. Furthermore, compared to a previous collective sensing scheme by densely grafting fluorescent receptor units on a silica nanoparticle surface, the proposed scheme, which grafted fluorescent receptor units inside a polymer nano-core, was simple, highly efficient and presented higher sensitivity.

  4. UNC-31/CAPS docks and primes dense core vesicles in C. elegans neurons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Guang; Ming, Min; Chen, Mao-Rong; Niu, Wei-Pin; Zhang, Yong-Deng; Liu, Bei; Jiu, Ya-Ming; Yu, Jun-Wei; Xu, Tao; Wu, Zheng-Xing

    2010-07-01

    UNC-31 or its mammalian homologue, Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion (CAPS), is indispensable for exocytosis of dense core vesicle (DCV) and synaptic vesicle (SV). From N- to the C-terminus, UNC-31 contains putative functional domains, including dynactin 1 binding domain (DBD), C2, PH, (M)UNC-13 homology domain (MHD) and DCV binding domain (DCVBD), the last four we examined in this study. We employed UNC-31 null mutant C. elegans worms to examine whether UNC-31 functions could be rescued by ectopic expression of full length UNC-31 vs each of these four domain-deleted mutants. Full length UNC-31 cDNA rescued the phenotypes of C. elegans null mutants in response to Ca(2+)-elevation in ALA neurons. Surprisingly, MHD deletion also rescued UNC-31 exocytotic function in part because the relatively high Ca(2+) level (pre-flash Ca(2+) was 450 nM) used in the capacitance study could bypass the MHD defect. Nonetheless, the three other domain-truncation cDNAs had almost no rescue on Ca(2+) evoked secretion. Importantly, this genetic null mutant rescue strategy enabled physiological studies at levels of whole organism to single cells, such as locomotion assay, pharmacological study of neurotransmission at neuromuscular junction, in vivo neuropeptide release measurement and analysis of vesicular docking. Our results suggest that each of these UNC-31 domains support distinct sequential molecular actions of UNC-31 in vesicular exocytosis, including steps in vesicle tethering and docking that bridge vesicle with plasma membrane, and subsequently priming vesicle by initiating the formation of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) core complex. PMID:20515653

  5. PC12 Cells that Lack Synaptotagmin I Exhibit Loss of a Subpool of Small Dense Core Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Robert D.; Harkins, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    Neurons communicate by releasing neurotransmitters that are stored in intracellular vesicular compartments. PC12 cells are frequently used as a model secretory cell line that is described to have two subpools of vesicles: small clear vesicles and dense core vesicles. We measured transmitter molecules released from vesicles in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells using carbon-fiber amperometry, and relative diameters of individual vesicles using electron microscopy. Both amperometry and electron micrograph data were analyzed by statistical and machine learning methods for Gaussian mixture models. An electron microscopy size correction algorithm was used to predict and correct for observation bias of vesicle size due to tangential slices through some vesicles. Expectation maximization algorithms were used to perform maximum likelihood estimation for the Gaussian parameters of different populations of vesicles, and were shown to be better than histogram and cumulative distribution function methods for analyzing mixed populations. The Bayesian information criterion was used to determine the most likely number of vesicle subpools observed in the amperometric and electron microscopy data. From this analysis, we show that there are three major subpools, not two, of vesicles stored and released from PC12 cells. The three subpools of vesicles include small clear vesicles and two subpools of dense core vesicles, a small and a large dense core vesicle subpool. Using PC12 cells stably transfected with short-hairpin RNA targeted to synaptotagmin I, an exocytotic Ca2+ sensor, we show that the presence and release of the small dense core vesicle subpool is dependent on synaptotagmin I. Furthermore, synaptotagmin I also plays a role in the formation and/or maintenance of the small dense core vesicle subpool in PC12 cells. PMID:25517150

  6. Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons in the Hippocampus Exhibit Molecularly Distinct Large Dense Core Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Franco, José J.; Munoz-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Luján, Rafael; Jurado, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal interneurons comprise a diverse family of inhibitory neurons that are critical for detailed information processing. Along with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), interneurons secrete a myriad of neuroactive substances via secretory vesicles but the molecular composition and regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we have carried out an immunohistofluorescence analysis to describe the molecular content of vesicles in distinct populations of hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that phogrin, an integral protein of secretory vesicles in neuroendocrine cells, is highly enriched in parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Consistently, immunoelectron microscopy revealed phogrin staining in axon terminals of symmetrical synapses establishing inhibitory contacts with cell bodies of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, phogrin is highly expressed in CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) interneurons which are both positive for PV and neuropeptide Y. Surprisingly, chromogranin B a canonical large dense core vesicle marker, is excluded from inhibitory cells in the hippocampus but highly expressed in excitatory CA3 pyramidal neurons and DG granule cells. Our results provide the first evidence of phogrin expression in hippocampal interneurons and suggest the existence of molecularly distinct populations of secretory vesicles in different types of inhibitory neurons.

  7. REST/NRSF governs the expression of dense-core vesicle gliosecretion in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Prada, Ilaria; Marchaland, Julie; Podini, Paola; Magrassi, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Rosalba; Bezzi, Paola; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2011-05-01

    Astrocytes are the brain nonnerve cells that are competent for gliosecretion, i.e., for expression and regulated exocytosis of clear and dense-core vesicles (DCVs). We investigated whether expression of astrocyte DCVs is governed by RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST)/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), the transcription repressor that orchestrates nerve cell differentiation. Rat astrocyte cultures exhibited high levels of REST and expressed neither DCVs nor their markers (granins, peptides, and membrane proteins). Transfection of a dominant-negative construct of REST induced the appearance of DCVs filled with secretogranin 2 and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and distinct from other organelles. Total internal reflection fluorescence analysis revealed NPY-monomeric red fluorescent protein-labeled DCVs to undergo Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis, which was largely prevented by botulinum toxin B. In the I-II layers of the human temporal brain cortex, all neurons and microglia exhibited the expected inappreciable and high levels of REST, respectively. In contrast, astrocyte REST was variable, going from inappreciable to high, and accompanied by a variable expression of DCVs. In conclusion, astrocyte DCV expression and gliosecretion are governed by REST. The variable in situ REST levels may contribute to the well-known structural/functional heterogeneity of astrocytes. PMID:21536750

  8. Preferential localization of a vesicular monoamine transporter to dense core vesicles in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Neurons and endocrine cells have two types of secretory vesicle that undergo regulated exocytosis. Large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) store neural peptides whereas small clear synaptic vesicles store classical neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, and glutamate. However, monoamines differ from other classical transmitters and have been reported to appear in both LDCVs and smaller vesicles. To localize the transporter that packages monoamines into secretory vesicles, we have raised antibodies to a COOH- terminal sequence from the vesicular amine transporter expressed in the adrenal gland (VMAT1). Like synaptic vesicle proteins, the transporter occurs in endosomes of transfected CHO cells, accounting for the observed vesicular transport activity. In rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, the transporter occurs principally in LDCVs by both immunofluorescence and density gradient centrifugation. Synaptic-like microvesicles in PC12 cells contain relatively little VMAT1. The results appear to account for the storage of monoamines by LDCVs in the adrenal medulla and indicate that VMAT1 provides a novel membrane protein marker unique to LDCVs. PMID:7962100

  9. Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons in the Hippocampus Exhibit Molecularly Distinct Large Dense Core Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Franco, José J.; Munoz-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Luján, Rafael; Jurado, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal interneurons comprise a diverse family of inhibitory neurons that are critical for detailed information processing. Along with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), interneurons secrete a myriad of neuroactive substances via secretory vesicles but the molecular composition and regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we have carried out an immunohistofluorescence analysis to describe the molecular content of vesicles in distinct populations of hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that phogrin, an integral protein of secretory vesicles in neuroendocrine cells, is highly enriched in parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Consistently, immunoelectron microscopy revealed phogrin staining in axon terminals of symmetrical synapses establishing inhibitory contacts with cell bodies of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, phogrin is highly expressed in CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) interneurons which are both positive for PV and neuropeptide Y. Surprisingly, chromogranin B a canonical large dense core vesicle marker, is excluded from inhibitory cells in the hippocampus but highly expressed in excitatory CA3 pyramidal neurons and DG granule cells. Our results provide the first evidence of phogrin expression in hippocampal interneurons and suggest the existence of molecularly distinct populations of secretory vesicles in different types of inhibitory neurons. PMID:27630542

  10. Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons in the Hippocampus Exhibit Molecularly Distinct Large Dense Core Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Franco, José J; Munoz-Cuevas, Francisco J; Luján, Rafael; Jurado, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal interneurons comprise a diverse family of inhibitory neurons that are critical for detailed information processing. Along with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), interneurons secrete a myriad of neuroactive substances via secretory vesicles but the molecular composition and regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we have carried out an immunohistofluorescence analysis to describe the molecular content of vesicles in distinct populations of hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that phogrin, an integral protein of secretory vesicles in neuroendocrine cells, is highly enriched in parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Consistently, immunoelectron microscopy revealed phogrin staining in axon terminals of symmetrical synapses establishing inhibitory contacts with cell bodies of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, phogrin is highly expressed in CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) interneurons which are both positive for PV and neuropeptide Y. Surprisingly, chromogranin B a canonical large dense core vesicle marker, is excluded from inhibitory cells in the hippocampus but highly expressed in excitatory CA3 pyramidal neurons and DG granule cells. Our results provide the first evidence of phogrin expression in hippocampal interneurons and suggest the existence of molecularly distinct populations of secretory vesicles in different types of inhibitory neurons. PMID:27630542

  11. Stochastic Subcellular Organization of Dense-Core Vesicles Revealed by Point Pattern Analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Benjamin J; Stanisavljevic, Bogdan; Silverman, Michael A; Scalettar, Bethe A

    2016-08-23

    Dense-core vesicles (DCVs) are regulated secretory organelles found in many types of neurons. In neurons of the hippocampus, their cargo includes proteins that mediate several pivotal processes, including differentiation and synaptic plasticity. Motivated by interest in DCV distribution and its impact on cargo action, we have used fluorescence microscopy and statistical analysis to develop a quantitative model of the subcellular organization of DCVs in hippocampal neurons that are spontaneously active (their most prevalent state). We also have tested the functionally motivated hypothesis that these organelles are synaptically enriched. Variance-to-mean ratio, frequency distribution, and Moran's autocorrelation analyses reveal that DCV distribution along shafts, and within synapses, follows Poisson statistics, establishing that stochastically dictated organization sustains cargo function. Occupancy in boutons exceeds that at nearby extrasynaptic axonal sites by approximately threefold, revealing significant local presynaptic enrichment. Widespread stochastic organization is consistent with the emerging functional importance of synaptically and extrasynaptically localized DCVs. Presynaptic enrichment is consistent with the established importance of protecting presynaptic sites from depletion of DCV cargo. These results enhance understanding of the link between DCV organization and mechanisms of cargo action, and they reinforce the emerging theme that randomness is a prevalent aspect of synaptic organization and composition. PMID:27558728

  12. Identification of a Munc13-sensitive step in chromaffin cell large dense-core vesicle exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Man, Kwun Nok M; Imig, Cordelia; Walter, Alexander M; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Stevens, David R; Rettig, Jens; Sørensen, Jakob B; Cooper, Benjamin H; Brose, Nils; Wojcik, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unknown whether the molecular steps of large dense-core vesicle (LDCV) docking and priming are identical to the corresponding reactions in synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis. Munc13s are essential for SV docking and priming, and we systematically analyzed their role in LDCV exocytosis using chromaffin cells lacking individual isoforms. We show that particularly Munc13-2 plays a fundamental role in LDCV exocytosis, but in contrast to synapses lacking Munc13s, the corresponding chromaffin cells do not exhibit a vesicle docking defect. We further demonstrate that ubMunc13-2 and Munc13-1 confer Ca2+-dependent LDCV priming with similar affinities, but distinct kinetics. Using a mathematical model, we identify an early LDCV priming step that is strongly dependent upon Munc13s. Our data demonstrate that the molecular steps of SV and LDCV priming are very similar while SV and LDCV docking mechanisms are distinct. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10635.001 PMID:26575293

  13. Regulation of Dense-Core Granule Replenishment by Autocrine BMP Signalling in Drosophila Secondary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Redhai, Siamak; Hellberg, Josephine E. E. U.; Wainwright, Mark; Perera, Sumeth W.; Castellanos, Felix; Kroeger, Benjamin; Gandy, Carina; Leiblich, Aaron; Corrigan, Laura; Hilton, Thomas; Patel, Benjamin; Fan, Shih-Jung; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Regulated secretion by glands and neurons involves release of signalling molecules and enzymes selectively concentrated in dense-core granules (DCGs). Although we understand how many secretagogues stimulate DCG release, how DCG biogenesis is then accelerated to replenish the DCG pool remains poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate that each prostate-like secondary cell (SC) in the paired adult Drosophila melanogaster male accessory glands contains approximately ten large DCGs, which are loaded with the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp). These DCGs can be marked in living tissue by a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored form of GFP. In virgin males, BMP signalling is sporadically activated by constitutive DCG secretion. Upon mating, approximately four DCGs are typically released immediately, increasing BMP signalling, primarily via an autocrine mechanism. Using inducible knockdown specifically in adult SCs, we show that secretion requires the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein, SNAP24. Furthermore, mating-dependent BMP signalling not only promotes cell growth, but is also necessary to accelerate biogenesis of new DCGs, restoring DCG number within 24 h. Our analysis therefore reveals an autocrine BMP-mediated feedback mechanism for matching DCG release to replenishment as secretion rates fluctuate, and might explain why in other disease-relevant systems, like pancreatic β-cells, BMP signalling is also implicated in the control of secretion. PMID:27727275

  14. Deciphering dead-end docking of large dense core vesicles in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sandra; Dembla, Ekta; Halimani, Mahantappa; Matti, Ulf; Rettig, Jens; Becherer, Ute

    2013-10-23

    Large dense core vesicle (LDCV) exocytosis in chromaffin cells follows a well characterized process consisting of docking, priming, and fusion. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) studies suggest that some LDCVs, although being able to dock, are resistant to calcium-triggered release. This phenomenon termed dead-end docking has not been investigated until now. We characterized dead-end vesicles using a combination of membrane capacitance measurement and visualization of LDCVs with TIRFM. Stimulation of bovine chromaffin cells for 5 min with 6 μm free intracellular Ca2+ induced strong secretion and a large reduction of the LDCV density at the plasma membrane. Approximately 15% of the LDCVs were visible at the plasma membrane throughout experiments, indicating they were permanently docked dead-end vesicles. Overexpression of Munc18-2 or SNAP-25 reduced the fraction of dead-end vesicles. Conversely, expressing open-syntaxin increased the fraction of dead-end vesicles. These results indicate the existence of the unproductive target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor acceptor complex composed of 2:1 syntaxin-SNAP-25 in vivo. More importantly, they define a novel function for this acceptor complex in mediating dead-end docking.

  15. Impaired maturation of large dense-core vesicles in muted-deficient adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenhua; Wei, Lisi; Feng, Yaqin; Chen, Xiaowei; Du, Wen; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Zhuan; Chen, Liangyi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The large dense-core vesicle (LDCV), a type of lysosome-related organelle, is involved in the secretion of hormones and neuropeptides in specialized secretory cells. The granin family is a driving force in LDCV biogenesis, but the machinery for granin sorting to this biogenesis pathway is largely unknown. The mu mutant mouse, which carries a spontaneous null mutation on the Muted gene (also known as Bloc1s5), which encodes a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), is a mouse model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Here, we found that LDCVs were enlarged in mu adrenal chromaffin cells. Chromogranin A (CgA, also known as CHGA) was increased in mu adrenals and muted-knockdown cells. The increased CgA in mu mice was likely due a failure to export this molecule out of immature LDCVs, which impairs LDCV maturation and docking. In mu chromaffin cells, the size of readily releasable pool and the vesicle release frequency were reduced. Our studies suggest that the muted protein is involved in the selective export of CgA during the biogenesis of LDCVs.

  16. REST/NRSF governs the expression of dense-core vesicle gliosecretion in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Prada, Ilaria; Marchaland, Julie; Podini, Paola; Magrassi, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Rosalba

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes are the brain nonnerve cells that are competent for gliosecretion, i.e., for expression and regulated exocytosis of clear and dense-core vesicles (DCVs). We investigated whether expression of astrocyte DCVs is governed by RE-1–silencing transcription factor (REST)/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), the transcription repressor that orchestrates nerve cell differentiation. Rat astrocyte cultures exhibited high levels of REST and expressed neither DCVs nor their markers (granins, peptides, and membrane proteins). Transfection of a dominant-negative construct of REST induced the appearance of DCVs filled with secretogranin 2 and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and distinct from other organelles. Total internal reflection fluorescence analysis revealed NPY–monomeric red fluorescent protein–labeled DCVs to undergo Ca2+-dependent exocytosis, which was largely prevented by botulinum toxin B. In the I–II layers of the human temporal brain cortex, all neurons and microglia exhibited the expected inappreciable and high levels of REST, respectively. In contrast, astrocyte REST was variable, going from inappreciable to high, and accompanied by a variable expression of DCVs. In conclusion, astrocyte DCV expression and gliosecretion are governed by REST. The variable in situ REST levels may contribute to the well-known structural/functional heterogeneity of astrocytes. PMID:21536750

  17. Impaired maturation of large dense-core vesicles in muted-deficient adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhenhua; Wei, Lisi; Feng, Yaqin; Chen, Xiaowei; Du, Wen; Ma, Jing; Zhou, Zhuan; Chen, Liangyi; Li, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The large dense-core vesicle (LDCV), a type of lysosome-related organelle, is involved in the secretion of hormones and neuropeptides in specialized secretory cells. The granin family is a driving force in LDCV biogenesis, but the machinery for granin sorting to this biogenesis pathway is largely unknown. The mu mutant mouse, which carries a spontaneous null mutation on the Muted gene (also known as Bloc1s5), which encodes a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), is a mouse model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. Here, we found that LDCVs were enlarged in mu adrenal chromaffin cells. Chromogranin A (CgA, also known as CHGA) was increased in mu adrenals and muted-knockdown cells. The increased CgA in mu mice was likely due a failure to export this molecule out of immature LDCVs, which impairs LDCV maturation and docking. In mu chromaffin cells, the size of readily releasable pool and the vesicle release frequency were reduced. Our studies suggest that the muted protein is involved in the selective export of CgA during the biogenesis of LDCVs. PMID:25673877

  18. Negative impact of oxygen molecular activation on Cr(VI) removal with core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yi; Wu, Hao; Ai, Zhihui

    2015-11-15

    In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of oxygen molecule can inhibit Cr(VI) removal with core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires at neutral pH of 6.1. 100% of Cr(VI) removal was achieved by the Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires within 60 min in the anoxic condition, in contrast, only 81.2% of Cr(VI) was sequestrated in the oxic condition. Removal kinetics analysis indicated that the presence of oxygen could inhibit the Cr(VI) removal efficiency by near 3 times. XRD, SEM, and XPS analysis revealed that either the anoxic or oxic Cr(VI) removal was involved with adsorption, reduction, co-precipitation, and re-adsorption processes. More Cr(VI) was bound in a reduced state of Cr(III) in the anoxic process, while a thicker Cr(III)/Fe(III)/Cr(VI) oxyhydroxides shell, leading to inhibiting the electron transfer, was found under the oxic process. The negative impact of oxygen molecule was attributed to the oxygen molecular activation which competed with Cr(VI) adsorbed for the consumption of donor electrons from Fe(0) core and ferrous ions bound on the iron oxides surface under the oxic condition. This study sheds light on the understanding of the fate and transport of Cr(VI) in oxic and anoxic environment, as well provides helpful guide for optimizing Cr(VI) removal conditions in real applications.

  19. Tracing the cold regions of a dense core with para-H2D+ against a bright continuum source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastel, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Using Herschel/HIFI and IRAM-30m/Pdb observations, we detected a dense and cold core on the line of sight of a distant compact HII region (W51). While the fortuitous coincidence of the dense core along the line of sight with the continuum-bright W51e2 compact HII region has contributed to its non detection in the submillimeter continuum images, this same attribute makes it an appropriate source for absorption studies of star-forming gas. This core has been traced with deuterated species for the first time in absorption in the case of DCO+. We now propose to trace this core with the para-H2D+ ground-state transition, since H2D+ is a reliable tracer of the cold and dense phase of star-forming regions. For example, both species will be used to constrain the H2 fraction in its para form and consequently the age of the core. The source proposed here is unique because of its distance and its chance coincidence to lie against a bright continuum source. A detection is crucial to constrain the nature of the clump, in a chemical point of view, at a galactocentric distance (~ 5 kpc) different than the usual clouds (such as Orion and Taurus) that have been observed so far for detection of tracers of star-formation activity with H2D+.

  20. THE AGE, STELLAR CONTENT, AND STAR FORMATION TIMESCALE OF THE B59 DENSE CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, K. R.; Lada, C. J.; Muench, A. A.; Forbrich, J.; Ascenso, J.; Roman-Zuniga, C.

    2010-10-20

    We have investigated the stellar content of Barnard 59 (B59), the most active star-forming core in the Pipe Nebula. Using the SpeX spectrograph on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, we obtained moderate resolution, near-infrared (NIR) spectra for 20 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in B59 and a representative sample of NIR and mid-IR bright sources distributed throughout the Pipe. Measuring luminosity and temperature sensitive features in these spectra, we identified likely background giant stars and measured each star's spectral type, extinction, and NIR continuum excess. To measure B59's age, we place its candidate YSOs in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and compare their location to YSOs in several well-studied star-forming regions, as well as predictions of pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models. We find that B59 is composed of late-type (K4-M6) low-mass (0.9-0.1 M{sub sun}) YSOs whose median stellar age is comparable to, if not slightly older than, that of YSOs within the {rho} Oph, Taurus, and Chameleon star-forming regions. Deriving absolute age estimates from PMS models computed by D'Antona et al., and accounting only for statistical uncertainties, we measure B59's median stellar age to be 2.6 {+-} 0.8 Myr. Including potential systematic effects increases the error budget for B59's median (DM98) stellar age to 2.6{sup +4.1}{sub -2.6} Myr. We also find that the relative age orderings implied by PMS evolutionary tracks depend on the range of stellar masses sampled, as model isochrones possess significantly different mass dependences. The maximum likelihood median stellar age we measure for B59, and the region's observed gas properties, suggests that the B59 dense core has been stable against global collapse for roughly six dynamical timescales and is actively forming stars with a star formation efficiency per dynamical time of {approx}6%. While the {approx}150% uncertainties associated with our age measurement propagate directly into these

  1. THE BLAST SURVEY OF THE VELA MOLECULAR CLOUD: DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DENSE CORES IN VELA-D

    SciTech Connect

    Olmi, Luca; Angles-Alcazar, Daniel; De Luca, Massimo; Elia, Davide; Giannini, Teresa; Lorenzetti, Dario; Massi, Fabrizio; Martin, Peter G.; Strafella, Francesco E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i

    2010-11-10

    The Vela-D region, according to the nomenclature given by Murphy and May, of the star-forming complex known as the Vela molecular ridge (VMR), has recently been analyzed in detail by Olmi, who studied the physical properties of 141 pre- and proto-stellar cold dust cores, detected by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during a much larger (55 deg{sup 2}) Galactic plane survey encompassing the whole VMR. This survey's primary goal was to identify the coldest dense dust cores possibly associated with the earliest phases of star formation. In this work, the dynamical state of the Vela-D cores is analyzed. Comparison to dynamical masses of a sub-sample of the Vela-D cores estimated from the {sup 13}CO survey of Elia is complicated by the fact that the {sup 13}CO linewidths are likely to trace the lower density intercore material, in addition to the dense gas associated with the compact cores observed by BLAST. In fact, the total internal pressure of these cores, if estimated using the {sup 13}CO linewidths, appears to be higher than the cloud ambient pressure. If this were the case, then self-gravity and surface pressure would be insufficient to bind these cores and an additional source of external confinement (e.g., magnetic field pressure) would be required. However, if one attempts to scale down the {sup 13}CO linewidths, according to the observations of high-density tracers in a small sample of sources, then most proto-stellar cores would be effectively gravitationally bound.

  2. Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-23

    In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as it transitions into a superhot, highly compressed concoction known as “warm dense matter.”

  3. A census of dense cores in the Aquila cloud complex: SPIRE/PACS observations from the Herschel Gould Belt survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; André, Ph.; Men'shchikov, A.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Schneider, N.; Roy, A.; Didelon, P.; Maury, A.; Shimajiri, Y.; Di Francesco, J.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Elia, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Hill, T.; Kirk, J.; Ladjelate, B.; Marsh, K.; Martin, P. G.; Motte, F.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Pezzuto, S.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present and discuss the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) observations in an 11 deg2 area of the Aquila molecular cloud complex at d 260 pc, imaged with the SPIRE and PACS photometric cameras in parallel mode from 70 μm to 500 μm. Using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources, we identify a complete sample of starless dense cores and embedded (Class 0-I) protostars in this region, and analyze their global properties and spatial distributions. We find a total of 651 starless cores, 60% ± 10% of which are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, and they will likely form stars inthe future. We also detect 58 protostellar cores. The core mass function (CMF) derived for the large population of prestellar cores is very similar in shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), confirming earlier findings on a much stronger statistical basis and supporting the view that there is a close physical link between the stellar IMF and the prestellar CMF. The global shift in mass scale observed between the CMF and the IMF is consistent with a typical star formation efficiency of 40% at the level of an individual core. By comparing the numbers of starless cores in various density bins to the number of young stellar objects (YSOs), we estimate that the lifetime of prestellar cores is 1 Myr, which is typically 4 times longer than the core free-fall time, and that it decreases with average core density. We find a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of prestellar cores and the densest filaments observed in the Aquila complex. About 90% of the Herschel-identified prestellar cores are located above a background column density corresponding to AV 7, and 75% of them lie within filamentary structures with supercritical masses per unit length ≳16 M⊙/pc. These findings support a picture wherein the cores making up the peak of the CMF (and probably responsible for the base of the IMF) result primarily from the

  4. SKS anisotropy on a dense broadband array over the Ruby Mountains Metamorphic Core Complex, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golos, E. M.; Litherland, M.; Klemperer, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    The Ruby Mountains metamorphic core complex (RMCC), located in the Basin-and-Range Province in northeastern Nevada, is thought to have formed by some combination of low-angle detachment faulting, lateral crustal flow, and vertical diapirism. We deployed a 50-station densely-spaced passive seismic array from June 2010 through June 2012, as part of the Earthscope Flexible Array campaign. We were particularly interested in determining whether two layers of anisotropy are distinguishable, as this could imply the existence of discrete crustal and mantle strain fabrics, and potentially provide insight into local flow involved in the formation of the RMCC. We analyzed SKS splitting using the SplitLab program (Wüstefeld et al., 2008, Comp. Geosci. 34, 515) to calculate fast-axis direction, Φ, and time delay, δt, of events with magnitude ≥ 5.50 at distances of 90 to 130 degrees on 35 of our broadband seismic stations. Approximately ten such events were used per station. The mean delay time found was 0.8 s with a standard deviation of 0.28 s, and the mean fast-axis azimuthal direction was -70.1 degrees with a standard deviation of 19 degrees. We did not find evidence of two-layer anisotropy beneath the Ruby Mountains: mean splitting times within and beyond the RMCC are well within one standard deviation of each other, and average fast directions show no obvious trend within the RMCC. Either there is no significant additional crustal strain associated with the RMCC formation; or, the strain direction is identical to that of regional mantle flow; or, most likely, our data quality is insufficient to resolve crustal anisotropy superimposed on mantle anisotropy with a potentially similar fast direction. However, a systematic counterclockwise rotation of fast-axis direction across our array—the four easternmost stations (D03, D02, B17, and C18) have a mean Φ = -40.5 degrees, whereas the four westernmost stations (D05, B01, B02, and C02) have a mean Φ = -79.5 degrees

  5. The Blast Survey of the Vela Molecular Cloud: Physical Properties of the Dense Cores in Vela-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, Luca; Ade, Peter A. R.; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; De Luca, Massimo; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Elia, Davide; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Giannini, Teresa; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C.; Hughes, David H.; Klein, Jeff; Lorenzetti, Dario; Marengo, Massimo; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G.; Massi, Fabrizio; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Salama, Alberto; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Smith, Howard A.; Strafella, Francesco; Thomas, Nicholas; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S.; Viero, Marco P.; Wiebe, Donald V.

    2009-12-01

    The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) carried out a 250, 350, and 500 μm survey of the galactic plane encompassing the Vela Molecular Ridge, with the primary goal of identifying the coldest dense cores possibly associated with the earliest stages of star formation. Here, we present the results from observations of the Vela-D region, covering about 4 deg2, in which we find 141 BLAST cores. We exploit existing data taken with the Spitzer MIPS, IRAC, and SEST-SIMBA instruments to constrain their (single-temperature) spectral energy distributions, assuming a dust emissivity index β = 2.0. This combination of data allows us to determine the temperature, luminosity, and mass of each BLAST core, and also enables us to separate starless from protostellar sources. We also analyze the effects that the uncertainties on the derived physical parameters of the individual sources have on the overall physical properties of starless and protostellar cores, and we find that there appear to be a smooth transition from the pre- to the protostellar phase. In particular, for protostellar cores we find a correlation between the MIPS24 flux, associated with the central protostar, and the temperature of the dust envelope. We also find that the core mass function of the Vela-D cores has a slope consistent with other similar (sub)millimeter surveys.

  6. THE BLAST SURVEY OF THE VELA MOLECULAR CLOUD: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DENSE CORES IN VELA-D

    SciTech Connect

    Olmi, Luca; Angles-Alcazar, Daniel; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; De Luca, Massimo; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Klein, Jeff; Elia, Davide; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Marengo, Massimo; Giannini, Teresa; Lorenzetti, Dario; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H. E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) carried out a 250, 350, and 500 mum survey of the galactic plane encompassing the Vela Molecular Ridge, with the primary goal of identifying the coldest dense cores possibly associated with the earliest stages of star formation. Here, we present the results from observations of the Vela-D region, covering about 4 deg{sup 2}, in which we find 141 BLAST cores. We exploit existing data taken with the Spitzer MIPS, IRAC, and SEST-SIMBA instruments to constrain their (single-temperature) spectral energy distributions, assuming a dust emissivity index beta = 2.0. This combination of data allows us to determine the temperature, luminosity, and mass of each BLAST core, and also enables us to separate starless from protostellar sources. We also analyze the effects that the uncertainties on the derived physical parameters of the individual sources have on the overall physical properties of starless and protostellar cores, and we find that there appear to be a smooth transition from the pre- to the protostellar phase. In particular, for protostellar cores we find a correlation between the MIPS24 flux, associated with the central protostar, and the temperature of the dust envelope. We also find that the core mass function of the Vela-D cores has a slope consistent with other similar (sub)millimeter surveys.

  7. Remarkable efficiency of phosphate removal: Ferrate(VI)-induced in situ sorption on core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kralchevska, Radina P; Prucek, Robert; Kolařík, Jan; Tuček, Jiří; Machala, Libor; Filip, Jan; Sharma, Virender K; Zbořil, Radek

    2016-10-15

    Despite the importance of phosphorus as a nutrient for humans and its role in ecological sustainability, its high abundance, resulting in large part from human activities, causes eutrophication that negatively affects the environment and public health. Here, we present the use of ferrate(VI) as an alternative agent for removing phosphorus from aqueous media. We address the mechanism of phosphate removal as a function of the Fe/P mass ratio and the pH value of the solution. The isoelectric point of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, formed as dominant Fe(VI) decomposition products, was identified to play a crucial role in predicting their efficiency in removing of phosphates. Importantly, it was found that the removal efficiency dramatically changes if Fe(VI) is added before (ex-situ conditions) or after (in-situ conditions) the introduction of phosphates into water. Removal under in-situ conditions showed remarkable sorption capacity of 143.4 mg P per gram of ferric precipitates due to better accessibility of active surface sites on in-situ formed ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides. At pH = 6.0-7.0, complete removal of phosphates was observed at a relatively low Fe/P mass ratio (5:1). The results show that phosphates are removed from water solely by sorption on the surface of γ-Fe2O3/γ-FeOOH core/shell nanoparticles. The advantages of Fe(VI) utilization include its environmentally friendly nature, the possibility of easy separation of the final product from water by a magnetic field or by natural settling, and the capacity for successful phosphate elimination at pH values near the neutral range and at low Fe/P mass ratios. PMID:27438903

  8. Experimental evidence of exciton-plasmon coupling in densely packed dye doped core-shell nanoparticles obtained via microfluidic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luca, A.; Iazzolino, A.; Salmon, J.-B.; Leng, J.; Ravaine, S.; Grigorenko, A. N.; Strangi, G.

    2014-09-01

    The interplay between plasmons and excitons in bulk metamaterials are investigated by performing spectroscopic studies, including variable angle pump-probe ellipsometry. Gain functionalized gold nanoparticles have been densely packed through a microfluidic chip, representing a scalable process towards bulk metamaterials based on self-assembly approach. Chromophores placed at the hearth of plasmonic subunits ensure exciton-plasmon coupling to convey excitation energy to the quasi-static electric field of the plasmon states. The overall complex polarizability of the system, probed by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry, shows a significant modification under optical excitation, as demonstrated by the behavior of the ellipsometric angles Ψ and Δ as a function of suitable excitation fields. The plasmon resonances observed in densely packed gain functionalized core-shell gold nanoparticles represent a promising step to enable a wide range of electromagnetic properties and fascinating applications of plasmonic bulk systems for advanced optical materials.

  9. G305.136+0.068: A Massive and Dense Cold Core in an Early Stage of Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Contreras, Yanett; Pineda, Jaime E.; Servajean, Elise; Guzmán, Andrés E.

    2015-01-01

    We report molecular line observations, made with ASTE and SEST, and dust continuum observations at 0.87 mm, made with APEX, toward the cold dust core G305.136+0.068. The molecular observations show that the core is isolated and roughly circularly symmetric and imply that it has a mass of 1.1 × 103 M ⊙. A simultaneous model fitting of the spectra observed in four transitions of CS, using a non-LTE radiative transfer code, indicates that the core is centrally condensed, with the density decreasing with radius as r -1.8, and that the turbulent velocity increases toward the center. The dust observations also indicate that the core is highly centrally condensed and that the average column density is 1.1 g cm-2, a value slightly above the theoretical threshold required for the formation of high-mass stars. A fit to the spectral energy distribution of the emission from the core indicates a dust temperature of 17 ± 2 K, confirming that the core is cold. Spitzer images show that the core is seen in silhouette from 3.6 to 24.0 μm and that it is surrounded by an envelope of emission, presumably tracing an externally excited photo-dissociated region. We found two embedded sources within a region of 20'' centered at the peak of the core, one of which is young, has a luminosity of 66 L ⊙, and is accreting mass with a high accretion rate of ~1 × 10-4 M ⊙ yr-1. We suggest that this object corresponds to the seed of a high-mass protostar still in the process of formation. The present observations support the hypothesis that G305.136+0.068 is a massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution, in which the formation of a high-mass star has just started.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HCO+ and N2D+ dense cores in Perseus (Campbell+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Friesen, R. K.; Martin, P. G.; Caselli, P.; Kauffmann, J.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-05-01

    Table 1 summarizes the 91 dense cores observed, with their Right Ascension and Declination pointing positions. Pointed observations of the Perseus cores were performed using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Targets were observed in the HCO+ (3-2) and N2D+ (3-2) rotational transitions in position-switching mode, with assumed rest frequencies of 267.557619GHz and 231.321665GHz, respectively. The spectral resolution was 30.5kHz, corresponding to a velocity resolution of 0.03km/s for HCO+ (3-2) and 0.04km/s for N2D+ (3-2). Observations were conducted between 2007 September and 2009 September. (3 data files).

  11. Non-linear dense core formation in the dark cloud L1517

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heigl, S.; Burkert, A.; Hacar, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present a solution for the observed core fragmentation of filaments in the Taurus L1517 dark cloud which previously could not be explained (Hacar & Tafalla 2011). Core fragmentation is a vital step for the formation of stars. Observations suggest a connection to the filamentary structure of the cloud gas, but it remains unclear which process is responsible. We show that the gravitational instability process of an infinite, isothermal cylinder can account for the exhibited fragmentation under the assumption that the perturbation grows on the dominant wavelength. We use numerical simulations with the code RAMSES, estimate observed column densities and line-of-sight velocities, and compare them to the observations. A critical factor for the observed fragmentation is that cores grow by redistributing mass within the filament and thus the density between the cores decreases over the fragmentation process. This often leads to wrong dominant wavelength estimates, as it is strongly dependent on the initial central density. We argue that non-linear effects also play an important role on the evolution of the fragmentation. Once the density perturbation grows above the critical line-mass, non-linearity leads to an enhancement of the central core density in comparison to the analytical prediction. Choosing the correct initial conditions with perturbation strengths of around 20%, leads to inclination corrected line-of-sight velocities and central core densities within the observational measurement error in a realistic evolution time.

  12. TWO MASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE L 1641 MOLECULAR CLOUDS: THE HERSCHEL CONNECTION OF DENSE CORES AND FILAMENTS IN ORION A

    SciTech Connect

    Polychroni, D.; Schisano, E.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Turrini, D.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pestalozzi, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Roy, A.; André, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bontemps, S. [Université de Bordeaux, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Bordeaux, CNRS and others

    2013-11-10

    We present Herschel survey maps of the L 1641 molecular clouds in Orion A. We extracted both the filaments and dense cores in the region. We identified which of the dense sources are proto- or pre-stellar, and studied their association with the identified filaments. We find that although most (71%) of the pre-stellar sources are located on filaments there, is still a significant fraction of sources not associated with such structures. We find that these two populations (on and off the identified filaments) have distinctly different mass distributions. The mass distribution of the sources on the filaments is found to peak at 4 M {sub ☉} and drives the shape of the core mass function (CMF) at higher masses, which we fit with a power law of the form dN/dlogM∝M {sup –1.4±0.4}. The mass distribution of the sources off the filaments, on the other hand, peaks at 0.8 M {sub ☉} and leads to a flattening of the CMF at masses lower than ∼4 M {sub ☉}. We postulate that this difference between the mass distributions is due to the higher proportion of gas that is available in the filaments, rather than in the diffuse cloud.

  13. The Conserved VPS-50 Protein Functions in Dense-Core Vesicle Maturation and Acidification and Controls Animal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Paquin, Nicolas; Murata, Yasunobu; Froehlich, Allan; Omura, Daniel T; Ailion, Michael; Pender, Corinne L; Constantine-Paton, Martha; Horvitz, H Robert

    2016-04-01

    The modification of behavior in response to experience is crucial for animals to adapt to environmental changes. Although factors such as neuropeptides and hormones are known to function in the switch between alternative behavioral states, the mechanisms by which these factors transduce, store, retrieve, and integrate environmental signals to regulate behavior are poorly understood. The rate of locomotion of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans depends on both current and past food availability. Specifically, C. elegans slows its locomotion when it encounters food, and animals in a food-deprived state slow even more than animals in a well-fed state. The slowing responses of well-fed and food-deprived animals in the presence of food represent distinct behavioral states, as they are controlled by different sets of genes, neurotransmitters, and neurons. Here we describe an evolutionarily conserved C. elegans protein, VPS-50, that is required for animals to assume the well-fed behavioral state. Both VPS-50 and its murine homolog mVPS50 are expressed in neurons, are associated with synaptic and dense-core vesicles, and control vesicle acidification and hence synaptic function, likely through regulation of the assembly of the V-ATPase complex. We propose that dense-core vesicle acidification controlled by the evolutionarily conserved protein VPS-50/mVPS50 affects behavioral state by modulating neuropeptide levels and presynaptic neuronal function in both C. elegans and mammals. PMID:26948874

  14. SOLUBILITY OF IRON IN METALLIC HYDROGEN AND STABILITY OF DENSE CORES IN GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Sean M.; Wilson, Hugh F.; Militzer, Burkhard

    2013-08-20

    The formation of the giant planets in our solar system, and likely a majority of giant exoplanets, is most commonly explained by the accretion of nebular hydrogen and helium onto a large core of terrestrial-like composition. The fate of this core has important consequences for the evolution of the interior structure of the planet. It has recently been shown that H{sub 2}O, MgO, and SiO{sub 2} dissolve in liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperature and pressure. In this study, we perform ab initio calculations to study the solubility of an innermost metallic core. We find dissolution of iron to be strongly favored above 2000 K over the entire pressure range (0.4-4 TPa) considered. We compare with and summarize the results for solubilities on other probable core constituents. The calculations imply that giant planet cores are in thermodynamic disequilibrium with surrounding layers, promoting erosion and redistribution of heavy elements. Differences in solubility behavior between iron and rock may influence evolution of interiors, particularly for Saturn-mass planets. Understanding the distribution of iron and other heavy elements in gas giants may be relevant in understanding mass-radius relationships, as well as deviations in transport properties from pure hydrogen-helium mixtures.

  15. Dense cloud cores revealed by CO in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Monica; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Hunter, Deidre A; Brinks, Elias; Cortés, Juan R; Cigan, Phil

    2015-09-10

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations they are molecular, with H2 the dominant species and carbon monoxide (CO) the best available tracer. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared with that of hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies, CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it is difficult for it to accumulate inside dense clouds. Here we report interferometric observations of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM), which has a metallicity that is 13 per cent of the solar value and 50 per cent lower than the previous CO detection threshold. The clouds are tiny compared to the surrounding atomic and H2 envelopes, but they have typical densities and column densities for CO clouds in the Milky Way. The normal CO density explains why star clusters forming in dwarf irregulars have similar densities to star clusters in giant spiral galaxies. The low cloud masses suggest that these clusters will also be low mass, unless some galaxy-scale compression occurs, such as an impact from a cosmic cloud or other galaxy. If the massive metal-poor globular clusters in the halo of the Milky Way formed in dwarf galaxies, as is commonly believed, then they were probably triggered by such an impact.

  16. Dense cloud cores revealed by CO in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Monica; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Hunter, Deidre A; Brinks, Elias; Cortés, Juan R; Cigan, Phil

    2015-09-10

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations they are molecular, with H2 the dominant species and carbon monoxide (CO) the best available tracer. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared with that of hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies, CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it is difficult for it to accumulate inside dense clouds. Here we report interferometric observations of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM), which has a metallicity that is 13 per cent of the solar value and 50 per cent lower than the previous CO detection threshold. The clouds are tiny compared to the surrounding atomic and H2 envelopes, but they have typical densities and column densities for CO clouds in the Milky Way. The normal CO density explains why star clusters forming in dwarf irregulars have similar densities to star clusters in giant spiral galaxies. The low cloud masses suggest that these clusters will also be low mass, unless some galaxy-scale compression occurs, such as an impact from a cosmic cloud or other galaxy. If the massive metal-poor globular clusters in the halo of the Milky Way formed in dwarf galaxies, as is commonly believed, then they were probably triggered by such an impact. PMID:26354481

  17. Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2005-02-15

    Detection and quantification of the aquo ions of Pu in 1 MHClO4 was carried out using a 1-meter liquid core waveguide (LCW) coupledto a fiber optic UV-Vis spectrometer. Detection limits of 7 x 10-7 M forPu(VI), 1.6 x 10-5 M for Pu(V), 5 x 10-6 M for Pu(IV) and 8 x 10-6 M forPu(III) were achieved. The limits of detection represent increases of 18to 33 times those achievable using a conventional 1-cm path length.Because of the much lower detection limits of the LCW, routineidentification of the oxidation states in dilute Pu solutions can bemade.

  18. Near-Infrared Photoluminescence Enhancement in Ge/CdS and Ge/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Utilizing IV/II-VI Semiconductor Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yijun; Rowland, Clare E; Schaller, Richard D; Vela, Javier

    2014-08-26

    Ge nanocrystals have a large Bohr radius and a small, size-tunable band gap that may engender direct character via strain or doping. Colloidal Ge nanocrystals are particularly interesting in the development of near-infrared materials for applications in bioimaging, telecommunications and energy conversion. Epitaxial growth of a passivating shell is a common strategy employed in the synthesis of highly luminescent II–VI, III–V and IV–VI semiconductor quantum dots. Here, we use relatively unexplored IV/II–VI epitaxy as a way to enhance the photoluminescence and improve the optical stability of colloidal Ge nanocrystals. Selected on the basis of their relatively small lattice mismatch compared with crystalline Ge, we explore the growth of epitaxial CdS and ZnS shells using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, clearly show the controllable growth of as many as 20 epitaxial monolayers of CdS atop Ge cores. In contrast, Ge etching and/or replacement by ZnS result in relatively small Ge/ZnS nanocrystals. The presence of an epitaxial II–VI shell greatly enhances the near-infrared photoluminescence and improves the photoluminescence stability of Ge. Ge/II–VI nanocrystals are reproducibly 1–3 orders of magnitude brighter than the brightest Ge cores. Ge/4.9CdS core/shells show the highest photoluminescence quantum yield and longest radiative recombination lifetime. Thiol ligand exchange easily results in near-infrared active, water-soluble Ge/II–VI nanocrystals. We expect this synthetic IV/II–VI epitaxial approach will lead to further studies into the optoelectronic behavior and practical applications of Si and Ge-based nanomaterials.

  19. G305.136+0.068: A MASSIVE AND DENSE COLD CORE IN AN EARLY STAGE OF EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Contreras, Yanett; Servajean, Elise; Guzmán, Andrés E.; Pineda, Jaime E.

    2015-01-20

    We report molecular line observations, made with ASTE and SEST, and dust continuum observations at 0.87 mm, made with APEX, toward the cold dust core G305.136+0.068. The molecular observations show that the core is isolated and roughly circularly symmetric and imply that it has a mass of 1.1 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. A simultaneous model fitting of the spectra observed in four transitions of CS, using a non-LTE radiative transfer code, indicates that the core is centrally condensed, with the density decreasing with radius as r {sup –1.8}, and that the turbulent velocity increases toward the center. The dust observations also indicate that the core is highly centrally condensed and that the average column density is 1.1 g cm{sup –2}, a value slightly above the theoretical threshold required for the formation of high-mass stars. A fit to the spectral energy distribution of the emission from the core indicates a dust temperature of 17 ± 2 K, confirming that the core is cold. Spitzer images show that the core is seen in silhouette from 3.6 to 24.0 μm and that it is surrounded by an envelope of emission, presumably tracing an externally excited photo-dissociated region. We found two embedded sources within a region of 20'' centered at the peak of the core, one of which is young, has a luminosity of 66 L {sub ☉}, and is accreting mass with a high accretion rate of ∼1 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We suggest that this object corresponds to the seed of a high-mass protostar still in the process of formation. The present observations support the hypothesis that G305.136+0.068 is a massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution, in which the formation of a high-mass star has just started.

  20. Dense cores in galaxies out to z = 2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the five 3D-HST/Candels fields

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Nelson, Erica June; Momcheva, Ivelina; Leja, Joel; Oesch, Pascal; Bezanson, Rachel; Van der Wel, Arjen; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Labbé, Ivo; Muzzin, Adam; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Brammer, Gabriel; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Fumagalli, Mattia; Wuyts, Stijn; Kriek, Mariska; Marchesini, Danilo

    2014-08-10

    The dense interiors of massive galaxies are among the most intriguing environments in the universe. In this paper,we ask when these dense cores were formed and determine how galaxies gradually assembled around them. We select galaxies that have a stellar mass >3 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉} inside r = 1 kpc out to z = 2.5, using the 3D-HST survey and data at low redshift. Remarkably, the number density of galaxies with dense cores appears to have decreased from z = 2.5 to the present. This decrease is probably mostly due to stellar mass loss and the resulting adiabatic expansion, with some contribution from merging. We infer that dense cores were mostly formed at z > 2.5, consistent with their largely quiescent stellar populations. While the cores appear to form early, the galaxies in which they reside show strong evolution: their total masses increase by a factor of 2-3 from z = 2.5 to z = 0 and their effective radii increase by a factor of 5-6. As a result, the contribution of dense cores to the total mass of the galaxies in which they reside decreases from ∼50% at z = 2.5 to ∼15% at z = 0. Because of their early formation, the contribution of dense cores to the total stellar mass budget of the universe is a strong function of redshift. The stars in cores with M{sub 1{sub kpc}} > 3 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉} make up ∼0.1% of the stellar mass density of the universe today but 10%-20% at z ∼ 2, depending on their initial mass function. The formation of these cores required the conversion of ∼10{sup 11} M{sub ☉} of gas into stars within ∼1 kpc, while preventing significant star formation at larger radii.

  1. Dense Cores in Galaxies Out to z = 2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the Five 3D-HST/CANDELS Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Bezanson, Rachel; van der Wel, Arjen; Nelson, Erica June; Momcheva, Ivelina; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Brammer, Gabriel; Conroy, Charlie; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Fumagalli, Mattia; Kriek, Mariska; Labbé, Ivo; Leja, Joel; Marchesini, Danilo; Muzzin, Adam; Oesch, Pascal; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-08-01

    The dense interiors of massive galaxies are among the most intriguing environments in the universe. In this paper,we ask when these dense cores were formed and determine how galaxies gradually assembled around them. We select galaxies that have a stellar mass >3 × 1010 M ⊙ inside r = 1 kpc out to z = 2.5, using the 3D-HST survey and data at low redshift. Remarkably, the number density of galaxies with dense cores appears to have decreased from z = 2.5 to the present. This decrease is probably mostly due to stellar mass loss and the resulting adiabatic expansion, with some contribution from merging. We infer that dense cores were mostly formed at z > 2.5, consistent with their largely quiescent stellar populations. While the cores appear to form early, the galaxies in which they reside show strong evolution: their total masses increase by a factor of 2-3 from z = 2.5 to z = 0 and their effective radii increase by a factor of 5-6. As a result, the contribution of dense cores to the total mass of the galaxies in which they reside decreases from ~50% at z = 2.5 to ~15% at z = 0. Because of their early formation, the contribution of dense cores to the total stellar mass budget of the universe is a strong function of redshift. The stars in cores with M 1 kpc > 3 × 1010 M ⊙ make up ~0.1% of the stellar mass density of the universe today but 10%-20% at z ~ 2, depending on their initial mass function. The formation of these cores required the conversion of ~1011 M ⊙ of gas into stars within ~1 kpc, while preventing significant star formation at larger radii.

  2. Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting Short-lived Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. III. Rotating Three-dimensional Cloud Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2014-06-01

    A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ~10-4 to ~3 × 10-4, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for 60Fe and 26Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.

  3. Compared performances of ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 for MOX core physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P. J.

    1998-07-08

    The US is currently evaluating the use of MOX fuel in commercial LWR's for reducing weapons grade Pu stockpiles. The design and licensing processes will require that the validity of the nuclear data libraries and codes used in the effort be demonstrated. Unfortunately, there are only a very limited number of relatively old and non representative integral experiments' freely available to the US programs. This lack of adequate experimental data can be partially remediated by comparing the results of well validated European codes with the results of candidate US codes. The demonstration can actually be divided in two components: a code to code (Monte Carlo) comparison can easily demonstrate the validity and limits of the proposed algorithms; and the performances of nuclear data libraries should be compared, major trends should be observed, and their origins should be explained in terms of differences in evaluated nuclear data; In this paper, we have compared the performances of the JEF-2.2 and ENDF/B-VI.4 libraries for a series of benchmarks for k{sub eff}, void worth, and pin power distributions. Note that JEF-2.2 has been extensively validated for MOX applications.

  4. Electron-ion relaxation in a dense plasma. [supernovae core physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littleton, J. E.; Buchler, J.-R.

    1974-01-01

    The microscopic physics of the thermonuclear runaway in highly degenerate carbon-oxygen cores is investigated to determine if and how a detonation wave is generated. An expression for the electron-ion relaxation time is derived under the assumption of large degeneracy and extreme relativity of the electrons in a two-temperature plasma. Since the nuclear burning time proves to be several orders of magnitude shorter than the relaxation time, it is concluded that in studying the structure of the detonation wave the electrons and ions must be treated as separate fluids.

  5. The L1495-B218 filaments in Taurus seen in NH3 & CCS and Dynamical Stability of Filaments and Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    We present deep NH3 map of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH3 (1,1) & (2,2) and CCS 21-10 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31". The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH3 (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH3 leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar (Seo et al. 2015).We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores with converging motions and under the influence of radiation pressure. The critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere and the isothermal cylinder have been widely used to test stability of dense cores and filaments; however, these assume a quiescent environment while actual star forming regions are turbulent and illuminated by radiation. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores (Seo et al. 2011) and the effect of radiation fields into account. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere (Seo et al. 2013). We also find that the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation are considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For inner Galactic regions and regions near OB associations, the critical

  6. SURVIVAL OF INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES TO PRESTELLAR DENSE CORE COLLAPSE AND EARLY PHASES OF DISK FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hincelin, U.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S.; Commerçon, B.

    2013-09-20

    An outstanding question of astrobiology is the link between the chemical composition of planets, comets, and other solar system bodies and the molecules formed in the interstellar medium. Understanding the chemical and physical evolution of the matter leading to the formation of protoplanetary disks is an important step for this. We provide some new clues to this long-standing problem using three-dimensional chemical simulations of the early phases of disk formation: we interfaced the full gas-grain chemical model Nautilus with the radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model RAMSES, for different configurations and intensities of the magnetic field. Our results show that the chemical content (gas and ices) is globally conserved during the collapsing process, from the parent molecular cloud to the young disk surrounding the first Larson core. A qualitative comparison with cometary composition suggests that comets are constituted of different phases, some molecules being direct tracers of interstellar chemistry, while others, including complex molecules, seem to have been formed in disks, where higher densities and temperatures allow for an active grain surface chemistry. The latter phase, and its connection with the formation of the first Larson core, remains to be modeled.

  7. The absence of a dense potential core in supercritical injection: A thermal break-up mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banuti, Daniel T.; Hannemann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Certain experiments in quasi-isobaric supercritical injection remain unexplained by the current state of theory: Without developing a constant value potential core as expected from the mechanical view of break-up, density is observed to drop immediately upon entering the chamber. Furthermore, this phenomenon has never been captured in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) despite having become a de facto standard case for real fluid CFD validation. In this paper, we present strong evidence for a thermal jet disintegration mechanism (in addition to classical mechanical break-up) which resolves both the theoretical and the computational discrepancies. A new interpretation of supercritical jet disintegration is introduced, based on pseudo-boiling, a nonlinear supercritical transition from gas-like to liquid-like states. We show that thermal disintegration may dominate classical mechanical break-up when heat transfer takes place in the injector and when the fluid state is sufficiently close to the pseudo-boiling point. A procedure which allows to capture subsided cores with standard CFD is provided and demonstrated.

  8. Evolutionary status of dense cores in the NGC 1333 IRAS 4 star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumpia, E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Kwon, W.; Tobin, J. J.; Fuller, G. A.; Plume, R.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Protostellar evolution after the formation of the protostar is becoming reasonably well characterized, but the evolution from a prestellar core to a protostar is not well known, although the first hydrostatic core (FHSC) must be a pivotal step. Aims: NGC 1333 - IRAS 4C is a potentially very young object that we can directly compare with the nearby Class 0 objects IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. Observational constraints are provided by spectral imaging from the JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey (330-373 GHz). We present integrated intensity and velocity maps of several species, including CO, H2CO and CH3OH. CARMA observations provide additional information with which we can distinguish IRAS 4C from other evolutionary stages. Methods: We present the observational signatures of the velocity of an observed outflow, the degree of CO depletion, the deuterium fractionation of [DCO+]/[HCO+], and gas kinetic temperatures. Results: We report differences between the three sources in four aspects: a) the kinetic temperature as probed using the H2CO lines is much lower toward IRAS 4C than the other two sources; b) the line profiles of the detected species show strong outflow activity toward IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B, but not toward IRAS 4C; c) the HCN/HNC is <1 toward IRAS 4C, which confirms the cold nature of the source; d) the degree of CO depletion and the deuteration are lowest toward the warmest of the sources, IRAS 4B. Conclusions: IRAS 4C seems to be in a different evolutionary state than the sources IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. We can probably exclude the FHSC stage becaues of the relatively low Lsmm/Lbol ( 6%), and we investigate the earliest accretion phase of Class 0 stage and the transition between Class 0 to Class I. Our results do not show a consistent scenario for either case; the main problem is the absence of outflow activity and the cold nature of IRAS 4C. The number of FHSC candidates in Perseus is 10 times higher than current models predict, which suggests that the lifespan of

  9. HUBBLE UNCOVERS MYSTERY OBJECTS IN THE DENSE CORE OF A NEARBY STAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Piercing the heart of a glittering swarm of stars, NASA's sharp-eyed Hubble Space Telescope unveils the central region of the globular cluster M22, a 12- to 14-billion-year-old grouping of stars in the constellation Sagittarius. The telescope's view of the cluster's core measures 3.3 light-years across. The stars near the cluster's core are 100,000 times more numerous than those in the Sun's neighborhood. Buried in the glow of starlight are about six 'mystery objects,' which astronomers estimate are no larger than one quarter the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, the solar system's heftiest planet. The mystery objects are too far and dim for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the orbiting observatory detected these unseen celestial bodies by looking for their gravitational effects on the light from far distant stars. In this case, the stars are far beyond the cluster in the galactic bulge, about 30,000 light-years from Earth at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. M22 is 8,500 light-years away. The invisible objects betrayed their presence by bending the starlight gravitationally and amplifying it, a phenomenon known as microlensing. From February 22 to June 15, 1999, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 looked through this central region and monitored 83,000 stars. During that time the orbiting observatory recorded six unexpectedly brief microlensing events. In each case a background star jumped in brightness for less than 20 hours before dropping back to normal. These transitory spikes in brightness mean that the object passing in front of the star must have been much smaller than a normal star. Hubble also detected one clear microlensing event. In that observation a star appeared about 10 times brighter over an 18-day span before returning to normal. Astronomers traced the leap in brightness to a dwarf star in the cluster floating in front of the background star. The inset photo shows the entire globular cluster of about 10 million stars. M22 is about 60

  10. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-06-10

    A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

  11. Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting short-lived radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2014-06-10

    A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ∼10{sup –4} to ∼3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.

  12. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. IX. DISCOVERY OF A VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECT DRIVING A MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN THE DENSE CORE L673-7

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Myers, Philip C.; Huard, Tracy L.; Stutz, Amelia M.

    2010-10-01

    We present new infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter observations of the dense core L673-7 and report the discovery of a low-luminosity, embedded Class 0 protostar driving a molecular outflow. L673-7 is seen in absorption against the mid-infrared background in 5.8, 8, and 24 {mu}m Spitzer images, allowing for a derivation of the column density profile and total enclosed mass of L673-7, independent of dust temperature assumptions. Estimates of the core mass from these absorption profiles range from 0.2to4.5 M{sub sun}. Millimeter continuum emission indicates a mass of {approx}2 M{sub sun}, both from a direct calculation assuming isothermal dust and from dust radiative transfer models constrained by the millimeter observations. We use dust radiative transfer models to constrain the internal luminosity of L673-7, defined to be the luminosity of the central source and excluding the luminosity from external heating, to be L{sub int} = 0.01-0.045 L{sub sun}, with L{sub int} {approx} 0.04 L{sub sun} the most likely value. L673-7 is thus classified as a very low luminosity object (VeLLO), and is among the lowest luminosity VeLLOs yet studied. We calculate the kinematic and dynamic properties of the molecular outflow in the standard manner. From the outflow properties and standard assumptions regarding the driving of outflows, we calculate the time-averaged protostellar mass accretion rate, total protostellar mass accreted, and expected accretion luminosity to be {>=}1.2 x 10{sup -6} (sin i)/(co{sup 2} i) M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, M{sub acc{>=}}0.07 1/cos i M{sub sun}, and L{sub acc} {>=} 0.36 L{sub sun}, respectively. The discrepancy between this calculated L{sub acc} and the L{sub int} derived from dust radiative transfer models indicates that the current accretion rate is much lower than the average rate over the lifetime of the outflow. Although the protostar embedded within L673-7 is consistent with currently being substellar, it is unlikely to remain as

  13. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Nearby Dense Cores. IX. Discovery of a Very Low Luminosity Object Driving a Molecular Outflow in the Dense Core L673-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Myers, Philip C.; Huard, Tracy L.; Stutz, Amelia M.

    2010-10-01

    We present new infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter observations of the dense core L673-7 and report the discovery of a low-luminosity, embedded Class 0 protostar driving a molecular outflow. L673-7 is seen in absorption against the mid-infrared background in 5.8, 8, and 24 μm Spitzer images, allowing for a derivation of the column density profile and total enclosed mass of L673-7, independent of dust temperature assumptions. Estimates of the core mass from these absorption profiles range from 0.2to4.5 M sun. Millimeter continuum emission indicates a mass of ~2 M sun, both from a direct calculation assuming isothermal dust and from dust radiative transfer models constrained by the millimeter observations. We use dust radiative transfer models to constrain the internal luminosity of L673-7, defined to be the luminosity of the central source and excluding the luminosity from external heating, to be L int = 0.01-0.045 L sun, with L int ~ 0.04 L sun the most likely value. L673-7 is thus classified as a very low luminosity object (VeLLO), and is among the lowest luminosity VeLLOs yet studied. We calculate the kinematic and dynamic properties of the molecular outflow in the standard manner. From the outflow properties and standard assumptions regarding the driving of outflows, we calculate the time-averaged protostellar mass accretion rate, total protostellar mass accreted, and expected accretion luminosity to be < \\dot{M}_acc > ≥ 1.2 × 10^{-6} sin i {cos}^2 i Msun yr-1, M_acc ≥ 0.07 {1}/{cos } M sun, and Lacc >= 0.36 L sun, respectively. The discrepancy between this calculated L acc and the L int derived from dust radiative transfer models indicates that the current accretion rate is much lower than the average rate over the lifetime of the outflow. Although the protostar embedded within L673-7 is consistent with currently being substellar, it is unlikely to remain as such given the substantial mass reservoir remaining in the core.

  14. Dense Iron Ejecta and Core-Collapse Supernova Explosion in the Young Supernova Remnant G11.2-0.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Dae-Sik; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Matthews, Keith; Lee, Jae-Joon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Seok, Ji Yeon; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2009-09-01

    We present the results of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of dense (gsim103 cm-3) iron ejecta in the young core-collapse supernova remnant G11.2-0.3. Five ejecta knots projected to be close to its center show a large dispersion in their Doppler shifts: two knots in the east are blueshifted by more than 1000 km s-1, while three western knots have relatively small blueshifts of 20-60 km s-1. This velocity discrepancy may indicate that the western knots have been significantly decelerated or that there exists a systematic velocity difference among the knots. One ejecta filament in the northwestern boundary, on the other hand, is redshifted by gsim200 km s-1, while opposite filament in the southeastern boundary shows a negligible radial motion. Some of the knots and filaments have secondary velocity components, and one knot shows a bow shock-like feature in the velocity structure. The iron ejecta appear to be devoid of strong emission from other heavy elements, such as S, which may attest to the α-rich freezeout process in the explosive nucleosynthesis of the core-collapse supernova explosion close to its center. The prominent bipolar distribution of the Fe ejecta in the northwestern and southeastern direction, along with the elongation of the central pulsar wind nebula in the perpendicular direction, is consistent with the interpretation that the supernova exploded primarily along the northwestern and southeastern direction. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  15. Muted protein is involved in the targeting of CD63 to large dense-core vesicles of chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Zhenhua, Hao; Wei, Li

    2016-08-01

    Large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are characterized as a class of lysosome-related organelles (LROs), which undergo regulated release and play important roles in development, metabolism and homeostasis. The Muted protein is a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), which functions in the biogenesis of lysosomes and LROs. CD63 is a membrane component of lysosomes and LROs. Whether and how CD63 is sorted into LDCVs is largely unknown. In this study, we aim to identify the localization of CD63 in chromaffin cells by colocalization, living cell imaging and cell fractionation. We found that a proportion of CD63-YFP colocalized with NPY-dsRed labeled LDCVs. By sucrose density gradient fractionation, a proportion of CD63 was found to be highly enriched in LDCVs fractions. The Muted mutant mouse is a model of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). We also found that the level of CD63 was significantly decreased in Muted-deficient adrenal glands, suggesting that the Muted protein is important for the steady-state level of CD63. Our results suggest that CD63 is a membrane component of LDCVs and the stability of CD63 is dependent on the Muted protein, which provides a clue to the pathogenesis of LRO defects in HPS. PMID:27531610

  16. CAPS-1 promotes fusion competence of stationary dense-core vesicles in presynaptic terminals of mammalian neurons

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Margherita; van de Bospoort, Rhea; He, Enqi; Persoon, Claudia M; van Weering, Jan RT; Broeke, Jurjen H; Verhage, Matthijs; Toonen, Ruud F

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides released from dense-core vesicles (DCVs) modulate neuronal activity, but the molecules driving DCV secretion in mammalian neurons are largely unknown. We studied the role of calcium-activator protein for secretion (CAPS) proteins in neuronal DCV secretion at single vesicle resolution. Endogenous CAPS-1 co-localized with synaptic markers but was not enriched at every synapse. Deletion of CAPS-1 and CAPS-2 did not affect DCV biogenesis, loading, transport or docking, but DCV secretion was reduced by 70% in CAPS-1/CAPS-2 double null mutant (DKO) neurons and remaining fusion events required prolonged stimulation. CAPS deletion specifically reduced secretion of stationary DCVs. CAPS-1-EYFP expression in DKO neurons restored DCV secretion, but CAPS-1-EYFP and DCVs rarely traveled together. Synaptic localization of CAPS-1-EYFP in DKO neurons was calcium dependent and DCV fusion probability correlated with synaptic CAPS-1-EYFP expression. These data indicate that CAPS-1 promotes fusion competence of immobile (tethered) DCVs in presynaptic terminals and that CAPS-1 localization to DCVs is probably not essential for this role. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05438.001 PMID:25719439

  17. The Dense Core Vesicle Protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is Required for Active Avoidance Learning

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Gilberto Nepthali; Nishimura, Takuya; Schindler, Charles Weber; Panlilio, Leigh Vincent; Notkins, Abner Louis

    2014-01-01

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild type (WT) mice showed 60–70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10–15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60–70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB) and Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired. PMID:24662847

  18. The dense core vesicle protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is required for active avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G N; Nishimura, T; Schindler, C W; Panlilio, L V; Notkins, A L

    2014-06-01

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild-type (WT) mice showed 60-70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10-15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60-70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired.

  19. Functional and structural characterization of a dense core secretory granule sorting domain from the PC1/3 protease

    PubMed Central

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Di Lello, Paola; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Legault, Pascale; Reudelhuber, Timothy L.; Omichinski, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Several peptide hormones are initially synthesized as inactive precursors. It is only on entry of these prohormones and their processing proteases into dense core secretory granules (DCSGs) that the precursors are cleaved to generate their active forms. Prohormone convertase (PC)1/3 is a processing protease that is targeted to DCSGs. The signal for targeting PC1/3 to DCSGs resides in its carboxy-terminal tail (PC1/3617–753), where 3 regions (PC1/3617–625, PC1/3665–682, and PC1/3711–753) are known to aid in sorting and membrane association. In this article, we have determined a high-resolution structure of the extreme carboxy-terminal sorting domain, PC1/3711–753 in micelles by NMR spectroscopy. PC1/3711–753 contains 2 alpha helices located between residues 722–728 and 738–750. Functional assays demonstrate that the second helix (PC1/3738–750) is necessary and sufficient to target a constitutively secreted protein to granules, and that L745 anchors a hydrophobic patch that is critical for sorting. Also, we demonstrate that calcium binding by the second helix of PC1/3711–753 promotes aggregation of the domain via the hydrophobic patch centered on L745. These results provide a structure-function analysis of a DCSG-sorting domain, and reveal the importance of a hydrophobic patch and calcium binding in controlling the sorting of proteins containing alpha helices to DCSGs. PMID:19376969

  20. Functional and structural characterization of a dense core secretory granule sorting domain from the PC1/3 protease.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Di Lello, Paola; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Legault, Pascale; Reudelhuber, Timothy L; Omichinski, James G

    2009-05-01

    Several peptide hormones are initially synthesized as inactive precursors. It is only on entry of these prohormones and their processing proteases into dense core secretory granules (DCSGs) that the precursors are cleaved to generate their active forms. Prohormone convertase (PC)1/3 is a processing protease that is targeted to DCSGs. The signal for targeting PC1/3 to DCSGs resides in its carboxy-terminal tail (PC1/3(617-753)), where 3 regions (PC1/3(617-625), PC1/3(665-682), and PC1/3(711-753)) are known to aid in sorting and membrane association. In this article, we have determined a high-resolution structure of the extreme carboxy-terminal sorting domain, PC1/3(711-753) in micelles by NMR spectroscopy. PC1/3(711-753) contains 2 alpha helices located between residues 722-728 and 738-750. Functional assays demonstrate that the second helix (PC1/3(738-750)) is necessary and sufficient to target a constitutively secreted protein to granules, and that L(745) anchors a hydrophobic patch that is critical for sorting. Also, we demonstrate that calcium binding by the second helix of PC1/3(711-753) promotes aggregation of the domain via the hydrophobic patch centered on L(745). These results provide a structure-function analysis of a DCSG-sorting domain, and reveal the importance of a hydrophobic patch and calcium binding in controlling the sorting of proteins containing alpha helices to DCSGs. PMID:19376969

  1. Hindered submicron mobility and long-term storage of presynaptic dense-core granules revealed by single-particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Scalettar, B. A.; Jacobs, C.; Fulwiler, A.; Prahl, L.; Simon, A.; Hilken, L.; Lochner, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Dense-core granules (DCGs) are organelles found in neuroendocrine cells and neurons that house, transport, and release a number of important peptides and proteins. In neurons, DCG cargo can include the secreted neuromodulatory proteins tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which play a key role in modulating synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus. This function has spurred interest in DCGs that localize to synaptic contacts between hippocampal neurons, and several studies recently have established that DCGs localize to, and undergo regulated exocytosis from, postsynaptic sites. To complement this work, we have studied presynaptically-localized DCGs in hippocampal neurons, which are much more poorly understood than their postsynaptic analogs. Moreover, to enhance relevance, we visualized DCGs via fluorescence labeling of exogenous and endogenous tPA and BDNF. Using single-particle tracking, we determined trajectories of more than 150 presynaptically-localized DCGs. These trajectories reveal that mobility of DCGs in presynaptic boutons is highly hindered and that storage is long-lived. We also computed mean-squared displacement curves, which can be used to elucidate mechanisms of transport. Over shorter time windows, most curves are linear, demonstrating that DCG transport in boutons is driven predominantly by diffusion. The remaining curves plateau with time, consistent with motion constrained by a submicron-sized corral. These results have relevance to recent models of presynaptic organization and to recent hypotheses about DCG cargo function. The results also provide estimates for transit times to the presynaptic plasma membrane that are consistent with measured times for onset of neurotrophin release from synaptically-localized DCGs. PMID:21976424

  2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DENSE CORES IN THE {rho} OPHIUCHI MAIN CLOUD AND A SIGNIFICANT ROLE OF EXTERNAL PRESSURES IN CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, Hajime; Nishi, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2010-05-01

    Using the archive data of the H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (J = 1-0) line emission taken with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope with a spatial resolution of {approx} 0.01 pc, we have identified 68 dense cores in the central dense region of the {rho} Ophiuchi main cloud. The H{sup 13}CO{sup +} data also indicate that the fractional abundance of H{sup 13}CO{sup +} relative to H{sub 2} is roughly inversely proportional to the square root of the H{sub 2} column density with a mean of 1.72 x 10{sup -11}. The mean radius, FWHM line width, and LTE mass of the identified cores are estimated to be 0.045 {+-} 0.011 pc, 0.49 {+-} 0.14 km s{sup -1}, and 3.4 {+-} 3.6 M{sub sun}, respectively. The majority of the identified cores have subsonic internal motions. The virial ratio, the ratio of the virial mass to the LTE mass, tends to decrease with increasing LTE mass and about 60% of the cores have virial ratios smaller than 2, indicating that these cores are not transient structures but self-gravitating. The detailed virial analysis suggests that the surface pressure often dominates over the self-gravity and thus plays a crucial role in regulating core formation and evolution. By comparing the {rho} Oph cores with those in the Orion A molecular cloud observed with the same telescope, we found that the statistical properties of the core physical quantities are similar between the two clouds if the effect of the different spatial resolutions is corrected. The line widths of the {rho} Oph cores appear to be nearly independent of the core radii over the range of 0.01-0.1 pc and deviate upward from the Heyer and Brunt relation. This may be evidence that turbulent motions are driven by protostellar outflows in the cluster environment.

  3. Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting Short-lived Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. IV. Effects of Rotational Axis Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2015-08-01

    Both astronomical observations of the interaction of Type II supernova remnants (SNRs) with dense interstellar clouds as well as cosmochemical studies of the abundances of daughter products of short-lived radioisotopes (SLRIs) formed by supernova nucleosynthesis support the hypothesis that the Solar System's SLRIs may have been derived from a supernova. This paper continues a series devoted to examining whether or not such a shock wave could have triggered the dynamical collapse of a dense, presolar cloud core and simultaneously injected sufficient abundances of SLRIs to explain the cosmochemical evidence. Here, we examine the effects of shock waves striking clouds whose spin axes are oriented perpendicular, rather than parallel, to the direction of propagation of the shock front. The models start with 2.2 {M}⊙ cloud cores and shock speeds of 20 or 40 km s-1. Central protostars and protoplanetary disks form in all models, although with their disk spin axes aligned somewhat randomly. The disks derive most of their angular momentum not from the initial cloud rotation, but from the Rayleigh-Taylor fingers that also inject shock wave SLRIs. Injection efficiencies, fi, the fraction of the incident shock wave material injected into the collapsing cloud core, are ˜0.04-0.1 in these models, similar to when the rotation axis is parallel to the shock propagation direction. Evidently, altering the rotation axis orientation has only a minor effect on the outcome, strengthening the case for this scenario as an explanation for the Solar System's SLRIs.

  4. The open reading frame VI product of Cauliflower mosaic virus is a nucleocytoplasmic protein: its N terminus mediates its nuclear export and formation of electron-dense viroplasms.

    PubMed

    Haas, Muriel; Geldreich, Angèle; Bureau, Marina; Dupuis, Laurence; Leh, Véronique; Vetter, Guillaume; Kobayashi, Kappei; Hohn, Thomas; Ryabova, Lyubov; Yot, Pierre; Keller, Mario

    2005-03-01

    The Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) open reading frame VI product (P6) is essential for the viral infection cycle. It controls translation reinitiation of the viral polycistronic RNAs and forms cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (viroplasms) where virus replication and assembly occur. In this study, the mechanism involved in viroplasm formation was investigated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Far protein gel blot assays using a collection of P6 deletion mutants demonstrated that the N-terminal alpha-helix of P6 mediates interaction between P6 molecules. Transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells of full-length P6 and P6 mutants fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein revealed that viroplasms are formed at the periphery of the nucleus and that the N-terminal domain of P6 is an important determinant in this process. Finally, this study led to the unexpected finding that P6 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein and that its nuclear export is mediated by a Leu-rich sequence that is part of the alpha-helix domain implicated in viroplasm formation. The discovery that P6 can localize to the nucleus opens new prospects for understanding yet unknown roles of this viral protein in the course of the CaMV infection cycle.

  5. The open reading frame VI product of Cauliflower mosaic virus is a nucleocytoplasmic protein: its N terminus mediates its nuclear export and formation of electron-dense viroplasms.

    PubMed

    Haas, Muriel; Geldreich, Angèle; Bureau, Marina; Dupuis, Laurence; Leh, Véronique; Vetter, Guillaume; Kobayashi, Kappei; Hohn, Thomas; Ryabova, Lyubov; Yot, Pierre; Keller, Mario

    2005-03-01

    The Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) open reading frame VI product (P6) is essential for the viral infection cycle. It controls translation reinitiation of the viral polycistronic RNAs and forms cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (viroplasms) where virus replication and assembly occur. In this study, the mechanism involved in viroplasm formation was investigated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Far protein gel blot assays using a collection of P6 deletion mutants demonstrated that the N-terminal alpha-helix of P6 mediates interaction between P6 molecules. Transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells of full-length P6 and P6 mutants fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein revealed that viroplasms are formed at the periphery of the nucleus and that the N-terminal domain of P6 is an important determinant in this process. Finally, this study led to the unexpected finding that P6 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein and that its nuclear export is mediated by a Leu-rich sequence that is part of the alpha-helix domain implicated in viroplasm formation. The discovery that P6 can localize to the nucleus opens new prospects for understanding yet unknown roles of this viral protein in the course of the CaMV infection cycle. PMID:15746075

  6. Hidden carbon in Earth’s inner core revealed by shear softening in dense Fe7C3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zeyu; Zhang, Dongzhou; Liu, Jiachao; Hu, Michael Y.; Zhao, Jiyong; Bi, Wenli; Alp, E. Ercan; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Earth’s inner core is known to consist of crystalline iron alloyed with a small amount of nickel and lighter elements, but the shear wave (S wave) travels through the inner core at about half the speed expected for most iron-rich alloys under relevant pressures. The anomalously low S-wave velocity (vS) has been attributed to the presence of liquid, hence questioning the solidity of the inner core. Here we report new experimental data up to core pressures on iron carbide Fe7C3, a candidate component of the inner core, showing that its sound velocities dropped significantly near the end of a pressure-induced spin-pairing transition, which took place gradually between 10 GPa and 53 GPa. Following the transition, the sound velocities increased with density at an exceptionally low rate. Extrapolating the data to the inner core pressure and accounting for the temperature effect, we found that low-spin Fe7C3 can reproduce the observed vS of the inner core, thus eliminating the need to invoke partial melting or a postulated large temperature effect. The model of a carbon-rich inner core may be consistent with existing constraints on the Earth's carbon budget and would imply that as much as two thirds of the planet's carbon is hidden in its center sphere. PMID:25453077

  7. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed

    2010-01-10

    The discovery of decay products of a short-lived radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.

  8. Density Measurements in Coronal Plasmas and Dense Cores in Nanosecond Tungsten Wire and Wire Array Z-pinches Using X-ray Backlighting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Mingaleev, A. R.; Hammer, D. A.; Neves, H. P.

    1998-11-01

    Multiframe direct x-ray backlighting using X-pinches as the point source of radiation has enabled density measurements in both the coronal plasmas and dense cores of W wire and wire array plasmas, powered by the ~ 450 kA, 100 ns XP-pulser at Cornell University. To record the backlighting images, Mo wire X-pinch radiation filtered by 12.5 μm Ti impinges upon a ``sandwich'' of films sensitive to different spectral ranges to increase the dynamic range of the method. The front film (Micarat VR) has the thinnest emulsion layer and lowest x-ray sensitivity, especially for hard x-ray radiation. The two following films (Kodak RAR 2498 and Kodak DEF) have increasing sensitivity. For quantitative measurements of W plasma density a W step wedge filter was placed in front of the films. Assuming the plasma absorption is the same as from solid material we are able to measure W line densities from 3.2 × 10^19 to 2 × 10^17/cm^2. For example, for an exploded 7.5 μm wire with a 15-20 μm diameter dense core and a 1 mm coronal plasma diameter, the implied W volume density ranges from 2 × 10^18 to 3 over 10^22/cm^3.

  9. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. VII. CHEMISTRY AND DYNAMICS IN L43

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jo-Hsin; Evans, Neal J.; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Bourke, Tyler L. E-mail: nje@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.ed

    2009-11-10

    We present results from the Spitzer Space Telescope and molecular line observations of nine species toward the dark cloud L43. The Spitzer images and molecular line maps suggest that it has a starless core and a Class I protostar evolving in the same environment. CO depletion is seen in both sources, and DCO{sup +} lines are stronger toward the starless core. With a goal of testing the chemical characteristics from pre- to protostellar stages, we adopt an evolutionary chemical model to calculate the molecular abundances and compare with our observations. Among the different model parameters we tested, the best-fit model suggests a longer total timescale at the pre-protostellar stage, but with faster evolution at the later steps with higher densities.

  10. Regional variation of PKP C-diff slowness observed by high-dense network -implication for lateral velocity variation of the lowermost outer core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtaki, T.; Kawakatsu, H.

    2004-12-01

    Clear core phases are observed at a recently deployed Japanese seismic network (Hi-net) for two intermediate depth events which occurred beneath S. Bolivia on 2001/06/29 and beneath Argentina on 2002/09/24. The epicentral distances are between 144 and 161 degrees, and between 150 and 164 degrees, respectively. The differential travel times of PKP(BC) or PKP(Cdiff) minus PKP(DF) for the S. Bolivia event suit calculated results using by the previous model of Kaneshima et al. (1994). The differential travel time residuals for the Argentina event show positive value, and become larger as the epicentral distance becomes large. Although the above results suggest that there is anomalous structure in the inner or outer core along the ray paths for the Argentina event, it is unclear which T(DF) or T(BC or Cdiff) is anomalous. Hi-net is a dense short-period seismic network which consists of about 700 stations in almost whole extent of Japan. Close look at core phases can be carried out using data from Hi-net. We checked the slowness of PKP(DF) and PKP(Cdiff) for the events. We select data whose epicentral distance is greater than 153 degree. The slowness of PKP(DF) and PKP(Cdiff) for the S. Bolivia event, and that of PKP(DF) for the Argentina event are almost same as those of PREM. However, the slowness of PKP(Cdiff) for the Argentina event is 7 percent larger than that of PREM. Thus we can conclude that the large slowness of PKP(Cdiff) is a main cause of the large differential residuals. This result suggests that a low velocity anomaly exists in the lowermost outer core which the PKP(Cdiff) for the Argentina event samples, and that the velocity structure in the inner core along the rays for the two events and in the outer core along the rays for the Argentina event sample is close to the normal, although the influence of the heterogeneous structure beneath stations and D_h cannot be ruled out yet. The central points of the diffracted rays on the inner core boundary are

  11. Amphiphilic core-shell nanoparticles containing dense polyethyleneimine shells for efficient delivery of microRNA to Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuojin; Niu, Dechao; Zhang, Junyong; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yao, Yuan; Li, Pei; Gong, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and targeted delivery approach to transfer exogenous genes into macrophages is still a great challenge. Current gene delivery methods often result in low cellular uptake efficiency in vivo in some types of cells, especially for the Kupffer cells (KCs). In this article, we demonstrate that amphiphilic core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) consisting of well-defined hydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) cores and branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) shells (denoted as PEI@PMMA NPs) are efficient nanocarriers to deliver microRNA (miRNA)-loaded plasmid to the KCs. Average hydrodynamic diameter of PEI@ PMMA NPs was 279 nm with a narrow size distribution. The NPs also possessed positive surface charges up to +30 mV in water, thus enabling effective condensation of negatively charged plasmid DNA. Gel electrophoresis assay showed that the resultant PEI@PMMA NPs were able to completely condense miRNA plasmid at a weight ratio of 25:1 (N/P ratio equal to 45:1). The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and flow cytometry results showed that the PEI@PMMA/miRNA NPs displayed low cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis activity against the KCs. The maximum cell transfection efficiency reached 34.7% after 48 hours, which is much higher than that obtained by using the commercial Lipofectamine™ 2000 (1.7%). Bio-transmission electron microscope observation revealed that the PEI@PMMA NPs were mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the KCs. Furthermore, when compared to the control groups, the protein expression of target nuclear factor κB P65 was considerably inhibited (P<0.05) both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate that the PEI@PMMA NPs with a unique amphiphilic core-shell nanostructure are promising nanocarriers for delivering miRNA plasmid to KCs.

  12. Particle size dependence of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties of densely arranged two-dimensional assemblies of Au(core)-Ag(shell) nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Tanoue, Yoshimasa; Harumoto, Takashi; Yanagida, Sayaka; Yasumori, Atsuo; Tomita, Shohei; Otsuki, Joe

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the dependence of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of densely arranged two-dimensional assemblies of spherical Au(core)-Ag(shell) nanoparticles (Au/AgNSs) on the nanoparticle diameter. The size-controlled Au/AgNSs were synthesized using the Au nanosphere seed-mediated growth method without any bulky stabilizers. The diameters of the Au/AgNSs were 38, 53, and 90 nm and the ratio of the total diameter to the Au core diameter was adjusted to ca. 2.0. Extinction spectra of the colloidal solutions of these nanoparticles exhibited the prominent peak of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Ag and therefore the Au/AgNSs exhibited LSPR properties almost the same as Ag nanospheres. It was confirmed from SEM observation that the organic solvent-mediated liquid-liquid interface assembly technique easily generated densely arranged two-dimensional assemblies of the nanospheres. The extinction spectra of all the assemblies exhibited a prominent broad peak ranging from 500 nm to the near-infrared region, which is assigned to the longitudinal LSPR mode of the coupling nanospheres. The extinction intensity increased with increasing nanosphere diameter. The SERS activities of these assemblies were investigated using p-aminothiophenol as a probe molecule. The result revealed that the enhancement factor (EF) of the Raman signal dramatically increased upon increasing the particle diameter. The maximum EF obtained with a laser excitation wavelength of 785 nm was 1.90 × 10(6) for a nanosphere diameter of 90 nm. This renders the two-dimensional assemblies of the plasmonic Au/AgNSs promising for the development of highly sensitive SERS sensor platforms due to their strong electromagnetic effect.

  13. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES: JET AND MOLECULAR OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH A YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT IN CORE A OF L1251

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Il-Suk; Choi, Yunhee; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Shinn, Jong-Ho; Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J.; Kim, Chang Hee; Bourke, Tyler L. E-mail: tohogyu@gmail.com E-mail: nje@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2010-01-20

    A long infrared jet has been discovered by the Spitzer c2d Legacy Program in core A of L1251. It is associated with a very embedded Class 0 object with an accretion luminosity of about 0.9 L {sub sun} derived by radiative transfer model fitting to the observed spectral energy distribution. Comparing the observed Infrared Array Camera colors along the infrared jet with those calculated from a model of an admixture of gas with a power-law temperature distribution indicates that the jet is possibly created by a paraboloidal bow shock propagating into the ambient medium of n(H{sub 2}) = 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}. In addition, the variation of the power-law index along the jet suggests that the portion of hot gas decreases with distance from the jet engine. The molecular outflow in this region has been mapped for the first time using CO data. From the calculated outflow momentum flux, a very strong lower limit to the average accretion luminosity is 3.6 sin i/cos{sup 3} i L {sub sun}, indicative of a decrease in the accretion rate with time.

  14. Isocrystalline core/shell synthesis of high quality II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots: ligand-field spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanovic, Pavle V.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2002-11-01

    Ligand field electronic absorption spectroscopy has been applied as a direct probe of Co2+ dopant ions in II-VI based diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots. Synthesis of Co2+-doped CdS (Co2+:CdS) quantum dots by simple coprecipitation in inverted micelle solutions has been found to yield predominantly surface bound dopant ions, which are unstable with respect to solvation in a coordinating solvent (pyridine). The solvation kinetics are biphasic, involving two transient intermediates. In contrast, Co2+ ions are doped much more isotropically in ZnS QDs, and this difference is attributed to the similar ionic radii of Co2+ and Zn2+ ions (0.74 Å), as opposed to Cd2+ ions (0.97 Å). We have developed an isocrystalline core/shell synthetic methodology that enables us to synthesize high quality internally doped Co2+:CdS quantum dots. The effect of Co2+ binding on the surface energies of CdS and ZnS quantum dots is discussed and related to the growth mechanism of diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots.

  15. A Model for the Active-Site Formation Process in DMSO Reductase Family Molybdenum Enzymes Involving Oxido-Alcoholato and Oxido-Thiolato Molybdenum(VI) Core Structures.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Sato, Masanori; Asano, Kaori; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Giles, Logan J; Pokhrel, Amrit; Kirk, Martin L; Itoh, Shinobu

    2016-02-15

    New bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)-oxido-alcoholato molybdenum(VI) and -oxido-thiolato molybdenum(VI) anionic complexes, denoted as [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) (E = O, S; L = dimethoxycarboxylate-1,2-ethylenedithiolate), were obtained from the reaction of the corresponding dioxido-molybdenum(VI) precursor complex with either an alcohol or a thiol in the presence of an organic acid (e.g., 10-camphorsulfonic acid) at low temperature. The [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) complexes were isolated and characterized, and the structure of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) was determined by X-ray crystallography. The Mo(VI) center in [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry with the two ene-1,2-dithiolate ligands being symmetry inequivalent. The computed structure of [Mo(VI)O(SR)L2](-) is essentially identical to that of [Mo(VI)O(OR)L2](-). The electronic structures of the resulting molybdenum(VI) complexes were evaluated using electronic absorption spectroscopy and bonding calculations. The nature of the distorted O(h) geometry in these [Mo(VI)O(EEt)L2](-) complexes results in a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital wave function that possesses strong π* interactions between the Mo(d(xy)) orbital and the cis S(p(z)) orbital localized on one sulfur donor from a single ene-1,2-dithiolate ligand. The presence of a covalent Mo-S(dithiolene) bonding interaction in these monooxido Mo(VI) compounds contributes to their low-energy ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions. A second important d-p π bonding interaction derives from the ∼180° O(oxo)-Mo-E-C dihedral angle involving the alcoholate and thiolate donors, and this contributes to ancillary ligand contributions to the electronic structure of these species. The formation of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) and [Mo(VI)O(SEt)L2](-) from the dioxidomolybdenum(VI) precursor may be regarded as a model for the active-site formation process that occurs in the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes.

  16. Colloidal Surface Active Maghemite Nanoparticles for Biologically Safe Cr(VI) Remediation: from Core-Shell Nanostructures to Pilot Plant Development.

    PubMed

    Magro, Massimiliano; Domeneghetti, Stefania; Baratella, Davide; Jakubec, Petr; Salviulo, Gabriella; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Venier, Paola; Malina, Ondřej; Tuček, Jiří; Ranc, Václav; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zbořil, Radek; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-09-26

    The present study is aimed at the exploration of achievable improvements for Cr(VI) ex situ and in situ water remediation by using novel naked colloidal maghemite (γ-Fe2 O3 ) nanoparticles (surface active maghemite nanoparticles, SAMNs). The reliability of SAMNs for Cr(VI) binding and removal was demonstrated, and SAMN@Cr(VI) complex was characterized, as well as the covalent nature of the absorption was unequivocally proved. SAMNs were structurally and magnetically well conserved after Cr(VI) binding. Thus, in consideration of their affinity for Cr(VI) , SAMNs were exploited in a biological model system, mimicking a real in situ application. The assay evidenced a progressive reduction of revertant colonies of Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, as maghemite nanoparticles concentration increased, till the complete suppression of Cr(VI) mutagen effect. Finally, an automatic modular pilot system for continuous magnetic removal and recovery of Cr(VI) from water is proposed. SAMNs, thanks to their colloidal, binding, and catalytic properties, represent a promising tool as a reliable nanomaterial for water remediation by Cr(VI) . PMID:27529148

  17. Dense core secretory vesicles revealed as a dynamic Ca2+ store in neuroendocrine cells with a vesicle-associated membrane protein aequorin chimaera

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kathryn J.; Pinton, Paolo; Varadi, Aniko; Tacchetti, Carlo; Ainscow, Edward K.; Pozzan, Tullio; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rutter, Guy A.

    2001-01-01

    The role of dense core secretory vesicles in the control of cytosolic-free Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]c) in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells is enigmatic. By constructing a vesicle-associated membrane protein 2–synaptobrevin.aequorin chimera, we show that in clonal pancreatic islet β-cells: (a) increases in [Ca2+]c cause a prompt increase in intravesicular-free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]SV), which is mediated by a P-type Ca2+-ATPase distinct from the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, but which may be related to the PMR1/ATP2C1 family of Ca2+ pumps; (b) steady state Ca2+ concentrations are 3–5-fold lower in secretory vesicles than in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi apparatus, suggesting the existence of tightly bound and more rapidly exchanging pools of Ca2+; (c) inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate has no impact on [Ca2+]SV in intact or permeabilized cells; and (d) ryanodine receptor (RyR) activation with caffeine or 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol in intact cells, or cyclic ADPribose in permeabilized cells, causes a dramatic fall in [Ca2+]SV. Thus, secretory vesicles represent a dynamic Ca2+ store in neuroendocrine cells, whose characteristics are in part distinct from the ER/Golgi apparatus. The presence of RyRs on secretory vesicles suggests that local Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from vesicles docked at the plasma membrane could participate in triggering exocytosis. PMID:11571310

  18. Dense core secretory vesicles revealed as a dynamic Ca(2+) store in neuroendocrine cells with a vesicle-associated membrane protein aequorin chimaera.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, K J; Pinton, P; Varadi, A; Tacchetti, C; Ainscow, E K; Pozzan, T; Rizzuto, R; Rutter, G A

    2001-10-01

    The role of dense core secretory vesicles in the control of cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](c)) in neuronal and neuroendocrine cells is enigmatic. By constructing a vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-synaptobrevin.aequorin chimera, we show that in clonal pancreatic islet beta-cells: (a) increases in [Ca(2+)](c) cause a prompt increase in intravesicular-free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]SV), which is mediated by a P-type Ca(2+)-ATPase distinct from the sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, but which may be related to the PMR1/ATP2C1 family of Ca(2+) pumps; (b) steady state Ca(2+) concentrations are 3-5-fold lower in secretory vesicles than in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi apparatus, suggesting the existence of tightly bound and more rapidly exchanging pools of Ca(2+); (c) inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate has no impact on [Ca(2+)](SV) in intact or permeabilized cells; and (d) ryanodine receptor (RyR) activation with caffeine or 4-chloro-3-ethylphenol in intact cells, or cyclic ADPribose in permeabilized cells, causes a dramatic fall in [Ca(2+)](SV). Thus, secretory vesicles represent a dynamic Ca(2+) store in neuroendocrine cells, whose characteristics are in part distinct from the ER/Golgi apparatus. The presence of RyRs on secretory vesicles suggests that local Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from vesicles docked at the plasma membrane could participate in triggering exocytosis.

  19. Convergent effects of lithium and valproate on the expression of proteins associated with large dense core vesicles in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Mara L; Gundersen, Cameron B; Umbach, Joy A

    2004-01-01

    Lithium and valproate are chemically unrelated compounds that are used to treat manic-depressive illness. Previously, we reported that lithium ions upregulate genes encoding proteins primarily associated with large dense core vesicles (LDCV) in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated PC12 cells, but not in undifferentiated PC12 cells. Moreover, lithium did not alter the expression of proteins associated with small-clear, synaptic-like vesicles (SSV) in these cells. Based on these observations, we investigated whether valproate had actions similar to those of lithium in PC12 cells. Thus, undifferentiated or NGF-differentiated PC12 cells were exposed to lithium (1 mM) or valproate (1 mM) for 48 h. Extracts from these cells were submitted to semiquantitative Northern and Western analyses. In NGF-differentiated cells, both agents increased the expression of proteins associated with LDCV, the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1), and cysteine string protein (CSP). These same treatments did not alter the expression of proteins primarily associated with SSV, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), and synaptophysin (SY). Furthermore, neither drug affected the expression of these proteins in undifferentiated cells. Interestingly, secretion of (3)H-dopamine was increased in cells exhibiting the increase of VMAT1 and csp. Taken together, the convergent effects of these chemically diverse compounds suggest that altered dynamics of LDCV may play a vital role in the biochemical pathway, leading to the relief of the symptoms of manic depression.

  20. Two cAMP-dependent pathways differentially regulate exocytosis of large dense-core and small vesicles in mouse β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Noriko; Kishimoto, Takuya; Nemoto, Tomomi; Kasai, Haruo

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that cAMP regulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis via protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in neurons and secretory cells. It has, however, never been clarified how regulation of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis by cAMP differs depending on the involvement of PKA and Epac, and depending on two types of secretory vesicles, large dense-core vesicles (LVs) and small vesicles (SVs). In this study, we have directly visualized Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of both LVs and SVs with two-photon imaging in mouse pancreatic β-cells. We found that marked exocytosis of SVs occurred with a time constant of 0.3 s, more than three times as fast as LV exocytosis, on stimulation by photolysis of a caged-Ca2+ compound. The diameter of SVs was identified as ∼80 nm with two-photon imaging, which was confirmed by electron-microscopic investigation with photoconversion of diaminobenzidine. Calcium-dependent exocytosis of SVs was potentiated by the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin, and the potentiating effect was unaffected by antagonists of PKA and was mimicked by the Epac-selective agonist 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2′-O-methyl cAMP, unlike that on LVs. Moreover, high-glucose stimulation induced massive exocytosis of SVs in addition to LVs, and photolysis of caged cAMP during glucose stimulation caused potentiation of exocytosis with little delay for SVs but with a latency of 5 s for LVs. Thus, Epac and PKA selectively regulate exocytosis of SVs and LVs, respectively, in β-cells, and Epac can regulate exocytosis more rapidly than PKA. PMID:17510178

  1. A Very Compact Dense Galaxy Overdensity with δ ≃ 130 Identified at z ˜ 8: Implications for Early Protocluster and Cluster Core Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishigaki, Masafumi; Ouchi, Masami; Harikane, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    We report the first identification of a compact dense galaxy overdensity at z˜ 8 called A2744z8OD. A2744z8OD consists of eight Y-dropout galaxies behind Abell 2744 that were originally pinpointed by Hubble Frontier Fields studies. However, so far, no studies have derived the basic physical quantities of structure formation or made comparisons with theoretical models. We obtain a homogeneous sample of dropout galaxies at z˜ 8 from eight field data of Hubble legacy images that are as deep as the A2744z8OD data. Using the sample, we find that a galaxy surface overdensity value of A2744z8OD is very high δ ≃ 130, where δ is defined by an overdensity in a small circle of 6″ (≃ 30 physical kiloparsecs) radius. Because there is no such large δ value reported for high-z overdensities to date, A2744z8OD is a system that is clearly different from those found in previous high-z overdensity studies. In the galaxy+structure formation models of Henriques et al., there exists a very similar overdensity, Modelz8OD, that is made of eight model dropout galaxies at z˜ 8 in a 6″ radius circle. Modelz8OD is a progenitor of a today’s {10}14{M}ȯ cluster, and more than half of the seven Modelz8OD galaxies are merged into the brightest cluster galaxy of the cluster. If Modelz8OD is a counterpart to A2744z8OD, the models suggest that A2744z8OD would be part of a cluster core forming from a {10}14{M}ȯ cluster that began star formation at z\\gt 12.

  2. The Redistribution of Drosophila Vesicular Monoamine Transporter Mutants from Synaptic Vesicles to Large Dense-Core Vesicles Impairs Amine-Dependent Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Grygoruk, Anna; Chen, Audrey; Martin, Ciara A.; Lawal, Hakeem O.; Fei, Hao; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Biedermann, Traci; Najibi, Rod; Hadi, Richard; Chouhan, Amit K.; Murphy, Niall P.; Schweizer, Felix E.; Macleod, Gregory T.; Maidment, Nigel T.

    2014-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are stored in both synaptic vesicles (SVs), which are required for release at the synapse, and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs), which mediate extrasynaptic release. The contributions of each type of vesicular release to specific behaviors are not known. To address this issue, we generated mutations in the C-terminal trafficking domain of the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT), which is required for the vesicular storage of monoamines in both SVs and LDCVs. Deletion of the terminal 23 aa (DVMAT-Δ3) reduced the rate of endocytosis and localization of DVMAT to SVs, but supported localization to LDCVs. An alanine substitution mutation in a tyrosine-based motif (DVMAT-Y600A) also reduced sorting to SVs and showed an endocytic deficit specific to aminergic nerve terminals. Redistribution of DVMAT-Y600A from SV to LDCV fractions was also enhanced in aminergic neurons. To determine how these changes might affect behavior, we expressed DVMAT-Δ3 and DVMAT-Y600A in a dVMAT null genetic background that lacks endogenous dVMAT activity. When expressed ubiquitously, DVMAT-Δ3 showed a specific deficit in female fertility, whereas DVMAT-Y600A rescued behavior similarly to DVMAT-wt. In contrast, when expressed more specifically in octopaminergic neurons, both DVMAT-Δ3 and DVMAT-Y600A failed to rescue female fertility, and DVMAT-Y600A showed deficits in larval locomotion. DVMAT-Y600A also showed more severe dominant effects than either DVMAT-wt or DVMAT-Δ3. We propose that these behavioral deficits result from the redistribution of DVMAT from SVs to LDCVs. By extension, our data suggest that the balance of amine release from SVs versus that from LDCVs is critical for the function of some aminergic circuits. PMID:24828646

  3. The redistribution of Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter mutants from synaptic vesicles to large dense-core vesicles impairs amine-dependent behaviors.

    PubMed

    Grygoruk, Anna; Chen, Audrey; Martin, Ciara A; Lawal, Hakeem O; Fei, Hao; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Biedermann, Traci; Najibi, Rod; Hadi, Richard; Chouhan, Amit K; Murphy, Niall P; Schweizer, Felix E; Macleod, Gregory T; Maidment, Nigel T; Krantz, David E

    2014-05-14

    Monoamine neurotransmitters are stored in both synaptic vesicles (SVs), which are required for release at the synapse, and large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs), which mediate extrasynaptic release. The contributions of each type of vesicular release to specific behaviors are not known. To address this issue, we generated mutations in the C-terminal trafficking domain of the Drosophila vesicular monoamine transporter (DVMAT), which is required for the vesicular storage of monoamines in both SVs and LDCVs. Deletion of the terminal 23 aa (DVMAT-Δ3) reduced the rate of endocytosis and localization of DVMAT to SVs, but supported localization to LDCVs. An alanine substitution mutation in a tyrosine-based motif (DVMAT-Y600A) also reduced sorting to SVs and showed an endocytic deficit specific to aminergic nerve terminals. Redistribution of DVMAT-Y600A from SV to LDCV fractions was also enhanced in aminergic neurons. To determine how these changes might affect behavior, we expressed DVMAT-Δ3 and DVMAT-Y600A in a dVMAT null genetic background that lacks endogenous dVMAT activity. When expressed ubiquitously, DVMAT-Δ3 showed a specific deficit in female fertility, whereas DVMAT-Y600A rescued behavior similarly to DVMAT-wt. In contrast, when expressed more specifically in octopaminergic neurons, both DVMAT-Δ3 and DVMAT-Y600A failed to rescue female fertility, and DVMAT-Y600A showed deficits in larval locomotion. DVMAT-Y600A also showed more severe dominant effects than either DVMAT-wt or DVMAT-Δ3. We propose that these behavioral deficits result from the redistribution of DVMAT from SVs to LDCVs. By extension, our data suggest that the balance of amine release from SVs versus that from LDCVs is critical for the function of some aminergic circuits. PMID:24828646

  4. Herschel observations of extra-ordinary sources: H{sub 2}S as a probe of dense gas and possibly hidden luminosity toward the Orion KL hot core

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Black, J. H.; Blake, G. A.; Kleshcheva, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H{sub 2}S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources GT (guaranteed time) key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H{sub 2} {sup 32}S, H{sub 2} {sup 34}S, and H{sub 2} {sup 33}S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so-called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H{sub 2}S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T {sub rot} = 141 ± 12 K. This indicates H{sub 2}S is in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E {sub up} ≳ 1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive a column density, N {sub tot}(H{sub 2} {sup 32}S) = 9.5 ± 1.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup –2}, gas kinetic temperature, T {sub kin} = 120±{sub 10}{sup 13} K, and constrain the H{sub 2} volume density, n{sub H{sub 2}} ≳ 9 × 10 {sup 7} cm{sup –3}, for the H{sub 2}S emitting gas. These results point to an H{sub 2}S origin in markedly dense, heavily embedded gas, possibly in close proximity to a hidden self-luminous source (or sources), which are conceivably responsible for Orion KL's high luminosity. We also derive an H{sub 2}S ortho/para ratio of 1.7 ± 0.8 and set an upper limit for HDS/H{sub 2}S of <4.9 × 10 {sup –3}.

  5. Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: H2S as a Probe of Dense Gas and Possibly Hidden Luminosity Toward the Orion KL Hot Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Black, J. H.; Blake, G. A.; Kleshcheva, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H2S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources GT (guaranteed time) key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H2 32S, H2 34S, and H2 33S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so-called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H2S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T rot = 141 ± 12 K. This indicates H2S is in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E up >~ 1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive a column density, N tot(H2 32S) = 9.5 ± 1.9 × 1017 cm-2, gas kinetic temperature, T kin = 120+/- ^{13}_{10} K, and constrain the H2 volume density, n_H_2 >~ 9 × 10 7 cm-3, for the H2S emitting gas. These results point to an H2S origin in markedly dense, heavily embedded gas, possibly in close proximity to a hidden self-luminous source (or sources), which are conceivably responsible for Orion KL's high luminosity. We also derive an H2S ortho/para ratio of 1.7 ± 0.8 and set an upper limit for HDS/H2S of <4.9 × 10 -3. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  6. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: A comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a comparison of SCUBA-2 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterising the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterise starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  7. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: a comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present a comparison of Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterizing the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterize starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  8. Crystal structure of YwpF from Staphylococcus aureus reveals its architecture comprised of a β-barrel core domain resembling type VI secretion system proteins and a two-helix pair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Soon-Jong; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The ywpF gene (SAV2097) of the Staphylococcus aureus strain Mu50 encodes the YwpF protein, which may play a role in antibiotic resistance. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the YwpF superfamily from S. aureus at 2.5-Å resolution. The YwpF structure consists of two regions: an N-terminal core β-barrel domain that shows structural similarity to type VI secretion system (T6SS) proteins (e.g., Hcp1, Hcp3, and EvpC) and a C-terminal two-helix pair. Although the monomer structure of S. aureus YwpF resembles those of T6SS proteins, the dimer/tetramer model of S. aureus YwpF is distinct from the functionally important hexameric ring of T6SS proteins. We therefore suggest that the S. aureus YwpF may have a different function compared to T6SS proteins.

  9. Detection of the 2(20) to 2(21) transition of HDO in Orion A - Evidence for dense clumped gas in the hot core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petuchowski, S. J.; Bennett, C. L.

    1988-03-01

    The first astronomical detection of the 10.3 GHz, 220 → 221, transition of the molecule HDO is reported. Two components of OMC-1 are identified: the "hot core", and the "spike" component (identified with the "compact molecular ridge cloud". The best-fit parameters in a statistical equilibrium model of the hot core are an effective radiation temperature of Trad ≡ 350K and a density of n(H2) ≡ 3×109cm-3. The best-fit parameters for the spike component are Trad ≡ 40K and n(H2) ≡ 3×106cm-3. The observations indicate an abundance ratio of [HDO]/[H2O] ≡ 10-3 in the hot core.

  10. Cranial mononeuropathy VI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abducens palsy; Lateral rectus palsy; Vith nerve palsy; Cranial nerve VI palsy ... mononeuropathy VI is damage to the sixth cranial (skull) nerve. This nerve, also called the abducens nerve, helps ...

  11. Warm dense crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2016-03-01

    The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "warm dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.

  12. Magnetic Phases in Dense Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Incera, Vivian de la

    2007-10-26

    In this paper I discuss the magnetic phases of the three-flavor color superconductor. These phases can take place at different field strengths in a highly dense quark system. Given that the best natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of neutron stars, which typically have very large magnetic fields, the magnetic phases here discussed could have implications for the physics of these compact objects.

  13. Dense-cored vesicles, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria are closely associated with non-specialized parts of plasma membrane of nerve terminals: implications for exocytosis and calcium buffering by intraterminal organelles.

    PubMed

    Lysakowski, A; Figueras, H; Price, S D; Peng, Y Y

    1999-01-18

    To determine whether there are anatomical correlates for intraterminal Ca2+ stores to regulate exocytosis of dense-cored vesicles (DCVs) and whether these stores can modulate exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, we studied the spatial distributions of DCVs, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), and mitochondria in 19 serially reconstructed nerve terminals in bullfrog sympathetic ganglia. On average, each bouton had three active zones, 214 DCVs, 26 SER fragments (SERFs), and eight mitochondria. DCVs, SERFs and mitochondria were located, on average, 690, 624, and 526 nm, respectively, away from active zones. Virtually no DCVs were within "docking" (i.e., < or = 50 nm) distances of the active zones. Thus, it is unlikely that DCV exocytosis occurs at active zones via mechanisms similar to those for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because there were virtually no SERFs or mitochondria within 50 nm of any active zone, Ca2+ modulation by these organelles is unlikely to affect ACh release evoked by a single action potential. In contrast, 30% of DCVs and 40% of SERFs were located within 50 nm of the nonspecialized regions of the plasma membrane. Because each bouton had at least one SERF within 50 nm of the plasma membrane and most of these SERFs had DCVs, but not mitochondria, near them, it is possible for Ca2+ release from the SER to provide the Ca2+ necessary for DCV exocytosis. The fact that 60% of the mitochondria had some part within 50 nm of the plasma membrane means that it is possible for mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering to affect DCV exocytosis.

  14. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  15. Dense with Sense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Ingkanisorn, W. Patricia; Mancini, Christine; Arai, Andrew E.

    2005-09-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a low encoding strength phase-cycled meta-DENSE readout and a two fold SENSE acceleration ( R = 2) is described. This combination reduces total breath-hold times for increased patient comfort during cardiac regional myocardial contractility studies. Images from phantoms, normal volunteers, and a patient are provided to demonstrate the SENSE-DENSE combination of methods. The overall breath-hold time is halved while preserving strain map quality.

  16. Atoms in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  17. Myosin VI: a multifunctional motor.

    PubMed

    Lister, I; Roberts, R; Schmitz, S; Walker, M; Trinick, J; Veigel, C; Buss, F; Kendrick-Jones, J

    2004-11-01

    Myosin VI moves towards the minus end of actin filaments unlike all the other myosins so far studied, suggesting that it has unique properties and functions. Myosin VI is present in clathrin-coated pits and vesicles, in membrane ruffles and in the Golgi complex, indicating that it has a wide variety of functions in the cell. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we have identified a variety of myosin VI-binding partners and characterized their interactions. As an alternative approach, we have studied the in vitro properties of intact myosin VI. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI existed as a dimer but our biochemical characterization and electron microscopy studies reveal that myosin VI is a monomer. Using an optical tweezers force transducer, we showed that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor with a large working stroke of 18 nm. Potential roles for myosin VI in cells are discussed. PMID:15493988

  18. Chromium(VI)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chromium ( VI ) ; CASRN 18540 - 29 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  19. ESL VI Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flander, Leonard

    This curriculum guide for English as a Second Language (ESL) Level VI is the sixth of six in a Guam Community College ESL project series. The other five guides, a companion teacher's guide and pre- and post-tests are available separately (see note). The entire project centers around the Peabody Kits P, Level P, Level 1, Level 2, Level 3, and the…

  20. Intelsat VI antenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, M. F.; Lane, S. O.; Taormina, F. A.

    The antenna system design of a series of five new communications satellites known as Intelsat VI is described in detail. Each satellite will utilize 50 transponders operating in the C and K band portions of the frequency spectrum. The transponders are interconnectible using either static switch matrices or a network which provides satellite switched time division multiple access capability. The antenna coverages, characteristics, and special design features are shown and discussed.

  1. GRAPE-6 Simulations of Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavin, Shawn D.; Maxwell, J. E.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    We report on recent results from a long-term program of N-body simulations of dense star cluster evolution which is being done with GRAPE-6 systems at Indiana University and Purdue University Calumet. We have been simulating cases of star cluster evolution with a particular focus on the dynamical evolution of hard binary populations of varying size. Initial models with a range of mass spectra, both with and without primordial binary populations, are being investigated to points well beyond core collapse. Our goal is to better understand the evoultion of compact binary populations in collapsed-core globular clusters. Observations of collapsed-core clusters with HST and Chandra have revealed populations of hard, X-ray binaries well outside the cluster core. Our work is focused on understanding the diffusion of these dynamically hardened binaries to regions in the cluster halo and the robustness of this process in models with mass spectra versus single-mass models.

  2. Dense Axion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  3. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  4. Hydrodynamic stellar interactions in dense star clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    1993-01-01

    Highly detailed HST observations of globular-cluster cores and galactic nuclei motivate new theoretical studies of the violent dynamical processes which govern the evolution of these very dense stellar systems. These processes include close stellar encounters and direct physical collisions between stars. Such hydrodynamic stellar interactions are thought to explain the large populations of blue stragglers, millisecond pulsars, X-ray binaries, and other peculiar sources observed in globular clusters. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics techniques now make it possible to perform realistic numerical simulations of these interactions. The results, when combined with those of N-body simulations of stellar dynamics, should provide for the first time a realistic description of dense star clusters. Here I review briefly current theoretical work on hydrodynamic stellar interactions, emphasizing its relevance to recent observations.

  5. Dense Subgraph Partition of Positive Hypergraphs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hairong; Latecki, Longin Jan; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel partition framework, called dense subgraph partition (DSP), to automatically, precisely and efficiently decompose a positive hypergraph into dense subgraphs. A positive hypergraph is a graph or hypergraph whose edges, except self-loops, have positive weights. We first define the concepts of core subgraph, conditional core subgraph, and disjoint partition of a conditional core subgraph, then define DSP based on them. The result of DSP is an ordered list of dense subgraphs with decreasing densities, which uncovers all underlying clusters, as well as outliers. A divide-and-conquer algorithm, called min-partition evolution, is proposed to efficiently compute the partition. DSP has many appealing properties. First, it is a nonparametric partition and it reveals all meaningful clusters in a bottom-up way. Second, it has an exact and efficient solution, called min-partition evolution algorithm. The min-partition evolution algorithm is a divide-and-conquer algorithm, thus time-efficient and memory-friendly, and suitable for parallel processing. Third, it is a unified partition framework for a broad range of graphs and hypergraphs. We also establish its relationship with the densest k-subgraph problem (DkS), an NP-hard but fundamental problem in graph theory, and prove that DSP gives precise solutions to DkS for all kin a graph-dependent set, called critical k-set. To our best knowledge, this is a strong result which has not been reported before. Moreover, as our experimental results show, for sparse graphs, especially web graphs, the size of critical k-set is close to the number of vertices in the graph. We test the proposed partition framework on various tasks, and the experimental results clearly illustrate its advantages.

  6. A DNA topoisomerase VI-like complex initiates meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Vrielynck, Nathalie; Chambon, Aurélie; Vezon, Daniel; Pereira, Lucie; Chelysheva, Liudmila; De Muyt, Arnaud; Mézard, Christine; Mayer, Claudine; Grelon, Mathilde

    2016-02-26

    The SPO11 protein catalyzes the formation of meiotic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and is homologous to the A subunit of an archaeal topoisomerase (topo VI). Topo VI are heterotetrameric enzymes comprising two A and two B subunits; however, no topo VIB involved in meiotic recombination had been identified. We characterized a structural homolog of the archaeal topo VIB subunit [meiotic topoisomerase VIB-like (MTOPVIB)], which is essential for meiotic DSB formation. It forms a complex with the two Arabidopsis thaliana SPO11 orthologs required for meiotic DSB formation (SPO11-1 and SPO11-2) and is absolutely required for the formation of the SPO11-1/SPO11-2 heterodimer. These findings suggest that the catalytic core complex responsible for meiotic DSB formation in eukaryotes adopts a topo VI-like structure.

  7. Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-04-24

    Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

  8. Lattice thermal conductivity of dense silicate glass at high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.

    2015-12-01

    The layered structure of the Earth's interior is generally believed to develop through the magma ocean differentiation in the early Earth. Previous seismic studies revealed the existence of ultra low velocity zones above the core mantle boundary (CMB) which was inferred to be associated with the remnant of a deep magma ocean. The heat flux through the core mantle boundary therefore would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, both lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals of the lower mantle. Recent experimental results on the radiative thermal conductivity of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals suggest that krad of dense silicate glasses could be remarkably lower than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases. In this case, the dense silicate melts will act as a trap for heat from the Earth's outer core. However, this conclusion remains uncertain because of the lack of direct measurements on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses/melts under lower mantle pressures up to date. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of dense silicate glass with basaltic composition under pressures relevant to the Earth's lower mantle in a diamond-anvil cell using time-domain thermoreflectance method. The study will assist the comprehension of thermal transport properties of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior and is crucial for understanding the dynamic and thermal evolution of the Earth's internal structure.

  9. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  10. Dense Hypervelocity Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker

    2007-11-01

    We are developing high velocity dense plasma jets for fusion and HEDP applications. Traditional coaxial plasma accelerators suffer from the blow-by instability which limits the mass accelerated to high velocity. In the current design blow-by is delayed by a combination of electrode shaping and use of a tailored plasma armature created by injection of a high density plasma at a few eV generated by arrays of capillary discharges or sparkgaps. Experimental data will be presented for a complete 32 injector gun system built for driving rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, including data on penetration of the plasma jet through a magnetic field. We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma velocity, temperature, and density, as well as total momentum measured using a ballistic pendulum. Measurements are in agreement with each other and with time of flight data from photodiodes and a multichannel PMT. Plasma density is above 10^15 cm-3, velocities range up to about 100 km/s. Preliminary results from a quadrature heterodyne HeNe interferometer are consistent with these results.

  11. Ariel's Densely Pitted Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This mosaic of the four highest-resolution images of Ariel represents the most detailed Voyager 2 picture of this satellite of Uranus. The images were taken through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera on Jan. 24, 1986, at a distance of about 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles). Ariel is about 1,200 km (750 mi) in diameter; the resolution here is 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Much of Ariel's surface is densely pitted with craters 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 mi) across. These craters are close to the threshold of detection in this picture. Numerous valleys and fault scarps crisscross the highly pitted terrain. Voyager scientists believe the valleys have formed over down-dropped fault blocks (graben); apparently, extensive faulting has occurred as a result of expansion and stretching of Ariel's crust. The largest fault valleys, near the terminator at right, as well as a smooth region near the center of this image, have been partly filled with deposits that are younger and less heavily cratered than the pitted terrain. Narrow, somewhat sinuous scarps and valleys have been formed, in turn, in these young deposits. It is not yet clear whether these sinuous features have been formed by faulting or by the flow of fluids.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Local Crystalline Structure in an Amorphous Protein Dense Phase

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Daniel G.; Modla, Shannon; Wagner, Norman J.; Sandler, Stanley I.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins exhibit a variety of dense phases ranging from gels, aggregates, and precipitates to crystalline phases and dense liquids. Although the structure of the crystalline phase is known in atomistic detail, little attention has been paid to noncrystalline protein dense phases, and in many cases the structures of these phases are assumed to be fully amorphous. In this work, we used small-angle neutron scattering, electron microscopy, and electron tomography to measure the structure of ovalbumin precipitate particles salted out with ammonium sulfate. We found that the ovalbumin phase-separates into core-shell particles with a core radius of ∼2 μm and shell thickness of ∼0.5 μm. Within this shell region, nanostructures comprised of crystallites of ovalbumin self-assemble into a well-defined bicontinuous network with branches ∼12 nm thick. These results demonstrate that the protein gel is comprised in part of nanocrystalline protein. PMID:26488663

  13. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  14. Mapping CS in starburst galaxies: Disentangling and characterising dense gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, G.; Viti, S.; Bayet, E.; Aladro, R.; Yates, J.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We observe the dense gas tracer CS in two nearby starburst galaxies to determine how the conditions of the dense gas varies across the circumnuclear regions in starburst galaxies. Methods: Using the IRAM-30m telescope, we mapped the distribution of the CS(2-1) and CS(3-2) lines in the circumnuclear regions of the nearby starburst galaxies NGC 3079 and NGC 6946. We also detected formaldehyde (H2CO) and methanol (CH3OH) in both galaxies. We marginally detect the isotopologue C34S. Results: We calculate column densities under LTE conditions for CS and CH3OH. Using the detections accumulated here to guide our inputs, we link a time and depth dependent chemical model with a molecular line radiative transfer model; we reproduce the observations, showing how conditions where CS is present are likely to vary away from the galactic centres. Conclusions: Using the rotational diagram method for CH3OH, we obtain a lower limit temperature of 14 K. In addition to this, by comparing the chemical and radiative transfer models to observations, we determine the properties of the dense gas as traced by CS (and CH3OH). We also estimate the quantity of the dense gas. We find that, provided there are between 105 and 106 dense cores in our beam, for both target galaxies, emission of CS from warm (T = 100-400 K), dense (n(H2) = 105-6 cm-3) cores, possibly with a high cosmic ray ionisation rate (ζ = 100ζ0) best describes conditions for our central pointing. In NGC 6946, conditions are generally cooler and/or less dense further from the centre, whereas in NGC 3079, conditions are more uniform. The inclusion of shocks allows for more efficient CS formation, which means that gas that is less dense by an order of magnitude is required to replicate observations in some cases.

  15. II-VI nanowire radial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahen, K. B.; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Holland, M.

    2013-11-01

    There are many reports of ZnSe nanowire synthesis, but photoluminescence measurements on these nanowires indicate weak band-edge and high sub-bandgap defect emission. The two main contributors to the non-optimal photoluminescence are nanowire growth at high temperatures and unpassivated surface states. In this paper, the synthesis of II-VI core-shell nanowires by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy is reported. We demonstrate that larger bandgap shells that passivate the nanowire surface states can be deposited around the nanowires by increasing the partial pressures of the shell reactants without a large increase in growth temperature, allowing high quality material to be obtained. The deposition of nearly lattice-matched ZnMgSSe shells on the ZnSe nanowires increases the band-edge luminescent intensity of the ZnSe nanowires by more than four orders of magnitude and improves the band-edge to defect photoluminescence intensity ratio to 12 000:1. The corresponding full widths at half maximum of the band-edge exciton peaks of the core-shell nanowires can be as narrow as 2.8 nm. It is also shown that magnesium and chlorine can be incorporated into the ZnSe nanowire cores, which shortens the emission wavelength and is known to act as an n-type dopant, respectively.

  16. Collagen VI related muscle disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, A; Bushby, K

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding collagen VI (COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3) cause Bethlem myopathy (BM) and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), two conditions which were previously believed to be completely separate entities. BM is a relatively mild dominantly inherited disorder characterised by proximal weakness and distal joint contractures. UCMD was originally described as an autosomal recessive condition causing severe muscle weakness with proximal joint contractures and distal hyperlaxity. Here we review the clinical phenotypes of BM and UCMD and their diagnosis and management, and provide an overview of the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of collagen VI related disorders. PMID:16141002

  17. ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI results for UO-2 lattice benchmark problems using MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    Calculations for the ANS UO{sub 2} lattice benchmark have been performed with the MCNP Monte Carlo code and its ENDF/B-V and EnDF/B-VI continuous-energy libraries. Similar calculations were performed previously for the experiments upon which these benchmarks are based, using continuous-energy libraries derived from EnDF/B-V and from Release 2 of EnDF/B-VI (ENDF/B-VI.2). This study extends those calculations to the infinite-lattice configurations given in the benchmark specifications and also includes results from Release 3 of EnDF/B-VI (ENDF/B-VI.3) for both the core and infinite-lattice configurations. For this set of benchmarks, the only significant difference between the ENDF/B-VI.2 and EnDF/B-VI.3 libraries is the cross-section behavior of {sup 235}U. EnDF/B-VI.3 contains revised cross sections for {sup 235}U below 900 eV, although those changes principally affect the range below 110 eV. In particular, relative to EnDF/B-VI.2, EnDF/B-VI.3 increases the epithermal capture-to-fission ratio for {sup 235}U and slightly increases its thermal fission cross section.

  18. Structure, Motion, and Evolution of Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2003-01-01

    We have pursued spectral-line observations of star-forming regions over size scales from 0.01 pc to 0.5 pc. Our main goal has been to measure the systematic and turbulent motions of condensing and collapsing gas.

  19. Protostars and Planets VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    star and planet formation. They are used by students to dive into new topics, and they are much valued by experienced researchers as a comprehensive overview of the field with all its interactions. We hope that you will enjoy reading (and learning from) this book as much as we do. The organization of the Protostars and Planets conference was carried out in close collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Center for Astronomy of the University Heidelberg, with generous support from the German Science Foundation. This volume is a product of effort and care by many people. First and foremost, we want to acknowledge the 250 contributing authors, as it is only due to their expertise and knowledge that such a comprehensive review compendium in all its depth and breadth is possible. The Protostars and Planets VI conference and this volume was a major undertaking, with support and contributions by many people and institutions. We like to thank the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee who selected the 38 teams and chapters out of more than 120 submitted proposals. Similarly, we are grateful to the reviewers, who provided valuable input and help to the chapter authors. The book would also not have been possible without the great support of Renée Dotson and other staff from USRA’s Lunar and Planetary Institute, who handled the detailed processing of all manuscripts and the production of the book, and of Allyson Carter and other staff from the University of Arizona Press. We are also grateful to Richard Binzel, the General Editor of the Space Science Series, for his constant support during the long process, from the original concept to this final product. Finally, we would like to express a very special thank you to the entire conference local organizing committee, and in particular, Carmen Cuevas and Natali Jurina, for their great commitment to the project and for a very fruitful and enjoyable collaboration.

  20. Probing the Physical Structures of Dense Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    Filament is a common feature in cosmological structures of various scales, ranging from dark matter cosmic web, galaxy clusters, inter-galactic gas flows, to Galactic ISM clouds. Even within cold dense molecular cores, filaments have been detected. Theories and simulations with (or without) different combination of physical principles, including gravity, thermal balance, turbulence, and magnetic field, can reproduce intriguing images of filaments. The ubiquity of filaments and the similarity in simulated ones make physical parameters, beyond dust column density, a necessity for understanding filament evolution. I report three projects attempting to measure physical parameters of filaments. We derive the volume density of a dense Taurus filament based on several cyanoacetylene transitions observed by GBT and ART. We measure the gas temperature of the OMC 2-3 filament based on combined GBT+VLA ammonia images. We also measured the sub-millimeter polarization vectors along OMC3. These filaments were found to be likely a cylinder-type structure, without dynamic heating, and likely accreting mass along the magnetic field lines.

  1. UNITS OF WORK IN THE CORE CURRICULUM PROGRAM GRADE VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUEHLER, RONALD G.

    EIGHT UNITS OF WORLD HISTORY AND WORLD GEOGRAPHY ARE USED IN THE SIXTH GRADE AT GROSSE POINTE, MICHIGAN. THE PURPOSE OF THE FIRST UNIT, "MAN LEARNS TO USE HIS WORLD," IS TO CONSIDER CONTRIBUTIONS OF CULTURE BY OTHER CIVILIZATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS. THIS HISTORY OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLES AND CIVILIZATIONS IS TAUGHT. POSSIBLE GROUP ACTIVITIES…

  2. Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the reduction of U(VI) by nano-Fe0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Sun, Yubing; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-09-01

    The effects of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, a typical model bacterium) on the reduction of U(VI) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nano-Fe0) were investigated using batch techniques. The reaction products were analysed using spectroscopic techniques, and a kinetics model was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of U(VI) reduction by nano-Fe0. The presence of B. subtilis enhanced the U(VI) sorption rate at pH 3.5-9.5 but inhibited the reduction rate of U(VI) to U(IV) at pH > 4.5. According to the FTIR and XRD analysis, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was inhibited due to the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes between the oxygen-containing functional groups of B. subtilis or extracellular polymeric substances with the Fe(II)/Fe(III) generated by nano-Fe0, which blocked electron transport from the Fe0 core to U(VI). Based on the EXAFS analysis, a fitting of U-Fe shell at ∼3.44 Å revealed inner-sphere bidentate complexes between uranyl and the oxide film of nano-Fe0. For the nano-Fe0 + B. subtilis system, the U-Fe shell (at ∼3.44 Å) and the U-C/P shell (at ∼2.90 Å) further indicated the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The kinetics model supported that U(VI) reduction was triggered by U(VI) sorption on the oxide shell of nano-Fe0. The XPS and XANES analyses showed that reductive precipitation was the main mechanism of U(VI) removal by nano-Fe0, whereas the sorption process dominated the removal of U(VI) in the presence of B. subtilis, which was further demonstrated by TEM images.

  3. FUSE Observations of O VI Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of an initial Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of O VI Lambda 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d < or approximately equal 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O VI in the conductive interfaces between cool (about 10(exp 4) K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (10(exp 6) K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of 0 VI throughout the Galactic disk. We find no 0 VI absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O VI) about 5 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O VI) about 1 - 2 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(OVI) > or about equal to 10(exp 13)/sq cm per interface, in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak 0 VI absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T about 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O VI than we observe.

  4. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos & Nucleosynthesis in Hot Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Sanjay

    2013-09-06

    It is now firmly established that neutrinos, which are copiously produced in the hot and dense core of the supernova, play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism and in the synthesis of heavy elements through a phenomena known as r-process nucleosynthesis. They are also detectable in terrestrial neutrino experiments, and serve as a probe of the extreme environment and complex dynamics encountered in the supernova. The major goal of the UW research activity relevant to this project was to calculate the neutrino interaction rates in hot and dense matter of relevance to core collapse supernova. These serve as key input physics in large scale computer simulations of the supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis being pursued at national laboratories here in the United States and by other groups in Europe and Japan. Our calculations show that neutrino production and scattering rate are altered by the nuclear interactions and that these modifications have important implications for nucleosynthesis and terrestrial neutrino detection. The calculation of neutrino rates in dense matter are difficult because nucleons in the dense matter are strongly coupled. A neutrino interacts with several nucleons and the quantum interference between scattering off different nucleons depends on the nature of correlations between them in dense matter. To describe these correlations we used analytic methods based on mean field theory and hydrodynamics, and computational methods such as Quantum Monte Carlo. We found that due to nuclear effects neutrino production rates at relevant temperatures are enhanced, and that electron neutrinos are more easily absorbed than anti-electron neutrinos in dense matter. The latter, was shown to favor synthesis of heavy neutron-rich elements in the supernova.

  5. Magnetically regulated fragmentation of a massive, dense, and turbulent clump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Commerçon, B.; Giannetti, A.; Beltrán, M. T.; Sánchez-Monge, A.; Testi, L.; Brand, J.; Caselli, P.; Cesaroni, R.; Dodson, R.; Longmore, S.; Rioja, M.; Tan, J. C.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    Massive stars, multiple stellar systems, and clusters are born of the gravitational collapse of massive, dense, gaseous clumps, and the way these systems form strongly depends on how the parent clump fragments into cores during collapse. Numerical simulations show that magnetic fields may be the key ingredient in regulating fragmentation. Here we present ALMA observations at ~ 0.25'' resolution of the thermal dust continuum emission at ~ 278 GHz towards a turbulent, dense, and massive clump, IRAS 16061-5048c1, in a very early evolutionary stage. The ALMA image shows that the clump has fragmented into many cores along a filamentary structure. We find that the number, the total mass, and the spatial distribution of the fragments are consistent with fragmentation dominated by a strong magnetic field. Our observations support the theoretical prediction that the magnetic field plays a dominant role in the fragmentation process of massive turbulent clumps.

  6. Summary report of session VI

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou et al.

    2002-08-19

    This report gives a brief review of the presentations in Session VI of the Ecloud'02 Workshop and summarizes the major points during the discussions. Some points (e.g., the critical mass phenomenon) are not conclusive and even controversial. But it has been agreed that further investigations are warranted. The topic of Session VI in the Ecloud'02 workshop is ''Discussions of future studies, collaborations and possible solutions.'' Half of the session is devoted to presentations, another half to discussions. This report will focus on the latter. There are six presentations: (1) R. Macek, Possible cures to the e-cloud problem; (2) G. Rumolo, Driving the electron-cloud instability by an electron cooler; (3) U. Iriso Ariz, RF test benches for electron-cloud studies; (4) F. Caspers, Stealth clearing electrodes; (5) F. Ruggiero, Future electron-cloud studies at CERN; and (6) E. Perevedentsev, Beam-beam and transverse impedance model.

  7. Directional Mechanosensing in Myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yubo; Tehver, Riina

    2013-03-01

    Myosin is a family of versatile motor proteins that perform various tasks, such as organelle transport, anchoring and cell deformation. Although the general mechanism of the motors has been fairly well established, details on dynamic aspects like force response of the motor, and force propagation are yet to be fully understood. In this poster, we present the response of the ATP binding region to force exerted on the tail domain in order to test the proposed tension-dependent gating mechanism of myosin VI processive motion. We employed the Self-Organized Polymer model in a computer simulation to explore the effect. Current results show that the ATP binding domain of myosin VI indeed exhibits tension dependence - both structurally and dynamically.

  8. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, E. F.; Wong, T.; Bourke, T. L.; Thompson, K. L.

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star

  9. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-04-21

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  10. Road of warm dense noble metals to the plasma state: Ab initio theory of the ultrafast structural dynamics in warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabeer, Fairoja Cheenicode; Zijlstra, Eeuwe S.; Garcia, Martin E.

    2014-03-01

    Intense ultrashort extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses can be used to create warm dense matter in the laboratory, which then develops to a plasma state. So far, however, it is unknown, whether this transition occurs via heat transfer from hot electrons to cold atoms or nonthermally due to a lattice instability. Here we computed the response of the phonon spectra of copper and silver to the presence of XUV-excited core holes and core holes together with very hot electrons. We found that the average interatomic bonds become stronger in the warm dense state. We discuss why these findings support the above-mentioned heat transfer scenario.

  11. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Holt, Joseph B.; Kingman, Donald D.; Munir, Zuhair A.

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  12. Lyn, PKC-delta, SHIP-1 interactions regulate GPVI-mediated platelet-dense granule secretion.

    PubMed

    Chari, Ramya; Kim, Soochong; Murugappan, Swaminathan; Sanjay, Archana; Daniel, James L; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2009-10-01

    Protein kinase C-delta (PKC-delta) is expressed in platelets and activated downstream of protease-activated receptors (PARs) and glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptors. We have previously shown that PKC-delta positively regulates PAR-mediated dense granule secretion, whereas it negatively regulates GPVI-mediated dense granule secretion. We further investigated the mechanism of such differential regulation of dense granule release by PKC-delta in platelets. SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) is phosphorylated on Y1020, a marker for its activation, upon stimulation of human platelets with PAR agonists SFLLRN and AYPGKF or GPVI agonist convulxin. GPVI-mediated SHIP-1 phosphorylation occurred rapidly at 15 seconds, whereas PAR-mediated phosphorylation was delayed, occurring at 1 minute. Lyn and SHIP-1, but not SHIP-2 or Shc, preferentially associated with PKC-delta on stimulation of platelets with a GPVI agonist, but not with a PAR agonist. In PKC-delta-null murine platelets, convulxin-induced SHIP-1 phosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, in Lyn null murine platelets, GPVI-mediated phosphorylations on Y-1020 of SHIP-1 and Y311 of PKC-delta were inhibited. In murine platelets lacking Lyn or SHIP-1, GPVI-mediated dense granule secretions are potentiated, whereas PAR-mediated dense granule secretions are inhibited. Therefore, we conclude that Lyn-mediated phosphorylations of PKC-delta and SHIP-1 and their associations negatively regulate GPVI-mediated dense granule secretion in platelets. PMID:19587372

  13. Dense LU Factorization on Multicore Supercomputer Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Miller, Phil; Venkataraman, Ramprasad; Arya, Anshu; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Dense LU factorization is a prominent benchmark used to rank the performance of supercomputers. Many implementations, including the reference code HPL, use block-cyclic distributions of matrix blocks onto a two-dimensional process grid. The process grid dimensions drive a trade-off between communication and computation and are architecture- and implementation-sensitive. We show how the critical panel factorization steps can be made less communication-bound by overlapping asynchronous collectives for pivot identification and exchange with the computation of rank-k updates. By shifting this trade-off, a modified block-cyclic distribution can beneficially exploit more available parallelism on the critical path, and reduce panel factorization's memory hierarchy contention on now-ubiquitous multi-core architectures. The missed parallelism in traditional block-cyclic distributions arises because active panel factorization, triangular solves, and subsequent broadcasts are spread over single process columns or rows (respectively) of the process grid. Increasing one dimension of the process grid decreases the number of distinct processes in the other dimension. To increase parallelism in both dimensions, periodic 'rotation' is applied to the process grid to recover the row-parallelism lost by a tall process grid. During active panel factorization, rank-1 updates stream through memory with minimal reuse. In a column-major process grid, the performance of this access pattern degrades as too many streaming processors contend for access to memory. A block-cyclic mapping in the more popular row-major order does not encounter this problem, but consequently sacrifices node and network locality in the critical pivoting steps. We introduce 'striding' to vary between the two extremes of row- and column-major process grids. As a test-bed for further mapping experiments, we describe a dense LU implementation that allows a block distribution to be defined as a general function of block

  14. Phase VI Glove Durability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art space suit gloves, the Phase VI gloves, have an operational life of 25 -- 8 hour Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) in a dust free, manufactured microgravity EVA environment. Future planetary outpost missions create the need for space suit gloves which can endure up to 90 -- 8 hour traditional EVAs or 576 -- 45 minute suit port-based EVAs in a dirty, uncontrolled planetary environment. Prior to developing improved space suit gloves for use in planetary environments, it is necessary to understand how the current state-of-the-art performs in these environments. The Phase VI glove operational life has traditionally been certified through cycle testing consisting of International Space Station (ISS)-based EVA tasks in a clean environment, and glove durability while performing planetary EVA tasks in a dirty environment has not previously been characterized. Testing was performed in the spring of 2010 by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) to characterize the durability of the Phase VI Glove and identify areas of the glove design which need improvement to meet the requirements of future NASA missions. Lunar simulant was used in this test to help replicate the dirty lunar environment, and generic planetary surface EVA tasks were performed during testing. A total of 50 manned, pressurized test sessions were completed in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) using one pair of Phase VI gloves as the test article. The 50 test sessions were designed to mimic the total amount of pressurized cycling the gloves would experience over a 6 month planetary outpost mission. The gloves were inspected periodically throughout testing, to assess their condition at various stages in the test and to monitor the gloves for failures. Additionally, motion capture and force data were collected during 18 of the 50 test sessions to assess the accuracy of the cycle model predictions used in testing and to feed into the

  15. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-01-01

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  16. Myosin VI: cellular functions and motor properties.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rhys; Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Veigel, Claudia; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-12-29

    Myosin VI has been localized in membrane ruffles at the leading edge of cells, at the trans-Golgi network compartment of the Golgi complex and in clathrin-coated pits or vesicles, indicating that it functions in a wide variety of intracellular processes. Myosin VI moves along actin filaments towards their minus end, which is the opposite direction to all of the other myosins so far studied (to our knowledge), and is therefore thought to have unique properties and functions. To investigate the cellular roles of myosin VI, we identified various myosin VI binding partners and are currently characterizing their interactions within the cell. As an alternative approach, we have expressed and purified full-length myosin VI and studied its in vitro properties. Previous studies assumed that myosin VI was a dimer, but our biochemical, biophysical and electron microscopic studies reveal that myosin VI can exist as a stable monomer. We observed, using an optical tweezers force transducer, that monomeric myosin VI is a non-processive motor which, despite a relatively short lever arm, generates a large working stroke of 18 nm. Whether monomer and/or dimer forms of myosin VI exist in cells and their possible functions will be discussed. PMID:15647169

  17. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  18. Composite Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Spang & Company's new configuration of converter transformer cores is a composite of gapped and ungapped cores assembled together in concentric relationship. The net effect of the composite design is to combine the protection from saturation offered by the gapped core with the lower magnetizing requirement of the ungapped core. The uncut core functions under normal operating conditions and the cut core takes over during abnormal operation to prevent power surges and their potentially destructive effect on transistors. Principal customers are aerospace and defense manufacturers. Cores also have applicability in commercial products where precise power regulation is required, as in the power supplies for large mainframe computers.

  19. Improving Memory Subsystem Performance Using ViVA: Virtual Vector Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gebis, Joseph; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Williams, Samuel; Yelick, Katherine

    2009-01-12

    The disparity between microprocessor clock frequencies and memory latency is a primary reason why many demanding applications run well below peak achievable performance. Software controlled scratchpad memories, such as the Cell local store, attempt to ameliorate this discrepancy by enabling precise control over memory movement; however, scratchpad technology confronts the programmer and compiler with an unfamiliar and difficult programming model. In this work, we present the Virtual Vector Architecture (ViVA), which combines the memory semantics of vector computers with a software-controlled scratchpad memory in order to provide a more effective and practical approach to latency hiding. ViVA requires minimal changes to the core design and could thus be easily integrated with conventional processor cores. To validate our approach, we implemented ViVA on the Mambo cycle-accurate full system simulator, which was carefully calibrated to match the performance on our underlying PowerPC Apple G5 architecture. Results show that ViVA is able to deliver significant performance benefits over scalar techniques for a variety of memory access patterns as well as two important memory-bound compact kernels, corner turn and sparse matrix-vector multiplication -- achieving 2x-13x improvement compared the scalar version. Overall, our preliminary ViVA exploration points to a promising approach for improving application performance on leading microprocessors with minimal design and complexity costs, in a power efficient manner.

  20. Cr(VI) adsorption and reduction by humic acid coated on magnetite.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjun; Cai, Quan; Xu, Wei; Yang, Mingwei; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2014-07-15

    Easily separable humic acid coated magnetite (HA-Fe3O4) nanoparticles are employed for effective adsorption and reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The adsorption and reduction of Cr(VI) is effective under acidic, neutral, and basic pH conditions. The chromium adsorption nicely fits the Langmuir isotherm model, and the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous media by HA-Fe3O4 particles follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Characterization of the Cr-loaded HA-Fe3O4 materials by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) indicates Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) while the valence state of the iron core is unchanged. Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and X-ray diffraction measurements also indicate no detectable transformation of the Fe3O4 core occurs during Cr(VI) adsorption and reduction. Thus, suggesting HA on the surface of HA-Fe3O4 is responsible for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The functional groups associated with HA act as ligands leading to the Cr(III) complex via a coupled reduction-complexation mechanism. Cr K-edge EXAFS demonstrates the Cr(III) in the Cr-loaded HA-Fe3O4 materials has six neighboring oxygen atoms likely in an octahedral geometry with average bond lengths of 1.98 Å. These results demonstrate that easily separable HA-Fe3O4 particles have promising potential for removal and detoxification of Cr(VI) in aqueous media. PMID:24901955

  1. Cr(VI) adsorption and reduction by humic acid coated on magnetite.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjun; Cai, Quan; Xu, Wei; Yang, Mingwei; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2014-07-15

    Easily separable humic acid coated magnetite (HA-Fe3O4) nanoparticles are employed for effective adsorption and reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The adsorption and reduction of Cr(VI) is effective under acidic, neutral, and basic pH conditions. The chromium adsorption nicely fits the Langmuir isotherm model, and the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous media by HA-Fe3O4 particles follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Characterization of the Cr-loaded HA-Fe3O4 materials by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) indicates Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) while the valence state of the iron core is unchanged. Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and X-ray diffraction measurements also indicate no detectable transformation of the Fe3O4 core occurs during Cr(VI) adsorption and reduction. Thus, suggesting HA on the surface of HA-Fe3O4 is responsible for the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The functional groups associated with HA act as ligands leading to the Cr(III) complex via a coupled reduction-complexation mechanism. Cr K-edge EXAFS demonstrates the Cr(III) in the Cr-loaded HA-Fe3O4 materials has six neighboring oxygen atoms likely in an octahedral geometry with average bond lengths of 1.98 Å. These results demonstrate that easily separable HA-Fe3O4 particles have promising potential for removal and detoxification of Cr(VI) in aqueous media.

  2. Dynamics and evolution of dense stellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fregeau, John M.

    2004-10-01

    The research presented in this thesis comprises a theoretical study of several aspects relating to the dynamics and evolution of dense stellar systems such as globular clusters. First, I present the results of a study of mass segregation in two-component star clusters, based on a large number of numerical N-body simulations using our Monte-Carlo code. Heavy objects, which could represent stellar remnants such as neutron stars or black holes, exhibit behavior that is in quantitative agreement with simple analytical arguments. Light objects, which could represent free-floating planets or brown dwarfs, are predominantly lost from the cluster, as expected from simple analytical arguments, but may remain in the halo in larger numbers than expected. Using a recent null detection of planetary-mass microlensing events in M22, I find an upper limit of ˜25% at the 63% confidence level for the current mass fraction of M22 in the form of very low-mass objects. Turning to more realistic clusters, I present a study of the evolution of clusters containing primordial binaries, based on an enhanced version of the Monte-Carlo code that treats binary interactions via cross sections and analytical prescriptions. All models exhibit a long-lived “binary burning” phase lasting many tens of relaxation times. The structural parameters of the models during this phase match well those of most observed Galactic globular clusters. At the end of this phase, clusters that have survived tidal disruption undergo deep core collapse, followed by gravothermal oscillations. The results clearly show that the presence of even a small fraction of binaries in a cluster is sufficient to support the core against collapse significantly beyond the normal core collapse time predicted without the presence of binaries. For tidally truncated systems, collapse is delayed sufficiently that the cluster will undergo complete tidal disruption before core collapse. Moving a step beyond analytical prescriptions, I

  3. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, R.; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, P.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Benaoum, H.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E.; Craver, B.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Ibrahim, H.; Igarashi, R.; de Jager, C. W.; Jans, E.; Jiang, X.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kelleher, A.; Kolarkar, A.; Kumbartzki, G.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; Mazouz, M.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Potokar, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Reinhold, J.; Ron, G.; Rosner, G.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Sulkosky, V.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Voutier, E.; Watson, J. W.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wood, S.; Zheng, X.-C.; Zhu, L.

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  4. Dilatons in Dense Baryonic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun Kyu; Rho, Mannque

    We discuss the role of dilaton, which is supposed to be representing a special feature of scale symmetry of QCD, trace anomaly, in dense baryonic matter. The idea that the scale symmetry breaking of QCD is responsible for the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry is presented along the similar spirit of Freund-Nambu model. The incorporation of dilaton field in the hidden local symmetric parity doublet model is briefly sketched with the possible role of dilaton at high density baryonic matter, the emergence of linear sigma model in dilaton limit.

  5. Oxo complexes of Mo(VI) and W(VI) with α-alkoxycarboxylate ligands: The role of counterions and water of crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, Adelé; Dobrzańska, Liliana; Raubenheimer, Helgard G.; Luckay, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    Crystal structures of three oxo complexes of Mo(VI) and W(VI) with α-alkoxycarboxylate ligands were solved, namely [(CH3CH2)4N]2[Mo2O5(Hmal)2(H2O)2] (H3mal = malic acid) (1), Na6[Mo2O5(cit)2)]·10.5H2O (H4cit = citric acid) (2) and Na2[WO2(H2cit)2]·10H2O (3). In 1, dianionic malate ligands adopt a unique bidentate coordination mode via alkoxy and α-carboxylate groups in the oxo-bridged dinuclear anionic complex, in which two terminal oxo ligands and a water molecule complete the distorted octahedral geometry around the Mo(VI) centre. In compound 2, a similar oxo-bridged dinuclear core, [Mo2O5]2+, is present. However, the distorted octahedral geometry of each Mo(VI) is completed by oxygen atoms originating from a fully deprotonated citrate ligand, adopting a tridentate coordination mode. The mononuclear complex 3, with two terminal oxo ligands and four oxygen atoms originating from two dianionic, bidentately coordinated citrate ligands positioned in a distorted octahedral geometry around W(VI), shows the presence of unique icosameric water clusters trapped within the crystal lattice.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: collagen VI-related myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions collagen VI-related myopathy collagen VI-related myopathy Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Collagen VI-related myopathy is a group of disorders ...

  7. [Occupational exposure to chromium(VI) compounds].

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) on human health under conditions of acute and chronic exposure in the workplace. Chromium(VI) compounds as carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct danger to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be reduced to a minimum. In the European Union the proposed binding occupational exposure limit value (BOELV) for chromium(VI) of 0.025 mg/m³ is still associated with high cancer risk. Based on the Scientific Commitee of Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) document chromium(VI) concentrations at 0.025 mg/m³ increases the risk of lung cancer in 2-14 cases per 1000 exposed workers. Exposure to chromium(VI) compounds expressed in Cr(VI) of 0.01 mg Cr(VI)/m3; is responsible for the increased number of lung cancer cases in 1-6 per 1000 people employed in this condition for the whole period of professional activity.

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... efficient in removing mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger. Historical... means that disperses chromium (VI) into the air or onto an employee's body. (iii) The employer shall... change rooms in conformance with 29 CFR 1910.141. Where skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs,...

  9. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... efficient in removing mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger. Historical... means that disperses chromium (VI) into the air or onto an employee's body. (iii) The employer shall... change rooms in conformance with 29 CFR 1910.141. Where skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs,...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... efficient in removing mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger. Historical... means that disperses chromium (VI) into the air or onto an employee's body. (iii) The employer shall... change rooms in conformance with 29 CFR 1910.141. Where skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs,...

  11. Dissimilatory Reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, William Aaron; Apel, William Arnold; Peyton, B. M.; Petersen, J. N.; Sani, R.

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain (Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  12. Dissimilatory reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) by Cellulomonas isolates.

    PubMed

    Sani, R K; Peyton, B M; Smith, W A; Apel, W A; Petersen, J N

    2002-10-01

    The reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) was studied using three recently isolated environmental Cellulomonas sp. (WS01, WS18, and ES5) and a known Cellulomonas strain ( Cellulomonas flavigena ATCC 482) under anaerobic, non-growth conditions. In all cases, these cultures were observed to reduce Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI). In 100 h, with lactate as electron donor, the Cellulomonas isolates (500 mg/l total cell protein) reduced nitrilotriacetic acid chelated Fe(III) [Fe(III)-NTA] from 5 mM to less than 2.2 mM, Cr(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.001 mM, and U(VI) from 0.2 mM to less than 0.12 mM. All Cellulomonas isolates also reduced Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI) in the absence of lactate, while no metal reduction was observed in either the cell-free or heat-killed cell controls. This is the first report of Cellulomonas sp. reducing Fe(III) and U(VI). Further, this is the first report of Cellulomonas spp. coupling the oxidation of lactate, or other unknown electron donors in the absence of lactate, to the reduction of Cr(VI), Fe(III), and U(VI).

  13. The Radiolysis of AmVI Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2013-06-01

    The reduction of bismuthate-produced AmVI by 60Co gamma-rays was measured using post-irradiation UV/Vis spectroscopy. The reduction of AmVI by radiolysis was rapid, producing AmV as the sole product. Relatively low absorbed doses in the ~0.3 kGy range quantitatively reduced a solution of 2.5 x 10-4 M AmVI. The addition of bismuthate to samples during irradiation did not appear to protect AmVI from radiolytic reduction during these experiments. It was also shown here that AmV is very stable toward radiation. The quantitative reduction of the AmVI concentration here corresponds to 1.4 hours of exposure to a process solution, however the actual americium concentrations will be higher and the expected contact times short when using centrifugal contactors. Thus, the reduction rate found in these initial experiments may not be excessive.

  14. Mach reflection in a warm dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, J. M.; Rosen, P. A.; Wilde, B. H.; Hartigan, P.; Perry, T. S.

    2010-11-15

    The phenomenon of irregular shock-wave reflection is of importance in high-temperature gas dynamics, astrophysics, inertial-confinement fusion, and related fields of high-energy-density science. However, most experimental studies of irregular reflection have used supersonic wind tunnels or shock tubes, and few or no data are available for Mach reflection phenomena in the plasma regime. Similarly, analytic studies have often been confined to calorically perfect gases. We report the first direct observation, and numerical modeling, of Mach stem formation for a warm, dense plasma. Two ablatively driven aluminum disks launch oppositely directed, near-spherical shock waves into a cylindrical plastic block. The interaction of these shocks results in the formation of a Mach-ring shock that is diagnosed by x-ray backlighting. The data are modeled using radiation hydrocodes developed by AWE and LANL. The experiments were carried out at the University of Rochester's Omega laser [J. M. Soures, R. L. McCrory, C. P. Verdon et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2108 (1996)] and were inspired by modeling [A. M. Khokhlov, P. A. Hoeflich, E. S. Oran et al., Astrophys J. 524, L107 (1999)] of core-collapse supernovae that suggest that in asymmetric supernova explosion significant mass may be ejected in a Mach-ring formation launched by bipolar jets.

  15. Simplest identification, O-specific polysaccharide purification and antigenic evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Vi negative isolate.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Ali, Aamir; Jabbar, Abdul; Sarwar, Yasra; Rahman, Moazur; Iqbal, Mazhar; Haque, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Currently licensed typhoid vaccines are based on Vi capsular polysaccharides. Recent molecular reports from typhoid endemic countries state that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Vi negative strains occur naturally and cause typhoid fever which is indistinguishable from disease caused by Vi positive strains. Vaccine based on Vi polysaccharide may not protect patients if the invading S. Typhi are negative for Vi. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential component of S. Typhi outer membrane in which O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) is a protective antigen and universal candidate for vaccine development. In this study, S. Typhi Vi negative isolates were discriminated from Vi positive isolates through a duplex PCR using primers of fliC-d (599bp) and tviA (495bp) genes. The LPS of S. Typhi Vi negative isolates was extracted by hot phenol method and OSP was purified by core hydrolysis. The yield of extracted LPS was 91 mg/L and that of purified OSP was 49.14 mg/L of culture broth. LPS showed ladder like appearance by zinc imidazole staining following SDS-PAGE. Whole cell challenged mice sera were used for in vitro antigenicity evaluation of the purified LPS and OSP. The antigenicity was found adequate by immunodiffusion assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of purification and antigenic evaluation of LPS of a Vi negative S. Typhi isolate. The purified OSP from S. Typhi Vi negative isolate may be coupled with a carrier protein to produce universal low cost conjugate vaccine candidates for use in typhoid endemic regions. PMID:26600755

  16. Simplest identification, O-specific polysaccharide purification and antigenic evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Vi negative isolate

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Muhammad; Ali, Aamir; Jabbar, Abdul; Sarwar, Yasra; Rahman, Moazur; Iqbal, Mazhar; Haque, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Currently licensed typhoid vaccines are based on Vi capsular polysaccharides. Recent molecular reports from typhoid endemic countries state that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Vi negative strains occur naturally and cause typhoid fever which is indistinguishable from disease caused by Vi positive strains. Vaccine based on Vi polysaccharide may not protect patients if the invading S. Typhi are negative for Vi. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential component of S. Typhi outer membrane in which O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) is a protective antigen and universal candidate for vaccine development. In this study, S. Typhi Vi negative isolates were discriminated from Vi positive isolates through a duplex PCR using primers of fliC-d (599bp) and tviA (495bp) genes. The LPS of S. Typhi Vi negative isolates was extracted by hot phenol method and OSP was purified by core hydrolysis. The yield of extracted LPS was 91 mg/L and that of purified OSP was 49.14 mg/L of culture broth. LPS showed ladder like appearance by zinc imidazole staining following SDS-PAGE. Whole cell challenged mice sera were used for in vitro antigenicity evaluation of the purified LPS and OSP. The antigenicity was found adequate by immunodiffusion assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of purification and antigenic evaluation of LPS of a Vi negative S. Typhi isolate. The purified OSP from S. Typhi Vi negative isolate may be coupled with a carrier protein to produce universal low cost conjugate vaccine candidates for use in typhoid endemic regions. PMID:26600755

  17. Simplest identification, O-specific polysaccharide purification and antigenic evaluation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Vi negative isolate.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Ali, Aamir; Jabbar, Abdul; Sarwar, Yasra; Rahman, Moazur; Iqbal, Mazhar; Haque, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Currently licensed typhoid vaccines are based on Vi capsular polysaccharides. Recent molecular reports from typhoid endemic countries state that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) Vi negative strains occur naturally and cause typhoid fever which is indistinguishable from disease caused by Vi positive strains. Vaccine based on Vi polysaccharide may not protect patients if the invading S. Typhi are negative for Vi. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an essential component of S. Typhi outer membrane in which O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) is a protective antigen and universal candidate for vaccine development. In this study, S. Typhi Vi negative isolates were discriminated from Vi positive isolates through a duplex PCR using primers of fliC-d (599bp) and tviA (495bp) genes. The LPS of S. Typhi Vi negative isolates was extracted by hot phenol method and OSP was purified by core hydrolysis. The yield of extracted LPS was 91 mg/L and that of purified OSP was 49.14 mg/L of culture broth. LPS showed ladder like appearance by zinc imidazole staining following SDS-PAGE. Whole cell challenged mice sera were used for in vitro antigenicity evaluation of the purified LPS and OSP. The antigenicity was found adequate by immunodiffusion assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of purification and antigenic evaluation of LPS of a Vi negative S. Typhi isolate. The purified OSP from S. Typhi Vi negative isolate may be coupled with a carrier protein to produce universal low cost conjugate vaccine candidates for use in typhoid endemic regions.

  18. Uniformly dense polymeric foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2003-07-15

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.5 g/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microsphere material wherein some of the microspheres are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  19. A mechanochemical model for myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehver, Riina; Jack, Amanda; Lowe, Ian

    Myosin VI is a motor protein that transports cellular cargo along actin filaments. This transport takes place as a result of a coordinated mechano-chemical cycle that is controlled by external variables including imposed force and nucleotide concentrations. We present a model that captures the different dynamic pathways that myosin VI can take in response to these variables. The results of our model for experimentally observable quantities, such as the motor velocity or run length, agree with available experimental data, and we can also make predictions beyond the tested regimes. Using the model, we study how myosin VI reacts to its environment and test its operational efficiency.

  20. The performance of dense medium processes

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    Dense medium washing in baths and cyclones is widely carried out in South Africa. The paper shows the reason for the preferred use of dense medium processes rather than gravity concentrators such as jigs. The factors leading to efficient separation in baths are listed and an indication given of the extent to which these factors may be controlled and embodied in the deployment of baths and dense medium cyclones in the planning stages of a plant.

  1. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  2. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  3. Quantum chemistry study of uranium(VI), neptunium(V), and plutonium(IV,VI) complexes with preorganized tetradentate phenanthrolineamide ligands.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-10-20

    The preorganized tetradentate 2,9-diamido-1,10-phenanthroline ligand with hard-soft donors combined in the same molecule has been found to possess high selectivity toward actinides in an acidic aqueous solution. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) coupled with the quasi-relativistic small-core pseudopotential method was used to investigate the structures, bonding nature, and thermodynamic behavior of uranium(VI), neptunium(V), and plutonium(IV,VI) with phenanthrolineamides. Theoretical optimization shows that Et-Tol-DAPhen and Et-Et-DAPhen ligands are both coordinated with actinides in a tetradentate chelating mode through two N donors of the phenanthroline moiety and two O donors of the amide moieties. It is found that [AnO2L(NO3)](n+) (An = U(VI), Np(V), Pu(VI); n = 0, 1) and PuL(NO3)4 are the main 1:1 complexes. With respect to 1:2 complexes, the reaction [Pu(H2O)9](4+)(aq) + 2L(org) + 2NO3(-)(aq) → [PuL2(NO3)2](2+)(org) + 9H2O(aq) might be another probable extraction mechanism for Pu(IV). From the viewpoint of energy, the phenanthrolineamides extract actinides in the order of Pu(IV) > U(VI) > Pu(VI) > Np(V), which agrees well with the experimental results. Additionally, all of the thermodynamic reactions are more energetically favorable for the Et-Tol-DAPhen ligand than the Et-Et-DAPhen ligand, indicating that substitution of one ethyl group with one tolyl group can enhance the complexation abilities toward actinide cations (anomalous aryl strengthening).

  4. The Transition from Diffuse to Dense Gas in Herschel Dust Emission Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul

    Dense cores in dark clouds are the sites where young stars form. These regions manifest as relatively small (<0.1pc) pockets of cold and dense gas. If we wish to understand the star formation process, we have to understand the physical conditions in dense cores. This has been a main aim of star formation research in the past decade. Today, we do indeed possess a good knowledge of the density and velocity structure of cores, as well as their chemical evolution and physical lifetime. However, we do not understand well how dense cores form out of the diffuse gas clouds surrounding them. It is crucial that we constrain the relationship between dense cores and their environment: if we only understand dense cores, we may be able to understand how individual stars form --- but we would not know how the star forming dense cores themselves come into existence. We therefore propose to obtain data sets that reveal both dense cores and the clouds containing them in the same map. Based on these maps, we will study how dense cores form out of their natal clouds. Since cores form stars, this knowledge is crucial for the development of a complete theoretical and observational understanding of the formation of stars and their planets, as envisioned in NASA's Strategic Science Plan. Fortunately, existing archival data allow to derive exactly the sort of maps we need for our analysis. Here, we describe a program that exclusively builds on PACS and SPIRE dust emission imaging data from the NASA-supported Herschel mission. The degree-sized wide-field Herschel maps of the nearby (<260pc) Polaris Flare and Aquila Rift clouds are ideal for our work. They permit to resolve dense cores (<0.1pc), while the maps also reveal large-scale cloud structure (5pc and larger). We will generate column density maps from these dust emission maps and then run a tree-based hierarchical multi-scale structure analysis on them. Only this procedure permits to exploit the full potential of the maps: we will

  5. ETS-VI multibeam satellite communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Makoto; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Isao

    1989-10-01

    The fixed and mobile satellite communications systems of the Japanese Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) are described. The system requirements are outlined along with the system configuration. The ETS-VI multibeam system employs three frequency bands. When used for Ka-band fixed communications, it covers the Japanese main islands with thirteen 0.3-degree-wide spot beam. Four of the beams are active for ETS-VI. When used for S-band mobile communications, five beams cover the area within 200 nautical miles from the Japanese coast. The C-band beam for fixed communications covers the central area of the Japanese main islands with a single beam. The onboard antenna system is described along with the transponders and their associated onboard systems. A discussion of the system technology follows, covering the TDMA transmisssion system, the relay function, rainfall compensation, and the antenna and propagation performance.

  6. Rheology of water ices V and VI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the mechanical strength (??) of pure water ices V and VI under steady state deformation conditions. Constant displacement rate compressional tests were conducted in a gas apparatus at confining pressures from 400 250 K. Ices V and VI are thus Theologically distinct but by coincidence have approximately the same strength under the conditions chosen for these experiments. To avoid misidentification, these tests are therefore accompanied by careful observations of the occurrences and characteristics of phase changes. One sample each of ice V and VI was quenched at pressure to metastably retain the high-pressure phase and the acquired deformation microstructures; X ray diffraction analysis of these samples confirmed the phase identification. Surface replicas of the deformed and quenched samples suggest that ice V probably deforms largely by dislocation creep, while ice VI deforms by a more complicated process involving substantial grain size reduction through recrystallization.

  7. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  12. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  13. 19 CFR Annex Vi to Part 351 - Countervailing Investigations Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Countervailing Investigations Timeline VI Annex VI to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VI Annex VI to Part 351—Countervailing Investigations Timeline ER19MY97.000...

  14. Percolation in dense storage arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Scott; Wilcke, Winfried W.; Garner, Robert B.; Huels, Harald

    2002-11-01

    As computers and their accessories become smaller, cheaper, and faster the providers of news, retail sales, and other services we now take for granted on the Internet have met their increasing computing needs by putting more and more computers, hard disks, power supplies, and the data communications linking them to each other and to the rest of the wired world into ever smaller spaces. This has created a new and quite interesting percolation problem. It is no longer desirable to fix computers, storage or switchgear which fail in such a dense array. Attempts to repair things are all too likely to make problems worse. The alternative approach, letting units “fail in place”, be removed from service and routed around, means that a data communications environment will evolve with an underlying regular structure but a very high density of missing pieces. Some of the properties of this kind of network can be described within the existing paradigm of site or bond percolation on lattices, but other important questions have not been explored. I will discuss 3D arrays of hundreds to thousands of storage servers (something which it is quite feasible to build in the next few years), and show that bandwidth, but not percolation fraction or shortest path lengths, is the critical factor affected by the “fail in place” disorder. Redundancy strategies traditionally employed in storage systems may have to be revised. Novel approaches to routing information among the servers have been developed to minimize the impact.

  15. Role of dense matter in collective supernova neutrino transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban-Pretel, A.; Pastor, S.; Mirizzi, A.; Tomas, R.; Raffelt, G. G.; Serpico, P. D.; Sigl, G.

    2008-10-15

    For neutrinos streaming from a supernova core, dense matter suppresses self-induced flavor transformations if the electron density n{sub e} significantly exceeds the neutrino density n{sub {nu}} in the conversion region. If n{sub e} is comparable to n{sub {nu}}, one finds multiangle decoherence, whereas the standard self-induced transformation behavior requires that in the transformation region n{sub {nu}} is safely above n{sub e}. This condition need not be satisfied in the early phase after the supernova core bounce. Our new multiangle effect is a subtle consequence of neutrinos traveling on different trajectories when streaming from a source that is not pointlike.

  16. Carbon chemistry in dense molecular clouds: Theory and observational constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    For the most part, gas phase models of the chemistry of dense molecular clouds predict the abundances of simple species rather well. However, for larger molecules and even for small systems rich in carbon these models often fail spectacularly. Researchers present a brief review of the basic assumptions and results of large scale modeling of the carbon chemistry in dense molecular clouds. Particular attention is to the influence of the gas phase C/O ratio in molecular clouds, and the likely role grains play in maintaining this ratio as clouds evolve from initially diffuse objects to denser cores with associated stellar and planetary formation. Recent spectral line surveys at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths along with selected observations in the submillimeter have now produced an accurate inventory of the gas phase carbon budget in several different types of molecular clouds, though gaps in our knowledge clearly remain. The constraints these observations place on theoretical models of interstellar chemistry can be used to gain insights into why the models fail, and show also which neglected processes must be included in more complete analyses. Looking toward the future, larger molecules are especially difficult to study both experimentally and theoretically in such dense, cold regions, and some new methods are therefore outlined which may ultimately push the detectability of small carbon chains and rings to much heavier species.

  17. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of aqueous cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.K.; Rivera, W.; Smith, J.O.; O`Brien, B.

    1998-09-01

    The rates of oxidation of cyanide with Fe(VI) were measured as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction was found to be first order for each reactant. The rates decrease with increasing pH. The energy of activation was found to be 38.9 {+-} 1.0 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} at pH 9.0. The removal of cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was studied at pH 7.5, 9.0, and 12.0. Fe(VI) removal efficiency was greater at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.5 and 12.0. At pH 9.0, Fe(VI) molar consumption was nearly equal to that of oxidized cyanide. Cyanate and nitrite ions were identified as the products of the reaction at pH 7.5. The experiments indicated 1:1 stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to nitrite ion at pH 9.0 and 12.0. Experiments were conducted to test the Fe(VI) removal efficiency of cyanide in electroplating rinsewater. The results indicate that Fe(VI) has the potential to serve as a reliable and safe oxidative treatment for removing cyanide in wastewater effluent.

  18. Crystallization of dense neutron matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Chitre, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The equation of state for cold neutron matter at high density is studied in the t-matrix formulation, and it is shown that energetically it is convenient to have neutrons in a crystalline configuration rather than in a liquid state for values of the density exceeding 1600 Tg/cu cm. The study of the mechanical properties indicates that the system is stable against shearing stresses. A solid core in the deep interior of heavy neutron stars appears to offer the most plausible explanation of speed-ups observed in the Vela pulsar.

  19. Spitzer Observations of L429: A Near-collapse or Collapsing Starless Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Rieke, George H.; Bieging, John H.; Misselt, Karl A.; Myers, Philip C.; Shirley, Yancy L.

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer infrared (IR) observations of the starless core L429. The IR images of this core show an absorption feature, caused by the dense core material, at wavelengths <= 70 μ. The core has a steep density profile, and reaches AV > 35 mag near the center. We show that L429 is either collapsing or in a near-collapse state.

  20. Characterization of Amoeba proteus myosin VI immunoanalog.

    PubMed

    Dominik, Magdalena; Kłopocka, Wanda; Pomorski, Paweł; Kocik, Elzbieta; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2005-07-01

    Amoeba proteus, the highly motile free-living unicellular organism, has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion and intracellular actin-based-only trafficking remain poorly understood. A search for myosin motors responsible for vesicular transport in these giant cells resulted in detection of 130-kDa protein interacting with several polyclonal antibodies against different tail regions of human and chicken myosin VI. This protein was binding to actin in the ATP-dependent manner, and immunoprecipitated with anti-myosin VI antibodies. In order to characterize its possible functions in vivo, its cellular distribution and colocalization with actin filaments and dynamin II during migration and pinocytosis were examined. In migrating amoebae, myosin VI immunoanalog localized to vesicular structures, particularly within the perinuclear and sub-plasma membrane areas, and colocalized with dynamin II immunoanalog and actin filaments. The colocalization was even more evident in pinocytotic cells as proteins concentrated within pinocytotic pseudopodia. Moreover, dynamin II and myosin VI immunoanalogs cosedimented with actin filaments, and were found on the same isolated vesicles. Blocking endogenous myosin VI immunoanalog with anti-myosin VI antibodies inhibited the rate of pseudopodia protrusion (about 19% decrease) and uroidal retraction (about 28% decrease) but did not affect cell morphology and the manner of cell migration. Treatment with anti-human dynamin II antibodies led to changes in directionality of amebae migration and affected the rate of only uroidal translocation (about 30% inhibition). These results indicate that myosin VI immunoanalog is expressed in protist Amoeba proteus and may be involved in vesicle translocation and cell locomotion.

  1. Education and Title VI. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    The Office for Civil Rights (OCR), in the U.S. Department of Education, is a law enforcement agency charged with enforcing the federal civil rights laws, one of which is Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VI protects people from discrimination based on race, color, or national origin in programs or activities that receive federal…

  2. HOW STARLESS ARE STARLESS CORES?

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, Scott; Friesen, Rachel; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Enoch, Melissa; Sadavoy, Sarah

    2012-01-20

    In this paper, we present the results of Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy continuum and spectral line observations of the dense core Per-Bolo 45. Although this core has previously been classified as starless, we find evidence for an outflow and conclude that Per-Bolo 45 is actually an embedded, low-luminosity protostar. We discuss the impact of newly discovered, low-luminosity, embedded objects in the Perseus molecular cloud on starless core and protostar lifetimes. We estimate that the starless core lifetime has been overestimated by 4%-18% and the Class 0/I protostellar lifetime has been underestimated by 5%-20%. Given the relatively large systematic uncertainties involved in these calculations, variations on the order of 10% do not significantly change either core lifetimes or the expected protostellar luminosity function. Finally, we suggest that high-resolution (sub)millimeter surveys of known cores lacking near-infrared and mid-infrared emission are necessary to make an accurate census of starless cores.

  3. Duration of Vi antibodies in participants vaccinated with Typhim Vi (Typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine) in an area not endemic for typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Froeschle, James E; Decker, Michael D

    2010-02-10

    After a single injection of Typhim Vi (typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine), serum antibody concentrations were monitored for 3 years in 37 adults who resided where typhoid fever was not endemic. Anti-Vi antibody concentrations declined progressively during the study, to levels that support the current US recommendation for revaccination every 2 years.

  4. Grain Alignment in Starless Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to {{A}V}˜ 48. We find that {{P}K}/{{τ }K} continues to decline with increasing AV with a power law slope of roughly -0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by {{A}V}≳ 20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ˜-1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than {{A}V}˜ 20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  5. Formation and evolution of black holes in dense star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Sanghamitra

    Using supercomputer simulations combining stellar dynamics and stellar evolution, we have studied various problems related to the existence of black holes in dense star clusters. We consider both stellar and intermediate-mass black holes, and we focus on massive, dense star clusters, such as old globular clusters and young, so called "super star clusters." The first problem concerns the formation of intermediate-mass black holes in young clusters through the runaway collision instability. A promising mechanism to form intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) is runaway mergers in dense star clusters, where main-sequence stars collide re- peatedly and form a very massive star (VMS), which then collapses to a black hole (BH). Here we study the effects of primordial mass segregation and the importance of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) on the runaway growth of VMSs using a dynamical Monte Carlo code to model systems with N as high as 10^6 stars. Our Monte Carlo code includes an explicittreatment of all stellar collisions. We place special emphasis on the possibility of top-heavy IMFs, as observed in some very young massive clusters. We find that both primordial mass segregation and the shape of the IMF affect the rate of core collapse of star clusters and thus the time of the runaway. When we include primordial mass segregation we generally see a decrease in core collapse time (tcc). Although for smaller degrees of primordial mass segregation this decrease in tcc is mostly due to the change in the density profile of the cluster, for highly mass-segregated (primordial) clusters, it is the increase in the average mass in the core which reduces the central relaxation time, decreasing tcc. Finally, flatter IMFs generally increase the average mass in the whole cluster, which increases tcc. For the range of IMFs investigated in this thesis, this increase in tcc is to some degree balanced by stellar collisions, which accelerate core collapse. Thus there is no

  6. O VI absorption in interstellar cloud surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Jenkins, E. B.; Songaila, A.; York, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The velocity profiles of O VI absorption lines of 24 stars, observed in early Copernicus surveys, have been compared with the line profiles of Si III (1206.51 A) and N II (1083.99 A). The velocity structures of the O VI lines appear to be correlated with those of the material in the lower ionization stages. It is argued that the O VI absorption arises in the coronal gas of the conductive interface between hot gas, responsible for extended, soft X-ray emission, and cooler interstellar clouds. The velocity broadening of both sets of lines is attributed to motions of the cloud surfaces induced by pressure fluctuations in the interstellar medium.

  7. Wide Variation Seen in 'Dense' Breast Diagnoses

    MedlinePlus

    ... defined mammography patients' breasts as dense. Higher breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, experts ... could have implications for the so-called breast density notification laws that have been passed in about ...

  8. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Seroprevalence of anti Vi antibodies and immunogenicity of Typhim Vi vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Faridi, M M A; Aggarwal, Anju; Kaur, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out on 250 children between 6 months to 5 years of age to determine seroprevalence of anti Vi antibodies and to measure seroresponse and percent seroconversion to TyphimVi polysaccharide vaccine in children 2-5 years of age. Fifty children each were enrolled between 6 to 12 months of age (Group A), between 1- 2 years of age(Group B), between 2-3 years of age (Group C), between 3-4 years of age (Group D) and between 4-5 years of age (Group E). Anti-Vi antibody baseline titres were determined in all children. Children in Groups C to E were vaccinated with Typhim Vi vaccine. Baseline and postvaccination antibody titres were determined by ELISA. Test sera which had antibody levels >1 microg/ml were scored as seropositive. Of 250 children, 3 had base line anti-Vi antibodies >1 microg/ml. Following immunization overall seroconversion rate was 77.5% with 65.3%, 78.2% and 88% children showing seroconversion in Groups C, D and E respectively. Seroconversion was significantly more in Group E children compared to Group C (p=0.0148). There were no significant adverse reactions following vaccination. The study highlights very low prevalence of baseline anti Vi antibodies in children between 6 months and less than 5 years of age and shows high immunogenicity and safety of Typhim Vi polysaccharide vaccine in children 2-5 years of age.

  10. METHOD OF PRODUCING DENSE CONSOLIDATED METALLIC REGULUS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-08-11

    A methcd is presented for reducing dense metal compositions while simultaneously separating impurities from the reduced dense metal and casting the reduced parified dense metal, such as uranium, into well consolidated metal ingots. The reduction is accomplished by heating the dense metallic salt in the presence of a reducing agent, such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal in a bomb type reacting chamber, while applying centrifugal force on the reacting materials. Separation of the metal from the impurities is accomplished essentially by the incorporation of a constricted passageway at the vertex of a conical reacting chamber which is in direct communication with a collecting chamber. When a centrifugal force is applled to the molten metal and slag from the reduction in a direction collinear with the axis of the constricted passage, the dense molten metal is forced therethrough while the less dense slag is retained within the reaction chamber, resulting in a simultaneous separation of the reduced molten metal from the slag and a compacting of the reduced metal in a homogeneous mass.

  11. Diluted Magnetic Iv-Vi Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Pascher, H.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * MAGNETIC PROPERTIES * Susceptibility * High Field Magnetization * Spin Glass Phase * Free Carrier Induced Ferromagnetism * Magnetic Properties of Layered IV-VI Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors * CALCULATION OF LANDAU STATES: MEAN FIELD THEORY FOR IV-VI COMPOUNDS * MAGNETOTRANSPORT * OPTICAL INTERBAND TRANSITIONS * Photoluminescence Without Magnetic Field * Magnetooptical Interband Transitions * COHERENT RAMAN SCATTERING * Theory * Classical approach * Nonlinear susceptibility in semiconductors * Experimental Results and Discussion * Results: Pb1-xMnxTe * Results: Pb1-xEuxSe * Effective Electron and Hole g factors * FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY * COMPARISON EXPERIMENT - MOLECULAR FIELD THEORY * Band and Exchange Parameters * Selection Rules * CONCLUSION * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  12. High-pressure radiative conductivity of dense silicate glasses with potential implications for dark magmas.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Motohiko; Goncharov, Alexander F; Hirao, Naohisa; Masuda, Ryo; Mitsui, Takaya; Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Bina, Craig R

    2014-01-01

    The possible presence of dense magmas at Earth's core-mantle boundary is expected to substantially affect the dynamics and thermal evolution of Earth's interior. However, the thermal transport properties of silicate melts under relevant high-pressure conditions are poorly understood. Here we report in situ high-pressure optical absorption and synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopic measurements of iron-enriched dense silicate glasses, as laboratory analogues for dense magmas, up to pressures of 85 GPa. Our results reveal a significant increase in absorption coefficients, by almost one order of magnitude with increasing pressure to ~50 GPa, most likely owing to gradual changes in electronic structure. This suggests that the radiative thermal conductivity of dense silicate melts may decrease with pressure and so may be significantly smaller than previously expected under core-mantle boundary conditions. Such dark magmas heterogeneously distributed in the lower mantle would result in significant lateral heterogeneity of heat flux through the core-mantle boundary. PMID:25384573

  13. Radio core dominance of Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Jun-Hui; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Yi-Hai; Cai, Wei; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Lin, Chao; Yang, Jiang-He

    2016-07-01

    During the first 4 years of mission, Fermi/LAT detected 1444 blazars (3FGL) (Ackermann et al. in Astrophys. J. 810:14, 2015). Fermi/LAT observations of blazars indicate that Fermi blazars are luminous and strongly variable with variability time scales, for some cases, as short as hours. Those observations suggest a strong beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars. In the present work, we will investigate the beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars using a core-dominance parameter, R = S_{core}/ S_{ext.}, where S_{core} is the core emission, while S_{ext.} is the extended emission. We compiled 1335 blazars with available core-dominance parameter, out of which 169 blazars have γ-ray emission (from 3FGL). We compared the core-dominance parameters, log R, between the 169 Fermi-detected blazars (FDBs) and the rest non-Fermi-detected blazars (non-FDBs), and we found that the averaged values are < log Rrangle = 0.99±0.87 for FDBs and < log Rrangle = -0.62±1.15 for the non-FDBs. A K-S test shows that the probability for the two distributions of FDBs and non-FDBs to come from the same parent distribution is near zero (P =9.12×10^{-52}). Secondly, we also investigated the variability index (V.I.) in the γ-ray band for FDBs, and we found V.I.=(0.12 ±0.07) log R+(2.25±0.10), suggesting that a source with larger log R has larger V.I. value. Thirdly, we compared the mean values of radio spectral index for FDBs and non-FDBs, and we obtained < α_{radio}rangle =0.06±0.35 for FDBs and < α_{radio}rangle =0.57±0.46 for non-FDBs. If γ-rays are composed of two components like radio emission (core and extended components), then we can expect a correlation between log R and the γ-ray spectral index. When we used the radio core-dominance parameter, log R, to investigate the relationship, we found that the spectral index for the core component is α_{γ}|_{core} = 1.11 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{core} = 2.11) and that for the extended component is α_{γ}|_{ext.} = 0

  14. Characterization of the Salmonella paratyphi C Vi polysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, E M; Schneerson, R; Egan, W M; Szu, S C; Robbins, J B

    1989-01-01

    The Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi) is both a virulence factor and a protective antigen of Salmonella typhi; its pathogenic role for Salmonella paratyphi C is less well understood. We found no differences between the antigenic and immunogenic properties and the structure of the Vi from representative strains of S. paratyphi C, S. typhi, and Citrobacter freundii. There were, however, differences in both the amount produced per cell and the degree of association with the cell among the Vi from the three species of Enterobacteriaceae. S. paratyphi C produced less Vi than both the wild-type S. typhi and C. freundii did, and it showed the fastest release of Vi into the media. These findings may provide an explanation for the inability of the Vi to inhibit completely the agglutination of S. paratyphi C by anti-O sera. In an outbreak of enteric fever caused by S. paratyphi C, 66 of 78 isolates (85%) were Vi positive. Images PMID:2506132

  15. Malarial EBA-175 region VI crystallographic structure reveals a KIX-like binding interface.

    PubMed

    Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Haire, Lesley F; Hackett, Fiona; Walker, Philip A; Howell, Steven A; Smerdon, Stephen J; Dodson, Guy G; Blackman, Michael J

    2008-01-18

    The malaria parasite proliferates in the bloodstream of its vertebrate host by invading and replicating within erythrocytes. To achieve successful invasion, a number of discrete and essential events need to take place at the parasite-host cell interface. Erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 (EBA-175) is a member of a family of Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding proteins involved in the formation of a tight junction, a necessary step in invasion. Here we present the crystal structure of EBA-175 region VI (rVI), a cysteine-rich domain that is highly conserved within the protein family and is essential for EBA-175 trafficking. The structure was solved by selenomethionine single-wavelength anomalous dispersion at 1.8 A resolution. It reveals a homodimer, containing in each subunit a compact five-alpha-helix core that is stabilized by four conserved disulfide bridges. rVI adopts a novel fold that is likely conserved across the protein family, indicating a conserved function. It shows no similarity to the Duffy-binding-like domains of EBA-175 involved in erythrocyte binding, indicating a distinct role. Remarkably, rVI possesses structural features related to the KIX-binding domain of the coactivator CREB-binding protein, supporting the binding and trafficking roles that have been ascribed to it and providing a rational basis for further experimental investigation of its function.

  16. (Lysozyme type VI)-stabilized Au8 clusters: synthesis mechanism and application for sensing of glutathione in a single drop of blood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Heng; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2012-06-25

    This paper presents a one-pot approach for preparing highly fluorescent Au(8) clusters by reacting the Au(3+) precursor solution with lysozyme type VI (Lys VI) at pH 3. The fluorescence band of (Lys VI)-stabilized Au(8) clusters is centered at 455 nm on the excitation at 380 nm. Blue-emitting Au(8) clusters have a high quantum yield (∼56%), two fluorescence lifetimes, and a rare amount of Au(+) on the surface of the Au core. When the pH of a solution of Au(8) clusters increases suddenly to 12, the Au(8) clusters gradually convert to Au(25) clusters over time. This conversion is also observed in the case of (Lys VI)-directed synthesis of Au(25) clusters at pH 12. The pH-induced conversion of Au(8) to Au(25) clusters suggests that the size of (Lys VI)-stabilized gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) relies on the secondary structure of Lys VI, which is susceptible to pH change. Based on these results and previous literature, this paper proposes the possible mechanism for growing (Lys VI)-stabilized Au(8) and Au(25) clusters. Additionally, (Lys VI)-stabilized Au(8) clusters could sense glutathione (GSH) through GSH-induced core-etching of Au(8) clusters; the limit of detection at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for GSH is determined to be 20 nm. Except for cysteine, the selectivity of (Lys VI)-stabilized Au(8) clusters for GSH over amino acids is remarkably high. The practicality of using Au(8) clusters to determine the concentration of GSH in a single drop of blood is also validated.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and compounds in construction, except: (2) Exposures that occur in the application of pesticides... requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. (3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The... CFR 1926.51 Where skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs, the employer shall provide...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and compounds in construction, except: (2) Exposures that occur in the application of pesticides... requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. (3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The... CFR 1926.51 Where skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs, the employer shall provide...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... that occur in the application of pesticides regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency or another... requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. (3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The... CFR 1910.141. Where skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs, the employer shall provide...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that occur in the application of pesticides regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency or another... requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. (3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The... CFR 1910.141. Where skin contact with chromium (VI) occurs, the employer shall provide...

  1. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26997541

  2. Chromium(VI) bioremediation by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Younan, Soraia; Sakita, Gabriel Z; Albuquerque, Talita R; Keller, Rogéria; Bremer-Neto, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    Chromium is a common mineral in the earth's crust and can be released into the environment from anthropogenic sources. Intake of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) through drinking water and food causes toxic effects, leading to serious diseases, and is a commonly reported environmental problem. Microorganisms can mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by heavy metals in addition to having effective resistance mechanisms to prevent cell damage and bind to these metals, sequestering them from the cell surface and removing them from the body. Species of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Bacillus and Bifidobacterium present in the human mouth and gut and in fermented foods have the ability to bind and detoxify some of these substances. This review address the primary topics related to Cr(VI) poisoning in animals and humans and the use of probiotics as a way to mitigate or prevent the toxic effects caused by Cr(VI). Further advances in the genetic knowledge of such microorganisms may lead to discoveries which will clarify the most active microorganisms that act as bioprotectants in bodies exposed to Cr(VI) and are an affordable option for people and animals intoxicated by the oral route. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... efficient in removing mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger. Historical... requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. (3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The... (VI) from protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... efficient in removing mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or larger. Historical... requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. (3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The... (VI) from protective clothing and equipment by blowing, shaking, or any other means that...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  11. 40 CFR Appendixes Vi-Vii to Part 600 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false VI Appendixes VI-VII to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendixes VI-VII to Part 600...

  12. 40 CFR Appendixes Vi-Vii to Part 600 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false VI Appendixes VI-VII to Part 600 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Appendixes VI-VII to Part 600...

  13. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ensure compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; 49 CFR part 21; and related statutes and... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND...

  14. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ensure compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; 49 CFR part 21; and related statutes and... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND...

  15. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ensure compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; 49 CFR part 21; and related statutes and... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND...

  16. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ensure compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; 49 CFR part 21; and related statutes and... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND...

  17. H3+ in dense and diffuse clouds.

    PubMed

    McCall, B J; Hinkle, K H; Geballe, T R; Oka, T

    1998-01-01

    Interstellar H3+ has been detected in dense as well as diffuse clouds using three 3.7 microns infrared spectral lines of the nu 2 fundamental band. Column densities of H3+ from (1.7-5.5) x 10(14) cm-2 have been measured in dense clouds in absorption against the infrared continua of the deeply embedded young stellar objects GL2136, W33A, MonR2 IRS 3, GL961E, and GL2591. Strong and broad H3+ absorptions have been detected in dense and diffuse clouds towards GC IRS 3 and GCS3-2 in the region of the galactic center. A large column density of H3+, comparable to that of a dense cloud, has been detected towards the visible star Cygnus OB2 No. 12, which has a line of sight that crosses mostly diffuse clouds. The H3+ chemistry of dense and diffuse clouds are discussed using a very simple model. Some future projects and problems are discussed.

  18. Accessibility of electron Bernstein modes in over-dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M. D.; Bigelow, T. S.; Batchelor, D. B.

    1999-09-20

    Mode-conversion between the ordinary, extraordinary and electron Bernstein modes near the plasma edge may allow signals generated by electrons in an over-dense plasma to be detected. Alternatively, high frequency power may gain accessibility to the core plasma through this mode conversion process. Many of the tools used for ion cyclotron antenna design can also be applied near the electron cyclotron frequency. In this paper, we investigate the the possibilities for an antenna that may couple to electron Bernstein modes inside an over-dense plasma. The optimum values for wavelengths that undergo mode-conversion are found by scanning the poloidal and toroidal response of the plasma using a warm plasma slab approximation with a sheared magnetic field. Only a very narrow region of the edge can be examined in this manner; however, ray tracing may be used to follow the mode converted power in a more general geometry. It is eventually hoped that the methods can be extended to a hot plasma representation. Using antenna design codes, some basic antenna shapes will be considered to see what types of antennas might be used to detect or launch modes that penetrate the cutoff layer in the edge plasma. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Accessibillity of Electron Bernstein Modes in Over-Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, D.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.

    1999-04-12

    Mode-conversion between the ordinary, extraordinary and electron Bernstein modes near the plasma edge may allow signals generated by electrons in an over-dense plasma to be detected. Alternatively, high frequency power may gain accessibility to the core plasma through this mode conversion process. Many of the tools used for ion cyclotron antenna de-sign can also be applied near the electron cyclotron frequency. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities for an antenna that may couple to electron Bernstein modes inside an over-dense plasma. The optimum values for wavelengths that undergo mode-conversion are found by scanning the poloidal and toroidal response of the plasma using a warm plasma slab approximation with a sheared magnetic field. Only a very narrow region of the edge can be examined in this manner; however, ray tracing may be used to follow the mode converted power in a more general geometry. It is eventually hoped that the methods can be extended to a hot plasma representation. Using antenna design codes, some basic antenna shapes will be considered to see what types of antennas might be used to detect or launch modes that penetrate the cutoff layer in the edge plasma.

  20. U(VI) reduction to mononuclear U(VI) by desulfitobacterium spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, K. E.; Boyanov, M. I.; Thomas, S. H.; Wu, Q.; Kemner, K. M.; Loffler, F. E.

    2010-06-15

    The bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) affects uranium mobility and fate in contaminated subsurface environments and is best understood in Gram-negative model organisms such as Geobacter and Shewanella spp. This study demonstrates that U(VI) reduction is a common trait of Gram-positive Desulfitobacterium spp. Five different Desulfitobacterium isolates reduced 100 {mu}M U(VI) to U(IV) in <10 days, whereas U(VI) remained soluble in abiotic and heat-killed controls. U(VI) reduction in live cultures was confirmed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis. Interestingly, although bioreduction of U(VI) is almost always reported to yield the uraninite mineral (UO{sub 2}), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis demonstrated that the U(IV) produced in the Desulfitobacterium cultures was not UO{sub 2}. The EXAFS data indicated that the U(IV) product was a phase or mineral composed of mononuclear U(IV) atoms closely surrounded by light element shells. This atomic arrangement likely results from inner-sphere bonds between U(IV) and C/N/O- or P/S-containing ligands, such as carbonate or phosphate. The formation of a distinct U(IV) phase warrants further study because the characteristics of the reduced material affect uranium stability and fate in the contaminated subsurface.

  1. ENDF-201, ENDF/B-VI summary documentation supplement 1, ENDF/HE-VI summary documentation

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.

    1996-12-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) provides coordination for and serves as the secretariat to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSWEG). CSEWG is responsible for the oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data File. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the file is maintained at the NNDC. For a description of the ENDF/B-VI file, see the ENDF-102 Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF-6. The purpose of this addendum to the ENDF/B-VI Summary Documentation is to provide documentation of Releases 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/HE-VI evaluated nuclear data libraries. These releases contain many new and revised evaluations for the neutron, photo-atomic interaction, radioactive decay data, spontaneous fission product yield, neutron-induced fission product yield, thermal neutron scattering, proton, deuteron, and triton sublibraries. The summaries have been extracted mainly from the ENDF/B-VI File 1 comments (MT = 451), which have been checked, edited, and may also include supplementary information. Some summaries have been provided by the evaluators in electronic format, while others are extracted from reports on the evaluations. All references have been checked and corrected, or updated where appropriate. A list of the laboratories which have contributed evaluations used in ENDF/B-VI is given.

  2. Hydrophilic polymer composites synthesized by electrospinning under dense carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudiono, Okamoto, Koichi; Machmudah, Siti; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2015-12-01

    Electrospinning technique is feasible in some applications, it has attracted more attention in recent years. Various polymers have been successfully electrospun into ultrafine fibers in solvent solution and some in melt form. In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a hydrophilic polymer would be synthesized by electrospinning under dense carbon dioxide (CO2). The experiments were performed at 40 °C and ˜ 5 MPa. During the electrospinning process, the applied voltage was 10-17 kV and the distance of nozzle and collector was 8 cm. The concentration of PVP solution as a major component was 4 wt%. The results showed that the fibers surface morphology from PVP which blended with poly L-lactide acid (PLLA) were smooth with hollow core fibers at 5 MPa. At the same conditions, PVP-carbon nanotube was also successfully generated into electrospun fiber products with diameter ˜ 2 μm.

  3. Dense and Sparse Matrix Operations on the Cell Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Samuel W.; Shalf, John; Oliker, Leonid; Husbands,Parry; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-05-01

    The slowing pace of commodity microprocessor performance improvements combined with ever-increasing chip power demands has become of utmost concern to computational scientists. Therefore, the high performance computing community is examining alternative architectures that address the limitations of modern superscalar designs. In this work, we examine STI's forthcoming Cell processor: a novel, low-power architecture that combines a PowerPC core with eight independent SIMD processing units coupled with a software-controlled memory to offer high FLOP/s/Watt. Since neither Cell hardware nor cycle-accurate simulators are currently publicly available, we develop an analytic framework to predict Cell performance on dense and sparse matrix operations, using a variety of algorithmic approaches. Results demonstrate Cell's potential to deliver more than an order of magnitude better GFLOP/s per watt performance, when compared with the Intel Itanium2 and Cray X1 processors.

  4. Self-induced decoherence in dense neutrino gases

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Sigl, Guenter

    2007-04-15

    Dense neutrino gases exhibit collective oscillations where 'self-maintained coherence' is a characteristic feature, i.e., neutrinos of different energies oscillate with the same frequency. In a nonisotropic gas, however, the flux term of the neutrino-neutrino interaction has the opposite effect of causing kinematical decoherence of neutrinos propagating in different directions, an effect that is at the origin of the 'multiangle behavior' of neutrinos streaming off a supernova core. We cast the equations of motion in a form where the role of the flux term is manifest. We study in detail the symmetric case of equal neutrino and antineutrino densities where the evolution consists of collective pair conversions ('bipolar oscillations'). A gas of this sort is unstable in that an infinitesimal anisotropy is enough to trigger a runaway towards flavor equipartition. The 'self-maintained coherence' of a perfectly isotropic gas gives way to 'self-induced decoherence'.

  5. Kinetic theory and long range correlations in moderately dense gases

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, T.; Prigogine, I.

    1997-01-01

    The complex spectral representation of the Liouville operator is applied to moderately dense gases interacting through hard-core potentials in arbitrary d-dimensional spaces. It is shown that Markovian kinetic equations exist for all d. This provides an answer to the long standing question do kinetic equations exist in two dimensional systems. The non-Markovian effects, such as the long-time tails for arbitrary n-mode coupling, are estimated by superposition of the Markovian evolutions in each subspace as introduced in our spectral decomposition. The long-time tail effects invalidate the traditional kinetic theory based on a truncation of BBGKY hierarchy for d < 4, as well as the Green-Kubo formalism, as there appear contributions of order t{sup -1}, t{sup -{1/2}},... coming from multiple mode-mode couplings even for d = 3.

  6. Core layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Hernlund, J. W.; Morbidelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have created a planetary accretion and differentiation model that self-consistently builds and evolves Earth's core. From this model, we show that the core grows stably stratified as the result of rising metal-silicate equilibration temperatures and pressures, which increases the concentrations of light element impurities into each newer core addition. This stable stratification would naturally resist convection and frustrate the onset of a geodynamo, however, late giant impacts could mechanically mix the distinct accreted core layers creating large homogenous regions. Within these regions, a geodynamo may operate. From this model, we interpret the difference between the planetary magnetic fields of Earth and Venus as a difference in giant impact histories. Our planetary accretion model is a numerical N-body integration of the Grand Tack scenario [1]—the most successful terrestrial planet formation model to date [2,3]. Then, we take the accretion histories of Earth-like and Venus-like planets from this model and post-process the growth of each terrestrial planet according to a well-tested planetary differentiation model [4,5]. This model fits Earth's mantle by modifying the oxygen content of the pre-cursor planetesimals and embryos as well as the conditions of metal-silicate equilibration. Other non-volatile major, minor and trace elements included in the model are assumed to be in CI chondrite proportions. The results from this model across many simulated terrestrial planet growth histories are robust. If the kinetic energy delivered by larger impacts is neglected, the core of each planet grows with a strong stable stratification that would significantly impede convection. However, if giant impact mixing is very efficient or if the impact history delivers large impacts late, than the stable stratification can be removed. [1] Walsh et al. Nature 475 (2011) [2] O'Brien et al. Icarus 223 (2014) [3] Jacobson & Morbidelli PTRSA 372 (2014) [4] Rubie et al. EPSL 301

  7. Rapid nanosheets and nanowires formation by thermal oxidation of iron in water vapour and their applications as Cr(VI) adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, Faisal; Bashirom, Nurulhuda; Tan, Wai Kian; Razak, Khairunisak Abdul; Matsuda, Atsunori; Lockman, Zainovia

    2016-09-01

    Thermal oxidation of iron foil was done at 400 °C and 500 °C in for 2 h to form multilayered oxide scale with outer oxide layer of α-Fe2O3 comprising of nanowires and nanosheets respectively. Iron oxidized at 300 °C formed a rather compact film with no noticeable nanostructures. The morphologies of oxide formed in different oxidation environment (water vapour or dry air) were compared; densely packed nanostructures were produced in water vapour compared to dry air. Time variation study indicated rapid growth of nanostructure whereby for 1 min at 500 °C dense nanowires with some noticeable nanosheets were already observed. The nanowires and nanosheets were used to adsorb Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Adsorption of 10 ppm of Cr(VI) on the nanowires and nanosheets was found to be successful with much faster removal efficiency for the nanosheets. Both samples displayed complete adsorption for less than 1 h.

  8. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubbles shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.

  9. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore » shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  10. Propagation of light in a Dense Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Samina; Saleem, Iram

    Propagation of light is studied in a very dense system. Renormalization scheme of QED is used to understand the propagation of light in a hot and dense medium. We consider a medium of a very large chemical potential with relatively small temperature. The generalized results of vacuum polarization of photon in a hot and dense medium is used to study the behavior of light in such a system. Our hypothetical system corresponds to a heat bath of electrons at an equilibrium temperature and the density of electrons is larger as compared to the temperature of the medium. Such type of systems have previously been identified as classical systems because the chemical potential is large enough to dominate temperature.

  11. Ab Initio Simulations of Dense Helium Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Cong; He Xiantu; Zhang Ping

    2011-04-08

    We study the thermophysical properties of dense helium plasmas by using quantum molecular dynamics and orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations, where densities are considered from 400 to 800 g/cm{sup 3} and temperatures up to 800 eV. Results are presented for the equation of state. From the Kubo-Greenwood formula, we derive the electrical conductivity and electronic thermal conductivity. In particular, with the increase in temperature, we discuss the change in the Lorenz number, which indicates a transition from strong coupling and degenerate state to moderate coupling and partial degeneracy regime for dense helium.

  12. Herschel Dust Temperatures of High-Mass Star Forming Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, James

    We request NASA ADAP support to infer the evolutionary state, luminosities, and masses of 3,000 star-forming dense molecular cores using Herschel Hi-GAL data. The target cores are selected from the 870 μm ATLASGAL survey to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range of their early evolutionary stages. All 3,000 of these cores will be mapped in the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90), a new project designed to simultaneously image 16 molecular lines near 90 GHz. The dust temperatures derived from the Hi-GAL data will provide the key diagnostic of the evolutionary phase, as the cores evolve due to heating by the embedded young stars from the earliest cold "starless cores," to intermediate temperature "protostellar cores," and finally on to "hot cores" and H II regions. We will correlate the evolutionary state indicated by the Hi-GAL dust temperatures with the chemical and kinematic information supplied by the MALT 90 molecular line survey. Moreover, since MALT 90 data provides kinematic distances, the Hi-GAL submm/FIR spectral energy distributions will also provide the luminosity and mass distributions of dense cores. This project will allow for the first time a complete and robust characterization of the physical evolution of dense cores. Since this project studies the formation of high-mass stars, it bears directly on NASA's Origins theme.

  13. Connecting the Dense Gas and Young Stars in the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, Lee G.; Storm, Shaye; Looney, Leslie; Lee, Katherine I.; Fernandez Lopez, Manuel; Ostriker, Eve C.; Chen, Che-Yu; CLASSy Team

    2016-01-01

    The CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) imaged the dense gas structure and kinematics in five, roughly 1 pc scale regions in the Serpens and Perseus clouds with 7" angular resolution. The spatial distribution and Class of the young stellar population (YSOs) is available for these regions from the Spitzer c2d and Gould Belt surveys, with added sources from the Herschel 70 micron images. Together, these datasets allow us to compare, for the first time at similar spatial resolutions, the distributions of the dense gas and YSOs over regions containing up to 90 identified YSOs. This enables a detailed look at the separation between YSOs and the nearest dense gas peak and a measure of overall relationship between the YSO and dense gas distributions. We find that most Class 0 YSOs are forming in the highest column density regions: leaves in the dendrogram analysis utilized by CLASSy. In Serpens and Perseus, we find that 29% and 38%, respectively, of the leaves have identified embedded YSOs. Class 1 sources are less confined to leaf locations; Class II sources are distributed throughout regions, mostly away from hierarchical peaks. This trend could be due to a modest (0.1 km/sec) velocity difference between YSOs and their natal cores, or due to the YSOs consuming or dispersing their natal cores.

  14. INVITED ARTICLE: Towards dense, realistic granular media in 2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luding, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The development of an applicable theory for granular matter—with both qualitative and quantitative value—is a challenging prospect, given the multitude of states, phases and (industrial) situations it has to cover. Given the general balance equations for mass, momentum and energy, the limiting case of dilute and almost elastic granular gases, where kinetic theory works perfectly well, is the starting point. In most systems, low density co-exists with very high density, where the latter is an open problem for kinetic theory. Furthermore, many additional nonlinear phenomena and material properties are important in realistic granular media, involving, e.g.: (i) multi-particle interactions and elasticity (ii) strong dissipation, (iii) friction, (iv) long-range forces and wet contacts, (v) wide particle size distributions and (vi) various particle shapes. Note that, while some of these issues are more relevant for high density, others are important for both low and high densities; some of them can be dealt with by means of kinetic theory, some cannot. This paper is a review of recent progress towards more realistic models for dense granular media in 2D, even though most of the observations, conclusions and corrections given are qualitatively true also in 3D. Starting from an elastic, frictionless and monodisperse hard sphere gas, the (continuum) balance equations of mass, momentum and energy are given. The equation of state, the (Navier-Stokes level) transport coefficients and the energy-density dissipation rate are considered. Several corrections are applied to those constitutive material laws—one by one—in order to account for the realistic physical effects and properties listed above.

  15. Modelling complex organic molecules in dense regions: Eley-Rideal and complex induced reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruaud, M.; Loison, J. C.; Hickson, K. M.; Gratier, P.; Hersant, F.; Wakelam, V.

    2015-03-01

    Recent observations have revealed the existence of complex organic molecules (COMs) in cold dense cores and pre-stellar cores. The presence of these molecules in such cold conditions is not well understood and remains a matter of debate since the previously proposed `warm-up' scenario cannot explain these observations. In this paper, we study the effect of Eley-Rideal and complex induced reaction mechanisms of gas-phase carbon atoms with the main ice components of dust grains on the formation of COMs in cold and dense regions. Based on recent experiments, we use a low value for the chemical desorption efficiency (which was previously invoked to explain the observed COM abundances). We show that our introduced mechanisms are efficient enough to produce a large amount of COMs in the gas phase at temperatures as low as 10 K.

  16. Final Technical Report -- GEO-VI - USGEO

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Leonard

    2009-11-30

    Representatives of US earth observations departments and agencies, other participating governments, NGOs and civil society participated in the Sixth Plenary Meeting of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO-VI), hosted by the United States in Washington, DC on November 17 and 18, 2009. The meeting was held in the Atrium Ballroom of the Ronald Reagan International Trade Center. Exhibitions of international Earth observation technology and programs were held concurrently in the same venue. A number of GEO committee meetings and side events were held in conjunction with the GEO-VI Plenary, including the GEO-IGOS Symposium on Earth observation science and applications, the GEOSS in the Americas Forum on Coastal Zones, and separate meetings of the GEO Communities of Practice on Carbon, Health, and Air Quality.

  17. DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS -- A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    site characterization, and, therefore, DNAPL remediation, can be expected. Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface are long-term sources of ground-water contamination, and may persist for centuries before dissolving completely in adjacent ground water. In respo...

  18. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  19. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.

    1993-10-12

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  20. The Southern California Dense GPS Geodetic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, F.

    1994-01-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center is coordinating a effort by scientists at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the U.S. Geological Survey, and various academic institutions to establish a dense 250 station, continuously recording GPS geodetic array in southern California for measuring crustal deformation associated with slip on the numerous faults that underlie the major metropolitan areas of southern california.

  1. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  2. Preparation of a dense, polycrystalline ceramic structure

    DOEpatents

    Cooley, Jason; Chen, Ching-Fong; Alexander, David

    2010-12-07

    Ceramic nanopowder was sealed inside a metal container under a vacuum. The sealed evacuated container was forced through a severe deformation channel at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the ceramic nanopowder. The result was a dense nanocrystalline ceramic structure inside the metal container.

  3. Diagnostic and treatment strategies in mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    PubMed Central

    Vairo, Filippo; Federhen, Andressa; Baldo, Guilherme; Riegel, Mariluce; Burin, Maira; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ARSB gene, which lead to deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme ASB. This enzyme is important for the breakdown of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which accumulate in body tissues and organs of MPS VI patients. The storage of GAGs (especially dermatan sulfate) causes bone dysplasia, joint restriction, organomegaly, heart disease, and corneal clouding, among several other problems, and reduced life span. Despite the fact that most cases are severe, there is a spectrum of severity and some cases are so attenuated that diagnosis is made late in life. Although the analysis of urinary GAGs and/or the measurement of enzyme activity in dried blood spots are useful screening methods, the diagnosis is based in the demonstration of the enzyme deficiency in leucocytes or fibroblasts, and/or in the identification of pathogenic mutations in the ARSB gene. Specific treatment with enzyme replacement has been available since 2005. It is safe and effective, bringing measurable benefits and increased survival to patients. As several evidences indicate that early initiation of therapy may lead to a better outcome, newborn screening is being considered for this condition, and it is already in place in selected areas where the incidence of MPS VI is increased. However, as enzyme replacement therapy is not curative, associated therapies should be considered, and research on innovative therapies continues. The management of affected patients by a multidisciplinary team with experience in MPS diseases is highly recommended. PMID:26586959

  4. RAPID COMMUNICATION: The dissipative effect of thermal radiation loss in high-temperature dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. H.; Zhang, H. Q.

    1996-08-01

    A dynamical model based on the two-fluid dynamical equations with energy generation and loss is obtained and used to investigate the self-generated magnetic fields in high-temperature dense plasmas such as the solar core. The self-generation of magnetic fields might be looked at as a self-organization-type behaviour of stochastic thermal radiation fields, as expected for an open dissipative system according to Prigogine's theory of dissipative structures.

  5. The ubiquity of micrometer-sized dust grains in the dense interstellar medium.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Laurent; Steinacker, Jürgen; Bacmann, Aurore; Stutz, Amelia; Henning, Thomas

    2010-09-24

    Cold molecular clouds are the birthplaces of stars and planets, where dense cores of gas collapse to form protostars. The dust mixed in these clouds is thought to be made of grains of an average size of 0.1 micrometer. We report the widespread detection of the coreshine effect as a direct sign of the existence of grown, micrometer-sized dust grains. This effect is seen in half of the cores we have analyzed in our survey, spanning all Galactic longitudes, and is dominated by changes in the internal properties and local environment of the cores, implying that the coreshine effect can be used to constrain fundamental core properties such as the three-dimensional density structure and ages and also the grain characteristics themselves.

  6. Cooling compact stars and phase transitions in dense QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2016-03-01

    We report new simulations of cooling of compact stars containing quark cores and updated fits to the Cas A fast cooling data. Our model is built on the assumption that the transient behaviour of the star in Cas A is due to a phase transition within the dense QCD matter in the core of the star. Specifically, the fast cooling is attributed to an enhancement in the neutrino emission triggered by a transition from a fully gapped, two-flavor, red-green color-superconducting quark condensate to a superconducting crystalline or an alternative gapless, color-superconducting phase. The blue-colored condensate is modeled as a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type color superconductor with spin-one pairing order parameter. We study the sensitivity of the fits to the phase transition temperature, the pairing gap of blue quarks and the timescale characterizing the phase transition (the latter modelled in terms of a width parameter). Relative variations in these parameter around their best-fit values larger than 10-3 spoil the fit to the data. We confirm the previous finding that the cooling curves show significant variations as a function of compact star mass, which allows one to account for dispersion in the data on the surface temperatures of thermally emitting neutron stars.

  7. A Dynamical Gravitational Wave Source in a Dense Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Jarrod R.; Sippel, Anna C.; Tout, Christopher A.; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2016-08-01

    Making use of a new N-body model to describe the evolution of a moderate-size globular cluster, we investigate the characteristics of the population of black holes within such a cluster. This model reaches core-collapse and achieves a peak central density typical of the dense globular clusters of the Milky Way. Within this high-density environment, we see direct confirmation of the merging of two stellar remnant black holes in a dynamically formed binary, a gravitational wave source. We describe how the formation, evolution, and ultimate ejection/destruction of binary systems containing black holes impacts the evolution of the cluster core. Also, through comparison with previous models of lower density, we show that the period distribution of black hole binaries formed through dynamical interactions in this high-density model favours the production of gravitational wave sources. We confirm that the number of black holes remaining in a star cluster at late times and the characteristics of the binary black hole population depend on the nature of the star cluster, critically on the number density of stars and by extension the relaxation timescale.

  8. ClusterViSu, a method for clustering of protein complexes by Voronoi tessellation in super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andronov, Leonid; Orlov, Igor; Lutz, Yves; Vonesch, Jean-Luc; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy (PALM, STORM etc.) provides a plethora of fluorescent signals in dense cellular environments which can be difficult to interpret. Here we describe ClusterViSu, a method for image reconstruction, visualization and quantification of labelled protein clusters, based on Voronoi tessellation of the individual fluorescence events. The general applicability of this clustering approach for the segmentation of super-resolution microscopy data, including for co-localization, is illustrated on a series of important biological objects such as chromatin complexes, RNA polymerase, nuclear pore complexes and microtubules. PMID:27068792

  9. Development of Vi conjugate - a new generation of typhoid vaccine.

    PubMed

    Szu, Shousun Chen

    2013-11-01

    Typhoid fever remains to be a serious disease burden worldwide with an estimated annual incidence about 20 million. The licensed vaccines showed moderate protections and have multiple deficiencies. Most important of all, none of the licensed typhoid vaccines demonstrated protection for children under 5 years old. These limitations impeded successful implementation of typhoid vaccination programs. To improve immunogenicity Vi was conjugated to rEPA, a recombinant exoprotein A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vi-rEPA showed higher and longer lasting anti-Vi IgG in adults and children than Vi alone in high endemic areas. In school-age children and adults, the immunity persisted more than 8 years. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized efficacy trial in 2- to 5-year-old children, Vi-rEPA conferred 89% protective efficacy against typhoid fever and the protection lasted at least 4 years. When given concomitantly with infant routine vaccines, Vi-rEPA was safe, immunogenic and showed no interference with the routine vaccines. Vi conjugate vaccine was also attempted and successfully demonstrated by several other laboratories and manufactures. Using either rEPA or different carrier proteins, such as diphtheria or tetanus toxoid, recombinant diphtheria toxin (CRM197), the Vi conjugates synthesized was significantly more immunogenic than Vi alone. Recently, two Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugates were licensed in India for all ages, starts as young as 3 month old. This new generation of typhoid vaccine opens up a new era for typhoid prevention and elimination.

  10. The Influence of Salts on the Stability of Dense H2O Ices (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Daniel, I.

    2009-12-01

    Dense ices in the interiors of icy satellites likely grow from salty water; however, the effect of salts on these ices is poorly understood. We studied phase relations in the system H2O-NaCl at 1 molal (5.5 wt%) NaCl to assess the role of salt on ice VI and ice VII stability. Experiments were conducted in an externally heated, gas-membrane diamond-anvil cell at 22-150°C and 1-5 GPa. Phases were characterized and identified by Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The melting curve of ice VI was observed from 22 to 80°C, yielding Pm = 0.00415exp(0.0190Tm), where Pm is melting pressure (in GPa), Tm is melting temperature (in Kelvins) and R = 0.999; the melting curve for ice VII, observed from 35-150°C, is described by Pm = 0.234exp(0.00700Tm) (R = 0.997). Both melting curves are steeper than the NaCl-free curves, indicating that the freezing-point depression at this bulk composition increases with pressure. The intersection of the liquidus curves indicates that the VI-VII-liquid triple point is shifted toward lower T and higher P relative to pure H2O, requiring that both ices form H2O-NaCl solid solutions. This is consistent with the observation that the 1 molal NaCl solution crystallized to a single ice VIss or ice VIIss at all solidus T ('ss' indicates solid solution). Large single crystals of ice VIss or ice VIIss could be grown by slow compression of the cell from near-liquidus to solidus conditions. Raman spectra revealed zoning of these crystals, and persistence of the zoning (days at 22°C) implies relatively slow Na+ and Cl- diffusivity. The large depression of the freezing point in a 1 molal NaCl solution has important implications for the oceans and interiors of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Salty fluids may remain stable to much greater depth than predicted for pure H2O ices. This would promote more extensive water-rock interaction in the silicate interiors. If not limited to ice VI and VII, this behavior may suppress formation of ices

  11. Survey of O VI absorption in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, A.; Pradhan, A. C.; Sujatha, N. V.; Murthy, J.

    2011-04-01

    We present a survey of interstellar O VI absorption in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) towards 70 lines of sight based on Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) observations. The survey covers O VI absorption in a large number of objects in different environmental conditions of the LMC. Overall, a high abundance of O VI is present in active and inactive regions of the LMC with mean log N(O VI) = 14.23 atoms cm-2. There is no correlation observed between O VI absorption and emissions from the hot gas (X-ray surface brightness) or the warm gas (Hα surface brightness). O VI absorption in the LMC is patchy and the properties are similar to that of the Milky Way (MW). In comparison to the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), O VI is lower in abundance even though SMC has a lower metallicity compared to the LMC and the MW. We present observations in 10 superbubbles of the LMC of which we detect O VI absorption in five superbubbles for the first time and the superbubbles show an excess O VI absorption of about 40 per cent compared to non-superbubble lines of sight. We have also studied the properties of O VI absorption in the 30 Doradus region. Even though O VI does not show any correlation with X-ray emission for the LMC, a good correlation between log N(O VI) and X-ray surface brightness for 30 Doradus region is present. We also find that O VI abundance decreases with increasing distance from the star cluster R136.

  12. Few-layer III-VI and IV-VI 2D semiconductor transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucharitakul, Sukrit; Liu, Mei; Kumar, Rajesh; Sankar, Raman; Chou, Fang C.; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Gao, Xuan

    Since the discovery of atomically thin graphene, a large variety of exfoliable 2D materials have been thoroughly explored for their exotic transport behavior and promises in technological breakthroughs. While most attention on 2D materials beyond graphene is focused on transition metal-dichalcogenides, relatively less attention is paid to layered III-VI and IV-VI semiconductors such as InSe, SnSe etc which bear stronger potential as 2D materials with high electron mobility or thermoelectric figure of merit. We will discuss our recent work on few-layer InSe 2D field effect transistors which exhibit carrier mobility approaching 1000 cm2/Vs and ON-OFF ratio exceeding 107 at room temperature. In addition, the fabrication and device performance of transistors made of mechanically exfoliated multilayer IV-VI semiconductor SnSe and SnSe2 will be discussed.

  13. The pro-oxidant chromium(VI) inhibits mitochondrial complex I, complex II, and aconitase in the bronchial epithelium: EPR markers for Fe-S proteins

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Charles R.; Antholine, William E.; Myers, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) are strong oxidants that readily enter cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr species that also facilitate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Recent studies demonstrated inhibition and oxidation of the thioredoxin system, with greater effects on mitochondrial thioredoxin (Trx2). This implies that Cr(VI)-induced oxidant stress may be especially directed at the mitochondria. Examination of other redox-sensitive mitochondrial functions showed that Cr(VI) treatments that cause Trx2 oxidation in human bronchial epithelial cells also result in pronounced and irreversible inhibition of aconitase, a TCA cycle enzyme that has an iron-sulfur (Fe-S) center that is labile with respect to certain oxidants. The activities of electron transport complexes I and II were also inhibited, whereas complex III was not. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of samples at liquid helium temperature (10 K) showed a strong signal at g = 1.94 that is consistent with the inhibition of electron flow through complexes I and/or II. A signal at g = 2.02 was also observed which is consistent with oxidation of the Fe-S center of aconitase. The g = 1.94 signal was particularly intense and remained after extracellular Cr(VI) was removed, whereas the g = 2.02 signal declined in intensity after Cr(VI) was removed. A similar inhibition of these activities and analogous EPR findings were noted in bovine airways treated ex vivo with Cr(VI). Overall, the data support the hypothesis that Cr(VI) exposure has deleterious effects on a number of redox-sensitive core mitochondrial proteins. The g = 1.94 signal could prove to be an important biomarker for oxidative damage resulting from Cr(VI) exposure. The EPR spectra simultaneously showed signals for Cr(V) and Cr(III) which verify Cr(VI) exposure and its intracellular reductive activation. PMID:20883776

  14. Structural investigation of tetraperoxo complexes of Mo(VI) and W(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Grzywa, M.; Lasocha, W.; Rutkowska-Zbik, D.

    2009-04-15

    The family of very unstable tetraperoxo compounds has been prepared from aqueous solutions containing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and salts of Mo(VI) or W(VI). The crystal structures of Na{sub 2}[Mo(O{sub 2}){sub 4}].4H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}[W(O{sub 2}){sub 4}].4H{sub 2}O have been determined from single-crystal data, while the crystal structures of Rb{sub 2}[Mo(O{sub 2}){sub 4}], Cs{sub 2}[Mo(O{sub 2}){sub 4}], Rb{sub 2}[W(O{sub 2}){sub 4}] and Cs{sub 2}[W(O{sub 2}){sub 4}] have been determined from powder X-ray diffraction data. The compounds were also characterised by IR spectroscopy and the number of peroxo groups was determined by titration methods. By means of the density functional theory (DFT) method, the geometry and stability of tetraperoxo complexes have been studied. Even though in all tetraperoxo complexes the central atom Mo(VI), W(VI) or V(V) is surrounded by four peroxo groups and the geometry of the [Me(O{sub 2}){sub 4}]{sup n-} anion is essentially the same, the investigated compounds differ in stability and colour and crystallise in different crystallographic systems. - Graphical abstract: The family of tetraperoxo compounds of Mo(VI) or W(VI) have been obtained. Its crystal structures from single-crystal and from powder X-ray diffraction data have been determined. The compounds were characterised by IR spectroscopy and analytical methods. By means of the density functional theory (DFT) method, the geometry and stability of tetraperoxo complexes have been studied.

  15. Role of anions and reaction conditions in the preparation of uranium(VI), neptunium(VI), and plutonium(VI) borates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Villa, Eric M; Diwu, Juan; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    U(VI), Np(VI), and Pu(VI) borates with the formula AnO(2)[B(8)O(11)(OH)(4)] (An = U, Np, Pu) have been prepared via the reactions of U(VI) nitrate, Np(VI) perchlorate, or Pu(IV) or Pu(VI) nitrate with molten boric acid. These compounds are all isotypic and consist of a linear actinyl(VI) cation, AnO(2)(2+), surrounded by BO(3) triangles and BO(4) tetrahedra to create an AnO(8) hexagonal bipyramidal environment. The actinyl bond lengths are consistent with actinide contraction across this series. The borate anions bridge between actinyl units to create sheets. Additional BO(3) triangles and BO(4) tetrahedra extend from the polyborate layers and connect these sheets together to form a three-dimensional chiral framework structure. UV-vis-NIR absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the hexavalent oxidation state in all three compounds. Bond-valence parameters are developed for Np(VI).

  16. Role of Anions and Reaction Conditions in the Preparation of Uranium(VI), Neptunium(VI), and Plutonium(VI) Borates

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-02-03

    U(VI), Np(VI), and Pu(VI) borates with the formula AnO2[B8O11(OH)4] (An = U, Np, Pu) have been prepared via the reactions of U(VI) nitrate, Np(VI) perchlorate, or Pu(IV) or Pu(VI) nitrate with molten boric acid. These compounds are all isotypic and consist of a linear actinyl(VI) cation, AnO22+, surrounded by BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra to create an AnO8 hexagonal bipyramidal environment. The actinyl bond lengths are consistent with actinide contraction across this series. The borate anions bridge between actinyl units to create sheets. Additional BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra extend from the polyborate layers and connect these sheets together to form a three-dimensional chiral framework structure. UV-vis-NIR absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the hexavalent oxidation state in all three compounds. Bond-valence parameters are developed for Np(VI).

  17. PHOTOCHEMICAL HEATING OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Glassgold, A. E.; Najita, J. R.

    2015-09-10

    Photochemical heating is analyzed with an emphasis on the heating generated by chemical reactions initiated by the products of photodissociation and photoionization. The immediate products are slowed down by collisions with the ambient gas and then heat the gas. In addition to this direct process, heating is also produced by the subsequent chemical reactions initiated by these products. Some of this chemical heating comes from the kinetic energy of the reaction products and the rest from collisional de-excitation of the product atoms and molecules. In considering dense gas dominated by molecular hydrogen, we find that the chemical heating is sometimes as large, if not much larger than, the direct heating. In very dense gas, the total photochemical heating approaches 10 eV per photodissociation (or photoionization), competitive with other ways of heating molecular gas.

  18. Active fluidization in dense glassy systems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rituparno; Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Rao, Madan; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-07-20

    Dense soft glasses show strong collective caging behavior at sufficiently low temperatures. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass former, we show that the incorporation of activity or self-propulsion, f0, can induce cage breaking and fluidization, resulting in the disappearance of the glassy phase beyond a critical f0. The diffusion coefficient crosses over from being strongly to weakly temperature dependent as f0 is increased. In addition, we demonstrate that activity induces a crossover from a fragile to a strong glass and a tendency of active particles to cluster. Our results are of direct relevance to the collective dynamics of dense active colloidal glasses and to recent experiments on tagged particle diffusion in living cells. PMID:27380935

  19. Dense Deposit Disease and C3 Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Thomas D.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Terence Cook, H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary C3 glomerulopathy refers to those renal lesions characterized histologically by predominant C3 accumulation within the glomerulus, and pathogenetically by aberrant regulation of the alternative pathway of complement. Dense deposit disease is distinguished from other forms of C3 glomerulopathy by its characteristic appearance on electron microscopy. The extent to which dense deposit disease also differs from other forms of C3 glomerulopathy in terms of clinical features, natural history, and outcomes of treatment including renal transplantation is less clear. We discuss the pathophysiology of C3 glomerulopathy, with evidence for alternative pathway dysregulation obtained from affected individuals and complement factor H (Cfh)-deficient animal models. Recent linkage studies in familial C3 glomerulopathy have shown genomic rearrangements in the Cfh-related genes, for which the novel pathophysiologic concept of Cfh deregulation has been proposed. PMID:24161036

  20. Deterministic dense coding with partially entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Mozes, Shay; Reznik, Benni; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of a d-level partially entangled state, shared by two parties wishing to communicate classical information without errors over a noiseless quantum channel, is discussed. We analytically construct deterministic dense coding schemes for certain classes of nonmaximally entangled states, and numerically obtain schemes in the general case. We study the dependency of the maximal alphabet size of such schemes on the partially entangled state shared by the two parties. Surprisingly, for d>2 it is possible to have deterministic dense coding with less than one ebit. In this case the number of alphabet letters that can be communicated by a single particle is between d and 2d. In general, we numerically find that the maximal alphabet size is any integer in the range [d,d{sup 2}] with the possible exception of d{sup 2}-1. We also find that states with less entanglement can have a greater deterministic communication capacity than other more entangled states.

  1. Dense silica coatings on ceramic powder particles

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, J.F.A.; Mayr, W.

    1995-09-01

    Dense silica coatings on the surface of inorganic powders particles are prepared by the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in alcoholic suspensions. In a first reaction step, the TEOS is pre-hydrolysed in acidic solution and afterwards, a suspension of powder particles in this reaction solution is treated with ammonia which results in a dense silica coating of typically 10 - 100 nm thickness. Different luminescent powders which are used in the manufacture of cathode-ray tubes or fluorescent lamps have been coated by this procedure. The silica coating forms a transparent layer and the suspension properties of the coated powders are determined by the silica layer. The silica coating also protects sulfidic luminescent powders from being attacked by oxidizing agents like dichromate ions which are used in the suspension formulations for TV tube fabrication.

  2. The kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graedel, T. E.; Langer, W. D.; Frerking, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds is formulated to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, the formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, and the evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature. The abundances of the dominant isotopes of the carbon- and oxygen-bearing molecules are calculated. The chemical abundances are found to be quite sensitive to electron concentration since the electron concentration determines the ratio of H3(+) to He(+), and the electron density is strongly influenced by the metals abundance. For typical metal abundances and for H2 cloud density not less than 10,000 molecules/cu cm, nearly all carbon exists as CO at late cloud ages. At high cloud density, many aspects of the chemistry are strongly time dependent. Finally, model calculations agree well with abundances deduced from observations of molecular line emission in cold dense clouds.

  3. Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Jeremey; Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Johann

    2012-03-01

    We propose to search for nuclear density or greater compact ultra dense objects (CUDOs), which could constitute a significant fraction of the dark matter [1]. Considering their high density, the gravitational tidal forces are significant and atomic-density matter cannot stop an impacting CUDO, which punctures the surface of the target body, pulverizing, heating and entraining material near its trajectory through the target [2]. Because impact features endure over geologic timescales, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Mercury and large asteroids are well-suited to act as time-integrating CUDO detectors. There are several potential candidates for CUDO structure such as strangelet fragments or more generally dark matter if mechanisms exist for it to form compact objects. [4pt] [1] B. J. Carr, K. Kohri, Y. Sendouda, & J.'i. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. D81, 104019 (2010). [0pt] [2] L. Labun, J. Birrell, J. Rafelski, Solar System Signatures of Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects, arXiv:1104.4572.

  4. Mercury's Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peale, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    In determining Mercury's core structure from its rotational properties, the location of Cassini state 1 is crucial. Convincing radar evidence indicates that the mantle rests on a liquid layer (Margot et al. 2005), but there are no empirical constraints on the moment of inertia C/MR2, which constraints must wait for the determination of the gravitational coefficients J2 and C22 from the MESSENGER orbiting spacecraft, and an accurate determination of the obliquity of the Cassini state. Tidal and core-mantle dissipation drive the spin to the Cassini state with a time scale O(105) years, so the spin should occupy the Cassini state and thereby define its obliquity---unless there has been a recent excitation of a free precession of the spin. Another way the spin might be displaced from the Cassini state is if the variations in the orbital elements, which change the position of the Cassini state, cause the spin axis to lag behind as it attempts to follow the state. Fortunately, the solid angle the spin axis encloses as it precesses around the Cassini state is an adiabatic invariant, and it is conserved if the orbital element variations are slow compared to the precession rate. As the precession period is O(1000) years, and the time scales of orbital parameter variations are O(105) years, the spin axis should remain very close to the Cassini state if it were ever close. But how close is close? The increasing precision of the radar and eventual spacecraft measurements warrants a check on the likely proximity of the spin axis to the Cassini state. By numerically following the positions of the spin axis and Cassini state with orbital parameters varying with time scales and amplitudes comparable to the real variations, we show that the spin should remain within 1″ of the Cassini state once dissipative torques bring it there. The current spin axis position should thus define the Cassini state sufficiently to put reasonably tight constraints on the core structure

  5. Remediation of Cr(VI) in solution using vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Xin-hua; He, Ping

    2005-06-01

    The effectiveness of vitamin C in treating Cr(VI)-contaminated water is being evaluated. Cr(VI) is an identified pollutant of some soils and groundwater. Vitamin C, an important biological reductant in humans and animals, can be used to transform Cr(VI) to essentially nontoxic Cr(III). The removal efficiency was 89% when the mass concentration of vitamin C was 80 mg/L in 60 min, and nearly 100% Cr(VI) was removed when the mass concentration was 100 mg/L. Our data demonstrated that the removal efficiency was affected by vitamin C concentration, the reaction temperature and the dissolved oxygen concentration. The reaction mechanism of Cr(VI) by vitamin C was presented. Our study opens the way to use vitamin C to remediate Cr(VI)-contaminated soils and groundwater.

  6. Observations of Plasmons in Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Neumayer, P; Lee, R W; Widmann, K; Pollaine, S W; Wallace, R J; Gregori, G; Holl, A; Bornath, T; Thiele, R; Schwarz, V; Kraeft, W; Redmer, R

    2006-09-05

    We present the first collective x-ray scattering measurements of plasmons in solid-density plasmas. The forward scattering spectra of a laser-produced narrow-band x-ray line from isochorically heated beryllium show that the plasmon frequency is a sensitive measure of the electron density. Dynamic structure calculations that include collisions and detailed balance match the measured plasmon spectrum indicating that this technique will enable new applications to determine the equation of state and compressibility of dense matter.

  7. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  8. Particle sorting in dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. M.; Fan, Y.; Yohannes, B.

    2008-12-01

    Mixtures of particles tend to unmix by particle property. One of the most dramatically destructive examples of this occurs in debris flow: boulders, rocks, and mud tumble down a hillside, and the largest rocks migrate toward the top and then the front of the flow where they do the most damage. Rotating drums and chute flows are two of the most common apparatuses used to systematically study segregation in dense, gravity driven granular flows. In these cases, smaller or, alternatively, denser particles segregate away from the free surface, phenomena that have been modeled using mechanisms such as kinetic sieving and buoyancy, respectively. Other segregation mechanisms have been identified in suspensions and in more energetic systems such as a gradient in granular temperature -- the kinetic energy of velocity fluctuations -- and curvature effects. However, with most experimental systems the dominant segregation mechanism is difficult to ascertain. In typical experimental systems designed to study segregation in dense granular flow (such as chutes and rotated drums), gravity, velocity gradients and porosity gradients coexist in the direction of segregation. We study the segregation of mixtures of particles numerically and experimentally in a split-bottom cell and in a rotating drum to isolate three possible driving mechanisms for segregation of densely-sheared granular mixtures: gravity, porosity, and velocity gradients and their associated dynamics. We find gravity alone does not drive segregation associated with particle size without a sufficiently large porosity or porosity gradient. A velocity gradient, however, appears capable of driving segregation associated both with particle size and material density in dense flows. We present our results and discuss the implications for some particle segregation behaviors observed in natural systems such as debris flows and sediment transport.

  9. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  10. Dense Molecular Gas in Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Wolfgang; Eckart, Andreas

    1999-10-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is the closest radio galaxy, and its molecular interstellar medium has been studied extensively in recent years. However, these studies used mostly molecular lines tracing low to medium density gas (see e.g. Eckart et al. 1990. Wild et al. 1997). The amount and distribution of the dense component remained largely unknown. We present spectra of the HCN(1-0) emission - which traces dense (n(H2) > 104 cm-3) molecular gas - at the center and along the prominent dust lane at offset positions +/- 60" and +/- 100", as well as single CS(2-1) and CS(3-2) spectra, observed with the SEST on La Silla, Chile. At the central position, the integrated intensity ratio I(HCN)/I(CO) peaks at 0.064, and decreases to somewhat equal to 0.02 to 0.04 in the dust lane. Based on the line luminosity ratio L(HCN)/L(CO) we estimate that there is a significant amount of dense gas in Centaurus A. The fraction of dense molecular gas as well as the star formation efficiency LFIR/LCO towards the center of Cen A is comparable to ultra-luminous infrared galaxies, and falls in between the values for ULIRGs and normal galaxies for positions in the dust lane. Details will be published in Wild & Eckart (A&A, in prep.). Eckart et al. 1990, ApJ 363, 451 Rydbeck et al. 1993, Astr.Ap. (Letters) 270, L13. Wild, W., Eckart, A. & Wiklind, T. 1997, Astr.Ap. 322, 419.

  11. Computational electromagnetics and parallel dense matrix computations

    SciTech Connect

    Forsman, K.; Kettunen, L.; Gropp, W.; Levine, D.

    1995-06-01

    We present computational results using CORAL, a parallel, three-dimensional, nonlinear magnetostatic code based on a volume integral equation formulation. A key feature of CORAL is the ability to solve, in parallel, the large, dense systems of linear equations that are inherent in the use of integral equation methods. Using the Chameleon and PSLES libraries ensures portability and access to the latest linear algebra solution technology.

  12. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  13. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  14. Dense spray evaporation as a mixing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rivas, A.; Villermaux, E.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the processes by which a dense set of small liquid droplets (a spray) evaporates in a dry, stirred gas phase. A dense spray of micron-sized liquid (water or ethanol) droplets is formed in air by a pneumatic atomizer in a closed chamber. The spray is conveyed in ambient air as a plume whose extension depends on the relative humidity of the diluting medium. Standard shear instabilities develop at the plume edge, forming the stretched lamellar structures familiar with passive scalars. Unlike passive scalars however, these lamellae vanish in a finite time, because individual droplets evaporate at their border in contact with the dry environment. Experiments demonstrate that the lifetime of an individual droplet embedded in a lamellae is much larger than expected from the usual d2 law describing the fate of a single drop evaporating in a quiescent environment. By analogy with the way mixing times are understood from the convection-diffusion equation for passive scalars, we show that the lifetime of a spray lamellae stretched at a constant rate γ is tv=1/γ ln(1/+ϕ ϕ ) , where ϕ is a parameter that incorporates the thermodynamic and diffusional properties of the vapor in the diluting phase. The case of time-dependent stretching rates is examined too. A dense spray behaves almost as a (nonconserved) passive scalar.

  15. Confined magnetic monopoles in dense QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A.; Shifman, M.; Yung, A.

    2011-04-15

    Non-Abelian strings exist in the color-flavor locked phase of dense QCD. We show that kinks appearing in the world-sheet theory on these strings, in the form of the kink-antikink bound pairs, are the magnetic monopoles-descendants of the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles surviving in such a special form in dense QCD. Our consideration is heavily based on analogies and inspiration coming from certain supersymmetric non-Abelian theories. This is the first ever analytic demonstration that objects unambiguously identifiable as the magnetic monopoles are native to non-Abelian Yang-Mills theories (albeit our analysis extends only to the phase of the monopole confinement and has nothing to say about their condensation). Technically, our demonstration becomes possible due to the fact that low-energy dynamics of the non-Abelian strings in dense QCD is that of the orientational zero modes. It is described by an effective two-dimensional CP(2) model on the string world sheet. The kinks in this model representing confined magnetic monopoles are in a highly quantum regime.

  16. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime.

  17. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20-150 GPa and 1.9-5.3 g/cm(3) from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2-23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi' = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi' increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime. PMID:26515505

  18. Structure of the Type VI secretion system contractile sheath

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Brackmann, Maximilian; Scherer, Sebastian; Maier, Timm; Baker, David; DiMaio, Frank; Stahlberg, Henning; Egelman, Edward H.; Basler, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use rapid contraction of a long sheath of the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) to deliver effectors into a target cell. Here we present an atomic resolution structure of a native contracted Vibrio cholerae sheath determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The sheath subunits, composed of tightly interacting proteins VipA and VipB, assemble into a six-start helix. The helix is stabilized by a core domain assembled from four β-strands donated by one VipA and two VipB molecules. The fold of inner and middle layers is conserved between T6SS and phage sheaths. However, the structure of the outer layer is distinct and suggests a mechanism of interaction of the bacterial sheath with an accessory ATPase, ClpV, that facilitates multiple rounds of effector delivery. Our results provide a mechanistic insight into assembly of contractile nanomachines that bacteria and phages use to translocate macromolecules across membranes. PMID:25723169

  19. Mechanical characterization of densely welded Apache Leap tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-06-01

    An empirical criterion is formulated to describe the compressive strength of the densely welded Apache Leap tuff. The criterion incorporates the effects of size, L/D ratio, loading rate and density variations. The criterion improves the correlation between the test results and the failure envelope. Uniaxial and triaxial compressive strengths, Brazilian tensile strength and elastic properties of the densely welded brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff have been determined using the ASTM standard test methods. All tuff samples are tested dry at room temperature (22 {plus_minus} 2{degrees}C), and have the core axis normal to the flow layers. The uniaxial compressive strength is 73.2 {plus_minus} 16.5 MPa. The Brazilian tensile strength is 5.12 {plus_minus} 1.2 MPa. The Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio are 22.6 {plus_minus} 5.7 GPa and 0.20 {plus_minus} 0.03. Smoothness and perpendicularity do not fully meet the ASTM requirements for all samples, due to the presence of voids and inclusions on the sample surfaces and the sample preparation methods. The investigations of loading rate, L/D radio and cyclic loading effects on the compressive strength and of the size effect on the tensile strength are not conclusive. The Coulomb strength criterion adequately represents the failure envelope of the tuff under confining pressures from 0 to 62 MPa. Cohesion and internal friction angle are 16 MPa and 43 degrees. The brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff is highly heterogeneous as suggested by large variations of the test results. The high intrinsic variability of the tuff is probably caused by the presence of flow layers and by nonuniform distributions of inclusions, voids and degree of welding. Similar variability of the properties has been found in publications on the Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain. 57 refs., 32 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Diastereoselective Synthesis of the Aminocyclitol Core of Jogyamycin via an Allene Aziridination Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Nels C.; Adams, Christopher S.; Grigg, R. David; Tretbar, Maik; Rigoli, Jared W.; Schomaker, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative allene amination provides rapid access to densely functionalized amine-containing stereotriads through highly reactive bicyclic methyleneaziridine intermediates. This strategy has been demonstrated as a viable approach for the construction of the densely functionalized aminocyclitol core of jogyamycin, a natural product with potent antiprotozoal activity. Importantly, the flexibility of oxidative allene amination will enable the syntheses of modified aminocyclitol analogues of the jogyamycin core. PMID:26741730

  1. Air quality VI details environmental progress

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    A report is given of the International Conference on Air Quality VI where key topics discussed were control of mercury, trace elements, sulphur trioxide and particulates. This year a separate track was added on greenhouse gas reduction, with panels on greenhouse gas policy and markets, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, and monitoring, mitigation and verification. In keynote remarks, NETL Director Carl Bauer noted that emissions have gone down since 1990 even though coal consumption has increased. The conference provided an overview of the state-of-the-science regarding key pollutants and CO{sub 2}, the corresponding regulatory environment, and the technology readiness of mitigation techniques. 1 photo.

  2. Collagen VI enhances cartilage tissue generation by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Piera; Dhulipala, Lakshmi; Lai, Janice H; Goodman, Stuart B; Dragoo, Jason L; Smith, Robert L; Maloney, William J; Yang, Fan; Bhutani, Nidhi

    2015-02-01

    Regeneration of human cartilage is inherently inefficient. Current cell-based approaches for cartilage repair, including autologous chondrocytes, are limited by the paucity of cells, associated donor site morbidity, and generation of functionally inferior fibrocartilage rather than articular cartilage. Upon investigating the role of collagen VI (Col VI), a major component of the chondrocyte pericellular matrix (PCM), we observe that soluble Col VI stimulates chondrocyte proliferation. Interestingly, both adult and osteoarthritis chondrocytes respond to soluble Col VI in a similar manner. The proliferative effect is, however, strictly due to the soluble Col VI as no proliferation is observed upon exposure of chondrocytes to immobilized Col VI. Upon short Col VI treatment in 2D monolayer culture, chondrocytes maintain high expression of characteristic chondrocyte markers like Col2a1, agc, and Sox9 whereas the expression of the fibrocartilage marker Collagen I (Col I) and of the hypertrophy marker Collagen X (Col X) is minimal. Additionally, Col VI-expanded chondrocytes show a similar potential to untreated chondrocytes in engineering cartilage in 3D biomimetic hydrogel constructs. Our study has, therefore, identified soluble Col VI as a biologic that can be useful for the expansion and utilization of scarce sources of chondrocytes, potentially for autologous chondrocyte implantation. Additionally, our results underscore the importance of further investigating the changes in chondrocyte PCM with age and disease and the subsequent effects on chondrocyte growth and function.

  3. Extractive removal of chromium (VI) from industrial waste solution.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Archana; Pal, Chandana; Sahu, K K

    2008-11-30

    Extractive removal of Cr (VI) was carried out from chloride solutions using cyanex 923 mixed with kerosene. The efficiency of this extractant was studied under various experimental conditions, such as concentration of different mineral acids in the aqueous phase, concentration of cyanex 923 and Cr (VI) present in the initial aqueous feed, temperature and time of extraction, organic to aqueous (O/A) phase ratio. Percentage Cr (VI) extraction decreases with the increase in temperature at varying concentration of cyanex 923. The interference of the impurities usually associated with Cr (VI) such as Cr (III), Cu, Ni, Fe (II), Zn, Chloride and sulphate, etc., were examined under the optimized conditions and only Zn was found to interfere. Under the optimum experimental conditions 98.6-99.9% of Cr (VI) was extracted in 3-5 min at O/A of 2 with the initial feed concentration of 1g/L of Cr (VI). The extracted Cr (VI) was quantitatively stripped with 1M NaOH and the organic phase obtained after the stripping of Cr (VI) was washed with dilute HCl solution to neutralize any NaOH trapped/adhered to the solvent and then with distilled water. This regenerated solvent was reused in succeeding extraction of chromium (VI). Finally a few experiments were performed with the synthetic effluent from an electroplating industry.

  4. New Insights into Intrinsic Point Defects in V2VI3 Thermoelectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lipeng; Zhao, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Defects and defect engineering are at the core of many regimes of material research, including the field of thermoelectric study. The 60‐year history of V2VI3 thermoelectric materials is a prime example of how a class of semiconductor material, considered mature several times, can be rejuvenated by better understanding and manipulation of defects. This review aims to provide a systematic account of the underexplored intrinsic point defects in V2VI3 compounds, with regard to (i) their formation and control, and (ii) their interplay with other types of defects towards higher thermoelectric performance. We herein present a convincing case that intrinsic point defects can be actively controlled by extrinsic doping and also via compositional, mechanical, and thermal control at various stages of material synthesis. An up‐to‐date understanding of intrinsic point defects in V2VI3 compounds is summarized in a (χ, r)‐model and applied to elucidating the donor‐like effect. These new insights not only enable more innovative defect engineering in other thermoelectric materials but also, in a broad context, contribute to rational defect design in advanced functional materials at large.

  5. Immunogenicity of a new Salmonella Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine--vax-TyVi--in Cuban school children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Azze, Rolando Felipe Ochoa; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Martínez; Iniesta, Mónica Ginebra; Marchena, Xenia Rosa Ferriol; Alfonso, Vivian María Rodríguez; Padrón, Franklin Tomás Sotolongo

    2003-06-20

    A randomized, controlled, double blind study was carried out in Cuban children and teenagers aged 9-13 years to evaluate the immunogenicity of vax-TyVi-Salmonella Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine-with respect control vaccines. Serum samples were taken before and 21 days after the immunization, and ELISA was used for the determination of antibodies to Vi polysaccharide. Subjects who received vax-TyVi and TYPHIM Vi (Pasteur-Mérieux) showed seroconversion rates of 85.61 and 78.36%, respectively. The geometric mean titer (GMT) values for Vi antibodies induced after vaccination were 6.27 microg/ml (5.40-7.38 microg/ml) and 5.97 microg/ml (5.01-7.10 microg/ml), respectively. In contrast, subjects receiving the tetanus toxoid vaccine showed 0% seroconversion.

  6. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  7. Efficient Online Aggregates in Dense-Region-Based Data Cube Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadin, Kais; Lauer, Tobias

    In-memory OLAP systems require a space-efficient representation of sparse data cubes in order to accommodate large data sets. On the other hand, most efficient online aggregation techniques, such as prefix sums, are built on dense array-based representations. These are often not applicable to real-world data due to the size of the arrays which usually cannot be compressed well, as most sparsity is removed during pre-processing. A possible solution is to identify dense regions in a sparse cube and only represent those using arrays, while storing sparse data separately, e.g. in a spatial index structure. Previous dense-region-based approaches have concentrated mainly on the effectiveness of the dense-region detection (i.e. on the space-efficiency of the result). However, especially in higher-dimensional cubes, data is usually more cluttered, resulting in a potentially large number of small dense regions, which negatively affects query performance on such a structure. In this paper, our focus is not only on space-efficiency but also on time-efficiency, both for the initial dense-region extraction and for queries carried out in the resulting hybrid data structure. We describe two methods to trade available memory for increased aggregate query performance. In addition, optimizations in our approach significantly reduce the time to build the initial data structure compared to former systems. Also, we present a straightforward adaptation of our approach to support multi-core or multi-processor architectures, which can further enhance query performance. Experiments with different real-world data sets show how various parameter settings can be used to adjust the efficiency and effectiveness of our algorithms.

  8. Stability of the pion string in a thermal and dense medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berera, Arjun; Brandenberger, Robert; Mabillard, Joel; Ramos, Rudnei O.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the stability of the pion string in a thermal bath and a dense medium. We find that stability is dependent on the order of the chiral transition. String core stability within the experimentally allowed regime is found only if the chiral transition is second order, and even there the stable region is small; i.e., the temperature below which the core is unstable is close to the critical temperature of the phase transition. We also find that the presence of a dense medium, in addition to the thermal bath, enhances the experimentally accessible region with stable strings. We also argue that once the string core decays, the "effective winding" of the string persists at large distances from the string core. Our analysis is done both in the chiral limit, which is mainly what has been explored in the literature up to now, and for the physical h ≠0 case, where a conceptual framework is set up for addressing this regime and some simple estimates are done.

  9. Interaction of monosaccharides and related compounds with oxocations of Mo(VI), W(VI) and U(VI) studied by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Geraldes, C.F.G.C.; Castro, M.M.C.A.; Saraiva, M.E.; Aureliano, M.; Dias, B.A.

    1988-05-01

    Proton, /sup 13/C and /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the complexation of Mo(VI), W(VI) and U(VI) oxocations with various aldoses, cyclic polyols and ribose-5-phosphate in aqueous solution. The aldoses D-mannose, D-lyxose and D-ribose form tridentate complexes with Mo(VI) and W(VI) at pH similarly ordered 5, via the 1,2,3-hydroxyl groups, which are cis to each other in these sugars. Other aldoses, like D-arabinose, D-glucose, D-xylose and D-galactose form weaker bidentate complexes with those ions because they can only use the 1 and 3-cis hydroxyl groups in metal binding. These bidentate interactions also take place in the binding of U(VI) to D-mannose and D-ribose, at pH similarly ordered 10. However, sugars having 1,3,5-hydroxyl groups in the cis position do not form stable chelates with these oxocations, possibly due to steric crowding. In the case of ribose-5-phosphate, the phosphate group is the exclusive binding site for the three oxocations, except for U(VI) at very basic pH (pH > 10), where the hydroxyl groups also interact with UO/sub 2//sup 2 +/.

  10. Flow injection analysis of trace chromium (VI) in drinking water with a liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Byrne, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an acknowledged hazardous material in drinking waters. As such, effective monitoring and assessment of the risks posed by Cr(VI) are important analytical objectives for both human health and environmental science. However, because of the lack of highly sensitive, rapid, and simple procedures, a relatively limited number of studies have been carried out in this field. Here we report a simple and sensitive analytical procedure of flow injection analysis (FIA) for sub-nanomolar Cr(VI) in drinking water samples with a liquid core waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The procedure is based on a highly selective reaction between 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide and Cr(VI) under acidic conditions. The optimized experimental parameters included reagent concentrations, injection volume, length of mixing coil, and flow rate. Measurements at 540 nm, and a 650-nm reference wavelength, produced a 0.12-nM detection limit. Relative standard deviations for 1, 2, and 10 nM samples were 5.6, 3.6, and 0.72 % (n = 9), and the analysis time was <2 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions, especially Fe(III), were evaluated. Using the FIA-LWCC method, different sources of bottled waters and tap waters were examined. The Cr(VI) concentrations of the bottled waters ranged from the detection limit to ∼20 nM, and tap waters collected from the same community supply had Cr(VI) concentration around 14 nM.

  11. Six-fold coordinated carbon dioxide VI

    SciTech Connect

    Iota, Valentin; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Klepeis, Jae-Hyun; Jenei, Zsolt; Evans, William; Cynn, Hyunchae

    2008-06-16

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent, whereas silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of an extended-solid phase of CO{sub 2}: a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50 GPa at 530-650 K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2} (a prototypical molecular solid) and SiO{sub 2} (one of Earth's fundamental building blocks). We present a phase diagram with a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and suggest that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the c axis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  12. Condenser biofouling control with ferrate(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, J.; Waite, T.D.

    1982-01-01

    Biofouling is caused by bacterial growth on the walls of the condenser. The cells become attached, increase in number, secrete extracellular material and create a slime. The organic deposits attract additional deposits of organic and inorganic material. Also increases in heat transfer resistance result in less efficient condensation and therefore less backpressure to the turbine. With less vacuum in the system, the steam passes more slowly through the turbine, generating less electricity, and resulting in greater fuel consumption per unit of electrical energy produced. To reduce this extra energy generation cost, condensers must be treated to reduce biofouling. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible use of iron(VI) ferrate as an alternative to chlorine in controlling biofilm formation. The effectiveness of ferrate in controlling film growth was investigated using a model laboratory condenser system. Potassium ferrate was used in this study. Results indicate that ferrate(VI) ion appears to be an effective antifoulant. Short contact times are required for ferrate concentrations of 10/sup -5/M to maintain condenser cleanliness. (DMC)

  13. Photophysical Properties of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ke

    As it is well known, semiconductor nanocrystals (also called quantum dots, QDs) are being actively pursued for use in many different types of luminescent optical materials. These materials include the active media for luminescence downconversion in artificial lighting, lasers, luminescent solar concentrators and many other applications. Chapter 1 gives general introduction of QDs, which describe the basic physical properties and optical properties. Based on the experimental spectroscopic study, a semiquantitative method-effective mass model is employed to give theoretical prediction and guide. The following chapters will talks about several topics respectively. A predictive understanding of the radiative lifetimes is therefore a starting point for the understanding of the use of QDs for these applications. Absorption intensities and radiative lifetimes are fundamental properties of any luminescent material. Meantime, achievement of high efficiency with high working temperature and heterostructure fabrication with manipulation of lattice strain are not easy and need systematic investigation. To make accurate connections between extinction coefficients and radiative recombination rates, chapter 2 will consider three closely related aspects of the size dependent spectroscopy of II-VI QDs. First, it will consider the existing literature on cadmium selenide (CdSe) QD absorption spectra and extinction coefficients. From these results and fine structure considerations Boltzmann weighted radiative lifetimes are calculated. These lifetimes are compared to values measured on very high quality CdSe and CdSe coated with zinc selenide (ZnSe) shells. Second, analogous literature data are analyzed for cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and compared to lifetimes measured for very high quality QDs. Furthermore, studies of the absorption and excitation spectra and measured radiative lifetimes for CdTe/CdSe Type-II core/shell QDs are reported. These results are also analyzed in

  14. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20–150 GPa and 1.9–5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2–23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime. PMID:26515505

  15. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    PubMed Central

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. Here we have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. PMID:26392208

  16. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.

  17. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  18. U(VI) behaviour in hyperalkaline calcite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kurt F.; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Swinburne, Adam N.; Bots, Pieter; Shaw, Samuel; Natrajan, Louise S.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Livens, Francis R.; Morris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of U(VI) in hyperalkaline fluid/calcite systems was studied over a range of U(VI) concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 μM to 42.0 μM) and in two high pH systems, young and old synthetic cement leachate in batch sorption experiments. These systems were selected to be representative of young- (pH 13.3) and old-stage (pH 10.5) leachate evolution within a cementitious geological disposal facility. Batch sorption experiments, modelling, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and luminescence spectroscopy were used to define the speciation of U(VI) across the systems of study. At the lowest concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 μM 232U(VI)) significant U removal was observed for both old and young cement leachates, and this was successfully modelled using a first order kinetic adsorption modelling approach. At higher concentrations (>4.20 μM) in the young cement leachate, U(VI) showed no interaction with the calcite surface over an 18 month period. Small angle X-ray scattering techniques indicated that at high U concentrations (42.0 μM) and after 18 months, the U(VI) was present in a colloidal form which had little interaction with the calcite surface and consisted of both primary and aggregated particles with a radius of 7.6 ± 1.1 and 217 ± 24 Å, respectively. In the old cement leachate, luminescence spectroscopy identified two surface binding sites for U(VI) on calcite: in the system with 0.21 μM U(VI), a liebigite-like Ca2UO2(CO3)3 surface complex was identified; at higher U(VI) concentrations (0.42 μM), a second binding site of undetermined coordination was identified. At elevated U(VI) concentrations (>2.10 μM) in old cement leachate, both geochemical data and luminescence spectroscopy suggested that surface mediated precipitation was controlling U(VI) behaviour. A focused ion beam mill was used to create a section across the U(VI) precipitate-calcite interface. Transmission electron

  19. The Enigmatic Core L1451-mm: A First Hydrostatic Core? Or a Hidden VeLLO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Arce, Héctor G.; Schnee, Scott; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Tanner, Joel; Kauffmann, Jens; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-12-01

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and 12CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L ⊙ is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect 12CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope, the Submillimeter Array, and CARMA. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. Support for CARMA construction was derived from the states of California, Illinois, and Maryland, the James S. McDonnell Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Kenneth T

  20. Temperature relaxation in dense plasma mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    We present a model to calculate temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasma mixtures. The electron-ion relaxation rates are calculated using an average-atom model and the ion-ion relaxation rates by the Landau-Spitzer approach. This method allows the study of the temperature relaxation in many-temperature electron-ion and ion-ion systems such as those encountered in inertial confinement fusion simulations. It is of interest for general nonequilibrium thermodynamics dealing with energy flows between various systems and should find broad use in present high energy density experiments.

  1. Resolving ultrafast heating of dense cryogenic hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Zastrau, U; Sperling, P; Harmand, M; Becker, A; Bornath, T; Bredow, R; Dziarzhytski, S; Fennel, T; Fletcher, L B; Förster, E; Göde, S; Gregori, G; Hilbert, V; Hochhaus, D; Holst, B; Laarmann, T; Lee, H J; Ma, T; Mithen, J P; Mitzner, R; Murphy, C D; Nakatsutsumi, M; Neumayer, P; Przystawik, A; Roling, S; Schulz, M; Siemer, B; Skruszewicz, S; Tiggesbäumker, J; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; White, T; Wöstmann, M; Zacharias, H; Döppner, T; Glenzer, S H; Redmer, R

    2014-03-14

    We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ≲300  fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ∼0.9  ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.

  2. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  3. Phase boundary of hot dense fluid hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Kenji; Ichimaru, Kota; Einaga, Mari; Kawaguchi, Sho; Shimizu, Katsuya; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the phase transformation of hot dense fluid hydrogen using static high-pressure laser-heating experiments in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The results show anomalies in the heating efficiency that are likely to be attributed to the phase transition from a diatomic to monoatomic fluid hydrogen (plasma phase transition) in the pressure range between 82 and 106 GPa. This study imposes tighter constraints on the location of the hydrogen plasma phase transition boundary and suggests higher critical point than that predicted by the theoretical calculations. PMID:26548442

  4. Electrical Resistivity Measurements of Hot Dense Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benage, J. F.; Shanahan, W. R.; Murillo, M. S.

    1999-10-01

    Electrical transport properties of dense aluminum are measured in the disordered liquidlike phase using a well-tamped, thermally equilibrated, exploding wire z pinch. Direct measurements of the electrical conductivity have been made using voltage and current measurements. Our measurements span the minimum conductivity regime, at higher densities than have been produced previously. We find that some Ziman-like theoretical predictions are in fair agreement with the data and one Ziman-like theoretical approach is in good agreement, in contrast to other experiments performed in similar regimes which indicate poor agreement with such theories.

  5. Dense optical-electrical interface module

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chang

    2000-12-21

    The DOIM (Dense Optical-electrical Interface Modules) is a custom-designed optical data transmission module employed in the upgrade of Silicon Vertex Detector of CDF experiment at Fermilab. Each DOIM module consists of a transmitter (TX) converting electrical differential input signals to optical outputs, a middle segment of jacketed fiber ribbon cable, and a receiver (RX) which senses the light inputs and converts them back to electrical signals. The targeted operational frequency is 53 MHz, and higher rate is achievable. This article outlines the design goals, implementation methods, production test results, and radiation hardness tests of these modules.

  6. Out-of-Core Solutions of Complex Sparse Linear Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    ETCLIB is library of subroutines for obtaining out-of-core solutions of complex sparse linear equations. Routines apply to dense and sparse matrices too large to be stored in core. Useful for solving any set of linear equations, but particularly useful in cases where coefficient matrix has no special properties that guarantee convergence with any of interative processes. The only assumption made is that coefficient matrix is not singular.

  7. Rich-Cores in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Athen; Mondragón, Raúl J.

    2015-01-01

    A core comprises of a group of central and densely connected nodes which governs the overall behaviour of a network. It is recognised as one of the key meso-scale structures in complex networks. Profiling this meso-scale structure currently relies on a limited number of methods which are often complex and parameter dependent or require a null model. As a result, scalability issues are likely to arise when dealing with very large networks together with the need for subjective adjustment of parameters. The notion of a rich-club describes nodes which are essentially the hub of a network, as they play a dominating role in structural and functional properties. The definition of a rich-club naturally emphasises high degree nodes and divides a network into two subgroups. Here, we develop a method to characterise a rich-core in networks by theoretically coupling the underlying principle of a rich-club with the escape time of a random walker. The method is fast, scalable to large networks and completely parameter free. In particular, we show that the evolution of the core in World Trade and C. elegans networks correspond to responses to historical events and key stages in their physical development, respectively. PMID:25799585

  8. Rich-cores in networks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Athen; Mondragón, Raúl J

    2015-01-01

    A core comprises of a group of central and densely connected nodes which governs the overall behaviour of a network. It is recognised as one of the key meso-scale structures in complex networks. Profiling this meso-scale structure currently relies on a limited number of methods which are often complex and parameter dependent or require a null model. As a result, scalability issues are likely to arise when dealing with very large networks together with the need for subjective adjustment of parameters. The notion of a rich-club describes nodes which are essentially the hub of a network, as they play a dominating role in structural and functional properties. The definition of a rich-club naturally emphasises high degree nodes and divides a network into two subgroups. Here, we develop a method to characterise a rich-core in networks by theoretically coupling the underlying principle of a rich-club with the escape time of a random walker. The method is fast, scalable to large networks and completely parameter free. In particular, we show that the evolution of the core in World Trade and C. elegans networks correspond to responses to historical events and key stages in their physical development, respectively.

  9. Grain alignment in starless cores

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T. J.; Bagley, M.; Krejny, M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Bastien, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present near-IR polarimetry data of background stars shining through a selection of starless cores taken in the K band, probing visual extinctions up to A{sub V}∼48. We find that P{sub K}/τ{sub K} continues to decline with increasing A{sub V} with a power law slope of roughly −0.5. Examination of published submillimeter (submm) polarimetry of starless cores suggests that by A{sub V}≳20 the slope for P versus τ becomes ∼−1, indicating no grain alignment at greater optical depths. Combining these two data sets, we find good evidence that, in the absence of a central illuminating source, the dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores with no internal radiation source cease to become aligned with the local magnetic field at optical depths greater than A{sub V}∼20. A simple model relating the alignment efficiency to the optical depth into the cloud reproduces the observations well.

  10. KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO-VI Using GeeWiz

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Stephen M

    2008-09-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO-VI three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is one of the primary criticality safety analysis tools in SCALE. The KENO-VI primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO-VI Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO-VI in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO-VI that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 6, which includes the Graphically Enhanced Editing Wizard (GeeWiz) Windows user interface. Each example uses GeeWiz to provide the framework for preparing input data and viewing output results. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO-VI input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO-VI. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO-VI features that are covered in detail in the sample problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using GeeWiz to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO-VI. The primer provides a starting point for the criticality safety analyst who uses SCALE/KENO-VI. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE/KENO-VI manual. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE/KENO-VI documentation. (The SCALE manual is provided on the SCALE installation DVD.) The primer provides specific examples of

  11. 32 CFR 2003.6 - Voting (Article VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Voting (Article VI). 2003.6 Section 2003.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE...) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.6 Voting (Article VI). (a) Motions. When the Panel...

  12. 32 CFR 2003.6 - Voting (Article VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voting (Article VI). 2003.6 Section 2003.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE...) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.6 Voting (Article VI). (a) Motions. When the Panel...

  13. Type VI Collagen Regulates Dermal Matrix Assembly and Fibroblast Motility.

    PubMed

    Theocharidis, Georgios; Drymoussi, Zoe; Kao, Alexander P; Barber, Asa H; Lee, David A; Braun, Kristin M; Connelly, John T

    2016-01-01

    Type VI collagen is a nonfibrillar collagen expressed in many connective tissues and implicated in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. We hypothesized that type VI collagen regulates matrix assembly and cell function within the dermis of the skin. In the present study we examined the expression pattern of type VI collagen in normal and wounded skin and investigated its specific function in new matrix deposition by human dermal fibroblasts. Type VI collagen was expressed throughout the dermis of intact human skin, at the expanding margins of human keloid samples, and in the granulation tissue of newly deposited ECM in a mouse model of wound healing. Generation of cell-derived matrices (CDMs) by human dermal fibroblasts with stable knockdown of COL6A1 revealed that type VI collagen-deficient matrices were significantly thinner and contained more aligned, thicker, and widely spaced fibers than CDMs produced by normal fibroblasts. In addition, there was significantly less total collagen and sulfated proteoglycans present in the type VI collagen-depleted matrices. Normal fibroblasts cultured on de-cellularized CDMs lacking type VI collagen displayed increased cell spreading, migration speed, and persistence. Taken together, these findings indicate that type VI collagen is a key regulator of dermal matrix assembly, composition, and fibroblast behavior and may play an important role in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:26763426

  14. Surveying the Origin of O VI Gas at Low Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Tripp, Todd; Aracil, Bastien; Davé, Romeel; Mulchaey, John; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2005-08-01

    A comparison of the baryonic mass density inferred from BBN and the CMB with a census of visible baryonic components at the present epoch indicates a significant fraction of the universe's baryons are hidden in a dark component. Theoretical investigations predict that the majority of 'missing' baryons lie in a hot (T ~ 10^5-7 K), low density medium which can be efficiently detected through O VI absorption. More importantly, recent STIS+FUSE surveys for O VI are consistent with this gas comprising a significant fraction of the missing baryons. Establishing the physical nature of these O VI absorbers directly impacts our understanding of the distribution of baryons in the universe. The principal goal of our program is to determine if this O VI gas arises in galactic halos, the intragroup or intracluster medium, the low density 'cosmic web', or a different region of the universe altogether. We are pursuing an observational program to search for galaxies associated with O VI absorbers at low redshift. To accomplish this project, we require deep UBVRI images in fields surrounding quasars surveyed for O VI absorption. This dataset will provide precise photometric redshifts of z< 0.3 galaxies with L > L^*/10 and measures of color and morphology. Ultimately, we will use the photometric redshifts to efficiently pre-select galaxies for spectroscopy on multi-slit spectrometers. By correlating the galaxy redshifts against the O VI absorption lines and comparing directly with cosmological simulations, we will establish the origin of the O VI gas.

  15. Surveying the Origin of O VI Gas at Low Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Tripp, Todd; Aracil, Bastien; Davé, Romeel; Mulchaey, John; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2006-02-01

    A comparison of the baryonic mass density inferred from BBN and the CMB with a census of visible baryonic components at the present epoch indicates a significant fraction of the universe's baryons are hidden in a dark component. Theoretical investigations predict that the majority of 'missing' baryons lie in a hot (T ~ 10^5-7 K), low density medium which can be efficiently detected through O VI absorption. More importantly, recent STIS+FUSE surveys for O VI are consistent with this gas comprising a significant fraction of the missing baryons. Establishing the physical nature of these O VI absorbers directly impacts our understanding of the distribution of baryons in the universe. The principal goal of our program is to determine if this O VI gas arises in galactic halos, the intragroup or intracluster medium, the low density 'cosmic web', or a different region of the universe altogether. We are pursuing an observational program to search for galaxies associated with O VI absorbers at low redshift. To accomplish this project, we require deep UBVRI images in fields surrounding quasars surveyed for O VI absorption. This dataset will provide precise photometric redshifts of z< 0.3 galaxies with L > L^*/10 and measures of color and morphology. Ultimately, we will use the photometric redshifts to efficiently pre-select galaxies for spectroscopy on multi-slit spectrometers. By correlating the galaxy redshifts against the O VI absorption lines and comparing directly with cosmological simulations, we will establish the origin of the O VI gas.

  16. Possible problems in ENDF/B-VI.r8

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D; Hedstrom, G

    2003-10-30

    This document lists the problems that we encountered in processing ENDF/B-VI.r8 that we suspect are problems with ENDF/B-VI.r8 itself. It also contains a comparison of linear interpolation methods. Finally, this documents proposes an alternative to the current scheme of reporting problems to the ENDF community.

  17. Kandinsky's "Composition VI": Heideggerian Poetry in Noah's Ark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    The author will begin his investigation of Wassily Kandinsky's painting "Composition VI" with Kandinsky's own commentary on the painting. He will then turn to the analysis of Kandinsky and the "Compositions" in John Sallis's book "Shades." Using this analysis as his point of departure, the author will consider how "Composition VI" resonates with…

  18. Vi I typing phage for generalized transduction of Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Cerquetti, M C; Hooke, A M

    1993-08-01

    Salmonella typhi Vi typing phages were used to transduce temperature-sensitive (Ts) mutants of Salmonella typhi. Antibiotic resistance and Ts+ markers were transduced at high frequency (> 10(-4) per virulent phage). Several markers were cotransduced by phage Vi I, suggesting that it may be useful for mapping studies of the S. typhi genome.

  19. 77 FR 64399 - Order of Succession for HUD Region VI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region VI. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR..., Community Planning and Development. 5. Lubbock Field Office Order of Succession a. Senior Management Analyst... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region VI AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and...

  20. Neutron Emission in Deuterium Dense Plasma Foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbe, Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a computational study of the deuterium dense plasma focus (DPF) carried out to improve understanding of the neutron production mechanism in the DPF. The device currents studied range from 70 kA to several MA. The complete evolution of the DPF is simulated in 3D from rundown through to neutron emission using a hybrid computational method. The rundown, pinching, stagnation and post-stagnation (pinch break-up) phases are simulated using the 3D MHD code Gorgon. Kinetic computational tools are used to model the formation and transport of non-thermal ion populations and neutron production during the stagnation and post-stagnation phases, resulting in the production of synthetic neutron spectra. It is observed that the break-up phase plays an important role in the formation of non-thermal ions. Large electric fields generated during pinch break-up cause ions to be accelerated from the edges of dense plasma regions. The dependence on current of the neutron yield, neutron spectra shape and isotropy is studied. The effect of magnetization of the non-thermal ions is evident as the anisotropy of the neutron spectra decreases at higher current.

  1. Ion Acoustic Modes in Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Nicholas; Monaco, Guilio; White, Thomas; Gregori, Gianluca; Graham, Peter; Fletcher, Luke; Appel, Karen; Tschentscher, Thomas; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric; Granados, Eduardo; Heimann, Philip; Zastrau, Ulf; Doeppner, Tilo; Gericke, Dirk; Lepape, Sebastien; Ma, Tammy; Pak, Art; Schropp, Andreas; Glenzer, Siegfried; Hastings, Jerry

    2015-06-01

    We present results that, for the first time, show scattering from ion acoustic modes in warm dense matter, representing an unprecedented level of energy resolution in the study of dense plasmas. The experiment was carried out at the LCLS facility in California on an aluminum sample at 7 g/cc and 5 eV. Using an X-ray probe at 8 keV, shifted peaks at +/-150 meV were observed. Although the energy shifts from interactions with the acoustic waves agree with predicted values from DFT-MD models, a central (elastic) peak was also observed, which did not appear in modelled spectra and may be due to the finite timescale of the simulation. Data fitting with a hydrodynamic form has proved able to match the observed spectrum, and provide measurements of some thermodynamic properties of the system, which mostly agree with predicted values. Suggest for further experiments to determine the cause of the disparity are also given.

  2. Nuclear quantum dynamics in dense hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongdong; Sun, Huayang; Dai, Jiayu; Chen, Wenbo; Zhao, Zengxiu; Hou, Yong; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics in dense hydrogen, which is determined by the key physics of large-angle scattering or many-body collisions between particles, is crucial for the dynamics of planet's evolution and hydrodynamical processes in inertial confinement confusion. Here, using improved ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the nuclear quantum dynamics regarding transport behaviors of dense hydrogen up to the temperatures of 1 eV. With the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), the ionic diffusions are largely higher than the classical treatment by the magnitude from 20% to 146% as the temperature is decreased from 1 eV to 0.3 eV at 10 g/cm3, meanwhile, electrical and thermal conductivities are significantly lowered. In particular, the ionic diffusion is found much larger than that without NQEs even when both the ionic distributions are the same at 1 eV. The significant quantum delocalization of ions introduces remarkably different scattering cross section between protons compared with classical particle treatments, which explains the large difference of transport properties induced by NQEs. The Stokes-Einstein relation, Wiedemann-Franz law, and isotope effects are re-examined, showing different behaviors in nuclear quantum dynamics. PMID:24968754

  3. Dynamics of Kr in dense clathrate hydrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, D. D.; Tse, J. S.; Zhao, J. Y.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Tulk, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of Kr atoms as guests in dense clathrate hydrate structures are investigated using site specific {sup 83}Kr nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The dense structure H hydrate and filled-ice structures are studied at high pressures in a diamond anvil high-pressure cell. The dynamics of Kr in the structure H clathrate hydrate quench recovered at 77 K is also investigated. The Kr phonon density of states obtained from the experimental NRIXS data are compared with molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature and pressure dependence of the phonon spectra provide details of the Kr dynamics in the clathrate hydrate cages. Comparison with the dynamics of Kr atoms in the low-pressure structure II obtained previously was made. The Lamb-Mossbauer factor obtained from NRIXS experiments and molecular dynamics calculations are in excellent agreement and are shown to yield unique information on the strength and temperature dependence of guest-host interactions.

  4. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  5. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.; Kress, J.; Troullier, N.; Lenosky, T.; Kwon, I.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have developed a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulation method for investigating the properties of dense matter in a variety of environments. The technique treats a periodically-replicated reference cell containing N atoms in which the nuclei move according to the classical equations-of-motion. The interatomic forces are generated from the quantum mechanical interactions of the (between?) electrons and nuclei. To generate these forces, the authors employ several methods of varying sophistication from the tight-binding (TB) to elaborate density functional (DF) schemes. In the latter case, lengthy simulations on the order of 200 atoms are routinely performed, while for the TB, which requires no self-consistency, upwards to 1000 atoms are systematically treated. The QMD method has been applied to a variety cases: (1) fluid/plasma Hydrogen from liquid density to 20 times volume-compressed for temperatures of a thousand to a million degrees Kelvin; (2) isotopic hydrogenic mixtures, (3) liquid metals (Li, Na, K); (4) impurities such as Argon in dense hydrogen plasmas; and (5) metal/insulator transitions in rare gas systems (Ar,Kr) under high compressions. The advent of parallel versions of the methods, especially for fast eigensolvers, presage LDA simulations in the range of 500--1000 atoms and TB runs for tens of thousands of particles. This leap should allow treatment of shock chemistry as well as large-scale mixtures of species in highly transient environments.

  6. Carbon depletion in turbulent molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, W.; de Jong, T.

    1982-10-01

    Observations of dense molecular cores indicate that about 10% of the carbon is still in the gas phase (depletion factor of about 0.1) in spite of the fact that the depletion time - the time needed for heavy elements to freeze out on dust grains - is several orders of magnitude smaller than the cloud lifetime. To resolve this problem, it is suggested that the material in molecular cloud cores is circulated by turbulence and that every time a parcel of gas and dust reaches the outer layers of the core, dust mantles that have formed by accretion in the center are evaporated and/or photodesorbed. The observed mild degree of depletion results because the circulation time and the depletion time are of the same order of magnitude. Since the time to reach molecular equilibrium in the outer layers of a cloud core is short compared with the circulation time the dust plays no role in the chemistry. In the center of a cloud core, the time to convert C to CO is of the order of the circulation time, so that an appreciable fraction of the gaseous carbon remains in atomic form. From a brief discussion of the energetics, it is concluded that the turbulence observed in molecular cloud cores can be maintained during the lifetime of the cloud if the envelope collapses onto the core at a rate of about 0.000001 solar mass per year.

  7. Influence of Calcite Solids and Dissolved Calcium on U(VI) Sorption and Desorption in Hanford Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.; Stone, Alan T.; Bai, Jing; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming

    2004-03-29

    We have investigated U(VI) sorption and desorption with batch experiments conducted on core samples from the Hanford, WA, site as well as on sub-fractions of these materials and laboratory-grade calcite. In these studies, [U(VI)] was varied between 10- 7 and 10-5 and pH between 7.2 to 10, at constant I (=0.05) and constant PCO2 (10-3.5 atm), using water that was saturated with respect to calcite. A carbonate-free (acetic acid- treated) fraction of silt/clay material showed higher sorption than untreated material, suggesting that carbonates block access to higher affinity sites. Of particular interest was that U(VI) sorption on untreated material was maximum at pH=8.4, with substantially less sorption at lower and higher pH and in contrast to results from calcite free studies, which show strong sorption at pH {approx} 5 to 8. U(VI) speciation results suggest that aqueous-phase Ca2UO2(CO3)3 was the source of the otherwise unexpectedly low sorption at pH <8.4.

  8. Cores, Filaments, and Bundles: Hierarchical core formation in the B213 filament in Taurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacar, Alvaro; Tafalla, Mario; Kauffmann, Jens; Kovacs, Attila

    2013-07-01

    Characterizing the dense core formation in filaments is a critical step for our understanding of the star formation process within molecular clouds. Using different molecular tracers to study the gas kinematics at different scales and density regimes, we have investigated the dense core formation in the B213/L1495 filament in Taurus, one of the most prominent structures identified in nearby clouds (see Hacar et al 2013, A&A, 554, A55). Our analysis of its internal kinematics demonstrates that this filament is actually a bundle of 35 velocity-coherent filaments, typically with lengths of ˜ 0.5 pc and oscillatory-like and sonic velocity field, each of them exhibiting linear masses close to the expected mass for a filament in hydrostatic equilibrium. Among them, only a small fraction of these filaments (˜1/4) are "fertile" and efficiently fragment forming all the cores identified within this region, while most of them (˜3/4) do not form cores and remain "sterile". Our observations then suggest that core formation in Taurus occurs in two steps. First, 0.5 pc-long velocity-coherent filaments condense out of the cloud gas, probably as a result of the turbulent cascade. After that, the dense cores condense quasi-statically in only those "fertile" filaments that have accumulated enough mass to became gravitational unstable, inheriting their kinematic properties. The formation of these velocity-coherent filaments appears therefore as a critical step on the star formation process being the first subsonic structures formed out of the turbulent regime that dominates the cloud dynamics at large scales.

  9. ON THE COAGULATION AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE CONFINED CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xu; Zhou Tingtao; Lin, D. N. C.

    2013-05-20

    Observations of the Pipe Nebula have led to the discovery of dense starless cores. The mass of most cores is too small for their self-gravity to hold them together. Instead, they are thought to be pressure confined. The observed dense cores' mass function (CMF) matches well with the initial mass function of stars in young clusters. Similar CMFs are observed in other star forming regions such as the Aquila Nebula, albeit with some dispersion. The shape of these CMF provides important clues to the competing physical processes which lead to star formation and its feedback on the interstellar media. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical origin of the mass function of starless cores which are confined by a warm, less dense medium. In order to follow the evolution of the CMF, we construct a numerical method to consider the coagulation between the cold cores and their ablation due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability induced by their relative motion through the warm medium. We are able to reproduce the observed CMF among the starless cores in the Pipe Nebula. Our results indicate that in environment similar to the Pipe Nebula: (1) before the onset of their gravitational collapse, the mass distribution of the progenitor cores is similar to that of the young stars, (2) the observed CMF is a robust consequence of dynamical equilibrium between the coagulation and ablation of cores, and (3) a break in the slope of the CMF is due to the enhancement of collisional cross section and suppression of ablation for cores with masses larger than the cores' Bonnor-Ebert mass.

  10. Spectrophotometry of Comet West 1976 VI

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenbush, V.K.

    1986-05-01

    Spectra obtained for the coma, nuclear fragments A and D, and tail of Comet West 1976 VI on April 1, 2 and 7, 1976 are noted to encompass coma spectra which differed from those of the nuclear fragments, which exhibited a strong continuum with superimposed emissions that included a stronger CO(+)-band system than that of the coma. A detailed comparison between fragment spectra has revealed great differences in both quasi-simultaneously obtained and five-day-separated cases. The relative intensities of different CO(+) bands are compared to the theoretical ones, and the abundances of CO(+) ions corresponding to different vibrational transitions are determined relative to that of CN. 24 references.

  11. Marker for type VI secretion system effectors

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor; Kinch, Lisa N.; Trudgian, David C.; Guo, Xiaofeng; Klimko, John A.; Grishin, Nick V.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria use diverse mechanisms to kill, manipulate, and compete with other cells. The recently discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in bacterial pathogens and used to deliver virulence effector proteins into target cells. Using comparative proteomics, we identified two previously unidentified T6SS effectors that contained a conserved motif. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that this N-terminal motif, named MIX (marker for type six effectors), is found in numerous polymorphic bacterial proteins that are primarily located in the T6SS genome neighborhood. We demonstrate that several MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors and that they are not required for T6SS activity. Thus, we propose that MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors. Our findings allow for the identification of numerous uncharacterized T6SS effectors that will undoubtedly lead to the discovery of new biological mechanisms. PMID:24927539

  12. Six-fold Coordinated Carbon Dioxide VI

    SciTech Connect

    Iota, V; Yoo, C; Klepeis, J; Jenei, Z

    2006-03-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent while silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and represents one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of a new extended-solid phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}): a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this new extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2}--a prototypical molecular solid, and SiO{sub 2}--one of Earth's fundamental building blocks. The phase diagram suggests a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and proposes that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III, and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the caxis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  13. Six-fold coordinated carbon dioxide VI.

    PubMed

    Iota, Valentin; Yoo, Choong-Shik; Klepeis, Jae-Hyun; Jenei, Zsolt; Evans, William; Cynn, Hyunchae

    2007-01-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent, whereas silicon dioxide (SiO2) is a covalent solid, and one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO2 transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO2 tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of an extended-solid phase of CO2: a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO2-II (refs 1,2) above 50 GPa at 530-650 K. Together with the previously reported CO2-V (refs 3-5) and a-carbonia, this extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO2 (a prototypical molecular solid) and SiO2 (one of Earth's fundamental building blocks). We present a phase diagram with a limited stability domain for molecular CO2-I, and suggest that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II (refs 1,2), III (refs 7,8) and IV (refs 9,10). The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the c axis in stishovite-like P42/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp3 hybridization. PMID:17160005

  14. Heterobimetallic bismuth(III)/molybdenum(VI) and antimony(III)/molybdenum(VI) calix[5]arene complexes. Progress toward modeling the SOHIO catalyst.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Espinosa, Daniel; Hanna, Tracy A

    2009-08-01

    The treatment of the monometallic bismuth or antimony complexes [M{(t)BuC5(H)(2)}] (M = Bi, Sb) with 1.5 equiv of MoO(2)(O(t)Bu)(2) in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) produced soluble Bi(III)/Mo(VI) and Sb(III)/Mo(VI) heterometallic calix[5]arene complexes [Bi(2)Mo(4)O(11){(t)BuC5(H)}(2)] 1 and [Sb(2)Mo(4)O(11){(t)BuC5(H)}(2)] 2 in 55 and 45% yields, respectively. In solution the (1)H NMR patterns for 1 and 2 are characteristic of a C(s) symmetry with three pairs of doublets for the methylene protons and three singlets in a 1:2:2 ratio for the tert-butyl groups. Complex 1 crystallizes in the P1 space group and consists of a dimeric heterometallic Bi/Mo (1:2 ratio) complex featuring an overall Mo(4)Bi(2)O(21) oxo cluster. The remarkable oxo-rich core structure of 1 contains Bi(mu-O)Mo, Mo(mu-O)Mo, Mo=O...Mo, and Bi-O-Bi interactions that resemble aspects of the proposed SOHIO catalyst active site and the crystal structure of the Bi(2)Mo(2)O(9) oxide phase. PMID:19552450

  15. Dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong; Fan, Zhongwei; Shi, Zhaohui; Ma, Yunfeng; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-25

    In this work, dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers (AR-HCFs) are numerically demonstrated, based on our knowledge, for the first time. Two fiber structures are proposed. One is a composite of two single-core nested nodeless AR-HCFs, exhibiting low confinement loss and a circular mode profile in each core. The other has a relatively simple structure, with a whole elliptical outer jacket, presenting a uniform and wide transmission band. The modal couplings of the dual-core AR-HCFs rely on a unique mechanism that transfers power through the air. The core separation and the gap between the two cores influence the modal coupling strength. With proper designs, both of the dual-core fibers can have low phase birefringence and short modal coupling lengths of several centimeters.

  16. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  17. Tracing magnetic field orientation in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswar, G.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Lee, C. W.; Dib, S.

    It is now well understood that stars are formed in the interiors of dense, gravitationally bound molecular cloud cores that are both magnetized and turbulent. But the relative role played by the magnetic field and the turbulence in cloud formation and evolution and in the subsequent star formation is a matter of debate. In a magnetically dominated scenario, the magnetic field geometry of the cores is expected to be inherited unchanged from their low-density envelope, even for an hour glass geometry of the field, unless the action of turbulence disturbs it. We carried out polarimetry of stars projected on starless molecular clouds, LDN 183 and LDN 1544, in R-filter. The comparison of these fields with those in the interiors of the cloud cores inferred from the sub-mm polarization shows that both magnetic field and turbulence are important in the cloud formation and evolution of star formation.

  18. Dense gas shock tube: Design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergason, Stephen Harrison

    The study of BZT fluids in the single-phase vapor region is largely unexamined experimentally. To date, only one experimental study focused on nonclassical behavior in the single-phase vapor region. A new experimental program is proposed to examine the possibility of generating nonclassical behaviors in a shock tube apparatus. A design methodology is developed to identify the most important experimental characteristics and provide appropriate analytical and computational tools for subsequent study. Analysis suggests initial conditions, viscous effects, and wave interference as critical experimental characteristics. A shock tube design is proposed based on the results of the methodology. An algorithm is developed and applied to classical state equations to generate experimentally feasible initial conditions which maximize the possibility of detecting a single-phase rarefaction shock wave within experimental accuracy and precision. The algorithm was applied to a commercially available fluid thought to exhibit dense gas behavior. It was found that the range of possible initial conditions generating dense gas phenomena is larger than previously assumed. The shock tube is computationally modeled to validate the triple-discontinuity initial conditions and investigate the appropriate design dimensions. A two-step, flux-limited, total variation diminishing scheme was implemented to integrate the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations using three independent gas models. The triple-discontinuity flow field was verified with simulations. A novel shock tube was constructed based on the previous analysis. A sixteen-foot stainless steel pipe with a single diaphragm was placed within a series of electric ovens. The test section thermal environment was controlled utilizing sixteen independent PID control loops. Initial conditions similar in pressure and temperature to dense gas conditions were generated for nitrogen gas. The nitrogen test results were compared with classical one

  19. The EMPIRE Survey: Systematic Variations in the Dense Gas Fraction and Star Formation Efficiency from Full-disk Mapping of M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam K.; Jiménez-Donaire, Maria J.; Pety, Jérôme; Usero, Antonio; Cormier, Diane; Bolatto, Alberto; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago; Colombo, Dario; González-García, Manuel; Hughes, Annie; Kepley, Amanda A.; Kramer, Carsten; Sandstrom, Karin; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Schuster, Karl; Tomicic, Neven; Zschaechner, Laura

    2016-05-01

    We present the first results from the EMPIRE survey, an IRAM large program that is mapping tracers of high-density molecular gas across the disks of nine nearby star-forming galaxies. Here, we present new maps of the 3 mm transitions of HCN, HCO+, and HNC across the whole disk of our pilot target, M51. As expected, dense gas correlates with tracers of recent star formation, filling the “luminosity gap” between Galactic cores and whole galaxies. In detail, we show that both the fraction of gas that is dense, {f}{dense} traced by HCN/CO, and the rate at which dense gas forms stars, {{SFE}}{dense} traced by IR/HCN, depend on environment in the galaxy. The sense of the dependence is that high-surface-density, high molecular gas fraction regions of the galaxy show high dense gas fractions and low dense gas star formation efficiencies. This agrees with recent results for individual pointings by Usero et al. but using unbiased whole-galaxy maps. It also agrees qualitatively with the behavior observed contrasting our own Solar Neighborhood with the central regions of the Milky Way. The sense of the trends can be explained if the dense gas fraction tracks interstellar pressure but star formation occurs only in regions of high density contrast.

  20. THE NATURE OF THE WARM/HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. NUMERICAL METHODS, CONVERGENCE, AND O VI ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Britton D.; Hallman, Eric J.; Shull, J. Michael; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu

    2011-04-10

    We perform a series of cosmological simulations using Enzo, an Eulerian adaptive-mesh refinement, N-body + hydrodynamical code, applied to study the warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). The WHIM may be an important component of the baryons missing observationally at low redshift. We investigate the dependence of the global star formation rate and mass fraction in various baryonic phases on spatial resolution and methods of incorporating stellar feedback. Although both resolution and feedback significantly affect the total mass in the WHIM, all of our simulations find that the WHIM fraction peaks at z {approx} 0.5, declining to 35%-40% at z = 0. We construct samples of synthetic O VI absorption lines from our highest-resolution simulations, using several models of oxygen ionization balance. Models that include both collisional ionization and photoionization provide excellent fits to the observed number density of absorbers per unit redshift over the full range of column densities (10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} {approx}< N{sub OVI} {approx}< 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}). Models that include only collisional ionization provide better fits for high column density absorbers (N{sub OVI} {approx}> 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}). The distribution of O VI in density and temperature exhibits two populations: one at T {approx} 10{sup 5.5} K (collisionally ionized, 55% of total O VI) and one at T {approx} 10{sup 4.5} K (photoionized, 37%) with the remainder located in dense gas near galaxies. While not a perfect tracer of hot gas, O VI provides an important tool for a WHIM baryon census.

  1. Neptunium (VI) and neptunium (VI/V) mixed valence cluster compounds

    SciTech Connect

    May, Iain

    2008-01-01

    Neptunium has three readily accessible oxidation states, IV, V and VI, which can coexist under certain conditions, with the aqueous soluble neptunyl(V) moiety, {l_brace}NpO{sub 2}{r_brace}{sup +}, of most environmental relevance. Careful control of Np chemistry is required during actinide separation processes. In addition, the long half life of the major alpha emitting isotope ({sup 237}Np, t{sub 1/2} = 2.144 x 10{sup 6} years) renders Np a major contributor to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste as a function of time. Significant quantities of neptunium are generated in nuclear reactors and the current surge in interest in nuclear power will lead to an increase in our need to further understand the chemistry of this element. It is clearly of importance that Np chemistry is well understood and there have been several recent investigations into the structural, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Np compounds. However, the vast majority of this chemistry has been performed in aqueous solution, prohibiting the use of air and moisture sensitive ligands. This is in stark contrast to uranium and thorium where inert atmosphere chemistry with moisture sensitive donor ligands has flourished, yielding greater insight into the structural and electronic properties of these early actinides. For the uranyl(VI) moiety, {l_brace}UO{sub 2}{r_brace}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(thf){sub 3} (and the desolvated dimer [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(thf)]{sub 2}) have proven to be excellent moisture-free reagents for inert atmosphere uranyl chemistry. These starting reagents have been used extensively within our group to study soft donor ligand coordination in the uranyl equatorial plane and oxo-activation to Lewis acid coordination. However, until now the absence of such a starting reagent for Np has limited our ability to extend this chemistry any further across the actinide series, which is required if we are to gain a more complete understanding of 5f element chemistry. The synthesis of [Np

  2. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  3. Plasmon resonance in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Thiele, R; Bornath, T; Fortmann, C; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Ropke, G; Wierling, A; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G

    2008-02-21

    Collective Thomson scattering with extreme ultraviolet light or x-rays is shown to allow for a robust measurement of the free electron density in dense plasmas. Collective excitations like plasmons appear as maxima in the scattering signal. Their frequency position can directly be related to the free electron density. The range of applicability of the standard Gross-Bohm dispersion relation and of an improved dispersion relation in comparison to calculations based on the dielectric function in random phase approximation is investigated. More important, this well-established treatment of Thomson scattering on free electrons is generalized in the Born-Mermin approximation by including collisions. We show that, in the transition region from collective to non-collective scattering, the consideration of collisions is important.

  4. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  5. Carbon nitride frameworks and dense crystalline polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, Chris J.; Salamat, Ashkan; Bojdys, Michael J.; Needs, Richard J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2016-09-01

    We used ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to investigate polymorphism in C3N4 carbon nitride as a function of pressure. Our calculations reveal new framework structures, including a particularly stable chiral polymorph of space group P 43212 containing mixed s p2 and s p3 bonding, that we have produced experimentally and recovered to ambient conditions. As pressure is increased a sequence of structures with fully s p3 -bonded C atoms and three-fold-coordinated N atoms is predicted, culminating in a dense P n m a phase above 250 GPa. Beyond 650 GPa we find that C3N4 becomes unstable to decomposition into diamond and pyrite-structured CN2.

  6. Prediction of viscosity of dense fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, Damian D.; Vesovic, Velisa; Trusler, J. P. Martin; Wakeham, William. A.

    The Vesovic-Wakeham (VW) method of predicting the viscosity of dense fluid mixtures has been improved by implementing new mixing rules based on the rigid sphere formalism. The proposed mixing rules are based on both Lebowitz's solution of the Percus-Yevick equation and on the Carnahan-Starling equation. The predictions of the modified VW method have been compared with experimental viscosity data for a number of diverse fluid mixtures: natural gas, hexane + hheptane, hexane + octane, cyclopentane + toluene, and a ternary mixture of hydrofluorocarbons (R32 + R125 + R134a). The results indicate that the proposed improvements make possible the extension of the original VW method to liquid mixtures and to mixtures containing polar species, while retaining its original accuracy.

  7. Granular flow model for dense planetary rings

    SciTech Connect

    Borderies, N.; Goldreich, P.; Tremaine, S.

    1985-09-01

    In the present study of the viscosity of a differentially rotating particle disk, in the limiting case where the particles are densely packed and their collective behavior resembles that of a liquid, the pressure tensor is derived from both the equations of hydrodynamics and a simple kinetic model of collisions due to Haff (1983). Density waves and narrow circular rings are unstable if the liquid approximation applies, and the consequent nonlinear perturbations may generate splashing of the ring material in the vertical direction. These results are pertinent to the origin of the ellipticities of ringlets, the nonaxisymmetric features near the outer edge of the Saturn B ring, and unexplained residuals in kinematic models of the Saturn and Uranus rings. 24 references.

  8. Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2013-10-15

    Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  9. Properties of industrial dense gas plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaver, E. M.; Forney, L. J.

    Hazardous gases and vapors are often discharged into the atmosphere from industrial plants during catastrophic events (e.g. Union Carbide incident in Bhopal, India). In many cases the discharged components are more dense than air and settle to the ground surface downstream from the stack exit. In the present paper, the buoyant plume model of Hoult, Fay and Forney (1969, J. Air Pollut. Control Ass. 19, 585-590.) has been altered to predict the properties of hazardous discharges. In particular, the plume impingement point, radius and concentration are predicted for typical stack exit conditions, wind speeds and temperature profiles. Asymptotic expressions for plume properties at the impingement point are also derived for a constant crosswind and neutral temperature profile. These formulae are shown to be useful for all conditions.

  10. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  11. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  12. Kinetics of Microbial Reduction of Solid Phase U(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Jeon, Byong Hun; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2006-10-01

    Sodium boltwoodite (NaUO2SiO3OH ?1.5H2O) was used to assess the kinetics of microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI) by a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium (DMRB), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. The bioreduction kinetics was studied with Na-boltwoodite in suspension or within alginate beads. Concentrations of U(VI)tot and cell number were varied to evaluate the coupling of U(VI) dissolution, diffusion, and microbial activity. Batch experiments were performed in a non-growth medium with lactate as electron donor at pH 6.8 buffered with PIPES. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) collectively indicated that solid phase U(VI) was first dissolved and diffused out of grain interiors before it was reduced on bacterial surfaces and/or within the periplasm. The kinetics of solid phase U(VI) bioreduction was well described by a coupled model of bicarbonate-promoted dissolution of Na-boltwoodite, intraparticle uranyl diffusion, and Monod type bioreduction kinetics with respect to dissolved U(VI) concentration. The results demonstrated the intimate coupling of biological, chemical, and physical processes in microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI).

  13. Imaging of High-Z doped, Imploded Capsule Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisbrey, Shon T.; Edwards, M. John; Suter, Larry J.

    2006-10-01

    The ability to correctly ascertain the shape of imploded fusion capsules is critical to be able to achieve the spherical symmetry needed to maximize the energy yield of proposed fusion experiments for the National Ignition Facility. Implosion of the capsule creates a hot, dense core. The introduction of a high-Z dopant into the gas-filled core of the capsule increases the amount of bremsstrahlung radiation produced in the core and should make the imaging of the imploded core easier. Images of the imploded core can then be analyzed to ascertain the symmetry of the implosion. We calculate that the addition of Ne gas into a deuterium gas core will increase the amount of radiation emission while preserving the surrogacy of the radiation and hydrodynamics in the indirect drive NIF hohlraum in the proposed cryogenic hohlraums. The increased emission will more easily enable measurement of asymmetries and tuning of the implosion.

  14. The adsorption behavior of U(VI) on granite.

    PubMed

    Fan, Q H; Hao, L M; Wang, C L; Zheng, Z; Liu, C L; Wu, W S

    2014-03-01

    The effects of pH, counter ions and temperature on the adsorption of U(VI) on Beishan granite (BsG) were investigated in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA). The adsorption edge of U(VI) on BsG suggested that U(VI) adsorption was mainly controlled by ion exchange and outer-sphere complexation at low pH, whereas inner-sphere complex was the dominant adsorption species in the pH range of 4.0-9.0. Above pH 9.0, Na2U2O7 might play an important role in the rise of U(VI) adsorption again. Counter ions such as Cl(-), SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) can provoke U(VI) adsorption on BsG to some extent, which was directly correlated to the complexing ability of U(VI)-ligand. More noticeably, the large enhancement of U(VI) adsorption in the presence of phosphate can be attributed to the ternary complex formation (BsG-PO4-UO2), precipitation ((UO2)3(PO4)2(s)) and secondary phase (Na-autunite). Both FA and HA can slightly increase U(VI) adsorption at low pH, whereas they strongly inhibited U(VI) adsorption at high pH range. Artificial synthesized granite (AsG) prepared in the laboratory is impossible to use as an analogue of natural granite because of the large difference in the adsorption and surface properties. PMID:24509808

  15. The adsorption behavior of U(VI) on granite.

    PubMed

    Fan, Q H; Hao, L M; Wang, C L; Zheng, Z; Liu, C L; Wu, W S

    2014-03-01

    The effects of pH, counter ions and temperature on the adsorption of U(VI) on Beishan granite (BsG) were investigated in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA). The adsorption edge of U(VI) on BsG suggested that U(VI) adsorption was mainly controlled by ion exchange and outer-sphere complexation at low pH, whereas inner-sphere complex was the dominant adsorption species in the pH range of 4.0-9.0. Above pH 9.0, Na2U2O7 might play an important role in the rise of U(VI) adsorption again. Counter ions such as Cl(-), SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) can provoke U(VI) adsorption on BsG to some extent, which was directly correlated to the complexing ability of U(VI)-ligand. More noticeably, the large enhancement of U(VI) adsorption in the presence of phosphate can be attributed to the ternary complex formation (BsG-PO4-UO2), precipitation ((UO2)3(PO4)2(s)) and secondary phase (Na-autunite). Both FA and HA can slightly increase U(VI) adsorption at low pH, whereas they strongly inhibited U(VI) adsorption at high pH range. Artificial synthesized granite (AsG) prepared in the laboratory is impossible to use as an analogue of natural granite because of the large difference in the adsorption and surface properties.

  16. Incorporation of neptunium(VI) into a uranyl selenite.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Nathan A; Polinski, Matthew J; Lin, Jian; Simonetti, Antonio; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2012-10-15

    The incorporation of neptunium(VI) into the layered uranyl selenite Cs[(UO(2))(HSeO(3))(SeO(3))] has yielded the highest level of neptunium uptake in a uranyl compound to date with an average of 12(±3)% substitution of Np(VI) for U(VI). Furthermore, this is the first case in nearly 2 decades of dedicated incorporation studies in which the oxidation state of neptunium has been determined spectroscopically in a doped uranyl compound and also the first time in which neptunium incorporation has resulted in a structural transformation.

  17. A survey with Copernicus of interstellar O VI absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.; Meloy, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    The presence of broad, shallow absorptions caused by O VI ions were revealed from UV spectra observations recorded by the Copernicus satellite for thirty-two stars. A table lists survey data on the stars observed for which values of the O VI column densities or their upper limits are extracted. Interstellar rather than circumstellar origin is evident from observation of the lack of correspondence between radical velocities of the stars and those of the O VI profiles. The presence of a low-density high-temperature phase of interstellar gas produced by supernova explosions is suggested.

  18. Large Area, High Resolution N2H+ studies of dense gas in the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee

    2014-07-01

    Star formation in molecular clouds occurs over a wide range of spatial scales and physical densities. Understanding the origin of dense cores thus requires linking the structure and kinematics of gas and dust from cloud to core scales. The CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged five diverse regions of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds in N2H+ (J=1-0), totaling over 800 square arcminutes. The observations have 7’’ angular resolution (~0.01 pc spatial resolution) to probe dense gas down to core scales, and use combined interferometric and single-dish data to fully recover line emission up to parsec scales. CLASSy observations are complete, and this talk will focus on three science results. First, the dense gas in regions with existing star formation has complex hierarchical structure. We present a non-binary dendrogram analysis for all regions and show that dense gas hierarchy correlates with star formation activity. Second, well-resolved velocity information for each dendrogram-identified structure allows a new way of looking at linewidth-size relations in clouds. Specifically, we find that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with structure size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity increases strongly with structure size. We argue that the typical line-of-sight depth of a cloud can be estimated from these relations, and that our regions have depths that are several times less than their extent on the plane of the sky. This finding is consistent with numerical simulations of molecular cloud turbulence that show that high-density sheets are a generic result. Third, N2H+ is a good tracer of cold, dense gas in filaments; we resolve multiple beams across many filaments, some of which are narrower than 0.1 pc. The centroid velocity fields of several filaments show gradients perpendicular to their major axis, which is a common feature in filaments formed from numerical

  19. Defective collagen VI α6 chain expression in the skeletal muscle of patients with collagen VI-related myopathies.

    PubMed

    Tagliavini, F; Pellegrini, C; Sardone, F; Squarzoni, S; Paulsson, M; Wagener, R; Gualandi, F; Trabanelli, C; Ferlini, A; Merlini, L; Santi, S; Maraldi, N M; Faldini, C; Sabatelli, P

    2014-09-01

    Collagen VI is a non-fibrillar collagen present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) as a complex polymer; the mainly expressed form is composed of α1, α2 and α3 chains; mutations in genes encoding these chains cause myopathies known as Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), Bethlem myopathy (BM) and myosclerosis myopathy (MM). The collagen VI α6 chain is a recently identified component of the ECM of the human skeletal muscle. Here we report that the α6 chain was dramatically reduced in skeletal muscle and muscle cell cultures of genetically characterized UCMD, BM and MM patients, independently of the clinical phenotype, the gene involved and the effect of the mutation on the expression of the "classical" α1α2α3 heterotrimer. By contrast, the collagen VI α6 chain was normally expressed or increased in the muscle of patients affected by other forms of muscular dystrophy, the overexpression matching with areas of increased fibrosis. In vitro treatment with TGF-β1, a potent collagen inducer, promoted the collagen VI α6 chain deposition in the ECM of normal muscle cells, whereas, in cultures derived from collagen VI-related myopathy patients, the collagen VI α6 chain failed to develop a network outside the cells and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The defect of the α6 chain points to a contribution to the pathogenesis of collagen VI-related disorders.

  20. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-04-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer 'Core to Disk' (c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; {approx}79% in Lupus V and {approx}87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A{sub V} {approx} 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  1. Location and characterization of autonomously replicating sequences from chromosome VI of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Shirahige, K; Iwasaki, T; Rashid, M B; Ogasawara, N; Yoshikawa, H

    1993-01-01

    We have reported the isolation of linking clones of HindIII and EcoRI fragments, altogether spanning a 230-kb continuous stretch of chromosome VI. The presence or absence of autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activities in all of these fragments has been determined by using ARS searching vectors containing CEN4. Nine ARS fragments were identified, and their positions were mapped on the chromosome. Structures essential for and/or stimulative to ARS activity were determined for the ARS fragments by deletions and mutations. The organization of functional elements composed of core and stimulative sequences was found to be variable. Single core sequences were identified in eight of nine ARSs. The remaining ARS (ARS603) essential element is composed of two core-like sequences. The lengths of 3'- and 5'-flanking stimulative sequences required for the full activity of ARSs varied from ARS to ARS. Five ARSs required more than 100 bp of the 3'-flanking sequence as stimulative sequences, while not more than 79 bp of the 3' sequence was required by the other three ARSs. In addition, five ARSs had stimulative sequences varying from 127 to 312 bp in the 5'-flanking region of the core sequence. In general, these stimulative activities were correlated with low local delta Gs of unwinding, suggesting that the low local delta G of an ARS is an important element for determining the efficiency of initiation of replication of ARS plasmids. PMID:8336734

  2. Myosin Va Transports Dense Core Secretory Vesicles in Pancreatic MIN6 β-CellsV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Varadi, Aniko; Tsuboi, Takashi; Rutter, Guy A.

    2005-01-01

    The role of unconventional myosins in neuroendocrine cells is not fully understood, with involvement suggested in the movement of both secretory vesicles and mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate colocalization of myosin Va (MyoVa) with insulin in pancreatic β-cells and show that MyoVa copurifies with insulin in density gradients and with the vesicle marker phogrin-enhanced green fluorescent protein upon fluorescence-activated sorting of vesicles. By contrast, MyoVa immunoreactivity was poorly colocalized with mitochondrial or other markers. Demonstrating an important role for MyoVa in the recruitment of secretory vesicles to the cell surface, a reduction of MyoVa protein levels achieved by RNA interference caused a significant decrease in glucose- or depolarization-stimulated insulin secretion. Similarly, expression of the dominant-negative–acting globular tail domain of MyoVa decreased by ∼50% the number of vesicles docked at the plasma membrane and by 87% the number of depolarization-stimulated exocytotic events detected by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that MyoVa-driven movements of vesicles along the cortical actin network are essential for the terminal stages of regulated exocytosis in β-cells. PMID:15788565

  3. Dense cores in dark clouds. IV. HC/sub 5/N observations

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.J.; Myers, P.C.

    1983-07-15

    We report detections or possible detections of the J = 9-8 rotational transition of HC/sub 5/N in 10 new dark cloud sources. All of the strong sources and most of the known sources are in Taurus. In contrast to maps of TMC-1, maps of NH/sub 3/ and HC/sub 5/N emission in L1544 and in TMC-1C show no relative shift of peak positions. Column densities of HC/sub 5/N and C/sup 18/O are roughly correlated, but N(HC/sub 5/N) increases faster than N(C/sup 18/O), suggesting that the abundance of HC/sub 5/N ranges from approx.10/sup -10/ in the weakest sources to approx.10/sup -9/ in the strongest sources. Comparison with predictions of chemical models indicates that this abundance variation is unlikely to be due to variations in cloud density, but it may be due to differences in the degree of chemical evolution from cloud to cloud. If so, TMC-1 is more evolved than L183.

  4. Development and evaluation of a dense gas plume model

    SciTech Connect

    Matthias, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    The dense gas plume model (continuous release) described in this paper has been developed using the same principles as for a dense gas puff model (instantaneous release). It is a box model for which the main goal is to predict the height H, width W, and maximum concentration C{sub b} for a steady dense plume. A secondary goal is to distribute the mass more realistically by empirically attaching Gaussian distributions in the horizontal and vertical directions. For ease of reference, the models and supporting programs will be referred to as DGM (Dense Gas Models).

  5. meta-DENSE complex acquisition for reduced intravoxel dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aletras, Anthony H.; Arai, Andrew E.

    2004-08-01

    Displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) with a meta-DENSE readout and RF phase cycling to suppress the STEAM anti-echo is described for reducing intravoxel dephasing signal loss. This RF phase cycling scheme, when combined with existing meta-DENSE suppression of the T1 recovering signal, yields higher quality DENSE myocardial strain maps. Phantom and human images are provided to demonstrate the technique, which is capable of acquiring phase contrast displacement encoded images at low encoding gradient strengths providing better spatial resolution and less signal loss due to intravoxel dephasing than prior methods.

  6. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  7. 77 FR 36611 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...--Ability to Obtain Information v. Sec. 38.255--Risk Controls for Trading vi. Sec. 38.256--Trade... separate, rulemaking titled ``Core Principles and Other Requirements for Swap Execution Facilities.'' 76 FR... proposed rules implementing the ``made available to trade'' mandate. See 76 FR 77728, Dec. 14, 2011....

  8. The Versatile Type VI Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Mobley, Harry L.T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SS) function as contractile nanomachines to puncture target cells and deliver lethal effectors. In the ten years since the discovery of the T6SS, much has been learned about the structure and function of this versatile protein secretion apparatus. Most of the conserved protein components that comprise the T6SS apparatus itself have been identified and ascribed specific functions. In addition, numerous effector proteins that are translocated by the T6SS have been identified and characterized. These protein effectors usually represent toxic cargoes that are delivered by the attacker cell to a target cell. The field is beginning to better understand the lifestyle or physiology that dictates when bacteria normally express their T6SS. In this Chapter, we consider what is known about the structure and regulation of the T6SS, the numerous classes of antibacterial effector T6SS substrates, and how the action of the T6SS relates to a given lifestyle or behavior in certain bacteria. PMID:27227310

  9. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  10. Experience with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hessel, L; Debois, H; Fletcher, M; Dumas, R

    1999-09-01

    Typhoid fever remains an important health threat in many parts of the world, with an estimated 16 million cases and 600,000 deaths occurring each year. The emergence of Salmonella typhi strains multiply resistant to antibiotics has complicated the treatment of this disease. Field experience of 8 years shows that a vaccine composed of purified Vi capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, given as a single intramuscular or deep subcutaneous injection, has consistent immunogenicity and efficacy. Side effects, based on reports since 1989, are infrequent and mild. Furthermore, the Vi vaccine may be administered simultaneously with other common "travel" vaccines, at two different sites of injection, without affecting immunogenicity and tolerability. This review presents an update of the development and clinical experience with the Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Pasteur Mérieux Connaught, France).

  11. An experimental study of dense aerosol aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaubhadel, Rajan

    We demonstrated that an aerosol can gel. This gelation was then used for a one-step method to produce an ultralow density porous carbon or silica material. This material was named an aerosol gel because it was made via gelation of particles in the aerosol phase. The carbon and silica aerosol gels had high specific surface area (200--350 sq m2/g for carbon and 300--500 sq m2/g for silica) and an extremely low density (2.5--6.0 mg/cm3), properties similar to conventional aerogels. Key aspects to form a gel from an aerosol are large volume fraction, ca. 10-4 or greater, and small primary particle size, 50 nm or smaller, so that the gel time is fast compared to other characteristic times. Next we report the results of a study of the cluster morphology and kinetics of a dense aggregating aerosol system using the small angle light scattering technique. The soot particles started as individual monomers, ca. 38 nm radius, grew to bigger clusters with time and finally stopped evolving after spanning a network across the whole system volume. This spanning is aerosol gelation. The gelled system showed a hybrid morphology with a lower fractal dimension at length scales of a micron or smaller and a higher fractal dimension at length scales greater than a micron. The study of the kinetics of the aggregating system showed that when the system gelled, the aggregation kernel homogeneity lambda attained a value 0.4 or higher. The magnitude of the aggregation kernel showed an increase with increasing volume fraction. We also used image analysis technique to study the cluster morphology. From the digitized pictures of soot clusters the cluster morphology was determined by two different methods: structure factor and perimeter analysis. We find a hybrid, superaggregate morphology characterized by a fractal dimension of Df ≈ to 1.8 between the monomer size, ca. 50 nm, and 1 mum micron and Df ≈ to 2.6 at larger length scales up to ˜ 10 mum. The superaggregate morphology is a

  12. Calcium polysulfide treatment of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Ferreira, Daniel R; Johnston, Chad P

    2010-07-15

    Batch treatability studies for a Cr(VI)-contaminated glacial soil from a Cr plating facility were conducted using 1X and 2X the stoichiometric ratio of calcium polysulfide (CPS). The pH of the treated soil increased from 6 to 11 upon CPS addition, but progressively returned to 8-8.5 over the course of 1 year. The 1X dosage maintained a highly reducing environment up to 21 days of monitoring with the samples exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while 2X was reducing up to 180 days of curing. The EPA regulatory method for solid Cr(VI) could not reliably predict Cr(VI) in the treated solid due to ongoing reduction during the test. SPLP results showed that the CPS created an apparent Cr(VI) mobilization during the first 60 days of treatment, with subsequent decrease in soluble Cr(VI) up to 1 year of monitoring. Synchrotron micro-X-ray analyses at 60 days curing showed that Cr(VI) was predominantly bound as highly insoluble PbCrO(4) that precipitated in the interstitial pores of the soil, with very little to no Cr(VI) associated with the abundant iron oxyhydroxides. Despite its spatial accessibility and due to its low solubility, PbCrO(4) was recalcitrant to treatment, which proceeded only very slowly as judged by the SPLP data. It is concluded that, while CPS has a long residence time in the environment and is a promising reductant, in situ reduction is not an efficient treatment method for soils with highly insoluble Cr(VI) compounds, especially in surficial layers such as the one studied.

  13. Surveying the Origin of O VI Gas at Low Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Tripp, Todd; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Mulchaey, John

    2002-08-01

    A comparison of the baryonic mass density inferred from BBN with a census of visible baryonic components (i.e. galaxies, HI gas) at the present epoch indicates a significant fraction of the universe's baryons are hidden in a dark component. Theoretical investigations into these missing bayons suggest the majority lie in a hot (T ~ 10^5-7 K), low density medium which can be efficiently detected through O VI absorption. More importantly, recent STIS+FUSE surveys for O VI are consistent with this gas comprising a significant fraction of the missing baryons. Establishing the physical nature of these O VI absorbers, therefore, may have great impact on our understanding of the distribution of baryons in the universe. The principal goal of this proposal is to determine if this O VI gas arises in galactic halos, the intragroup or intracluster medium, the low density 'cosmic web' which connects collapsed objects, or a different region of the universe altogether. We are currently pursuing a program to search for galaxies associated with O VI absorbers at low redshift (z < 0.5). To accomplish this project, we will obtain deep UBVRI images of the galaxies in four fields surrounding quasars surveyed for O VI absorption. This dataset will provide accurate photometric redshifts of the z< 0.5 galaxies with L > L^*/10 and will reveal their physical characteristics. Ultimately, we will utilize the photometric redshifts to efficiently pre-select galaxies for follow-up spectroscopy on multi- slit spectrographs. By correlating the photometric and spectroscopy galaxy redshifts against the O VI absorption lines and comparing directly with detailed cosmological simulations, we will establish the origin of the O VI gas.

  14. Robotics Vision for a Scouting Rover - PRoViScout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paar, G.; Woods, M.; Pullan, D.; Proviscout Team

    2011-10-01

    The FP7-SPACE Project ProViScout (Planetary Robotics Vision Scout, scheduled from April 2010 to September 2012) aims to demonstrate the feasibility of vision-based autonomous sample identification & selection in combination with vision-based navigation for a long range scouting/exploration mission on a terrestrial planet along with the robotic elements required. The paper gives an overview of the PRoViScout technical and scientific objectives, envisaged solutions and achievements so far.

  15. Plan of propagation and communication experiments using ETS-VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmori, Shingo

    1988-01-01

    In 1992, an Engineering Test Satellite VI is scheduled to be launched by an H-II rocket. The missions of ETS-VI are to establish basic technologies of inter-satellite communications using millimeter waves and optical beams and fix satellite communications using multibeam antenna on board the satellite. Several kinds of frequency bands will be used for the communications missions. However, these frequencies can be used for propagation experiments.

  16. Dense deposit disease is not a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Patrick D; Ferrario, Franco; Joh, Kensuke; Bonsib, Stephen M

    2007-06-01

    Dense deposit disease (first reported in 1962) was classified as subtype II of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in the early 1970s. Over the last 30 years, marked differences in etiology and pathogenesis between type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and dense deposit disease have become apparent. The sporadic observation that dense deposit disease can be seen with markedly different light microscopy appearances prompted this study. The goal was to examine a large number of renal biopsies from around the world to characterize the histopathologic features of dense deposit disease. Eighty-one cases of dense deposit disease were received from centers across North America, Europe and Japan. Biopsy reports, light microscopy materials and electron photomicrographs were reviewed and histopathologic features scored. Sixty-nine cases were acceptable for review. Five patterns were seen: (1) membranoproliferative n=17; (2) mesangial proliferative n=30; (3) crescentic n=12; (4) acute proliferative and exudative n=8 and (5) unclassified n=2. The age range was 3-67 years, with 74% in the range of 3-20 years; 15% 21-30 years and 11% over 30 years. Males accounted for 54% and females 46%. All patients with either crescentic dense deposit disease or acute proliferative dense deposit disease were between the ages of 3 and 18 years. The essential diagnostic feature of dense deposit disease is not the membranoproliferative pattern but the presence of electron dense transformation of the glomerular basement membranes. Based upon this study and the extensive data developed over the past 30 years, dense deposit disease is clinically distinct from membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and is morphologically heterogeneous with only a minority of cases having a membranoproliferative pattern. Therefore, dense deposit disease should no longer be regarded as a subtype of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. PMID:17396142

  17. 1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI-50 50-2 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 8 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 9 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 17 (see photograph VI-50-5 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 56 (see photograph VI-50-8 for elevation), & KONGENSGADE 57 (see photograph VI-50-9 for elevation) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  18. Claude Lévi-Strauss on Race, History, and Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    In 1952, the French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss published a small booklet titled Race and History. It formed part of a series of pamphlets on the so-called “race-question” by leading anthropologists and geneticists, which UNESCO published as part of its campaign against racism. Roughly twenty years later, in 1971, UNESCO invited Lévi-Strauss to give a lecture to open the International Year of Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. This time the lecture, titled “Race and culture,” caused a scandal. In 2005, on occasion of the Organisation’s 60th anniversary, Lévi-Strauss was once again invited by UNESCO to give a lecture. It followed the same lines as his 1971 speech, but now met with acclaim. In my paper I will analyze Lévi-Strauss’ interventions with respect to their reliance on contemporary genetics. Lévi-Strauss always saw a close analogy between structuralist anthropology and genetics, and derived his anti-evolutionary stance from the combinatory logic that both disciplines endorsed. I will argue, that it was this combinatory logic which created room for historical contingency and agency in Lévi-Strauss’ understanding of the history of humankind. PMID:25685173

  19. Lack of Collagen VI Promotes Wound-Induced Hair Growth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiwen; Cescon, Matilde; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix molecule that is abundantly expressed in the skin. However, the role of collagen VI in hair follicle growth is unknown. Here, we show that collagen VI is strongly deposited in hair follicles, and is markedly upregulated by skin wounding. Lack of collagen VI in Col6a1(-/-) mice delays hair cycling and growth under physiological conditions, but promotes wound-induced hair regrowth without affecting skin regeneration. Conversely, addition of purified collagen VI rescues the abnormal wound-induced hair regrowth in Col6a1(-/-) mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that the increased wound-induced hair regrowth of Col6a1(-/-) mice is triggered by activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and is abolished by inhibition of this pathway. These findings highlight the essential relationships between extracellular matrix (ECM) and hair follicle regeneration, and suggest that collagen VI could be a potential therapeutic target for hair loss and other skin-related diseases.

  20. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds

    PubMed Central

    Daranlot, Julien; Hincelin, Ugo; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N2, with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N2 is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimeter-wavelength transitions. Therefore, its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N2H+. Two main formation mechanisms, each involving two radical-radical reactions, are the source of N2 in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction, down to 56 K. The measured rate constants for this reaction, and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N2 formation, are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N2 depends on the competition between its gas-phase formation and the depletion of atomic nitrogen onto grains. As the reactions controlling N2 formation are inefficient, we argue that N2 does not represent the main reservoir species for interstellar nitrogen. Instead, elevated abundances of more labile forms of nitrogen such as NH3 should be present on interstellar ices, promoting the eventual formation of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules. PMID:22689957

  1. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  2. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  3. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Inference by replication in densely connected systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neirotti, Juan P.; Saad, David

    2007-10-15

    An efficient Bayesian inference method for problems that can be mapped onto dense graphs is presented. The approach is based on message passing where messages are averaged over a large number of replicated variable systems exposed to the same evidential nodes. An assumption about the symmetry of the solutions is required for carrying out the averages; here we extend the previous derivation based on a replica-symmetric- (RS)-like structure to include a more complex one-step replica-symmetry-breaking-like (1RSB-like) ansatz. To demonstrate the potential of the approach it is employed for studying critical properties of the Ising linear perceptron and for multiuser detection in code division multiple access (CDMA) under different noise models. Results obtained under the RS assumption in the noncritical regime give rise to a highly efficient signal detection algorithm in the context of CDMA; while in the critical regime one observes a first-order transition line that ends in a continuous phase transition point. Finite size effects are also observed. While the 1RSB ansatz is not required for the original problems, it was applied to the CDMA signal detection problem with a more complex noise model that exhibits RSB behavior, resulting in an improvement in performance.

  5. The lifetime of evaporating dense sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rivas, Alois; Villermaux, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    We study the processes by which a set of nearby liquid droplets (a spray) evaporates in a gas phase whose relative humidity (vapor concentration) is controlled at will. A dense spray of micron-sized water droplets is formed in air by a pneumatic atomizer and conveyed through a nozzle in a closed chamber whose vapor concentration has been pre-set to a controlled value. The resulting plume extension depends on the relative humidity of the diluting medium. When the spray plume is straight and laminar, droplets evaporate at its edge where the vapor is saturated, and diffuses through a boundary layer developing around the plume. We quantify the shape and length of the plume as a function of the injecting, vapor diffusion, thermodynamic and environment parameters. For higher injection Reynolds numbers, standard shear instabilities distort the plume into stretched lamellae, thus enhancing the diffusion of vapor from their boundary towards the diluting medium. These lamellae vanish in a finite time depending on the intensity of the stretching, and relative humidity of the environment, with a lifetime diverging close to the equilibrium limit, when the plume develops in an medium saturated in vapor. The dependences are described quantitatively.

  6. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids.

    PubMed

    Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland

    2014-09-01

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile--each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  7. Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Greg; Klotsa, Daphne; Ahmed, N Khalid; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2014-11-11

    Entropy drives the phase behavior of colloids ranging from dense suspensions of hard spheres or rods to dilute suspensions of hard spheres and depletants. Entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes into complex crystals, liquid crystals, and even quasicrystals was demonstrated recently in computer simulations and experiments. The ordering of shapes appears to arise from the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that align neighboring particles, but these forces have been neither rigorously defined nor quantified in generic systems. Here, we show quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs. We define DEFs in generic systems and compute them for several hard particle systems. We show they are on the order of a few times the thermal energy ([Formula: see text]) at the onset of ordering, placing DEFs on par with traditional depletion, van der Waals, and other intrinsic interactions. In experimental systems with these other interactions, we provide direct quantitative evidence that entropic effects of shape also contribute to self-assembly. We use DEFs to draw a distinction between self-assembly and packing behavior. We show that the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing. We show that this mechanism occurs in a wide class of systems and we treat, in a unified way, the entropy-driven phase behavior of arbitrary shapes, incorporating the well-known works of Kirkwood, Onsager, and Asakura and Oosawa.

  8. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds.

    PubMed

    Daranlot, Julien; Hincelin, Ugo; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M

    2012-06-26

    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N(2), with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N(2) is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimeter-wavelength transitions. Therefore, its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N(2)H(+). Two main formation mechanisms, each involving two radical-radical reactions, are the source of N(2) in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction, down to 56 K. The measured rate constants for this reaction, and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N(2) formation, are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N(2) depends on the competition between its gas-phase formation and the depletion of atomic nitrogen onto grains. As the reactions controlling N(2) formation are inefficient, we argue that N(2) does not represent the main reservoir species for interstellar nitrogen. Instead, elevated abundances of more labile forms of nitrogen such as NH(3) should be present on interstellar ices, promoting the eventual formation of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules.

  9. Oblique impact of dense granular sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellowitz, Jake; Guttenberg, Nicholas; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nagel, Sidney R.; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2013-11-01

    Motivated by experiments showing impacts of granular jets with non-circular cross sections produce thin ejecta sheets with anisotropic shapes, we study what happens when two sheets containing densely packed, rigid grains traveling at the same speed collide asymmetrically. Discrete particle simulations and a continuum frictional fluid model yield the same steady-state solution of two exit streams emerging from incident streams. When the incident angle Δθ is less than Δθc =120° +/-10° , the exit streams' angles differ from that measured in water sheet experiments. Below Δθc , the exit angles from granular and water sheet impacts agree. This correspondence is surprising because 2D Euler jet impact, the idealization relevant for both situations, is ill posed: a generic Δθ value permits a continuous family of solutions. Our finding that granular and water sheet impacts evolve into the same member of the solution family suggests previous proposals that perturbations such as viscous drag, surface tension or air entrapment select the actual outcome are not correct. Currently at Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

  10. Droplet formation and scaling in dense suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Miskin, Marc Z.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2012-01-01

    When a dense suspension is squeezed from a nozzle, droplet detachment can occur similar to that of pure liquids. While in pure liquids the process of droplet detachment is well characterized through self-similar profiles and known scaling laws, we show here the simple presence of particles causes suspensions to break up in a new fashion. Using high-speed imaging, we find that detachment of a suspension drop is described by a power law; specifically we find the neck minimum radius, rm, scales like near breakup at time τ = 0. We demonstrate data collapse in a variety of particle/liquid combinations, packing fractions, solvent viscosities, and initial conditions. We argue that this scaling is a consequence of particles deforming the neck surface, thereby creating a pressure that is balanced by inertia, and show how it emerges from topological constraints that relate particle configurations with macroscopic Gaussian curvature. This new type of scaling, uniquely enforced by geometry and regulated by the particles, displays memory of its initial conditions, fails to be self-similar, and has implications for the pressure given at generic suspension interfaces. PMID:22392979

  11. Polypeptide vesicles with densely packed multilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Song, Ziyuan; Kim, Hojun; Ba, Xiaochu; Baumgartner, Ryan; Lee, Jung Seok; Tang, Haoyu; Leal, Cecilia; Cheng, Jianjun

    2015-05-28

    Multilamellar membranes are important building blocks for constructing self-assembled structures with improved barrier properties, such as multilamellar lipid vesicles. Polymeric vesicles (polymersomes) have attracted growing interest, but multilamellar polymersomes are much less explored. Here, we report the formation of polypeptide vesicles with unprecedented densely packed multilayer membrane structures with poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(γ-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl)-l-glutamate) (PEG-b-PL), an amphiphilic diblock rod-coil copolymer containing a short PEG block and a short hydrophobic rod-like polypeptide segment. The polypeptide rods undergo smectic ordering with PEG buried between the hydrophobic polypeptide layers. The size of both blocks and the rigidity of the hydrophobic polypeptide block are critical in determining the membrane structures. Increase of the PEG length in PEG-b-PL results in the formation of bilayer sheets, while using random-coil polypeptide block leads to the formation of large compound micelles. UV treatment causes ester bond cleavage of the polypeptide side chain, which induces helix-to-coil transition, change of copolymer amphiphilicity, and eventual disassembly of vesicles. These polypeptide vesicles with unique membrane structures provide a new insight into self-assembly structure control by precisely tuning the composition and conformation of polymeric amphiphiles.

  12. Proton Stopping Power in Warm Dense Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, Drew; Chen, Sophia; Atzeni, Stefano; Gauthier, Maxence; Mangia, Feliciana; Marquès, Jean-Raphaël; Riquier, Raphaël; Fuchs, Julien

    2013-10-01

    Warm dense matter (WDM) research is fundamental to many fields of physics including fusion sciences, and astrophysical phenomena. In the WDM regime, particle stopping-power differs significantly from cold matter and ideal plasma due to free electron contributions, plasma correlation effects and electron degeneracy. The creation of WDM with temporal duration consistent with the particles probes is difficult to achieve experimentally. The short-pulse laser platform allows for the production of WDM along with relatively short bunches of protons compatible of such measurements, however, until recently, the intrinsic broadband proton spectrum was not well suited to investigate the stopping power directly. This difficulty has been overcome using a novel magnetic particle selector (ΔE/E = 10%) to select protons (in the range 100-1000 keV) as demonstrated with the ELFIE laser in LULI, France. These protons bunches probe high-density (5 × 1020 cm-3) gases (H, He) heated by a nanosecond laser to reach estimated temperatures above 100 eV. Measurement of the proton energy loss within the heated gas allows the stopping power to be determined quantitatively. The experimental results in cold matter are compared to preexisting models to give credibility to the measurement technique. The results from heated matter show that the stopping power of 450 keV protons is dramatically reduced within heated hydrogen plasma.

  13. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimring, Lev

    2012-02-01

    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  14. Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Greg; Klotsa, Daphne; Ahmed, N Khalid; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2014-11-11

    Entropy drives the phase behavior of colloids ranging from dense suspensions of hard spheres or rods to dilute suspensions of hard spheres and depletants. Entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes into complex crystals, liquid crystals, and even quasicrystals was demonstrated recently in computer simulations and experiments. The ordering of shapes appears to arise from the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that align neighboring particles, but these forces have been neither rigorously defined nor quantified in generic systems. Here, we show quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs. We define DEFs in generic systems and compute them for several hard particle systems. We show they are on the order of a few times the thermal energy ([Formula: see text]) at the onset of ordering, placing DEFs on par with traditional depletion, van der Waals, and other intrinsic interactions. In experimental systems with these other interactions, we provide direct quantitative evidence that entropic effects of shape also contribute to self-assembly. We use DEFs to draw a distinction between self-assembly and packing behavior. We show that the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing. We show that this mechanism occurs in a wide class of systems and we treat, in a unified way, the entropy-driven phase behavior of arbitrary shapes, incorporating the well-known works of Kirkwood, Onsager, and Asakura and Oosawa. PMID:25344532

  15. Synthesis of dense energetic materials. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, C.

    1982-07-01

    The objective of the research described in the report is to synthesize new, dense, stable, highly energetic materials which will ultimately be a candidates for improved explosive and propellant formulations. Following strict guidelines pertaining to energy, density, stability, etc. Specific target molecules were chosen that appear to possess the improved properties desired for new energetic materials. This report summarizes research on the synthesis of these target materials from February 1981 to January 1982. The following compounds were synthesized: 5,5'-diamino-3,3'-bioxadiazole(1,2,4); 5,5'-bis(trichloromethyl)-3,3'-di(1,2,4-oxadiazole); 3,3'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole); ethylene tetranitramine (ETNA); N,N-bis(methoxymethyl)acetamide; N,N-bis(chloromethyl)acetamide; 7,8-dimethylglycoluril; Synthesis of 3,9-Di(t-butyl)-13,14-dimethyl-tetracyclo-(5,5,2,0/sup 5/ /sup 13/ 0/sup 11/ /sup 14/)-1,3,5,7,9,11-hexaaza-6,12-dioxotetradecane.

  16. Evolutionary models of rotating dense stellar systems: challenges in software and hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiestas, Jose

    2016-02-01

    We present evolutionary models of rotating self-gravitating systems (e.g. globular clusters, galaxy cores). These models are characterized by the presence of initial axisymmetry due to rotation. Central black hole seeds are alternatively included in our models, and black hole growth due to consumption of stellar matter is simulated until the central potential dominates the kinematics in the core. Goal is to study the long-term evolution (~ Gyr) of relaxed dense stellar systems, which deviate from spherical symmetry, their morphology and final kinematics. With this purpose, we developed a 2D Fokker-Planck analytical code, which results we confirm by detailed N-Body techniques, applying a high performance code, developed for GPU machines. We compare our models to available observations of galactic rotating globular clusters, and conclude that initial rotation modifies significantly the shape and lifetime of these systems, and can not be neglected in studying the evolution of globular clusters, and the galaxy itself.

  17. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J.; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T.; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K.

    2015-12-01

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  18. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-12-24

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy. PMID:26633633

  19. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-12-24

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  20. Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

    2007-12-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr(VI

  1. Generalized spatiotemporal myocardial strain analysis for DENSE and SPAMM imaging.

    PubMed

    Young, Alistair A; Li, Bo; Kirton, Robert S; Cowan, Brett R

    2012-06-01

    Displacement encoding using stimulated echoes (DENSE) and spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) are MRI techniques for quantifying myocardial displacement and strain. However, DENSE has not been compared against SPAMM in phantoms exhibiting nonhomogeneous strain, and interobserver variability has not been compared between DENSE and SPAMM. To perform these comparisons, there is a need for a generalized analysis framework for the evaluation of myocardial strain. A spatiotemporal mathematical model was used to represent myocardial geometry and motion. The model was warped to each frame using tissue displacement maps calculated from either automated phase unwrapping (DENSE) or nonrigid registration (SPAMM). Strain and motion were then calculated from the model using standard methods. DENSE and SPAMM results were compared in a deformable gel phantom exhibiting known nonhomogeneous strain, and interobserver errors were determined in 19 healthy human volunteers. Nonhomogeneous strain in the phantom was accurately quantified using both DENSE and SPAMM. In the healthy volunteers, DENSE produced better interobserver errors than SPAMM for radial strain (-0.009 ± 0.069 vs. 0.029 ± 0.152, respectively, bias ± 95% confidence interval). In conclusion, generalized spatiotemporal modeling enables robust myocardial strain analysis for DENSE or SPAMM.

  2. The chemistry of phosphorus in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, L. R.; Anicich, V. G.; Prasad, S. S.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that the ion-molecule chemistry of phosphorus is significantly different from that of nitrogen in dense interstellar clouds. The PH3 molecule is not readily formed by gas-phase, ion-molecule reactions in these regions. Laboratory results used in a simple kinetic model indicate that the most abundant molecule containing phosphorus in dense clouds is PO.

  3. Mining connected global and local dense subgraphs for bigdata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Shen, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The problem of discovering connected dense subgraphs of natural graphs is important in data analysis. Discovering dense subgraphs that do not contain denser subgraphs or are not contained in denser subgraphs (called significant dense subgraphs) is also critical for wide-ranging applications. In spite of many works on discovering dense subgraphs, there are no algorithms that can guarantee the connectivity of the returned subgraphs or discover significant dense subgraphs. Hence, in this paper, we define two subgraph discovery problems to discover connected and significant dense subgraphs, propose polynomial-time algorithms and theoretically prove their validity. We also propose an algorithm to further improve the time and space efficiency of our basic algorithm for discovering significant dense subgraphs in big data by taking advantage of the unique features of large natural graphs. In the experiments, we use massive natural graphs to evaluate our algorithms in comparison with previous algorithms. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our algorithms for the two problems and their efficiency. This work is also the first that reveals the physical significance of significant dense subgraphs in natural graphs from different domains.

  4. Unique micro- and nano-scale mineralization pattern of human osteogenesis imperfecta type VI bone.

    PubMed

    Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Schmidt, Ingo; Roschger, Paul; Roschger, Andreas; Glorieux, Francis H; Klaushofer, Klaus; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Rauch, Frank; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inheritable connective tissue disorders characterized by mutation in genes involved in collagen synthesis and leading to increased bone fragility, low bone mass, impaired bone material properties and abnormally high bone matrix mineralization. Recessive OI type VI is caused by mutation in SERPINF1 leading to a loss-of-function of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) a collagen-binding protein with potent antiangiogenic activity. Affected patients develop a severe OI phenotype with a striking histological characteristic, rare in other OI types, of an excess of osteoid tissue and prolonged mineralization lag time. To get insights into matrix mineralization, we evaluated biopsies from 9 affected children by quantitative and by high-resolution backscattered electron imaging and assessed bone mineralization density distribution. Thickness, shape and arrangement of mineral particles were measured in a subset of 4 patients by synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering. Typical calcium content in the bone matrix was found to be increased compared to controls, even exceeding values found previously in OI patients with collagen-gene mutations. A main characteristic however, is the coexistence of this highly mineralized bone matrix with seams showing abnormally low mineral content. Atypical collagen fibril organization was found in the perilacunar region of young osteocytes, suggesting a disturbance in the early steps of mineralization. These observations are consistent with the presence of a heterogeneous population of mineral particles with unusual size, shape and arrangement, especially in the region with lower mineral content. The majority of the particles in the highly mineralized bone areas were less disorganized, but smaller and more densely packed than in controls and in previously measured OI patients. These data suggest that the lack of PEDF impairs a proper osteoblast-osteocyte transition and consequently

  5. Single-molecule studies of unconventional motor protein myosin VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyeongJun

    Myosin VI is one of the myosin superfamily members that are actin-based molecular motors. It has received special attention due to its distinct features as compared to other myosins, such as its opposite directionality and a much larger step size than expected given the length of its "leg". This dissertation presents the author.s graduate work of several single-molecule studies on myosin VI. Special attention was paid to some of myosin VI.s tail domains that consist of proximal tail (PT), medial tail (MT), distal tail (DT) domains and cargo-binding domain (CBD). The functional form of myosin VI in cells is still under debate. Although full length myosin VI proteins in cytosolic extracts of cells were monomers from earlier studies, there are several reasons why it is now believed that myosin VI could exist as a dimer. If this is true and dimerization occurs, the next logical question would be which parts of myosin VI are dimerization regions? One model claimed that the CBD is the sole dimerization region. A competing model claimed that there must be another region that could be involved in dimerization, based on their observation that a construct without the CBD could still dimerize. Our single-molecule experiment with progressively truncated myosin VI constructs showed that the MT domain is a dimerization region, supporting the latter model. Additional single-molecule experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation done with our collaborators suggest that electrostatic salt bridges formed between positive and negative amino acid residues are mainly responsible for the MT domain dimerization. After resolving this, we are left with another important question which is how myosin VI can take such a large step. Recent crystal structure showed that one of the tail domains preceding the MT domain, called the PT domain, is a three-helix bundle. The most easily conceivable way might be an unfolding of the three-helix bundle upon dimerization, allowing the protein to

  6. Hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 broad spectrum active photocatalyst for Cr(VI) reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Haipeng; Liu, Xinjuan; Liu, Baibai; Zhu, Guang; Lei, Wenyan; Du, Huigang; Liu, Junying; Li, Jianwei; Li, Can; Sun, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    To make full use of the solar energy, exploring broad spectrum active photocatalysts has become one of the core issues for photocatalysis. Here we report a novel hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 photocatalyst with ultraviolet (UV)-visible-near infrared (NIR) light response for the first time. The results indicate that the MoSe2 displays excellent photo-absorption and photocatalytic activity in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV and visible even NIR light irradiation. MoSe2 synthesized at pH value of 2 achieves the highest Cr(VI) reduction rates of 99%, 91% and 100% under UV, visible and NIR light irradiation, respectively, which should be attributed to its comparatively higher light absorption, efficient charge separation and transfer as well as relatively large number of surface active sites. The excellent broad spectrum active photocatalytic activity makes the MoSe2 to be a promising photocatalyst for the effective utilization of solar energy.

  7. Hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 broad spectrum active photocatalyst for Cr(VI) reduction

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Haipeng; Liu, Xinjuan; Liu, Baibai; Zhu, Guang; Lei, Wenyan; Du, Huigang; Liu, Junying; Li, Jianwei; Li, Can; Sun, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    To make full use of the solar energy, exploring broad spectrum active photocatalysts has become one of the core issues for photocatalysis. Here we report a novel hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 photocatalyst with ultraviolet (UV)-visible-near infrared (NIR) light response for the first time. The results indicate that the MoSe2 displays excellent photo-absorption and photocatalytic activity in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV and visible even NIR light irradiation. MoSe2 synthesized at pH value of 2 achieves the highest Cr(VI) reduction rates of 99%, 91% and 100% under UV, visible and NIR light irradiation, respectively, which should be attributed to its comparatively higher light absorption, efficient charge separation and transfer as well as relatively large number of surface active sites. The excellent broad spectrum active photocatalytic activity makes the MoSe2 to be a promising photocatalyst for the effective utilization of solar energy. PMID:27734974

  8. Dust charging in the dense Enceladus torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshenko, Victoria; Lühr, Hermann; Morfill, Gregor

    2013-04-01

    The key parameter of the dust-plasma interactions is the charge carried by a dust particle. The grain electrostatic potential is usually calculated from the so called orbit-motion limited (OML) model [1]. It is valid for a single particle immersed into collisionless plasmas with Maxwellian electron and ion distributions. Apparently, such a parameter regime cannot be directly applied to the conditions relevant for the Enceladus dense neutral torus and plume, where the plasma is multispecies and multistreaming, the dust density is high, sometimes even exceeding the plasma number density. We have examined several new factors which can significantly affect the grain charging in the dust loaded plasma of the Enceladus torus and in the plume region and which, to our knowledge, have not been investigated up to now for such plasma environments. These include: (a) influence of the multispecies plasma composition, namely the presence of two electron populations with electron temperatures ranging from a few eV up to a hundred eV [2], a few ion species (e.g. corotating water group ions, and protons, characterized by different kinetic temperatures), as well as cold nonthermalized new-born water group ions which move with Kepler velocity [3]; (b) effect of the ion-neutral collisions on the dust charging in the dense Enceladus torus and in the plume; (c) effect of high dust density, when a grain cannot be considered as an isolated particle any more (especially relevant for the plume region, where the average negative dust charge density according to Cassini measurements is of the order or even exceeds the plasma number density [4,5]). It turns out that in this case, the electrostatic potential and respective dust charge cannot be deduced from the initial OML formalism and there is a need to incorporate the effect of dust density into plasma fluxes flowing to the grain surface to calculate the grain equilibrium charge; (e) since the dust in the planetary rings comes in a wide

  9. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy L. Ward

    2003-03-01

    This project addresses the need for reliable fabrication methods of supported thin/thick dense ceramic membranes for oxygen separation. Some ceramic materials that possess mixed conductivity (electronic and ionic) at high temperature have the potential to permeate oxygen with perfect selectivity, making them very attractive for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. In order to maximize permeation rates at the lowest possible temperatures, it is desirable to minimize diffusional limitations within the ceramic by reducing the thickness of the ceramic membrane, preferably to thicknesses of 10 {micro}m or thinner. It has proven to be very challenging to reliably fabricate dense, defect-free ceramic membrane layers of such thickness. In this project we are investigating the use of ultrafine SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) powders produced by aerosol pyrolysis to fabricate such supported membranes. SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} is a ceramic composition that has been shown to have desirable oxygen permeability, as well as good chemical stability in the reducing environments that are encountered in some important applications. Our approach is to use a doctor blade procedure to deposit pastes prepared from the aerosol-derived SCFO powders onto porous SCFO supports. We have previously shown that membrane layers deposited from the aerosol powders can be sintered to high density without densification of the underlying support. However, these membrane layers contained large-scale cracks and open areas, making them unacceptable for membrane purposes. In the past year, we have refined the paste formulations based on guidance from the ceramic tape casting literature. We have identified a multicomponent organic formulation utilizing castor oil as dispersant in a solvent of mineral spirits and isopropanol. Other additives were polyvinylbutyral as binder and dibutylphthalate as plasticizer. The nonaqueous formulation has superior wetting properties with the powder, and

  10. A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S; Brodholt, John P

    2014-05-27

    Earth's core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain "light elements," such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe-Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle. PMID:24821817

  11. A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S; Brodholt, John P

    2014-05-27

    Earth's core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain "light elements," such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe-Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle.

  12. Academic Rigor: The Core of the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…

  13. Gas-phase coordination complexes of U(VI)O2(2+), Np(VI)O2(2+), and Pu(VI)O2(2+) with dimethylformamide.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Philip X; Rios, Daniel; Gibson, John K; Van Stipdonk, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Electrospray ionization of actinyl perchlorate solutions in H(2)O with 5% by volume of dimethylformamide (DMF) produced the isolatable gas-phase complexes, [An(VI)O(2)(DMF)(3)(H(2)O)](2+) and [An(VI)O(2)(DMF)(4)](2+), where An = U, Np, and Pu. Collision-induced dissociation confirmed the composition of the dipositive coordination complexes, and produced doubly- and singly-charged fragment ions. The fragmentation products reveal differences in underlying chemistries of uranyl, neptunyl, and plutonyl, including the lower stability of Np(VI) and Pu(VI) compared with U(VI). PMID:21952769

  14. The chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The basic theme of this program is the study of molecular complexity and evolution in interstellar and circumstellar clouds incorporating the biogenic elements. Recent results include the identification of a new astronomical carbon-chain molecule, C4Si. This species was detected in the envelope expelled from the evolved star IRC+10216 in observations at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan. C4Si is the carrier of six unidentified lines which had previously been observed. This detection reveals the existence of a new series of carbon-chain molecules, C sub n Si (n equals 1, 2, 4). Such molecules may well be formed from the reaction of Si(+) with acetylene and acetylene derivatives. Other recent research has concentrated on the chemical composition of the cold, dark interstellar clouds, the nearest dense molecular clouds to the solar system. Such regions have very low kinetic temperatures, on the order of 10 K, and are known to be formation sites for solar-type stars. We have recently identified for the first time in such regions the species of H2S, NO, HCOOH (formic acid). The H2S abundance appears to exceed that predicted by gas-phase models of ion-molecule chemistry, perhaps suggesting the importance of synthesis on grain surfaces. Additional observations in dark clouds have studied the ratio of ortho- to para-thioformaldehyde. Since this ratio is expected to be unaffected by both radiative and ordinary collisional processes in the cloud, it may well reflect the formation conditions for this molecule. The ratio is observed to depart from that expected under conditions of chemical equilibrium at formation, perhaps reflecting efficient interchange between cold dust grains in the gas phase.

  15. A crystallizing dense magma ocean at the base of the Earth's mantle.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, S; Hernlund, J W; Coltice, N

    2007-12-01

    The distribution of geochemical species in the Earth's interior is largely controlled by fractional melting and crystallization processes that are intimately linked to the thermal state and evolution of the mantle. The existence of patches of dense partial melt at the base of the Earth's mantle, together with estimates of melting temperatures for deep mantle phases and the amount of cooling of the underlying core required to maintain a geodynamo throughout much of the Earth's history, suggest that more extensive deep melting occurred in the past. Here we show that a stable layer of dense melt formed at the base of the mantle early in the Earth's history would have undergone slow fractional crystallization, and would be an ideal candidate for an unsampled geochemical reservoir hosting a variety of incompatible species (most notably the missing budget of heat-producing elements) for an initial basal magma ocean thickness of about 1,000 km. Differences in 142Nd/144Nd ratios between chondrites and terrestrial rocks can be explained by fractional crystallization with a decay timescale of the order of 1 Gyr. These combined constraints yield thermal evolution models in which radiogenic heat production and latent heat exchange prevent early cooling of the core and possibly delay the onset of the geodynamo to 3.4-4 Gyr ago. PMID:18064010

  16. The structure of Serratia marcescens Lip, a membrane-bound component of the type VI secretion system

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Vincenzo A.; Shepherd, Sharon M.; English, Grant; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N.

    2011-12-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of S. marcescens Lip reveals a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Lip, a core component of the type VI secretion apparatus, is localized to the outer membrane and is positioned to interact with other proteins forming this complex system. Lip is a membrane-bound lipoprotein and a core component of the type VI secretion system found in Gram-negative bacteria. The structure of a Lip construct (residues 29–176) from Serratia marcescens (SmLip) has been determined at 1.92 Å resolution. Experimental phases were derived using a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion approach on a sample cocrystallized with iodide. The membrane localization of the native protein was confirmed. The structure is that of the globular domain lacking only the lipoprotein signal peptide and the lipidated N-terminus of the mature protein. The protein fold is dominated by an eight-stranded β-sandwich and identifies SmLip as a new member of the transthyretin family of proteins. Transthyretin and the only other member of the family fold, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, form homotetramers important for their function. The asymmetric unit of SmLip is a tetramer with 222 symmetry, but the assembly is distinct from that previously noted for the transthyretin protein family. However, structural comparisons and bacterial two-hybrid data suggest that the SmLip tetramer is not relevant to its role as a core component of the type VI secretion system, but rather reflects a propensity for SmLip to participate in protein–protein interactions. A relatively low level of sequence conservation amongst Lip homologues is noted and is restricted to parts of the structure that might be involved in interactions with physiological partners.

  17. Are Superluminous Supernovae and Long GRBs the Products of Dynamical Processes in Young Dense Star Clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, E. P. J.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) occur almost exclusively in small galaxies (Small/Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC/LMC)-like or smaller), and the few SLSNe observed in larger star-forming galaxies always occur close to the nuclei of their hosts. Another type of peculiar and highly energetic supernovae are the broad-line Type Ic SNe (SN Ic-BL) that are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs). Also these have a strong preference for occurring in small (SMC/LMC-like or smaller) star-forming galaxies, and in these galaxies LGRBs always occur in the brightest spots. Studies of nearby star-forming galaxies that are similar to the hosts of LGRBs show that these brightest spots are giant H II regions produced by massive dense young star clusters with many hundreds of O- and Wolf-Rayet-type stars. Such dense young clusters are also found in abundance within a few hundred parsecs from the nucleus of larger galaxies like our own. We argue that the SLSNe and the SNe Ic-BL/LGRBs are exclusive products of two types of dynamical interactions in dense young star clusters. In our model the high angular momentum of the collapsing stellar cores required for the engines of an SN Ic-BL results from the post-main-sequence mergers of dynamically produced cluster binaries with almost equal-mass components. The merger produces a critically rotating single helium star with sufficient angular momentum to produce an LGRB; the observed "metal aversion" of LGRBs is a natural consequence of the model. We argue that, on the other hand, SLSNe could be the products of runaway multiple collisions in dense clusters, and we present (and quantize) plausible scenarios of how the different types of SLSNe can be produced.

  18. Are superluminous supernovae and long GRBs the products of dynamical processes in young dense star clusters?

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Heuvel, E. P. J.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    2013-12-20

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) occur almost exclusively in small galaxies (Small/Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC/LMC)-like or smaller), and the few SLSNe observed in larger star-forming galaxies always occur close to the nuclei of their hosts. Another type of peculiar and highly energetic supernovae are the broad-line Type Ic SNe (SN Ic-BL) that are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs). Also these have a strong preference for occurring in small (SMC/LMC-like or smaller) star-forming galaxies, and in these galaxies LGRBs always occur in the brightest spots. Studies of nearby star-forming galaxies that are similar to the hosts of LGRBs show that these brightest spots are giant H II regions produced by massive dense young star clusters with many hundreds of O- and Wolf-Rayet-type stars. Such dense young clusters are also found in abundance within a few hundred parsecs from the nucleus of larger galaxies like our own. We argue that the SLSNe and the SNe Ic-BL/LGRBs are exclusive products of two types of dynamical interactions in dense young star clusters. In our model the high angular momentum of the collapsing stellar cores required for the engines of an SN Ic-BL results from the post-main-sequence mergers of dynamically produced cluster binaries with almost equal-mass components. The merger produces a critically rotating single helium star with sufficient angular momentum to produce an LGRB; the observed 'metal aversion' of LGRBs is a natural consequence of the model. We argue that, on the other hand, SLSNe could be the products of runaway multiple collisions in dense clusters, and we present (and quantize) plausible scenarios of how the different types of SLSNe can be produced.

  19. Evolutionary status of the pre-protostellar core L1498

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B.; Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.; Levin, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    L1498 is a classic example of a dense cold pre-protostellar core. To study the evolutionary status, the structure, dynamics, and chemical properties of this core we have obtained high spatial and high spectral resolution observations of molecules tracing densities of 10(3)-10(5) cm-3. We observed CCS, NH3, C3H2, and HC7N with NASA's DSN 70 m antennas. We also present large-scale maps of C18O and 13CO observed with the AT&T 7 m antenna. For the high spatial resolution maps of selected regions within the core we used the VLA for CCS at 22 GHz, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) MMA for CCS at 94 GHz and CS (2-1). The 22 GHz CCS emission marks a high-density [n(H2) > 10(4) cm -3] core, which is elongated with a major axis along the SE-NW direction. NH3 and C3H2 emissions are located inside the boundary of the CCS emission. C18O emission traces a lower density gas extending beyond the CCS boundary. Along the major axis of the dense core, CCS, NH3 and C3H2 emission show evidence of limb brightening. The observations are consistent with a chemically differentiated onion-shell structure for the L1498 core, with NH3 in the inner and CCS in the outer parts of the core. The high angular resolution (9"-12") spectral line maps obtained by combining NASA Goldstone 70 m and VLA data resolve the CCS 22 GHz emission in the southeast and northwest boundaries into arclike enhancements, supporting the picture that CCS emission originates in a shell outside the NH3 emitting region. Interferometric maps of CCS at 94 GHz and CS at 98 GHz show that their emitting regions contain several small-scale dense condensations. We suggest that the differences between the CCS, CS, C3H2, and NH3 emission are caused by a time-dependent effect as the core evolves slowly. We interpret the chemical and physical properties of L1498 in terms of a quasi-static (or slowly contracting) dense core in which the outer envelope is still growing. The growth rate of the core is determined by the

  20. Thermal stabilization of chromium(VI) in kaolin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Chiu, Shu-Yuan; Tsai, Hsien-Neng; Yang, Yaw-Wen; Lee, Jyh-Fu

    2002-11-01

    Reduction of Cr(VI) by heating may be a useful detoxification mechanism for thermal immobilization. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the change of speciation of chromium in 105 degrees C dried 3.7% Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin further heated at 500, 900, or 1100 degrees C was studied. The 105 degrees C dried 3.7% Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin sample was prepared by mixing 1.5 L of 0.257 M CrO3 solution (pH 0.71) with 0.5 kg of kaolin powder for 48 h, and then the slurry was heated (dried) at 105 degrees C until a constant weight was reached. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure method was used to determine the percentage of leached chromium from all heated samples. In all 500-900 degrees C heated Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin samples, Cr2O3 transformed from the hydrated Cr(VI) by a 4-h heat application was identified by the X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy as the key species that is leaching-resistant due to its low solubility. For the 1100 degrees C heated Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin sample, the Fourier transform of its EXAFS spectrum indicates that the intensity of the peaks at 2.45 (Cr-Cr shell of Cr2O3) and 5.00 A (Cr-Cr and Cr-O shells of Cr2O3) without phase shift correction is either relatively smaller or disappearing, compared with that of the 500-900 degrees C heated Cr(VI)-sorbed kaolin samples. It is suggested that chromium octahedra were bridged to silica tetrahedra and incorporated in minerals formed at 1100 degrees C, such as mullite or sillimanite, since these phases were detected by XRD. Cr of this form is not easily leached. PMID:12433175

  1. REVISED AND EXTENDED ANALYSIS OF FIVE TIMES IONIZED XENON, Xe VI

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, M.; Raineri, M.; Reyna Almandos, J.; Pagan, C. J. B.; Abrahão, R. A. E-mail: cesarpagan@fee.unicamp.br

    2015-01-01

    A capillary discharge tube was used to record the Xe spectrum in the 400-5500 Å  region. A set of 243 lines of the Xe VI spectrum was observed, and 146 of them were classified for the first time. For all known lines, we calculated the weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and weighted transition probabilities (gA) using the configuration interaction in a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach. The energy matrix was calculated using energy parameters adjusted to fit the experimental energy levels. Core polarization effects were taken into account in our calculations. Experimental energy values and calculated lifetimes are also presented for a set of 88 levels. From these levels, 32 were classified for the first time and 33 had their values revised. Our analysis of the 5s5p5d and 5s5p6s configurations was extended in order to clarify discrepancies among previous works.

  2. Massive relic galaxies prefer dense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta de Arriba, Luis; Quilis, Vicent; Trujillo, Ignacio; Cebrián, María; Balcells, Marc

    2016-09-01

    We study the preferred environments of z ˜ 0 massive relic galaxies (M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ galaxies with little or no growth from star formation or mergers since z ˜ 2). Significantly, we carry out our analysis on both a large cosmological simulation and an observed galaxy catalogue. Working on the Millennium I-WMAP7 simulation we show that the fraction of today massive objects which have grown less than 10 per cent in mass since z ˜ 2 is ˜0.04 per cent for the whole massive galaxy population with M⋆ > 1010 M⊙. This fraction rises to ˜0.18 per cent in galaxy clusters, confirming that clusters help massive galaxies remain unaltered. Simulations also show that massive relic galaxies tend to be closer to cluster centres than other massive galaxies. Using the New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue, and defining relics as M⋆ ≳ 1010 M⊙ early-type galaxies with colours compatible with single-stellar population ages older than 10 Gyr, and which occupy the bottom 5-percentile in the stellar mass-size distribution, we find 1.11 ± 0.05 per cent of relics among massive galaxies. This fraction rises to 2.4 ± 0.4 per cent in high-density environments. Our findings point in the same direction as the works by Poggianti et al. and Stringer et al. Our results may reflect the fact that the cores of the clusters are created very early on, hence the centres host the first cluster members. Near the centres, high-velocity dispersions and harassment help cluster core members avoid the growth of an accreted stellar envelope via mergers, while a hot intracluster medium prevents cold gas from reaching the galaxies, inhibiting star formation.

  3. Dense-gas dispersion advection-diffusion model

    SciTech Connect

    Ermak, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    A dense-gas version of the ADPIC particle-in-cell, advection- diffusion model was developed to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of denser-than-air releases. In developing the model, it was assumed that the dense-gas effects could be described in terms of the vertically-averaged thermodynamic properties and the local height of the cloud. The dense-gas effects were treated as a perturbation to the ambient thermodynamic properties (density and temperature), ground level heat flux, turbulence level (diffusivity), and windfield (gravity flow) within the local region of the dense-gas cloud. These perturbations were calculated from conservation of energy and conservation of momentum principles along with the ideal gas law equation of state for a mixture of gases. ADPIC, which is generally run in conjunction with a mass-conserving wind flow model to provide the advection field, contains all the dense-gas modifications within it. This feature provides the versatility of coupling the new dense-gas ADPIC with alternative wind flow models. The new dense-gas ADPIC has been used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of ground-level, colder-than-ambient, denser-than-air releases and has compared favorably with the results of field-scale experiments.

  4. Kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction by carbonate green rust.

    PubMed

    Williams, A G; Scherer, M M

    2001-09-01

    The kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) by carbonate green rust were studied for a range of reactant concentrations and pH values. Carbonate green rust, [FeII4FeIII2(OH)12][4H2O x CO3], was synthesized by induced hydrolysis (i.e., coprecipitation) of an Fe(ll)/Fe(III) solution held at a constant pH of 8. An average specific surface area of 47 +/- 7 m2 g(-1) was measured for five separate batches of freeze-dried green rust precipitate. Heterogeneous reduction by Fe(II) associated with the carbonate green rust appears to be the dominant pathway controlling Cr(VI) loss from solution. The apparent stoichiometry of the reaction between ferrous iron associated with green rust ([Fe(II)GR]) and Cr(VI) was slightly higherthan the expected 3:1 ratio, possibly due to the presence of other oxidants, such as oxygen, protons, or interlayer carbonate ions. The rate of Cr(VI) reduction was proportional to the green rust surface area concentration, and psuedo-first-order rate coefficients (kobs) ranging from 1.2 x 10(-3) to 11.2 x 10(-3) s(-1) were determined. The effect of pH was small with a 5-fold decrease in rate with increasing pH (from 5.0 to 9.0). At low Cr(VI) concentrations (<200 microM), the rate of reaction was first order with respect to Cr(VI) concentration, whereas, at high Cr(VI) concentrations, rates appearto deviate from first-order kinetics and approach a constant value. Estimated amounts of surface Fe(II) and total Fe(II) suggest that the deviation from first-order kinetics observed at higher Cr(VI) concentrations and the 50-fold decrease in rate observed upon three sequential exposures to Cr(VI) is due to exhaustion of available Fe(II).

  5. Sasse Modeling of First Cycle Neptunium (VI) Recovery Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J. E.

    2006-04-01

    A flowsheet has been proposed to separate neptunium from solutions in H-Canyon Tanks 16.4, 12.5, and 11.7 in the First Cycle solvent extraction banks, in which cerium(IV) (Ce(IV)) serves as an agent to oxidize neptunium to neptunium(VI) (Np(VI)). A SASSE (Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction) spreadsheet model indicates that the proposed flowsheet is a feasible method for separating neptunium and uranium from sulfates, thorium, and other metal impurities. The proposed flowsheet calls for stripping the sulfates, thorium, and other metal impurities into the 1AW stream and extracting and then stripping the neptunium and uranium into the 1BP stream. SASSE predicts that separation of thorium from the other actinides can be accomplished with actinide losses of 0.01% or less. It is assumed that other metal impurities such as iron, aluminum, and fission products will follow the thorium into 1AW. Due to an organic/aqueous distribution coefficient that is close to one, SASSE predicts that plutonium(VI) (Pu(VI)) is split between the A Bank and B Bank aqueous output streams, with 27% going to 1AW and 73% going to 1BP. An extrapolated distribution coefficient based on unvalidated Ce(IV) distribution measurements at a single nitrate concentration and a comparison with thorium(IV) (Th(IV)) distributions indicates that Ce(IV) could reflux in 1B Bank. If the Ce(IV) distribution coefficient is lower than would be predicted by this single point extrapolation, but still higher than the distribution coefficient for Th(IV), then Ce(IV) would follow Np(VI) and uranium(VI) (U(VI)) into 1BP. The SASSE model was validated using data from a 1964 oxidizing flowsheet for the recovery of Np(VI) in Second Cycle. For the proposed flowsheet to be effective in recovering neptunium, the addition of approximately 0.025 M ceric ammonium nitrate (Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6) to both the 1AF and 1AS streams is required to stabilize the neptunium in the +6

  6. Flow distortion at a dense forest edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results from a forest edge experiment with two masts and one horizontally pointed wind lidar are presented. The experiment was performed at a dense beech forest edge of the Tromnæs forest, which is a 24m tall mature beech forest on the island Falster, Denmark. The topography at the site is flat. The masts were placed approximately 1.5 canopy heights upwind and downwind of the edge and are two canopy heights tall. We present data showing how the forest edge distorts the flow when the flow is perpendicular to the edge and towards the forest during near-neutral atmospheric stratification. Despite that the wind gradient above the canopy is similar before and after the edge, the momentum flux is strongly reduced above the canopy. This result is especially pronounced during summer and high leaf area index, when the momentum flux was slightly positive 1.2 canopy heights above ground level. This is contrary to the results by standard Reynolds' averaged Navier Stokes models that predict an overshoot of the momentum flux. Further above the forest, the total amount of turbulent kinetic energy remained constant compared to the upwind measurements. A reduction of the vertical variance of the flow was largely compensated by an increase in the lateral variance, whereas the streamwise variance remained approximately constant. This result is in contrast to the predictions by homogeneous rapid distortion theory. We apply and develop an alternative framework based on inhomogeneous rapid distortion theory in combination with the turbulence model by Mann (1994), which can predict the observed changes of the flow. The inhomogeneous rapid distortion theory takes the blocking of the flow by the top of the canopy into account. This effect turns out to suppress the vertical momentum flux drastically and redistribute the vertical fluctuations into the lateral direction. We show one- and two-point spectra for verification of the model. The results are relevant for understanding the on

  7. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy L. Ward

    2000-06-30

    . This successfully reduced cracking, however the films retained open porosity. The investigation of this concept will be continued in the final year of the project. Investigation of a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method for defect mending in dense membranes was also initiated. An appropriate metal organic precursor (iron tetramethylheptanedionate) was identified whose deposition can be controlled by access to oxygen at temperatures in the 280-300 C range. Initial experiments have deposited iron oxide, but only on the membrane surface; thus refinement of this method will continue.

  8. Mixtures in the Warm, Dense Matter Regine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Lee A.

    2009-03-01

    The bulk of normal matter from planets to the intergalactic medium exists as a composite of various elemental constituents. The interactions among these different species determine the basic properties of such diverse environments. For dilute systems, simple gas laws serve well to describe the mixing. However, once the density and temperature increase, more sophisticated treatments of the electronic component and dynamics become necessary. For the warm, dense matter (WDM) region [10^22-10^25 atoms/cm^3 and 300K - 10^6 K], quantum Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics, utilizing finite-temperature density functional theory (DFT), have served as the basic exploratory tools and benchmarks for other methods. The computational intensity of both methods, especially for mixtures, which require large sample sizes to attain statistical accuracy, has focused considerable attention on mixing prescriptions based on the properties of the pure atomic constituents. Though extensively utilized in many disciplines, these rules have received very little verification [1,2]. We examine the validity of two such rules, density and pressure mixing, for several systems and concentrations by comparing against quantum calculations for the fully-interacting composite. We find considerable differences in some regimes, especially for optical properties. We also probe dynamical properties such as diffusion and viscosity as well as the role of impurities. Finally, as a means of extending DFT results to higher temperature regimes, we also study orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD) approaches [3] based on various approximations to the basic density functional. These OFMD schemes permit a smooth transition from the WDM region to simpler one-component plasma and ideal gas models. Research in collaboration with J.D. Kress (LANL), D.A. Horner (LANL), and Flavien Lambert (CEA). [4pt] [1] D.A. Horner, J.D. Kress, and L.A. Collins, Phys. Rev. B 77, 064102 (2008).[0pt] [2] F. Lambert et. al. Phys. Rev. E

  9. Simulation of reactive transport of uranium(VI) in groundwater with variable chemical conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curtis, G.P.; Davis, J.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    The reactive transport of U(VI) in a shallow alluvial aquifer beneath a former U(VI) mill located near Naturita, CO, was simulated using a surface complexation model (SCM) to describe U(VI) adsorption. The groundwater had variable U(VI) concentrations (0.01-20 ??M), variable alkalinity (2.5-18 meq/L), and a nearly constant pH equal to 7.1. U(VI) KD values decreased with increasing U(VI) and alkalinity, and these parameters were more important than sediment variability in controlling KD values. Reactive transport simulations were fit to the observed U(VI) and alkalinity by varying the concentration of U(VI) and alkalinity in recharge at the source area. Simulated KD values varied temporally and spatially because of the differential transport of U(VI) and alkalinity and the nonlinearity of U(VI) adsorption. The model also simulated the observed U(VI) tailing, which would not be expected from a constant KD model. The simulated U(VI) concentrations were sensitive to the recharge flux because of the increased flux of U(VI) to the aquifer. The geochemical behavior of U(VI) was most sensitive to the alkalinity and was relatively insensitive to pH.

  10. Prevalence of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI mutations in Siamese cats.

    PubMed

    Crawley, A C; Muntz, F H; Haskins, M E; Jones, B R; Hopwood, J J

    2003-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), a lysosomal storage disease, is one of the more prevalent inherited diseases in cats and is commonly found in cats with Siamese ancestry. The prevalence of 2 known MPS VI mutations in cats was investigated in 101 clinically normal Siamese cats, in 2 cats with clinical signs of MPS VI, and in 202 cats from 4 research colonies. The mutation L476P which causes a severe clinical phenotype, was present on both alleles in the known MPS VI cats from Italy and North America and was present in all research colonies that originated from North America. However, LA76P was not detected in the Siamese population screened. In contrast, the mutation D520N, which causes a mild clinical phenotype, was identified in 23 of 202 (11.4%) alleles tested in Siamese cats from 3 continents, 2 of which were homozygous for D520N. Thus, the D520N mutation was widespread, and it is likely that cats inheriting both mutations (LA76P/D520N compound heterozygotes) would be in the general Siamese population, particularly in North America. Practitioners should note the high incidence of degenerative joint disease in these animals.

  11. Circadian periodicity in salivary carbonic anhydrase VI concentration.

    PubMed

    Parkkila, S; Parkkila, A K; Rajaniemi, H

    1995-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) is secreted into the saliva by the serous acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands. Saliva samples from six healthy male volunteers were analysed for concentrations of CA VI throughout the 24 h period by means of a specific time-resolved immunofluorometric assay and the levels were compared with amylase activity. The sleeping period was from 00.10 h to 07.30 h and the subjects had breakfast at 07.30 h and regular meals at 13.30 h and 19.30 h. Saliva secretion decreased markedly during the sleeping period in all the subjects except one. The levels of both CA VI and amylase activity varied greatly among the subjects, but in a parallel manner, and declined to a very low level during the sleeping period. Dexamethasone intake at midnight had no effect on the morning rise in either enzyme. When the sleeping period was postponed from 06.10 h to 11.30 h both enzyme concentrations declined during the night and continued to be low until the subjects awoke at 11.30 h, whereas salivary secretion was low only during the sleeping period. Our results suggest that CA VI secretion follows a circadian periodicity that is comparable to amylase secretion but independent of salivary secretion.

  12. Biosorption of aqueous chromium(VI) by Tamarindus indica seeds.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, G S; Bhuptawat, Hitendra Kumar; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of low cost agro-based materials namely, Tamarindus indica seed (TS), crushed coconut shell (CS), almond shell (AS), ground nut shell (GS) and walnut shell (WS) were evaluated for Cr(VI) removal. Batch test indicated that hexavalent chromium sorption capacity (q(e)) followed the sequence q(e)(TS) > q(e)(WS) > q(e)(AS) > q(e)(GS) > q(e)(CS). Due to high sorptive capacity, tamarind seed was selected for detailed sorption studies. Sorption kinetic data followed first order reversible kinetic fit model for all the sorbents. The equilibrium conditions were achieved within 150 min under the mixing conditions employed. Sorption equilibria exhibited better fit to Freundlich isotherms (R>0.92) than Langmuir isotherm (R approximately = 0.87). Hexavalent chromium sorption by TS decreased with increase in pH, and slightly reduced with increase in ionic strength. Cr(VI) removal by TS seems to be mainly by chemisorption. Desorption of Cr(VI) from Cr(VI) laden TS was quite less by distilled water and HCl. Whereas with NaOH, maximum desorption achieved was about 15.3%. When TS was used in downflow column mode, Cr(VI) removal was quite good but head loss increased as the run progressed and was stopped after 200 h.

  13. Immunohistochemical expression of type VI collagen in superficial fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Magro, G; Colombatti, A; Lanzafame, S

    1995-10-01

    The expression of type VI collagen was studied immunohistochemically in 26 cases of superficial fibromatoses (palmar, plantar and penile) using an immunoperoxidase method for light microscopic visualization. The polyclonal antibody against type VI collagen used in this study was isolated from human placenta and its specifity was tested by immunoblotting assay. All cases consisted of multiple nodules showing a variable degree of cellularity and fibrosis. Depending on the predominant histological appearance of these nodules, each case was assigned to the three following phases: proliferative, involutional and residual. Morphologically normal palmar and plantar aponeuroses were included as controls. Immunohistochemical findings showed that type VI collagen was present as longitudinal thin fibers in normal palmar and plantar aponeuroses. A differential expression of this collagen was found in the different stages of superficial fibromatoses. Type VI collagen was markedly expressed as a distinct fibrillar network in the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding proliferating stromal cells in proliferative and involutional phases. Its expression completely disappeared from the connective tissue undergoing fibrotic transformation during involutional and residual phases. The results of the present study suggest that type VI collagen is an extracellular marker of stromal tissue proliferation and is involved in the early phases of tissue remodelling occurring in the superficial fibromatoses.

  14. A monomeric myosin VI with a large working stroke.

    PubMed

    Lister, Ida; Schmitz, Stephan; Walker, Matthew; Trinick, John; Buss, Folma; Veigel, Claudia; Kendrick-Jones, John

    2004-04-21

    Myosin VI is involved in a wide variety of intracellular processes such as endocytosis, secretion and cell migration. Unlike almost all other myosins so far studied, it moves towards the minus end of actin filaments and is therefore likely to have unique cellular properties. However, its mechanism of force production and movement is not understood. Under our experimental conditions, both expressed full-length and native myosin VI are monomeric. Electron microscopy using negative staining revealed that the addition of ATP induces a large conformational change in the neck/tail region of the expressed molecule. Using an optical tweezers-based force transducer we found that expressed myosin VI is nonprocessive and produces a large working stroke of 18 nm. Since the neck region of myosin VI is short (it contains only a single IQ motif), it is difficult to reconcile the 18 nm working stroke with the classical 'lever arm mechanism', unless other structures in the molecule contribute to the effective lever. A possible model to explain the large working stroke of myosin VI is presented. PMID:15044955

  15. Abiotic reductive immobilization of U(VI) by biogenic mackinawite.

    PubMed

    Veeramani, Harish; Scheinost, Andreas C; Monsegue, Niven; Qafoku, Nikolla P; Kukkadapu, Ravi; Newville, Matt; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Pruden, Amy; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Hochella, Michael F

    2013-03-01

    During subsurface bioremediation of uranium-contaminated sites, indigenous metal and sulfate-reducing bacteria may utilize a variety of electron acceptors, including ferric iron and sulfate that could lead to the formation of various biogenic minerals in situ. Sulfides, as well as structural and adsorbed Fe(II) associated with biogenic Fe(II)-sulfide phases, can potentially catalyze abiotic U(VI) reduction via direct electron transfer processes. In the present work, the propensity of biogenic mackinawite (Fe 1+x S, x = 0 to 0.11) to reduce U(VI) abiotically was investigated. The biogenic mackinawite produced by Shewanella putrefaciens strain CN32 was characterized by employing a suite of analytical techniques including TEM, SEM, XAS, and Mössbauer analyses. Nanoscale and bulk analyses (microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, respectively) of biogenic mackinawite after exposure to U(VI) indicate the formation of nanoparticulate UO2. This study suggests the relevance of sulfide-bearing biogenic minerals in mediating abiotic U(VI) reduction, an alternative pathway in addition to direct enzymatic U(VI) reduction. PMID:23373896

  16. Core Design Applications

    1995-07-12

    CORD-2 is intended for core desigh applications of pressurized water reactors. The main objective was to assemble a core design system which could be used for simple calculations (such as frequently required for fuel management) as well as for accurate calculations (for example, core design after refueling).

  17. Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Stolz

    2011-06-15

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory

  18. The NMR structure of the II–III–VI three-way junction from the Neurospora VS ribozyme reveals a critical tertiary interaction and provides new insights into the global ribozyme structure

    PubMed Central

    Bonneau, Eric; Girard, Nicolas; Lemieux, Sébastien; Legault, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    As part of an effort to structurally characterize the complete Neurospora VS ribozyme, NMR solution structures of several subdomains have been previously determined, including the internal loops of domains I and VI, the I/V kissing-loop interaction and the III–IV–V junction. Here, we expand this work by determining the NMR structure of a 62-nucleotide RNA (J236) that encompasses the VS ribozyme II–III–VI three-way junction and its adjoining stems. In addition, we localize Mg2+-binding sites within this structure using Mn2+-induced paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. The NMR structure of the J236 RNA displays a family C topology with a compact core stabilized by continuous stacking of stems II and III, a cis WC/WC G•A base pair, two base triples and two Mg2+ ions. Moreover, it reveals a remote tertiary interaction between the adenine bulges of stems II and VI. Additional NMR studies demonstrate that both this bulge–bulge interaction and Mg2+ ions are critical for the stable folding of the II–III–VI junction. The NMR structure of the J236 RNA is consistent with biochemical studies on the complete VS ribozyme, but not with biophysical studies performed with a minimal II–III–VI junction that does not contain the II–VI bulge–bulge interaction. Together with previous NMR studies, our findings provide important new insights into the three-dimensional architecture of this unique ribozyme. PMID:26124200

  19. Speciation of uranium(VI) sorption complexes on montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Morris, D.E.; Richard, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    Environmental contaminant releases that contain uranium are among the most serious problems that must be confronted by restoration programs. To facilitate restoration, information concerning the speciation of uranium is needed. Under oxidizing conditions, dissolved uranium is predominantly in the U(VI) (uranyl) form and is quite mobile in the environment, however sorption onto soils may retard its movement. In this study, we have investigated the effects of changes in solution speciation on the nature of uranyl sorption complexes on montmorillonite, a common soil constituent. Aqueous U(VI) solutions between pH 3 to 7 were batch-equilibrated with montmorillonite for several days; specific pH values were selected such that the solutions consisted of dominantly monomeric, oligomeric, or a mix of monomeric and oligomeric aqueous uranyl species. Emission spectroscopy was used to investigate the nature of U(VI) sorbed to montmorillonite.

  20. Nonlinear spinor fields in Bianchi type-VI spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bijan

    2016-05-01

    Within the scope of Bianchi type-VI cosmological model we study the role of spinor field in the evolution of the Universe. It is found that due to the spinor affine connections the energy-momentum tensor of the spinor field possesses non-diagonal components. The non-triviality of non-diagonal components of the energy-momentum tensor imposes some severe restrictions either on the spinor field or on the metric functions or on both of them. But unlike in the cases of Bianchi type-I or VI_0 , in the case of Bianchi type-VI model, it does not lead to the elimination of spinor field nonlinearity or mass term in the spinor field Lagrangian. It is also found that depending on the sign of self-coupling constant the model can give rise to late time acceleration or generate oscillatory mode of evolution.

  1. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  2. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides

    SciTech Connect

    Ria A. Yngard; Virender K. Sharma; Jan Filip; Radek Zboril

    2008-04-15

    Cyanide is commonly found in electroplating, mining, coal gasification, and petroleum refining effluents, which require treatment before being discharged. Cyanide in effluents exists either as free cyanide or as a metal complex. The kinetics of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by an environmentally friendly oxidant, ferrate, were studied as a function of pH (9.1-10.5) and temperature (15-45{sup o}C) using a stopped-flow technique. The weak-acid dissociable cyanides were Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, and the rate-laws for the oxidation may be -d(Fe(VI))/dt = k (Fe(VI))(M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}){sup n} where n = 0.5 and 1 for Cd(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} and Ni(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-}, respectively. The rates decreased with increasing pH and were mostly related to a decrease in concentration of the reactive protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO{sub 4}{sup -}. The stoichiometries with Fe(VI) were determined to be: 4HFeO{sub 4}{sup -} + M(CN){sub 4}{sup 2-} + 6H{sub 2}O {yields} 4Fe(OH){sub 3} + M{sup 2+} + 4NCO{sup -} + O{sub 2} + 4OH{sup -}. Mechanisms are proposed that agree with the observed reaction rate-laws and stoichiometries of the oxidation of weak-acid dissociable cyanides by Fe(VI). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is effective in removing cyanide in coke oven plant effluent, where organics are also present. 27 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2015-12-21

    In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes.

  4. Stopping Power in Dense Plasmas: Models, Simulations and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, Paul; Fichtl, Chris; Graziani, Frank; Hazi, Andrew; Murillo, Michael; Sheperd, Ronnie; Surh, Mike; Cimarron Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Our goal is to conclusively determine the minimal model for stopping power in dense plasmas via a three-pronged theoretical, simulation, and experimental program. Stopping power in dense plasma is important for ion beam heating of targets (e.g., fast ignition) and alpha particle energy deposition in inertial confinement fusion targets. We wish to minimize our uncertainties in the stopping power by comparing a wide range of theoretical approaches to both detailed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experiments. The largest uncertainties occur for slow-to-moderate velocity projectiles, dense plasmas, and highly charged projectiles. We have performed MD simulations of a classical, one component plasma to reveal where there are weaknesses in our kinetic theories of stopping power, over a wide range of plasma conditions. We have also performed stopping experiments of protons in heated warm dense carbon for validation of such models, including MD calculations, of realistic plasmas for which bound contributions are important.

  5. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ionmore » dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.« less

  6. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ion dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.

  7. Fabrication, Properties and Applications of Dense Hydroxyapatite: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, Mythili; Locs, Janis; Salma-Ancane, Kristine; Loca, Dagnija; Largeteau, Alain; Berzina-Cimdina, Liga

    2015-01-01

    In the last five decades, there have been vast advances in the field of biomaterials, including ceramics, glasses, glass-ceramics and metal alloys. Dense and porous ceramics have been widely used for various biomedical applications. Current applications of bioceramics include bone grafts, spinal fusion, bone repairs, bone fillers, maxillofacial reconstruction, etc. Amongst the various calcium phosphate compositions, hydroxyapatite, which has a composition similar to human bone, has attracted wide interest. Much emphasis is given to tissue engineering, both in porous and dense ceramic forms. The current review focusses on the various applications of dense hydroxyapatite and other dense biomaterials on the aspects of transparency and the mechanical and electrical behavior. Prospective future applications, established along the aforesaid applications of hydroxyapatite, appear to be promising regarding bone bonding, advanced medical treatment methods, improvement of the mechanical strength of artificial bone grafts and better in vitro/in vivo methodologies to afford more particular outcomes. PMID:26703750

  8. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Doppner, T; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Hartley, N. J.; Peters, L.; Gregori, G.; Belancourt, P.; Drake, R. P.; Chapman, D. A.; Richardson, S.; Gericke, D. O.; Glenzer, S. H.; Khaghani, D.; Neumayer, P.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.

    2014-11-05

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. Furthermore, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  9. Measurement of electron-ion relaxation in warm dense copper

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-06

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. As a result, data are compared with various theoretical models.

  10. Measurement of Electron-Ion Relaxation in Warm Dense Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. Data are compared with various theoretical models.

  11. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doppner, T; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Hartley, N. J.; Peters, L.; Gregori, G.; Belancourt, P.; Drake, R. P.; Chapman, D. A.; et al

    2014-11-05

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. Furthermore, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  12. Measurement of Electron-Ion Relaxation in Warm Dense Copper

    PubMed Central

    Cho, B. I.; Ogitsu, T.; Engelhorn, K.; Correa, A. A.; Ping, Y.; Lee, J. W.; Bae, L. J.; Prendergast, D.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental investigation of electron-ion coupling and electron heat capacity of copper in warm and dense states are presented. From time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy, the temporal evolution of electron temperature is obtained for non-equilibrium warm dense copper heated by an intense femtosecond laser pulse. Electron heat capacity and electron-ion coupling are inferred from the initial electron temperature and its decrease over 10 ps. Data are compared with various theoretical models. PMID:26733236

  13. Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang Li, Song; Zhang, Chi; Ye, Bin

    2015-01-15

    We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained.

  14. O VI Emission in Nuclear Region of NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, W.; Sahnow, D.; Tsvetanov, Z.; Kriss, G. A.; Wang, J.-X.; Allen, M.; Dopita, M.; Bicknell, G.

    2009-05-24

    FUSE Spectra of the nuclear region of NGC 1068 find strong OVI emission consisting of a pair of narrow and broad components. There is a gradient in the velocity field for the narrow O VI component of {approx}200 kms{sup -1} from {approx}2'' southwest of the nucleus to {approx}4'' northeast. A similar pattern is also observed with the broad O VI component, with a gradient of {approx}3000 kms{sup -1}. These results are consistent with the HST/STIS findings and suggest a biconical structure in which the velocity field is mainly radial outflow.

  15. From Prestellar to Protostellar Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, Yuri; Wakelam, Valentine; Hersant, Franck; Garrod, Robin; Herbst, Eric

    2012-07-01

    We investigate the molecular evolution and D/H abundance ratios that develop as star formation proceeds from dense cloud cores to protostellar cores. We solve a gas-grain reaction network, which is extended to include multi-deuterated species, using a 1-D radiative hydrodynamic model with infalling fluid parcels to derive molecular distribution in assorted evolutionary stages. We find that the abundances of large organic species in the central region increase with time. The duration of the warm-up phase, in which large organic species are efficiently formed, is longer in infalling fluid parcels at later stages. Formation of unsaturated carbon chains in the CH4 sublimation zone (warm carbon chain chemistry) is more effective in later stage. The carbon ion, which reacts with CH4 to form carbon chains, increases in abundance as the envelope density decreases. The large organic molecules and carbon chains are both heavily deuterated, mainly because their mother molecules have high D/H ratios, which are set in the cold phase. The observed CH2DOH/CH3OH ratio towards protostars is reproduced if we assume that the grain-surface exchange and abstraction reactions of CH3OH + D occurs efficiently. In our 1-D collapse model, the fluid parcels directly fall into the protostar, and the warm-up phase in the fluid parcels is rather short. But, in reality, a circumstellar disk is formed, and fluid parcels will stay there for a longer timescale than a free-fall time. We investigate the molecular evolution in such a disk by assuming that a fluid parcel stays at a constant temperature (i.e. a fixed disk radius) after the infall. The species CH3OCH3 and HCOOCH3 become more abundant in the disk than in the envelope. Both have high D/H abundance ratios as well.

  16. Contribution of extracellular polymeric substances from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms to U(VI) immobilization.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bin; Ahmed, Bulbul; Kennedy, David W; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J; Fredrickson, Jim K; Isern, Nancy G; Majors, Paul D; Beyenal, Haluk

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the contribution of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to U(VI) immobilization by Shewanella sp. HRCR-1. Through comparison of U(VI) immobilization using cells with bound EPS (bEPS) and cells with minimal EPS, we show that (i) bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms contribute significantly to U(VI) immobilization, especially at low initial U(VI) concentrations, through both sorption and reduction; (ii) bEPS can be considered a functional extension of the cells for U(VI) immobilization and they likely play more important roles at lower initial U(VI) concentrations; and (iii) the U(VI) reduction efficiency is dependent upon the initial U(VI) concentration and decreases at lower concentrations. To quantify the relative contributions of sorption and reduction to U(VI) immobilization by EPS fractions, we isolated loosely associated EPS (laEPS) and bEPS from Shewanella sp. HRCR-1 biofilms grown in a hollow fiber membrane biofilm reactor and tested their reactivity with U(VI). We found that, when reduced, the isolated cell-free EPS fractions could reduce U(VI). Polysaccharides in the EPS likely contributed to U(VI) sorption and dominated the reactivity of laEPS, while redox active components (e.g., outer membrane c-type cytochromes), especially in bEPS, possibly facilitated U(VI) reduction.

  17. Hot and dense matter beyond relativistic mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xilin; Prakash, Madappa

    2016-05-01

    Properties of hot and dense matter are calculated in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics by including contributions from two-loop (TL) diagrams arising from the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons between nucleons. Our extension of mean field theory (MFT) employs the same five density-independent coupling strengths which are calibrated using the empirical properties at the equilibrium density of isospin-symmetric matter. Results of calculations from the MFT and TL approximations are compared for conditions of density, temperature, and proton fraction encountered in the study of core-collapse supernovae, young and old neutron stars, and mergers of compact binary stars. The TL results for the equation of state (EOS) of cold pure neutron matter at sub- and near-nuclear densities agree well with those of modern quantum Monte Carlo and effective field-theoretical approaches. Although the high-density EOS in the TL approximation for cold and β -equilibrated neutron-star matter is substantially softer than its MFT counterpart, it is able to support a 2 M⊙ neutron star required by recent precise determinations. In addition, radii of 1.4 M⊙ stars are smaller by ˜1 km than those obtained in MFT and lie in the range indicated by analysis of astronomical data. In contrast to MFT, the TL results also give a better account of the single-particle or optical potentials extracted from analyses of medium-energy proton-nucleus and heavy-ion experiments. In degenerate conditions, the thermal variables are well reproduced by results of Landau's Fermi-liquid theory in which density-dependent effective masses feature prominently. The ratio of the thermal components of pressure and energy density expressed as Γth=1 +(Pth/ɛth) , often used in astrophysical simulations, exhibits a stronger dependence on density than on proton fraction and temperature in both MFT and TL calculations. The prominent peak of Γth at supranuclear density found in MFT is, however, suppressed in

  18. Characterizing the Urban Heat Island with a Dense Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Smoliak, B. V.; Mykleby, P.; Hertel, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience temperatures that are elevated relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in the fraction of gray and green infrastructure. Traditional methods of characterizing UHIs rely on the comparison of near-surface air temperature measurements between few sites in an urban area with those in a nearby rural area. This methodology assumes (1) that the UHI can be characterized by the difference in air temperature from a small number of points, and (2) that these few points represent the urban and rural signatures of the region. While this methodology makes it possible to compare the UHI of cities around the globe, it ignores the rich information that could be gained from measurements across the urban to rural transect. This transect could traverse elevations, water bodies, vegetation fraction, and other land surface properties. We deployed a network of ~200 temperature sensors across the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) beginning in July 2011 and continuing to the present. Our network covers a 5000-km2 area encompassing the cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul as well as suburban and rural areas within the seven-county region. The TCMA includes ~3.4 million people, nearly 900 lakes, and two major interstate highways and a beltway system. We employed a cokriging method to interpolate sensor measurements onto a continuous grid using satellite-based impervious surface fraction data. Our results show consistent warm anomalies, when compared with a background rural temperature, over the two downtown cores and along major highways and dense suburban areas. Anomalies switch between positive and negative values (i.e., warmer or cooler than the rural, respectively) depending on season over large lakes. The warm season (May - October) average TCMA UHI (all urban areas - all rural areas) peaks at night at 1.5 °C, while the cold season (November - April) UHI is ~1 °C and is less variable over

  19. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  20. Dense gas in the Galactic central molecular zone is warm and heated by turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, Adam; Henkel, Christian; Ao, Yiping; Riquelme, Denise; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; Immer, Katharina; Testi, Leonardo; Ott, Juergen; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Darling, Jeremy; Aalto, Susanne; Stanke, Thomas; Kendrew, Sarah; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Longmore, Steven; Dale, James; Guesten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The Galactic center is the closest region where we can study star formation under extreme physical conditions like those in high-redshift galaxies. Aims: We measure the temperature of the dense gas in the central molecular zone (CMZ) and examine what drives it. Methods: We mapped the inner 300 pc of the CMZ in the temperature-sensitive J = 3-2 para-formaldehyde (p - H2CO) transitions. We used the 32,1-22,0/ 30,3-20,2 line ratio to determine the gas temperature in n ~ 104-105 cm-3 gas. We have produced temperature maps and cubes with 30'' and 1 km s-1 resolution and published all data in FITS form. Results: Dense gas temperatures in the Galactic center range from ~60 K to >100 K in selected regions. The highest gas temperatures TG> 100 K are observed around the Sgr B2 cores, in the extended Sgr B2 cloud, the 20 km s-1 and 50 km s-1 clouds, and in "The Brick" (G0.253+0.016). We infer an upper limit on the cosmic ray ionization rate ζCR< 10-14s-1. Conclusions: The dense molecular gas temperature of the region around our Galactic center is similar to values found in the central regions of other galaxies, in particular starburst systems. The gas temperature is uniformly higher than the dust temperature, confirming that dust is a coolant in the dense gas. Turbulent heating can readily explain the observed temperatures given the observed line widths. Cosmic rays cannot explain the observed variation in gas temperatures, so CMZ dense gas temperatures are not dominated by cosmic ray heating. The gas temperatures previously observed to be high in the inner ~75 pc are confirmed to be high in the entire CMZ. The data can be accessed from doi:10.7910/DVN/27601 and are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A50