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Sample records for dense cores vi

  1. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. VI. THE PROTOSTARS OF LYNDS DARK NEBULA 1221

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Chadwick H.; Young, Kaisa E.; Popa, Victor; Bourke, Tyler L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Shirley, Yancy L.; De Vries, Christopher; Claussen, Mark J.

    2009-09-01

    Observations of Lynds Dark Nebula 1221 from the Spitzer Space Telescope are presented. These data show three candidate protostars toward L1221, only two of which were previously known. The infrared observations also show signatures of outflowing material, an interpretation which is also supported by radio observations with the Very Large Array. In addition, molecular line maps from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory are shown. One-dimensional dust continuum modeling of two of these protostars, IRS1 and IRS3, is described. These models show two distinctly different protostars forming in very similar environments. IRS1 shows a higher luminosity and a larger inner radius of the envelope than IRS3. The disparity could be caused by a difference in age or mass, orientation of outflow cavities, or the impact of a binary in the IRS1 core.

  2. Velocity coherence in dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Barranco, Joseph A.; Wilner, David J.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1997-02-01

    At the meeting, we presented a summary of two papers which support the hypothesis that the molecular clouds which contain star-forming low-mass dense cores are self-similar in nature on size scales larger than an inner scale, Rcoh, and that within Rcoh, the cores are ``coherent,'' in that their filling factor is large and they are characterized by a very small, roughly constant, mildly supersonic velocity dispersion. We expect these two papers, by Barranco & Goodman [1] and Goodman, Barranco, Wilner, & Heyer, to appear in the Astrophysical Journal within the coming year. Here, we present a short summary of our results. The interested reader is urged to consult the on-line version of this work at cfa-www.harvard.edu/~agoodman/vel_coh.html [2].

  3. Flexure modelling at seamounts with dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2010-08-01

    The lithospheric response to seamounts and ocean islands has been successfully described by deformation of an elastic plate induced by a given volcanic load. If the shape and mass of a seamount are known, the lithospheric flexure due to the seamount is determined by the thickness of an elastic plate, Te, which depends on the load density and the age of the plate at the time of seamount construction. We can thus infer important thermomechanical properties of the lithosphere from Te estimates at seamounts and their correlation with other geophysical inferences, such as cooling of the plate. Whereas the bathymetry (i.e. shape) of a seamount is directly observable, the total mass often requires an assumption of the internal seamount structure. The conventional approach considers the seamount to have a uniform density (e.g. density of the crust). This choice, however, tends to bias the total mass acting on an elastic plate. In this study, we will explore a simple approximation to the seamount's internal structure that considers a dense core and a less dense outer edifice. Although the existence of a core is supported by various gravity and seismic studies, the role of such volcanic cores in flexure modelling has not been fully addressed. Here, we present new analytic solutions for plate flexure due to axisymmetric dense core loads, and use them to examine the effects of dense cores in flexure calculations for a variety of synthetic cases. Comparing analytic solutions with and without a core indicates that the flexure model with uniform density underestimates Te by at least 25 per cent. This bias increases when the uniform density is taken to be equal to the crustal density. We also propose a practical application of the dense core model by constructing a uniform density load of same mass as the dense core load. This approximation allows us to compute the flexural deflection and gravity anomaly of a seamount in the wavenumber domain and minimize the limitations

  4. The Theory of Dense Core Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Yun

    2014-07-01

    I will review the theory of dense core collapse, with an emphasis on disk formation. Disk formation, once thought to be a simple consequence of the conservation of angular momentum during hydrodynamic core collapse, is far more subtle in magnetized gas. In this case, rotation can be strongly magnetically braked. Indeed, both analytic arguments and numerical simulations have shown that disk formation is suppressed in ideal MHD at the observed level of core magnetization. I will discuss the physical reason for this so-called “magnetic braking catastrophe,” and review possible resolutions to the problem that have been proposed so far, including non-ideal MHD effects, misalignment between the magnetic field and rotation axis, and turbulence. Other aspects of core collapse, such as fragmentation and outflow generation, will also be discussed.

  5. Model For Dense Molecular Cloud Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Steven D.; Neufeld, David A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical model for the thermal balance, chemistry, and radiative transfer within quiescent dense molecular cloud cores that contain a central protostar. In the interior of such cores, we expect the dust and gas temperatures to be well coupled, while in the outer regions CO rotational emissions dominate the gas cooling and the predicted gas temperature lies significantly below the dust temperature. Large spatial variations in the gas temperature are expected to affect the gas phase chemistry dramatically; in particular, the predicted water abundance varies by more than a factor of 1000 within cloud cores that contain luminous protostars. Based upon our predictions for the thermal and chemical structure of cloud cores, we have constructed self-consistent radiative transfer models to compute the line strengths and line profiles for transitions of (12)CO, (13)CO, C(18)O, ortho- and para-H2(16)O, ortho- and para-H2(18)O, and O I. We carried out a general parameter study to determine the dependence of the model predictions upon the parameters assumed for the source. We expect many of the far-infrared and submillimeter rotational transitions of water to be detectable either in emission or absorption with the use of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite. Quiescent, radiatively heated hot cores are expected to show low-gain maser emission in the 183 GHz 3(sub 13)-2(sub 20) water line, such as has been observed toward several hot core regions using ground-based telescopes. We predict the (3)P(sub l) - (3)P(sub 2) fine-structure transition of atomic oxygen near 63 micron to be in strong absorption against the continuum for many sources. Our model can also account successfully for recent ISO observations of absorption in rovibrational transitions of water toward the source AFGL 2591.

  6. HNCO in massive galactic dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, I.; Henkel, C.; Mao, R. Q.

    2000-09-01

    We surveyed 81 dense molecular cores associated with regions of massive star formation and Sgr A in the JK-1K-1 = 505-404 and 10010-909 lines of HNCO. Line emission was detected towards 57 objects. Selected subsamples were also observed in the 101-000, 404-303, 707-606, 15015-14014, 16016-15015 and 21021-20020 lines, covering a frequency range from 22 to 461 GHz. HNCO lines from the K-1 = 2,3 ladders were detected in several sources. Towards Orion-KL, K-1 = 5 transitions with upper state energies Eu/k ~ 1100 and 1300 K could be observed. Five HNCO cores were mapped. The sources remain spatially unresolved at 220 and 461 GHz (10010-909 and 21010-20020 transitions) with beam sizes of 24'' and 18\\arcsec, respectively. The detection of hyperfine structure in the 101-000 transition is consistent with optically thin emission under conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). This is corroborated by a rotational diagram analysis of Orion-KL that indicates optically thin line emission also for transitions between higher excited states. At the same time a tentative detection of interstellar HN13CO (the 100,10-90,9 line at 220 GHz toward G 310.12-0.20) suggests optically thick emission from some rotational transitions. Typical HNCO abundances relative to H2 as derived from a population diagram analysis are ~ 10-9. The rotational temperatures reach ~ 500 K. The gas densities in regions of HNCO K-1=0 emission should be n>~ 106 cm-3 and in regions of K-1>0 emission about an order of magnitude higher even for radiative excitation. HNCO abundances are found to be enhanced in high-velocity gas. HNCO integrated line intensities correlate well with those of thermal SiO emission. This indicates a spatial coexistence of the two species and may hint at a common production mechanism, presumably based on shock chemistry. Based on the observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile and on observations with the Heinrich-Hertz-Telescope (HHT). The HHT

  7. A Survey of Dense Cores in the Orion B Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Sunada, Kazuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    We have carried out an H13CO+(J = 1 - 0) core survey in a large area of 1 deg2, covering most of the dense region in the Orion B molecular cloud, using the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope with the 25-BEam Array Receiver System. We cataloged 151 dense cores using the clumpfind method. The cores have mean radius, velocity width, and mass of 0.10 ± 0.02 pc, 0.53 ± 0.15 km s-1, and 8.1 ± 6.4 M sun, respectively, which are very similar to those in the Orion A cloud. We examined the spatial relation between our H13CO+ cores and the 850 μm cores observed by Johnstone and colleagues in 2001 and 2006, and found that there are two types of spatial relationships: H13CO+ cores with and without the 850 μm cores. Since the mean density of the 850 μm cores is higher than that of the H13CO+ cores, we can interpret the H13CO+ cores with 850 μm cores as being more centrally concentrated and hence more evolved, compared with those without. Considering the relationship between the masses of the H13CO+ and 850 μm cores, we estimate the 850 μm core mass function (CMF) using the H13CO+ CMF through the generalization of the confusion model proposed by Ikeda and colleagues in 2007. Our predicted 850 μm CMF is found to be quite consistent with that directly derived by Johnstone and colleagues. Furthermore, we predict the initial mass function (IMF) by the generalized confusion model assuming a star formation efficiency of 40% for the H13CO+ cores, and found that our predicted IMF is consistent with the Galactic field-averaged IMF within uncertainties. This agreement may indicate that the origin of the IMF goes back to the cloud structures with densities of less than 104 cm-3.

  8. Geophysical Age Dating of Seamounts using Dense Core Flexure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Gyuha; Kim, Seung-Sep

    2016-04-01

    Lithospheric flexure of oceanic plate is thermo-mechanical response of an elastic plate to the given volcanic construct (e.g., seamounts and ocean islands). If the shape and mass of such volcanic loads are known, the flexural response is governed by the thickness of elastic plate, Te. As the age of oceanic plate increases, the elastic thickness of oceanic lithosphere becomes thicker. Thus, we can relate Te with the age of plate at the time of loading. To estimate the amount of the driving force due to seamounts on elastic plate, one needs to approximate their density structure. The most common choice is uniform density model, which utilizes constant density value for a seamount. This approach simplifies computational processes for gravity prediction and error estimates. However, the uniform density model tends to overestimate the total mass of the seamount and hence produces more positive gravitational contributions from the load. Minimization of gravity misfits using uniform density, therefore, favors thinner Te in order to increase negative contributions from the lithospheric flexure, which can compensate for the excessive positives from the seamount. An alternative approach is dense core model, which approximate the heterogeneity nature of seamount density as three bodies of infill sediment, edifice, and dense core. In this study, we apply the dense core model to the Louisville Seamount Chain for constraining flexural deformation. We compare Te estimates with the loading time of the examined seamounts to redefine empirical geophysical age dating of seamounts.

  9. CONTRACTION SIGNATURES TOWARD DENSE CORES IN THE PERSEUS MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J. L.; Friesen, R. K.; Martin, P. G.; Caselli, P.; Pineda, J. E.; Kauffmann, J.

    2016-03-10

    We report the results of an HCO{sup +} (3–2) and N{sub 2}D{sup +} (3–2) molecular line survey performed toward 91 dense cores in the Perseus molecular cloud using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, to identify the fraction of starless and protostellar cores with systematic radial motions. We quantify the HCO{sup +} asymmetry using a dimensionless asymmetry parameter δ{sub v}, and identify 20 cores with significant blue or red line asymmetries in optically thick emission indicative of collapsing or expanding motions, respectively. We separately fit the HCO{sup +} profiles with an analytic collapse model and determine contraction (expansion) speeds toward 22 cores. Comparing the δ{sub v} and collapse model results, we find that δ{sub v} is a good tracer of core contraction if the optically thin emission is aligned with the model-derived systemic velocity. The contraction speeds range from subsonic (0.03 km s{sup −1}) to supersonic (0.4 km s{sup −1}), where the supersonic contraction speeds may trace global rather than local core contraction. Most cores have contraction speeds significantly less than their free-fall speeds. Only 7 of 28 starless cores have spectra well-fit by the collapse model, which more than doubles (15 of 28) for protostellar cores. Starless cores with masses greater than the Jeans mass (M/M{sub J} > 1) are somewhat more likely to show contraction motions. We find no trend of optically thin non-thermal line width with M/M{sub J}, suggesting that any undetected contraction motions are small and subsonic. Most starless cores in Perseus are either not in a state of collapse or expansion, or are in a very early stage of collapse.

  10. Contraction Signatures toward Dense Cores in the Perseus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Friesen, R. K.; Martin, P. G.; Caselli, P.; Kauffmann, J.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    We report the results of an HCO+ (3-2) and N2D+ (3-2) molecular line survey performed toward 91 dense cores in the Perseus molecular cloud using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, to identify the fraction of starless and protostellar cores with systematic radial motions. We quantify the HCO+ asymmetry using a dimensionless asymmetry parameter δv, and identify 20 cores with significant blue or red line asymmetries in optically thick emission indicative of collapsing or expanding motions, respectively. We separately fit the HCO+ profiles with an analytic collapse model and determine contraction (expansion) speeds toward 22 cores. Comparing the δv and collapse model results, we find that δv is a good tracer of core contraction if the optically thin emission is aligned with the model-derived systemic velocity. The contraction speeds range from subsonic (0.03 km s-1) to supersonic (0.4 km s-1), where the supersonic contraction speeds may trace global rather than local core contraction. Most cores have contraction speeds significantly less than their free-fall speeds. Only 7 of 28 starless cores have spectra well-fit by the collapse model, which more than doubles (15 of 28) for protostellar cores. Starless cores with masses greater than the Jeans mass (M/MJ > 1) are somewhat more likely to show contraction motions. We find no trend of optically thin non-thermal line width with M/MJ, suggesting that any undetected contraction motions are small and subsonic. Most starless cores in Perseus are either not in a state of collapse or expansion, or are in a very early stage of collapse.

  11. Dense cores in the dark cloud complex LDN 1188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi , E.; Könyves, V.; Nikolić, S.; Kiss, Cs.; Moór, A.; Ábrahám, P.; Kun, M.

    2013-11-01

    We present a molecular line emission study of the LDN 1188 dark cloud complex located in Cepheus. In this work we focused on the densest parts of the cloud and on the close neighbourhood of infrared point sources. We made ammonia mapping with the Effelsberg 100 m radio telescope and identified 3 dense cores. CS(1-0), CS(2-1) and HCO+(1-0) measurements performed with the Onsala 20 m telescope revealed the distribution of dense molecular material. The molecular line measurements were supplemented by mapping the dust emission at 1.2 mm in some selected directions using the IRAM 30 m telescope. With these data we could work out a likely evolutionary sequence in this dark cloud complex.

  12. DR 21(OH): A HIGHLY FRAGMENTED, MAGNETIZED, TURBULENT DENSE CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Girart, J. M.; Frau, P.; Zhang, Q.; Koch, P. M.; Tang, Y.-W.; Lai, S.-P.; Ho, P. T. P.; Qiu, K.

    2013-07-20

    We present high angular resolution observations of the massive star-forming core DR21(OH) at 880 {mu}m using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The dense core exhibits an overall velocity gradient in a Keplerian-like pattern, which breaks at the center of the core where SMA 6 and SMA 7 are located. The dust polarization shows a complex magnetic field, compatible with a toroidal configuration. This is in contrast with the large, parsec-scale filament that surrounds the core, where there is a smooth magnetic field. The total magnetic field strengths in the filament and in the core are 0.9 and 2.1 mG, respectively. We found evidence of magnetic field diffusion at the core scales, far beyond the expected value for ambipolar diffusion. It is possible that the diffusion arises from fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of turbulence. The dynamics of the DR 21(OH) core appear to be controlled energetically in equal parts by the magnetic field, magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, and the angular momentum. The effect of the angular momentum (this is a fast rotating core) is probably causing the observed toroidal field configuration. Yet, gravitation overwhelms all the forces, making this a clear supercritical core with a mass-to-flux ratio of {approx_equal} 6 times the critical value. However, simulations show that this is not enough for the high level of fragmentation observed at 1000 AU scales. Thus, rotation and outflow feedback are probably the main causes of the observed fragmentation.

  13. Chemical modeling of interstellar molecules in dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Donghui

    There are billions of stars in our galaxy, the Milky Way Galaxy. In between the stars is where the so-called "interstellar medium" locates. The majority of the mass of interstellar medium is clumped into interstellar clouds, in which cold and hot dense cores exist. Despite of the extremely low densities and low temperatures of the dense cores, over one hundred molecules have been found in these sources. This makes the field of astrochemistry vivid. Chemical modeling plays very important roles to understand the mechanism of formation and destruction of interstellar molecules. In this thesis, chemical kinetics models of different types were applied: in Chapter 4, pure gas phase models were used for seven newly detected or confirmed molecules by the Green Bank Telescope; in Chapter 5, the potential reason of non-detection of O 2 was explored; in Chapter 6, the mysterious behavior of CHNO and CHNS isomers were studied by gas-grain models. In addition, effects of varying rate coefficients to the models are also discussed in Chapter 3 and 7.

  14. Coherence in Dense Cores. II. The Transition to Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Barranco, Joseph A.; Wilner, David J.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1998-09-01

    After studying how line width depends on spatial scale in low-mass star-forming regions, we propose that ``dense cores'' (Myers & Benson 1983) represent an inner scale of a self-similar process that characterizes larger scale molecular clouds. In the process of coming to this conclusion, we define four distinct types of line width-size relation (Δv~Rai), which have power-law slopes a1, a2, a3, and a4, as follows: Type 1--multitracer, multicloud intercomparison; Type 2--single-tracer, multicloud intercomparison; Type 3--multitracer study of a single cloud; and Type 4--single-tracer study of a single cloud. Type 1 studies (of which Larson 1981 is the seminal example) are compendia of Type 3 studies which illustrate the range of variation in the line width-size relation from one region to another. Using new measurements of the OH and C18O emission emanating from the environs of several of the dense cores studied in NH3 by Barranco & Goodman (1998; Paper I), we show that line width increases with size outside the cores with a4 ~ 0.2. On scales larger than those traced by C18O or OH, 12CO and 13CO observations indicate that a4 increases to ~0.5 (Heyer & Schloerb 1997). By contrast, within the half-power contour of the NH3 emission from the cores, line width is virtually constant, with a4 ~ 0. We interpret the correlation between increasing density and decreasing Type 4 power-law slope as a ``transition to coherence.'' Our data indicate that the radius Rcoh at which the gas becomes coherent (i.e., a4 --> 0) is of order 0.1 pc in regions forming primarily low-mass stars. The value of the nonthermal line width at which ``coherence'' is established is always less than but still of order of the thermal line width of H2. Thus coherent cores are similar to, but not exactly the same as, isothermal balls of gas. Two other results bolster our proposal that a transition to coherence takes place at ~0.1 pc. First, the OH, C18O, and NH3 maps show that the dependence of column

  15. Massive Star Formation: Characterising Infall and Outflow in dense cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, Shaila; Cunningham, Maria; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Jones, Paul Andrew; Purcell, Cormac; Walsh, Andrew John

    2015-08-01

    Massive stars are some of the most important objects in the Universe, shaping the evolution of galaxies, creating chemical elements, and hence shaping the evolution of the Universe. However, the processes by which they form, and how they shape their environment during their birth processes, are not well understood. We are using NH3 data from the "The H2O Southern Galactic Plane Survey" (HOPS) to define the positions of dense cores/clumps of gas in the southern Galactic plane that are likely to form stars. Due to its effective critical density, NH3 can detect massive star forming regions effectively compared to other tracers. We did a comparative study with different methods for finding clumps and found Fellwalker as the best. We found ~ 10% of the star forming clumps with multiple components and ~ 90% clumps with single component along the line of sight. Then, using data from the "The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz" (MALT90) survey, we search for the presence of infall and outflow associated with these cores. We will subsequently use the "3D Molecular Line Radiative Transfer Code" (MOLLIE) to constrain properties of the infall and outflow, such as velocity and mass flow. The aim of the project is to determine how common infall and outflow are in star forming cores, hence providing valuable constraints on the timescales and physical process involved in massive star formation.

  16. An unbiased survey for dense cores in the Lynds 1630 molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, Elizabeth A.; Bally, John; Stark, Antony A.

    1991-01-01

    An unbiased, systematic survey for dense cores within the L1630 (Orion B) molecular cloud has been completed. This survey provides the first complete census of dense (n greater tha 10,000/cu cm) cores within a molecular cloud. To identify the dense gas, 3.6 square degrees of the L1630 cloud were surveyed in the J = 2-1 transition of CS. CS emission was detected over 10 percent of the area surveyed, and this emission is not uniformly distributed throughout the cloud but is confined to 42 dense cores. The size, shape, velocity dispersion, and mass of these cores are examined. Comparison of the mass contained within dense cores with the total gas mass within the surveyed region, estimated from CO emission, reveals that the dense cores constitute only a small fraction (not greater than 19 percent) of the total cloud mass.

  17. Distances to dense cores that contain very low luminosity objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswar, G.; Lee, C. W.; Dib, S.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We estimate the distances to dense molecular cores that harbour very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs) detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope and attempt to confirm their VeLLO nature. Methods: The cloud distances are estimated using a near-IR photometric method. We use a technique that performs a spectral classification of stars lying towards the fields containing the clouds as either main-sequence stars or giants. In this technique, the observed (J - H) and (H - Ks) colours are dereddened simultaneously using trial values of AV and a normal interstellar extinction law. The best fit of the dereddened colours to the intrinsic colours giving a minimum value of χ2 then yields the corresponding spectral type and AV for the star. The main-sequence stars, thus classified, are then utilized in an AV versus distance plot to bracket the cloud distances. The typical error in the estimation of distances to the clouds are found to be ~18%. Results: We estimate distances to seven cloud cores, IRAM 04191, L1521F, BHR 111, L328, L673-7, L1014, and L1148 using the above method. These clouds contain VeLLO candidates. The estimated distances to the cores are found to be 127 ± 25 pc (IRAM 04191), 136 ± 36 pc (L1521F), 355 ± 65 pc (BHR 111), 217 ± 30 pc (L328), 240 ± 45 pc (L673-7), 258 ± 50 pc (L1014), and 301 ± 55 pc (L1148). We re-evaluated the internal luminosities of the VeLLOs discovered in these seven clouds using the distances estimated from this work. Except for L1014 - IRS (Lint = 0.15 L⊙), all other VeLLO candidates are found to be consistent with the definition of a VeLLO (Lint ≤ 0.1 L⊙). In addition to the cores that harbour VeLLO candidates, we also obtained distances to the clouds L323, L675, L676, CB 188, L1122, L1152, L1155, L1157, and L1158, which are located in the directions of the above seven cores. Towards L1521F and L1148, we found evidence of multiple dust layers.

  18. Tidal dissipation in the dense anelastic core of giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remus, Francoise; Mathis, Stéphane; Lainey, Valéry

    2014-05-01

    The prescriptions used today in celestial mechanics to describe dynamical processes, such as tidal interactions, are somewhat crude. In particular, the quality factor Q, quantifying the tidal dissipation, is often taken as constant, despite its dependence on internal structure, and thus on the tidal frequency. In a solid layer, Efroimsky & Lainey (2007) showed the importance of using a realistic prescription of Q to estimate the evolution speed of the Mars-Phobos system. Such studies confirm the necessity to go beyond evolution models using ad-hoc Q values. Recent astrometric observations of the dynamical evolution of the Jovian and Saturnian systems have shown a higher tidal dissipation than expected (for Jupiter: Q≈3.6×10^4, and for Saturn: Q≈1.7×10^3, from Lainey et al. 2009,2012 resp.). According to a recent model of the Saturnian system formation, such a high tidal dissipation is required by the satellites to migrate up to their present location over the age of the solar system (Charnoz et al., 2011). Globally, gas giants are constituted by a large fluid envelope and a dense central icy/rocky core (Hubbard & Marley 1989). Fluid models, where the tide excites the inertial waves of the convective envelope, show that the resulting tidal dissipation is of the order of Q≈10^5-10^7 (Wu 2005, Ogilvie & Lin 2004). These models have neglected the possible dissipation by the core. Thus, we have developed a model evaluating the tidal dissipation in the anelastic central region of a two-layer planet, surrounded by a static envelope, tidally excited by the hostingstar or a satellite (Remus et al., 2012). The tide exerted by the companion deforms both the envelope and the core. Because of its anelasticity, the core also creates tidal dissipation. I will discuss how the tidal dissipation depends on the rheological parameters and the size of the core. Assuming realistic models of internal structure and taking into account the frequency dependence of the solid

  19. Phosphorus-bearing Molecules in Massive Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontani, F.; Rivilla, V. M.; Caselli, P.; Vasyunin, A.; Palau, A.

    2016-05-01

    Phosphorus is a crucial element for the development of life, but so far P-bearing molecules have been detected only in a few astrophysical objects; hence, its interstellar chemistry is almost totally unknown. Here, we show new detections of phosphorus nitride (PN) in a sample of dense cores in different evolutionary stages of the intermediate- and high-mass star formation process: starless, with protostellar objects, and with ultracompact H ii regions. All detected PN line widths are smaller than ≃5 km s-1, and they arise from regions associated with kinetic temperatures smaller than 100 K. Because the few previous detections reported in the literature are associated with warmer and more turbulent sources, the results of this work show that PN can arise from relatively quiescent and cold gas. This information is challenging for theoretical models that invoke either high desorption temperatures or grain sputtering from shocks to release phosphorus into the gas phase. Derived column densities are of the order of 1011-12 cm-2, marginally lower than the values derived in the few high-mass star-forming regions detected so far. New constraints on the abundance of phosphorus monoxide, the fundamental unit of biologically relevant molecules, are also given. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM-30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).

  20. Super-resolution imaging of neuronal dense-core vesicles.

    PubMed

    Scalettar, Bethe A; Shaver, Daniel; Kaech, Stefanie; Lochner, Janis E

    2014-07-02

    Detection of fluorescence provides the foundation for many widely utilized and rapidly advancing microscopy techniques employed in modern biological and medical applications. Strengths of fluorescence include its sensitivity, specificity, and compatibility with live imaging. Unfortunately, conventional forms of fluorescence microscopy suffer from one major weakness, diffraction-limited resolution in the imaging plane, which hampers studies of structures with dimensions smaller than ~250 nm. Recently, this limitation has been overcome with the introduction of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques, such as photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM). Unlike its conventional counterparts, PALM can produce images with a lateral resolution of tens of nanometers. It is thus now possible to use fluorescence, with its myriad strengths, to elucidate a spectrum of previously inaccessible attributes of cellular structure and organization. Unfortunately, PALM is not trivial to implement, and successful strategies often must be tailored to the type of system under study. In this article, we show how to implement single-color PALM studies of vesicular structures in fixed, cultured neurons. PALM is ideally suited to the study of vesicles, which have dimensions that typically range from ~50-250 nm. Key steps in our approach include labeling neurons with photoconvertible (green to red) chimeras of vesicle cargo, collecting sparsely sampled raw images with a super-resolution microscopy system, and processing the raw images to produce a high-resolution PALM image. We also demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by presenting exceptionally well-resolved images of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) in cultured hippocampal neurons, which refute the hypothesis that extrasynaptic trafficking of DCVs is mediated largely by DCV clusters.

  1. Motions and Initial Conditions in Star-Forming Dense Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2001-01-01

    Under this grant in the past year we have pursued spectral-line observations of star-forming regions over size scales from 0.01 pc to 0.5 pc. Our main goal has been to measure the systematic and turbulent motions of condensing and collapsing gas. In this area, our results include (1) in 67 starless dense cores, some 19 show clear evidence of spatially extended inward motions, with typical line-of-sight inward speed 0.05-0.09 km s(sup -1) and with typical plane-of-the-sky extent 0.1-0.3 pc, (2) In some 40 nearby regions with embedded groups and clusters, we see extended infall asymmetry in lines of CS and HCO(+) clearly in 4 regions and less clearly in 4 others, (3) Using finer resolution (15 arcsec or 0.01-0.02 pc) and lines tracing higher density, we see spatial concentration of infall asymmetry near the protostars in NGC 1333 IRS 4A and B, L483, and L1251B, and with still finer resolution (2 arcsec or 0.003 pc or 600 AU) we detect inverse P Cyg profiles, indicating absorption of continuum emission from the protostellar envelope by infalling gas in NGC 1333 IRS 4A and 4B. Further, at high resolution we identify regions of stellar mass and low turbulence ("kernels") which are good candidates to become the next generation of stars in embedded clusters. In addition we have completed a survey for the OH Zeeman effect in absorption against nearby H II regions, indicating that the large-scale magnetic field may be nearly critical if it typically threads a flattened structure. We have also developed a model of spatially extended infall motions based on dissipation of turbulence in a magnetized, selfgravitating layer. In the following we describe some of these results in more detail.

  2. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Dense Core Clusters in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Johnstone, D.; Di Francesco, J.; Lane, J.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Hatchell, J.; Jenness, T.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; The JCMT Gould Belt Survey Team

    2016-04-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Gould Belt Legacy Survey obtained SCUBA-2 observations of dense cores within three sub-regions of Orion B: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, all of which contain clusters of cores. We present an analysis of the clustering properties of these cores, including the two-point correlation function and Cartwright’s Q parameter. We identify individual clusters of dense cores across all three regions using a minimal spanning tree technique, and find that in each cluster, the most massive cores tend to be centrally located. We also apply the independent M-Σ technique and find a strong correlation between core mass and the local surface density of cores. These two lines of evidence jointly suggest that some amount of mass segregation in clusters has happened already at the dense core stage.

  3. Magnetic Fields in the Massive Dense Cores of the DR21 Filament: Weakly Magnetized Cores in a Strongly Magnetized Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping; Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M.; Qiu, Keping; Liu, Hauyu B.

    2017-04-01

    We present Submillimeter Array 880 μm dust polarization observations of six massive dense cores in the DR21 filament. The dust polarization shows complex magnetic field structures in the massive dense cores with sizes of 0.1 pc, in contrast to the ordered magnetic fields of the parsec-scale filament. The major axes of the massive dense cores appear to be aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic fields of the filament, indicating that the parsec-scale magnetic fields play an important role in the formation of the massive dense cores. However, the correlation between the major axes of the cores and the magnetic fields of the cores is less significant, suggesting that during the core formation, the magnetic fields below 0.1 pc scales become less important than the magnetic fields above 0.1 pc scales in supporting a core against gravity. Our analysis of the angular dispersion functions of the observed polarization segments yields a plane-of-sky magnetic field strength of 0.4–1.7 mG for the massive dense cores. We estimate the kinematic, magnetic, and gravitational virial parameters of the filament and the cores. The virial parameters show that the gravitational energy in the filament dominates magnetic and kinematic energies, while the kinematic energy dominates in the cores. Our work suggests that although magnetic fields may play an important role in a collapsing filament, the kinematics arising from gravitational collapse must become more important than magnetic fields during the evolution from filaments to massive dense cores.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Catalog of dense cores in Aquila from Herschel (Konyves+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyves, V.; Andre, P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Schneider, N.; Roy, A.; Didelon, P.; Maury, A.; Shimajiri, Y.; Di, Francesco J.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Elia, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Hill, T.; Kirk, J.; Ladjelate, B.; Marsh, K.; Martin, P. G.; Motte, F.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Pezzuto, S.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    Based on Herschel Gould Belt survey (Andre et al., 2010A&A...518L.102A) observations of the Aquila cloud complex, and using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources (Men'shchikov et al., 2012A&A...542A..81M), we identified a total of 749 dense cores, including 685 starless cores and 64 protostellar cores. The observed properties of all dense cores are given in tablea1.dat, and their derived properties are listed in tablea2.dat. (4 data files).

  5. Nucleation of strange matter in dense stellar cores

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E. Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo ); Benvenuto, O.G. La Plata ); Vucetich, H. La Plata )

    1992-05-15

    We investigate the nucleation of strange quark matter inside hot, dense nuclear matter. Applying Zel'dovich's kinetic theory of nucleation we find a lower limit of the temperature {ital T} for strange-matter bubbles to appear, which happens to be satisfied inside the Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling era of a compact star life but not much after it. Our bounds thus suggest that a prompt conversion could be achieved, giving support to earlier expectations for nonstandard type-II supernova scenarios.

  6. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: A First Look at Dense Cores in Orion B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, H.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Hatchell, J.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Bresnahan, D.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Mowat, C.; Rawlings, J.; Richer, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1-2 × 1023 cm-2, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 1023 cm-2, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  7. THE JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEY: A FIRST LOOK AT DENSE CORES IN ORION B

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, H.; Francesco, J. Di; Johnstone, D.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Hatchell, J.; Sadavoy, S.; Mottram, J. C.; Buckle, J.; Salji, C.; Berry, D. S.; Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Fich, M.; Tisi, S.; Nutter, D.; Quinn, C.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; and others

    2016-02-01

    We present a first look at the SCUBA-2 observations of three sub-regions of the Orion B molecular cloud: LDN 1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071, from the JCMT Gould Belt Legacy Survey. We identify 29, 564, and 322 dense cores in L1622, NGC 2023/2024, and NGC 2068/2071 respectively, using the SCUBA-2 850 μm map, and present their basic properties, including their peak fluxes, total fluxes, and sizes, and an estimate of the corresponding 450 μm peak fluxes and total fluxes, using the FellWalker source extraction algorithm. Assuming a constant temperature of 20 K, the starless dense cores have a mass function similar to that found in previous dense core analyses, with a Salpeter-like slope at the high-mass end. The majority of cores appear stable to gravitational collapse when considering only thermal pressure; indeed, most of the cores which have masses above the thermal Jeans mass are already associated with at least one protostar. At higher cloud column densities, above 1–2 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, most of the mass is found within dense cores, while at lower cloud column densities, below 1 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}, this fraction drops to 10% or lower. Overall, the fraction of dense cores associated with a protostar is quite small (<8%), but becomes larger for the densest and most centrally concentrated cores. NGC 2023/2024 and NGC 2068/2071 appear to be on the path to forming a significant number of stars in the future, while L1622 has little additional mass in dense cores to form many new stars.

  8. Cycling of Dense Core Vesicles Involved in Somatic Exocytosis of Serotonin by Leech Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Trueta, Citlali; Kuffler, Damien P.; De-Miguel, Francisco F.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the cycling of dense core vesicles producing somatic exocytosis of serotonin. Our experiments were made using electron microscopy and vesicle staining with fluorescent dye FM1-43 in Retzius neurons of the leech, which secrete serotonin from clusters of dense core vesicles in a frequency-dependent manner. Electron micrographs of neurons at rest or after 1 Hz stimulation showed two pools of dense core vesicles. A perinuclear pool near Golgi apparatuses, from which vesicles apparently form, and a peripheral pool with vesicle clusters at a distance from the plasma membrane. By contrast, after 20 Hz electrical stimulation 47% of the vesicle clusters were apposed to the plasma membrane, with some omega exocytosis structures. Dense core and small clear vesicles apparently originating from endocytosis were incorporated in multivesicular bodies. In another series of experiments, neurons were stimulated at 20 Hz while bathed in a solution containing peroxidase. Electron micrographs of these neurons contained gold particles coupled to anti-peroxidase antibodies in dense core vesicles and multivesicular bodies located near the plasma membrane. Cultured neurons depolarized with high potassium in the presence of FM1-43 displayed superficial fluorescent spots, each reflecting a vesicle cluster. A partial bleaching of the spots followed by another depolarization in the presence of FM1-43 produced restaining of some spots, other spots disappeared, some remained without restaining and new spots were formed. Several hours after electrical stimulation the FM1-43 spots accumulated at the center of the somata. This correlated with electron micrographs of multivesicular bodies releasing their contents near Golgi apparatuses. Our results suggest that dense core vesicle cycling related to somatic serotonin release involves two steps: the production of clear vesicles and multivesicular bodies after exocytosis, and the formation of new dense core vesicles in the perinuclear

  9. First experimental demonstration of magnetic-field assisted fast heating of a dense plasma core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Sakata, Shohei; Lee, Seung Ho; Matsuo, Kazuki; Sawada, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Yuki; Law, King Fai Farley; Morita, Hitoki; Kojima, Sadaoki; Abe, Yuki; Yao, Akira; Hata, Masayasu; Johzaki, Tomoyuki; Sunahara, Atsushi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Sakagami, Hitoshi; Morace, Alessio; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Nagatomo, Hideo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Firex Project Team

    2016-10-01

    Fast heating of a dense plasma core by an energetic electron beam is being studied on GEKKO-LFEX laser facility. Here, we introduce a laser-driven kilo-tesla external magnetic field to guide the diverging electron beam to the dense plasma core. This involve placing a spherical target in the magnetic field, compressing it with the GEKKO-XII laser beams and then using the LFEX laser beams injected into the dense plasma to generate the electron beam which do the fast heating. Cu-Ka emission is used to visualize transport or heating processes of a dense plasma. X-ray spectrum from a highly ionized Cu ions indicates several keV of the temperature increment induced by the LFEX.

  10. COLLAPSE OF MASSIVE MAGNETIZED DENSE CORES USING RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS: EARLY FRAGMENTATION INHIBITION

    SciTech Connect

    Commercon, Benoit; Henning, Thomas; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2011-11-20

    We report the results of radiation-magnetohydrodynamics calculations in the context of high-mass star formation, using for the first time a self-consistent model for photon emission (i.e., via thermal emission and in radiative shocks) and with the high resolution necessary to properly resolve magnetic braking effects and radiative shocks on scales <100 AU. We investigate the combined effects of magnetic field, turbulence, and radiative transfer on the early phases of the collapse and the fragmentation of massive dense cores. We identify a new mechanism that inhibits initial fragmentation of massive dense cores where magnetic field and radiative transfer interplay. We show that this interplay becomes stronger as the magnetic field strength increases. Magnetic braking is transporting angular momentum outward and is lowering the rotational support and is thus increasing the infall velocity. This enhances the radiative feedback owing to the accretion shock on the first core. We speculate that highly magnetized massive dense cores are good candidates for isolated massive star formation while moderately magnetized massive dense cores are more appropriate forming OB associations or small star clusters.

  11. New class of cargo protein in Tetrahymena thermophila dense core secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Alex; Bowman, Grant R; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2002-08-01

    Regulated exocytosis of dense core secretory granules releases biologically active proteins in a stimulus-dependent fashion. The packaging of the cargo within newly forming granules involves a transition: soluble polypeptides condense to form water-insoluble aggregates that constitute the granule cores. Following exocytosis, the cores generally disassemble to diffuse in the cell environment. The ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia have been advanced as genetically manipulatable systems for studying exocytosis via dense core granules. However, all of the known granule proteins in these organisms condense to form the architectural units of lattices that are insoluble both before and after exocytosis. Using an approach designed to detect new granule proteins, we have now identified Igr1p (induced during granule regeneration). By structural criteria, it is unrelated to the previously characterized lattice-forming proteins. It is distinct in that it is capable of dissociating from the insoluble lattice following secretion and therefore represents the first diffusible protein identified in ciliate granules.

  12. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment. PMID:27191843

  13. DIRECT OBSERVATION OF A SHARP TRANSITION TO COHERENCE IN DENSE CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Foster, Jonathan B.; Myers, Philip C.; Arce, Hector G.; Caselli, Paola; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2010-03-20

    We present NH{sub 3} observations of the B5 region in Perseus obtained with the Green Bank Telescope. The map covers a region large enough ({approx}11'x14') that it contains the entire dense core observed in previous dust continuum surveys. The dense gas traced by NH{sub 3}(1,1) covers a much larger area than the dust continuum features found in bolometer observations. The velocity dispersion in the central region of the core is small, presenting subsonic non-thermal motions which are independent of scale. However, it is because of the coverage and high sensitivity of the observations that we present the detection, for the first time, of the transition between the coherent core and the dense but more turbulent gas surrounding it. This transition is sharp, increasing the velocity dispersion by a factor of 2 in less than 0.04 pc (the 31'' beam size at the distance of Perseus, {approx}250 pc). The change in velocity dispersion at the transition is {approx}3 km s{sup -1} pc{sup -1}. The existence of the transition provides a natural definition of dense core: the region with nearly constant subsonic non-thermal velocity dispersion. From the analysis presented here, we can neither confirm nor rule out a corresponding sharp density transition.

  14. Galactic cold cores. VI. Dust opacity spectral index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvela, M.; Demyk, K.; Doi, Y.; Hughes, A.; Lefèvre, C.; Marshall, D. J.; Meny, C.; Montillaud, J.; Pagani, L.; Paradis, D.; Ristorcelli, I.; Malinen, J.; Montier, L. A.; Paladini, R.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The Galactic Cold Cores project has carried out Herschel photometric observations of 116 fields where the Planck survey has found signs of cold dust emission. The fields contain sources in different environments and different phases of star formation. Previous studies have revealed variations in their dust submillimetre opacity. Aims: The aim is to measure the value of dust opacity spectral index and to understand its variations spatially and with respect to other parameters, such as temperature, column density, and Galactic location. Methods: The dust opacity spectral index β and the dust colour temperature T are derived using Herschel and Planck data. The relation between β and T is examined for the whole sample and inside individual fields. Results: Based on IRAS and Planck data, the fields are characterised by a median colour temperature of 16.1 K and a median opacity spectral index of β = 1.84. The values are not correlated with Galactic longitude. We observe a clear T-β anti-correlation. In Herschel observations, constrained at lower resolution by Planck data, the variations follow the column density structure and βFIR can rise to ~2.2 in individual clumps. The highest values are found in starless clumps. The Planck 217 GHz band shows a systematic excess that is not restricted to cold clumps and is thus consistent with a general flattening of the dust emission spectrum at millimetre wavelengths. When fitted separately below and above 700 μm, the median spectral index values are βFIR ~ 1.91 and β(mm) ~ 1.66. Conclusions: The spectral index changes as a function of column density and wavelength. The comparison of different data sets and the examination of possible error sources show that our results are robust. However, β variations are partly masked by temperature gradients and the changes in the intrinsic grain properties may be even greater. Planck http://www.esa.int/Planck is a project of the European Space Agency - ESA - with instruments

  15. Condition for the formation of micron-sized dust grains in dense molecular cloud cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Li, Zhi-Yun

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the condition for the formation of micron-sized grains in dense cores of molecular clouds. This is motivated by the detection of mid-infrared emission from deep inside a number of dense cores, the so-called `coreshine,' which is thought to come from scattering by micron (μm)-sized grains. Based on numerical calculations of coagulation starting from the typical grain-size distribution in the diffuse interstellar medium, we obtain a conservative lower limit to the time t to form μm-sized grains: t/tff > 3(5/S)(nH/105 cm-3)-1/4 (where tff is the free-fall time at hydrogen number density nH in the core and S the enhancement factor of the grain-grain collision cross-section to account for non-compact aggregates). At the typical core density nH = 105 cm-3, it takes at least a few free-fall times to form the μm-sized grains responsible for coreshine. The implication is that those dense cores observed in coreshine are relatively long-lived entities in molecular clouds, rather than dynamically transient objects that last for one free-fall time or less.

  16. EARLY STAGES OF CLUSTER FORMATION: FRAGMENTATION OF MASSIVE DENSE CORES DOWN TO {approx}< 1000 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Fuente, Asuncion; Estalella, Robert; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang, Qizhou; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Fontani, Francesco; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Busquet, Gemma; Commercon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick; Boissier, Jeremie; Zapata, Luis A.

    2013-01-10

    In order to study the fragmentation of massive dense cores, which constitute the cluster cradles, we observed the continuum at 1.3 mm and the CO (2-1) emission of four massive cores with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration. We detected dust condensations down to {approx}0.3 M {sub Sun} and separate millimeter sources down to 0.''4 or {approx}< 1000 AU, comparable to the sensitivities and separations reached in optical/infrared studies of clusters. The CO (2-1) high angular resolution images reveal high-velocity knots usually aligned with previously known outflow directions. This, in combination with additional cores from the literature observed at similar mass sensitivity and spatial resolution, allowed us to build a sample of 18 protoclusters with luminosities spanning three orders of magnitude. Among the 18 regions, {approx}30% show no signs of fragmentation, while 50% split up into {approx}> 4 millimeter sources. We compiled a list of properties for the 18 massive dense cores, such as bolometric luminosity, total mass, and mean density, and found no correlation of any of these parameters with the fragmentation level. In order to investigate the combined effects of the magnetic field, radiative feedback, and turbulence in the fragmentation process, we compared our observations to radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations and found that the low-fragmented regions are reproduced well in the magnetized core case, while the highly fragmented regions are consistent with cores where turbulence dominates over the magnetic field. Overall, our study suggests that the fragmentation in massive dense cores could be determined by the initial magnetic field/turbulence balance in each particular core.

  17. Chemical and Physical Characterization of Collapsing Low-mass Prestellar Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hincelin, U.; Commerçon, B.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S.; Herbst, E.

    2016-05-01

    The first hydrostatic core, also called the first Larson core, is one of the first steps in low-mass star formation as predicted by theory. With recent and future high-performance telescopes, the details of these first phases are becoming accessible, and observations may confirm theory and even present new challenges for theoreticians. In this context, from a theoretical point of view, we study the chemical and physical evolution of the collapse of prestellar cores until the formation of the first Larson core, in order to better characterize this early phase in the star formation process. We couple a state-of-the-art hydrodynamical model with full gas-grain chemistry, using different assumptions for the magnetic field strength and orientation. We extract the different components of each collapsing core (i.e., the central core, the outflow, the disk, the pseudodisk, and the envelope) to highlight their specific physical and chemical characteristics. Each component often presents a specific physical history, as well as a specific chemical evolution. From some species, the components can clearly be differentiated. The different core models can also be chemically differentiated. Our simulation suggests that some chemical species act as tracers of the different components of a collapsing prestellar dense core, and as tracers of the magnetic field characteristics of the core. From this result, we pinpoint promising key chemical species to be observed.

  18. Chains of dense cores in the Taurus L1495/B213 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.; Hacar, A.

    2015-02-01

    Context. Cloud fragmentation into dense cores is a critical step in the process of star formation. A number of recent observations show that it is connected to the filamentary structure of the gas, but the processes responsible for core formation remain mysterious. Aims: We studied the kinematics and spatial distribution of the dense gas in the L1495/B213 filamentary region of the Taurus molecular cloud with the goal of understanding the mechanism of core formation. Methods: We mapped the densest regions of L1495/B213 in N2H+(1-0) and C18O(2-1) with the IRAM 30 m telescope, and complemented these data with archival dust-continuum observations from the Herschel Space Observatory. Results: The dense cores in L1495/B213 are significantly clustered in linear chain-like groups about 0.5 pc long. The internal motions in these chains are mostly subsonic and the velocity is continuous, indicating that turbulence dissipation in the cloud has occurred at the scale of the chains and not at the smaller scale of the individual cores. The chains also present an approximately constant abundance of N2H+ and radial intensity profiles that can be modeled with a density law that follows a softened power law. A simple analysis of the spacing between the cores using an isothermal cylinder model indicates that the cores have likely formed by gravitational fragmentation of velocity-coherent filaments. Conclusions: Combining our analysis of the cores with our previous study of the large-scale C18O emission from the cloud, we propose a two-step scenario of core formation in L1495/B213. In this scenario, named "fray and fragment", L1495/B213 originated from the supersonic collision of two flows. The collision produced a network of intertwined subsonic filaments or fibers (fray step). Some of these fibers accumulated enough mass to become gravitationally unstable and fragment into chains of closely-spaced cores. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is

  19. Dense-core granules: a specific hallmark of the neuronal/neurosecretory cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Malosio, Maria Luisa; Giordano, Tiziana; Laslop, Andrea; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2004-02-15

    Expression of dense-core granules, a typical exocytic organelle, is widely believed to be controlled by coordinate gene expression mechanisms specific to neurones and neurosecretory cells. Recent studies in PC12 cells, however, have suggested the number of granules/cells depends on the levels of only one of their cargo proteins, chromogranin A, regulating the metabolism of the other proteins, and thus the composition of the organelles, by an on/off switch mechanism. In addition, transfection of chromogranin A was reported to induce appearance of dense-core granules in the non-neurosecretory fibroblasts of the CV-1 line. Here the role of chromogranin A has been reinvestigated using not the heterogeneous PC12 line but several clones isolated therefrom. In these clones, investigated as such or after transfection with chromogranin A antisense sequences, the ratio between chromogranin A and its secretory protein mate, chromogranin B, was not constant but highly and apparently randomly variable. Variability of the chromogranin A/chromogranin B ratio was seen by confocal immunofluorescence also among the cells of single clones and subclones and among the granules of single cells. Moreover, stable and transient transfections of chromogranin A in a PC12 clone characterised by a low number of dense-core granules (one fifth of the reference clone) failed to modify significantly the number of the organelles, despite the several-fold increase of the granin. Finally, in three types of non-neurosecretory cells (CV-1, adenocarcinoma TS/A and a clone of PC12 incompetent for secretion) the transfected chromogranin A accumulated mostly in the Golgi/transGolgi area and was released rapidly from resting cells (constitutive secretion) as revealed by both immunofluorescence during cycloheximide treatment and pulse-chase experiments. Only a minor fraction was sorted to discrete organelles that were not dense-core granules, but primarily lysosomes because they contained no chromogranin B

  20. Fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ≲ 1000 AU: Relation between fragmentation and density structure

    SciTech Connect

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Estalella, Robert; Fuente, Asunción; Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Commerçon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick; Busquet, Gemma; Bontemps, Sylvain; Zapata, Luis A.; Zhang, Qizhou; Di Francesco, James

    2014-04-10

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the spectral energy distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. Even though the estimated fragmentation level is strictly speaking a lower limit, its relative value is significant and several trends could be explored with our data. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered the effects of rotational-to-gravitational energy ratio, non-thermal velocity dispersion, and turbulence mode on the density structure of the cores, and found that compressive turbulence seems to yield higher central densities. Finally, a possible explanation for the origin of cores with concentrated density profiles, which are the cores showing no fragmentation, could be related with a strong magnetic field, consistent with the outcome of radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  1. Kinetic Temperatures of the Dense Gas Clumps in the Orion KL Molecular Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Kuo-Song; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Charnley, Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    High angular-resolution images of the J = 18(sub K)-17(sub K) emission of CH3CN in the Orion KL molecular core were observed with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Our high-resolution observations clearly reveal that CH3CN emission originates mainly from the Orion Hot Core and the Compact Ridge, both within approximately 15 inches of the warm and dense part of Orion KL. The clumpy nature of the molecular gas in Orion KL can also be readily seen from our high-resolution SMA images. In addition, a semi-open cavity-like kinematic structure is evident at the location between the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. We performed excitation analysis with the "population diagram" method toward the Hot Core, IRc7, and the northern part of the Compact Ridge. Our results disclose a non-uniform temperature structure on small scales in Orion KL, with a range of temperatures from 190-620 K in the Hot Core. Near the Compact Ridge, the temperatures are found to be 170-280 K. Comparable CH3CN fractional abundances of 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -7) are found around both in the Hot Core and the Compact Ridge. Such high abundances require that a hot gas phase chemistry, probably involving ammonia released from grain mantles, plays an important role in forming these CH3CN molecules.

  2. Colliding filaments and a massive dense core in the Cygnus OB 7 molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Dobashi, Kazuhito; Shimoikura, Tomomi; Akisato, Ko; Ohashi, Kenjiro; Nakagomi, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saito, Hiro

    2014-12-10

    We report the results of molecular line observations carried out toward a massive dense core in the Cyg OB 7 molecular cloud. The core has an extraordinarily large mass (∼1.1 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}) and size (∼2 × 5 pc{sup 2}), but there is no massive young star forming therein. We observed this core in various molecular lines such as C{sup 18}O(J = 1-0) using the 45 m telescope at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. We find that the core has an elongated morphology consisting of several filaments and core-like structures. The filaments are massive (10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}), and they are apparently colliding with one another. Some candidates for young stellar objects are distributed around their intersection, suggesting that the collisions of the filaments may have influenced their formation. To understand the formation and evolution of such colliding filaments, we performed numerical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement technique, adopting the observed core parameters (the mass and size) as the initial conditions. The results indicate that the filaments are formed as seen in other earlier simulations for small cores in the literature, but we could not reproduce the collisions of the filaments simply by assuming a large initial mass and size. We find that collisions of the filaments occur only when there is a large velocity gradient in the initial core, in a sense compressing it. We suggest that the observed core was actually compressed by an external effect, e.g., shocks from nearby supernova remnants, including HB 21 which has been suggested to be interacting with the Cyg OB 7 molecular cloud.

  3. STAR FORMATION IN THE TAURUS FILAMENT L 1495: FROM DENSE CORES TO STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalzl, Markus; Kainulainen, Jouni; Henning, Thomas; Launhardt, Ralf; Quanz, Sascha P.; Alves, Joao; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.

    2010-12-10

    We present a study of dense structures in the L 1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud and examine its star-forming properties. In particular, we construct a dust extinction map of the filament using deep near-infrared observations, exposing its small-scale structure in unprecedented detail. The filament shows highly fragmented substructures and a high mass-per-length value of M{sub line} = 17 M{sub sun} pc{sup -1}, reflecting star-forming potential in all parts of it. However, a part of the filament, namely B 211, is remarkably devoid of young stellar objects. We argue that in this region the initial filament collapse and fragmentation is still taking place and star formation is yet to occur. In the star-forming part of the filament, we identify 39 cores with masses from 0.4 to 10 M{sub sun} and preferred separations in agreement with the local Jeans length. Most of these cores exceed the Bonnor-Ebert critical mass, and are therefore likely to collapse and form stars. The dense core mass function follows a power law with exponent {Gamma} = 1.2 {+-} 0.2, a form commonly observed in star-forming regions.

  4. DENSE GAS IN MOLECULAR CORES ASSOCIATED WITH PLANCK GALACTIC COLD CLUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Jin Zeng; Liu, Hong-Li; Wu, Yuefang; Chen, Ping; Hu, Runjie; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Tianwei; Meng, Fanyi; Wang, Ke

    2016-03-20

    We present the first survey of dense gas toward Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs). Observations in the J = 1–0 transitions of HCO{sup +} and HCN toward 621 molecular cores associated with PGCCs were performed using the Purple Mountain Observatory’s 13.7 m telescope. Among them, 250 sources were detected, including 230 cores detected in HCO{sup +} and 158 in HCN. Spectra of the J = 1–0 transitions from {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O at the centers of the 250 cores were extracted from previous mapping observations to construct a multi-line data set. The significantly low detection rate of asymmetric double-peaked profiles, together with the good consistency among central velocities of CO, HCO{sup +}, and HCN spectra, suggests that the CO-selected Planck cores are more quiescent than classical star-forming regions. The small difference between line widths of C{sup 18}O and HCN indicates that the inner regions of CO-selected Planck cores are no more turbulent than the exterior. The velocity-integrated intensities and abundances of HCO{sup +} are positively correlated with those of HCN, suggesting that these two species are well coupled and chemically connected. The detected abundances of both HCO{sup +} and HCN are significantly lower than values in other low- to high-mass star-forming regions. The low abundances may be due to beam dilution. On the basis of an inspection of the parameters given in the PGCC catalog, we suggest that there may be about 1000 PGCC objects that have a sufficient reservoir of dense gas to form stars.

  5. Sending proteins to dense core secretory granules: still a lot to sort out.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2007-04-23

    The intracellular sorting of peptide hormone precursors to the dense core secretory granules (DCSGs) is essential for their bioactivation. Despite the fundamental importance of this cellular process, the nature of the sorting signals for entry of proteins into DCSGs remains a source of vigorous debate. This review highlights recent discoveries that are consistent with a model in which several protein domains, acting in a cell-specific fashion and at different steps in the sorting process, act in concert to regulate the entry of proteins into DCSGs.

  6. How is kinematic structure connected to the core scale from filament scale?; Mopra mapping observations with multi-lines of dense cores in Lupus I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokane, Kazuhiro; Saito, Masao; Tachihara, Kengo; Saigo, Kazuya; van Kempen, Tim; Cortes, Paulo; Hill, Tracey; Knee, Lewis; Kurono, Yasutaka; Takahashi, Satoko; Aya, Higuchi; Nyman, Lars-Ake

    2014-06-01

    Recently, high sensitivity mappings of nearby molecular clouds in far-infrared and submillimeter wavelengths with Hershel and AzTEC/ASTE show ubiquitous existence of the filamentary structures with 0.1-pc uniform width. It is important to investigate dense core formation from large scale structure via fragmentation. We have conducted MOPRA multi-line mapping observations covered on 0.02 - 0.2 pc scales of 8 dense cores in a filamentary cloud of nearby Lupus I at 140 pc. A class 0/I protostellar core IRAS 15398-3359 is included as a sample, which has an adjacent prestellar core with the separation of 0.13pc in the west. The maps of N2H+, HNC, HC3N show well associated with each core. The velocity field of C18O shows 1.4 km/s/pc from north to south over the region containing two dense cores, which is consistent with past observation of NANTEN. In contrast to C18O results, the velocity field of HC3N shows different structures, which suggest counter rotation of two dense cores; 1.2 km/s/pc from north-west to south-east around a protostellar core and 0.8 km/s/pc from east to west around a presteller core. The filament will be fragmentized and collapsed to dense cores when the line density is over 2Cs/G (where Cs is sound speed and G is gravitational constant). If that velocity gradient was caused by such situation, it should be red-blue-red-blue across two dense cores but the observed kinematics is not consistent with this scenario, which requires that the filament structure would be extremely curved with a skew angle. Although we cannot reject the collapsing interruption, those results suggest the spin-up rotating picture separated from large-scale structure.

  7. Interface control of electronic and optical properties in IV-VI and II-VI core/shell colloidal quantum dots: a review.

    PubMed

    Jang, Youngjin; Shapiro, Arthur; Isarov, Maya; Rubin-Brusilovski, Anna; Safran, Aron; Budniak, Adam K; Horani, Faris; Dehnel, Joanna; Sashchiuk, Aldona; Lifshitz, Efrat

    2017-01-17

    Semiconductor colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted vast scientific and technological interest throughout the past three decades, due to the unique tuneability of their optoelectronic properties by variation of size and composition. However, the nanoscale size brings about a large surface-to-bulk volume ratio, where exterior surfaces have a pronounced influence on the chemical stability and on the physical properties of the semiconductor. Therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to gain efficient surface passivation, including a coverage by organic or inorganic molecular surfactants as well as the formation of core/shell heterostructures (a semiconductor core epitaxially covered by another semiconductor shell). This review focuses on special designs of core/shell heterostructures from the IV-VI and II-VI semiconductor compounds, and on synthetic approaches and characterization of the optical properties. Experimental observations revealed the formation of core/shell structures with type-I or quasi-type-II band alignment between the core and shell constituents. Theoretical calculations of the electronic band structures, which were also confirmed by experimental work, exposed surplus electronic tuning (beyond the radial diameter) with adaptation of the composition and control of the interface properties. The studies also considered strain effects that are created between two different semiconductors. It was disclosed experimentally and theoretically that the strain can be released via the formation of alloys at the core-shell interface. Overall, the core/shell and core/alloyed-shell heterostructures showed enhancement in luminescence quantum efficiency with respect to that of pure cores, extended lifetime, uniformity in size and in many cases good chemical sustainability under ambient conditions.

  8. Glucose recruits K(ATP) channels via non-insulin-containing dense-core granules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Nian; Wenna, Nancy Dekki; Yu, Jia; Yang, Guang; Qiu, Hua; Yu, Lina; Juntti-Berggren, Lisa; Köhler, Martin; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2007-09-01

    beta cells rely on adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels to initiate and end glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through changes in membrane potential. These channels may also act as a constituent of the exocytotic machinery to mediate insulin release independent of their electrical function. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby the beta cell plasma membrane maintains an appropriate number of K(ATP) channels are not known. We now show that glucose increases K(ATP) current amplitude by increasing the number of K(ATP) channels in the beta cell plasma membrane. The effect was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) as well as by depletion of extracellular or intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, glucose promoted recruitment of the potassium inward rectifier 6.2 to the plasma membrane, and intracellular K(ATP) channels localized in chromogranin-positive/insulin-negative dense-core granules. Our data suggest that glucose can recruit K(ATP) channels to the beta cell plasma membrane via non-insulin-containing dense-core granules in a Ca(2+)- and PKA-dependent manner.

  9. Design, Syntheses, and Characterization of a Sterically Encumbered Dioxo Molybdenum (VI) Core

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, Raghvendra S.; Basu, Partha

    2007-01-01

    Dioxo-MoVI complexes of general formula Tp*MoO2(p-SC6H4Dn) (6a-6c) (where Tp* = hydrotris(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate and Dn= dendritic unit) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. 1H NMR spectra of the metal complexes indicate that the Cs local symmetry about the metal core does not change by the incorporation of dendritic functionality at the thiophenolato ring. Electrochemical data show ∼20 mV change in the redox potential in the complexes with dendritic ligands suggesting a very small perturbation in the redox orbital, which is also supported by small changes in the electronic spectra. The peak-to peak separation (ΔEp) increases from 125 mV in 6(a) to 240 mV in 6(c), suggesting sluggish electron transfer in molecules with larger dendritic ligands. PMID:18425212

  10. Three-dimensional Non-LTE Radiative Transfer of CS in Clumpy Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.-S.; Hong, S. S.

    1998-02-01

    With a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code we have investigated excitation conditions of the CS molecule in dense cores and synthesized line profiles for several transitions of both CS and C34S. We took two kinds of models of the dense core: a clumpy and a smooth model. In the clumpy model, the core is composed of many small clumps, whose volume filling factor f is unity in the central region of r <= 0.2R and then declines as f ~ r-1.5. However, H2 number density in the clump is kept constant and also independent of the clump position. The mean number density, nH2(r), is thus constant in the central part and then decreases as the same power law. In the smooth model, the gas fills the core completely, and its local density exactly follows the mean density of the clumpy model. For both models, each clump has thermal as well as bulk motions, velocity dispersion of the latter being proportional to r0.5. In the clumpy structured core, the excitation temperature of the CS transitions is found to be generally constant over an entire region. As a consequence, the synthesized profile is of a Gaussian shape superposed with some wiggles, which reflects the existence of clumps under the bulk motion. The trend of flat distribution of excitation temperature becomes more prominent for optically thin transitions of the rarer species C34S. The profiles develop flat-top features with minor wiggles only when the core becomes extremely thick in the optical sense. On the other hand, wider profiles that have self-absorption are synthesized in the smooth core. The self-absorption is formed by a steep gradient in the radial distribution of the excitation temperature. For optically thin C34S transitions, both the clumpy and the smooth cores exhibit profiles close to a Gaussian shape. Comparing line parameters derived in the Monte Carlo code and those by the large-scale velocity gradient calculations, we found that only the clumpy models can give correct estimations of the density and

  11. Star Forming Dense Cloud Cores in the TeV -ray SNR RX J1713.7-3946

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, H.; Sato, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Torii, K.; Moribe, N.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H.; Inoue, T.; Inutsuka, S.; Tanaka, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Stutzki, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Anderl, S.; Bronfman, L.; Koo, B.C.

    2010-10-27

    RX J1713.7-3946 is one of the TeV {gamma}-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting synchrotron X rays. The SNR is associated with molecular gas located at {approx}1 kpc. We made new molecular observations toward the dense cloud cores, peaks A, C and D, in the SNR in the {sup 12}CO(J=2-1) and {sup 13}CO(J=2-1) transitions at angular resolution of 90 degrees. The most intense core in {sup 13}CO, peak C, was also mapped in the {sup 12}CO(J=4-3) transition at angular resolution of 38 degrees. Peak C shows strong signs of active star formation including bipolar outflow and a far-infrared protostellar source and has a steep gradient with a r{sup -2.2 {+-} 0.4} variation in the average density within radius r. Peak C and the other dense cloud cores are rim-brightened in synchrotron X rays, suggesting that the dense cloud cores are embedded within or on the outer boundary of the SNR shell. This confirms the earlier suggestion that the X rays are physically associated with the molecular gas (Fukui et al. 2003). We present a scenario where the densest molecular core, peak C, survived against the blast wave and is now embedded within the SNR. Numerical simulations of the shock-cloud interaction indicate that a dense clump can indeed survive shock erosion, since shock propagation speed is stalled in the dense clump. Additionally, the shock-cloud interaction induces turbulence and magnetic field amplification around the dense clump that may facilitate particle acceleration in the lower-density inter-clump space leading to the enhanced synchrotron X rays around dense cores.

  12. A census of dense cores in the Taurus L1495 cloud from the Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Kirk, J. M.; André, Ph.; Griffin, M. J.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Men'shchikov, A.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Benedettini, M.; Bresnahan, D. W.; Francesco, J. Di; Elia, D.; Motte, F.; Peretto, N.; Pezzuto, S.; Roy, A.; Sadavoy, S.; Schneider, N.; Spinoglio, L.; White, G. J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a catalogue of dense cores in a ˜4° × 2° field of the Taurus star-forming region, inclusive of the L1495 cloud, derived from Herschel SPIRE and PACS observations in the 70 μm, 160 μm, 250 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm continuum bands. Estimates of mean dust temperature and total mass are derived using modified blackbody fits to the spectral energy distributions. We detect 525 starless cores of which ˜10-20 per cent are gravitationally bound and therefore presumably prestellar. Our census of unbound objects is ˜85 per cent complete for M > 0.015 M⊙ in low-density regions (AV ≲ 5 mag), while the bound (prestellar) subset is ˜85 per cent complete for M > 0.1 M⊙ overall. The prestellar core mass function (CMF) is consistent with lognormal form, resembling the stellar system initial mass function, as has been reported previously. All of the inferred prestellar cores lie on filamentary structures whose column densities exceed the expected threshold for filamentary collapse, in agreement with previous reports. Unlike the prestellar CMF, the unbound starless CMF is not lognormal, but instead is consistent with a power-law form below 0.3 M⊙ and shows no evidence for a low-mass turnover. It resembles previously reported mass distributions for CO clumps at low masses (M ≲ 0.3 M⊙). The volume density PDF, however, is accurately lognormal except at high densities. It is consistent with the effects of self-gravity on magnetized supersonic turbulence. The only significant deviation from lognormality is a high-density tail which can be attributed unambiguously to prestellar cores.

  13. ON THE SURVIVABILITY AND METAMORPHISM OF TIDALLY DISRUPTED GIANT PLANETS: THE ROLE OF DENSE CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang-Fei; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    A large population of planetary candidates in short-period orbits have been found recently through transit searches, mostly with the Kepler mission. Radial velocity surveys have also revealed several Jupiter-mass planets with highly eccentric orbits. Measurements of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect indicate that the orbital angular momentum vector of some planets is inclined relative to the spin axis of their host stars. This diversity could be induced by post-formation dynamical processes such as planet-planet scattering, the Kozai effect, or secular chaos which brings planets to the vicinity of their host stars. In this work, we propose a novel mechanism to form close-in super-Earths and Neptune-like planets through the tidal disruption of gas giant planets as a consequence of these dynamical processes. We model the core-envelope structure of gas giant planets with composite polytropes which characterize the distinct chemical composition of the core and envelope. Using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of close encounters between Jupiter-like planets and their host stars, we find that the presence of a core with a mass more than 10 times that of the Earth can significantly increase the fraction of envelope which remains bound to it. After the encounter, planets with cores are more likely to be retained by their host stars in contrast with previous studies which suggested that coreless planets are often ejected. As a substantial fraction of their gaseous envelopes is preferentially lost while the dense incompressible cores retain most of their original mass, the resulting metallicity of the surviving planets is increased. Our results suggest that some gas giant planets can be effectively transformed into either super-Earths or Neptune-like planets after multiple close stellar passages. Finally, we analyze the orbits and structure of known planets and Kepler candidates and find that our model is capable of producing some of the shortest-period objects.

  14. Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons.

    PubMed

    van de Bospoort, Rhea; Farina, Margherita; Schmitz, Sabine K; de Jong, Arthur; de Wit, Heidi; Verhage, Matthijs; Toonen, Ruud F

    2012-12-10

    Neuronal dense-core vesicles (DCVs) contain diverse cargo crucial for brain development and function, but the mechanisms that control their release are largely unknown. We quantified activity-dependent DCV release in hippocampal neurons at single vesicle resolution. DCVs fused preferentially at synaptic terminals. DCVs also fused at extrasynaptic sites but only after prolonged stimulation. In munc13-1/2-null mutant neurons, synaptic DCV release was reduced but not abolished, and synaptic preference was lost. The remaining fusion required prolonged stimulation, similar to extrasynaptic fusion in wild-type neurons. Conversely, Munc13-1 overexpression (M13OE) promoted extrasynaptic DCV release, also without prolonged stimulation. Thus, Munc13-1/2 facilitate DCV fusion but, unlike for synaptic vesicles, are not essential for DCV release, and M13OE is sufficient to produce efficient DCV release extrasynaptically.

  15. Munc13 controls the location and efficiency of dense-core vesicle release in neurons

    PubMed Central

    van de Bospoort, Rhea; Farina, Margherita; Schmitz, Sabine K.; de Jong, Arthur; de Wit, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal dense-core vesicles (DCVs) contain diverse cargo crucial for brain development and function, but the mechanisms that control their release are largely unknown. We quantified activity-dependent DCV release in hippocampal neurons at single vesicle resolution. DCVs fused preferentially at synaptic terminals. DCVs also fused at extrasynaptic sites but only after prolonged stimulation. In munc13-1/2–null mutant neurons, synaptic DCV release was reduced but not abolished, and synaptic preference was lost. The remaining fusion required prolonged stimulation, similar to extrasynaptic fusion in wild-type neurons. Conversely, Munc13-1 overexpression (M13OE) promoted extrasynaptic DCV release, also without prolonged stimulation. Thus, Munc13-1/2 facilitate DCV fusion but, unlike for synaptic vesicles, are not essential for DCV release, and M13OE is sufficient to produce efficient DCV release extrasynaptically. PMID:23229896

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HNCO in massive galactic dense cores (Zinchenko, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, I.; Henkel, C.; Mao, R. Q.

    2000-07-01

    We surveyed 81 dense molecular cores associated with regions of massive star formation and Sgr A in the J(K-1K1)=5(05)-4(04) and 10(010)-9(09)_ lines of HNCO. Line emission was detected towards 57 objects. Selected subsamples were also observed in the 1(01)-0(00), 4(04)-3(03), 7(07)-6(06), 15(015)-14(014), 16(016)-15(015) and 21(021)-20(020) lines, covering a frequency range from 22 to 461 GHz. HNCO lines from the K_(-1)=2,3 ladders were detected in several sources. Towards Orion-KL, K_(-1)=5 transitions with upper state energies E_u/k~1100 and 1300K could be observed. The tables contain the source lists and the results of these SEST observations. (15 data files).

  17. BDNF and its pro-peptide are stored in presynaptic dense core vesicles in brain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dieni, Sandra; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Dekkers, Martijn; Rauskolb, Stefanie; Ionescu, Mihai S.; Deogracias, Ruben; Gundelfinger, Eckart D.; Kojima, Masami; Nestel, Sigrun; Frotscher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Although brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates numerous and complex biological processes including memory retention, its extremely low levels in the mature central nervous system have greatly complicated attempts to reliably localize it. Using rigorous specificity controls, we found that antibodies reacting either with BDNF or its pro-peptide both stained large dense core vesicles in excitatory presynaptic terminals of the adult mouse hippocampus. Both moieties were ∼10-fold more abundant than pro-BDNF. The lack of postsynaptic localization was confirmed in Bassoon mutants, a seizure-prone mouse line exhibiting markedly elevated levels of BDNF. These findings challenge previous conclusions based on work with cultured neurons, which suggested activity-dependent dendritic synthesis and release of BDNF. They instead provide an ultrastructural basis for an anterograde mode of action of BDNF, contrasting with the long-established retrograde model derived from experiments with nerve growth factor in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:22412021

  18. A C(18)O survey of dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud: Signatures of evolution and protostellar collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Shudong; Evans, Neal J., II; Wang, Yangsheng; Peng, Ruisheng; Lo, K. Y.

    1994-01-01

    We have mapped 11 dense cores in the Taurus molecular cloud in the C(18)O J = 2 goes to 1 line at a linear resolution of 0.02 pc. The core masses derived from C(18)O range from 0.06 to 5 solar mass. Five of them have embedded infrared sources, and six do not. Dense cores without infrared sources show multiple emission peaks. In contrast, dense cores with infrared sources have a single peak and smaller sizes. The cores with infrared sources have line widths that are 2-3 times the value expected from correlations found in previous surveys. This enhancement may be accounted for by models of gravitational collapse. The data are consistent with the idea that dense cores evolve first toward smaller sizes and smaller line width along the line width-size relation, and then toward larger line width and constant or smaller sizes as an infrared source becomes observable. A good collapse candidate, L1527, is identified based on the shapes of C(18)O and H2CO lines.

  19. The small GTPase Cdc42 modulates the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Mai; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Kakeyama, Masaki; Murata, Masayuki; Sato, Ken; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2012-04-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPase Cdc42. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of fusion events from newly recruited vesicles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cdc42 increases the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles. -- Abstract: Although the small GTPase Rho family Cdc42 has been shown to facilitate exocytosis through increasing the amount of hormones released, the precise mechanisms regulating the quantity of hormones released on exocytosis are not well understood. Here we show by live cell imaging analysis under TIRF microscope and immunocytochemical analysis under confocal microscope that Cdc42 modulated the number of fusion events and the number of dense-core vesicles produced in the cells. Overexpression of a wild-type or constitutively-active form of Cdc42 strongly facilitated high-KCl-induced exocytosis from the newly recruited plasma membrane vesicles in PC12 cells. By contrast, a dominant-negative form of Cdc42 inhibited exocytosis from both the newly recruited and previously docked plasma membrane vesicles. The number of intracellular dense-core vesicles was increased by the overexpression of both a wild-type and constitutively-active form of Cdc42. Consistently, activation of Cdc42 by overexpression of Tuba, a Golgi-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Cdc42 increased the number of intracellular dense-core vesicles, whereas inhibition of Cdc42 by overexpression of the Cdc42/Rac interactive binding domain of neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein decreased the number of them. These findings suggest that Cdc42 facilitates exocytosis by modulating both the number of exocytosis-competent dense-core vesicles and the production of dense-core vesicles in PC12 cells.

  20. Independent transport and sorting of functionally distinct protein families in Tetrahymena thermophila dense core secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Rahaman, Abdur; Miao, Wei; Turkewitz, Aaron P

    2009-10-01

    Dense core granules (DCGs) in Tetrahymena thermophila contain two protein classes. Proteins in the first class, called granule lattice (Grl), coassemble to form a crystalline lattice within the granule lumen. Lattice expansion acts as a propulsive mechanism during DCG release, and Grl proteins are essential for efficient exocytosis. The second protein class, defined by a C-terminal beta/gamma-crystallin domain, is poorly understood. Here, we have analyzed the function and sorting of Grt1p (granule tip), which was previously identified as an abundant protein in this family. Cells lacking all copies of GRT1, together with the closely related GRT2, accumulate wild-type levels of docked DCGs. Unlike cells disrupted in any of the major GRL genes, DeltaGRT1 DeltaGRT2 cells show no defect in secretion, indicating that neither exocytic fusion nor core expansion depends on GRT1. These results suggest that Grl protein sorting to DCGs is independent of Grt proteins. Consistent with this, the granule core lattice in DeltaGRT1 DeltaGRT2 cells appears identical to that in wild-type cells by electron microscopy, and the only biochemical component visibly absent is Grt1p itself. Moreover, gel filtration showed that Grl and Grt proteins in cell homogenates exist in nonoverlapping complexes, and affinity-isolated Grt1p complexes do not contain Grl proteins. These data demonstrate that two major classes of proteins in Tetrahymena DCGs are likely to be independently transported during DCG biosynthesis and play distinct roles in granule function. The role of Grt1p may primarily be postexocytic; consistent with this idea, DCG contents from DeltaGRT1 DeltaGRT2 cells appear less adhesive than those from the wild type.

  1. A MASSIVE PROTOSTAR FORMING BY ORDERED COLLAPSE OF A DENSE, MASSIVE CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yichen; Tan, Jonathan C.; Telesco, Charles; De Buizer, James M.; Sandell, Goeran; Shuping, Ralph; Beltran, Maria T.; Churchwell, Ed; Whitney, Barbara; McKee, Christopher F.; Staff, Jan E.

    2013-04-10

    We present 30 and 40 {mu}m imaging of the massive protostar G35.20-0.74 with SOFIA-FORCAST. The high surface density of the natal core around the protostar leads to high extinction, even at these relatively long wavelengths, causing the observed flux to be dominated by that emerging from the near-facing outflow cavity. However, emission from the far-facing cavity is still clearly detected. We combine these results with fluxes from the near-infrared to mm to construct a spectral energy distribution (SED). For isotropic emission the bolometric luminosity would be 3.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} L{sub Sun }. We perform radiative transfer modeling of a protostar forming by ordered, symmetric collapse from a massive core bounded by a clump with high-mass surface density, {Sigma}{sub cl}. To fit the SED requires protostellar masses {approx}20-34 M{sub Sun} depending on the outflow cavity opening angle (35 Degree-Sign -50 Degree-Sign ), and {Sigma}{sub cl} {approx} 0.4-1 g cm{sup -2}. After accounting for the foreground extinction and the flashlight effect, the true bolometric luminosity is {approx}(0.7-2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} L{sub Sun }. One of these models also has excellent agreement with the observed intensity profiles along the outflow axis at 10, 18, 31, and 37 {mu}m. Overall our results support a model of massive star formation involving the relatively ordered, symmetric collapse of a massive, dense core and the launching bipolar outflows that clear low-density cavities. Thus a unified model may apply for the formation of both low- and high-mass stars.

  2. Ice and Dust in the Quiescent Medium of Isolated Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Huard, T. L.; Cook, A. M.; Chiar, J. E.; Knez, C.; Decin, L.; Blake, G. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2011-03-01

    The relation between ices in the envelopes and disks surrounding young stellar objects (YSOs) and those in the quiescent interstellar medium (ISM) is investigated. For a sample of 31 stars behind isolated dense cores, ground-based and Spitzer spectra and photometry in the 1-25 μm wavelength range are combined. The baseline for the broad and overlapping ice features is modeled, using calculated spectra of giants, H2O ice and silicates. The adopted extinction curve is derived empirically. Its high resolution allows for the separation of continuum and feature extinction. The extinction between 13 and 25 μm is ~50% relative to that at 2.2 μm. The strengths of the 6.0 and 6.85 μm absorption bands are in line with those of YSOs. Thus, their carriers, which, besides H2O and CH3OH, may include NH+ 4, HCOOH, H2CO, and NH3, are readily formed in the dense core phase, before stars form. The 3.53 μm C-H stretching mode of solid CH3OH was discovered. The CH3OH/H2O abundance ratios of 5%-12% are larger than upper limits in the Taurus molecular cloud. The initial ice composition, before star formation occurs, therefore depends on the environment. Signs of thermal and energetic processing that were found toward some YSOs are absent in the ices toward background stars. Finally, the peak optical depth of the 9.7 μm band of silicates relative to the continuum extinction at 2.2 μm is significantly shallower than in the diffuse ISM. This extends the results of Chiar et al. to a larger sample and higher extinctions. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. Dense Core Properties in the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506 Revealed by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Zhang, Qizhou; Busquet, Gemma; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Palau, Aina; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi

    2016-12-01

    We have performed a dense core survey toward the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506 at 3 mm continuum emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). This survey covers the two hub-filament systems with an angular resolution of ˜ 3\\prime\\prime (˜0.03 pc). We identified 48 dense cores. 20 out of the 48 cores are protostellar due to their association with young stellar objects (YSOs) and/or X-ray point-sources, while the other 28 cores are likely prestellar and unrelated with known IR or X-ray emission. Using APEX 870 μm continuum emission, we also identified the 18 clumps hosting these cores. Through virial analysis using the ALMA N2H+ and VLA/Effelsberg NH3 molecular line data, we found a decreasing trend in the virial parameter with decreasing scales from filaments to clumps, and then to cores. The virial parameters of 0.1-1.3 in cores indicate that cores are likely undergoing dynamical collapse. The cumulative core mass function for the prestellar core candidates has a power law index of α =1.6, with masses ranging from 1.5 to 22 {M}⊙ . We find no massive prestellar or protostellar cores. Previous studies suggest that massive O-type stars have not been produced yet in this region. Therefore, high-mass stars should be formed in the prestellar cores by accreting a significant amount of gas from the surrounding medium. Another possibility is that low-mass YSOs become massive by accreting from their parent cores that are fed by filaments. These two possibilities might be consistent with the scenario of global hierarchical collapse.

  4. The cold, the dense and the energetic : cosmic ray bombardment of molecular cores near supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Nigel Ivan

    2013-04-01

    One of the oldest unsolved mysteries in astrophysics is the origin of cosmic rays, particles that travel at speeds close to the speed of light. A plausible theory to explain the acceleration of these particles is shock-acceleration in the expanding shells of supernova remnants (SNRs) within our galaxy. In this thesis, the interstellar medium towards supernova remnants that display indicators of particle acceleration, ie., gamma-ray emission, are investigated. More specifically, results from mm-wavelength molecular gas surveys towards two gamma-ray emitting SNRs, RXJ1713.7-3946 and CTB37A are presented. Chapter 1 summarises astrophysics at high energies, including what cosmic rays are, how they may be accelerated, their connection to gamma-ray emission and how gamma-ray astronomy is performed from the ground. On the opposite (low-energy) side of the energy spectrum, Chapter 2 describes some of the theory of single dish radio astronomy, which allows us to probe molecular environments. By tuning the receiver to home-in on particular molecular species, different interstellar environoments can be targeted. Some specific molecular species are outlined in Chapter 3, before utilising these species in following chapters. The bulk of chapters 4 and 5 are composed of published articles presenting interstellar gas observations and investigation. Chapter 4 is an in-depth analysis of the molecular environment towards the supernova remnant RXJ1713.7-3946 (in 3 articles) using several independent molecular gas tracers, including transitions of the CS, NH3 and N2H+ molecules. In addition to various specific mm-phenomena, the presence of dense gas was confirmed via our observations. The issue of cosmic ray transport into dense star-forming cores was then addressed. Due to enhanced magnetic turbulence, cosmic ray propagation may be slower than the galactic average, so predictions for several slow-diffusion scenarios are made. Through modeling, scenarios where low energy cosmic rays

  5. Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons in the Hippocampus Exhibit Molecularly Distinct Large Dense Core Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Franco, José J.; Munoz-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Luján, Rafael; Jurado, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal interneurons comprise a diverse family of inhibitory neurons that are critical for detailed information processing. Along with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), interneurons secrete a myriad of neuroactive substances via secretory vesicles but the molecular composition and regulatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we have carried out an immunohistofluorescence analysis to describe the molecular content of vesicles in distinct populations of hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that phogrin, an integral protein of secretory vesicles in neuroendocrine cells, is highly enriched in parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Consistently, immunoelectron microscopy revealed phogrin staining in axon terminals of symmetrical synapses establishing inhibitory contacts with cell bodies of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, phogrin is highly expressed in CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) interneurons which are both positive for PV and neuropeptide Y. Surprisingly, chromogranin B a canonical large dense core vesicle marker, is excluded from inhibitory cells in the hippocampus but highly expressed in excitatory CA3 pyramidal neurons and DG granule cells. Our results provide the first evidence of phogrin expression in hippocampal interneurons and suggest the existence of molecularly distinct populations of secretory vesicles in different types of inhibitory neurons. PMID:27630542

  6. Cell type-dependent trafficking of neuropeptide Y-containing dense core granules in CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Wang, Qian; Whim, Matthew D

    2011-10-12

    Neuropeptide transmitters are synthesized throughout the CNS and play important modulatory roles. After synthesis in the neuronal cell body, it is generally assumed that peptides are transported to nonspecialized sites of release. However, apart from a few cases, this scenario has not been thoroughly examined. Using wild-type and NPY(GFP) transgenic mice, we have studied the subcellular distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a prototypical and broadly expressed neuropeptide. NPY puncta were found in the dendrites and axons of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons in situ. In contrast in hypothalamic GABAergic interneurons, NPY was restricted to the axon. Surprisingly this differential trafficking was preserved when the neurons were maintained in vitro. When hippocampal and hypothalamic neurons were transfected with NPY-Venus, the distribution of the fluorescent puncta replicated the cell type-specific distribution of endogenous neuropeptide Y. The NPY puncta in the axons of hippocampal and hypothalamic neurons colocalized with the sites of classical transmitter release (identified by staining for synapsin and the vesicular GABAergic transporter, VGAT). In hippocampal neurons, most of the postsynaptic NPY puncta were clustered opposite synapsin-containing varicosities. When neurons were stained for a second neuropeptide, agouti-related protein, immunoreactivity was found in the axon and dendrites of hippocampal neurons but only in the axons of hypothalamic neurons, thus mimicking the polarized distribution of NPY. These results indicate that the trafficking of neuropeptide-containing dense core granules is markedly cell type specific and is not determined entirely by the characteristics of the particular peptide per se.

  7. Trafficking and fusion of neuropeptide Y-containing dense-core granules in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Whim, Matthew D

    2008-12-17

    It is becoming clear that astrocytes are active participants in synaptic functioning and exhibit properties, such as the secretion of classical transmitters, previously thought to be exclusively neuronal. Whether these similarities extend to the release of neuropeptides, the other major class of transmitters, is less clear. Here we show that cortical astrocytes can synthesize both native and foreign neuropeptides and can secrete them in a stimulation-dependent manner. Reverse transcription-PCR and mass spectrometry indicate that cortical astrocytes contain neuropeptide Y (NPY), a widespread neuronal transmitter. Immunocytochemical studies reveal NPY-immunoreactive (IR) puncta that colocalize with markers of the regulated secretory pathway. These NPY-IR puncta are distinct from the synaptic-like vesicles that contain classical transmitters, and the two types of organelles are differentially distributed. After activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors and the release of calcium from intracellular stores, the NPY-IR puncta fuse with the cell membrane, and the peptide-containing dense cores are displayed. To determine whether peptide secretion subsequently occurred, exocytosis was monitored from astrocytes expressing NPY-red fluorescent protein (RFP). In live cells, after activation of glutamate receptors, the intensity of the NPY-RFP-labeled puncta declined in a step-like manner indicating a regulated release of the granular contents. Because NPY is a widespread and potent regulator of synaptic transmission, these results suggest that astrocytes could play a role in the peptidergic modulation of synaptic signaling in the CNS.

  8. Identification of a Munc13-sensitive step in chromaffin cell large dense-core vesicle exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Man, Kwun Nok M; Imig, Cordelia; Walter, Alexander M; Pinheiro, Paulo S; Stevens, David R; Rettig, Jens; Sørensen, Jakob B; Cooper, Benjamin H; Brose, Nils; Wojcik, Sonja M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unknown whether the molecular steps of large dense-core vesicle (LDCV) docking and priming are identical to the corresponding reactions in synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis. Munc13s are essential for SV docking and priming, and we systematically analyzed their role in LDCV exocytosis using chromaffin cells lacking individual isoforms. We show that particularly Munc13-2 plays a fundamental role in LDCV exocytosis, but in contrast to synapses lacking Munc13s, the corresponding chromaffin cells do not exhibit a vesicle docking defect. We further demonstrate that ubMunc13-2 and Munc13-1 confer Ca2+-dependent LDCV priming with similar affinities, but distinct kinetics. Using a mathematical model, we identify an early LDCV priming step that is strongly dependent upon Munc13s. Our data demonstrate that the molecular steps of SV and LDCV priming are very similar while SV and LDCV docking mechanisms are distinct. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10635.001 PMID:26575293

  9. MicroRNA exocytosis by large dense-core vesicle fusion

    PubMed Central

    Gümürdü, Alican; Yildiz, Ramazan; Eren, Erden; Karakülah, Gökhan; Ünver, Turgay; GENÇ, Şermin; Park, Yongsoo

    2017-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and peptide hormones are secreted into outside the cell by a vesicle fusion process. Although non-coding RNA (ncRNA) that include microRNA (miRNA) regulates gene expression inside the cell where they are transcribed, extracellular miRNA has been recently discovered outside the cells, proposing that miRNA might be released to participate in cell-to-cell communication. Despite its importance of extracellular miRNA, the molecular mechanisms by which miRNA can be stored in vesicles and released by vesicle fusion remain enigmatic. Using next-generation sequencing, vesicle purification techniques, and synthetic neurotransmission, we observe that large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) contain a variety of miRNAs including miR-375. Furthermore, miRNA exocytosis is mediated by the SNARE complex and accelerated by Ca2+. Our results suggest that miRNA can be a novel neuromodulator that can be stored in vesicles and released by vesicle fusion together with classical neurotransmitters. PMID:28358390

  10. Regulation of Dense-Core Granule Replenishment by Autocrine BMP Signalling in Drosophila Secondary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Redhai, Siamak; Hellberg, Josephine E. E. U.; Wainwright, Mark; Perera, Sumeth W.; Castellanos, Felix; Kroeger, Benjamin; Gandy, Carina; Leiblich, Aaron; Corrigan, Laura; Hilton, Thomas; Patel, Benjamin; Fan, Shih-Jung; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Regulated secretion by glands and neurons involves release of signalling molecules and enzymes selectively concentrated in dense-core granules (DCGs). Although we understand how many secretagogues stimulate DCG release, how DCG biogenesis is then accelerated to replenish the DCG pool remains poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate that each prostate-like secondary cell (SC) in the paired adult Drosophila melanogaster male accessory glands contains approximately ten large DCGs, which are loaded with the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp). These DCGs can be marked in living tissue by a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored form of GFP. In virgin males, BMP signalling is sporadically activated by constitutive DCG secretion. Upon mating, approximately four DCGs are typically released immediately, increasing BMP signalling, primarily via an autocrine mechanism. Using inducible knockdown specifically in adult SCs, we show that secretion requires the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein, SNAP24. Furthermore, mating-dependent BMP signalling not only promotes cell growth, but is also necessary to accelerate biogenesis of new DCGs, restoring DCG number within 24 h. Our analysis therefore reveals an autocrine BMP-mediated feedback mechanism for matching DCG release to replenishment as secretion rates fluctuate, and might explain why in other disease-relevant systems, like pancreatic β-cells, BMP signalling is also implicated in the control of secretion. PMID:27727275

  11. Deciphering dead-end docking of large dense core vesicles in bovine chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Sandra; Dembla, Ekta; Halimani, Mahantappa; Matti, Ulf; Rettig, Jens; Becherer, Ute

    2013-10-23

    Large dense core vesicle (LDCV) exocytosis in chromaffin cells follows a well characterized process consisting of docking, priming, and fusion. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) studies suggest that some LDCVs, although being able to dock, are resistant to calcium-triggered release. This phenomenon termed dead-end docking has not been investigated until now. We characterized dead-end vesicles using a combination of membrane capacitance measurement and visualization of LDCVs with TIRFM. Stimulation of bovine chromaffin cells for 5 min with 6 μm free intracellular Ca2+ induced strong secretion and a large reduction of the LDCV density at the plasma membrane. Approximately 15% of the LDCVs were visible at the plasma membrane throughout experiments, indicating they were permanently docked dead-end vesicles. Overexpression of Munc18-2 or SNAP-25 reduced the fraction of dead-end vesicles. Conversely, expressing open-syntaxin increased the fraction of dead-end vesicles. These results indicate the existence of the unproductive target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor acceptor complex composed of 2:1 syntaxin-SNAP-25 in vivo. More importantly, they define a novel function for this acceptor complex in mediating dead-end docking.

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 7 is a nociceptive modulator secreted via large dense-core vesicles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Qing-Feng; Li, Jia-Yin; Liu, Xing-Jun; Li, Kai-Cheng; Zhong, Yan-Qing; Wu, Dan; Wang, Qiong; Lu, Yin-Jing; Bao, Lan; Zhang, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 7, a member of FGF family, is initially found to be secreted from mesenchymal cells to repair epithelial tissues. However, its functions in the nervous system are largely unknown. The present study showed that FGF7 was a neuromodulator localized in the large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) in nociceptive neurons. FGF7 was mainly expressed in small-diameter neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and could be transported to the dorsal spinal cord. Interestingly, FGF7 was mostly stored in LDCVs that did not contain neuropeptide substance P. Electrophysiological recordings in the spinal cord slice showed that buffer-applied FGF7 increased the amplitude of excitatory post-synaptic current evoked by stimulating the sensory afferent fibers. Behavior tests showed that intrathecally applied FGF7 potentiated the formalin-induced acute nociceptive response. Moreover, both acute and inflammatory nociceptive responses were significantly reduced in Fgf7-deficient mice. These results suggest that FGF7 exerts an excitatory modulation of nociceptive afferent transmission.

  13. Modulation of cargo release from dense core granules by size and actin network.

    PubMed

    Felmy, Felix

    2007-08-01

    During regulated fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane, a fusion pore first opens and then dilates. The dilating pore allows cargo proteins from the dense core to be released into the extracellular space. Using real-time evanescent field fluorescence microscopy of live PC12 cells, it was determined how rapidly proteins of different sizes escape from single granules after fusion. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-Venus is released 40-fold slower than the three times smaller neuropeptide Y [NPY-monomeric GFP (mGFP)]. An NPY bearing two mGFPs in tandem [NPY-(mGFP)(2)] as an intermediate-sized fusion probe is released most slowly. Although, the time-course of release varies substantially for a given probe. Coexpression of beta-actin, actin-related protein 3 or mAbp1 slowed the release of the two larger cargo molecules but did not affect release of NPY-mGFP or of the granule-membrane-bound probe Vamp-pHluorin. Additionally, high concentrations of cytochalasin D slowed release of the tPA-Venus. Together these results suggest that fusion pore dilation is not the only determinate of release time-course and that actin rearrangements similar to those mediating actin-mediated motility influences the time-course of release without directly interfering with the granule membrane to cell membrane connection.

  14. Regulation of Dense-Core Granule Replenishment by Autocrine BMP Signalling in Drosophila Secondary Cells.

    PubMed

    Redhai, Siamak; Hellberg, Josephine E E U; Wainwright, Mark; Perera, Sumeth W; Castellanos, Felix; Kroeger, Benjamin; Gandy, Carina; Leiblich, Aaron; Corrigan, Laura; Hilton, Thomas; Patel, Benjamin; Fan, Shih-Jung; Hamdy, Freddie; Goberdhan, Deborah C I; Wilson, Clive

    2016-10-01

    Regulated secretion by glands and neurons involves release of signalling molecules and enzymes selectively concentrated in dense-core granules (DCGs). Although we understand how many secretagogues stimulate DCG release, how DCG biogenesis is then accelerated to replenish the DCG pool remains poorly characterised. Here we demonstrate that each prostate-like secondary cell (SC) in the paired adult Drosophila melanogaster male accessory glands contains approximately ten large DCGs, which are loaded with the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp). These DCGs can be marked in living tissue by a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) lipid-anchored form of GFP. In virgin males, BMP signalling is sporadically activated by constitutive DCG secretion. Upon mating, approximately four DCGs are typically released immediately, increasing BMP signalling, primarily via an autocrine mechanism. Using inducible knockdown specifically in adult SCs, we show that secretion requires the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein, SNAP24. Furthermore, mating-dependent BMP signalling not only promotes cell growth, but is also necessary to accelerate biogenesis of new DCGs, restoring DCG number within 24 h. Our analysis therefore reveals an autocrine BMP-mediated feedback mechanism for matching DCG release to replenishment as secretion rates fluctuate, and might explain why in other disease-relevant systems, like pancreatic β-cells, BMP signalling is also implicated in the control of secretion.

  15. Molecular mechanism of myosin Va recruitment to dense core secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Brozzi, Flora; Diraison, Frederique; Lajus, Sophie; Rajatileka, Shavanthi; Philips, Thomas; Regazzi, Romano; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Verkade, Paul; Molnár, Elek; Váradi, Anikó

    2012-01-01

    The brain-spliced isoform of Myosin Va (BR-MyoVa) plays an important role in the transport of dense core secretory granules (SGs) to the plasma membrane in hormone and neuropeptide-producing cells. The molecular composition of the protein complex that recruits BR-MyoVa to SGs and regulates its function has not been identified to date. We have identified interaction between SG-associated proteins granuphilin-a/b (Gran-a/b), BR-MyoVa and Rab27a, a member of the Rab family of GTPases. Gran-a/b-BR-MyoVa interaction is direct, involves regions downstream of the Rab27-binding domain, and the C-terminal part of Gran-a determines exon specificity. MyoVa and Gran-a/b are partially colocalised on SGs and disruption of Gran-a/b-BR-MyoVa binding results in a perinuclear accumulation of SGs which augments nutrient-stimulated hormone secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. These results indicate the existence of at least another binding partner of BR-MyoVa that was identified as rabphilin-3A (Rph-3A). BR-MyoVa-Rph-3A interaction is also direct and enhanced when secretion is activated. The BR-MyoVa-Rph-3A and BR-MyoVa-Gran-a/b complexes are linked to a different subset of SGs, and simultaneous inhibition of these complexes nearly completely blocks stimulated hormone release. This study demonstrates that multiple binding partners of BR-MyoVa regulate SG transport, and this molecular mechanism is universally used by neuronal, endocrine and neuroendocrine cells.

  16. THE AGE, STELLAR CONTENT, AND STAR FORMATION TIMESCALE OF THE B59 DENSE CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Covey, K. R.; Lada, C. J.; Muench, A. A.; Forbrich, J.; Ascenso, J.; Roman-Zuniga, C.

    2010-10-20

    We have investigated the stellar content of Barnard 59 (B59), the most active star-forming core in the Pipe Nebula. Using the SpeX spectrograph on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, we obtained moderate resolution, near-infrared (NIR) spectra for 20 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in B59 and a representative sample of NIR and mid-IR bright sources distributed throughout the Pipe. Measuring luminosity and temperature sensitive features in these spectra, we identified likely background giant stars and measured each star's spectral type, extinction, and NIR continuum excess. To measure B59's age, we place its candidate YSOs in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and compare their location to YSOs in several well-studied star-forming regions, as well as predictions of pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models. We find that B59 is composed of late-type (K4-M6) low-mass (0.9-0.1 M{sub sun}) YSOs whose median stellar age is comparable to, if not slightly older than, that of YSOs within the {rho} Oph, Taurus, and Chameleon star-forming regions. Deriving absolute age estimates from PMS models computed by D'Antona et al., and accounting only for statistical uncertainties, we measure B59's median stellar age to be 2.6 {+-} 0.8 Myr. Including potential systematic effects increases the error budget for B59's median (DM98) stellar age to 2.6{sup +4.1}{sub -2.6} Myr. We also find that the relative age orderings implied by PMS evolutionary tracks depend on the range of stellar masses sampled, as model isochrones possess significantly different mass dependences. The maximum likelihood median stellar age we measure for B59, and the region's observed gas properties, suggests that the B59 dense core has been stable against global collapse for roughly six dynamical timescales and is actively forming stars with a star formation efficiency per dynamical time of {approx}6%. While the {approx}150% uncertainties associated with our age measurement propagate directly into these

  17. Scrg1, a novel protein of the CNS is targeted to the large dense-core vesicles in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Dandoy-Dron, Françoise; Griffond, Bernadette; Mishal, Zohar; Tovey, Michael G; Dron, Michel

    2003-11-01

    Scrapie responsive gene one (Scrg1) is a novel transcript discovered through identification of the genes associated with or responsible for the neurodegenerative changes observed in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Scrg1 mRNA is distributed principally in the central nervous system and the cDNA sequence predicts a small cysteine-rich protein 98 amino acids in length, with a N-terminal signal peptide. In this study, we have generated antibodies against the predicted protein and revealed expression of a predominant immunoreactive protein of 10 kDa in mouse brain by Western blot analysis. We have established CAD neuronal cell lines stably expressing Scrg1 to determine its subcellular localization. Several lines of evidence show that the protein is targeted to dense-core vesicles in these cells. (i) Scrg1 is detected by immunocytochemistry as very punctate signals especially in the Golgi apparatus and tips of neurites, suggesting a vesicular localization for the protein. Moreover, Scrg1 exhibits a high degree of colocalization with secretogranin II, a dense-core vesicle marker and a very limited colocalization with markers for small synaptic vesicles. (ii) Scrg1 immunoreactivity is associated with large secretory granules/dense-core vesicles, as indicated by immuno-electron microscopy. (iii) Scrg1 is enriched in fractions of sucrose density gradient where synaptotagmin V, a dense-core vesicle-associated protein, is also enriched. The characteristic punctate immunostaining of Scrg1 is observed in N2A cells transfected with Scrg1 and for the endogenous protein in cultured primary neurons, attesting to the generality of the observations. Our findings strongly suggest that Scrg1 is associated with the secretory pathway of neuronal cells.

  18. THE BLAST SURVEY OF THE VELA MOLECULAR CLOUD: DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DENSE CORES IN VELA-D

    SciTech Connect

    Olmi, Luca; Angles-Alcazar, Daniel; De Luca, Massimo; Elia, Davide; Giannini, Teresa; Lorenzetti, Dario; Massi, Fabrizio; Martin, Peter G.; Strafella, Francesco E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i

    2010-11-10

    The Vela-D region, according to the nomenclature given by Murphy and May, of the star-forming complex known as the Vela molecular ridge (VMR), has recently been analyzed in detail by Olmi, who studied the physical properties of 141 pre- and proto-stellar cold dust cores, detected by the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during a much larger (55 deg{sup 2}) Galactic plane survey encompassing the whole VMR. This survey's primary goal was to identify the coldest dense dust cores possibly associated with the earliest phases of star formation. In this work, the dynamical state of the Vela-D cores is analyzed. Comparison to dynamical masses of a sub-sample of the Vela-D cores estimated from the {sup 13}CO survey of Elia is complicated by the fact that the {sup 13}CO linewidths are likely to trace the lower density intercore material, in addition to the dense gas associated with the compact cores observed by BLAST. In fact, the total internal pressure of these cores, if estimated using the {sup 13}CO linewidths, appears to be higher than the cloud ambient pressure. If this were the case, then self-gravity and surface pressure would be insufficient to bind these cores and an additional source of external confinement (e.g., magnetic field pressure) would be required. However, if one attempts to scale down the {sup 13}CO linewidths, according to the observations of high-density tracers in a small sample of sources, then most proto-stellar cores would be effectively gravitationally bound.

  19. Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-23

    In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as it transitions into a superhot, highly compressed concoction known as “warm dense matter.”

  20. A census of dense cores in the Aquila cloud complex: SPIRE/PACS observations from the Herschel Gould Belt survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könyves, V.; André, Ph.; Men'shchikov, A.; Palmeirim, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; Schneider, N.; Roy, A.; Didelon, P.; Maury, A.; Shimajiri, Y.; Di Francesco, J.; Bontemps, S.; Peretto, N.; Benedettini, M.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Elia, D.; Griffin, M. J.; Hill, T.; Kirk, J.; Ladjelate, B.; Marsh, K.; Martin, P. G.; Motte, F.; Nguyên Luong, Q.; Pezzuto, S.; Roussel, H.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present and discuss the results of the Herschel Gould Belt survey (HGBS) observations in an 11 deg2 area of the Aquila molecular cloud complex at d 260 pc, imaged with the SPIRE and PACS photometric cameras in parallel mode from 70 μm to 500 μm. Using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm getsources, we identify a complete sample of starless dense cores and embedded (Class 0-I) protostars in this region, and analyze their global properties and spatial distributions. We find a total of 651 starless cores, 60% ± 10% of which are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, and they will likely form stars inthe future. We also detect 58 protostellar cores. The core mass function (CMF) derived for the large population of prestellar cores is very similar in shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), confirming earlier findings on a much stronger statistical basis and supporting the view that there is a close physical link between the stellar IMF and the prestellar CMF. The global shift in mass scale observed between the CMF and the IMF is consistent with a typical star formation efficiency of 40% at the level of an individual core. By comparing the numbers of starless cores in various density bins to the number of young stellar objects (YSOs), we estimate that the lifetime of prestellar cores is 1 Myr, which is typically 4 times longer than the core free-fall time, and that it decreases with average core density. We find a strong correlation between the spatial distribution of prestellar cores and the densest filaments observed in the Aquila complex. About 90% of the Herschel-identified prestellar cores are located above a background column density corresponding to AV 7, and 75% of them lie within filamentary structures with supercritical masses per unit length ≳16 M⊙/pc. These findings support a picture wherein the cores making up the peak of the CMF (and probably responsible for the base of the IMF) result primarily from the

  1. Targeted ablation of the chromogranin a (Chga) gene: normal neuroendocrine dense-core secretory granules and increased expression of other granins.

    PubMed

    Hendy, Geoffrey N; Li, Tong; Girard, Martine; Feldstein, Richard C; Mulay, Shree; Desjardins, Roxane; Day, Robert; Karaplis, Andrew C; Tremblay, Michel L; Canaff, Lucie

    2006-08-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA), originally identified in adrenal chromaffin cells, is a member of the granin family of acidic secretory glycoproteins that are expressed in endocrine cells and neurons. CgA has been proposed to play multiple roles in the secretory process. Intracellularly, CgA may control secretory granule biogenesis and target neurotransmitters and peptide hormones to granules of the regulated pathway. Extracellularly, peptides formed as a result of proteolytic processing of CgA may regulate hormone secretion. To investigate the role of CgA in the whole animal, we created a mouse mutant null for the Chga gene. These mice are viable and fertile and have no obvious developmental abnormalities, and their neural and endocrine functions are not grossly impaired. Their adrenal glands were structurally unremarkable, and morphometric analyses of chromaffin cells showed vesicle size and number to be normal. However, the excretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine was significantly elevated in the Chga null mutants. Adrenal medullary mRNA and protein levels of other dense-core secretory granule proteins including chromogranin B, and secretogranins II to VI were up-regulated 2- to 3-fold in the Chga null mutant mice. Hence, the increased expression of the other granin family members is likely to compensate for the Chga deficiency.

  2. THE BLAST SURVEY OF THE VELA MOLECULAR CLOUD: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE DENSE CORES IN VELA-D

    SciTech Connect

    Olmi, Luca; Angles-Alcazar, Daniel; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; De Luca, Massimo; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Klein, Jeff; Elia, Davide; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Marengo, Massimo; Giannini, Teresa; Lorenzetti, Dario; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H. E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i

    2009-12-20

    The Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) carried out a 250, 350, and 500 mum survey of the galactic plane encompassing the Vela Molecular Ridge, with the primary goal of identifying the coldest dense cores possibly associated with the earliest stages of star formation. Here, we present the results from observations of the Vela-D region, covering about 4 deg{sup 2}, in which we find 141 BLAST cores. We exploit existing data taken with the Spitzer MIPS, IRAC, and SEST-SIMBA instruments to constrain their (single-temperature) spectral energy distributions, assuming a dust emissivity index beta = 2.0. This combination of data allows us to determine the temperature, luminosity, and mass of each BLAST core, and also enables us to separate starless from protostellar sources. We also analyze the effects that the uncertainties on the derived physical parameters of the individual sources have on the overall physical properties of starless and protostellar cores, and we find that there appear to be a smooth transition from the pre- to the protostellar phase. In particular, for protostellar cores we find a correlation between the MIPS24 flux, associated with the central protostar, and the temperature of the dust envelope. We also find that the core mass function of the Vela-D cores has a slope consistent with other similar (sub)millimeter surveys.

  3. Dense Cloud Cores revealed by ALMA CO observations in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, M.; Elmegreen, B.; Hunter, D.; Cortes, J.; Brinks, E.; Cigan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations, they are molecular with H2 the dominant species and CO the best available. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared to hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it cannot accumulate inside dense clouds. Then we lose our ability to trace the gas in regions of star formation and we lose critical information on the temperatures, densities, and velocities of the material that collapses. I will report on high resolution observations with ALMA of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy WLM, which has a metallicity that is 13% of the solar value and 50% lower than the previous CO detection threshold and the properties derived of very small dense CO clouds mapped..

  4. Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-03-13

    In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as it transitions into a superhot, highly compressed concoction known as “warm dense matter.”

  5. Dense-core granules in neuroendocrine cells and neurons release their secretory constituents by piecemeal degranulation (review).

    PubMed

    Crivellato, Enrico; Nico, Beatrice; Bertelli, Eugenio; Nussdorfer, Gastone G; Ribatti, Domenico

    2006-12-01

    The term piecemeal degranulation (PMD) refers to a slow releasing process mediated by vesicular transport of stored secretory granule contents. This form of cell secretion was first proposed for basophils, mast cells and eosinophils, but evidence has begun to accumulate that PMD also occurs in dense-core granules of neuroendocrine cells and neurons. This review summarizes the electron-microscopic evidence that has been gathered in support of this view and also discusses the possible physiological significance of PMD in this class of secretory organelles in comparison with 'full fusion' and 'kiss-and-run' exocytosis.

  6. Hidden carbon in Earth's inner core revealed by shear softening in dense Fe7C3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Li, Zeyu; Zhang, Dongzhou; Liu, Jiachao; Hu, Michael Y; Zhao, Jiyong; Bi, Wenli; Alp, E Ercan; Xiao, Yuming; Chow, Paul; Li, Jie

    2014-12-16

    Earth's inner core is known to consist of crystalline iron alloyed with a small amount of nickel and lighter elements, but the shear wave (S wave) travels through the inner core at about half the speed expected for most iron-rich alloys under relevant pressures. The anomalously low S-wave velocity (vS) has been attributed to the presence of liquid, hence questioning the solidity of the inner core. Here we report new experimental data up to core pressures on iron carbide Fe7C3, a candidate component of the inner core, showing that its sound velocities dropped significantly near the end of a pressure-induced spin-pairing transition, which took place gradually between 10 GPa and 53 GPa. Following the transition, the sound velocities increased with density at an exceptionally low rate. Extrapolating the data to the inner core pressure and accounting for the temperature effect, we found that low-spin Fe7C3 can reproduce the observed vS of the inner core, thus eliminating the need to invoke partial melting or a postulated large temperature effect. The model of a carbon-rich inner core may be consistent with existing constraints on the Earth's carbon budget and would imply that as much as two thirds of the planet's carbon is hidden in its center sphere.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HCO+ and N2D+ dense cores in Perseus (Campbell+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Friesen, R. K.; Martin, P. G.; Caselli, P.; Kauffmann, J.; Pineda, J. E.

    2016-05-01

    Table 1 summarizes the 91 dense cores observed, with their Right Ascension and Declination pointing positions. Pointed observations of the Perseus cores were performed using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Targets were observed in the HCO+ (3-2) and N2D+ (3-2) rotational transitions in position-switching mode, with assumed rest frequencies of 267.557619GHz and 231.321665GHz, respectively. The spectral resolution was 30.5kHz, corresponding to a velocity resolution of 0.03km/s for HCO+ (3-2) and 0.04km/s for N2D+ (3-2). Observations were conducted between 2007 September and 2009 September. (3 data files).

  8. Non-linear dense core formation in the dark cloud L1517

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heigl, S.; Burkert, A.; Hacar, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a solution for the observed core fragmentation of filaments in the Taurus L1517 dark cloud which previously could not be explained. Core fragmentation is a vital step for the formation of stars. Observations suggest a connection to the filamentary structure of the cloud gas, but it remains unclear which process is responsible. We show that the gravitational instability process of an infinite, isothermal cylinder can account for the exhibited fragmentation under the assumption that the perturbation grows on the dominant wavelength. We use numerical simulations with the code RAMSES, estimate observed column densities and line-of-sight velocities, and compare them to the observations. A critical factor for the observed fragmentation is that cores grow by redistributing mass within the filament and thus the density between the cores decreases over the fragmentation process. This often leads to wrong dominant wavelength estimates, as it is strongly dependent on the initial central density. We argue that non-linear effects also play an important role in the evolution of the fragmentation. Once the density perturbation grows above the critical line mass, non-linearity leads to an enhancement of the central core density in comparison to the analytical prediction. Choosing the correct initial conditions with perturbation strengths of around 20 per cent leads to inclination-corrected line-of-sight velocities and central core densities within the observational measurement error in a realistic evolution time.

  9. Integrated Simulations of Dense Core Heating for Fast Ignition (FI) Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R. B.; Mehlhorn, T. A.; Slutz, S. A.; Vesey, R. A.; Welch, D. R.

    2004-11-01

    We study the laser/plasma interaction at the critical surface integrated with hot electron transport and heating through corona and core (5 orders of magnitude in density) for FI using the 3D EM implicit hybrid PIC code, LSP[1], coupled to a rad-hydro code. LSP treats the laser/plasma interaction explicitly, at the proper spatial scale, and follows the hot electrons through the corona and core implicitly. The LSP simulations have been validated with GEKKO/PW data, lending some credence to our approach. Self-consistent fields in the corona and core modify the hot electron distribution and have an important influence core heating efficiency. We plan to present results for: 1) GEKKO/PW, 2) ZR coupled to a vacuum hohlraum, the core heated with Z-Beamlet/PW, and 3) a high ρ r system (about 0.3 g/cm^2) at high average density (300 g/cm^3) and laser intensity (I a few 10^21 W/cm^2) to investigate near ignition conditions. The ignition case may pose a challenge, since the high I implies very energetic electrons difficult to stop in 300 g/cm^3 cores, even considering anomalous processes. [1] D.R. Welch, et.al. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 464, 134 (2001). Sandia is a multi-program Lab operated by Sandia Corp., a Lockheed Martin Co., for the USDOE under Contract # DE-AC04-94AL85000

  10. Dielectric response of II-VI semiconductor core-shell ensembles: Study of the lossless optical condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz, R. M.; Kanyinda-Malu, C.

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically investigate optical properties of II-VI core-shell distribution mixtures made of two type-I sized-nanoshells as a plausible negative dielectric function material. The nonlocal optical response of the semiconductor QD is described by using a resonant excitonic dielectric function, while the shell response is modeled with Demangeot formula. Achieving the zero-loss at an optical frequency ω, i.e., ɛeff =ɛeff‧ + iɛeff″ with ɛeff‧ < 0 and ɛeff″ = 0, is of fundamental importance in nanophotonics. Resonant states in semiconductors provide a source for negative dielectric function provided that the dipole strength and the oscillator density are adequate to offset the background. Furthermore, the semiconductor offers the prospect of pumping, either optically or electrically, to achieve a gain mechanism that can offset the loss. We analyse optimal conditions that must be satisfied to achieve semiconductor-based negative index materials. By comparing with II-VI semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) previously reported in the literature, the inclusion of phonon and shell contributions in the ɛeff along with the finite barrier Effective Mass Approximation (EMA) approach, we found similar qualitative behaviours for the ɛeff. The lossless optical condition along with ɛeff‧ < 0 is discussed in terms of sizes, volume fractions and embedding medium of the mixtures' distributions. Furthermore, we estimated optical power to maintain nanocrystals density in excited states and this value is less than that previously obtained in II-VI semiconductor QDs.

  11. Deeply Embedded Protostellar Population in the Central Molecular Zone Suggested by H2O Masers and Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xing; Zhang, Qizhou; Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara; Longmore, Steven N.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Battersby, Cara

    2017-01-01

    The Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), usually referring to the inner 500 pc of the Galaxy, contains a dozen of massive (~105 M ⊙) molecular clouds. Are these clouds going to actively form stars like Sgr B2? How are they affected by the extreme physical conditions in the CMZ, such as strong turbulence? Here we present a first step towards answering these questions. Using high-sensitivity, high angular resolution radio and (sub)millimeter observations, we studied deeply embedded star formation in six massive clouds in the CMZ, including the 20 and 50 km s-1 clouds, Sgr B1 off (as known as dust ridge clouds e/f), Sgr C, Sgr D, and G0.253 - 0.016. The VLA water maser observations suggest a population of deeply embedded protostellar candidates, many of which are new detections. The SMA 1.3 mm continuum observations reveal peaks in dust emission associated with the masers, suggesting the existence of dense cores. While our findings confirm that clouds such as G0.253 - 0.016 lack internal compact substructures and are quiescent in terms of star formation, two clouds (the 20 km s-1 cloud and Sgr C) stand out with clusters of water masers with associated dense cores which may suggest a population of deeply embedded protostars at early evolutionary phases. Follow-up observations with VLA and ALMA are necessary to confirm their protostellar nature.

  12. SOLUBILITY OF IRON IN METALLIC HYDROGEN AND STABILITY OF DENSE CORES IN GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Sean M.; Wilson, Hugh F.; Militzer, Burkhard

    2013-08-20

    The formation of the giant planets in our solar system, and likely a majority of giant exoplanets, is most commonly explained by the accretion of nebular hydrogen and helium onto a large core of terrestrial-like composition. The fate of this core has important consequences for the evolution of the interior structure of the planet. It has recently been shown that H{sub 2}O, MgO, and SiO{sub 2} dissolve in liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperature and pressure. In this study, we perform ab initio calculations to study the solubility of an innermost metallic core. We find dissolution of iron to be strongly favored above 2000 K over the entire pressure range (0.4-4 TPa) considered. We compare with and summarize the results for solubilities on other probable core constituents. The calculations imply that giant planet cores are in thermodynamic disequilibrium with surrounding layers, promoting erosion and redistribution of heavy elements. Differences in solubility behavior between iron and rock may influence evolution of interiors, particularly for Saturn-mass planets. Understanding the distribution of iron and other heavy elements in gas giants may be relevant in understanding mass-radius relationships, as well as deviations in transport properties from pure hydrogen-helium mixtures.

  13. Dense cloud cores revealed by CO in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Monica; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Hunter, Deidre A; Brinks, Elias; Cortés, Juan R; Cigan, Phil

    2015-09-10

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations they are molecular, with H2 the dominant species and carbon monoxide (CO) the best available tracer. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared with that of hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies, CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it is difficult for it to accumulate inside dense clouds. Here we report interferometric observations of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy Wolf-Lundmark-Melotte (WLM), which has a metallicity that is 13 per cent of the solar value and 50 per cent lower than the previous CO detection threshold. The clouds are tiny compared to the surrounding atomic and H2 envelopes, but they have typical densities and column densities for CO clouds in the Milky Way. The normal CO density explains why star clusters forming in dwarf irregulars have similar densities to star clusters in giant spiral galaxies. The low cloud masses suggest that these clusters will also be low mass, unless some galaxy-scale compression occurs, such as an impact from a cosmic cloud or other galaxy. If the massive metal-poor globular clusters in the halo of the Milky Way formed in dwarf galaxies, as is commonly believed, then they were probably triggered by such an impact.

  14. Detection and Quantification of Pu(III, IV, V, and VI) Using a1.0-meter Liquid Core Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2005-02-15

    Detection and quantification of the aquo ions of Pu in 1 MHClO4 was carried out using a 1-meter liquid core waveguide (LCW) coupledto a fiber optic UV-Vis spectrometer. Detection limits of 7 x 10-7 M forPu(VI), 1.6 x 10-5 M for Pu(V), 5 x 10-6 M for Pu(IV) and 8 x 10-6 M forPu(III) were achieved. The limits of detection represent increases of 18to 33 times those achievable using a conventional 1-cm path length.Because of the much lower detection limits of the LCW, routineidentification of the oxidation states in dilute Pu solutions can bemade.

  15. G305.136+0.068: A MASSIVE AND DENSE COLD CORE IN AN EARLY STAGE OF EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Guido; Mardones, Diego; Contreras, Yanett; Servajean, Elise; Guzmán, Andrés E.; Pineda, Jaime E.

    2015-01-20

    We report molecular line observations, made with ASTE and SEST, and dust continuum observations at 0.87 mm, made with APEX, toward the cold dust core G305.136+0.068. The molecular observations show that the core is isolated and roughly circularly symmetric and imply that it has a mass of 1.1 × 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. A simultaneous model fitting of the spectra observed in four transitions of CS, using a non-LTE radiative transfer code, indicates that the core is centrally condensed, with the density decreasing with radius as r {sup –1.8}, and that the turbulent velocity increases toward the center. The dust observations also indicate that the core is highly centrally condensed and that the average column density is 1.1 g cm{sup –2}, a value slightly above the theoretical threshold required for the formation of high-mass stars. A fit to the spectral energy distribution of the emission from the core indicates a dust temperature of 17 ± 2 K, confirming that the core is cold. Spitzer images show that the core is seen in silhouette from 3.6 to 24.0 μm and that it is surrounded by an envelope of emission, presumably tracing an externally excited photo-dissociated region. We found two embedded sources within a region of 20'' centered at the peak of the core, one of which is young, has a luminosity of 66 L {sub ☉}, and is accreting mass with a high accretion rate of ∼1 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We suggest that this object corresponds to the seed of a high-mass protostar still in the process of formation. The present observations support the hypothesis that G305.136+0.068 is a massive and dense cold core in an early stage of evolution, in which the formation of a high-mass star has just started.

  16. Dense cores in galaxies out to z = 2.5 in SDSS, UltraVISTA, and the five 3D-HST/Candels fields

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Nelson, Erica June; Momcheva, Ivelina; Leja, Joel; Oesch, Pascal; Bezanson, Rachel; Van der Wel, Arjen; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Labbé, Ivo; Muzzin, Adam; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Brammer, Gabriel; Conroy, Charlie; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster; Fumagalli, Mattia; Wuyts, Stijn; Kriek, Mariska; Marchesini, Danilo

    2014-08-10

    The dense interiors of massive galaxies are among the most intriguing environments in the universe. In this paper,we ask when these dense cores were formed and determine how galaxies gradually assembled around them. We select galaxies that have a stellar mass >3 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉} inside r = 1 kpc out to z = 2.5, using the 3D-HST survey and data at low redshift. Remarkably, the number density of galaxies with dense cores appears to have decreased from z = 2.5 to the present. This decrease is probably mostly due to stellar mass loss and the resulting adiabatic expansion, with some contribution from merging. We infer that dense cores were mostly formed at z > 2.5, consistent with their largely quiescent stellar populations. While the cores appear to form early, the galaxies in which they reside show strong evolution: their total masses increase by a factor of 2-3 from z = 2.5 to z = 0 and their effective radii increase by a factor of 5-6. As a result, the contribution of dense cores to the total mass of the galaxies in which they reside decreases from ∼50% at z = 2.5 to ∼15% at z = 0. Because of their early formation, the contribution of dense cores to the total stellar mass budget of the universe is a strong function of redshift. The stars in cores with M{sub 1{sub kpc}} > 3 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉} make up ∼0.1% of the stellar mass density of the universe today but 10%-20% at z ∼ 2, depending on their initial mass function. The formation of these cores required the conversion of ∼10{sup 11} M{sub ☉} of gas into stars within ∼1 kpc, while preventing significant star formation at larger radii.

  17. Near-Infrared Photoluminescence Enhancement in Ge/CdS and Ge/ZnS Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Utilizing IV/II-VI Semiconductor Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yijun; Rowland, Clare E; Schaller, Richard D; Vela, Javier

    2014-08-26

    Ge nanocrystals have a large Bohr radius and a small, size-tunable band gap that may engender direct character via strain or doping. Colloidal Ge nanocrystals are particularly interesting in the development of near-infrared materials for applications in bioimaging, telecommunications and energy conversion. Epitaxial growth of a passivating shell is a common strategy employed in the synthesis of highly luminescent II–VI, III–V and IV–VI semiconductor quantum dots. Here, we use relatively unexplored IV/II–VI epitaxy as a way to enhance the photoluminescence and improve the optical stability of colloidal Ge nanocrystals. Selected on the basis of their relatively small lattice mismatch compared with crystalline Ge, we explore the growth of epitaxial CdS and ZnS shells using the successive ion layer adsorption and reaction method. Powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy techniques, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction, clearly show the controllable growth of as many as 20 epitaxial monolayers of CdS atop Ge cores. In contrast, Ge etching and/or replacement by ZnS result in relatively small Ge/ZnS nanocrystals. The presence of an epitaxial II–VI shell greatly enhances the near-infrared photoluminescence and improves the photoluminescence stability of Ge. Ge/II–VI nanocrystals are reproducibly 1–3 orders of magnitude brighter than the brightest Ge cores. Ge/4.9CdS core/shells show the highest photoluminescence quantum yield and longest radiative recombination lifetime. Thiol ligand exchange easily results in near-infrared active, water-soluble Ge/II–VI nanocrystals. We expect this synthetic IV/II–VI epitaxial approach will lead to further studies into the optoelectronic behavior and practical applications of Si and Ge-based nanomaterials.

  18. SN2012ca: a stripped envelope core-collapse SN interacting with dense circumstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Scalzo, R.; Fraser, M.; Pastorello, A.; Childress, M.; Pignata, G.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kotak, R.; Benetti, S.; Della Valle, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Mazzali, P.; Smith, K.; Sullivan, M.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.; Young, D.; Reichart, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report optical and near-infrared observations of SN2012ca with the Public ESO Spectroscopy Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO), spread over one year since discovery. The supernova (SN) bears many similarities to SN1997cy and to other events classified as Type IIn but which have been suggested to have a thermonuclear origin with narrow hydrogen lines produced when the ejecta impact a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Our analysis, especially in the nebular phase, reveals the presence of oxygen, magnesium and carbon features. This suggests a core-collapse explanation for SN2012ca, in contrast to the thermonuclear interpretation proposed for some members of this group. We suggest that the data can be explained with a hydrogen- and helium-deficient SN ejecta (Type I) interacting with a hydrogen-rich CSM, but that the explosion was more likely a Type Ic core-collapse explosion than a Type Ia thermonuclear one. This suggests that two channels (both thermonuclear and stripped envelope core-collapse) may be responsible for these SN 1997cy-like events.

  19. Electron-ion relaxation in a dense plasma. [supernovae core physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littleton, J. E.; Buchler, J.-R.

    1974-01-01

    The microscopic physics of the thermonuclear runaway in highly degenerate carbon-oxygen cores is investigated to determine if and how a detonation wave is generated. An expression for the electron-ion relaxation time is derived under the assumption of large degeneracy and extreme relativity of the electrons in a two-temperature plasma. Since the nuclear burning time proves to be several orders of magnitude shorter than the relaxation time, it is concluded that in studying the structure of the detonation wave the electrons and ions must be treated as separate fluids.

  20. Quantitative Comparison of Dense-Core Amyloid Plaque Accumulation in Amyloid-β Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Reichl, John H.; Rao, Eshaan R.; McNellis, Brittany M.; Huang, Eric S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Forster, Colleen L.; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Borchelt, David R.; Vassar, Robert; Ashe, Karen H.; Zahs, Kathleen R.

    2016-01-01

    There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) with Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD. Here, we provide a direct quantitative comparison of amyloid plaque burdens and plaque sizes in four lines of AβPP transgenic mice. We measured the fraction of cortex and hippocampus occupied by dense-core plaques, visualized by staining with Thioflavin S, in mice from young adulthood through advanced age. We found that the plaque burdens among the transgenic lines varied by an order of magnitude: at 15 months of age, the oldest age studied, the median cortical plaque burden in 5XFAD mice was already ~4.5 times that of 21-month Tg2576 mice and ~15 times that of 21–24-month rTg9191 mice. Plaque-size distributions changed across the lifespan in a line- and region-dependent manner. We also compared the dense-core plaque burdens in the mice to those measured in a set of pathologically-confirmed AD cases from the Nun Study. Cortical plaque burdens in Tg2576, APPSwePS1ΔE9, and 5XFAD mice eventually far exceeded those measured in the human cohort. PMID:28059792

  1. The absence of a dense potential core in supercritical injection: A thermal break-up mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banuti, Daniel T.; Hannemann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Certain experiments in quasi-isobaric supercritical injection remain unexplained by the current state of theory: Without developing a constant value potential core as expected from the mechanical view of break-up, density is observed to drop immediately upon entering the chamber. Furthermore, this phenomenon has never been captured in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) despite having become a de facto standard case for real fluid CFD validation. In this paper, we present strong evidence for a thermal jet disintegration mechanism (in addition to classical mechanical break-up) which resolves both the theoretical and the computational discrepancies. A new interpretation of supercritical jet disintegration is introduced, based on pseudo-boiling, a nonlinear supercritical transition from gas-like to liquid-like states. We show that thermal disintegration may dominate classical mechanical break-up when heat transfer takes place in the injector and when the fluid state is sufficiently close to the pseudo-boiling point. A procedure which allows to capture subsided cores with standard CFD is provided and demonstrated.

  2. SURVIVAL OF INTERSTELLAR MOLECULES TO PRESTELLAR DENSE CORE COLLAPSE AND EARLY PHASES OF DISK FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hincelin, U.; Wakelam, V.; Hersant, F.; Guilloteau, S.; Commerçon, B.

    2013-09-20

    An outstanding question of astrobiology is the link between the chemical composition of planets, comets, and other solar system bodies and the molecules formed in the interstellar medium. Understanding the chemical and physical evolution of the matter leading to the formation of protoplanetary disks is an important step for this. We provide some new clues to this long-standing problem using three-dimensional chemical simulations of the early phases of disk formation: we interfaced the full gas-grain chemical model Nautilus with the radiation-magnetohydrodynamic model RAMSES, for different configurations and intensities of the magnetic field. Our results show that the chemical content (gas and ices) is globally conserved during the collapsing process, from the parent molecular cloud to the young disk surrounding the first Larson core. A qualitative comparison with cometary composition suggests that comets are constituted of different phases, some molecules being direct tracers of interstellar chemistry, while others, including complex molecules, seem to have been formed in disks, where higher densities and temperatures allow for an active grain surface chemistry. The latter phase, and its connection with the formation of the first Larson core, remains to be modeled.

  3. The L1495-B218 filaments in Taurus seen in NH3 & CCS and Dynamical Stability of Filaments and Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmin

    2016-01-01

    We present deep NH3 map of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH3 (1,1) & (2,2) and CCS 21-10 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31". The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH3 (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH3 leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar (Seo et al. 2015).We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores with converging motions and under the influence of radiation pressure. The critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere and the isothermal cylinder have been widely used to test stability of dense cores and filaments; however, these assume a quiescent environment while actual star forming regions are turbulent and illuminated by radiation. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores (Seo et al. 2011) and the effect of radiation fields into account. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere (Seo et al. 2013). We also find that the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation are considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For inner Galactic regions and regions near OB associations, the critical

  4. Far-infrared and submillimeter-wavelength observations of star-forming dense cores. I. Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, E.F.; Adams, F.C.; Fuller, G.A.; Casey, S.; Davidson, J.A. Yerkes Observatory, Williams Bay, WI NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1991-01-01

    Far-infrared and submillimeter photometry of 10 low-mass star formation regions containing embedded IRAS sources is presented. These new observations define the peak of the spectral energy distributions of these objects and provide more precise estimates of their bolometric luminosities. Two new sources, L1527 and L483, are among the reddest known low-mass objects, with spectral energy distribution peaks at 100-200 microns and extremely steep IRAS slopes. These cold sources have spectra which are similar to blackbodies of 30-40 K but have significant excess emission on the Wien side. Models of the spectral energy distributions using a spherically symmetric core structure indicate that these sources have visual extinctions greater than 1000 mag. However, models with these large extinctions predict too little near-infrared emission. A nonspherically symmetric distribution of circumstellar material may play a role in the generation of the extra near-infrared emission. 64 refs.

  5. DENSE IRON EJECTA AND CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION IN THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT G11.2-0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Dae-Sik; Koo, Bon-Chul; Seok, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Matthews, Keith; Lee, Jae-Joon; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2009-09-20

    We present the results of near-infrared spectroscopic observations of dense ({approx}>10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) iron ejecta in the young core-collapse supernova remnant G11.2-0.3. Five ejecta knots projected to be close to its center show a large dispersion in their Doppler shifts: two knots in the east are blueshifted by more than 1000 km s{sup -1}, while three western knots have relatively small blueshifts of 20-60 km s{sup -1}. This velocity discrepancy may indicate that the western knots have been significantly decelerated or that there exists a systematic velocity difference among the knots. One ejecta filament in the northwestern boundary, on the other hand, is redshifted by {approx}>200 km s{sup -1}, while opposite filament in the southeastern boundary shows a negligible radial motion. Some of the knots and filaments have secondary velocity components, and one knot shows a bow shock-like feature in the velocity structure. The iron ejecta appear to be devoid of strong emission from other heavy elements, such as S, which may attest to the alpha-rich freezeout process in the explosive nucleosynthesis of the core-collapse supernova explosion close to its center. The prominent bipolar distribution of the Fe ejecta in the northwestern and southeastern direction, along with the elongation of the central pulsar wind nebula in the perpendicular direction, is consistent with the interpretation that the supernova exploded primarily along the northwestern and southeastern direction.

  6. Evolutionary status of dense cores in the NGC 1333 IRAS 4 star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumpia, E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Kwon, W.; Tobin, J. J.; Fuller, G. A.; Plume, R.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Protostellar evolution after the formation of the protostar is becoming reasonably well characterized, but the evolution from a prestellar core to a protostar is not well known, although the first hydrostatic core (FHSC) must be a pivotal step. Aims: NGC 1333 - IRAS 4C is a potentially very young object that we can directly compare with the nearby Class 0 objects IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. Observational constraints are provided by spectral imaging from the JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey (330-373 GHz). We present integrated intensity and velocity maps of several species, including CO, H2CO and CH3OH. CARMA observations provide additional information with which we can distinguish IRAS 4C from other evolutionary stages. Methods: We present the observational signatures of the velocity of an observed outflow, the degree of CO depletion, the deuterium fractionation of [DCO+]/[HCO+], and gas kinetic temperatures. Results: We report differences between the three sources in four aspects: a) the kinetic temperature as probed using the H2CO lines is much lower toward IRAS 4C than the other two sources; b) the line profiles of the detected species show strong outflow activity toward IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B, but not toward IRAS 4C; c) the HCN/HNC is <1 toward IRAS 4C, which confirms the cold nature of the source; d) the degree of CO depletion and the deuteration are lowest toward the warmest of the sources, IRAS 4B. Conclusions: IRAS 4C seems to be in a different evolutionary state than the sources IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. We can probably exclude the FHSC stage becaues of the relatively low Lsmm/Lbol ( 6%), and we investigate the earliest accretion phase of Class 0 stage and the transition between Class 0 to Class I. Our results do not show a consistent scenario for either case; the main problem is the absence of outflow activity and the cold nature of IRAS 4C. The number of FHSC candidates in Perseus is 10 times higher than current models predict, which suggests that the lifespan of

  7. HUBBLE UNCOVERS MYSTERY OBJECTS IN THE DENSE CORE OF A NEARBY STAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Piercing the heart of a glittering swarm of stars, NASA's sharp-eyed Hubble Space Telescope unveils the central region of the globular cluster M22, a 12- to 14-billion-year-old grouping of stars in the constellation Sagittarius. The telescope's view of the cluster's core measures 3.3 light-years across. The stars near the cluster's core are 100,000 times more numerous than those in the Sun's neighborhood. Buried in the glow of starlight are about six 'mystery objects,' which astronomers estimate are no larger than one quarter the mass of the giant planet Jupiter, the solar system's heftiest planet. The mystery objects are too far and dim for Hubble to see directly. Instead, the orbiting observatory detected these unseen celestial bodies by looking for their gravitational effects on the light from far distant stars. In this case, the stars are far beyond the cluster in the galactic bulge, about 30,000 light-years from Earth at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. M22 is 8,500 light-years away. The invisible objects betrayed their presence by bending the starlight gravitationally and amplifying it, a phenomenon known as microlensing. From February 22 to June 15, 1999, Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 looked through this central region and monitored 83,000 stars. During that time the orbiting observatory recorded six unexpectedly brief microlensing events. In each case a background star jumped in brightness for less than 20 hours before dropping back to normal. These transitory spikes in brightness mean that the object passing in front of the star must have been much smaller than a normal star. Hubble also detected one clear microlensing event. In that observation a star appeared about 10 times brighter over an 18-day span before returning to normal. Astronomers traced the leap in brightness to a dwarf star in the cluster floating in front of the background star. The inset photo shows the entire globular cluster of about 10 million stars. M22 is about 60

  8. The L1495-B218 filaments in Taurus seen in NH3 & CCS and dynamical stability of filaments and dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngmin

    We present deep NH3 and CCS maps of L1495-B218 filaments and the dense cores embedded within the filaments in Taurus. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending over 8 pc. We observed the filaments in NH3 (1,1) & (2,2), CCS NJ = 12-01, and HC7N J = 21-20 with spectral resolution of 0.038 km/s and spatial resolution of 31''. The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithm, identifies 39 leaves and 16 branches in NH3 (1,1). Applying a virial analysis for the 39 NH3 leaves, we find only 9 out of 39 leaves are gravitationally bound, and 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure-confined. Our analysis suggests that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and then undergo collapse to form a protostar. We find that the L1495A, B213E, and B216 regions have strong CCS emission and the B211 and B218 regions have weak CCS emission. Analysis of CCS emission with NH3 (1,1) and dust continuum emission shows that CCS is not a good tracer for starless core evolution. On the other hand, CCS appears to trace recently accreted gas in L1495A and L1521D. We also present more realistic dynamic stability conditions for dense cores and filaments. In a new analysis of stability conditions we account for converging motions which have been modeled toward starless cores and take the effect of radiation fields. We find that the critical size of a dense core having a homologous converging motion with its peak speed being the sound speed is roughly half of the critical size of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere. We also find the critical mass/line density of a dense core/filament irradiated by radiation to be considerably smaller than that of the Bonnor-Ebert sphere/isothermal cylinder when the radiation pressure is stronger than the central gas pressure of dense core/isothermal cylinder. For regions in the inner Galaxy and near OB associations, the critical

  9. Estimates of the hydrologic impact of drilling water on core samples taken from partially saturated densely welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the extent to which drill water might be expected to be imbibed by core samples taken from densely welded tuff. In a related experimental study conducted in G-Tunnel, drill water imbibition by the core samples was observed to be minimal. Calculations were carried out with the TOUGH code with the intent of corroborating the imbibition observations. Due to the absence of hydrologic data pertaining directly to G-Tunnel welded tuff, it was necessary to apply data from a similar formation. Because the moisture retention curve was not available for imbibition conditions, the drainage curve was applied to the model. The poor agreement between the observed and calculated imbibition data is attributed primarily to the inappropriateness of the drainage curve. Also significant is the value of absolute permeability (k) assumed in the model. Provided that the semi-log plot of the drainage and imbibition moisture retention curves are parallel within the saturation range of interest, a simple relationship exists between the moisture retention curve, k, and porosity ({phi}) which are assumed in the model and their actual values. If k and {phi} are known, we define the hysteresis factor {lambda} to be the ratio of the imbibition and drainage suction pressures for any saturation within the range of interest. If k and {phi} are unknown, {lambda} also accounts for the uncertainties in their values. Both the experimental and modeling studies show that drill water imbibition by the core has a minimal effect on its saturation state. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-06-10

    A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

  11. Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting short-lived radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2014-06-10

    A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ∼10{sup –4} to ∼3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's short-lived radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.

  12. Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting Short-lived Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. II. Varied Shock Wave and Cloud Core Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2013-06-01

    A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the short-lived radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of ~10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.

  13. A hydrophobic patch in a charged alpha-helix is sufficient to target proteins to dense core secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Mercure, Chantal; Mireuta, Matei; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2007-01-12

    Many endocrine and neuroendocrine cells contain specialized secretory organelles called dense core secretory granules. These organelles are the repository of proteins and peptides that are secreted in a regulated manner when the cell receives a physiological stimulus. The targeting of proteins to these secretory granules is crucial for the generation of certain peptide hormones, including insulin and ACTH. Although previous work has demonstrated that proteins destined to a variety of cellular locations, including secretory granules, contain targeting sequences, no single consensus sequence for secretory granule-sorting signals has emerged. We have shown previously that alpha-helical domains in the C-terminal tail of the prohormone convertase PC1/3 play an important role in the ability of this region of the protein to direct secretory granule targeting (Jutras, I. Seidah, N. G., and Reudelhuber, T. L. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 40337-40343). In this study, we show that a variety of alpha-helical domains are capable of directing a heterologous secretory protein to granules. By testing a series of synthetic alpha-helices, we also demonstrate that the presence of charged (either positive or negative) amino acids spatially segregated from a hydrophobic patch in the alpha-helices of secretory proteins likely plays a critical role in the ability of these structures to direct secretory granule sorting.

  14. Syntaxin 1A drives fusion of large dense-core neurosecretory granules into a planar lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    McNally, James M; Woodbury, Dixon J; Lemos, José R

    2004-01-01

    The SNARE complex, involved in vesicular trafficking and exocytosis, is composed of proteins in the vesicular membrane (v-SNAREs) that intertwine with proteins of the target membrane (t-SNAREs). Our results show that modified large dense-core neurosecretory granules (NSGs), isolated from the bovine neurohypophysis, spontaneously fuse with a planar lipid membrane containing only the t-SNARE syntaxin 1A. This provides evidence that syntaxin alone is able to form a functional fusion complex with native v-SNAREs of the NSG. The fusion was similar to constitutive, not regulated, exocytosis because changes in free [Ca2+] had no effect on the syntaxin-mediated fusion. Several deletion mutants of syntaxin 1A were also tested. The removal of the regulatory domain did not significantly reduce spontaneous fusion. However, a syntaxin deletion mutant consisting of only the transmembrane domain was incapable of eliciting spontaneous fusion. Finally, a soluble form of syntaxin 1A (lacking its transmembrane domain) was used to saturate the free syntaxin-binding sites of modified NSGs. This treatment blocks spontaneous fusion of these granules to a bilayer containing full-length syntaxin 1A. This method provides an effective model system to study possible regulatory components affecting vesicle fusion.

  15. Automatic detection of large dense-core vesicles in secretory cells and statistical analysis of their intracellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Ester; Ayala, Guillermo; Díaz, María Elena; Gong, Liang-Wei; Toomre, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the morphological appearance and the spatial distribution of large dense-core vesicles (granules) in the cell cytoplasm is central to the understanding of regulated exocytosis. This paper is concerned with the automatic detection of granules and the statistical analysis of their spatial locations in different cell groups. We model the locations of granules of a given cell as a realization of a finite spatial point process and the point patterns associated with the cell groups as replicated point patterns of different spatial point processes. First, an algorithm to segment the granules using electron microscopy images is proposed. Second, the relative locations of the granules with respect to the plasma membrane are characterized by two functional descriptors: the empirical cumulative distribution function of the distances from the granules to the plasma membrane and the density of granules within a given distance to the plasma membrane. The descriptors of the different cells for each group are compared using bootstrap procedures. Our results show that these descriptors and the testing procedure allow discriminating between control and treated cells. The application of these novel tools to studies of secretion should help in the analysis of diseases associated with dysfunctional secretion, such as diabetes.

  16. CAPS-1 promotes fusion competence of stationary dense-core vesicles in presynaptic terminals of mammalian neurons

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Margherita; van de Bospoort, Rhea; He, Enqi; Persoon, Claudia M; van Weering, Jan RT; Broeke, Jurjen H; Verhage, Matthijs; Toonen, Ruud F

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides released from dense-core vesicles (DCVs) modulate neuronal activity, but the molecules driving DCV secretion in mammalian neurons are largely unknown. We studied the role of calcium-activator protein for secretion (CAPS) proteins in neuronal DCV secretion at single vesicle resolution. Endogenous CAPS-1 co-localized with synaptic markers but was not enriched at every synapse. Deletion of CAPS-1 and CAPS-2 did not affect DCV biogenesis, loading, transport or docking, but DCV secretion was reduced by 70% in CAPS-1/CAPS-2 double null mutant (DKO) neurons and remaining fusion events required prolonged stimulation. CAPS deletion specifically reduced secretion of stationary DCVs. CAPS-1-EYFP expression in DKO neurons restored DCV secretion, but CAPS-1-EYFP and DCVs rarely traveled together. Synaptic localization of CAPS-1-EYFP in DKO neurons was calcium dependent and DCV fusion probability correlated with synaptic CAPS-1-EYFP expression. These data indicate that CAPS-1 promotes fusion competence of immobile (tethered) DCVs in presynaptic terminals and that CAPS-1 localization to DCVs is probably not essential for this role. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05438.001 PMID:25719439

  17. CAPS-1 promotes fusion competence of stationary dense-core vesicles in presynaptic terminals of mammalian neurons.

    PubMed

    Farina, Margherita; van de Bospoort, Rhea; He, Enqi; Persoon, Claudia M; van Weering, Jan R T; Broeke, Jurjen H; Verhage, Matthijs; Toonen, Ruud F

    2015-02-26

    Neuropeptides released from dense-core vesicles (DCVs) modulate neuronal activity, but the molecules driving DCV secretion in mammalian neurons are largely unknown. We studied the role of calcium-activator protein for secretion (CAPS) proteins in neuronal DCV secretion at single vesicle resolution. Endogenous CAPS-1 co-localized with synaptic markers but was not enriched at every synapse. Deletion of CAPS-1 and CAPS-2 did not affect DCV biogenesis, loading, transport or docking, but DCV secretion was reduced by 70% in CAPS-1/CAPS-2 double null mutant (DKO) neurons and remaining fusion events required prolonged stimulation. CAPS deletion specifically reduced secretion of stationary DCVs. CAPS-1-EYFP expression in DKO neurons restored DCV secretion, but CAPS-1-EYFP and DCVs rarely traveled together. Synaptic localization of CAPS-1-EYFP in DKO neurons was calcium dependent and DCV fusion probability correlated with synaptic CAPS-1-EYFP expression. These data indicate that CAPS-1 promotes fusion competence of immobile (tethered) DCVs in presynaptic terminals and that CAPS-1 localization to DCVs is probably not essential for this role.

  18. Mechanisms of transport and exocytosis of dense-core granules containing tissue plasminogen activator in developing hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael A; Johnson, Scooter; Gurkins, Dmitri; Farmer, Meredith; Lochner, Janis E; Rosa, Patrizia; Scalettar, Bethe A

    2005-03-23

    Dense-core granules (DCGs) are organelles found in specialized secretory cells, including neuroendocrine cells and neurons. Neuronal DCGs facilitate many critical processes, including the transport and secretion of proteins involved in learning, and yet their transport and exocytosis are poorly understood. We have used wide-field and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, in conjunction with transport theory, to visualize the transport and exocytosis of DCGs containing a tissue plasminogen activator-green fluorescent protein hybrid in cell bodies, neurites, and growth cones of developing hippocampal neurons and to quantify the roles that diffusion, directed motion, and immobility play in these processes. Our results demonstrate that shorter-ranged transport of DCGs near sites of exocytosis in hippocampal neurons and neuroendocrine cells differs markedly. Specifically, the immobile fraction of DCGs within growth cones and near the plasma membrane of hippocampal neurons is small and relatively unaltered by actin disruption, unlike in neuroendocrine cells. Moreover, transport of DCGs in these domains of hippocampal neurons is unusually heterogeneous, being significantly rapid and directed as well as slow and diffusive. Our results also demonstrate that exocytosis is preceded by substantial movement and heterogeneous transport; this movement may facilitate delivery of DCG cargo in hippocampal neurons, given the relatively low abundance of neuronal DCGs. In addition, the extensive mobility of DCGs in hippocampal neurons argues strongly against the hypothesis that cortical actin is a major barrier to membrane-proximal DCGs in these cells. Instead, our results suggest that extended release of DCG cargo from hippocampal neurons arises from heterogeneity in DCG mobility.

  19. Hindered submicron mobility and long-term storage of presynaptic dense-core granules revealed by single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Scalettar, B A; Jacobs, C; Fulwiler, A; Prahl, L; Simon, A; Hilken, L; Lochner, J E

    2012-09-01

    Dense-core granules (DCGs) are organelles found in neuroendocrine cells and neurons that house, transport, and release a number of important peptides and proteins. In neurons, DCG cargo can include the secreted neuromodulatory proteins tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which play a key role in modulating synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus. This function has spurred interest in DCGs that localize to synaptic contacts between hippocampal neurons, and several studies recently have established that DCGs localize to, and undergo regulated exocytosis from, postsynaptic sites. To complement this work, we have studied presynaptically localized DCGs in hippocampal neurons, which are much more poorly understood than their postsynaptic analogs. Moreover, to enhance relevance, we visualized DCGs via fluorescence labeling of exogenous and endogenous tPA and BDNF. Using single-particle tracking, we determined trajectories of more than 150 presynaptically localized DCGs. These trajectories reveal that mobility of DCGs in presynaptic boutons is highly hindered and that storage is long-lived. We also computed mean-squared displacement curves, which can be used to elucidate mechanisms of transport. Over shorter time windows, most curves are linear, demonstrating that DCG transport in boutons is driven predominantly by diffusion. The remaining curves plateau with time, consistent with motion constrained by a submicron-sized corral. These results have relevance to recent models of presynaptic organization and to recent hypotheses about DCG cargo function. The results also provide estimates for transit times to the presynaptic plasma membrane that are consistent with measured times for onset of neurotrophin release from synaptically localized DCGs.

  20. The dense core vesicle protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is required for active avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G N; Nishimura, T; Schindler, C W; Panlilio, L V; Notkins, A L

    2014-06-06

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild-type (WT) mice showed 60-70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10-15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60-70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired.

  1. Fabrication of core-shell Fe3O4@MIL-100(Fe) magnetic microspheres for the removal of Cr(VI) in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Zhao, Qianqian; Ren, ShuangShuang; Lu, Qiongqiong; Guo, Xinmeng; Chen, Zhijun

    2016-12-01

    Facile regeneration of an adsorbent is very important for commercial feasibility. One typical highly porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials based on MIL-100(Fe) and magnetic iron oxide particles (denoted as MMCs) with diameter about of 350 nm were successfully synthesized. The growth of MIL-100(Fe) shell on the surface of Fe3O4 was utilized precursor as crystal seed via in-situ step hydrothermal reaction. It is a simple way to obtain well organized core-shell MOF composites, compared to the step-by-step method. MMCs were firstly used to uptake of Cr(VI) anions in aqueous solution. Adsorption experiments were carried out in batch sorption mode investigating with the factors of contact time (0-1000 min), pH (from 2 to 12), dose of adsorbent (4-25 mg), and initial Cr(VI) concentration (range from 10 to 100 ppm).

  2. An LMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm Survey of Dense Cores in the Monoceros R2 Giant Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Alyssa D.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Wilson, Grant; Offner, Stella; Heyer, Mark H.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Gomez-Ruiz, Arturo; Luna, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    We present a census of dense gas cores in the MonR2 Giant Molecular Cloud with observations from the AzTEC instrument on the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) at λ = 1.1 mm. We detect 270 cores total, 84 with protostars, and 186 starless. AzTEC’s excellent 8‧‧resolution allows for the identification of discrete 1.1 mm sources about 0.05 × 0.05 pc in size in this distant (830 pc) cloud. After performing total flux and half-power area corrections for under-detected low S/N cores, we find that the cores have a median mass ˜ 2.8 M⊙ and a median deconvolved FWHM size ˜ 0.09 pc. 58% of the cores (154) lie above the Bonnor-Ebert mass versus size stability line for cores with T˜12K, suggesting they are unstable to further collapse. Bonnor-Ebert, Plummer-like, and Gaussian models are fit to 1-D and 2-D core radial column density profiles, with Plummer-like performing the best fit of the three models. We present a correlation between local core mass density and column density of gas (as traced by Herschel) characterized by a steep power-law that flattens above Σgas ~ 62 M⊙pc-2 (4.15 AV )smoothing over parsec scales. This core-gas correlation’s resemblance to the star-gas correlation for YSOs in Gutermuth et al. (2011) yields an approximate Mstar ˜ 0.4Mcore and indicates that stellar clustering is likely set by core clustering. Finally we derive an estimated global core formation efficiency that increases with increasing Herschel column density and asymptotically approaches CFE ˜ 0.4 for AV > 15.

  3. Mechanism of porous core electroosmotic pump flow injection system and its application to determination of chromium(VI) in waste-water.

    PubMed

    Gan, W E; Yang, L; He, Y Z; Zeng, R H; Cervera, M L; de la Guardia, M

    2000-04-03

    An electroosmotic pump flow injection system is introduced in this paper. According to electroosmotic theory, the pump's properties were described. A large flow range (mul min(-1)-ml min(-1)), moderate carrier pressure (>0.15 MPa), reduced performance voltage (<500 V) and stable flow rate (RSD<3.0% in 4 h) are the main properties of the pump. NH(4)OH (0.35 mM) was used as carrier for improving the pump's flow stability. The electroosmotic efficiency of the pump's medium, porous core, can be recovered and regenerated. A sandwich zone was used for sample and reagent introduction in order to adapt to the pump performance. Flow injection-spectrophotometry was employed for the determination of Cr(VI) in waste-water, based on the formation of the complex with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide and absorbance measurement at 540 nm. Within the calibration range of 0-7.0 mg l(-1) of Cr(VI), the RSD was 0.4% (n=5). The recovery of 0.70 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) added to the waste-water sample was 94.5+/-2.0% (n=5).

  4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DENSE CORES IN THE {rho} OPHIUCHI MAIN CLOUD AND A SIGNIFICANT ROLE OF EXTERNAL PRESSURES IN CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Maruta, Hajime; Nishi, Ryoichi; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2010-05-01

    Using the archive data of the H{sup 13}CO{sup +} (J = 1-0) line emission taken with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope with a spatial resolution of {approx} 0.01 pc, we have identified 68 dense cores in the central dense region of the {rho} Ophiuchi main cloud. The H{sup 13}CO{sup +} data also indicate that the fractional abundance of H{sup 13}CO{sup +} relative to H{sub 2} is roughly inversely proportional to the square root of the H{sub 2} column density with a mean of 1.72 x 10{sup -11}. The mean radius, FWHM line width, and LTE mass of the identified cores are estimated to be 0.045 {+-} 0.011 pc, 0.49 {+-} 0.14 km s{sup -1}, and 3.4 {+-} 3.6 M{sub sun}, respectively. The majority of the identified cores have subsonic internal motions. The virial ratio, the ratio of the virial mass to the LTE mass, tends to decrease with increasing LTE mass and about 60% of the cores have virial ratios smaller than 2, indicating that these cores are not transient structures but self-gravitating. The detailed virial analysis suggests that the surface pressure often dominates over the self-gravity and thus plays a crucial role in regulating core formation and evolution. By comparing the {rho} Oph cores with those in the Orion A molecular cloud observed with the same telescope, we found that the statistical properties of the core physical quantities are similar between the two clouds if the effect of the different spatial resolutions is corrected. The line widths of the {rho} Oph cores appear to be nearly independent of the core radii over the range of 0.01-0.1 pc and deviate upward from the Heyer and Brunt relation. This may be evidence that turbulent motions are driven by protostellar outflows in the cluster environment.

  5. TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING SHORT-LIVED RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed

    2010-01-10

    The discovery of decay products of a short-lived radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.

  6. Preparation of magnetic core-shell iron oxide@silica@nickel-ethylene glycol microspheres for highly efficient sorption of uranium(VI).

    PubMed

    Tan, Lichao; Zhang, Xiaofei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Sun, Yanbo; Jing, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-04-21

    We report a facile approach for the formation of magnetic core-shell iron oxide@silica@nickel-ethylene glycol (Fe3O4@SiO2@Ni-L) microspheres. The structure and morphology of Fe3O4@SiO2@Ni-L are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nitrogen sorption isotherm. The composite possesses a high specific surface area of 382 m(2) g(-1). The obtained core/shell structure is composed of a superparamagnetic core with a strong response to external fields, which are recovered readily from aqueous solutions by magnetic separation. When used as the adsorbent for uranium(vi) in water, the as-prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@Ni-L multi-structural microspheres exhibit a high adsorption capacity, which is mainly attributed to the large specific surface area and typical mesoporous characteristics of Fe3O4@SiO2@Ni-L microspheres. This work provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of multifunctional microspheres, which can be used for water treatment, as well as having other potential applications in a variety of biomedical fields including drug delivery and biosensors.

  7. Properties of Dense Cores Embedded in Musca Derived from Extinction Maps and 13CO, C18O, and NH3 Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machaieie, Dinelsa A.; Vilas-Boas, José W.; Wuensche, Carlos A.; Racca, Germán A.; Myers, Philip C.; Hickel, Gabriel R.

    2017-02-01

    Using near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and the Near Infrared Color Excess method, we studied the extinction distribution in five dense cores of Musca, which show visual extinction greater than 10 mag and are potential sites of star formation. We analyzed the stability in four of them, fitting their radial extinction profiles with Bonnor–Ebert isothermal spheres, and explored their properties using the J = 1–0 transition of 13CO and C18O and the J = K = 1 transition of NH3. One core is not well described by the model. The stability parameter of the fitted cores ranges from 4.5 to 5.7 and suggests that all cores are stable, including Mu13, which harbors one young stellar object (YSO), the IRAS 12322-7023 source. However, the analysis of the physical parameters shows that Mu13 tends to have larger A V, n c, and P ext than the remaining starless cores. The other physical parameters do not show any trend. It is possible that those are the main parameters to explore in active star-forming cores. Mu13 also shows the most intense emission of NH3. Its 13CO and C18O lines have double peaks, whose integrated intensity maps suggest that they are due to the superposition of clouds with different radial velocities seen in the line of sight. It is not possible to state whether these clouds are colliding and inducing star formation or are related to a physical process associated with the formation of the YSO.

  8. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. VII. CHEMISTRY AND DYNAMICS IN L43

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jo-Hsin; Evans, Neal J.; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Bourke, Tyler L. E-mail: nje@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: tbourke@cfa.harvard.ed

    2009-11-10

    We present results from the Spitzer Space Telescope and molecular line observations of nine species toward the dark cloud L43. The Spitzer images and molecular line maps suggest that it has a starless core and a Class I protostar evolving in the same environment. CO depletion is seen in both sources, and DCO{sup +} lines are stronger toward the starless core. With a goal of testing the chemical characteristics from pre- to protostellar stages, we adopt an evolutionary chemical model to calculate the molecular abundances and compare with our observations. Among the different model parameters we tested, the best-fit model suggests a longer total timescale at the pre-protostellar stage, but with faster evolution at the later steps with higher densities.

  9. Dinuclear Face-Sharing Bi-octahedral Tungsten(VI) Core and Unusual Thermal Behavior in Complex Th Tungstates.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bin; Gesing, Thorsten M; Robben, Lars; Bosbach, Dirk; Alekseev, Evgeny V

    2015-05-18

    Invited for the cover of this issue are the groups of Evgeny V. Alekseev at the Forchungszentrum Jülich and Thorstem M. Gesing at the University of Bremen. The image depicts the complex thorium tungstate polyanions, having a six-leafed lily cross-section, containing a rare confacial [W2 O9 ](6-) bioctahedral core. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201500500.

  10. Peptidergic cell-specific synaptotagmins in Drosophila: localization to dense-core granules and regulation by the bHLH protein DIMMED.

    PubMed

    Park, Dongkook; Li, Peiyao; Dani, Adish; Taghert, Paul H

    2014-09-24

    Bioactive peptides are packaged in large dense-core secretory vesicles, which mediate regulated secretion by exocytosis. In a variety of tissues, the regulated release of neurotransmitters and hormones is dependent on calcium levels and controlled by vesicle-associated synaptotagmin (SYT) proteins. Drosophila express seven SYT isoforms, of which two (SYT-α and SYT-β) were previously found to be enriched in neuroendocrine cells. Here we show that SYT-α and SYT-β tissue expression patterns are similar, though not identical. Furthermore, both display significant overlap with the bHLH transcription factor DIMM, a known neuroendocrine (NE) regulator. RNAi-mediated knockdown indicates that both SYT-α and SYT-β functions are essential in identified NE cells as these manipulations phenocopy loss-of-function states for the indicated peptide hormones. In Drosophila cell culture, both SYT-α and neuropeptide cargo form DIMM-dependent fluorescent puncta that are coassociated by super-resolution microscopy. DIMM is required to maintain SYT-α and SYT-β protein levels in DIMM-expressing cells in vivo. In neurons normally lacking all three proteins (DIMM(-)/SYT-α(-)/SYT-β(-)), DIMM misexpression conferred accumulation of endogenous SYT-α and SYT-β proteins. Furthermore transgenic SYT-α does not appreciably accumulate in nonpeptidergic neurons in vivo but does so if DIMM is comisexpressed. Among Drosophila syt genes, only syt-α and syt-β RNA levels are upregulated by DIMM overexpression. Together, these data suggest that SYT-α and SYT-β are important for NE cell physiology, that one or both are integral membrane components of the large dense-core vesicles, and that they are closely regulated by DIMM at a post-transcriptional level.

  11. FIRST DETECTION OF AMMONIA IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: THE KINETIC TEMPERATURE OF DENSE MOLECULAR CORES IN N 159 W

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Juergen; Henkel, Christian; Weiss, Axel; Staveley-Smith, Lister E-mail: chenkel@mpifr-bonn.mpg.d E-mail: Lister.Staveley-Smith@uwa.edu.a

    2010-02-10

    The first detection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is reported from the Magellanic Clouds. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we present a targeted search for the (J, K) = (1,1) and (2,2) inversion lines toward seven prominent star-forming regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Both lines are detected in the massive star-forming region N 159 W, which is located in the peculiar molecular ridge south of 30 Doradus, a site of extreme star formation strongly influenced by an interaction with the Milky Way halo. Using the ammonia lines, we derive a kinetic temperature of {approx}16 K, which is 2-3 times below the previously derived dust temperature. The ammonia column density, averaged over {approx}17'', is {approx}6 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} (<1.5 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} over 9'' in the other six sources) and we derive an ammonia abundance of {approx}4 x 10{sup -10} with respect to molecular hydrogen. This fractional abundance is 1.5-5 orders of magnitude below those observed in Galactic star-forming regions. The nitrogen abundance in the LMC ({approx}10% solar) and the high UV flux, which can photo-dissociate the particularly fragile NH{sub 3} molecule, both must contribute to the low fractional NH{sub 3} abundance, and we likely only see the molecule in an ensemble of the densest, best shielded cores of the LMC.

  12. The Dynamical State of the Starless Dense Core FeSt 1-457: A Pulsating Globule?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguti, E. D.; Lada, C. J.; Bergin, E. A.; Alves, J. F.; Birkinshaw, M.

    2007-08-01

    High-resolution molecular line observations of CS (J=2-->1), HCO+ (J=1-->0), C18O (J=1-->0), C18O (J=2-->1), and N2H+ (J=1-->0) were obtained toward the starless globule FeSt 1-457 in order to investigate its kinematics and chemistry. The HCO+ and CS spectra show clear self-reversed and asymmetric profiles across the face of the globule. The sense of the observed asymmetry is indicative of the global presence of expansion motions in the outer layers of the globule. These motions appear to be subsonic and significantly below the escape velocity of the globule. Comparison of our observations with near-infrared extinction data indicate that the globule is gravitationally bound. Taken together, these considerations lead us to suggest that the observed expansion has its origin in an oscillatory motion of the outer layers of the globule, which itself is likely in a quasi-stable state near hydrostatic equilibrium. Analysis of the observed line widths of C18O and N2H+ (J=1-->0) confirm that thermal pressure is the dominant component of the cloud's internal support. A simple calculation suggests that the dominant mode of pulsation would be an l=2 mode with a period of ~3×105 yr. Deformation of the globule due to the large amplitude l=2 oscillation may be responsible for the double-peaked structure of the core detected in high-resolution extinction maps. Detailed comparison of the molecular-line observations and extinction data provides evidence for significant depletion of C18O and perhaps HCO+, while N2H+ (J=1-->0) may be undepleted to a cloud depth of ~40 mag of visual extinction.

  13. A Model for the Active-Site Formation Process in DMSO Reductase Family Molybdenum Enzymes Involving Oxido-Alcoholato and Oxido-Thiolato Molybdenum(VI) Core Structures.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Sato, Masanori; Asano, Kaori; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Giles, Logan J; Pokhrel, Amrit; Kirk, Martin L; Itoh, Shinobu

    2016-02-15

    New bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)-oxido-alcoholato molybdenum(VI) and -oxido-thiolato molybdenum(VI) anionic complexes, denoted as [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) (E = O, S; L = dimethoxycarboxylate-1,2-ethylenedithiolate), were obtained from the reaction of the corresponding dioxido-molybdenum(VI) precursor complex with either an alcohol or a thiol in the presence of an organic acid (e.g., 10-camphorsulfonic acid) at low temperature. The [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) complexes were isolated and characterized, and the structure of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) was determined by X-ray crystallography. The Mo(VI) center in [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry with the two ene-1,2-dithiolate ligands being symmetry inequivalent. The computed structure of [Mo(VI)O(SR)L2](-) is essentially identical to that of [Mo(VI)O(OR)L2](-). The electronic structures of the resulting molybdenum(VI) complexes were evaluated using electronic absorption spectroscopy and bonding calculations. The nature of the distorted O(h) geometry in these [Mo(VI)O(EEt)L2](-) complexes results in a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital wave function that possesses strong π* interactions between the Mo(d(xy)) orbital and the cis S(p(z)) orbital localized on one sulfur donor from a single ene-1,2-dithiolate ligand. The presence of a covalent Mo-S(dithiolene) bonding interaction in these monooxido Mo(VI) compounds contributes to their low-energy ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions. A second important d-p π bonding interaction derives from the ∼180° O(oxo)-Mo-E-C dihedral angle involving the alcoholate and thiolate donors, and this contributes to ancillary ligand contributions to the electronic structure of these species. The formation of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) and [Mo(VI)O(SEt)L2](-) from the dioxidomolybdenum(VI) precursor may be regarded as a model for the active-site formation process that occurs in the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes.

  14. An Ammonia Spectral Map of the L1495-B218 Filaments in the Taurus Molecular Cloud. I. Physical Properties of Filaments and Dense Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young Min; Shirley, Yancy L.; Goldsmith, Paul; Ward-Thompson, Derek; Kirk, Jason M.; Schmalzl, Markus; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Friesen, Rachel; Langston, Glen; Masters, Joe; Garwood, Robert W.

    2015-06-01

    We present deep NH3 observations of the L1495-B218 filaments in the Taurus molecular cloud covering over a 3° angular range using the K-band focal plane array on the 100 m Green Bank Telescope. The L1495-B218 filaments form an interconnected, nearby, large complex extending over 8 pc. We observed NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) with a spectral resolution of 0.038 km s-1 and a spatial resolution of 31″. Most of the ammonia peaks coincide with intensity peaks in dust continuum maps at 350 and 500 μm. We deduced physical properties by fitting a model to the observed spectra. We find gas kinetic temperatures of 8-15 K, velocity dispersions of 0.05-0.25 km s-1, and NH3 column densities of 5 × 1012 to 1 × 1014 cm-2. The CSAR algorithm, which is a hybrid of seeded-watershed and binary dendrogram algorithms, identifies a total of 55 NH3 structures, including 39 leaves and 16 branches. The masses of the NH3 sources range from 0.05 to 9.5 {{M}⊙ }. The masses of NH3 leaves are mostly smaller than their corresponding virial mass estimated from their internal and gravitational energies, which suggests that these leaves are gravitationally unbound structures. Nine out of 39 NH3 leaves are gravitationally bound, and seven out of nine gravitationally bound NH3 leaves are associated with star formation. We also found that 12 out of 30 gravitationally unbound leaves are pressure confined. Our data suggest that a dense core may form as a pressure-confined structure, evolve to a gravitationally bound core, and undergo collapse to form a protostar.

  15. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are targeted to dense core secretory granules by a common mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Mercure, Chantal; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Seidah, Nabil G; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2007-08-01

    There are seven members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family of secreted serine proteases that cleave their substrates at basic amino acids, thereby activating a variety of hormones, growth factors, and viruses. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are the only members of the PC family that are targeted to dense core secretory granules, where they carry out the processing of proteins that are secreted from the cell in a regulated manner. Previous studies have identified alpha-helices in the C-termini of the PC1/3 and PC2 proteases that are required for this subcellular targeting. In the current study, we demonstrate that a predicted alpha-helix in the C-terminus of PC5/6A is also critical for the ability of this domain to target a heterologous protein to the regulated secretory pathway of mouse endocrine AtT-20 cells. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal domains of PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A confirmed that all three domains have the capacity to redirect a constitutively secreted protein to the granule-containing cytoplasmic extensions. Analysis of the predicted structures formed by these three granule-sorting helices shows a correlation between their granule-sorting efficiency and the clustering of hydrophobic amino acids in their granule-targeting helices.

  16. The neuroendocrine protein VGF is sorted into dense-core granules and is secreted apically by polarized rat thyroid epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Flaviana; Calì, Gaetano; Zurzolo, Chiara; Corteggio, Annunziata; Rosa, Patrizia; Calegari, Federico; Levi, Andrea; Possenti, Roberta; Puri, Claudia; Tacchetti, Carlo; Nitsch, Lucio

    2004-04-15

    We have expressed the neuroendocrine VGF protein in FRT rat thyroid cells to study the molecular mechanisms of its sorting to the regulated and polarized pathways of secretion. By immunoelectron microscopy, we have demonstrated that VGF localizes in dense-core granules. Rapid secretion of VGF is induced by PMA stimulation. Moreover, human chromogranin B, a protein of the regulated pathway, co-localizes in the same granules with VGF. In confluent, FRT monolayers on filters protein secretion occur from the apical cell domain. VGF deletion mutants have been generated. By confocal microscopy, we have found that in transient transfection, all mutant proteins are sorted into granules and co-localize with the full-length VGF. They all retain the apical polarity of secretion. We also found that intracellular VGF and its deletion mutants are largely in an aggregated form. We conclude that FRT thyroid cells correctly decode the sorting information of VGF. The signals present on the protein to enter the granules and to be secreted apically cannot be separated from each other and are not in just one discrete portion of the protein. We propose that selective aggregation might represent the signal for sorting VGF to the regulated, apical route.

  17. The Small GTPase RalA controls exocytosis of large dense core secretory granules by interacting with ARF6-dependent phospholipase D1.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Nicolas; Mawet, Jacques; Camonis, Jacques; Regazzi, Romano; Bader, Marie-France; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette

    2005-08-19

    RalA and RalB constitute a family of highly similar Ras-related GTPases widely distributed in different tissues. Recently, active forms of Ral proteins have been shown to bind to the exocyst complex, implicating them in the regulation of cellular secretion. Since RalA is present on the plasma membrane in neuroendocrine chromaffin and PC12 cells, we investigated the potential role of RalA in calcium-regulated exocytotic secretion. We show here that endogenous RalA is activated during exocytosis. Expression of the constitutively active RalA (G23V) mutant enhances secretagogue-evoked secretion from PC12 cells. Conversely, expression of the constitutively inactive GDP-bound RalA (G26A) or silencing of the RalA gene by RNA interference led to a strong impairment of the exocytotic response. RalA was found to co-localize with phospholipase D1 (PLD1) at the plasma membrane in PC12 cells. We demonstrate that cell stimulation triggers a direct interaction between RalA and ARF6-activated PLD1. Moreover, reduction of endogenous RalA expression level interfered with the activation of PLD1 observed in secretagogue-stimulated cells. Finally, using various RalA mutants selectively impaired in their ability to activate downstream effectors, we show that PLD1 activation is essential for the activation of secretion by GTP-loaded RalA. Together, these results provide evidence that RalA is a positive regulator of calcium-evoked exocytosis of large dense core secretory granules and suggest that stimulation of PLD1 and consequent changes in plasma membrane phospholipid composition is the major function RalA undertakes in calcium-regulated exocytosis.

  18. Secretory carrier membrane protein SCAMP2 and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate interactions in the regulation of dense core vesicle exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Haini; Ellena, Jeff; Liu, Lixia; Szabo, Gabor; Cafiso, David; Castle, David

    2007-09-25

    Secretory carrier membrane protein 2 (SCAMP2) functions in late steps of membrane fusion in calcium-dependent granule exocytosis. A basic/hydrophobic peptide segment within SCAMP2 (SCAMP2 E: CWYRPIYKAFR) has been implicated in this function and shown to bind and sequester phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2 or PIP2] within membranes through an electrostatic mechanism. We now show that alanine substitution of tryptophan W2 within SCAMP2 E substantially weakens peptide binding to negatively charged liposomes; other substitutions for arginine R4 and lysine K8 have only limited effects on binding. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of liposomes containing spin-labeled PIP2 shows that R4 but not K8 is critical for SCAMP E binding to PIP2. The interfacial locations of SCAMP E and its structural variants within lipid bicelles measured by oxygen enhancement of nuclear relaxation are all similar. Corresponding point mutations within full-length SCAMP2 (SC2-R204A, SC2-K208A, and SC2-W202A) have been analyzed for biological effects on dense core vesicle exocytosis in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. With the same level of overexpression, SC2-R204A but not SC2-K208A inhibited secretion of cotransfected human growth hormone and of noradrenalin. Inhibition by SC2-R204A was the same as or greater than previously observed for SC2-W202A. Analysis of noradrenalin secretion by amperometry showed that inhibitory mutants of SCAMP2 decrease the probability of fusion pore opening and the stability of initially opened but not yet expanded fusion pores. The strong correlation between SCAMP2 E interactions with PIP2 and inhibition of exocytosis, particularly by SC2-R204A, led us to propose that SCAMP2 interaction with PIP2 within the membrane interface regulates fusion pore formation during exocytosis.

  19. Metal Oxide Assisted Preparation of Core-Shell Beads with Dense Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Enhanced Extraction of Organic Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Mateo; Palomino Cabello, Carlos; Gonzalez, Veronica; Maya, Fernando; Parra, Jose B; Cerdà, Victor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma

    2016-08-08

    Dense and homogeneous metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings on functional bead surfaces are easily prepared by using intermediate sacrificial metal oxide coatings containing the metal precursor of the MOF. Polystyrene (PS) beads are coated with a ZnO layer to give ZnO@PS core-shell beads. The ZnO@PS beads are reactive in the presence of 2-methylimidazole to transform part of the ZnO coating into a porous zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) external shell positioned above the internal ZnO precursor shell. The obtained ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads can be easily packed in column format for flow-through applications, such as the solid-phase extraction of trace priority-listed environmental pollutants. The prepared material shows an excellent permeance to flow when packed as a column to give high enrichment factors, facile regeneration, and excellent reusability for the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A. It also shows an outstanding performance for the simultaneous enrichment of mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol), facilitating their analysis when present at very low levels (<1 μg L(-1) ) in drinking waters. For the extraction of the pollutant bisphenol A, the prepared ZIF-8@ZnO@PS beads also show a superior extraction and preconcentration capacity to that of the PS beads used as precursors and the composite materials obtained by the direct growth of ZIF-8 on the surface of the PS beads in the absence of metal oxide intermediate coatings.

  20. Two cAMP-dependent pathways differentially regulate exocytosis of large dense-core and small vesicles in mouse β-cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Noriko; Kishimoto, Takuya; Nemoto, Tomomi; Kasai, Haruo

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that cAMP regulates Ca2+-dependent exocytosis via protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in neurons and secretory cells. It has, however, never been clarified how regulation of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis by cAMP differs depending on the involvement of PKA and Epac, and depending on two types of secretory vesicles, large dense-core vesicles (LVs) and small vesicles (SVs). In this study, we have directly visualized Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of both LVs and SVs with two-photon imaging in mouse pancreatic β-cells. We found that marked exocytosis of SVs occurred with a time constant of 0.3 s, more than three times as fast as LV exocytosis, on stimulation by photolysis of a caged-Ca2+ compound. The diameter of SVs was identified as ∼80 nm with two-photon imaging, which was confirmed by electron-microscopic investigation with photoconversion of diaminobenzidine. Calcium-dependent exocytosis of SVs was potentiated by the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin, and the potentiating effect was unaffected by antagonists of PKA and was mimicked by the Epac-selective agonist 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2′-O-methyl cAMP, unlike that on LVs. Moreover, high-glucose stimulation induced massive exocytosis of SVs in addition to LVs, and photolysis of caged cAMP during glucose stimulation caused potentiation of exocytosis with little delay for SVs but with a latency of 5 s for LVs. Thus, Epac and PKA selectively regulate exocytosis of SVs and LVs, respectively, in β-cells, and Epac can regulate exocytosis more rapidly than PKA. PMID:17510178

  1. Dense Breasts

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty tissue. On a mammogram, fatty tissue appears dark (radio-lucent) and the glandular and connective tissues ... white on mammography) and non-dense fatty tissue (dark on mammography) using a visual scale and assign ...

  2. Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources: H2S as a Probe of Dense Gas and Possibly Hidden Luminosity Toward the Orion KL Hot Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Black, J. H.; Blake, G. A.; Kleshcheva, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present Herschel/HIFI observations of the light hydride H2S obtained from the full spectral scan of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL) taken as part of the Herschel Observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources GT (guaranteed time) key program. In total, we observe 52, 24, and 8 unblended or slightly blended features from H2 32S, H2 34S, and H2 33S, respectively. We only analyze emission from the so-called hot core, but emission from the plateau, extended ridge, and/or compact ridge are also detected. Rotation diagrams for ortho and para H2S follow straight lines given the uncertainties and yield T rot = 141 ± 12 K. This indicates H2S is in local thermodynamic equilibrium and is well characterized by a single kinetic temperature or an intense far-IR radiation field is redistributing the population to produce the observed trend. We argue the latter scenario is more probable and find that the most highly excited states (E up >~ 1000 K) are likely populated primarily by radiation pumping. We derive a column density, N tot(H2 32S) = 9.5 ± 1.9 × 1017 cm-2, gas kinetic temperature, T kin = 120+/- ^{13}_{10} K, and constrain the H2 volume density, n_H_2 >~ 9 × 10 7 cm-3, for the H2S emitting gas. These results point to an H2S origin in markedly dense, heavily embedded gas, possibly in close proximity to a hidden self-luminous source (or sources), which are conceivably responsible for Orion KL's high luminosity. We also derive an H2S ortho/para ratio of 1.7 ± 0.8 and set an upper limit for HDS/H2S of <4.9 × 10 -3. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  3. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: a comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-11-01

    We present a comparison of Submillimetre Common User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA-2) 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterizing the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterize starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  4. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 μg/mg creatinine), severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally <100 μg/mg creatinine), mild dysostosis multiplex, with death in the 4th or 5th decades. Other clinical findings may include cardiac valve disease, reduced pulmonary function, hepatosplenomegaly, sinusitis, otitis media, hearing loss, sleep apnea, corneal clouding, carpal tunnel disease, and inguinal or umbilical hernia. Although intellectual deficit is generally absent in MPS VI, central nervous system findings may include cervical cord compression caused by cervical spinal instability, meningeal thickening and/or bony stenosis, communicating hydrocephalus, optic nerve atrophy and blindness. The disorder is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner and is caused by mutations in the ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14). Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase) activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity <10% of the lower limit of normal in cultured fibroblasts or isolated leukocytes, and demonstration of a normal activity of a different sulfatase enzyme

  5. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI.

    PubMed

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Nicely, Helen; Harmatz, Paul; Turbeville, Sean

    2010-04-12

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease with progressive multisystem involvement, associated with a deficiency of arylsulfatase B leading to the accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Birth prevalence is between 1 in 43,261 and 1 in 1,505,160 live births. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The characteristic skeletal dysplasia includes short stature, dysostosis multiplex and degenerative joint disease. Rapidly progressing forms may have onset from birth, elevated urinary glycosaminoglycans (generally >100 microg/mg creatinine), severe dysostosis multiplex, short stature, and death before the 2nd or 3rd decades. A more slowly progressing form has been described as having later onset, mildly elevated glycosaminoglycans (generally <100 microg/mg creatinine), mild dysostosis multiplex, with death in the 4th or 5th decades. Other clinical findings may include cardiac valve disease, reduced pulmonary function, hepatosplenomegaly, sinusitis, otitis media, hearing loss, sleep apnea, corneal clouding, carpal tunnel disease, and inguinal or umbilical hernia. Although intellectual deficit is generally absent in MPS VI, central nervous system findings may include cervical cord compression caused by cervical spinal instability, meningeal thickening and/or bony stenosis, communicating hydrocephalus, optic nerve atrophy and blindness. The disorder is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner and is caused by mutations in the ARSB gene, located in chromosome 5 (5q13-5q14). Over 130 ARSB mutations have been reported, causing absent or reduced arylsulfatase B (N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase) activity and interrupted dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate degradation. Diagnosis generally requires evidence of clinical phenotype, arylsulfatase B enzyme activity <10% of the lower limit of normal in cultured fibroblasts or isolated leukocytes, and demonstration of a normal activity of a different sulfatase

  6. Crystal structure of YwpF from Staphylococcus aureus reveals its architecture comprised of a β-barrel core domain resembling type VI secretion system proteins and a two-helix pair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Soon-Jong; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The ywpF gene (SAV2097) of the Staphylococcus aureus strain Mu50 encodes the YwpF protein, which may play a role in antibiotic resistance. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the YwpF superfamily from S. aureus at 2.5-Å resolution. The YwpF structure consists of two regions: an N-terminal core β-barrel domain that shows structural similarity to type VI secretion system (T6SS) proteins (e.g., Hcp1, Hcp3, and EvpC) and a C-terminal two-helix pair. Although the monomer structure of S. aureus YwpF resembles those of T6SS proteins, the dimer/tetramer model of S. aureus YwpF is distinct from the functionally important hexameric ring of T6SS proteins. We therefore suggest that the S. aureus YwpF may have a different function compared to T6SS proteins.

  7. Warm dense crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2016-03-01

    The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "warm dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.

  8. Dense topological spaces and dense continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwoah, Khaled A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several attempts to generalize (or "widen") the concept of topological space. This paper uses equivalence relations to generalize the concept of topological space via the concept of equivalence relations. By the generalization, we can introduce from particular topology on a nonempty set X many new topologies, we call anyone of these new topologies a dense topology. In addition, we formulate some simple properties of dense topologies and study suitable generalizations of the concepts of limit points, closeness and continuity, as well as Jackson, Nörlund and Hahn dense topologies.

  9. Magnetic Phases in Dense Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Incera, Vivian de la

    2007-10-26

    In this paper I discuss the magnetic phases of the three-flavor color superconductor. These phases can take place at different field strengths in a highly dense quark system. Given that the best natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of neutron stars, which typically have very large magnetic fields, the magnetic phases here discussed could have implications for the physics of these compact objects.

  10. Dense-cored vesicles, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria are closely associated with non-specialized parts of plasma membrane of nerve terminals: implications for exocytosis and calcium buffering by intraterminal organelles.

    PubMed

    Lysakowski, A; Figueras, H; Price, S D; Peng, Y Y

    1999-01-18

    To determine whether there are anatomical correlates for intraterminal Ca2+ stores to regulate exocytosis of dense-cored vesicles (DCVs) and whether these stores can modulate exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, we studied the spatial distributions of DCVs, smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), and mitochondria in 19 serially reconstructed nerve terminals in bullfrog sympathetic ganglia. On average, each bouton had three active zones, 214 DCVs, 26 SER fragments (SERFs), and eight mitochondria. DCVs, SERFs and mitochondria were located, on average, 690, 624, and 526 nm, respectively, away from active zones. Virtually no DCVs were within "docking" (i.e., < or = 50 nm) distances of the active zones. Thus, it is unlikely that DCV exocytosis occurs at active zones via mechanisms similar to those for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because there were virtually no SERFs or mitochondria within 50 nm of any active zone, Ca2+ modulation by these organelles is unlikely to affect ACh release evoked by a single action potential. In contrast, 30% of DCVs and 40% of SERFs were located within 50 nm of the nonspecialized regions of the plasma membrane. Because each bouton had at least one SERF within 50 nm of the plasma membrane and most of these SERFs had DCVs, but not mitochondria, near them, it is possible for Ca2+ release from the SER to provide the Ca2+ necessary for DCV exocytosis. The fact that 60% of the mitochondria had some part within 50 nm of the plasma membrane means that it is possible for mitochondrial Ca2+ buffering to affect DCV exocytosis.

  11. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  12. Atoms in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  13. Engineering Test Satellite VI (ETS-VI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horii, M.; Funakawa, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Engineering Test Satellite-VI (ETS-VI) is being developed as the third Japanese three-axis stabilized engineering test satellite to establish the 2-ton geostationary operational satellite bus system and to demonstrate the high performance satellite communication technology for future operational satellites. The satellite is expected to be stationed at 154 deg east latitude. It will be launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan by a type H-II launch vehicle. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the prelaunch compatibility test, data interface verification testing, and launch rehersals. The DSN primary support period is from launch through the final AEF plus 1 hour. Contingency support is from final AEF plus 1 hour until launch plus 1 month. The coverage will consist of all the 26-m antennas as prime and the 34-m antennas at Madrid and Canberra as backup. Maximum support will consist of two 8-hour tracks per station for a 7-day period, plus the contingency support, if required. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  14. DPIS for warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2010-05-23

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.

  15. Dense array expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joseph N.; Chen, LiangMing

    1999-10-01

    Various researchers have realized the value of implementing loop fusion to evaluate dense (pointwise) array expressions. Recently, the method of template metaprogramming in C++ has been used to significantly speed-up the evaluation of array expressions, allowing C++ programs to achieve performance comparable to or better than FORTRAN for numerical analysis applications. Unfortunately, the template metaprogramming technique suffers from several limitations in applicability, portability, and potential performance. We present a framework for evaluating dense array expressions in object-oriented programming languages. We demonstrate how this technique supports both common subexpression elimination and threaded implementation and compare its performance to object-library and hand-generated code.

  16. Fragility in dense suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Romain; Cates, Mike

    Dense suspensions can jam under shear when the volume fraction of solid material is large enough. In this work we investigate the mechanical properties of shear jammed suspensions with numerical simulations. In particular, we address the issue of the fragility of these systems, i.e., the type of mechanical response (elastic or plastic) they show when subject to a mechanical load differing from the one applied during their preparation history.

  17. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jungman, Gerard; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  18. Extended Analysis of Mo VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edlén, B.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.; Chaghtai, M. S. Z.

    1985-09-01

    The analysis of the RbI-like spectrum Mo VI has been extended to include a total of some 110 classified lines and 44 energy levels belonging to the one-electron configurations 4s24p6(1S) nl with n ranging up to 9 and l up to 7. The analysis is based on recordings of vacuum spark spectra made at Lund in the region 230-2350 Å, complemented by a list of lines from 2193 to 6336 Å observed and identified by Romanov and Striganov in a Penning type arc discharge. The one-electron level system is partly mixed with core-excited configurations, not treated in the present paper. Especially the nf series is strongly perturbed by 4s24p54d2, and an anomalous behaviour of the ng series is explained by interaction with the 2G term of 4s4p64d2. The ionization limit, derived from 6h, 7i and 8k by means of the polarization formula, is found to be 555 132 ± 2 cm-1.

  19. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  20. Dense Axion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10-14M⊙ if the axion mass is 10-4 eV . We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10-20M⊙ to about M⊙ . If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  1. Dense Axion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  2. Dense Suspension Splash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  3. Dense suspension splash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Schaarsberg, Martin H. Klein; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2014-11-01

    Impact of a dense suspension drop onto a solid surface at speeds of several meters-per-second splashes by ejecting individual liquid-coated particles. Suppression or reduction of this splash is important for thermal spray coating and additive manufacturing. Accomplishing this aim requires distinguishing whether the splash is generated by individual scattering events or by collective motion reminiscent of liquid flow. Since particle inertia dominates over surface tension and viscous drag in a strong splash, we model suspension splash using a discrete-particle simulation in which the densely packed macroscopic particles experience inelastic collisions but zero friction or cohesion. Numerical results based on this highly simplified model are qualitatively consistent with observations. They also show that approximately 70% of the splash is generated by collective motion. Here an initially downward-moving particle is ejected into the splash because it experiences a succession of low-momentum-change collisions whose effects do not cancel but instead accumulate. The remainder of the splash is generated by scattering events in which a small number of high-momentum-change collisions cause a particle to be ejected upwards. Current Address: Physics of Fluids Group, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.

  4. Dense Axion Stars.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-16

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  5. Biochemical analysis of TssK, a core component of the bacterial Type VI secretion system, reveals distinct oligomeric states of TssK and identifies a TssK–TssFG subcomplex

    PubMed Central

    English, Grant; Byron, Olwyn; Cianfanelli, Francesca R.; Prescott, Alan R.; Coulthurst, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria use the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) to inject toxic proteins into rival bacteria or eukaryotic cells. However, the mechanism of the T6SS is incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigated a conserved component of the T6SS, TssK, using the antibacterial T6SS of Serratia marcescens as a model system. TssK was confirmed to be essential for effector secretion by the T6SS. The native protein, although not an integral membrane protein, appeared to localize to the inner membrane, consistent with its presence within a membrane-anchored assembly. Recombinant TssK purified from S. marcescens was found to exist in several stable oligomeric forms, namely trimer, hexamer and higher-order species. Native-level purification of TssK identified TssF and TssG as interacting proteins. TssF and TssG, conserved T6SS components of unknown function, were required for T6SS activity, but not for correct localization of TssK. A complex containing TssK, TssF and TssG was subsequently purified in vitro, confirming that these three proteins form a new subcomplex within the T6SS. Our findings provide new insight into the T6SS assembly, allowing us to propose a model whereby TssK recruits TssFG into the membrane-associated T6SS complex and different oligomeric states of TssK may contribute to the dynamic mechanism of the system. PMID:24779861

  6. Hydrodynamic stellar interactions in dense star clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasio, Frederic A.

    1993-01-01

    Highly detailed HST observations of globular-cluster cores and galactic nuclei motivate new theoretical studies of the violent dynamical processes which govern the evolution of these very dense stellar systems. These processes include close stellar encounters and direct physical collisions between stars. Such hydrodynamic stellar interactions are thought to explain the large populations of blue stragglers, millisecond pulsars, X-ray binaries, and other peculiar sources observed in globular clusters. Three-dimensional hydrodynamics techniques now make it possible to perform realistic numerical simulations of these interactions. The results, when combined with those of N-body simulations of stellar dynamics, should provide for the first time a realistic description of dense star clusters. Here I review briefly current theoretical work on hydrodynamic stellar interactions, emphasizing its relevance to recent observations.

  7. Core bounce supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gravitational collapse mechanism for Type II supernovae is considered, concentrating on the direct implosion - core bounce - hydrodynamic explosion picture. We examine the influence of the stiffness of the dense matter equation of state and discuss how the shock wave is formed. Its chances of success are determined by the equation of state, general relativistic effects, neutrino transport, and the size of presupernova iron core. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Three-dimensional architecture of collagen type VI in the human trabecular meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Koudouna, Elena; Young, Robert D.; Ueno, Morio; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Knupp, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Type VI collagen is a primary component of the extracellular matrix of many connective tissues. It can form distinct aggregates depending on tissue structure, chemical environment, and physiology. In the current study we examine the ultrastructure and mode of aggregation of type VI collagen molecules in the human trabecular meshwork. Methods Trabecular meshwork was dissected from donor human eyes, and three-dimensional transmission electron microscopy of type VI collagen aggregates was performed. Results Electron-dense collagen structures were detected in the human trabecular meshwork and identified as collagen type VI assemblies based on the three-dimensional spatial arrangement of the type VI collagen molecules, the 105-nm axial periodicity of the assemblies themselves, and their characteristic double bands, which arose from the globular domains of the type VI collagen molecules. Sulfated proteoglycans were also seen to associate with the assemblies either with the globular domain or the inner rod-like segments of the tetramers. Conclusions No extended structural regularity in the organization of type VI collagen assemblies within the trabecular meshwork was evident, and the lateral separation of the tetramers forming the assemblies varied, as did the angle formed by the main axes of adjacent tetramers. This is potentially reflective of the specific nature of the trabecular meshwork environment, which facilitates aqueous outflow from the eye, and we speculate that extracellular matrix ions and proteins might prevent a more tight packing of type VI collagen tetramers that form the assemblies. PMID:24868138

  9. The Azimuthal Dependence of Outflows and Accretion Detected Using O VI Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Muzahid, Sowgat; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Charlton, Jane C.

    2015-12-01

    We report a bimodality in the azimuthal angle (Φ) distribution of gas around galaxies traced by O vi absorption. We present the mean Φ probability distribution function of 29 Hubble Space Telescope-imaged O vi absorbing (EW > 0.1 Å) and 24 non-absorbing (EW < 0.1 Å) isolated galaxies (0.08 \\lt z \\lt 0.67) within ˜200 kpc of background quasars. We show that equivalent width (EW) is anti-correlated with impact parameter and O vi covering fraction decreases from 80% within 50 kpc to 33% at 200 kpc. The presence of O vi absorption is azimuthally dependent and occurs between ±10°-20° of the galaxy projected major axis and within ±30° of the projected minor axis. We find higher EWs along the projected minor axis with weaker EWs along the project major axis. Highly inclined galaxies have the lowest covering fractions due to minimized outflow/inflow cross-section geometry. Absorbing galaxies also have bluer colors while non-absorbers have redder colors, suggesting that star formation is a key driver in the O vi detection rate. O vi surrounding blue galaxies exists primarily along the projected minor axis with wide opening angles while O vi surrounding red galaxies exists primarily along the projected major axis with smaller opening angles, which may explain why absorption around red galaxies is less frequently detected. Our results are consistent with a circumgalactic medium (CGM) originating from major axis-fed inflows/recycled gas and from minor axis-driven outflows. Non-detected O vi occurs between Φ = 20°-60°, suggesting that O vi is not mixed throughout the CGM and remains confined within the outflows and the disk-plane. We find low O vi covering fractions within +/- 10^\\circ of the projected major axis, suggesting that cool dense gas resides in a narrow planer geometry surrounded by diffuse O vi gas.

  10. A DNA topoisomerase VI-like complex initiates meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Vrielynck, Nathalie; Chambon, Aurélie; Vezon, Daniel; Pereira, Lucie; Chelysheva, Liudmila; De Muyt, Arnaud; Mézard, Christine; Mayer, Claudine; Grelon, Mathilde

    2016-02-26

    The SPO11 protein catalyzes the formation of meiotic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and is homologous to the A subunit of an archaeal topoisomerase (topo VI). Topo VI are heterotetrameric enzymes comprising two A and two B subunits; however, no topo VIB involved in meiotic recombination had been identified. We characterized a structural homolog of the archaeal topo VIB subunit [meiotic topoisomerase VIB-like (MTOPVIB)], which is essential for meiotic DSB formation. It forms a complex with the two Arabidopsis thaliana SPO11 orthologs required for meiotic DSB formation (SPO11-1 and SPO11-2) and is absolutely required for the formation of the SPO11-1/SPO11-2 heterodimer. These findings suggest that the catalytic core complex responsible for meiotic DSB formation in eukaryotes adopts a topo VI-like structure.

  11. Ariel's Densely Pitted Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This mosaic of the four highest-resolution images of Ariel represents the most detailed Voyager 2 picture of this satellite of Uranus. The images were taken through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera on Jan. 24, 1986, at a distance of about 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles). Ariel is about 1,200 km (750 mi) in diameter; the resolution here is 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Much of Ariel's surface is densely pitted with craters 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 mi) across. These craters are close to the threshold of detection in this picture. Numerous valleys and fault scarps crisscross the highly pitted terrain. Voyager scientists believe the valleys have formed over down-dropped fault blocks (graben); apparently, extensive faulting has occurred as a result of expansion and stretching of Ariel's crust. The largest fault valleys, near the terminator at right, as well as a smooth region near the center of this image, have been partly filled with deposits that are younger and less heavily cratered than the pitted terrain. Narrow, somewhat sinuous scarps and valleys have been formed, in turn, in these young deposits. It is not yet clear whether these sinuous features have been formed by faulting or by the flow of fluids.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  13. Local Crystalline Structure in an Amorphous Protein Dense Phase.

    PubMed

    Greene, Daniel G; Modla, Shannon; Wagner, Norman J; Sandler, Stanley I; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2015-10-20

    Proteins exhibit a variety of dense phases ranging from gels, aggregates, and precipitates to crystalline phases and dense liquids. Although the structure of the crystalline phase is known in atomistic detail, little attention has been paid to noncrystalline protein dense phases, and in many cases the structures of these phases are assumed to be fully amorphous. In this work, we used small-angle neutron scattering, electron microscopy, and electron tomography to measure the structure of ovalbumin precipitate particles salted out with ammonium sulfate. We found that the ovalbumin phase-separates into core-shell particles with a core radius of ∼2 μm and shell thickness of ∼0.5 μm. Within this shell region, nanostructures comprised of crystallites of ovalbumin self-assemble into a well-defined bicontinuous network with branches ∼12 nm thick. These results demonstrate that the protein gel is comprised in part of nanocrystalline protein.

  14. Local Crystalline Structure in an Amorphous Protein Dense Phase

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Daniel G.; Modla, Shannon; Wagner, Norman J.; Sandler, Stanley I.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins exhibit a variety of dense phases ranging from gels, aggregates, and precipitates to crystalline phases and dense liquids. Although the structure of the crystalline phase is known in atomistic detail, little attention has been paid to noncrystalline protein dense phases, and in many cases the structures of these phases are assumed to be fully amorphous. In this work, we used small-angle neutron scattering, electron microscopy, and electron tomography to measure the structure of ovalbumin precipitate particles salted out with ammonium sulfate. We found that the ovalbumin phase-separates into core-shell particles with a core radius of ∼2 μm and shell thickness of ∼0.5 μm. Within this shell region, nanostructures comprised of crystallites of ovalbumin self-assemble into a well-defined bicontinuous network with branches ∼12 nm thick. These results demonstrate that the protein gel is comprised in part of nanocrystalline protein. PMID:26488663

  15. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed herein is a graded core/shell semiconductor nanorod having at least a first segment of a core of a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor, a graded shell overlying the core, wherein the graded shell comprises at least two monolayers, wherein the at least two monolayers each independently comprise a Group II-VI, Group III-V or a Group IV semiconductor.

  16. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadhri, Comandur; Pinar, Ali; Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem; Catalyurek, Umit

    2014-11-01

    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  17. Conductive dense hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremets, M.; Troyan, I.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen at ambient pressures and low temperatures forms a molecular crystal which is expected to display metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature Tc of 200-400 K. The superconductor may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. Recent experiments performed at low temperatures T < 100 K showed that at record pressures of 300 GPa, hydrogen remains in the molecular state and is an insulator with a band gap of appr 2 eV. Given our current experimental and theoretical understanding, hydrogen is expected to become metallic at pressures of 400-500 GPa, beyond the current limits of static pressures achievable using diamond anvil cells. We found that at room temperature and pressure > 220 GPa, new Raman modes arose, providing evidence for the transformation to a new opaque and electrically conductive phase IV. Above 260 GPa, in the next phase V, hydrogen reflected light well. Its resistance was nearly temperature-independent over a wide temperature range, down to 30 K, indicating that the hydrogen was metallic. Releasing the pressure induced the metallic phase to transform directly into molecular hydrogen with significant hysteresis at 200 GPa and 295 K. These data were published in our paper: M. I. Eremets and I. A. Troyan "Conductive dense hydrogen." Nature Materials 10: 927-931. We will present also new results on hydrogen: phase diagram with phases IV and V determined in P,T domain up to 300 GPa and 350 K. We will also discuss possible structures of phase IV based on our Raman and infrared measurements up to 300 GPa.

  18. Chromium(VI) generation in vadose zone soils and alluvial sediments of the southwestern Sacramento Valley, California: a potential source of geogenic Cr(VI) to groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Christopher T.; Morrison, Jean M.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of geogenic Cr(VI) in groundwater that exceed the World Health Organization’s maximum contaminant level for drinking water (50 μg L−1) occur in several locations globally. The major mechanism for mobilization of this Cr(VI) at these sites is the weathering of Cr(III) from ultramafic rocks and its subsequent oxidation on Mn oxides. This process may be occurring in the southern Sacramento Valley of California where Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater can approach or exceed 50 μg L−1. To characterize Cr geochemistry in the area, samples from several soil auger cores (approximately 4 m deep) and drill cores (approximately 25 m deep) were analyzed for total concentrations of 44 major, minor and trace elements, Cr associated with labile Mn and Fe oxides, and Cr(VI). Total concentrations of Cr in these samples ranged from 140 to 2220 mg per kg soil. Between 9 and 70 mg per kg soil was released by selective extractions that target Fe oxides, but essentially no Cr was associated with the abundant reactive Mn oxides (up to ~1000 mg hydroxylamine-reducible Mn per kg soil was present). Both borehole magnetic susceptibility surveys performed at some of the drill core sites and relative differences between Cr released in a 4-acid digestion versus total Cr (lithium metaborate fusion digestion) suggest that the majority of total Cr in the samples is present in refractory chromite minerals transported from ultramafic exposures in the Coast Range Mountains. Chromium(VI) in the samples studied ranged from 0 to 42 μg kg−1, representing a minute fraction of total Cr. Chromium(VI) content was typically below detection in surface soils (top 10 cm) where soil organic matter was high, and increased with increasing depth in the soil auger cores as organic matter decreased. Maximum concentrations of Cr(VI) were up to 3 times greater in the deeper drill core samples than the shallow auger cores. Although Cr(VI) in these vadose zone soils and sediments was only a

  19. Dense gas in high-latitude molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reach, William T.; Pound, Marc W.; Wilner, David J.; Lee, Youngung

    1995-01-01

    The nearby molecular clouds MBM 7, 12, 30, 32, 40, 41, and 55 were surveyed for tracers of dense gas, including the (1-0), (2-1), and (3-2) rotational lines of CS and the (1-0) lines of HCO(+) and HCN. MBM 7 and MBM 12 contain dense cores, while the other clouds contain little or no traces of dense gas. Comparison of the emission from dense gas tracers to that of (13)CO reveals that the former are more compact in angular size as well as line width. An extensive CS(2-1) survey of part of MBM 12 reveals that the emission is characterized by clumps on approximately 3 min scales as well as extended emission. Observations of the CS(1-0) and (3-2) lines using telescopes with matched beam sizes reveal that the volume density must be at least approximately 10(exp 4.5)/cc within the (3-2) emitting regions, which are approximately 0.03 pc in radius. Electron excitation of the CS rotational levels is ruled out (in the cores) by comparing the (3-2)/(1-0) line ratios with models including H2 and electron collisions. The volume density in the cores is substantially larger than in the portions of the cloud traced by CO emission. The density increases into the cores as r(exp -2), suggesting dynamical collapse. The masses of the cores are close to the virial mass, suggesting they are dynamically bound. The cores in MBM 7 and MBM 12 are thus likely to form stars; they are the nearest sites of star formation.

  20. Protostars and Planets VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuther, Henrik; Klessen, Ralf S.; Dullemond, Cornelis P.; Henning, Thomas

    star and planet formation. They are used by students to dive into new topics, and they are much valued by experienced researchers as a comprehensive overview of the field with all its interactions. We hope that you will enjoy reading (and learning from) this book as much as we do. The organization of the Protostars and Planets conference was carried out in close collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy and the Center for Astronomy of the University Heidelberg, with generous support from the German Science Foundation. This volume is a product of effort and care by many people. First and foremost, we want to acknowledge the 250 contributing authors, as it is only due to their expertise and knowledge that such a comprehensive review compendium in all its depth and breadth is possible. The Protostars and Planets VI conference and this volume was a major undertaking, with support and contributions by many people and institutions. We like to thank the members of the Scientific Advisory Committee who selected the 38 teams and chapters out of more than 120 submitted proposals. Similarly, we are grateful to the reviewers, who provided valuable input and help to the chapter authors. The book would also not have been possible without the great support of Renée Dotson and other staff from USRA’s Lunar and Planetary Institute, who handled the detailed processing of all manuscripts and the production of the book, and of Allyson Carter and other staff from the University of Arizona Press. We are also grateful to Richard Binzel, the General Editor of the Space Science Series, for his constant support during the long process, from the original concept to this final product. Finally, we would like to express a very special thank you to the entire conference local organizing committee, and in particular, Carmen Cuevas and Natali Jurina, for their great commitment to the project and for a very fruitful and enjoyable collaboration.

  1. ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI results for UO-2 lattice benchmark problems using MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    Calculations for the ANS UO{sub 2} lattice benchmark have been performed with the MCNP Monte Carlo code and its ENDF/B-V and EnDF/B-VI continuous-energy libraries. Similar calculations were performed previously for the experiments upon which these benchmarks are based, using continuous-energy libraries derived from EnDF/B-V and from Release 2 of EnDF/B-VI (ENDF/B-VI.2). This study extends those calculations to the infinite-lattice configurations given in the benchmark specifications and also includes results from Release 3 of EnDF/B-VI (ENDF/B-VI.3) for both the core and infinite-lattice configurations. For this set of benchmarks, the only significant difference between the ENDF/B-VI.2 and EnDF/B-VI.3 libraries is the cross-section behavior of {sup 235}U. EnDF/B-VI.3 contains revised cross sections for {sup 235}U below 900 eV, although those changes principally affect the range below 110 eV. In particular, relative to EnDF/B-VI.2, EnDF/B-VI.3 increases the epithermal capture-to-fission ratio for {sup 235}U and slightly increases its thermal fission cross section.

  2. UNITS OF WORK IN THE CORE CURRICULUM PROGRAM GRADE VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUEHLER, RONALD G.

    EIGHT UNITS OF WORLD HISTORY AND WORLD GEOGRAPHY ARE USED IN THE SIXTH GRADE AT GROSSE POINTE, MICHIGAN. THE PURPOSE OF THE FIRST UNIT, "MAN LEARNS TO USE HIS WORLD," IS TO CONSIDER CONTRIBUTIONS OF CULTURE BY OTHER CIVILIZATIONS AND GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS. THIS HISTORY OF PRIMITIVE PEOPLES AND CIVILIZATIONS IS TAUGHT. POSSIBLE GROUP…

  3. Probing the Physical Structures of Dense Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    Filament is a common feature in cosmological structures of various scales, ranging from dark matter cosmic web, galaxy clusters, inter-galactic gas flows, to Galactic ISM clouds. Even within cold dense molecular cores, filaments have been detected. Theories and simulations with (or without) different combination of physical principles, including gravity, thermal balance, turbulence, and magnetic field, can reproduce intriguing images of filaments. The ubiquity of filaments and the similarity in simulated ones make physical parameters, beyond dust column density, a necessity for understanding filament evolution. I report three projects attempting to measure physical parameters of filaments. We derive the volume density of a dense Taurus filament based on several cyanoacetylene transitions observed by GBT and ART. We measure the gas temperature of the OMC 2-3 filament based on combined GBT+VLA ammonia images. We also measured the sub-millimeter polarization vectors along OMC3. These filaments were found to be likely a cylinder-type structure, without dynamic heating, and likely accreting mass along the magnetic field lines.

  4. Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the reduction of U(VI) by nano-Fe0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Sun, Yubing; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-09-01

    The effects of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, a typical model bacterium) on the reduction of U(VI) by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nano-Fe0) were investigated using batch techniques. The reaction products were analysed using spectroscopic techniques, and a kinetics model was developed to elucidate the mechanisms of U(VI) reduction by nano-Fe0. The presence of B. subtilis enhanced the U(VI) sorption rate at pH 3.5-9.5 but inhibited the reduction rate of U(VI) to U(IV) at pH > 4.5. According to the FTIR and XRD analysis, the reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was inhibited due to the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes between the oxygen-containing functional groups of B. subtilis or extracellular polymeric substances with the Fe(II)/Fe(III) generated by nano-Fe0, which blocked electron transport from the Fe0 core to U(VI). Based on the EXAFS analysis, a fitting of U-Fe shell at ∼3.44 Å revealed inner-sphere bidentate complexes between uranyl and the oxide film of nano-Fe0. For the nano-Fe0 + B. subtilis system, the U-Fe shell (at ∼3.44 Å) and the U-C/P shell (at ∼2.90 Å) further indicated the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes. The kinetics model supported that U(VI) reduction was triggered by U(VI) sorption on the oxide shell of nano-Fe0. The XPS and XANES analyses showed that reductive precipitation was the main mechanism of U(VI) removal by nano-Fe0, whereas the sorption process dominated the removal of U(VI) in the presence of B. subtilis, which was further demonstrated by TEM images.

  5. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos & Nucleosynthesis in Hot Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Sanjay

    2013-09-06

    It is now firmly established that neutrinos, which are copiously produced in the hot and dense core of the supernova, play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism and in the synthesis of heavy elements through a phenomena known as r-process nucleosynthesis. They are also detectable in terrestrial neutrino experiments, and serve as a probe of the extreme environment and complex dynamics encountered in the supernova. The major goal of the UW research activity relevant to this project was to calculate the neutrino interaction rates in hot and dense matter of relevance to core collapse supernova. These serve as key input physics in large scale computer simulations of the supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis being pursued at national laboratories here in the United States and by other groups in Europe and Japan. Our calculations show that neutrino production and scattering rate are altered by the nuclear interactions and that these modifications have important implications for nucleosynthesis and terrestrial neutrino detection. The calculation of neutrino rates in dense matter are difficult because nucleons in the dense matter are strongly coupled. A neutrino interacts with several nucleons and the quantum interference between scattering off different nucleons depends on the nature of correlations between them in dense matter. To describe these correlations we used analytic methods based on mean field theory and hydrodynamics, and computational methods such as Quantum Monte Carlo. We found that due to nuclear effects neutrino production rates at relevant temperatures are enhanced, and that electron neutrinos are more easily absorbed than anti-electron neutrinos in dense matter. The latter, was shown to favor synthesis of heavy neutron-rich elements in the supernova.

  6. FUSE Observations of O VI Absorption in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegerle, W. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Shelton, R. L.; Bowen, D. V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of an initial Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of O VI Lambda 1032 absorption along the lines of sight to eleven nearby white dwarfs, ten of which are within the Local Bubble (LB; d < or approximately equal 100 pc). A goal of this survey is to investigate the possible formation of O VI in the conductive interfaces between cool (about 10(exp 4) K) clouds immersed in the presumably hot (10(exp 6) K) gas within the LB. This mechanism is often invoked to explain the widespread presence of 0 VI throughout the Galactic disk. We find no 0 VI absorption toward two stars, and the column densities along three additional sight lines are quite low; N(O VI) about 5 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. In several directions, we observe rather broad, shallow absorption with N(O VI) about 1 - 2 x 10(exp 13)/sq cm. Models of conductive interfaces predict narrow profiles with N(OVI) > or about equal to 10(exp 13)/sq cm per interface, in the absence of a significant transverse magnetic field. Hence, our observations of weak 0 VI absorption indicate that conduction is being quenched, possibly by non-radial magnetic fields. Alternatively, the gas within the LB may not be hot. Breitschwerdt & Schmutzler have proposed a model for the LB in which an explosive event within a dense cloud created rapid expansion and adiabatic cooling, resulting in a cavity containing gas with a kinetic temperature of T about 50,000 K, but with an ionization state characteristic of much hotter gas. This model has a number of attractive features, but appears to predict significantly more O VI than we observe.

  7. Interaction of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with type VI collagen

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is a membrane-associated molecule of approximately 500 kD with a core glycoprotein of 300 kD. Both the complete proteoglycan and a smaller quantity of the 300-kD core are immunoprecipitable with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against purified NG2. From some cell lines, the antibodies coprecipitate NG2 and type VI collagen, the latter appearing on SDS- PAGE as components of 140 and 250 kD under reducing conditions. The immunoprecipitation of type VI collagen does not seem to be due to recognition of the collagen by the antibodies, but rather to binding of the collagen to NG2. Studies on the NG2-type VI collagen complex suggest that binding between the two molecules is mediated by protein- protein interactions rather than by ionic interactions involving the glycosaminoglycans. Immunofluorescence double labeling in frozen sections of embryonic rat shows that NG2 and type VI collagen are colocalized in structures such as the intervertebral discs and arteries of the spinal column. In vitro the two molecules are highly colocalized on the surface of several cell lines. Treatment of these cells resulting in a change in the distribution of NG2 on the cell surface also causes a parallel change in type VI collagen distribution. Our results suggest that cell surface NG2 may mediate cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix by binding to type VI collagen. PMID:2269670

  8. Parametric bleaching of dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Ramazashvili, R. R.

    1981-11-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the nonlinear bleaching of a dense plasma slab. In this new mechanism, the electromagnetic wave incident on the plasma decays into plasma waves and then reappears as a result of the coalescence of the plasma waves at the second boundary of the slab.

  9. Giant electron-dense chains, clusters and granules in megakaryocytes and platelets with normal dense bodies: an inherited thrombocytopenic disorder.

    PubMed

    White, James G

    2003-03-01

    A woman and her male child were referred because of life-long thrombocytopenia, moderately increased platelet size, and absence of laboratory findings suggesting immune thrombocytopenia or defective platelet function. Evaluation of their platelets in the electron microscope revealed the presence of large organelles never seen before in human platelets. Examination of bone marrow from the mother and her son in an earlier study revealed that the giant platelet organelles originated in megakaryocytes. The present study has focused on the continuing development of the aberrant organelles in circulating platelets. The smallest subunits were electron-dense fragments and hollow-cored bodies observed in the dense tubular system (DTS). The dense fragments formed chains that became thicker, resulting in clusters, and clusters formed the large electron opaque bodies. Hollow-cored, almost hexagonal subunits also formed chains that interacted with each other to form target-like organelles. The multi-layered target organelles tended to become completely electron dense and difficult to distinguish from the opaque bodies. How two different types of aberrant organelles can develop in the same megakaryocyte/platelet system and both originate from channels of the DTS is unknown. Partial clarification stemming from analytical electron microscopy and ultrastructural cytochemistry will be presented in a subsequent report.

  10. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FORMING STARS AND DENSE GAS IN THE SMALL LOW-MASS CLUSTER CEDERBLAD 110

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, E. F.; Wong, T.; Bourke, T. L.; Thompson, K. L.

    2011-12-20

    We present observations of dense gas and outflow activity in the Cederblad 110 region of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud complex. The region contains nine forming low-mass stars in evolutionary stages ranging from Class 0 to Class II/III crowded into a 0.2 pc region with high surface density ({Sigma}{sub YSO} {approx} 150 pc{sup -2}). The analysis of our N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1{yields}0) maps indicates the presence of 13 {+-} 3 solar masses of dense (n {approx} 10{sup 5} cm{sup -3}) gas in this region, much of which is unstable against gravitational collapse. The most unstable material is located near the Class 0 source MMS-1, which is almost certainly actively accreting material from its dense core. Smaller column densities of more stable dense gas are found toward the region's Class I sources, IRS 4, 11, and 6. Little or no dense gas is colocated with the Class II and III sources in the region. The outflow from IRS 4 is interacting with the dense core associated with MMS-1. The molecular component of the outflow, measured in the (J = 1{yields}0) line of {sup 12}CO, appears to be deflected by the densest part of the core, after which it appears to plow through some of the lower column density portions of the core. The working surface between the head of the outflow lobe and the dense core material can be seen in the enhanced velocity dispersion of the dense gas. IRS 2, the Class III source that produces the optical reflection nebula that gives the Cederblad 110 region its name, may also be influencing the dense gas in the region. A dust temperature gradient across the MMS-1 dense core is consistent with warming from IRS 2, and a sharp gradient in dense gas column density may be caused by winds from this source. Taken together, our data indicate that this region has been producing several young stars in the recent past, and that sources which began forming first are interacting with the remaining dense gas in the region, thereby influencing current and future star

  11. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-04-21

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  12. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition.

  13. Radiative properties of dense nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Fedorov, Andrei G; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang

    2012-09-01

    The radiative properties of dense nanofluids are investigated. For nanofluids, scattering and absorbing of electromagnetic waves by nanoparticles, as well as light absorption by the matrix/fluid in which the nanoparticles are suspended, should be considered. We compare five models for predicting apparent radiative properties of nanoparticulate media and evaluate their applicability. Using spectral absorption and scattering coefficients predicted by different models, we compute the apparent transmittance of a nanofluid layer, including multiple reflecting interfaces bounding the layer, and compare the model predictions with experimental results from the literature. Finally, we propose a new method to calculate the spectral radiative properties of dense nanofluids that shows quantitatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Mucopolysaccharidosis VI: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Harmatz, Paul; Shediac, Renee

    2017-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI), or Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficient activity of the enzyme arylsulfatase B (ASB). Progressive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in organs and tissues leads to the development of multisystem clinical manifestations. The presentation of MPS VI is genotypically and phenotypically diverse, with a large number of potential disease-causing mutations and a phenotypic spectrum ranging from very slowly to very rapidly progressing disease. Diagnosis of MPS VI relies on presence of clinical features, increased GAG levels in urine or low ASB activity in dried blood spots, and measurement of enzyme activity levels in leukocytes or fibroblasts. The management of MPS VI involves enzyme replacement therapy and medical and surgical treatment of disease manifestations. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry of GAG-derived disaccharides in blood or urine is emerging as a valuable method in the diagnosis, prognosis and assessment of therapeutic efficacy in MPS VI.

  15. Dense LU Factorization on Multicore Supercomputer Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Miller, Phil; Venkataraman, Ramprasad; Arya, Anshu; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Dense LU factorization is a prominent benchmark used to rank the performance of supercomputers. Many implementations, including the reference code HPL, use block-cyclic distributions of matrix blocks onto a two-dimensional process grid. The process grid dimensions drive a trade-off between communication and computation and are architecture- and implementation-sensitive. We show how the critical panel factorization steps can be made less communication-bound by overlapping asynchronous collectives for pivot identification and exchange with the computation of rank-k updates. By shifting this trade-off, a modified block-cyclic distribution can beneficially exploit more available parallelism on the critical path, and reduce panel factorization's memory hierarchy contention on now-ubiquitous multi-core architectures. The missed parallelism in traditional block-cyclic distributions arises because active panel factorization, triangular solves, and subsequent broadcasts are spread over single process columns or rows (respectively) of the process grid. Increasing one dimension of the process grid decreases the number of distinct processes in the other dimension. To increase parallelism in both dimensions, periodic 'rotation' is applied to the process grid to recover the row-parallelism lost by a tall process grid. During active panel factorization, rank-1 updates stream through memory with minimal reuse. In a column-major process grid, the performance of this access pattern degrades as too many streaming processors contend for access to memory. A block-cyclic mapping in the more popular row-major order does not encounter this problem, but consequently sacrifices node and network locality in the critical pivoting steps. We introduce 'striding' to vary between the two extremes of row- and column-major process grids. As a test-bed for further mapping experiments, we describe a dense LU implementation that allows a block distribution to be defined as a general function of block

  16. Phase VI Glove Durability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art space suit gloves, the Phase VI gloves, have an operational life of 25 - 8 hour Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) in a clean, controlled ISS environment. Future planetary outpost missions create the need for space suit gloves which can endure up to 90 - 8 hour traditional EVAs or 576 - 45 minute suit port-based EVAs in a dirty, uncontrolled planetary environment. Prior to developing improved space suit gloves for use in planetary environments, it is necessary to understand how the current state-of-the-art performs in these environments. The Phase VI glove operational life has traditionally been certified through cycle testing consisting of ISS-based tasks in a clean environment, and glove durability while performing planetary EVA tasks in a dirty environment has not previously been characterized. Testing was performed in the spring of 2010 by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division to characterize the durability of the Phase VI Glove and identify areas of the glove design which need improvement to meet the requirements of future NASA missions. Lunar simulant was used in this test to help replicate the dirty lunar environment, and generic planetary surface EVA tasks were performed during testing. A total of 50 manned, pressurized test sessions were completed in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) using one pair of Phase VI gloves as the test article. The 50 test sessions were designed to mimic the total amount of pressurized cycling the gloves would experience over a 6 month planetary outpost mission. The gloves were inspected at periodic intervals throughout testing, to assess their condition at various stages in the test and to monitor the gloves for failures. Additionally, motion capture and force data were collected during 18 of the 50 test sessions to assess the accuracy of the cycle model predictions used in testing and to feed into the development of improved cycle model tables. This paper provides a

  17. Phase VI Glove Durability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art space suit gloves, the Phase VI gloves, have an operational life of 25 -- 8 hour Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) in a dust free, manufactured microgravity EVA environment. Future planetary outpost missions create the need for space suit gloves which can endure up to 90 -- 8 hour traditional EVAs or 576 -- 45 minute suit port-based EVAs in a dirty, uncontrolled planetary environment. Prior to developing improved space suit gloves for use in planetary environments, it is necessary to understand how the current state-of-the-art performs in these environments. The Phase VI glove operational life has traditionally been certified through cycle testing consisting of International Space Station (ISS)-based EVA tasks in a clean environment, and glove durability while performing planetary EVA tasks in a dirty environment has not previously been characterized. Testing was performed in the spring of 2010 by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) to characterize the durability of the Phase VI Glove and identify areas of the glove design which need improvement to meet the requirements of future NASA missions. Lunar simulant was used in this test to help replicate the dirty lunar environment, and generic planetary surface EVA tasks were performed during testing. A total of 50 manned, pressurized test sessions were completed in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) using one pair of Phase VI gloves as the test article. The 50 test sessions were designed to mimic the total amount of pressurized cycling the gloves would experience over a 6 month planetary outpost mission. The gloves were inspected periodically throughout testing, to assess their condition at various stages in the test and to monitor the gloves for failures. Additionally, motion capture and force data were collected during 18 of the 50 test sessions to assess the accuracy of the cycle model predictions used in testing and to feed into the

  18. Shotcrete for underground support VI

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This proceedings consists of papers presented at the Shotcrete for Underground Support VI Conference held in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, May 2-6, 1993. It covers three broad themes concerning shotcrete - engineering, research, and applications. Specifically, the proceedings presents papers on: (1) materials engineering; (2) shotcrete research; (3) engineering design; and (4) tunneling, soil nailing, and mining applications. The book concludes by presenting an international compilation of guidelines and recommendations on shotcrete. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Search for O VI Emission from the Shocked Circurmstellar Gas of SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, G.; Iping, R. C.; Lundqvist, P.; Fransson, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) was used to search for broad O VI emission from the shock interaction zones produced by the collision of high-velocity supernova ejecta with the dense inner circumstellar ring of SN 1987A. Since the shock interaction with the inner ring began in 1997, broad (FWHM = 300 km/sec) emission from optical coronal lines (e.g. [Fe X], [Fe XI], and [Fe XIV]) has emerged and increased exponentially in strength. O VI 1032-1038 Angstrom emission is expected to track the coronal lines. O VI is also expected to be the primary cooling transition for the million-degree shocked gas. An accurate measurement of the O VI line strength would significantly improve current models of the shock interaction. FUSE observations of SN 1987A in 2000 and 2001 did not detect broad O VI due to spectral contamination fiom two earlytype stars within a few arc seconds of the SN. However, O VI emission was detected with narrow line widths (FWHM less than 35 km/sec) and a heliocentric radial velocity of +280 km/sec. This places the emitting gas at rest relative to the supernova and is interpreted as emission from unshocked circumstellar gas. A new FUSE observation of SN 1987A obtained in May 2007 used a narrow slit (1.25 x 20 arcsec) to significantly reduce the spectral contamination from the two early-type stars. Yet the 2007 spectrum does not reveal any significant O VI emission. The implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Stable suspension for Vi-agglutination tests

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Koji; Shimojo, Hiroto

    1953-01-01

    Two methods of preparing a stable suspension for Vi-agglutination tests are discussed. Both maintain Vi-agglutinability and O-inagglutinability after storage at 37°C for 6 months, and the second also maintains the Vi-capsule-staining property. The first method involves the addition of 0.5% CaCl2 to a heavy saline Vi-suspension, while in the second a similar suspension is treated with an 0.2% solution of chrome alum. PMID:20603972

  1. Dynamical conditions of dense clumps in dark clouds - A strategy for elucidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Sheo S.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical considerations and simplified dynamical modeling suggest that dark cloud cores may be incessantly evolving such that the time spent at high core densities decreases as the density increases. After reaching a high density, gravitationally contracting dark cloud cores may either form stars or expand to states of lower densities. Cloud mass and initial density are amongst the factors that may control the evolutionary fate of the core. This view is diametrically opposite of the common belief that dense cores may be in near mechanical equilibrium. Mutually consistent end-to-end modeling of the spectral line profiles and intensities is needed to discern the reality.

  2. Immune suppression induced by Vi capsular polysaccharide is overcome by Vi-DT conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    An, So Jung; Yoon, Yeon Kyung; Kothari, Sudeep; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kothari, Neha; Lee, Eugene; Park, Tai Hyun; Carbis, Rodney

    2012-02-01

    The influence pre-exposure of mice to Vi capsular polysaccharide, purified from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi, on the subsequent immune response induced by a Vi-diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conjugate was evaluated. Vi induced low anti Vi IgG titers with the dominant subclass being IgG3. The Vi-DT conjugate induced high titers of anti Vi IgG with the dominant subclass being IgG1 but with considerable quantities of IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3. Priming of mice with Vi suppressed the response to a subsequent dose of conjugate and the suppression was overcome by a second dose of conjugate. Priming with conjugate prevented suppression of the anti Vi response and subsequent dosing with Vi raised titers back to previous levels but did not boost to new higher levels. The anti DT IgG response to one dose of conjugate was relatively strong and protracted and continued to rise for 12 weeks, compared to the response to one dose of DT which was poor and peaked at two weeks. The prolonged anti DT response was most likely due to the slow release of DT from the conjugate lattice as it degrades within the mouse resulting in a continuous stimulation of the immune response. The presence of increasing amounts of un-conjugated Vi, up to 50%, administered with the conjugate resulted in increasingly higher levels of both anti Vi and anti DT. Larger amounts of un-conjugated Vi inhibited the anti Vi response. These findings have implications for vaccine quality and a limit for un-conjugated polysaccharide should not exceed 50% and from a vaccine program perspective if the results presented here translate to humans then a Vi conjugate, once it becomes available, should replace Vi polysaccharide vaccines.

  3. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  4. THE ENIGMATIC CORE L1451-mm: A FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE? OR A HIDDEN VeLLO?

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens; Arce, Hector G.; Tanner, Joel; Schnee, Scott; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-12-20

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L{sub Sun} is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation.

  5. Neptunium(vi) chain and neptunium(vi/v) mixed valence cluster complexes.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Stéphanie M; Häller, L Jonas L; Sarsfield, Mark J; Collison, David; Helliwell, Madeleine; May, Iain; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas

    2009-02-28

    The synthesis of [Np(VI)O(2)Cl(2)(thf)](n) offers the potential for more detailed exploration of neptunyl(vi) chemistry, while the synthesis of the mixed valence cluster complex [{Np(VI)O(2)Cl(2)}{Np(V)O(2)Cl(thf)(3)}(2)] allows molecular neptunyl(v) 'cation-cation' interactions to be probed.

  6. Applicability of VI in arid vegetation delineation using shadow-affected SPOT imagery.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, N K; Al-Wardy, M M; Al-Rawas, G A; Charabi, Y

    2015-07-01

    GDVI(3), GDVI(2), NDVI, MSAVI and SAVI were evaluated for their dynamic ranges, the class accuracy of the Vegetation Index (VI) classifications, the effects of shadow delineation on the other land use classes and their applicability in vegetation delineation in Al-Qara Mountains, Oman. Supervised classifications of a SPOT scene by Support Vector Machines (SVM) algorithm were employed. GDVI(3) showed the widest dynamic range in all land use types, while GDVI(2) also exhibited evidently wider dynamic ranges for arid to semi-arid Al-Qara than NDVI, MSAVI and SAVI. GDVI(3) reported the highest accuracies in delineating natural vegetation (dense - 74.80%, medium-dense- 43.19%), except for low-dense vegetation (40.51%). It also performs the best in delineating bare soil and dry grass with over 80% and 60% accuracies. The attenuated reflectance created by the shadows results in VI signals in the range of dry grass to bare soil, enabling us to neglect the shadow effect on natural vegetation delineation due to below 9.50% omissions from the shadows class. GDVI(3) also limits shadow delineation better than the other indices, which will enable us to analyze spectral information recovery by the VI with the help of ground truth information under the shadows. For applications such as land degradation assessments, GDVI(3) has better prospects over the other indices explored. Saturation at high-vigor vegetation is an issue in GDVI(3), GDVI(2) and NDVI. Our study also points to a dependency of a VI's capability to weaken shadows on the number of training data pixels to be utilized in a supervised classification.

  7. Improving Memory Subsystem Performance Using ViVA: Virtual Vector Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Gebis, Joseph; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Williams, Samuel; Yelick, Katherine

    2009-01-12

    The disparity between microprocessor clock frequencies and memory latency is a primary reason why many demanding applications run well below peak achievable performance. Software controlled scratchpad memories, such as the Cell local store, attempt to ameliorate this discrepancy by enabling precise control over memory movement; however, scratchpad technology confronts the programmer and compiler with an unfamiliar and difficult programming model. In this work, we present the Virtual Vector Architecture (ViVA), which combines the memory semantics of vector computers with a software-controlled scratchpad memory in order to provide a more effective and practical approach to latency hiding. ViVA requires minimal changes to the core design and could thus be easily integrated with conventional processor cores. To validate our approach, we implemented ViVA on the Mambo cycle-accurate full system simulator, which was carefully calibrated to match the performance on our underlying PowerPC Apple G5 architecture. Results show that ViVA is able to deliver significant performance benefits over scalar techniques for a variety of memory access patterns as well as two important memory-bound compact kernels, corner turn and sparse matrix-vector multiplication -- achieving 2x-13x improvement compared the scalar version. Overall, our preliminary ViVA exploration points to a promising approach for improving application performance on leading microprocessors with minimal design and complexity costs, in a power efficient manner.

  8. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  9. Oxo complexes of Mo(VI) and W(VI) with α-alkoxycarboxylate ligands: The role of counterions and water of crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, Adelé; Dobrzańska, Liliana; Raubenheimer, Helgard G.; Luckay, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    Crystal structures of three oxo complexes of Mo(VI) and W(VI) with α-alkoxycarboxylate ligands were solved, namely [(CH3CH2)4N]2[Mo2O5(Hmal)2(H2O)2] (H3mal = malic acid) (1), Na6[Mo2O5(cit)2)]·10.5H2O (H4cit = citric acid) (2) and Na2[WO2(H2cit)2]·10H2O (3). In 1, dianionic malate ligands adopt a unique bidentate coordination mode via alkoxy and α-carboxylate groups in the oxo-bridged dinuclear anionic complex, in which two terminal oxo ligands and a water molecule complete the distorted octahedral geometry around the Mo(VI) centre. In compound 2, a similar oxo-bridged dinuclear core, [Mo2O5]2+, is present. However, the distorted octahedral geometry of each Mo(VI) is completed by oxygen atoms originating from a fully deprotonated citrate ligand, adopting a tridentate coordination mode. The mononuclear complex 3, with two terminal oxo ligands and four oxygen atoms originating from two dianionic, bidentately coordinated citrate ligands positioned in a distorted octahedral geometry around W(VI), shows the presence of unique icosameric water clusters trapped within the crystal lattice.

  10. [Occupational exposure to chromium(VI) compounds].

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) on human health under conditions of acute and chronic exposure in the workplace. Chromium(VI) compounds as carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct danger to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be reduced to a minimum. In the European Union the proposed binding occupational exposure limit value (BOELV) for chromium(VI) of 0.025 mg/m³ is still associated with high cancer risk. Based on the Scientific Commitee of Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) document chromium(VI) concentrations at 0.025 mg/m³ increases the risk of lung cancer in 2-14 cases per 1000 exposed workers. Exposure to chromium(VI) compounds expressed in Cr(VI) of 0.01 mg Cr(VI)/m3; is responsible for the increased number of lung cancer cases in 1-6 per 1000 people employed in this condition for the whole period of professional activity.

  11. Dense crystalline packings of ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiwei; Jiao, Yang; Liu, Lufeng; Yuan, Ye; Li, Shuixiang

    2017-03-01

    An ellipsoid, the simplest nonspherical shape, has been extensively used as a model for elongated building blocks for a wide spectrum of molecular, colloidal, and granular systems. Yet the densest packing of congruent hard ellipsoids, which is intimately related to the high-density phase of many condensed matter systems, is still an open problem. We discover an unusual family of dense crystalline packings of self-dual ellipsoids (ratios of the semiaxes α : √{α }:1 ), containing 24 particles with a quasi-square-triangular (SQ-TR) tiling arrangement in the fundamental cell. The associated packing density ϕ exceeds that of the densest known SM2 crystal [ A. Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255506 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.255506] for aspect ratios α in (1.365, 1.5625), attaining a maximal ϕ ≈0.758 06 ... at α = 93 /64 . We show that the SQ-TR phase derived from these dense packings is thermodynamically stable at high densities over the aforementioned α range and report a phase diagram for self-dual ellipsoids. The discovery of the SQ-TR crystal suggests organizing principles for nonspherical particles and self-assembly of colloidal systems.

  12. The Radiolysis of AmVI Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher

    2013-06-01

    The reduction of bismuthate-produced AmVI by 60Co gamma-rays was measured using post-irradiation UV/Vis spectroscopy. The reduction of AmVI by radiolysis was rapid, producing AmV as the sole product. Relatively low absorbed doses in the ~0.3 kGy range quantitatively reduced a solution of 2.5 x 10-4 M AmVI. The addition of bismuthate to samples during irradiation did not appear to protect AmVI from radiolytic reduction during these experiments. It was also shown here that AmV is very stable toward radiation. The quantitative reduction of the AmVI concentration here corresponds to 1.4 hours of exposure to a process solution, however the actual americium concentrations will be higher and the expected contact times short when using centrifugal contactors. Thus, the reduction rate found in these initial experiments may not be excessive.

  13. Intelsat VI - A continuing evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, S. B.; Braverman, D. J.

    1984-11-01

    Design, launch, and performance features of the Intelsat VI satellite scheduled for 1986 launch are described. The spacecraft will operated with SS/TDMA techniques and six antenna beams, weigh 23 kg at the beginning of life, carry 80,000 half-circuits, and will be borne aloft by either the STS or Ariane 4. The communications equipment will include Cand K-band receivers, 14/11 GHz upconverters, traveling wave tube amplifiers, and 50 input and output filters. Total interconnectivity will be present for all uplinks and downlinks, which will issue spot and shaped beam coverage of the hemisphere. Satellite power is to be supplied by solar panels furnishing 2 kW continuously and eclipse power is to be drawn from two 44 Ah NiH batteries. Orbit maintenance and attitude control are assigned to six 22 N thrusters.

  14. The JCMT dense gas survey in dense molecular clouds: an HCO+/HCN comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker-Smith, Samantha; Richer, John; Buckle, Jane; Salji, Carl; Hatchell, Jennifer; Drabek, Emily

    2013-07-01

    We present the results of a large-scale survey of the very dense molecular gas in Perseus, Orion A and B, Serpens and Ophiuchus using HCO+ and HCN (J = 4 - 3) transitions. We have used this emission to trace the structure and kinematics of gas at the extremely high densities found in pre- and protostellar cores; as well as tracing outflows powered by these early star-forming cores. We present a comparison of the HCO+/HCN data, highlighting regions where there is a marked discrepancy in the spectra of the two emission lines. This is particularly noticeable in some of the more powerful outflows driven by Class 0 sources, where the HCN is greatly enhanced in the linewings in comparison with HCO+. We also use the HCO+ to positively identify protostellar outflows and their driving sources. We present a statistical analysis of the outflow properties that we derive from this tracer. We show that our results are comparable to those obtained from similar outflow analyses using 12CO.

  15. Viscoelastic behavior of dense microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cametti, C.; Codastefano, P.; D'arrigo, G.; Tartaglia, P.; Rouch, J.; Chen, S. H.

    1990-09-01

    We have performed extensive measurements of shear viscosity, ultrasonic absorption, and sound velocity in a ternary system consisting of water-decane-sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfo- succinate(AOT), in the one-phase region where it forms a water-in-oil microemulsion. We observe a rapid increase of the static shear viscosity in the dense microemulsion region. Correspondingly the sound absorption shows unambiguous evidence of a viscoelastic behavior. The absorption data for various volume fractions and temperatures can be reduced to a universal curve by scaling both the absorption and the frequency by the measured static shear viscosity. The sound absorption can be interpreted as coming from the high-frequency tail of the viscoelastic relaxation, describable by a Cole-Cole relaxation formula with unusually small elastic moduli.

  16. Uniformly dense polymeric foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2003-07-15

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.5 g/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microsphere material wherein some of the microspheres are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  17. Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, A. E.

    2017-03-01

    A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.

  18. Extended thermodynamics of dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Ruggeri, T.; Sugiyama, M.

    2012-11-01

    We study extended thermodynamics of dense gases by adopting the system of field equations with a different hierarchy structure to that adopted in the previous works. It is the theory of 14 fields of mass density, velocity, temperature, viscous stress, dynamic pressure, and heat flux. As a result, most of the constitutive equations can be determined explicitly by the caloric and thermal equations of state. It is shown that the rarefied-gas limit of the theory is consistent with the kinetic theory of gases. We also analyze three physically important systems, that is, a gas with the virial equations of state, a hard-sphere system, and a van der Waals fluid, by using the general theory developed in the former part of the present work.

  19. Emissions of chromium (VI) from arc welding.

    PubMed

    Heung, William; Yun, Myoung-Jin; Chang, Daniel P Y; Green, Peter G; Halm, Chris

    2007-02-01

    The presence of Cr in the +6 oxidation state (Cr[VI]) is still observed in ambient air samples in California despite steps taken to reduce emissions from plating operations. One known source of emission of Cr(VI) is welding, especially with high Cr-content materials, such as stainless steels. An experimental effort was undertaken to expand and update Cr(VI) emission factors by conducting tests on four types of arc-welding operations: gas-metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), fluxcore arc welding, and pulsed GMAW. Standard American Welding Society hood results were compared with a total enclosure method that permitted isokinetic sampling for particle size-cut measurement, as well as total collection of the aerosol. The fraction of Cr(VI) emitted per unit mass of Cr electrode consumed was determined. Consistent with AP-42 data, initial results indicate that a significant fraction of the total Cr in the aerosol is in the +6 oxidation state. The fraction of Cr(VI) and total aerosol mass produced by the different arc welding methods varies with the type of welding process used. Self-shielded electrodes that do not use a shield gas, for example, SMAW, produce greater amounts of Cr(VI) per unit mass of electrode consumed. The formation of Cr(VI) from standard electrode wires used for welding mild steel was below the method detection limit after eliminating an artifact in the analytical method used.

  20. Anaerobic bio-removal of uranium (VI) and chromium (VI): comparison of microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Martins, Mónica; Faleiro, Maria Leonor; Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogério; Santos, Erika; Costa, Maria Clara

    2010-04-15

    Several microbial communities, obtained from uranium contaminated and non-contaminated samples, were investigated for their ability to remove uranium (VI) and the cultures capable for this removal were further assessed on their efficiency for chromium (VI) removal. The highest efficiency for removal of both metals was observed on a consortium from a non-contaminated soil collected in Monchique thermal place, which was capable to remove 91% of 22 mg L(-1) U(VI) and 99% of 13 mg L(-1) Cr(VI). This study revealed that uranium (VI) removing communities have also ability to remove chromium (VI), but when uranium (VI) was replaced by chromium (VI) several differences in the structure of all bacterial communities were observed. TGGE and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that the uranium (VI) removing bacterial consortia are mainly composed by members of Rhodocyclaceae family and Clostridium genus. On the other hand, bacteria from Enterobacteriaceae family were detected in the community with ability for chromium (VI) removal. The existence of members of Enterobacteriaceae and Rhodocyclaceae families never reported as chromium or uranium removing bacteria, respectively, is also a relevant finding, encouraging the exploitation of microorganisms with new abilities that can be useful for bioremediation.

  1. Determination of the equation of state of dense matter.

    PubMed

    Danielewicz, Paweł; Lacey, Roy; Lynch, William G

    2002-11-22

    Nuclear collisions can compress nuclear matter to densities achieved within neutron stars and within core-collapse supernovae. These dense states of matter exist momentarily before expanding. We analyzed the flow of matter to extract pressures in excess of 10(34) pascals, the highest recorded under laboratory-controlled conditions. Using these analyses, we rule out strongly repulsive nuclear equations of state from relativistic mean field theory and weakly repulsive equations of state with phase transitions at densities less than three times that of stable nuclei, but not equations of state softened at higher densities because of a transformation to quark matter.

  2. The performance of dense medium processes

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    Dense medium washing in baths and cyclones is widely carried out in South Africa. The paper shows the reason for the preferred use of dense medium processes rather than gravity concentrators such as jigs. The factors leading to efficient separation in baths are listed and an indication given of the extent to which these factors may be controlled and embodied in the deployment of baths and dense medium cyclones in the planning stages of a plant.

  3. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  4. II-VI widegap superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Endoh, Y.; Nozue, Y.; Mullins, J. T.; Ohno, T.; Masumoto, Y.; Takeda, S.

    We review our recent results of the excitonic properties in ZnSeZnS and Cd xZn 1-xSZnS strained-layer superlattices (SLSs). The most important physical insights in the II-VI widegap superlattices are to understand the relationship between the optical properties of quasi-two-dimensional exciton and strain because the well layer frequently receives biaxial compression or tension. The strain thus causes the significant shifts of the bandgap and splitting of the valence band. Semi-quantative calculations lead to an expectation that ZnSeZnS SLS always exhibits a type I band lineup within 100 Å thicknesses of the ZnSe well at a constant ZnS barrier width of several tens angstrom. This is in good agreement with the experimental results of exciton absorption and its luminescence excitation spectra. The Cd 0.3Zn 0.7SZnS SLSs with a range of well widths can produce intense excitonic emissions around 3.4 eV at room temperature due to the quantum confinement of excitons in the ternary CdZnS well. In order to elucidate localisation and relaxation processes of excitons, we have for the first time reported a multiple-LO-phonon emission process in the excitation spectra. The electric-field studies suggest that the concomitant decrease in intensity and the energy downshift of the exciton line may originate from the quantum confined Stark effect.

  5. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2010-12-14

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shaped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  6. Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and nanorod barcodes

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Scher, Erik C.; Manna, Liberato

    2013-03-26

    Graded core/shell semiconductor nanorods and shapped nanorods are disclosed comprising Group II-VI, Group III-V and Group IV semiconductors and methods of making the same. Also disclosed are nanorod barcodes using core/shell nanorods where the core is a semiconductor or metal material, and with or without a shell. Methods of labeling analytes using the nanorod barcodes are also disclosed.

  7. Quantum chemistry study of uranium(VI), neptunium(V), and plutonium(IV,VI) complexes with preorganized tetradentate phenanthrolineamide ligands.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cheng-Liang; Wu, Qun-Yan; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-10-20

    The preorganized tetradentate 2,9-diamido-1,10-phenanthroline ligand with hard-soft donors combined in the same molecule has been found to possess high selectivity toward actinides in an acidic aqueous solution. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) coupled with the quasi-relativistic small-core pseudopotential method was used to investigate the structures, bonding nature, and thermodynamic behavior of uranium(VI), neptunium(V), and plutonium(IV,VI) with phenanthrolineamides. Theoretical optimization shows that Et-Tol-DAPhen and Et-Et-DAPhen ligands are both coordinated with actinides in a tetradentate chelating mode through two N donors of the phenanthroline moiety and two O donors of the amide moieties. It is found that [AnO2L(NO3)](n+) (An = U(VI), Np(V), Pu(VI); n = 0, 1) and PuL(NO3)4 are the main 1:1 complexes. With respect to 1:2 complexes, the reaction [Pu(H2O)9](4+)(aq) + 2L(org) + 2NO3(-)(aq) → [PuL2(NO3)2](2+)(org) + 9H2O(aq) might be another probable extraction mechanism for Pu(IV). From the viewpoint of energy, the phenanthrolineamides extract actinides in the order of Pu(IV) > U(VI) > Pu(VI) > Np(V), which agrees well with the experimental results. Additionally, all of the thermodynamic reactions are more energetically favorable for the Et-Tol-DAPhen ligand than the Et-Et-DAPhen ligand, indicating that substitution of one ethyl group with one tolyl group can enhance the complexation abilities toward actinide cations (anomalous aryl strengthening).

  8. Rheology of water ices V and VI

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the mechanical strength (??) of pure water ices V and VI under steady state deformation conditions. Constant displacement rate compressional tests were conducted in a gas apparatus at confining pressures from 400 250 K. Ices V and VI are thus Theologically distinct but by coincidence have approximately the same strength under the conditions chosen for these experiments. To avoid misidentification, these tests are therefore accompanied by careful observations of the occurrences and characteristics of phase changes. One sample each of ice V and VI was quenched at pressure to metastably retain the high-pressure phase and the acquired deformation microstructures; X ray diffraction analysis of these samples confirmed the phase identification. Surface replicas of the deformed and quenched samples suggest that ice V probably deforms largely by dislocation creep, while ice VI deforms by a more complicated process involving substantial grain size reduction through recrystallization.

  9. XAS investigations of Fe(VI).

    SciTech Connect

    Kemner, K. M.; Kelly, S. D.; Orlandini, K. A.; Tsapin, A. I.; Goldfeld, M. G.; Perfiliev, Y. D.; Nealson, K. H.; Environmental Research; APS-USR; Jet Propulsion Lab.; Moscow State Univ.

    2001-03-01

    Recent attention has been given to a reexamination of results from the early Viking missions to Mars that suggested the presence of one or more strong oxidants in Martian soil. Since Fe is one of the main constituents of the Martian surface and Fe(VI) is known to be a highly reactive, strong oxidant, we have made XANES and EXAFS measurements of Fe(II), Fe(III), Fe(IV), and Fe(VI) in solid and solution forms. Results from these studies indicate a pre-edge XANES feature from Fe(VI) samples similar to that commonly seen from Cr(VI) samples. Results of first shell analysis indicate a linear relationship between the Fe-O bond length and Fe valence state.

  10. Optimal probabilistic dense coding schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kögler, Roger A.; Neves, Leonardo

    2017-04-01

    Dense coding with non-maximally entangled states has been investigated in many different scenarios. We revisit this problem for protocols adopting the standard encoding scheme. In this case, the set of possible classical messages cannot be perfectly distinguished due to the non-orthogonality of the quantum states carrying them. So far, the decoding process has been approached in two ways: (i) The message is always inferred, but with an associated (minimum) error; (ii) the message is inferred without error, but only sometimes; in case of failure, nothing else is done. Here, we generalize on these approaches and propose novel optimal probabilistic decoding schemes. The first uses quantum-state separation to increase the distinguishability of the messages with an optimal success probability. This scheme is shown to include (i) and (ii) as special cases and continuously interpolate between them, which enables the decoder to trade-off between the level of confidence desired to identify the received messages and the success probability for doing so. The second scheme, called multistage decoding, applies only for qudits ( d-level quantum systems with d>2) and consists of further attempts in the state identification process in case of failure in the first one. We show that this scheme is advantageous over (ii) as it increases the mutual information between the sender and receiver.

  11. ORNL fission product release tests VI-6

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, M.F.; Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Lee, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The ORNL fission product release tests investigate release and transport of the major fission products from high-burnup fuel under LWR accident conditions. The two most recent tests (VI-4 and VI-5) were conducted in hydrogen. In three previous tests in this series (VI-1, VI-2, and VI-3), which had been conducted in steam, the oxidized Zircaloy cladding remained largely intact and acted as a barrier to steam reaction with the UO{sub 2}. Test VI-6 was designed to insure significant oxidation of the UO{sub 2} fuel, which has been shown to enhance release of certain fission products, especially molybdenum and ruthenium. The BR3 fuel specimen used in test VI-6 will be heated in hydrogen to 2300 K; the Zircaloy cladding is expected to melt and runoff at {approximately}2150 K. Upon reaching the 2300 K test temperature, the test atmosphere will be changed to steam, and that temperature will be maintained for 60 min, with the three collection trains being operated for 2-, 18-, and 40-min periods. The releases of {sup 85}Kr and {sup 137}Cs will be monitored continuously throughout the test. Posttest analyses of the material collected on the three trains will provide results on the release and transport of Mo, Ru, Sb, Te, Ba, Ce, and Eu as a function of time at 2300 K. Continuous monitoring of the hydrogen produced during the steam atmosphere period at high temperature will provide a measure of the oxidation rate of the cladding and fuel. Following delays in approval of the safety documentation and in decontamination of the hot cell and test apparatus, test VI-6 will be conducted in late May.

  12. Role of dense matter in collective supernova neutrino transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban-Pretel, A.; Pastor, S.; Mirizzi, A.; Tomas, R.; Raffelt, G. G.; Serpico, P. D.; Sigl, G.

    2008-10-15

    For neutrinos streaming from a supernova core, dense matter suppresses self-induced flavor transformations if the electron density n{sub e} significantly exceeds the neutrino density n{sub {nu}} in the conversion region. If n{sub e} is comparable to n{sub {nu}}, one finds multiangle decoherence, whereas the standard self-induced transformation behavior requires that in the transformation region n{sub {nu}} is safely above n{sub e}. This condition need not be satisfied in the early phase after the supernova core bounce. Our new multiangle effect is a subtle consequence of neutrinos traveling on different trajectories when streaming from a source that is not pointlike.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 266 - Stack Plume Rise

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stack Plume Rise VI Appendix VI to Part 266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 266—Stack Plume Rise Flow rate (m3/s) Exhaust Temperature...

  18. Carbon chemistry in dense molecular clouds: Theory and observational constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    For the most part, gas phase models of the chemistry of dense molecular clouds predict the abundances of simple species rather well. However, for larger molecules and even for small systems rich in carbon these models often fail spectacularly. Researchers present a brief review of the basic assumptions and results of large scale modeling of the carbon chemistry in dense molecular clouds. Particular attention is to the influence of the gas phase C/O ratio in molecular clouds, and the likely role grains play in maintaining this ratio as clouds evolve from initially diffuse objects to denser cores with associated stellar and planetary formation. Recent spectral line surveys at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths along with selected observations in the submillimeter have now produced an accurate inventory of the gas phase carbon budget in several different types of molecular clouds, though gaps in our knowledge clearly remain. The constraints these observations place on theoretical models of interstellar chemistry can be used to gain insights into why the models fail, and show also which neglected processes must be included in more complete analyses. Looking toward the future, larger molecules are especially difficult to study both experimentally and theoretically in such dense, cold regions, and some new methods are therefore outlined which may ultimately push the detectability of small carbon chains and rings to much heavier species.

  19. Structure of the human annexin VI gene

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.; Moss, S.E.; Davies, A.; Crumpton, M.J.

    1994-03-29

    The authors report the structure of the human annexin VI gene and compare the intron-exon organization with the known structures of the human annexin I and II genes. The gene is {approximately}60 kbp long and contains 26 exons. Consistent with the published annexin VI cDNA sequence, the genomic sequence at the 3{prime} end does not contain a canonical polyadenylation signal. The genomic sequence upstream of the transcription start site contains TATAA and CAAT motifs. The spatial organization of the exons does not reveal any obvious similarities between the two halves of the annexin VI gene. Comparison of the intron-exon boundary positions of the annexin VI gene with those of annexins I and II reveals that within the repeated domains the break points are perfectly conserved except for exon 8, which is one codon smaller in annexin II. The corresponding point in the second half of annexin VI is represented by two exons, exons 20 and 21. The latter exon is alternatively spliced, giving rise to two annexin VI isoforms that differ with respect to a 6-amino acid insertion at the start of repeat 7. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of aqueous cyanide

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, V.K.; Rivera, W.; Smith, J.O.; O`Brien, B.

    1998-09-01

    The rates of oxidation of cyanide with Fe(VI) were measured as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction was found to be first order for each reactant. The rates decrease with increasing pH. The energy of activation was found to be 38.9 {+-} 1.0 kJ mol{sup {minus}1} at pH 9.0. The removal of cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was studied at pH 7.5, 9.0, and 12.0. Fe(VI) removal efficiency was greater at pH 9.0 than at pH 7.5 and 12.0. At pH 9.0, Fe(VI) molar consumption was nearly equal to that of oxidized cyanide. Cyanate and nitrite ions were identified as the products of the reaction at pH 7.5. The experiments indicated 1:1 stoichiometric conversion of cyanide to nitrite ion at pH 9.0 and 12.0. Experiments were conducted to test the Fe(VI) removal efficiency of cyanide in electroplating rinsewater. The results indicate that Fe(VI) has the potential to serve as a reliable and safe oxidative treatment for removing cyanide in wastewater effluent.

  1. Water in dense molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wannier, P. G.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Frerking, M. A.; Gulkis, S.; Pickett, H. M.; Wilson, W. J.; Pagani, L.; Lecacheux, A.; Encrenaz, P.

    1991-01-01

    The G.P. Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) was used to make initial observations of the half-millimeter ground-state transition of water in seven giant molecular clouds and in two late-type stars. No significant detections were made, and the resulting upper limits are significantly below those expected from other, indirect observations and from several theoretical models. The implied interstellar H2O/CO abundance is less than 0.003 in the cores of three giant molecular clouds. This value is less than expected from cloud chemistry models and also than estimates based on HDO and H3O(+) observations.

  2. Crystallization of dense neutron matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Chitre, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The equation of state for cold neutron matter at high density is studied in the t-matrix formulation, and it is shown that energetically it is convenient to have neutrons in a crystalline configuration rather than in a liquid state for values of the density exceeding 1600 Tg/cu cm. The study of the mechanical properties indicates that the system is stable against shearing stresses. A solid core in the deep interior of heavy neutron stars appears to offer the most plausible explanation of speed-ups observed in the Vela pulsar.

  3. Killing by Type VI secretion drives genetic phase separation and correlates with increased cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Luke; Bernardy, Eryn; Thomas, Jacob; Kalziqi, Arben; Pentz, Jennifer; Brown, Sam P.; Hammer, Brian K.; Yunker, Peter J.; Ratcliff, William C.

    2017-02-01

    By nature of their small size, dense growth and frequent need for extracellular metabolism, microbes face persistent public goods dilemmas. Genetic assortment is the only general solution stabilizing cooperation, but all known mechanisms structuring microbial populations depend on the availability of free space, an often unrealistic constraint. Here we describe a class of self-organization that operates within densely packed bacterial populations. Through mathematical modelling and experiments with Vibrio cholerae, we show how killing adjacent competitors via the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) precipitates phase separation via the `Model A' universality class of order-disorder transition mediated by killing. We mathematically demonstrate that T6SS-mediated killing should favour the evolution of public goods cooperation, and empirically support this prediction using a phylogenetic comparative analysis. This work illustrates the twin role played by the T6SS, dealing death to local competitors while simultaneously creating conditions potentially favouring the evolution of cooperation with kin.

  4. Characterization of Amoeba proteus myosin VI immunoanalog.

    PubMed

    Dominik, Magdalena; Kłopocka, Wanda; Pomorski, Paweł; Kocik, Elzbieta; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2005-07-01

    Amoeba proteus, the highly motile free-living unicellular organism, has been widely used as a model to study cell motility. However, molecular mechanisms underlying its unique locomotion and intracellular actin-based-only trafficking remain poorly understood. A search for myosin motors responsible for vesicular transport in these giant cells resulted in detection of 130-kDa protein interacting with several polyclonal antibodies against different tail regions of human and chicken myosin VI. This protein was binding to actin in the ATP-dependent manner, and immunoprecipitated with anti-myosin VI antibodies. In order to characterize its possible functions in vivo, its cellular distribution and colocalization with actin filaments and dynamin II during migration and pinocytosis were examined. In migrating amoebae, myosin VI immunoanalog localized to vesicular structures, particularly within the perinuclear and sub-plasma membrane areas, and colocalized with dynamin II immunoanalog and actin filaments. The colocalization was even more evident in pinocytotic cells as proteins concentrated within pinocytotic pseudopodia. Moreover, dynamin II and myosin VI immunoanalogs cosedimented with actin filaments, and were found on the same isolated vesicles. Blocking endogenous myosin VI immunoanalog with anti-myosin VI antibodies inhibited the rate of pseudopodia protrusion (about 19% decrease) and uroidal retraction (about 28% decrease) but did not affect cell morphology and the manner of cell migration. Treatment with anti-human dynamin II antibodies led to changes in directionality of amebae migration and affected the rate of only uroidal translocation (about 30% inhibition). These results indicate that myosin VI immunoanalog is expressed in protist Amoeba proteus and may be involved in vesicle translocation and cell locomotion.

  5. Spitzer Observations of L429: A Near-collapse or Collapsing Starless Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Rieke, George H.; Bieging, John H.; Misselt, Karl A.; Myers, Philip C.; Shirley, Yancy L.

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer infrared (IR) observations of the starless core L429. The IR images of this core show an absorption feature, caused by the dense core material, at wavelengths <= 70 μ. The core has a steep density profile, and reaches AV > 35 mag near the center. We show that L429 is either collapsing or in a near-collapse state.

  6. Diffusion of U(VI) in Opalinus Clay: Influence of temperature and humic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, C.; Van Loon, L. R.; Jakob, A.; Steudtner, R.; Schmeide, K.; Sachs, S.; Bernhard, G.

    2013-05-01

    The diffusion of U(VI) (c0 = 1 × 10-6 mol/L) in compacted Opalinus Clay from the Mont Terri underground laboratory, Switzerland, was studied in the absence and presence of humic acid (10 mg/L) at two different temperatures (25 °C, 60 °C) under anaerobic conditions. As background electrolyte synthetic Opalinus Clay pore water (pH 7.6, I = 0.36 mol/L) was used. The diffusion-accessible porosity, ɛ, was determined for each Opalinus Clay bore core sample by through-diffusion experiments with tritiated water (HTO) before the U(VI) diffusion experiments were carried out. The values for the effective diffusion and distribution coefficients De and Kd obtained for U(VI) and humic acid at 25 °C as well as at 60 °C showed that humic acid has no significant influence on the U(VI) diffusion. The diffusion profiles of humic acid in Opalinus Clay at 25 and 60 °C indicate the contributions of two different humic acid particle size fractions (<1 kDa and 10-100 kDa). The small-sized humic acid fraction diffused through the whole Opalinus Clay samples at both temperatures within the 3 month duration of the U(VI) diffusion experiments. At 60 °C, diffusion profiles of two different U(VI) species were observed. In a separate experiment the U(VI) speciation in the source reservoir solution at 60 °C was analyzed by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray detector. The two diffusion profiles could be attributed to an unknown colloidal and a known aquatic U(VI) species (Ca2UO2(CO3)3(aq)). The diffusion results showed that the interaction of U(VI) and of the large-sized humic acid colloid fraction with the clay is stronger at 60 °C. An increase of Kd from 0.025 ± 0.003 m3/kg at 25 °C to 0.25 ± 0.05 m3/kg for U(VI)colloidal at 60 °C was determined. In addition, the value for De of U(VI) increased with increasing temperature. Using the De values at 25 and 60 °C, a preliminary

  7. HOW STARLESS ARE STARLESS CORES?

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, Scott; Friesen, Rachel; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Enoch, Melissa; Sadavoy, Sarah

    2012-01-20

    In this paper, we present the results of Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy continuum and spectral line observations of the dense core Per-Bolo 45. Although this core has previously been classified as starless, we find evidence for an outflow and conclude that Per-Bolo 45 is actually an embedded, low-luminosity protostar. We discuss the impact of newly discovered, low-luminosity, embedded objects in the Perseus molecular cloud on starless core and protostar lifetimes. We estimate that the starless core lifetime has been overestimated by 4%-18% and the Class 0/I protostellar lifetime has been underestimated by 5%-20%. Given the relatively large systematic uncertainties involved in these calculations, variations on the order of 10% do not significantly change either core lifetimes or the expected protostellar luminosity function. Finally, we suggest that high-resolution (sub)millimeter surveys of known cores lacking near-infrared and mid-infrared emission are necessary to make an accurate census of starless cores.

  8. Singular Instantons and Painlevé VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñiz Manasliski, Richard

    2016-06-01

    We consider a two parameter family of instantons, which is studied in [Sadun L., Comm. Math. Phys. 163 (1994), 257-291], invariant under the irreducible action of SU_2 on S^4, but which are not globally defined. We will see that these instantons produce solutions to a one parameter family of Painlevé VI equations (P_VI}) and we will give an explicit expression of the map between instantons and solutions to P_{VI}. The solutions are algebraic only for that values of the parameters which correspond to the instantons that can be extended to all of S^4. This work is a generalization of [Muñiz Manasliski R., Contemp. Math., Vol. 434, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 2007, 215-222] and [Muñiz Manasliski R., J. Geom. Phys. 59 (2009), 1036-1047, arXiv:1602.07221], where instantons without singularities are studied.

  9. Dissociation energy of molecules in dense gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A general approach is presented for calculating the reduction of the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules immersed in a dense (n = less than 10 exp 22/cu cm) gas of molecules and atoms. The dissociation energy of a molecule in a dense gas differs from that of the molecule in vacuum because the intermolecular forces change the intramolecular dynamics of the molecule, and, consequently, the energy of the molecular bond.

  10. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  11. METHOD OF PRODUCING DENSE CONSOLIDATED METALLIC REGULUS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-08-11

    A methcd is presented for reducing dense metal compositions while simultaneously separating impurities from the reduced dense metal and casting the reduced parified dense metal, such as uranium, into well consolidated metal ingots. The reduction is accomplished by heating the dense metallic salt in the presence of a reducing agent, such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal in a bomb type reacting chamber, while applying centrifugal force on the reacting materials. Separation of the metal from the impurities is accomplished essentially by the incorporation of a constricted passageway at the vertex of a conical reacting chamber which is in direct communication with a collecting chamber. When a centrifugal force is applled to the molten metal and slag from the reduction in a direction collinear with the axis of the constricted passage, the dense molten metal is forced therethrough while the less dense slag is retained within the reaction chamber, resulting in a simultaneous separation of the reduced molten metal from the slag and a compacting of the reduced metal in a homogeneous mass.

  12. Evolution of Dense Gas with Starburst Age: When Star Formation Versus Dense Gas Relations Break Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, J. L.; Schinnerer, E.

    2011-05-01

    Dense gas correlates well with star formation on kpc scales. On smaller scales, motions of individual clouds become comparable to the 100 Myr ages of starbursts. One then expects the star formation rate vs. dense gas relations to break down on giant molecular cloud scales. We exploit this to study the evolutionary history of nuclear starburst in the nearby spiral, IC 342. Maps of the J=5-4 and 16-15 transitions of dense gas tracer HC3N at 20 pc resolution made with the VLA and the Plateau de Bure interferometer are presented. The 5-4 line of HC3N traces very dense gas in the cold phase, while the 16-15 transition traces warm, dense gas. These reveal changes in dense cloud structure on scales of 30 pc among clouds with star formation histories differing by only a few Myrs. HC3N emission does not correlate well with young star formation at these high spatial resolutions, but gas excitation does. The cold, dense gas extends well beyond the starburst region implying large amounts of dense quiescent gas not yet actively forming stars. Close to the starburst the high excitation combined with faint emission indicates that the immediate (30 pc) vicinity of the starburst lacks large masses of very dense gas and has high dense gas star formation efficiencies. The dense gas appears to be in pressure equilibrium with the starburst. We propose a scenario where the starburst is being caught in the act of dispersing or destroying the dense gas in the presence of the expanding HII region. This work is supported by the NSF through NRAO and grant AST-1009620.

  13. Equation of state and neutrino opacity of dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of matter at densities similar to nuclear density plays an important role in core collapse supernova. In this talk I discuss aspects of the equation of state and weak interactions at high density. I highlight its relation to the temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission from the newly born neutron star born in the aftermath of a core-collapse supernova. I will briefly comment on how this will impact r-process nucleosynthesis. The hot and dense neutron star (proto-neutron star) born in the aftermath of a core collapse supernova provides a promising environment for r-process nucleosynthesis. The intense temperatures and neutrino fluxes in the vicinity of the proto-neutron star is expected to result in a high entropy neutron-rich wind necessary for successful r-process nucleosynthesis. Although theoretical efforts to simulate core collapse supernova have not been able to provide a mechanism for robust explosions, several key features of the supernova dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star are well understood. Large scale numerical simulations of supernova and neutron star evolution are now being pursued by several groups. Simulating core collapse supernova is challenging because it involves coupled multi-dimensional hydrodynamics and neutrino transport. The neutrinos play a key role since they are the dominant source of energy transport. It is expected that refinements in neutrino transport and better treatment of multi-dimensional effects are needed to understand the explosion mechanism. The temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission which is emitted from the proto-neutron star is an independent diagnostic of supernova explosion dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star. To accurately predict the ambient conditions just outside the newly born neutron star for the first 10-20 s, we will need to understand both the explosion mechanism and neutrino emission. In this talk I will discuss micro

  14. Radio core dominance of Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Jun-Hui; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Yi-Hai; Cai, Wei; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Lin, Chao; Yang, Jiang-He

    2016-07-01

    During the first 4 years of mission, Fermi/LAT detected 1444 blazars (3FGL) (Ackermann et al. in Astrophys. J. 810:14, 2015). Fermi/LAT observations of blazars indicate that Fermi blazars are luminous and strongly variable with variability time scales, for some cases, as short as hours. Those observations suggest a strong beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars. In the present work, we will investigate the beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars using a core-dominance parameter, R = S_{core}/ S_{ext.}, where S_{core} is the core emission, while S_{ext.} is the extended emission. We compiled 1335 blazars with available core-dominance parameter, out of which 169 blazars have γ-ray emission (from 3FGL). We compared the core-dominance parameters, log R, between the 169 Fermi-detected blazars (FDBs) and the rest non-Fermi-detected blazars (non-FDBs), and we found that the averaged values are < log Rrangle = 0.99±0.87 for FDBs and < log Rrangle = -0.62±1.15 for the non-FDBs. A K-S test shows that the probability for the two distributions of FDBs and non-FDBs to come from the same parent distribution is near zero (P =9.12×10^{-52}). Secondly, we also investigated the variability index (V.I.) in the γ-ray band for FDBs, and we found V.I.=(0.12 ±0.07) log R+(2.25±0.10), suggesting that a source with larger log R has larger V.I. value. Thirdly, we compared the mean values of radio spectral index for FDBs and non-FDBs, and we obtained < α_{radio}rangle =0.06±0.35 for FDBs and < α_{radio}rangle =0.57±0.46 for non-FDBs. If γ-rays are composed of two components like radio emission (core and extended components), then we can expect a correlation between log R and the γ-ray spectral index. When we used the radio core-dominance parameter, log R, to investigate the relationship, we found that the spectral index for the core component is α_{γ}|_{core} = 1.11 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{core} = 2.11) and that for the extended component is α_{γ}|_{ext.} = 0

  15. 76 FR 60593 - Title VI; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Federal Transit Administration Title VI; Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has placed in the docket and on its Web site, proposed guidance in... locations will be ADA- and transit-accessible. For details about the exact location of each...

  16. Data testing of ENDF/B-VI

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, R.E.

    1994-06-01

    A number of the fast reactor and thermal reactor benchmarks have been analyzed using nuclear data from ENDF/B-VI Release 2. Data were prepared with the NJOY nuclear data processing system in MATXS and ACE formats. Transport calculations were preformed with ONEDANT and TWODANT using transport tables prepared by the TRANSX code and with the MCNP Monte Carlo code.

  17. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... anticipated future exposure to chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this... respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section to achieve the...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  20. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anticipated future exposure to chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this... respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section to achieve the...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... anticipated future exposure to chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this... respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section to achieve the...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.1126 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this section... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  5. 29 CFR 1915.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of asthma, dermatitis, skin... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (f) of this... achieve compliance with the PEL. (f) Respiratory protection—(1) General. Where respiratory protection...

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... anticipated future exposure to chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this... respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section to achieve the...

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1026 - Chromium (VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... anticipated future exposure to chromium (VI); any history of respiratory system dysfunction; any history of... them by the use of respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this... respiratory protection that complies with the requirements of paragraph (g) of this section to achieve the...

  8. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED STATUTES-IMPLEMENTATION AND REVIEW PROCEDURES § 200.7 FHWA Title VI policy. It is the policy of the FHWA to ensure compliance with Title VI of the...

  9. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED STATUTES-IMPLEMENTATION AND REVIEW PROCEDURES § 200.7 FHWA Title VI policy. It is the policy of the FHWA to ensure compliance with Title VI of the...

  10. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... ensure compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; 49 CFR part 21; and related statutes...

  11. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... ensure compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; 49 CFR part 21; and related statutes...

  12. 23 CFR 200.7 - FHWA Title VI policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false FHWA Title VI policy. 200.7 Section 200.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CIVIL RIGHTS TITLE VI PROGRAM AND RELATED... ensure compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; 49 CFR part 21; and related statutes...

  13. Accessibillity of Electron Bernstein Modes in Over-Dense Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, D.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.

    1999-04-12

    Mode-conversion between the ordinary, extraordinary and electron Bernstein modes near the plasma edge may allow signals generated by electrons in an over-dense plasma to be detected. Alternatively, high frequency power may gain accessibility to the core plasma through this mode conversion process. Many of the tools used for ion cyclotron antenna de-sign can also be applied near the electron cyclotron frequency. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities for an antenna that may couple to electron Bernstein modes inside an over-dense plasma. The optimum values for wavelengths that undergo mode-conversion are found by scanning the poloidal and toroidal response of the plasma using a warm plasma slab approximation with a sheared magnetic field. Only a very narrow region of the edge can be examined in this manner; however, ray tracing may be used to follow the mode converted power in a more general geometry. It is eventually hoped that the methods can be extended to a hot plasma representation. Using antenna design codes, some basic antenna shapes will be considered to see what types of antennas might be used to detect or launch modes that penetrate the cutoff layer in the edge plasma.

  14. Self-induced decoherence in dense neutrino gases

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, Georg G.; Sigl, Guenter

    2007-04-15

    Dense neutrino gases exhibit collective oscillations where 'self-maintained coherence' is a characteristic feature, i.e., neutrinos of different energies oscillate with the same frequency. In a nonisotropic gas, however, the flux term of the neutrino-neutrino interaction has the opposite effect of causing kinematical decoherence of neutrinos propagating in different directions, an effect that is at the origin of the 'multiangle behavior' of neutrinos streaming off a supernova core. We cast the equations of motion in a form where the role of the flux term is manifest. We study in detail the symmetric case of equal neutrino and antineutrino densities where the evolution consists of collective pair conversions ('bipolar oscillations'). A gas of this sort is unstable in that an infinitesimal anisotropy is enough to trigger a runaway towards flavor equipartition. The 'self-maintained coherence' of a perfectly isotropic gas gives way to 'self-induced decoherence'.

  15. Stability of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Windisch, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored relative to well-separated triplets of so-called semi-superfluid color flux tubes. However, the short-range interaction (metastable versus unstable) has not been established. In this paper we perform numerical calculations using the effective theory of the condensate field, mapping the regions in the parameter space of coupling constants where the vortices are metastable versus unstable. For the case of zero-gauge coupling we analytically identify a candidate for the unstable mode and show that it agrees well with the results of the numerical calculations. We find that in the region of the parameter space that seems likely to correspond to real-world CFL quark matter the vortices are unstable, indicating that if such matter exists in neutron star cores it is very likely to contain semi-superfluid color flux tubes rather than superfluid vortices.

  16. Dense and Sparse Matrix Operations on the Cell Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Samuel W.; Shalf, John; Oliker, Leonid; Husbands,Parry; Yelick, Katherine

    2005-05-01

    The slowing pace of commodity microprocessor performance improvements combined with ever-increasing chip power demands has become of utmost concern to computational scientists. Therefore, the high performance computing community is examining alternative architectures that address the limitations of modern superscalar designs. In this work, we examine STI's forthcoming Cell processor: a novel, low-power architecture that combines a PowerPC core with eight independent SIMD processing units coupled with a software-controlled memory to offer high FLOP/s/Watt. Since neither Cell hardware nor cycle-accurate simulators are currently publicly available, we develop an analytic framework to predict Cell performance on dense and sparse matrix operations, using a variety of algorithmic approaches. Results demonstrate Cell's potential to deliver more than an order of magnitude better GFLOP/s per watt performance, when compared with the Intel Itanium2 and Cray X1 processors.

  17. Kinetic theory and long range correlations in moderately dense gases

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, T.; Prigogine, I.

    1997-01-01

    The complex spectral representation of the Liouville operator is applied to moderately dense gases interacting through hard-core potentials in arbitrary d-dimensional spaces. It is shown that Markovian kinetic equations exist for all d. This provides an answer to the long standing question do kinetic equations exist in two dimensional systems. The non-Markovian effects, such as the long-time tails for arbitrary n-mode coupling, are estimated by superposition of the Markovian evolutions in each subspace as introduced in our spectral decomposition. The long-time tail effects invalidate the traditional kinetic theory based on a truncation of BBGKY hierarchy for d < 4, as well as the Green-Kubo formalism, as there appear contributions of order t{sup -1}, t{sup -{1/2}},... coming from multiple mode-mode couplings even for d = 3.

  18. Size Dependent Mechanical Properties of Monolayer Densely Arranged Polystyrene Nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Lijing; Yan, Qingfeng; Guo, Dan; Xie, Guoxin

    2016-12-13

    In contrast to macroscopic materials, the mechanical properties of polymer nanospheres show fascinating scientific and application values. However, the experimental measurements of individual nanospheres and quantitative analysis of theoretical mechanisms remain less well performed and understood. We provide a highly efficient and accurate method with monolayer densely arranged honeycomb polystyrene (PS) nanospheres for the quantitatively mechanical characterization of individual nanospheres on the basis of atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation. The efficiency is improved by 1-2 orders, and the accuracy is also enhanced almost by half-order. The elastic modulus measured in the experiments increases with decreasing radius to the smallest nanospheres (25-35 nm in radius). A core-shell model is introduced to predict the size dependent elasticity of PS nanospheres, and the theoretical prediction agrees reasonably well with the experimental results and also shows a peak modulus value.

  19. Hydrophilic polymer composites synthesized by electrospinning under dense carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudiono, Okamoto, Koichi; Machmudah, Siti; Kanda, Hideki; Goto, Motonobu

    2015-12-01

    Electrospinning technique is feasible in some applications, it has attracted more attention in recent years. Various polymers have been successfully electrospun into ultrafine fibers in solvent solution and some in melt form. In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a hydrophilic polymer would be synthesized by electrospinning under dense carbon dioxide (CO2). The experiments were performed at 40 °C and ˜ 5 MPa. During the electrospinning process, the applied voltage was 10-17 kV and the distance of nozzle and collector was 8 cm. The concentration of PVP solution as a major component was 4 wt%. The results showed that the fibers surface morphology from PVP which blended with poly L-lactide acid (PLLA) were smooth with hollow core fibers at 5 MPa. At the same conditions, PVP-carbon nanotube was also successfully generated into electrospun fiber products with diameter ˜ 2 μm.

  20. U(VI) reduction to mononuclear U(VI) by desulfitobacterium spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, K. E.; Boyanov, M. I.; Thomas, S. H.; Wu, Q.; Kemner, K. M.; Loffler, F. E.

    2010-06-15

    The bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) affects uranium mobility and fate in contaminated subsurface environments and is best understood in Gram-negative model organisms such as Geobacter and Shewanella spp. This study demonstrates that U(VI) reduction is a common trait of Gram-positive Desulfitobacterium spp. Five different Desulfitobacterium isolates reduced 100 {mu}M U(VI) to U(IV) in <10 days, whereas U(VI) remained soluble in abiotic and heat-killed controls. U(VI) reduction in live cultures was confirmed using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis. Interestingly, although bioreduction of U(VI) is almost always reported to yield the uraninite mineral (UO{sub 2}), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis demonstrated that the U(IV) produced in the Desulfitobacterium cultures was not UO{sub 2}. The EXAFS data indicated that the U(IV) product was a phase or mineral composed of mononuclear U(IV) atoms closely surrounded by light element shells. This atomic arrangement likely results from inner-sphere bonds between U(IV) and C/N/O- or P/S-containing ligands, such as carbonate or phosphate. The formation of a distinct U(IV) phase warrants further study because the characteristics of the reduced material affect uranium stability and fate in the contaminated subsurface.

  1. ENDF-201, ENDF/B-VI summary documentation supplement 1, ENDF/HE-VI summary documentation

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.

    1996-12-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) provides coordination for and serves as the secretariat to the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSWEG). CSEWG is responsible for the oversight of the ENDF/B Evaluated Nuclear Data File. All data are checked and reviewed by CSEWG, and the file is maintained at the NNDC. For a description of the ENDF/B-VI file, see the ENDF-102 Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF-6. The purpose of this addendum to the ENDF/B-VI Summary Documentation is to provide documentation of Releases 1, 2, 3, and 4 for the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/HE-VI evaluated nuclear data libraries. These releases contain many new and revised evaluations for the neutron, photo-atomic interaction, radioactive decay data, spontaneous fission product yield, neutron-induced fission product yield, thermal neutron scattering, proton, deuteron, and triton sublibraries. The summaries have been extracted mainly from the ENDF/B-VI File 1 comments (MT = 451), which have been checked, edited, and may also include supplementary information. Some summaries have been provided by the evaluators in electronic format, while others are extracted from reports on the evaluations. All references have been checked and corrected, or updated where appropriate. A list of the laboratories which have contributed evaluations used in ENDF/B-VI is given.

  2. Molecular defects that affect platelet dense granules.

    PubMed

    Gunay-Aygun, Meral; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A

    2004-10-01

    Platelet dense granules form using mechanisms shared by melanosomes in melanocytes and by subsets of lysosomes in more generalized cells. Consequently, disorders of platelet dense granules can reveal how organelles form and move within cells. Models for the study of new vesicle formation include isolated delta-storage pool deficiency, combined alphadelta-storage pool deficiency, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Griscelli syndrome, thrombocytopenia absent radii syndrome, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The molecular bases of dense granule deficiency are known for the seven subtypes of HPS, as well as for Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Griscelli syndrome, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. The gene products involved in these disorders help elucidate the generalized process of the formation of vesicles from extant membranes such as the Golgi.

  3. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubbles shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.

  4. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; ...

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore » shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  5. Core layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Hernlund, J. W.; Morbidelli, A.

    2015-12-01

    We have created a planetary accretion and differentiation model that self-consistently builds and evolves Earth's core. From this model, we show that the core grows stably stratified as the result of rising metal-silicate equilibration temperatures and pressures, which increases the concentrations of light element impurities into each newer core addition. This stable stratification would naturally resist convection and frustrate the onset of a geodynamo, however, late giant impacts could mechanically mix the distinct accreted core layers creating large homogenous regions. Within these regions, a geodynamo may operate. From this model, we interpret the difference between the planetary magnetic fields of Earth and Venus as a difference in giant impact histories. Our planetary accretion model is a numerical N-body integration of the Grand Tack scenario [1]—the most successful terrestrial planet formation model to date [2,3]. Then, we take the accretion histories of Earth-like and Venus-like planets from this model and post-process the growth of each terrestrial planet according to a well-tested planetary differentiation model [4,5]. This model fits Earth's mantle by modifying the oxygen content of the pre-cursor planetesimals and embryos as well as the conditions of metal-silicate equilibration. Other non-volatile major, minor and trace elements included in the model are assumed to be in CI chondrite proportions. The results from this model across many simulated terrestrial planet growth histories are robust. If the kinetic energy delivered by larger impacts is neglected, the core of each planet grows with a strong stable stratification that would significantly impede convection. However, if giant impact mixing is very efficient or if the impact history delivers large impacts late, than the stable stratification can be removed. [1] Walsh et al. Nature 475 (2011) [2] O'Brien et al. Icarus 223 (2014) [3] Jacobson & Morbidelli PTRSA 372 (2014) [4] Rubie et al. EPSL 301

  6. IR Spectroscopy of PAHs in Dense Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamandola, Louis; Bernstein, Max; Mattioda, Andrew; Sandford, Scott

    2007-05-01

    Interstellar PAHs are likely to be a component of the ice mantles that form on dust grains in dense molecular clouds. PAHs frozen in grain mantles will produce IR absorption bands, not IR emission features. A couple of very weak absorption features in ground based spectra of a few objects embedded in dense clouds may be due to PAHs. Additionally spaceborne observations in the 5 to 8 ?m region, the region in which PAH spectroscopy is rich, reveal unidentified new bands and significant variation from object to object. It has not been possible to properly evaluate the contribution of PAH bands to these IR observations because the laboratory absorption spectra of PAHs condensed in realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ice analogs is lacking. This experimental data is necessary to interpret observations because, in ice mantles, the interaction of PAHs with the surrounding molecules effects PAH IR band positions, widths, profiles, and intrinsic strengths. Furthermore, PAHs are readily ionized in pure H2O ice, further altering the PAH spectrum. This laboratory proposal aims to remedy the situation by studying the IR spectroscopy of PAHs frozen in laboratory ice analogs that realistically reflect the composition of the interstellar ices observed in dense clouds. The purpose is to provide laboratory spectra which can be used to interpret IR observations. We will measure the spectra of these mixed molecular ices containing PAHs before and after ionization and determine the intrinsic band strengths of neutral and ionized PAHs in these ice analogs. This will enable a quantitative assessment of the role that PAHs can play in determining the 5-8 ?m spectrum of dense clouds and will directly address the following two fundamental questions associated with dense cloud spectroscopy and chemistry: 1- Can PAHs be detected in dense clouds? 2- Are PAH ions components of interstellar ice?

  7. Revised Analysis and Configuration Interaction in Mo VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Mo vi, with ground term 4p^64d ^2D, has a simple one-electron spectrum 4p^6nl-4p^6n^'l^' as well as a more complex spectrum arising from inner-shell excitations 4p^54d^2 and^ 4p^54d5s. A few years ago we observed the spectrum of Mo vi from 200 to 5300 å with a sliding-spark and the 10.7-m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs at NIST. We revised a number of the known even levels of the one-electron spectrum [1] and confirmed the ionization limit [1],^ which was based largely on the Penning discharge observations of Romanov and Striganov [2]. A number of Romanov and Striganov's line identifications were also revised. Our results have not yet been published. More recently, we revisited the 4p^6(4d+5s)-4p^5(4d^2+4d5s) transitions and revised several of the core-excited levels [3]. Some levels of 4p^54d^2 are highly mixed with one-electron levels, resulting in transitions at longer wavelengths between 4p^54d^2 and one-electron levels. This provides accurate connections between the ground term and some highly-excited levels and thus highly accurate Ritz-type wavelength predictions for resonance transitions. Improved values have been obtained for all of the energy levels and a new least-squares fit for the odd configurations carried out. [1] B. Edl'en, et al., Phys. Scr. 32, 215 (1985). [2] N. P. Romanov and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 27, 8 (1969). [3] A. Kancerevicius et al., Lith. Phys. J. 31,143 (1991). Supported by Office of Fusion Energy Sciences of D.O.E.

  8. Fast temperature relaxation model in dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast model to calculate the temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasmas. The electron-ion interaction-potential is calculated by combining a Yukawa approach and a finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model. We include the internal energy as well as the excess energy of ions using the QEOS model. Comparisons with molecular dynamics simulations and calculations based on an average-atom model are presented. This approach allows the study of the temperature relaxation in a two-temperature electron-ion system in warm and hot dense matter.

  9. Superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Alford, Mark; Windisch, Andreas; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-03-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of ``semi-superfluid'' color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars.

  10. Demagnetization effects in dense nanoparticle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normile, P. S.; Andersson, M. S.; Mathieu, R.; Lee, S. S.; Singh, G.; De Toro, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    We highlight the relevance of demagnetizing-field corrections in the characterization of dense magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. By an analysis that employs in-plane and out-of-plane magnetometry on cylindrical assemblies, we demonstrate the suitability of a simple analytical formula-based correction method. This allows us to identify artifacts of the demagnetizing field in temperature-dependent susceptibility curves (e.g., shoulder peaks in curves from a disordered assembly of essentially bare magnetic nanoparticles). The same analysis approach is shown to be a straightforward procedure for determining the magnetic nanoparticle packing fraction in dense, disordered assemblies.

  11. O VI Emission from the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robin L.

    2004-01-01

    This project's primary goal was to examine the Local Bubble, a large hot bubble surrounding the solar neighborhood. In order to do this, we observed the 1032 and 1038 A resonance line emission from O VI in the bubble and used the,results to comment on models for the Local Bubble and its embedded clouds. In order to maximize the signal to noise of our spectrum, we combined the awarded guest investigator observation with unpublished FUSE In Orbit Checkout observations. The resulting spectrum was sufficiently good as to enable us to place tight 2 sigma upper limits on the intensities of the 1032 and the 1038 A resonance lines. We also measured or placed upper limits on the other cosmic lines in the bandpass, including C III and C II. These are the first known ultraviolet emission line measurements and/or upper limits for the gas in the Local Bubble (as opposed to gas anywhere along long lines of sight). With the O VI upper limits, we were able to quantitatively evaluate competing theories for the origins of the Local Bubble. The upper limits are well below those expected in the Breitschwerdt model (which proposes that during its its early development, the Local Bubble rapidly expanded beyond its nascent cloud and, as a result, is now vastly underionized). The upper limits on the O VI resonance line doublet intensity and the measurement of the C III intensity, garnered from this project, combined with measurements of the O VI column density, garnered from another project, are so far below the predictions, that they make a good case for eliminating the Breitschwerdt model from the field of possibilities. Thus, instead of being vastly underionized, the Local Bubble is near ionizational equilibrium. In addition, the upper limits challenge the other well-known model for the Local Bubble. In that model, the Local Bubble was blown by a series of supernova explosions and winds and contains a myriad of evaporating clouds. The intensity of the O VI resonance line doublet

  12. Connecting the Dense Gas and Young Stars in the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundy, Lee G.; Storm, Shaye; Looney, Leslie; Lee, Katherine I.; Fernandez Lopez, Manuel; Ostriker, Eve C.; Chen, Che-Yu; CLASSy Team

    2016-01-01

    The CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) imaged the dense gas structure and kinematics in five, roughly 1 pc scale regions in the Serpens and Perseus clouds with 7" angular resolution. The spatial distribution and Class of the young stellar population (YSOs) is available for these regions from the Spitzer c2d and Gould Belt surveys, with added sources from the Herschel 70 micron images. Together, these datasets allow us to compare, for the first time at similar spatial resolutions, the distributions of the dense gas and YSOs over regions containing up to 90 identified YSOs. This enables a detailed look at the separation between YSOs and the nearest dense gas peak and a measure of overall relationship between the YSO and dense gas distributions. We find that most Class 0 YSOs are forming in the highest column density regions: leaves in the dendrogram analysis utilized by CLASSy. In Serpens and Perseus, we find that 29% and 38%, respectively, of the leaves have identified embedded YSOs. Class 1 sources are less confined to leaf locations; Class II sources are distributed throughout regions, mostly away from hierarchical peaks. This trend could be due to a modest (0.1 km/sec) velocity difference between YSOs and their natal cores, or due to the YSOs consuming or dispersing their natal cores.

  13. Final Technical Report -- GEO-VI - USGEO

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Leonard

    2009-11-30

    Representatives of US earth observations departments and agencies, other participating governments, NGOs and civil society participated in the Sixth Plenary Meeting of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO-VI), hosted by the United States in Washington, DC on November 17 and 18, 2009. The meeting was held in the Atrium Ballroom of the Ronald Reagan International Trade Center. Exhibitions of international Earth observation technology and programs were held concurrently in the same venue. A number of GEO committee meetings and side events were held in conjunction with the GEO-VI Plenary, including the GEO-IGOS Symposium on Earth observation science and applications, the GEOSS in the Americas Forum on Coastal Zones, and separate meetings of the GEO Communities of Practice on Carbon, Health, and Air Quality.

  14. Proceedings of Minnowbrook Workshops I to VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    This DVD collection includes the complete proceedings of Minnowbrook Workshops I through VI. Titles include Minnowbrook I - 1993 Workshop on End-Stage Boundary Layer Transition (NASA/CP-2007-214667, CASI ID 20070038942), Minnowbrook II - 1997 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition in Turbomachines (NASA/CP-1998-206958, CASI ID 19980206205), Minnowbrook III - 2000 Workshop on Boundary Layer Transition and Unsteady Aspects of Turbomachinery Flow (NASA/CP-2001-210888, CASI ID 20020067662), Minnowbrook IV - 2003 Workshop on Transition and Unsteady Aspects of Turbomachinery Flows (NASA TM-2004-212913, CASI ID 20040121174), Minnowbrook V - 2006 Workshop on Unsteady Flows in Turbomachinery (NASA/CP-2006-214484, CASI ID 20070024781), and Minnowbrook VI - 2009 Workshop on Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics (NACA/CP-2010-216112, CASI ID 20100018557).

  15. Benign recurrent VI nerve palsy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bixenman, W W; von Noorden, G K

    1981-01-01

    The case of a child with six documented episodes of benign recurrent unilateral VI nerve palsy between the ages of 2 1/2 months and 3 years is presented. Despite the recognized self-limiting course of this disorder, its possible evolution into a comitant esotropia makes close follow-up mandatory. The practical aspects of management including maintenance occlusion therapy are stressed as well as the need for prompt surgical intervention once the acquired stabismus has become stabilized. The etiology of benign VI nerve palsy of childhood may have the same immunological basis as other cases of para-infectious neuropathy. This isolated postinfective cranial mononeuropathy easily blends into the continuum of neurological involvement seen with the Landry-Guillian-Barre syndrome. With recovery from the initial episode, the abducens nerve may have become predisposed to recurrent inflammatory episodes and recurrent loss of function. Most often these recurrences are triggered by febrile illnesses of childhood.

  16. HalleyVI - a station for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Mike; Tuplin, Karl

    2013-04-01

    There has been a research station at Halley in Antarctica (75°35'S, 26°34'W) since 1956. Halley has a long and successful scientific record, notably the discovery of the Ozone Hole and significant contributions to areas as diverse as Geology and Space physics. Halley is located on a floating and flowing iceshelf with constant surface accumulation. These conditions have resulted in the necessary regular rebuilding of the station and HalleyVI has just been completed. Halley VI has been fully scientifically operational since Feb 2012. The station supports a chemical and turbulence clean area, an electromagnetic quiet zone, an area for radars, and flexible facilities on the station to support a wide variety of science activities. This presentation outlines the major features of the new station, its current scientific activities, and the facilities that allow the hosting of a wide variety of scientific experiments.

  17. Preparation of a dense, polycrystalline ceramic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Jason; Chen, Ching-Fong; Alexander, David

    2010-12-07

    Ceramic nanopowder was sealed inside a metal container under a vacuum. The sealed evacuated container was forced through a severe deformation channel at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the ceramic nanopowder. The result was a dense nanocrystalline ceramic structure inside the metal container.

  18. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.

    1993-10-12

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  19. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.

  20. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  1. Dense peripheral corneal clouding in Scheie syndrome.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Whitley, C B; Holland, E J; Purple, R L; Krivit, W

    1994-05-01

    A 28-year-old woman with Scheie syndrome (MPS I-S) presented with the unusual feature of extremely dense peripheral corneal clouding, allowing maintenance of good central visual acuity. Characteristic systemic features, an abnormal electroretinogram result, and absent alpha-L-iduronidase activity confirmed the diagnosis despite the unusual corneal pattern of clouding.

  2. Dense matter at RAON: Challenges and possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yujeong; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Gaitanos, T.; Kim, Youngman

    2016-11-01

    Dense nuclear matter is ubiquitous in modern nuclear physics because it is related to many interesting microscopic and macroscopic phenomena such as heavy ion collisions, nuclear structure, and neutron stars. The on-going rare isotope science project in Korea will build up a rare isotope accelerator complex called RAON. One of the main goals of RAON is to investigate rare isotope physics including dense nuclear matter. Using the relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (RBUU) transport code, we estimate the properties of nuclear matter that can be created from low-energy heavyion collisions at RAON.We give predictions for the maximum baryon density, the isospin asymmetry and the temperature of nuclear matter that would be formed during 197Au+197Au and 132Sn+64Ni reactions. With a large isospin asymmetry, various theoretical studies indicate that the critical densities or temperatures of phase transitions to exotic states decrease. Because a large isospin asymmetry is expected in the dense matter created at RAON, we discuss possibilities of observing exotic states of dense nuclear matter at RAON for large isospin asymmetry.

  3. DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS -- A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    site characterization, and, therefore, DNAPL remediation, can be expected. Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface are long-term sources of ground-water contamination, and may persist for centuries before dissolving completely in adjacent ground water. In respo...

  4. Diagnostic and treatment strategies in mucopolysaccharidosis VI

    PubMed Central

    Vairo, Filippo; Federhen, Andressa; Baldo, Guilherme; Riegel, Mariluce; Burin, Maira; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ARSB gene, which lead to deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme ASB. This enzyme is important for the breakdown of the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which accumulate in body tissues and organs of MPS VI patients. The storage of GAGs (especially dermatan sulfate) causes bone dysplasia, joint restriction, organomegaly, heart disease, and corneal clouding, among several other problems, and reduced life span. Despite the fact that most cases are severe, there is a spectrum of severity and some cases are so attenuated that diagnosis is made late in life. Although the analysis of urinary GAGs and/or the measurement of enzyme activity in dried blood spots are useful screening methods, the diagnosis is based in the demonstration of the enzyme deficiency in leucocytes or fibroblasts, and/or in the identification of pathogenic mutations in the ARSB gene. Specific treatment with enzyme replacement has been available since 2005. It is safe and effective, bringing measurable benefits and increased survival to patients. As several evidences indicate that early initiation of therapy may lead to a better outcome, newborn screening is being considered for this condition, and it is already in place in selected areas where the incidence of MPS VI is increased. However, as enzyme replacement therapy is not curative, associated therapies should be considered, and research on innovative therapies continues. The management of affected patients by a multidisciplinary team with experience in MPS diseases is highly recommended. PMID:26586959

  5. Superfluidity and vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, Satyanarayana Kumar

    This dissertation will elucidate specific features of superfluid behavior in dense quark matter, It will start with issues regarding spontaneous decay of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter. This will be followed by topics that explain superfluid phenomena from field theoretical viewpoint. In particular the first part of the dissertation will talk about superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter which are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of "semi-superfluid" color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars. In the field theoretic formulation of a zero-temperature superfluid one connects the superfluid four-velocity which is a macroscopic observable with a microscopic field variable namely the gradient of the phase of a Bose-Condensed scalar field. On the other hand, a superfluid at nonzero temperatures is usually described in terms of a two-fluid model: the superfluid and the normal fluid. In the later part of the dissertation we offer a deeper understanding of the two-fluid model by deriving it from an underlying microscopic field theory. In particular, we shall obtain the macroscopic properties of a uniform, dissipationless superfluid at low temperatures and weak coupling within the framework of a ϕ 4 model. Though our study is very general, it may also be viewed as a step towards understanding the superfluid properties of various phases of dense nuclear and quark matter in the interior of compact star.

  6. Chemical Dense Gas Modeling in Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. J.; Williams, M. D.; Nelson, M. A.; Streit, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    Many industrial facilities have on-site storage of chemicals and are within a few kilometers of residential population. Chemicals are transported around the country via trains and trucks and often go through populated areas on their journey. Many of the chemicals, like chlorine and phosgene, are toxic and when released into the air are heavier-than-air dense gases that hug the ground and result in high airborne concentrations at breathing level. There is considerable concern about the vulnerability of these stored and transported chemicals to terrorist attack and the impact a release could have on highly-populated urban areas. There is the possibility that the impacts of a dense gas release within a city would be exacerbated since the buildings might act to trap the toxic cloud at street level and channel it over a large area down side streets. However, no one is quite sure what will happen for a release in cities since there is a dearth of experimental data. There are a number of fast-running dense gas models used in the air pollution and emergency response community, but there are none that account for the complex flow fields and turbulence generated by buildings. As part of this presentation, we will discuss current knowledge regarding dense gas releases around buildings and other obstacles. We will present information from wind tunnel and field experiments, as well as computational fluid dynamics modeling. We will also discuss new fast response modeling efforts which are trying to account for dense gas transport and dispersion in cities.

  7. Deuterium chemistry of dense gas in the vicinity of low-mass and massive star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Zainab; Viti, Serena; Bayet, Estelle; Caselli, Paola

    2014-09-01

    The standard interstellar ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H) atoms is ˜1.5 × 10-5. However, the deuterium fractionation is in fact found to be enhanced, to different degrees, in cold, dark cores, hot cores around massive star-forming regions, lukewarm cores, and warm cores (hereafter hot corinos) around low-mass star-forming regions. In this paper, we investigate the overall differences in the deuterium chemistry between hot cores and hot corinos. We have modelled the chemistry of dense gas around low-mass and massive star-forming regions using a gas-grain chemical model. We investigate the influence of varying the core density, the depletion efficiency of gaseous species on to dust grains, the collapse mode and the final mass of the protostar on the chemical evolution of star-forming regions. We find that the deuterium chemistry is, in general, most sensitive to variations of the depletion efficiency on to grain surfaces, in agreement with observations. In addition, the results showed that the chemistry is more sensitive to changes in the final density of the collapsing core in hot cores than in hot corinos. Finally, we find that ratios of deuterated sulphur bearing species in dense gas around hot cores and corinos may be good evolutionary indicators in a similar way as their non-deuterated counterparts.

  8. Cooling compact stars and phase transitions in dense QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2016-03-01

    We report new simulations of cooling of compact stars containing quark cores and updated fits to the Cas A fast cooling data. Our model is built on the assumption that the transient behaviour of the star in Cas A is due to a phase transition within the dense QCD matter in the core of the star. Specifically, the fast cooling is attributed to an enhancement in the neutrino emission triggered by a transition from a fully gapped, two-flavor, red-green color-superconducting quark condensate to a superconducting crystalline or an alternative gapless, color-superconducting phase. The blue-colored condensate is modeled as a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type color superconductor with spin-one pairing order parameter. We study the sensitivity of the fits to the phase transition temperature, the pairing gap of blue quarks and the timescale characterizing the phase transition (the latter modelled in terms of a width parameter). Relative variations in these parameter around their best-fit values larger than 10-3 spoil the fit to the data. We confirm the previous finding that the cooling curves show significant variations as a function of compact star mass, which allows one to account for dispersion in the data on the surface temperatures of thermally emitting neutron stars.

  9. A Dynamical Gravitational Wave Source in a Dense Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Jarrod R.; Sippel, Anna C.; Tout, Christopher A.; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2016-08-01

    Making use of a new N-body model to describe the evolution of a moderate-size globular cluster, we investigate the characteristics of the population of black holes within such a cluster. This model reaches core-collapse and achieves a peak central density typical of the dense globular clusters of the Milky Way. Within this high-density environment, we see direct confirmation of the merging of two stellar remnant black holes in a dynamically formed binary, a gravitational wave source. We describe how the formation, evolution, and ultimate ejection/destruction of binary systems containing black holes impacts the evolution of the cluster core. Also, through comparison with previous models of lower density, we show that the period distribution of black hole binaries formed through dynamical interactions in this high-density model favours the production of gravitational wave sources. We confirm that the number of black holes remaining in a star cluster at late times and the characteristics of the binary black hole population depend on the nature of the star cluster, critically on the number density of stars and by extension the relaxation timescale.

  10. An experiment to determine drilling water imbibition by in situ densely welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.

    1987-04-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the extent of penetration of drill water into Grouse Canyon densely welded tuff during use of normal drilling practices. Core samples were examined from a borehole cored in a rib of the Rock Mechanics drift in G-tunnel at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Methylene blue dye was added to the drill water to act as a tracer which stained the rock blue on contact. We found the rock stained blue only in a thin layer about 0.5 mm thick at the surface of the core. However we were concerned about the uniformity of penetration depth observed in the core and this prompted a simple experiment to test the ability of methylene blue to penetrate the matrix of densely welded tuff. We found that in the imbibition process, the dye and water separated such that the water penetrated the matrix to a much greater depth. This result meant that any interpretation of drill water imbibition in borehole core based on this dye as a tracer is unreliable. More important, however, is the conclusion that the presence of methylene blue dye on the rock indicates the presence of tracer water flow, but the absence of the dye does not rule out the presence of water flow. 6 refs.

  11. Few-layer III-VI and IV-VI 2D semiconductor transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucharitakul, Sukrit; Liu, Mei; Kumar, Rajesh; Sankar, Raman; Chou, Fang C.; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Gao, Xuan

    Since the discovery of atomically thin graphene, a large variety of exfoliable 2D materials have been thoroughly explored for their exotic transport behavior and promises in technological breakthroughs. While most attention on 2D materials beyond graphene is focused on transition metal-dichalcogenides, relatively less attention is paid to layered III-VI and IV-VI semiconductors such as InSe, SnSe etc which bear stronger potential as 2D materials with high electron mobility or thermoelectric figure of merit. We will discuss our recent work on few-layer InSe 2D field effect transistors which exhibit carrier mobility approaching 1000 cm2/Vs and ON-OFF ratio exceeding 107 at room temperature. In addition, the fabrication and device performance of transistors made of mechanically exfoliated multilayer IV-VI semiconductor SnSe and SnSe2 will be discussed.

  12. ClusterViSu, a method for clustering of protein complexes by Voronoi tessellation in super-resolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Andronov, Leonid; Orlov, Igor; Lutz, Yves; Vonesch, Jean-Luc; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy (PALM, STORM etc.) provides a plethora of fluorescent signals in dense cellular environments which can be difficult to interpret. Here we describe ClusterViSu, a method for image reconstruction, visualization and quantification of labelled protein clusters, based on Voronoi tessellation of the individual fluorescence events. The general applicability of this clustering approach for the segmentation of super-resolution microscopy data, including for co-localization, is illustrated on a series of important biological objects such as chromatin complexes, RNA polymerase, nuclear pore complexes and microtubules. PMID:27068792

  13. IR Spectroscopy of PANHs in Dense Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamandola, Louis; Mattioda, Andrew; Sandford, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Interstellar PAHs are likely to be frozen into ice mantles on dust grains in dense clouds. These PAHs will produce IR absorption bands, not emission features. A couple of very weak absorption features in ground based spectra of a few objects in dense clouds may be due to PAHs. It is now thought that aromatic molecules in which N atoms are substituted for a few of the C atoms in a PAH's hexagonal skeletal network (PANHs) may well be as abundant and ubiquitous throughout the interstellar medium as PAHs. Spaceborne observations in the 5 to 8 um region, the region in which PAH spectroscopy is rich, reveal unidentified new bands and significant variation from object to object. It is not possible to analyze these observations because lab spectra of PANHs and PAHs condensed in realistic interstellar ice analogs are lacking. This lab data is necessary to interpret observations because, in ice mantles, the surrounding molecules affect PANH and PAH IR band positions, widths, profiles, and intrinsic strengths. Further, PAHs (and PANHs?) are readily ionized in pure H2O ice, further altering the spectrum. This proposal starts to address this situation by studying the IR spectra of PANHs frozen in laboratory ice analogs that reflect the composition of the interstellar ices observed in dense clouds. Thanks to Spitzer Cycle-4 support, we are now measuring the spectra of PAHs in interstellar ice analogs to provide laboratory spectra that can be used to interpret IR observations. Here we propose to extend this work to PANHs. We will measure the spectra of these interstellar ice analogs containing PANHs before and after ionization and determine the band strengths of neutral and ionized PANHs in these ices. This will enable a quantitative assessment of the role that PANHs can play in the 5-8 um spectrum of dense clouds and address the following two fundamental questions associated with dense cloud spectroscopy and chemistry: 1- Can PANHs be detected in dense clouds? 2- Are PANH ions

  14. The Influence of Salts on the Stability of Dense H2O Ices (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C. E.; Daniel, I.

    2009-12-01

    Dense ices in the interiors of icy satellites likely grow from salty water; however, the effect of salts on these ices is poorly understood. We studied phase relations in the system H2O-NaCl at 1 molal (5.5 wt%) NaCl to assess the role of salt on ice VI and ice VII stability. Experiments were conducted in an externally heated, gas-membrane diamond-anvil cell at 22-150°C and 1-5 GPa. Phases were characterized and identified by Raman spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The melting curve of ice VI was observed from 22 to 80°C, yielding Pm = 0.00415exp(0.0190Tm), where Pm is melting pressure (in GPa), Tm is melting temperature (in Kelvins) and R = 0.999; the melting curve for ice VII, observed from 35-150°C, is described by Pm = 0.234exp(0.00700Tm) (R = 0.997). Both melting curves are steeper than the NaCl-free curves, indicating that the freezing-point depression at this bulk composition increases with pressure. The intersection of the liquidus curves indicates that the VI-VII-liquid triple point is shifted toward lower T and higher P relative to pure H2O, requiring that both ices form H2O-NaCl solid solutions. This is consistent with the observation that the 1 molal NaCl solution crystallized to a single ice VIss or ice VIIss at all solidus T ('ss' indicates solid solution). Large single crystals of ice VIss or ice VIIss could be grown by slow compression of the cell from near-liquidus to solidus conditions. Raman spectra revealed zoning of these crystals, and persistence of the zoning (days at 22°C) implies relatively slow Na+ and Cl- diffusivity. The large depression of the freezing point in a 1 molal NaCl solution has important implications for the oceans and interiors of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn. Salty fluids may remain stable to much greater depth than predicted for pure H2O ices. This would promote more extensive water-rock interaction in the silicate interiors. If not limited to ice VI and VII, this behavior may suppress formation of ices

  15. Role of anions and reaction conditions in the preparation of uranium(VI), neptunium(VI), and plutonium(VI) borates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuao; Villa, Eric M; Diwu, Juan; Alekseev, Evgeny V; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2011-03-21

    U(VI), Np(VI), and Pu(VI) borates with the formula AnO(2)[B(8)O(11)(OH)(4)] (An = U, Np, Pu) have been prepared via the reactions of U(VI) nitrate, Np(VI) perchlorate, or Pu(IV) or Pu(VI) nitrate with molten boric acid. These compounds are all isotypic and consist of a linear actinyl(VI) cation, AnO(2)(2+), surrounded by BO(3) triangles and BO(4) tetrahedra to create an AnO(8) hexagonal bipyramidal environment. The actinyl bond lengths are consistent with actinide contraction across this series. The borate anions bridge between actinyl units to create sheets. Additional BO(3) triangles and BO(4) tetrahedra extend from the polyborate layers and connect these sheets together to form a three-dimensional chiral framework structure. UV-vis-NIR absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the hexavalent oxidation state in all three compounds. Bond-valence parameters are developed for Np(VI).

  16. Role of Anions and Reaction Conditions in the Preparation of Uranium(VI), Neptunium(VI), and Plutonium(VI) Borates

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-02-03

    U(VI), Np(VI), and Pu(VI) borates with the formula AnO2[B8O11(OH)4] (An = U, Np, Pu) have been prepared via the reactions of U(VI) nitrate, Np(VI) perchlorate, or Pu(IV) or Pu(VI) nitrate with molten boric acid. These compounds are all isotypic and consist of a linear actinyl(VI) cation, AnO22+, surrounded by BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra to create an AnO8 hexagonal bipyramidal environment. The actinyl bond lengths are consistent with actinide contraction across this series. The borate anions bridge between actinyl units to create sheets. Additional BO3 triangles and BO4 tetrahedra extend from the polyborate layers and connect these sheets together to form a three-dimensional chiral framework structure. UV-vis-NIR absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy confirms the hexavalent oxidation state in all three compounds. Bond-valence parameters are developed for Np(VI).

  17. Topological Surface States in Dense Solid Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Naumov, Ivan I; Hemley, Russell J

    2016-11-11

    Metallization of dense hydrogen and associated possible high-temperature superconductivity represents one of the key problems of physics. Recent theoretical studies indicate that before becoming a good metal, compressed solid hydrogen passes through a semimetallic stage. We show that such semimetallic phases predicted to be the most stable at multimegabar (∼300  GPa) pressures are not conventional semimetals: they exhibit topological metallic surface states inside the bulk "direct" gap in the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone; that is, metallic surfaces may appear even when the bulk of the material remains insulating. Examples include hydrogen in the Cmca-12 and Cmca-4 structures; Pbcn hydrogen also has metallic surface states but they are of a nontopological nature. The results provide predictions for future measurements, including probes of possible surface superconductivity in dense hydrogen.

  18. PHOTOCHEMICAL HEATING OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Glassgold, A. E.; Najita, J. R.

    2015-09-10

    Photochemical heating is analyzed with an emphasis on the heating generated by chemical reactions initiated by the products of photodissociation and photoionization. The immediate products are slowed down by collisions with the ambient gas and then heat the gas. In addition to this direct process, heating is also produced by the subsequent chemical reactions initiated by these products. Some of this chemical heating comes from the kinetic energy of the reaction products and the rest from collisional de-excitation of the product atoms and molecules. In considering dense gas dominated by molecular hydrogen, we find that the chemical heating is sometimes as large, if not much larger than, the direct heating. In very dense gas, the total photochemical heating approaches 10 eV per photodissociation (or photoionization), competitive with other ways of heating molecular gas.

  19. Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Jeremey; Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Johann

    2012-03-01

    We propose to search for nuclear density or greater compact ultra dense objects (CUDOs), which could constitute a significant fraction of the dark matter [1]. Considering their high density, the gravitational tidal forces are significant and atomic-density matter cannot stop an impacting CUDO, which punctures the surface of the target body, pulverizing, heating and entraining material near its trajectory through the target [2]. Because impact features endure over geologic timescales, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Mercury and large asteroids are well-suited to act as time-integrating CUDO detectors. There are several potential candidates for CUDO structure such as strangelet fragments or more generally dark matter if mechanisms exist for it to form compact objects. [4pt] [1] B. J. Carr, K. Kohri, Y. Sendouda, & J.'i. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. D81, 104019 (2010). [0pt] [2] L. Labun, J. Birrell, J. Rafelski, Solar System Signatures of Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects, arXiv:1104.4572.

  20. The kinetic chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graedel, T. E.; Langer, W. D.; Frerking, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A model of the time-dependent chemistry of dense interstellar clouds is formulated to study the dominant chemical processes in carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation, the formation of nitrogen-containing molecules, and the evolution of product molecules as a function of cloud density and temperature. The abundances of the dominant isotopes of the carbon- and oxygen-bearing molecules are calculated. The chemical abundances are found to be quite sensitive to electron concentration since the electron concentration determines the ratio of H3(+) to He(+), and the electron density is strongly influenced by the metals abundance. For typical metal abundances and for H2 cloud density not less than 10,000 molecules/cu cm, nearly all carbon exists as CO at late cloud ages. At high cloud density, many aspects of the chemistry are strongly time dependent. Finally, model calculations agree well with abundances deduced from observations of molecular line emission in cold dense clouds.

  1. Active fluidization in dense glassy systems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rituparno; Bhuyan, Pranab Jyoti; Rao, Madan; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2016-07-20

    Dense soft glasses show strong collective caging behavior at sufficiently low temperatures. Using molecular dynamics simulations of a model glass former, we show that the incorporation of activity or self-propulsion, f0, can induce cage breaking and fluidization, resulting in the disappearance of the glassy phase beyond a critical f0. The diffusion coefficient crosses over from being strongly to weakly temperature dependent as f0 is increased. In addition, we demonstrate that activity induces a crossover from a fragile to a strong glass and a tendency of active particles to cluster. Our results are of direct relevance to the collective dynamics of dense active colloidal glasses and to recent experiments on tagged particle diffusion in living cells.

  2. Topological Surface States in Dense Solid Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Ivan I.; Hemley, Russell J.

    2016-11-01

    Metallization of dense hydrogen and associated possible high-temperature superconductivity represents one of the key problems of physics. Recent theoretical studies indicate that before becoming a good metal, compressed solid hydrogen passes through a semimetallic stage. We show that such semimetallic phases predicted to be the most stable at multimegabar (˜300 GPa ) pressures are not conventional semimetals: they exhibit topological metallic surface states inside the bulk "direct" gap in the two-dimensional surface Brillouin zone; that is, metallic surfaces may appear even when the bulk of the material remains insulating. Examples include hydrogen in the Cmca-12 and Cmca-4 structures; Pbcn hydrogen also has metallic surface states but they are of a nontopological nature. The results provide predictions for future measurements, including probes of possible surface superconductivity in dense hydrogen.

  3. Computational electromagnetics and parallel dense matrix computations

    SciTech Connect

    Forsman, K.; Kettunen, L.; Gropp, W.; Levine, D.

    1995-06-01

    We present computational results using CORAL, a parallel, three-dimensional, nonlinear magnetostatic code based on a volume integral equation formulation. A key feature of CORAL is the ability to solve, in parallel, the large, dense systems of linear equations that are inherent in the use of integral equation methods. Using the Chameleon and PSLES libraries ensures portability and access to the latest linear algebra solution technology.

  4. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  5. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  6. Computational electromagnetics and parallel dense matrix computations

    SciTech Connect

    Forsman, K.; Kettunen, L.; Gropp, W.

    1995-12-01

    We present computational results using CORAL, a parallel, three-dimensional, nonlinear magnetostatic code based on a volume integral equation formulation. A key feature of CORAL is the ability to solve, in parallel, the large, dense systems of linear equations that are inherent in the use of integral equation methods. Using the Chameleon and PSLES libraries ensures portability and access to the latest linear algebra solution technology.

  7. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    DOE PAGES

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  8. Properties and evolution of dense structures in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikka, Anna

    2015-09-01

    In this thesis I present a study of two kinds of dense ISM structures: compact cold sources detected by Planck and dense condensations in a photodissociation region (PDR), namely the Orion Bar detected by ground-based and Herschel telescopes. Both kinds of structures are closely related to star formation. The cold sources are investigated as potentially gravitationally bound, prestellar, objects. The Orion Bar is a highly FUV-illuminated (G0=10^4) prototypical PDR, with several known protoplanetary disks, illuminated by the young Trapezium stars. First I introduce a paper published in A&A: The Physical state of selected cold clumps. In this paper we compared the Herschel dust continuum observations from the open time key program Galactic Cold Cores to ground based molecular line observations from the 20-m radio telescope of the Onsala Space Observatory in Sweden. The clumps were selected based on their brightness and low dust color temperatures (T=10-15 K). We calculated the virial and Bonnor-Ebert masses and compared them to the masses calculated from the observations. The results indicate that most of the observed cold clumps are not necessarily prestellar.Then I move on to the warm and dense condensations of the ISM. In my study of the Orion Bar, I use observations from PACS instrument on board Herschel from the open time program Unveiling the origin and excitation mechanisms of the warm CO, OH and CH+. I present maps of 110"x110" of the methylidyne cation (CH+ J=3-2), OH doublets at 84 μm, and high-J CO (J=19-18). This is the first time that these PDR tracers are presented in such a high spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. The CH+ and OH have critical densities (10^10 cm-3) and upper level energy temperatures (250 K). In addition the endothermicity of the CH+ + H2 reaction (4300 K) that forms CH+ is comparable to the activation barrier of the O + H2 reaction (4800 K) forming OH. Given these similarities it is interesting to compare their

  9. Dense spray evaporation as a mixing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rivas, A.; Villermaux, E.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the processes by which a dense set of small liquid droplets (a spray) evaporates in a dry, stirred gas phase. A dense spray of micron-sized liquid (water or ethanol) droplets is formed in air by a pneumatic atomizer in a closed chamber. The spray is conveyed in ambient air as a plume whose extension depends on the relative humidity of the diluting medium. Standard shear instabilities develop at the plume edge, forming the stretched lamellar structures familiar with passive scalars. Unlike passive scalars however, these lamellae vanish in a finite time, because individual droplets evaporate at their border in contact with the dry environment. Experiments demonstrate that the lifetime of an individual droplet embedded in a lamellae is much larger than expected from the usual d2 law describing the fate of a single drop evaporating in a quiescent environment. By analogy with the way mixing times are understood from the convection-diffusion equation for passive scalars, we show that the lifetime of a spray lamellae stretched at a constant rate γ is tv=1/γ ln(1/+ϕ ϕ ) , where ϕ is a parameter that incorporates the thermodynamic and diffusional properties of the vapor in the diluting phase. The case of time-dependent stretching rates is examined too. A dense spray behaves almost as a (nonconserved) passive scalar.

  10. Dense Correspondences across Scenes and Scales.

    PubMed

    Tau, Moria; Hassner, Tal

    2016-05-01

    We seek a practical method for establishing dense correspondences between two images with similar content, but possibly different 3D scenes. One of the challenges in designing such a system is the local scale differences of objects appearing in the two images. Previous methods often considered only few image pixels; matching only pixels for which stable scales may be reliably estimated. Recently, others have considered dense correspondences, but with substantial costs associated with generating, storing and matching scale invariant descriptors. Our work is motivated by the observation that pixels in the image have contexts-the pixels around them-which may be exploited in order to reliably estimate local scales. We make the following contributions. (i) We show that scales estimated in sparse interest points may be propagated to neighboring pixels where this information cannot be reliably determined. Doing so allows scale invariant descriptors to be extracted anywhere in the image. (ii) We explore three means for propagating this information: using the scales at detected interest points, using the underlying image information to guide scale propagation in each image separately, and using both images together. Finally, (iii), we provide extensive qualitative and quantitative results, demonstrating that scale propagation allows for accurate dense correspondences to be obtained even between very different images, with little computational costs beyond those required by existing methods.

  11. Hybrid-Based Dense Stereo Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, T. Y.; Ting, H. W.; Jaw, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Stereo matching generating accurate and dense disparity maps is an indispensable technique for 3D exploitation of imagery in the fields of Computer vision and Photogrammetry. Although numerous solutions and advances have been proposed in the literature, occlusions, disparity discontinuities, sparse texture, image distortion, and illumination changes still lead to problematic issues and await better treatment. In this paper, a hybrid-based method based on semi-global matching is presented to tackle the challenges on dense stereo matching. To ease the sensitiveness of SGM cost aggregation towards penalty parameters, a formal way to provide proper penalty estimates is proposed. To this end, the study manipulates a shape-adaptive cross-based matching with an edge constraint to generate an initial disparity map for penalty estimation. Image edges, indicating the potential locations of occlusions as well as disparity discontinuities, are approved by the edge drawing algorithm to ensure the local support regions not to cover significant disparity changes. Besides, an additional penalty parameter 𝑃𝑒 is imposed onto the energy function of SGM cost aggregation to specifically handle edge pixels. Furthermore, the final disparities of edge pixels are found by weighting both values derived from the SGM cost aggregation and the U-SURF matching, providing more reliable estimates at disparity discontinuity areas. Evaluations on Middlebury stereo benchmarks demonstrate satisfactory performance and reveal the potency of the hybrid-based dense stereo matching method.

  12. H-ATLAS/GAMA and HeViCS - dusty early-type galaxies in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, N. K.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Viaene, S.; Baes, M.; Sansom, A. E.; Bourne, N.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Davis, T. A.; De Looze, I.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S. A.; Hughes, T. M.; Ivison, R. J.; Kelvin, L. S.; Maddox, S.; Mahajan, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Temi, P.; Valiante, E.

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has had a tremendous impact on the study of extragalactic dust. Specifically, early-type galaxies (ETG) have been the focus of several studies. In this paper, we combine results from two Herschel studies - a Virgo cluster study Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) and a broader, low-redshift Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS)/Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) study - and contrast the dust and associated properties for similar mass galaxies. This comparison is motivated by differences in results exhibited between multiple Herschel studies of ETG. A comparison between consistent modified blackbody derived dust mass is carried out, revealing strong differences between the two samples in both dust mass and dust-to-stellar mass ratio. In particular, the HeViCS sample lacks massive ETG with as high a specific dust content as found in H-ATLAS. This is most likely connected with the difference in environment for the two samples. We calculate nearest neighbour environment densities in a consistent way, showing that H-ATLAS ETG occupy sparser regions of the local Universe, whereas HeViCS ETG occupy dense regions. This is also true for ETG that are not Herschel-detected but are in the Virgo and GAMA parent samples. Spectral energy distributions are fit to the panchromatic data. From these, we find that in H-ATLAS the specific star formation rate anticorrelates with stellar mass and reaches values as high as in our Galaxy. On the other hand HeViCS ETG appear to have little star formation. Based on the trends found here, H-ATLAS ETG are thought to have more extended star formation histories and a younger stellar population than HeViCS ETG.

  13. Recyclable magnetic photocatalysts of Fe2+/TiO2 hierarchical architecture with effective removal of Cr(VI) under UV light from water.

    PubMed

    Xu, S C; Zhang, Y X; Pan, S S; Ding, H L; Li, G H

    2011-11-30

    We report the synthesis and photocatalytic removal of Cr(VI) from water of hierarchical micro/nanostructured Fe(2+)/TiO(2) tubes. The TiO(2) tubes fabricated by a facile solvothermal approach show a three-level hierarchical architecture assembled from dense nanosheets nearly vertically standing on the surface of TiO(2) microtube. The nanosheets with a thickness of about 20 nm are composed of numerous TiO(2) nanocrystals with size in the range of 15-20 nm. Ferrous ions are doped into the hierarchical architecture by a reduction route. The Fe(2+)/TiO(2) catalyst demonstrates an effective removal of Cr(VI) from water under UV light and the removal effectiveness reaches 99.3% at the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 10 mg L(-1). The ferrous ion in the catalyst serves not as the photo-electron trap but as an intermedium of a two-step reduction. The TiO(2) photoreduces the Fe(2+) ions to Fe atoms firstly, then the Fe atoms reduce the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and the later is removed by adsorption. The hierarchical architecture of the catalyst serves as a reactor for the photocatalytic reaction of Cr(VI) ions and an effective absorbent for the removal of Cr(III) ions. The catalyst can be easily magnetically separated from the wastewater after photocatalytic reaction and recycled after acid treatment.

  14. Structure of the Type VI secretion system contractile sheath

    PubMed Central

    Kudryashev, Mikhail; Wang, Ray Yu-Ruei; Brackmann, Maximilian; Scherer, Sebastian; Maier, Timm; Baker, David; DiMaio, Frank; Stahlberg, Henning; Egelman, Edward H.; Basler, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use rapid contraction of a long sheath of the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) to deliver effectors into a target cell. Here we present an atomic resolution structure of a native contracted Vibrio cholerae sheath determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The sheath subunits, composed of tightly interacting proteins VipA and VipB, assemble into a six-start helix. The helix is stabilized by a core domain assembled from four β-strands donated by one VipA and two VipB molecules. The fold of inner and middle layers is conserved between T6SS and phage sheaths. However, the structure of the outer layer is distinct and suggests a mechanism of interaction of the bacterial sheath with an accessory ATPase, ClpV, that facilitates multiple rounds of effector delivery. Our results provide a mechanistic insight into assembly of contractile nanomachines that bacteria and phages use to translocate macromolecules across membranes. PMID:25723169

  15. Mechanical characterization of densely welded Apache Leap tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-06-01

    An empirical criterion is formulated to describe the compressive strength of the densely welded Apache Leap tuff. The criterion incorporates the effects of size, L/D ratio, loading rate and density variations. The criterion improves the correlation between the test results and the failure envelope. Uniaxial and triaxial compressive strengths, Brazilian tensile strength and elastic properties of the densely welded brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff have been determined using the ASTM standard test methods. All tuff samples are tested dry at room temperature (22 {plus_minus} 2{degrees}C), and have the core axis normal to the flow layers. The uniaxial compressive strength is 73.2 {plus_minus} 16.5 MPa. The Brazilian tensile strength is 5.12 {plus_minus} 1.2 MPa. The Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio are 22.6 {plus_minus} 5.7 GPa and 0.20 {plus_minus} 0.03. Smoothness and perpendicularity do not fully meet the ASTM requirements for all samples, due to the presence of voids and inclusions on the sample surfaces and the sample preparation methods. The investigations of loading rate, L/D radio and cyclic loading effects on the compressive strength and of the size effect on the tensile strength are not conclusive. The Coulomb strength criterion adequately represents the failure envelope of the tuff under confining pressures from 0 to 62 MPa. Cohesion and internal friction angle are 16 MPa and 43 degrees. The brown unit of the Apache Leap tuff is highly heterogeneous as suggested by large variations of the test results. The high intrinsic variability of the tuff is probably caused by the presence of flow layers and by nonuniform distributions of inclusions, voids and degree of welding. Similar variability of the properties has been found in publications on the Topopah Spring tuff at Yucca Mountain. 57 refs., 32 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Uranium(VI) Diffusion in Low-Permeability Subsurface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zhong, Lirong; Zachara, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium(VI) diffusion was investigated in a fine-grained saprolite sediment that was collected from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge site, TN, where uranium contamination in groundwater is a major environmental concern. U(VI) diffusion was studied in a diffusion cell with one cell end in contact with a large, air-equilibrated electrolyte reservoir. The pH, carbonate and U(VI) concentrations in the reservoir solution were varied to investigate the effect of solution chemical composition and uranyl speciation on U(VI) diffusion. The rates of U(VI) diffusion were evaluated by monitoring the U(VI) concentration in the reservoir solution as a function of time; and by measuring the total concentration of U(VI) extracted from the sediment as a function of time and distance in the diffusion cells. The estimated apparent rate of U(VI) diffusion varied significantly with pH with the slowest rate observed at pH 7 as a result of strong adsorptive retardation. The estimated retardation factor was generally consistent with a surface complexation model. Numerical simulations indicated that a species-based diffusion model that incorporated both aqueous and surface complexation reactions was required to describe U(VI) diffusion in the low permeability material under variable geochemical conditions. Our results implied that low permeability materials will play an important role in storing U(VI) and attenuating U(VI) plume migration at circumneutral pH conditions, and will serve as a long-term source for releasing U(VI) back to the nearby aquifer during and after aquifer decontamination.

  17. Semiconductors A(III)B(VI): Translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhundov, G. A.; Abdullaev, G. B.; Guseynov, G. D.; Mekhtiyev, R. F.; Aliyeva, M. Kh.

    1993-11-01

    Semiconductors A(III) B(VI) crystallize in laminated or chain structures and contain nine valence electrons in each molecule. Connection in the layers and the chains is predominantly covalent, and Van der Waal between the layers and the chains. Calculated data of the energy spectrum of these compounds are absent, and the available experimental studies are insufficient for understanding of the zone structures. We have obtained and studied single crystals of GaS, GaSe, GaTe, InSe, and TiSe.

  18. ViSC Social Competence Program.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Hoffmann, Christine; Schiller, Eva-Maria; Stefanek, Elisabeth; Spiel, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    The ViSC Social Competence Program has been implemented in Austrian schools within the scope of a national strategy plan, Together Against Violence. The program is a primary preventive program designed for grades 5 to 8. The prevention of aggression and bullying is defined as a school development task, and the initial implementation of the program lasts one school year. The program consists of universal and specific actions that are implemented through in-school teacher training and a class project for students. The program was evaluated with a randomized intervention control group design. Data were collected from teachers and students. Results suggest that the program reduces aggression in schools.

  19. Vič Goes to Near Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merhar, Vida Kariž; Capuder, Rok; Maroševič, Timotej; Artač, Sonja; Mozer, Alenka; Štekovič, Maja

    2016-11-01

    In the school year 2012-2013 about 50 students (Fig. 1), managed by mentors (teachers from the middle school Gimnazija Vič in Ljubljana, Slovenia) created an atmospheric probe and launched it into an altitude of more than 30 km above Earth's surface. The aim of this "space expedition" was to take pictures of Earth and to measure how air pressure, the temperature, CO2 and O2 concentrations, the level of UVA and UVB radiation, and the amount of light change with altitude. There was also a yeast sample placed inside and outside of the probe. Here we report on some of the successes and failures of this endeavor.

  20. Cr(VI) reduction in continuous-flow coculture bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.T.; Chirwa, E.M.; Shen, H.

    2000-04-01

    A continuous-flow coculture bioreactor with a phenol-degrading organism, Pseudomonas putida DMP-1, and a Cr(VI)-reducing species, Escherichia coli ATCC 33456, was developed for simultaneous removal of phenol and Cr(VI). Phenol was the sole energy and carbon source added to the coculture along with a basal medium and hexavalent chromium. The coculture bioreactor was operated under three liquid detention times (0.20, 0.31, and 0.52 days) with phenol and Cr(VI) loadings ranging from 2,500 to 8,200 mg/L/day and 4.5-33.2 mg/L/day, respectively. After 279 days of continuous operation, eight quasi-steady-state operation conditions were obtained with near complete removal of phenol and Cr(VI). Elevated levels of Cr(VI) and phenol were observed in the effluent under a high influent Cr(VI) concentration (16 mg/L) or a short liquid detention time (0.20 days). The system recovered from Cr(VI) toxicity after influent Cr(VI) level was reduced. Chromium mass balance analysis revealed that nearly all of the influent Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) in the coculture bioreactor through biological activity. Spectra of UV-Vis and mass spectrometers suggested that phenol metabolites produced by P. putida were utilized by E. coli.

  1. Reductive immobilization of uranium(VI) by amorphous iron sulfide.

    PubMed

    Hua, Bin; Deng, Baolin

    2008-12-01

    Batch experiments were used to evaluate the reductive immobilization of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) by synthesized, amorphous iron sulfide (FeS) in the anoxic environment. The tests were initiated by spiking 168.0 microM U(VI) to 0.18 g/L FeS suspensions under a CO2-free condition with pH varied from 5.99 to 10.17. The immobilization rate of U(VI) was determined by monitoring the changes of aqueous U(VI) concentration, and the reduction rate of U(VI) associated with FeS was determined by the difference between the total spiked U(VI) and the extractable amount of U(VI) by 25 mM NaHCO3 solution. The results showed that a rapid removal of U(VI) from the aqueous phase occurred within 1 h under all pH conditions accompanied by a simultaneous release of Fe(ll), whereas the reduction of U(VI) associated with FeS took hours to over a week for completion. The reduction rate was greatly increased with decreasing pH within the examined pH range. Product analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed the formation of U3O8/4O9/UO2, polysulfide, and ferric iron.

  2. Mammogram: Can It Find Cancer in Dense Breasts?

    MedlinePlus

    ... breasts. Breast tissue is composed of fatty (nondense) tissue and connective (dense) tissue. Women with dense breasts have more connective tissue than fatty tissue. About half of women undergoing ...

  3. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  4. New Insights into Intrinsic Point Defects in V2VI3 Thermoelectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lipeng; Zhao, Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Defects and defect engineering are at the core of many regimes of material research, including the field of thermoelectric study. The 60‐year history of V2VI3 thermoelectric materials is a prime example of how a class of semiconductor material, considered mature several times, can be rejuvenated by better understanding and manipulation of defects. This review aims to provide a systematic account of the underexplored intrinsic point defects in V2VI3 compounds, with regard to (i) their formation and control, and (ii) their interplay with other types of defects towards higher thermoelectric performance. We herein present a convincing case that intrinsic point defects can be actively controlled by extrinsic doping and also via compositional, mechanical, and thermal control at various stages of material synthesis. An up‐to‐date understanding of intrinsic point defects in V2VI3 compounds is summarized in a (χ, r)‐model and applied to elucidating the donor‐like effect. These new insights not only enable more innovative defect engineering in other thermoelectric materials but also, in a broad context, contribute to rational defect design in advanced functional materials at large. PMID:27818905

  5. The WMO RA VI Regional Climate Centre Network - a support to users in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösner, S.

    2012-04-01

    Climate, like weather, has no limits. Therefore the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a specialized United Nations organization, has established a three-level infrastructure to better serve its member countries. This structure comprises Global Producing Centres for Long-range Forecasts (GPCs), Regional Climate Centres (RCCs) and National Meteorological or Hydrometeorological Services (NMHSs), in most cases representing their countries in WMO governance bodies. The elements of this infrastructure are also part of and contribute to the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) agreed to be established by World Climate Conference 3 (WCC-3) and last year's Sixteenth World Meteorological Congress (WMO Cg-XVI). RCCs are the core element of this infrastructure at the regional level and are being establish in all WMO Regional Associations (RAs), i.e. Africa (RA I); Asia (II); South America (III); North America, Central America and the Caribbean (IV); South-West Pacific (V); Europe (VI). Addressing inter-regional areas of common interest like the Mediterranean or the Polar Regions may require inter-regional RCCs. For each region the RCCs follow a user driven approach with regard to governance and structure as well as products generated for the users in the respective region. However, there are common guidelines all RCCs do have to follow. This is to make sure that services are provided based on best scientific standards, are routinely and reliably generated and made available in an operational mode. These guidelines are being developed within WMO and make use of decade-long experience gained in the business of operational weather forecast. Based on the requirements of the 50 member countries of WMO RA VI it was agreed to establish the WMO RCC as a network of centres of excellence that create regional products including long-range forecasts that support regional and national climate activities, and thereby strengthen the capacity of WMO Members in the region to

  6. Photophysical Properties of II-VI Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ke

    As it is well known, semiconductor nanocrystals (also called quantum dots, QDs) are being actively pursued for use in many different types of luminescent optical materials. These materials include the active media for luminescence downconversion in artificial lighting, lasers, luminescent solar concentrators and many other applications. Chapter 1 gives general introduction of QDs, which describe the basic physical properties and optical properties. Based on the experimental spectroscopic study, a semiquantitative method-effective mass model is employed to give theoretical prediction and guide. The following chapters will talks about several topics respectively. A predictive understanding of the radiative lifetimes is therefore a starting point for the understanding of the use of QDs for these applications. Absorption intensities and radiative lifetimes are fundamental properties of any luminescent material. Meantime, achievement of high efficiency with high working temperature and heterostructure fabrication with manipulation of lattice strain are not easy and need systematic investigation. To make accurate connections between extinction coefficients and radiative recombination rates, chapter 2 will consider three closely related aspects of the size dependent spectroscopy of II-VI QDs. First, it will consider the existing literature on cadmium selenide (CdSe) QD absorption spectra and extinction coefficients. From these results and fine structure considerations Boltzmann weighted radiative lifetimes are calculated. These lifetimes are compared to values measured on very high quality CdSe and CdSe coated with zinc selenide (ZnSe) shells. Second, analogous literature data are analyzed for cadmium telluride (CdTe) nanocrystals and compared to lifetimes measured for very high quality QDs. Furthermore, studies of the absorption and excitation spectra and measured radiative lifetimes for CdTe/CdSe Type-II core/shell QDs are reported. These results are also analyzed in

  7. Flow injection analysis of trace chromium (VI) in drinking water with a liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Byrne, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an acknowledged hazardous material in drinking waters. As such, effective monitoring and assessment of the risks posed by Cr(VI) are important analytical objectives for both human health and environmental science. However, because of the lack of highly sensitive, rapid, and simple procedures, a relatively limited number of studies have been carried out in this field. Here we report a simple and sensitive analytical procedure of flow injection analysis (FIA) for sub-nanomolar Cr(VI) in drinking water samples with a liquid core waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The procedure is based on a highly selective reaction between 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide and Cr(VI) under acidic conditions. The optimized experimental parameters included reagent concentrations, injection volume, length of mixing coil, and flow rate. Measurements at 540 nm, and a 650-nm reference wavelength, produced a 0.12-nM detection limit. Relative standard deviations for 1, 2, and 10 nM samples were 5.6, 3.6, and 0.72 % (n = 9), and the analysis time was <2 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions, especially Fe(III), were evaluated. Using the FIA-LWCC method, different sources of bottled waters and tap waters were examined. The Cr(VI) concentrations of the bottled waters ranged from the detection limit to ∼20 nM, and tap waters collected from the same community supply had Cr(VI) concentration around 14 nM.

  8. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of zinc-cyanide complex.

    PubMed

    Yngard, Ria; Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Osathaphan, Khemarath; Sharma, Virender K

    2007-10-01

    Zinc-cyanide complexes are found in gold mining effluents and in metal finishing rinse water. The effect of Zn(II) on the oxidation of cyanide by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O(4)(2-), Fe(VI)) was thus investigated by studying the kinetics of the reaction of Fe(VI) with cyanide present in a potassium salt of a zinc cyanide complex (K(2)Zn(CN)(4)) and in a mixture of Zn(II) and cyanide solutions as a function of pH (9.0-11.0). The rate-law for the oxidation of Zn(CN)(4)(2-) by Fe(VI) was found to be -d[Fe(VI)]/dt=k[Fe(VI)][Zn(CN)(4)(2-)](0.5). The rate constant, k, decreased with an increase in pH. The effect of temperature (15-45 degrees C) on the oxidation was studied at pH 9.0, which gave an activation energy of 45.7+/-1.5kJmol(-1). The cyanide oxidation rate decreased in the presence of the Zn(II) ions. However, Zn(II) ions had no effect on the cyanide removal efficiency by Fe(VI) and the stoichiometry of Fe(VI) to cyanide was approximately 1:1; similar to the stoichiometry in absence of Zn(II) ions. The destruction of cyanide by Fe(VI) resulted in cyanate. The experiments on removal of cyanide from rinse water using Fe(VI) demonstrated complete conversion of cyanide to cyanate.

  9. Equine dyschondroplasia (osteochondrosis)--histological findings and type VI collagen localization.

    PubMed

    Henson, F M; Davies, M E; Jeffcott, L B

    1997-07-01

    This study describes (1) the histological appearance of dyschondroplasia, the primary lesion of osteochondrosis, in articular cartilage of the horse and (2) the localization of type VI collagen which is an important constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Dyschondroplastic cartilage was identified on the basis of the presence of cartilage cores (i.e., cartilage extending into the subchondral bone) and confirmed with subsequent histological examination. Full-thickness cartilage samples from 57 horses were collected and paraffin embedded. Histological examination was used to examine the normal architecture of equine growth cartilage and to determine the presence of various pathological changes in dyschondroplastic lesions. Immunolocalization was used to identify type VI collagen in normal and dyschondroplastic lesions. The abnormalities observed in the dyschondroplastic cartilage fell into two groups. In Group A (n = 18) the lesions were associated with a disruption in the normal sequential transition of the chondrocytes through proliferation and maturation resulting in an accumulation of large numbers of small, rounded chondrocytes. A decrease in type VI collagen immunoreactivity compared with normal animals was detected except around chondrocyte clusters. Group B lesions (n = 9) were characterized by an alteration in the staining pattern of the mineralized cartilage and underlying bone. In these lesions type VI collagen immunoreactivity was increased. In both groups the presence of retained blood vessels, chondrocyte clusters, chondronecrosis and fissure formation was detected. These two histologically-distinct groups suggest that equine dyschondroplasia may be comprised of different pathological entities and that it is associated with alterations in the pattern of distribution of an ECM protein.

  10. Multishock Compression Properties of Warm Dense Argon

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Chen, Qifeng; Yunjun, Gu; Li, Zhiguo; Shen, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Warm dense argon was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The diagnostics of warm dense argon were performed by a multichannel optical pyrometer and a velocity interferometer system. The equations of state in the pressure-density range of 20–150 GPa and 1.9–5.3 g/cm3 from the first- to fourth-shock compression were presented. The single-shock temperatures in the range of 17.2–23.4 kK were obtained from the spectral radiance. Experimental results indicates that multiple shock-compression ratio (ηi = ρi/ρ0) is greatly enhanced from 3.3 to 8.8, where ρ0 is the initial density of argon and ρi (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) is the compressed density from first to fourth shock, respectively. For the relative compression ratio (ηi’ = ρi/ρi-1), an interesting finding is that a turning point occurs at the second shocked states under the conditions of different experiments, and ηi’ increases with pressure in lower density regime and reversely decreases with pressure in higher density regime. The evolution of the compression ratio is controlled by the excitation of internal degrees of freedom, which increase the compression, and by the interaction effects between particles that reduce it. A temperature-density plot shows that current multishock compression states of argon have distributed into warm dense regime. PMID:26515505

  11. Dense gas in low-metallicity galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braine, J.; Shimajiri, Y.; André, P.; Bontemps, S.; Gao, Yu; Chen, Hao; Kramer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Stars form out of the densest parts of molecular clouds. Far-IR emission can be used to estimate the star formation rate (SFR) and high dipole moment molecules, typically HCN, trace the dense gas. A strong correlation exists between HCN and far-IR emission, with the ratio being nearly constant, over a large range of physical scales. A few recent observations have found HCN to be weak with respect to the far-IR and CO in subsolar metallicity (low-Z) objects. We present observations of the Local Group galaxies M 33, IC 10, and NGC 6822 with the IRAM 30 m and NRO 45 m telescopes, greatly improving the sample of low-Z galaxies observed. HCN, HCO+, CS, C2H, and HNC have been detected. Compared to solar metallicity galaxies, the nitrogen-bearing species are weak (HCN, HNC) or not detected (CN, HNCO, N2H+) relative to far-IR or CO emission. HCO+ and C2H emission is normal with respect to CO and far-IR. While 13CO is the usual factor 10 weaker than 12CO, C18O emission was not detected down to very low levels. Including earlier data, we find that the HCN/HCO+ ratio varies with metallicity (O/H) and attribute this to the sharply decreasing nitrogen abundance. The dense gas fraction, traced by the HCN/CO and HCO+/CO ratios, follows the SFR but in the low-Z objects the HCO+ is much easier to measure. Combined with larger and smaller scale measurements, the HCO+ line appears to be an excellent tracer of dense gas and varies linearly with the SFR for both low and high metallicities.

  12. Grain Growth and Silicates in Dense Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendeleton, Yvonne J.; Chiar, J. E.; Ennico, K.; Boogert, A.; Greene, T.; Knez, C.; Lada, C.; Roellig, T.; Tielens, A.; Werner, M.; Whittet, D.

    2006-01-01

    Interstellar silicates are likely to be a part of all grains responsible for visual extinction (Av) in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and dense clouds. A correlation between Av and the depth of the 9.7 micron silicate feature (measured as optical depth, tau(9.7)) is expected if the dust species are well 'mixed. In the di&se ISM, such a correlation is observed for lines of sight in the solar neighborhood. A previous study of the silicate absorption feature in the Taurus dark cloud showed a tendency for the correlation to break down at high Av (Whittet et al. 1988, MNRAS, 233,321), but the scatter was large. We have acquired Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph data of several lines of sight in the IC 5 146, Barnard 68, Chameleon I and Serpens dense clouds. Our data set spans an Av range between 2 and 35 magnitudes. All lines of sight show the 9.7 micron silicate feature. The Serpens data appear to follow the diffuse ISM correlation line whereas the data for the other clouds show a non-linear correlation between the depth of the silicate feature relative to Av, much like the trend observed in the Taurus data. In fact, it appears that for visual extinctions greater than about 10 mag, tau(9.7) begins to level off. This decrease in the growth of the depth of the 9.7 micron feature with increasing Av could indicate the effects of grain growth in dense clouds. In this poster, we explore the possibility that grain growth causes an increase in opacity (Av) without causing a corresponding increase in tau(9.7).

  13. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.

  14. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; ...

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  15. Resolving Ultrafast Heating of Dense Cryogenic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Sperling, P.; Harmand, M.; Becker, A.; Bornath, T.; Bredow, R.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fennel, T.; Fletcher, L. B.; Förster, E.; Göde, S.; Gregori, G.; Hilbert, V.; Hochhaus, D.; Holst, B.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Mithen, J. P.; Mitzner, R.; Murphy, C. D.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Neumayer, P.; Przystawik, A.; Roling, S.; Schulz, M.; Siemer, B.; Skruszewicz, S.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; White, T.; Wöstmann, M.; Zacharias, H.; Döppner, T.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the dynamics of ultrafast heating in cryogenic hydrogen initiated by a ≲300 fs, 92 eV free electron laser x-ray burst. The rise of the x-ray scattering amplitude from a second x-ray pulse probes the transition from dense cryogenic molecular hydrogen to a nearly uncorrelated plasmalike structure, indicating an electron-ion equilibration time of ˜0.9 ps. The rise time agrees with radiation hydrodynamics simulations based on a conductivity model for partially ionized plasma that is validated by two-temperature density-functional theory.

  16. Dense optical-electrical interface module

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Chang

    2000-12-21

    The DOIM (Dense Optical-electrical Interface Modules) is a custom-designed optical data transmission module employed in the upgrade of Silicon Vertex Detector of CDF experiment at Fermilab. Each DOIM module consists of a transmitter (TX) converting electrical differential input signals to optical outputs, a middle segment of jacketed fiber ribbon cable, and a receiver (RX) which senses the light inputs and converts them back to electrical signals. The targeted operational frequency is 53 MHz, and higher rate is achievable. This article outlines the design goals, implementation methods, production test results, and radiation hardness tests of these modules.

  17. Flavour Oscillations in Dense Baryonic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We suggest that fast neutral meson oscillations may occur in a dense baryonic matter, which can influence the balance of s/¯s quarks in the nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus interactions, if primordial multiplicities of neutral K 0, mesons are sufficiently asymmetrical. The phenomenon can occur even if CP symmetry is fully conserved, and it may be responsible for the enhanced sub-threshold production of multi-strange hyperons observed in the low-energy A+A and p+A interactions.

  18. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  19. Gravity-driven dense granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    ERTAS,DENIZ; GREST,GARY S.; HALSEY,THOMAS C.; DEVINE,DOV; SILBERT,LEONARDO E.

    2000-03-29

    The authors report and analyze the results of numerical studies of dense granular flows in two and three dimensions, using both linear damped springs and Hertzian force laws between particles. Chute flow generically produces a constant density profile that satisfies scaling relations suggestive of a Bagnold grain inertia regime. The type for force law has little impact on the behavior of the system. Failure is not initiated at the surface, consistent with the absence of surface flows and different principal stress directions at vs. below the surface.

  20. Laser Sheet Dropsizing of dense sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gal, P.; Farrugia, N.; Greenhalgh, D. A.

    1999-02-01

    A new technique has been developed that produces instantaneous or time-averaged two-dimensional images of Sauter Mean Diameter from a spray. Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD) combines elastic and inelastic light scattered from a laser sheet. Compared with Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), the new technique offers advantages in increased spatial and temporal resolution and more rapid spray characterisation. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to dense sprays. Successful implementation requires careful calibration, particularly of the effect of dye concentration on the dropsize dependence of the inelastic scattered light.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.A.; Kress, J.D.; Kwon, I.; Lynch, D.L.; Troullier, N.

    1993-12-31

    We have performed quantum molecular dynamics simulations of hot, dense plasmas of hydrogen over a range of temperatures(0.1-5eV) and densities(0.0625-5g/cc). We determine the forces quantum mechanically from density functional, extended Huckel, and tight binding techniques and move the nuclei according to the classical equations of motion. We determine pair-correlation functions, diffusion coefficients, and electrical conductivities. We find that many-body effects predominate in this regime. We begin to obtain agreement with the OCP and Thomas-Fermi models only at the higher temperatures and densities.

  2. U(VI) behaviour in hyperalkaline calcite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kurt F.; Bryan, Nicholas D.; Swinburne, Adam N.; Bots, Pieter; Shaw, Samuel; Natrajan, Louise S.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Livens, Francis R.; Morris, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of U(VI) in hyperalkaline fluid/calcite systems was studied over a range of U(VI) concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 μM to 42.0 μM) and in two high pH systems, young and old synthetic cement leachate in batch sorption experiments. These systems were selected to be representative of young- (pH 13.3) and old-stage (pH 10.5) leachate evolution within a cementitious geological disposal facility. Batch sorption experiments, modelling, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electron microscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and luminescence spectroscopy were used to define the speciation of U(VI) across the systems of study. At the lowest concentrations (5.27 × 10-5 μM 232U(VI)) significant U removal was observed for both old and young cement leachates, and this was successfully modelled using a first order kinetic adsorption modelling approach. At higher concentrations (>4.20 μM) in the young cement leachate, U(VI) showed no interaction with the calcite surface over an 18 month period. Small angle X-ray scattering techniques indicated that at high U concentrations (42.0 μM) and after 18 months, the U(VI) was present in a colloidal form which had little interaction with the calcite surface and consisted of both primary and aggregated particles with a radius of 7.6 ± 1.1 and 217 ± 24 Å, respectively. In the old cement leachate, luminescence spectroscopy identified two surface binding sites for U(VI) on calcite: in the system with 0.21 μM U(VI), a liebigite-like Ca2UO2(CO3)3 surface complex was identified; at higher U(VI) concentrations (0.42 μM), a second binding site of undetermined coordination was identified. At elevated U(VI) concentrations (>2.10 μM) in old cement leachate, both geochemical data and luminescence spectroscopy suggested that surface mediated precipitation was controlling U(VI) behaviour. A focused ion beam mill was used to create a section across the U(VI) precipitate-calcite interface. Transmission electron

  3. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured.

  4. 32 CFR 2003.6 - Voting (Article VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Voting (Article VI). 2003.6 Section 2003.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE...) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.6 Voting (Article VI). (a) Motions. When the Panel...

  5. 32 CFR 2003.6 - Voting (Article VI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Voting (Article VI). 2003.6 Section 2003.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE...) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.6 Voting (Article VI). (a) Motions. When the Panel...

  6. Myosin VI facilitates connexin 43 gap junction accretion

    PubMed Central

    Waxse, Bennett J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, we demonstrate myosin VI enrichment at Cx43 (also known as GJA1)-containing gap junctions (GJs) in heart tissue, primary cardiomyocytes and cell culture models. In primary cardiac tissue and in fibroblasts from the myosin VI-null mouse as well as in tissue culture cells transfected with siRNA against myosin VI, we observe reduced GJ plaque size with a concomitant reduction in intercellular communication, as shown by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and a new method of selective calcein administration. Analysis of the molecular role of myosin VI in Cx43 trafficking indicates that myosin VI is dispensable for the delivery of Cx43 to the cell surface and connexon movement in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, we cannot corroborate clathrin or Dab2 localization at gap junctions and we do not observe a function for the myosin-VI–Dab2 complex in clathrin-dependent endocytosis of annular gap junctions. Instead, we found that myosin VI was localized at the edge of Cx43 plaques by using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and use FRAP to identify a plaque accretion defect as the primary manifestation of myosin VI loss in Cx43 homeostasis. A fuller understanding of this derangement may explain the cardiomyopathy or gliosis associated with the loss of myosin VI. PMID:28096472

  7. Kandinsky's "Composition VI": Heideggerian Poetry in Noah's Ark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    The author will begin his investigation of Wassily Kandinsky's painting "Composition VI" with Kandinsky's own commentary on the painting. He will then turn to the analysis of Kandinsky and the "Compositions" in John Sallis's book "Shades." Using this analysis as his point of departure, the author will consider how "Composition VI" resonates with…

  8. Possible problems in ENDF/B-VI.r8

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D; Hedstrom, G

    2003-10-30

    This document lists the problems that we encountered in processing ENDF/B-VI.r8 that we suspect are problems with ENDF/B-VI.r8 itself. It also contains a comparison of linear interpolation methods. Finally, this documents proposes an alternative to the current scheme of reporting problems to the ENDF community.

  9. Rich-Cores in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Athen; Mondragón, Raúl J.

    2015-01-01

    A core comprises of a group of central and densely connected nodes which governs the overall behaviour of a network. It is recognised as one of the key meso-scale structures in complex networks. Profiling this meso-scale structure currently relies on a limited number of methods which are often complex and parameter dependent or require a null model. As a result, scalability issues are likely to arise when dealing with very large networks together with the need for subjective adjustment of parameters. The notion of a rich-club describes nodes which are essentially the hub of a network, as they play a dominating role in structural and functional properties. The definition of a rich-club naturally emphasises high degree nodes and divides a network into two subgroups. Here, we develop a method to characterise a rich-core in networks by theoretically coupling the underlying principle of a rich-club with the escape time of a random walker. The method is fast, scalable to large networks and completely parameter free. In particular, we show that the evolution of the core in World Trade and C. elegans networks correspond to responses to historical events and key stages in their physical development, respectively. PMID:25799585

  10. Rich-cores in networks.

    PubMed

    Ma, Athen; Mondragón, Raúl J

    2015-01-01

    A core comprises of a group of central and densely connected nodes which governs the overall behaviour of a network. It is recognised as one of the key meso-scale structures in complex networks. Profiling this meso-scale structure currently relies on a limited number of methods which are often complex and parameter dependent or require a null model. As a result, scalability issues are likely to arise when dealing with very large networks together with the need for subjective adjustment of parameters. The notion of a rich-club describes nodes which are essentially the hub of a network, as they play a dominating role in structural and functional properties. The definition of a rich-club naturally emphasises high degree nodes and divides a network into two subgroups. Here, we develop a method to characterise a rich-core in networks by theoretically coupling the underlying principle of a rich-club with the escape time of a random walker. The method is fast, scalable to large networks and completely parameter free. In particular, we show that the evolution of the core in World Trade and C. elegans networks correspond to responses to historical events and key stages in their physical development, respectively.

  11. KENO-VI Primer: A Primer for Criticality Calculations with SCALE/KENO-VI Using GeeWiz

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Stephen M

    2008-09-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for criticality safety analyses. The well-known KENO-VI three-dimensional Monte Carlo criticality computer code is one of the primary criticality safety analysis tools in SCALE. The KENO-VI primer is designed to help a new user understand and use the SCALE/KENO-VI Monte Carlo code for nuclear criticality safety analyses. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with Monte Carlo codes in general or with SCALE/KENO-VI in particular. The primer is designed to teach by example, with each example illustrating two or three features of SCALE/KENO-VI that are useful in criticality analyses. The primer is based on SCALE 6, which includes the Graphically Enhanced Editing Wizard (GeeWiz) Windows user interface. Each example uses GeeWiz to provide the framework for preparing input data and viewing output results. Starting with a Quickstart section, the primer gives an overview of the basic requirements for SCALE/KENO-VI input and allows the user to quickly run a simple criticality problem with SCALE/KENO-VI. The sections that follow Quickstart include a list of basic objectives at the beginning that identifies the goal of the section and the individual SCALE/KENO-VI features that are covered in detail in the sample problems in that section. Upon completion of the primer, a new user should be comfortable using GeeWiz to set up criticality problems in SCALE/KENO-VI. The primer provides a starting point for the criticality safety analyst who uses SCALE/KENO-VI. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE/KENO-VI manual. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE/KENO-VI documentation. (The SCALE manual is provided on the SCALE installation DVD.) The primer provides specific examples of

  12. Enhanced microbial reduction of Cr(VI) and U(VI) by different natural organic matter fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Baohua; Chen, Jie

    2003-10-01

    Although direct microbial reduction of Cr(VI) and U(VI) is known, few studies have examined the kinetics and the underlying mechanisms of the reduction of these contaminants by different natural organic matter (NOM) fractions in the presence or absence of microorganisms. In this study, NOM was found to chemically reduce Cr(VI) at pH 3, but the reduction rates were negligible at pH ˜7. The abiotic reduction of U(VI) by NOM was not observed, possibly because of the presence of small amounts of nitrate in the reactant solution. However, all NOM fractions, particularly the soil humic acid (HA), enhanced the bioreduction of Cr(VI) or U(VI) in the presence of Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. The reduction rates varied greatly among NOM fractions with different chemical and structural properties: the polyphenolic-rich NOM-PP fraction appeared to be the most reactive in abiotically reducing Cr(VI) at a low pH, but soil HA was more effective in mediating the microbial reduction of Cr(VI) and U(VI) under anaerobic, circumneutral pH conditions. These observations are attributed to an increased solubility and conformational changes of the soil HA with pH and, more importantly, its relatively high contents of polycondensed and conjugated aromatic organic moieties. An important implication of this study is that, depending on chemical and structural properties, different NOM components may play different roles in enhancing the bioreduction of Cr(VI) and U(VI) by microorganisms. Polycondensed aromatic humic materials may be particularly useful in mediating the bioreduction and rapid immobilization of these contaminant metals in soil.

  13. Ion Acoustic Modes in Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Nicholas; Monaco, Guilio; White, Thomas; Gregori, Gianluca; Graham, Peter; Fletcher, Luke; Appel, Karen; Tschentscher, Thomas; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric; Granados, Eduardo; Heimann, Philip; Zastrau, Ulf; Doeppner, Tilo; Gericke, Dirk; Lepape, Sebastien; Ma, Tammy; Pak, Art; Schropp, Andreas; Glenzer, Siegfried; Hastings, Jerry

    2015-06-01

    We present results that, for the first time, show scattering from ion acoustic modes in warm dense matter, representing an unprecedented level of energy resolution in the study of dense plasmas. The experiment was carried out at the LCLS facility in California on an aluminum sample at 7 g/cc and 5 eV. Using an X-ray probe at 8 keV, shifted peaks at +/-150 meV were observed. Although the energy shifts from interactions with the acoustic waves agree with predicted values from DFT-MD models, a central (elastic) peak was also observed, which did not appear in modelled spectra and may be due to the finite timescale of the simulation. Data fitting with a hydrodynamic form has proved able to match the observed spectrum, and provide measurements of some thermodynamic properties of the system, which mostly agree with predicted values. Suggest for further experiments to determine the cause of the disparity are also given.

  14. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  15. Symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kie Sang; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction on the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case in the normal phase, we expect that the contribution of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy in the 2SC phase will be minimal. The different value of symmetry energy in each phase will lead to different prediction for the particle yields in heavy ion collision experiment.

  16. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Glenzer, S. H.; Neumayer, P.; Doppner, T.; ...

    2008-06-12

    Here, Compton scattering techniques have been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, whilemore » in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.« less

  17. Super-resolution without dense flow.

    PubMed

    Su, Heng; Wu, Ying; Zhou, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Super-resolution is a widely applied technique that improves the resolution of input images by software methods. Most conventional reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms assume accurate dense optical flow fields between the input frames, and their performance degrades rapidly when the motion estimation result is not accurate enough. However, optical flow estimation is usually difficult, particularly when complicated motion is presented in real-world videos. In this paper, we explore a new way to solve this problem by using sparse feature point correspondences between the input images. The feature point correspondences, which are obtained by matching a set of feature points, are usually precise and much more robust than dense optical flow fields. This is because the feature points represent well-selected significant locations in the image, and performing matching on the feature point set is usually very accurate. In order to utilize the sparse correspondences in conventional super-resolution, we extract an adaptive support region with a reliable local flow field from each corresponding feature point pair. The normalized prior is also proposed to increase the visual consistency of the reconstructed result. Extensive experiments on real data were carried out, and results show that the proposed algorithm produces high-resolution images with better quality, particularly in the presence of large-scale or complicated motion fields.

  18. Dynamics of Kr in dense clathrate hydrates.

    SciTech Connect

    Klug, D. D.; Tse, J. S.; Zhao, J. Y.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Tulk, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of Kr atoms as guests in dense clathrate hydrate structures are investigated using site specific {sup 83}Kr nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) spectroscopy in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. The dense structure H hydrate and filled-ice structures are studied at high pressures in a diamond anvil high-pressure cell. The dynamics of Kr in the structure H clathrate hydrate quench recovered at 77 K is also investigated. The Kr phonon density of states obtained from the experimental NRIXS data are compared with molecular dynamics simulations. The temperature and pressure dependence of the phonon spectra provide details of the Kr dynamics in the clathrate hydrate cages. Comparison with the dynamics of Kr atoms in the low-pressure structure II obtained previously was made. The Lamb-Mossbauer factor obtained from NRIXS experiments and molecular dynamics calculations are in excellent agreement and are shown to yield unique information on the strength and temperature dependence of guest-host interactions.

  19. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.; Kress, J.; Troullier, N.; Lenosky, T.; Kwon, I.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have developed a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulation method for investigating the properties of dense matter in a variety of environments. The technique treats a periodically-replicated reference cell containing N atoms in which the nuclei move according to the classical equations-of-motion. The interatomic forces are generated from the quantum mechanical interactions of the (between?) electrons and nuclei. To generate these forces, the authors employ several methods of varying sophistication from the tight-binding (TB) to elaborate density functional (DF) schemes. In the latter case, lengthy simulations on the order of 200 atoms are routinely performed, while for the TB, which requires no self-consistency, upwards to 1000 atoms are systematically treated. The QMD method has been applied to a variety cases: (1) fluid/plasma Hydrogen from liquid density to 20 times volume-compressed for temperatures of a thousand to a million degrees Kelvin; (2) isotopic hydrogenic mixtures, (3) liquid metals (Li, Na, K); (4) impurities such as Argon in dense hydrogen plasmas; and (5) metal/insulator transitions in rare gas systems (Ar,Kr) under high compressions. The advent of parallel versions of the methods, especially for fast eigensolvers, presage LDA simulations in the range of 500--1000 atoms and TB runs for tens of thousands of particles. This leap should allow treatment of shock chemistry as well as large-scale mixtures of species in highly transient environments.

  20. Nuclear quantum dynamics in dense hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongdong; Sun, Huayang; Dai, Jiayu; Chen, Wenbo; Zhao, Zengxiu; Hou, Yong; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear dynamics in dense hydrogen, which is determined by the key physics of large-angle scattering or many-body collisions between particles, is crucial for the dynamics of planet's evolution and hydrodynamical processes in inertial confinement confusion. Here, using improved ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the nuclear quantum dynamics regarding transport behaviors of dense hydrogen up to the temperatures of 1 eV. With the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), the ionic diffusions are largely higher than the classical treatment by the magnitude from 20% to 146% as the temperature is decreased from 1 eV to 0.3 eV at 10 g/cm3, meanwhile, electrical and thermal conductivities are significantly lowered. In particular, the ionic diffusion is found much larger than that without NQEs even when both the ionic distributions are the same at 1 eV. The significant quantum delocalization of ions introduces remarkably different scattering cross section between protons compared with classical particle treatments, which explains the large difference of transport properties induced by NQEs. The Stokes-Einstein relation, Wiedemann-Franz law, and isotope effects are re-examined, showing different behaviors in nuclear quantum dynamics. PMID:24968754

  1. Factors affecting the adsorption of chromium (VI) on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, R.; Orbak, I.; Karatepe, N.

    2006-09-15

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the adsorption behavior of chromium (VI) on two different activated carbon samples produced from Tuncbilek lignite. The effects of the initial chromium (VI) concentration (250-1000 mg/L), temperature (297-323 K) and pH (2.0-9.5) on adsorption were investigated systematically. The effectiveness of the parameters on chromium adsorption was found to be in the order of pH, the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the temperature. Increasing the pH from 2.0 to 9.5 caused a decrease in adsorption. However, the adsorption was increased by increasing the initial Cr(VI) concentration and temperature. The multilinear mathematical model was also developed to predict the Cr(VI) adsorption on activated carbon samples within the experimental conditions.

  2. Killing by Type VI secretion drives genetic phase separation and correlates with increased cooperation

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Luke; Bernardy, Eryn; Thomas, Jacob; Kalziqi, Arben; Pentz, Jennifer; Brown, Sam P.; Hammer, Brian K.; Yunker, Peter J.; Ratcliff, William C.

    2017-01-01

    By nature of their small size, dense growth and frequent need for extracellular metabolism, microbes face persistent public goods dilemmas. Genetic assortment is the only general solution stabilizing cooperation, but all known mechanisms structuring microbial populations depend on the availability of free space, an often unrealistic constraint. Here we describe a class of self-organization that operates within densely packed bacterial populations. Through mathematical modelling and experiments with Vibrio cholerae, we show how killing adjacent competitors via the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) precipitates phase separation via the ‘Model A' universality class of order-disorder transition mediated by killing. We mathematically demonstrate that T6SS-mediated killing should favour the evolution of public goods cooperation, and empirically support this prediction using a phylogenetic comparative analysis. This work illustrates the twin role played by the T6SS, dealing death to local competitors while simultaneously creating conditions potentially favouring the evolution of cooperation with kin. PMID:28165005

  3. Visible light emission measurements from a dense electrothermal launcher plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, O. E.; Bourham, M. A.; Earnhart, J.; Gilligan, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the visible light emission from dense, weakly non-ideal plasmas have been performed on the experimental electrothermal launcher device 'SIRENS'. The plasma is created by the ablation or a Lexan insulator in the source, which then flows through a cylindrical barrel which serves as the material sample. Visible light emission spectra have been observed both in-bore and from the muzzle flash or the barrel, and from the flash or the source. Due to high plasma opacity (the plasma emits as a near blackbody) and absorption by the molecular components of the vapor shield, the hotter core or the arc has been difficult to observe. Recent measurements along the axis or the device indicate time-averaged plasma temperatures in the barrel or about 1 eV for lower energy shots, which agree with experimental measurements of the average heat flux and plasma conductivity along the barrel. Measurements or visible emission from the source indicate time averaged temperatures of 1 to 2 eV which agree with the theoretical estimates derived from ablated mass measurements and calculated estimates derived from plasma conductivity measurements.

  4. Marker for type VI secretion system effectors

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Dor; Kinch, Lisa N.; Trudgian, David C.; Guo, Xiaofeng; Klimko, John A.; Grishin, Nick V.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Orth, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria use diverse mechanisms to kill, manipulate, and compete with other cells. The recently discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in bacterial pathogens and used to deliver virulence effector proteins into target cells. Using comparative proteomics, we identified two previously unidentified T6SS effectors that contained a conserved motif. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that this N-terminal motif, named MIX (marker for type six effectors), is found in numerous polymorphic bacterial proteins that are primarily located in the T6SS genome neighborhood. We demonstrate that several MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors and that they are not required for T6SS activity. Thus, we propose that MIX-containing proteins are T6SS effectors. Our findings allow for the identification of numerous uncharacterized T6SS effectors that will undoubtedly lead to the discovery of new biological mechanisms. PMID:24927539

  5. Superconductivity of calcium in phase VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szcze&şacute; niak, R.; Durajski, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    The properties of the superconducting state of calcium in phase VI were analyzed. By using the imaginary axis Eliashberg equations it has been shown, that the Coulomb pseudopotential reaches the high value equal to 0.215. In the considered case, the critical temperature is not properly described by the Allen-Dynes formula and it should be calculated with an use of the modified expression. In the paper the exact solutions of the Eliashberg equations on the real axis were also obtained. On this basis it was stated, that the effective potential of the electron-electron interaction is attractive for the frequencies lower or equal to the maximum phonon frequency. Then, the dimensionless parameter 2 Δ(0)/ kBTC = 4.10 was calculated. In the last step it has been proven, that the ratio of the electron effective mass to the bare electron mass is high and reaches its maximum equal to 2.36 for the critical temperature.

  6. Six-fold Coordinated Carbon Dioxide VI

    SciTech Connect

    Iota, V; Yoo, C; Klepeis, J; Jenei, Z

    2006-03-01

    Under standard conditions, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a simple molecular gas and an important atmospheric constituent while silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) is a covalent solid, and represents one of the fundamental minerals of the planet. The remarkable dissimilarity between these two group IV oxides is diminished at higher pressures and temperatures as CO{sub 2} transforms to a series of solid phases, from simple molecular to a fully covalent extended-solid V, structurally analogous to SiO{sub 2} tridymite. Here, we present the discovery of a new extended-solid phase of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}): a six-fold coordinated stishovite-like phase VI, obtained by isothermal compression of associated CO{sub 2}-II above 50GPa at 530-650K. Together with the previously reported CO{sub 2}-V and a-carbonia, this new extended phase indicates a fundamental similarity between CO{sub 2}--a prototypical molecular solid, and SiO{sub 2}--one of Earth's fundamental building blocks. The phase diagram suggests a limited stability domain for molecular CO{sub 2}-I, and proposes that the conversion to extended-network solids above 40-50 GPa occurs via intermediate phases II, III, and IV. The crystal structure of phase VI suggests strong disorder along the caxis in stishovite-like P4{sub 2}/mnm, with carbon atoms manifesting an average six-fold coordination within the framework of sp{sup 3} hybridization.

  7. Charge exchange between two nearest neighbour ions immersed in a dense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvan, P.; Angelo, P.; Derfoul, H.; Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Devdariani, A.; Calisti, A.; Talin, B.

    1999-04-01

    In dense plasmas the quasimolecular model is relevant to describe the radiative properties: two nearest neighbor ions remain close to each other during a time scale of the order of the emission time. Within the frame of a quasistatic approach it has been shown that hydrogen-like spectral line shapes can exhibit satellite-like features. In this work we present the effect on the line shapes of the dynamical collision between the two ions exchanging transiently their bound electron. This model is suitable for the description of the core, the wings and the red satellite-like features. It is post-processed to the self consistent code (IDEFIX) giving the adiabatic transition energies and the oscillator strengths for the transient molecule immersed in a dense free electron bath. It is shown that the positions of the satellites are insensitive to the dynamics of the ion-ion collision. Results for fluorine Lyβ are presented.

  8. ON THE COAGULATION AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PRESSURE CONFINED CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Xu; Zhou Tingtao; Lin, D. N. C.

    2013-05-20

    Observations of the Pipe Nebula have led to the discovery of dense starless cores. The mass of most cores is too small for their self-gravity to hold them together. Instead, they are thought to be pressure confined. The observed dense cores' mass function (CMF) matches well with the initial mass function of stars in young clusters. Similar CMFs are observed in other star forming regions such as the Aquila Nebula, albeit with some dispersion. The shape of these CMF provides important clues to the competing physical processes which lead to star formation and its feedback on the interstellar media. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical origin of the mass function of starless cores which are confined by a warm, less dense medium. In order to follow the evolution of the CMF, we construct a numerical method to consider the coagulation between the cold cores and their ablation due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability induced by their relative motion through the warm medium. We are able to reproduce the observed CMF among the starless cores in the Pipe Nebula. Our results indicate that in environment similar to the Pipe Nebula: (1) before the onset of their gravitational collapse, the mass distribution of the progenitor cores is similar to that of the young stars, (2) the observed CMF is a robust consequence of dynamical equilibrium between the coagulation and ablation of cores, and (3) a break in the slope of the CMF is due to the enhancement of collisional cross section and suppression of ablation for cores with masses larger than the cores' Bonnor-Ebert mass.

  9. Preparation of Fe3O4@Ag SERS substrate and its application in environmental Cr(VI) analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Jingjing; Jing, Chuanyong

    2011-06-01

    A novel sensitive and recyclable SERS substrate which can actively concentrate chromate (Cr(VI)) in water and substantially enhance Raman signal was synthesized as uniform Fe(3)O(4)@Ag nanoparticles. The surface morphology, structure, and magnetic properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry analysis. The closely spaced Fe(3)O(4)@Ag substrate with a core-shell structure exhibited a 25 nm surface roughness. The high saturation magnetization at 48.35 emu g(-1) enabled the complete and rapid separation of the substrate from the solution. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the substrate were confirmed using a common SERS probe molecule, rhodamine 6G. SERS spectra of Cr(VI) in simulated and real contaminated water showed that the symmetric stretching vibrations of Cr-O occurred at 796 cm(-1). This SERS peak area exhibited a linear dependence (R(2)=0.9992) on the Cr(VI) concentration between 5 and 100 μg L(-1). Coexisting anions such as sulfate, nitrate, chloride, carbonate, and humic acid could decrease the sensitivity of the SERS analysis. However, the adverse effect of the competing ions may be eliminated by proper dilution of the raw sample. This study provides a reliable method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Cr(VI).

  10. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  11. Tracing magnetic field orientation in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswar, G.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Lee, C. W.; Dib, S.

    It is now well understood that stars are formed in the interiors of dense, gravitationally bound molecular cloud cores that are both magnetized and turbulent. But the relative role played by the magnetic field and the turbulence in cloud formation and evolution and in the subsequent star formation is a matter of debate. In a magnetically dominated scenario, the magnetic field geometry of the cores is expected to be inherited unchanged from their low-density envelope, even for an hour glass geometry of the field, unless the action of turbulence disturbs it. We carried out polarimetry of stars projected on starless molecular clouds, LDN 183 and LDN 1544, in R-filter. The comparison of these fields with those in the interiors of the cloud cores inferred from the sub-mm polarization shows that both magnetic field and turbulence are important in the cloud formation and evolution of star formation.

  12. Neptunium (VI) and neptunium (VI/V) mixed valence cluster compounds

    SciTech Connect

    May, Iain

    2008-01-01

    Neptunium has three readily accessible oxidation states, IV, V and VI, which can coexist under certain conditions, with the aqueous soluble neptunyl(V) moiety, {l_brace}NpO{sub 2}{r_brace}{sup +}, of most environmental relevance. Careful control of Np chemistry is required during actinide separation processes. In addition, the long half life of the major alpha emitting isotope ({sup 237}Np, t{sub 1/2} = 2.144 x 10{sup 6} years) renders Np a major contributor to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste as a function of time. Significant quantities of neptunium are generated in nuclear reactors and the current surge in interest in nuclear power will lead to an increase in our need to further understand the chemistry of this element. It is clearly of importance that Np chemistry is well understood and there have been several recent investigations into the structural, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Np compounds. However, the vast majority of this chemistry has been performed in aqueous solution, prohibiting the use of air and moisture sensitive ligands. This is in stark contrast to uranium and thorium where inert atmosphere chemistry with moisture sensitive donor ligands has flourished, yielding greater insight into the structural and electronic properties of these early actinides. For the uranyl(VI) moiety, {l_brace}UO{sub 2}{r_brace}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(thf){sub 3} (and the desolvated dimer [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(thf)]{sub 2}) have proven to be excellent moisture-free reagents for inert atmosphere uranyl chemistry. These starting reagents have been used extensively within our group to study soft donor ligand coordination in the uranyl equatorial plane and oxo-activation to Lewis acid coordination. However, until now the absence of such a starting reagent for Np has limited our ability to extend this chemistry any further across the actinide series, which is required if we are to gain a more complete understanding of 5f element chemistry. The synthesis of [Np

  13. Vortices and other topological solitons in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Minoru; Hirono, Yuji; Nitta, Muneto; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Dense quantum chromodynamic matter accommodates various kind of topological solitons such as vortices, domain walls, monopoles, kinks, boojums, and so on. In this review, we discuss various properties of topological solitons in dense quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and their phenomenological implications. Particular emphasis is placed on the topological solitons in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase, which exhibits both superfluidity and superconductivity. The properties of topological solitons are discussed in terms of effective field theories such as the Ginzburg-Landau theory, the chiral Lagrangian, or the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. The most fundamental string-like topological excitations in the CFL phase are non-Abelian vortices, which are 1/3 quantized superfluid vortices and color magnetic flux tubes. These vortices are created at a phase transition by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism or when the CFL phase is realized in compact stars, which rotate rapidly. The interaction between vortices is found to be repulsive and consequently a vortex lattice is formed in rotating CFL matter. Bosonic and fermionic zero-energy modes are trapped in the core of a non-Abelian vortex and propagate along it as gapless excitations. The former consists of translational zero modes (a Kelvin mode) with a quadratic dispersion and {mathbb {C}}P^2 Nambu-Goldstone gapless modes with a linear dispersion, associated with the CFL symmetry spontaneously broken in the core of a vortex, while the latter is Majorana fermion zero modes belonging to the triplet of the symmetry remaining in the core of a vortex. The low-energy effective theory of the bosonic zero modes is constructed as a non-relativistic free complex scalar field and a relativistic {mathbb {C}}P^2 model in 1+1 dimensions. The effects of strange quark mass, electromagnetic interactions, and non-perturbative quantum corrections are taken into account in the {mathbb {C}}P^2 effective theory. Various topological objects associated

  14. Dense Molecular Gas in the Central 630 Parsecs of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paglione, T.; Jackson, J.; Heyer, M.; Bolatto, A.

    1996-05-01

    We took advantage of innovations at mm-wave telescopes to map the large-scale emission from dense gas in the central 630 pc of the Milky Way. I use the HCN/CO ratio and the HCN 3-2/1-0 ratio to determine the densities of the molecular gas in the Galactic center. Since stars form solely in the dense cores of molecular clouds, observing the emission from molecules that require high densities for excitation is important for estimating the physical properties (density, mass, temperature) of star-forming clouds in galaxies. Most extragalactic molecular line studies focus on ``starbursts,'' galaxies with unusually high star formation rates, but knowledge of the gas conditions in normal galaxies is essential for placing the starburst results into proper context. Unfortunately, the spatial resolution of typical extragalactic observations is poor (>0.3 kpc), and to compare properly the emission from different sources, we must examine them on the same spatial scales. Therefore a sensitive map of a normal galaxy, such as the Milky Way, at high resolution is critical, but to achieve the necessary map scales requires surveying a large angular area. The Milky Way spectra, when convolved to the spatial resolution of extragalactic data, are very similar to those of other galaxies. However, with our sensitivity, we discern two distributions to the dense gas emission: a bright narrow feature from dense gas in the Sagittarius clouds, and a broad faint component from diffuse gas perhaps in the Galactic disk. Starburst galaxies have higher average densities, a higher fraction of their mass is dense, and the starburst area is larger than the extent of the Sagittarius region. The density derived from the convolved Milky Way spectra equals the mean density found from modeling each map position. Therefore, this analysis yields the average gas properties in galaxies, despite poor spatial resolution.

  15. Small Satellites Embedded in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    A small satellite that inhabits a narrow gap in an dense planetary ring, such as Pan, will excite wakes at the gap edges, as well as spiral waves deeper in the ring. As the satellite disturbs the ring, it also draws angular momentum from the ring matter that orbits just interior to the satellite, while depositing that angular momentum among the ring particles that orbit just exterior. This outward transport of angular momentum causes the orbits of the nearby ring particles to slowly shrink, dragging along with them the satellite in its gap. This inward motion is of course type II migration that is familiar from planet formation theory. The significance of type II migration, if any, will also be assessed for the small satellites that orbit within Saturn's rings.

  16. Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2013-10-15

    Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  17. Dynamic structure of dense krypton gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egelstaff, P. A.; Salacuse, J. J.; Schommers, W.; Ram, J.

    1984-07-01

    We have made molecular-dynamics computer simulations of dense krypton gas (10.6×1027 atoms/m3 and 296 K) using reasonably realistic pair potentials. Comparisons are made with the recent experimental data

    [P. A. Egelstaff et al., Phys. Rev. A 27, 1106 (1983)]
    for the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) over the range 0.4
  18. Dense annular flows of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ryck, Alain; Louisnard, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Dense granular flows constitute an important topic for geophysics and process engineering. To describe them, a rheology based on the coaxiality between the stress and strain tensors with a Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion has been proposed. We propose here an analytic study of flows in an annular cell, with this rheology. This geometry is relevant for a series of powder rheometers or mixing devices, but the discussion is focused on the split-bottom geometry, for which the internal flow has been investigated by NMR technique. In this case, the full resolution of the velocity and stress fields allow to localize the shear deformations. The theoretical results obtained for the latter are compared with the torque measurements by Dijksman et al. [Phys. Rev. E, 82 (2010) 060301].

  19. Carbon nitride frameworks and dense crystalline polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, Chris J.; Salamat, Ashkan; Bojdys, Michael J.; Needs, Richard J.; McMillan, Paul F.

    2016-09-01

    We used ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS) to investigate polymorphism in C3N4 carbon nitride as a function of pressure. Our calculations reveal new framework structures, including a particularly stable chiral polymorph of space group P 43212 containing mixed s p2 and s p3 bonding, that we have produced experimentally and recovered to ambient conditions. As pressure is increased a sequence of structures with fully s p3 -bonded C atoms and three-fold-coordinated N atoms is predicted, culminating in a dense P n m a phase above 250 GPa. Beyond 650 GPa we find that C3N4 becomes unstable to decomposition into diamond and pyrite-structured CN2.

  20. Binary Black Holes from Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The recent detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of compact object astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the universe, we must compare these observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of cluster dynamics, describing how binary black holes can be formed through gravitational interactions in dense stellar environments, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. I will review the properties and merger rates of binary black holes from the dynamical formation channel. Finally, I will describe how the spins of a binary black hole are determined by its formation history, and how we can use this to discriminate between dynamically-formed binaries and those formed from isolated evolution in galactic fields.

  1. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Dense Gas Dispersion Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touma, Jawad S.; Cox, William M.; Thistle, Harold; Zapert, James G.

    1995-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study to evaluate the performance of seven dense gas dispersion models using data from three field experiments. Two models (DEGADIS and SLAB) are in the public domain and the other five (AIRTOX, CHARM, FOCUS, SAFEMODE, and TRACE) are proprietary. The field data used are the Desert Tortoise pressurized ammonia releases, Burro liquefied natural gas spill tests, and the Goldfish anhydrous hydrofluoric acid spill experiments. Desert Tortoise and Goldfish releases were simulated as horizontal jet releases, and Burro as a liquid pool. Performance statistics were used to compare maximum observed concentrations and plume half-width to those predicted by each model. Model performance varied and no model exhibited consistently good performance across all three databases. However, when combined across the three databases, all models performed within a factor of 2. Problems encountered are discussed in order to help future investigators.

  3. Plasmon resonance in warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Thiele, R; Bornath, T; Fortmann, C; Höll, A; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Röpke, G; Wierling, A; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G

    2008-08-01

    Collective Thomson scattering with extreme ultraviolet light or x rays is shown to allow for a robust measurement of the free electron density in dense plasmas. Collective excitations like plasmons appear as maxima in the scattering signal. Their frequency position can directly be related to the free electron density. The range of applicability of the standard Gross-Bohm dispersion relation and of an improved dispersion relation in comparison to calculations based on the dielectric function in random phase approximation is investigated. More important, this well-established treatment of Thomson scattering on free electrons is generalized in the Born-Mermin approximation by including collisions. We show that, in the transition region from collective to noncollective scattering, the consideration of collisions is important.

  4. Laser plasma diagnostics of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Glendinning, S.G.; Amendt, P.; Budil, K.S.; Hammel, B.A.; Kalantar, D.H.; Key, M.H.; Landen, O.L.; Remington, B.A.; Desenne, D.E.

    1995-07-12

    The authors describe several experiments on Nova that use laser-produced plasmas to generate x-rays capable of backlighting dense, cold plasmas (p {approximately} 1--3 gm/cm{sup 3}, kT {approximately} 5--10 eV, and areal density {rho}{ell}{approximately} 0.01--0.05 g/cm{sup 2}). The x-rays used vary over a wide range of h{nu}, from 80 eV (X-ray laser) to 9 keV. This allows probing of plasmas relevant to many hydrodynamic experiments. Typical diagnostics are 100 ps pinhole framing cameras for a long pulse backlighter and a time-integrated CCD camera for a short pulse backlighter.

  5. Towards a theoretical description of dense QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipsen, Owe

    2017-03-01

    The properties of matter at finite baryon densities play an important role for the astrophysics of compact stars as well as for heavy ion collisions or the description of nuclear matter. Because of the sign problem of the quark determinant, lattice QCD cannot be simulated by standard Monte Carlo at finite baryon densities. I review alternative attempts to treat dense QCD with an effective lattice theory derived by analytic strong coupling and hopping expansions, which close to the continuum is valid for heavy quarks only, but shows all qualitative features of nuclear physics emerging from QCD. In particular, the nuclear liquid gas transition and an equation of state for baryons can be calculated directly from QCD. A second effective theory based on strong coupling methods permits studies of the phase diagram in the chiral limit on coarse lattices.

  6. Possible test of ancient dense Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Engel, S.

    1993-01-01

    We have completed preliminary calculations of the minimum sizes of bolides that would penetrate various hypothetical Martian atmospheres with surface pressures ranging from 6 to 1000 mbar for projectiles of various strengths. The calculations are based on a computer program. These numbers are used to estimate the diameter corresponding to the turndown in the crater diameter distribution due to the loss of these bodies, analogous to the dramatic turndown at larger sized already discovered on Venus due to this effect. We conclude that for an atmosphere greater than a few hundred millibars, a unique downward displacement in the diameter distribution would develop in the crater diameter distribution at D approximately = 0.5-4 km, due to loss of all but Fe bolides. Careful search for this displacement globally, as outlined here, would allow us to place upper limits on the pressure of the atmosphere contemporaneous with the oldest surfaces, and possibly to get direct confirmation of dense ancient atmospheres.

  7. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.

    2010-02-15

    Two-dimensional quantum ion acoustic shock waves (QIASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons and ions. In this regard, a nonplanar quantum Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (QKPB) equation is derived using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. Using the tangent hyperbolic method, an analytical solution of the planar QKPB equation is obtained and subsequently used as the initial profile to numerically solve the nonplanar QKPB equation. It is observed that the increasing number density (and correspondingly the quantum Bohm potential) and kinematic viscosity affect the propagation characteristics of the QIASW. The temporal evolution of the nonplanar QIASW is investigated both in Cartesian and polar planes and the results are discussed from the numerical stand point. The results of the present study may be applicable in the study of propagation of small amplitude localized electrostatic shock structures in dense astrophysical environments.

  8. Yielding behavior of dense microgel glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, R. G.; Tata, B. V. R.; Karthickeyan, D.

    2013-02-01

    We report here the yielding behavior of dense suspensions of stimuli-responsive poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel particles studied by performing oscillatory shear measurements. At a volume fraction of φ = 0.6 (labeled as sample S1) the suspension is characterized to be repulsive glass by dynamic light scattering technique and showed one step yielding. Quite interestingly higher volume fraction sample (S2) prepared by osmotically compressing sample S1, showed yielding occurring in two steps. Such one step yielding behavior turning into two step yielding was reported by Pham et al [Europhys. Lett., 75, 624 (2006)] in hard-sphere repulsive colloidal glass when transformed into an attractive glass by inducing depletion attraction. We confirm the repulsive interparticle interaction between PNIPAM microgel particles turning into attractive upon osmotic compression by static light scattering measurements.

  9. Prediction of viscosity of dense fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, Damian D.; Vesovic, Velisa; Trusler, J. P. Martin; Wakeham, William. A.

    The Vesovic-Wakeham (VW) method of predicting the viscosity of dense fluid mixtures has been improved by implementing new mixing rules based on the rigid sphere formalism. The proposed mixing rules are based on both Lebowitz's solution of the Percus-Yevick equation and on the Carnahan-Starling equation. The predictions of the modified VW method have been compared with experimental viscosity data for a number of diverse fluid mixtures: natural gas, hexane + hheptane, hexane + octane, cyclopentane + toluene, and a ternary mixture of hydrofluorocarbons (R32 + R125 + R134a). The results indicate that the proposed improvements make possible the extension of the original VW method to liquid mixtures and to mixtures containing polar species, while retaining its original accuracy.

  10. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  11. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Morissette, Sherry L.; Pei, Shiyou

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  12. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  13. Megajoule Dense Plasma Focus Solid Target Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podpaly, Y. A.; Falabella, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Shaw, B. H.; Cooper, C. M.; Chapman, S.; Bennett, N.; Sipe, N.; Olson, R.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2016-10-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) devices are plasma sources that can produce significant neutron yields from beam into gas interactions. Yield increases, up to approximately a factor of five, have been observed previously on DPFs using solid targets, such as CD2 and D2O ice. In this work, we report on deuterium solid-target experiments at the Gemini DPF. A rotatable target holder and baffle arrangement were installed in the Gemini device which allowed four targets to be deployed sequentially without breaking vacuum. Solid targets of titanium deuteride were installed and systematically studied at a variety of fill pressures, bias voltages, and target positions. Target holder design, experimental results, and comparison to simulations will be presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Improved models of dense anharmonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenau, P.; Zilburg, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present two improved quasi-continuous models of dense, strictly anharmonic chains. The direct expansion which includes the leading effect due to lattice dispersion, results in a Boussinesq-type PDE with a compacton as its basic solitary mode. Without increasing its complexity we improve the model by including additional terms in the expanded interparticle potential with the resulting compacton having a milder singularity at its edges. A particular care is applied to the Hertz potential due to its non-analyticity. Since, however, the PDEs of both the basic and the improved model are ill posed, they are unsuitable for a study of chains dynamics. Using the bond length as a state variable we manipulate its dispersion and derive a well posed fourth order PDE.

  15. Ion beam driven warm dense matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Ni, P. A.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P. K.; More, R.; Barnard, J. J.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A. W.; Yoneda, H.

    2007-11-01

    We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments at LBNL are at 0.3-1 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak), increasing toward the Bragg peak in future versions of the accelerator. The WDM conditions are envisioned to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. Initial experiments include an experiment to study transient darkening at LBNL; and a porous target experiment at GSI heated by intense heavy-ion beams from the SIS 18 storage ring. Further experiments will explore target temperature and other properties such as electrical conductivity to investigate phase transitions and the critical point.

  16. X-ray scattering from dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSherry, Declan Joseph

    Dense plasmas were studied by probing them with kilovolt x-rays and measuring those scattered at various angles. The laser produced x-ray source emitted Ti He alpha 4.75 keV x-rays. Two different plasma types were explored. The first was created by laser driven shocks on either side of a sample foil consisting of 2 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 1 micron CH layers. We have observed a peak in the x-ray scattering cross section, indicating diffraction from the plasma. However, the experimentally inferred plasma density, did not always agree broadly with the hydrodynamic simulation MEDX (A modified version of MEDUSA). The second plasma type that we studied was created by soft x-ray heating on either side of a sample foil, this time consisting of 1 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 0.2 micron CH layers. Two foil targets, each consisting of a 0.1 micron thick Au foil mounted on 1 micron of CH, were placed 4 mm from the sample foil. The soft x-rays were produced by laser irradiating these two foil targets. We found that, 0.5 ns after the peak of the laser heating pulses, that the measured cross sections more closely matched those simulated using the Thomas Fermi model than the Inferno model. Later in time, at 2 ns, the plasma is approaching a weakly coupled state. This is the first time x-ray scattering cross sections have been measured from dense plasmas generated by radiatively heating both sides of the sample. Moreover, these are absolute values typically within a factor of two of expectation for early x-ray probe times.

  17. Compiler blockability of dense matrix factorizations.

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, S.; Lehoucq, R. B.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Michigan Technological Univ.

    1997-09-01

    The goal of the LAPACK project is to provide efficient and portable software for dense numerical linear algebra computations. By recasting many of the fundamental dense matrix computations in terms of calls to an efficient implementation of the BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms), the LAPACK project has, in large part, achieved its goal. Unfortunately, the efficient implementation of the BLAS results often in machine-specific code that is not portable across multiple architectures without a significant loss in performance or a significant effort to reoptimize them. This article examines whether most of the hand optimizations performed on matrix factorization codes are unnecessary because they can (and should) be performed by the compiler. We believe that it is better for the programmer to express algorithms in a machine-independent form and allow the compiler to handle the machine-dependent details. This gives the algorithms portability across architectures and removes the error-prone, expensive and tedious process of hand optimization. Although there currently exist no production compilers that can perform all the loop transformations discussed in this article, a description of current research in compiler technology is provided that will prove beneficial to the numerical linear algebra community. We show that the Cholesky and optimized automatically by a compiler to be as efficient as the same hand-optimized version found in LAPACK. We also show that the QR factorization may be optimized by the compiler to perform comparably with the hand-optimized LAPACK version on modest matrix sizes. Our approach allows us to conclude that with the advent of the compiler optimizations discussed in this article, matrix factorizations may be efficiently implemented in a BLAS-less form.

  18. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  19. Electrochemical alkaline Fe(VI) water purification and remediation.

    PubMed

    Licht, Stuart; Yu, Xingwen

    2005-10-15

    Fe(VI) is an unusual and strongly oxidizing form of iron, which provides a potentially less hazardous water-purifying agent than chlorine. A novel on-line electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification methodology is introduced. Fe(VI) addition had been a barrier to its effective use in water remediation, because solid Fe(VI) salts require complex (costly) syntheses steps and solutions of Fe(VI) decompose. Online electrochemical Fe(VI) water purification avoids these limitations, in which Fe(VI) is directly prepared in solution from an iron anode as the FeO42- ion, and is added to the contaminant stream. Added FeO42- decomposes, by oxidizing a wide range of water contaminants including sulfides (demonstrated in this study) and other sulfur-containing compounds, cyanides (demonstrated in this study), arsenic (demonstrated in this study), ammonia and other nitrogen-containing compounds (previously demonstrated), a wide range of organics (phenol demonstrated in this study), algae, and viruses (each previously demonstrated).

  20. Kinetics of Microbial Reduction of Solid Phase U(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Jeon, Byong Hun; Zachara, John M.; Wang, Zheming; Dohnalkova, Alice; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2006-10-01

    Sodium boltwoodite (NaUO2SiO3OH ?1.5H2O) was used to assess the kinetics of microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI) by a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium (DMRB), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1. The bioreduction kinetics was studied with Na-boltwoodite in suspension or within alginate beads. Concentrations of U(VI)tot and cell number were varied to evaluate the coupling of U(VI) dissolution, diffusion, and microbial activity. Batch experiments were performed in a non-growth medium with lactate as electron donor at pH 6.8 buffered with PIPES. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) collectively indicated that solid phase U(VI) was first dissolved and diffused out of grain interiors before it was reduced on bacterial surfaces and/or within the periplasm. The kinetics of solid phase U(VI) bioreduction was well described by a coupled model of bicarbonate-promoted dissolution of Na-boltwoodite, intraparticle uranyl diffusion, and Monod type bioreduction kinetics with respect to dissolved U(VI) concentration. The results demonstrated the intimate coupling of biological, chemical, and physical processes in microbial reduction of solid phase U(VI).

  1. The adsorption behavior of U(VI) on granite.

    PubMed

    Fan, Q H; Hao, L M; Wang, C L; Zheng, Z; Liu, C L; Wu, W S

    2014-03-01

    The effects of pH, counter ions and temperature on the adsorption of U(VI) on Beishan granite (BsG) were investigated in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA). The adsorption edge of U(VI) on BsG suggested that U(VI) adsorption was mainly controlled by ion exchange and outer-sphere complexation at low pH, whereas inner-sphere complex was the dominant adsorption species in the pH range of 4.0-9.0. Above pH 9.0, Na2U2O7 might play an important role in the rise of U(VI) adsorption again. Counter ions such as Cl(-), SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) can provoke U(VI) adsorption on BsG to some extent, which was directly correlated to the complexing ability of U(VI)-ligand. More noticeably, the large enhancement of U(VI) adsorption in the presence of phosphate can be attributed to the ternary complex formation (BsG-PO4-UO2), precipitation ((UO2)3(PO4)2(s)) and secondary phase (Na-autunite). Both FA and HA can slightly increase U(VI) adsorption at low pH, whereas they strongly inhibited U(VI) adsorption at high pH range. Artificial synthesized granite (AsG) prepared in the laboratory is impossible to use as an analogue of natural granite because of the large difference in the adsorption and surface properties.

  2. Kinetics of Abiotic Uranium(VI) Reduction by Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, S.; Davis, J. A.; Hayes, K. F.

    2010-12-01

    Uranium(VI) reduction is an important process affecting the radionuclide’s fate under sulfate reducing conditions. In this work, kinetics of abiotic U(VI) reduction by dissolved sulfide was studied using a batch reactor. The effects of solution pH, dissolved carbonate, Ca(II), U(VI), and S(-II) concentration on the reduction kinetics were tested. The ranges of these experimental variables were designed to cover the variation in groundwater chemistry observed at the Old Rifle uranium mill tailings site (Colorado, USA). Dissolved U concentration was monitored as a function of time using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to measure the rate of U(VI) reduction. Solid phase reduction products were identified using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that changes in the experimental variables significantly affected U(VI) reduction kinetics by dissolved sulfide. U(VI) reduction occurred under circumneutral pH while no reduction was observed under alkaline conditions. The reduction rate was slowed by increased dissolved carbonate concentration. One solid phase reduction product was identified as nanoscale uraninite (UO2+x(s)). Thermodynamic modeling showed that the dissolved U(VI) aqueous species changed as a function of solution conditions correlated with the change in the reduction rate. These results show that U(VI) aqueous speciation is important in determining abiotic U(VI) reduction kinetics by dissolved sulfide. This study also illustrates the potential importance of dissolved sulfide in field-scale modeling of U reactive transport, and is expected to contribute to the understanding of long-term effects of biostimulation on U transport at the Rifle site.

  3. Dense Deposit Disease Mimicking a Renal Small Vessel Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lavleen; Singh, Geetika; Bhardwaj, Swati; Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind; Dinda, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Dense deposit disease is caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway and frequently deviates from the classic membranoproliferative pattern of injury on light microscopy. Other patterns of injury described for dense deposit disease include mesangioproliferative, acute proliferative/exudative, and crescentic GN. Regardless of the histologic pattern, C3 glomerulopathy, which includes dense deposit disease and C3 GN, is defined by immunofluorescence intensity of C3c two or more orders of magnitude greater than any other immune reactant (on a 0-3 scale). Ultrastructural appearances distinguish dense deposit disease and C3 GN. Focal and segmental necrotizing glomerular lesions with crescents, mimicking a small vessel vasculitis such as ANCA-associated GN, are a very rare manifestation of dense deposit disease. We describe our experience with this unusual histologic presentation and distinct clinical course of dense deposit disease, discuss the pitfalls in diagnosis, examine differential diagnoses, and review the relevant literature.

  4. Dense Deposit Disease Mimicking a Renal Small Vessel Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Lavleen; Bhardwaj, Swati; Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind; Dinda, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Dense deposit disease is caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway and frequently deviates from the classic membranoproliferative pattern of injury on light microscopy. Other patterns of injury described for dense deposit disease include mesangioproliferative, acute proliferative/exudative, and crescentic GN. Regardless of the histologic pattern, C3 glomerulopathy, which includes dense deposit disease and C3 GN, is defined by immunofluorescence intensity of C3c two or more orders of magnitude greater than any other immune reactant (on a 0–3 scale). Ultrastructural appearances distinguish dense deposit disease and C3 GN. Focal and segmental necrotizing glomerular lesions with crescents, mimicking a small vessel vasculitis such as ANCA-associated GN, are a very rare manifestation of dense deposit disease. We describe our experience with this unusual histologic presentation and distinct clinical course of dense deposit disease, discuss the pitfalls in diagnosis, examine differential diagnoses, and review the relevant literature. PMID:26361799

  5. Large Area, High Resolution N2H+ studies of dense gas in the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Shaye; Mundy, Lee

    2014-07-01

    Star formation in molecular clouds occurs over a wide range of spatial scales and physical densities. Understanding the origin of dense cores thus requires linking the structure and kinematics of gas and dust from cloud to core scales. The CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey (CLASSy) is a CARMA Key Project that spectrally imaged five diverse regions of the Perseus and Serpens Molecular Clouds in N2H+ (J=1-0), totaling over 800 square arcminutes. The observations have 7’’ angular resolution (~0.01 pc spatial resolution) to probe dense gas down to core scales, and use combined interferometric and single-dish data to fully recover line emission up to parsec scales. CLASSy observations are complete, and this talk will focus on three science results. First, the dense gas in regions with existing star formation has complex hierarchical structure. We present a non-binary dendrogram analysis for all regions and show that dense gas hierarchy correlates with star formation activity. Second, well-resolved velocity information for each dendrogram-identified structure allows a new way of looking at linewidth-size relations in clouds. Specifically, we find that non-thermal line-of-sight velocity dispersion varies weakly with structure size, while rms variation in the centroid velocity increases strongly with structure size. We argue that the typical line-of-sight depth of a cloud can be estimated from these relations, and that our regions have depths that are several times less than their extent on the plane of the sky. This finding is consistent with numerical simulations of molecular cloud turbulence that show that high-density sheets are a generic result. Third, N2H+ is a good tracer of cold, dense gas in filaments; we resolve multiple beams across many filaments, some of which are narrower than 0.1 pc. The centroid velocity fields of several filaments show gradients perpendicular to their major axis, which is a common feature in filaments formed from numerical

  6. Incorporation of neptunium(VI) into a uranyl selenite.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Nathan A; Polinski, Matthew J; Lin, Jian; Simonetti, Antonio; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E

    2012-10-15

    The incorporation of neptunium(VI) into the layered uranyl selenite Cs[(UO(2))(HSeO(3))(SeO(3))] has yielded the highest level of neptunium uptake in a uranyl compound to date with an average of 12(±3)% substitution of Np(VI) for U(VI). Furthermore, this is the first case in nearly 2 decades of dedicated incorporation studies in which the oxidation state of neptunium has been determined spectroscopically in a doped uranyl compound and also the first time in which neptunium incorporation has resulted in a structural transformation.

  7. Frequency of Oxygen VI in Intervening QSO Absorption Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burles, Scott; Tytler, David

    1994-12-01

    We have conducted the first survey for QSO with O VI lambda lambda 1032,1038 absorption lines. We obtained medium resolution (R ~ 1300), high signal-to-noise (~ 20) spectra of 11 QSOs (0.53<= zem <=2.08) taken with the Faint Object Spectrograph from the Hubble Space Telescope Archive. The O VI doublet is found exclusively in the Lyman-alpha forest. All previous surveys of metal lines in QSO absorption systems were done redward of Lyalpha emission, avoiding blending due to Lyman-alpha forest clouds. The higher density of lines in the Lyman-alpha forest demands new stringent criteria to ensure the identification of the O VI doublet. We used simulated spectra to determine the statistical significance of lines indentified in the Lyman-alpha forest. We found 12 O VI doublets and 9 are expected to be real. Six constitute a uniform sample with both lines exceeding a rest equivalent width of W_r =0.21 Angstroms. The number of O VI doublets per unit redshift is = 1.0 +/-0.6 at a mean absorption redshift of zave = 0.9. For comparable W_r the density of O VI absorbers is similar to Mg II (Tytler et al 1986; Steidel & Sargent 1992) and C IV absorbers (Sargent et al 1988; Bahcall et al 1993). We searched for other common ions in the O VI absorption systems. Out of 8 O VI absorption systems in which C IV is also found, C IV is stronger in all except zabs=1.0828 towards PG1206+459 which we believe is collisionally ionized. A rough estimate of the cosmological mass density of O VI is carried out. If we assume that O VI lines are linear, we get a lower limit of Omega (OVI) >= 3 times 10(-9) h(-1}_{100) . Since O > O VI, if the mean metal abundance were below 0.002 solar, then the accompanying Hydrogen and Helium would account for all baryons in the universe. We conclude that mean abundances are above 0.002 solar, and much greater if the gas is not highly ionized (O >> O VI).

  8. Atomic-Scale Characterization of II-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David J.

    2013-11-01

    Alloys of II-VI compound semiconductors with suitable band gap selection potentially provide broad coverage of wavelengths for photodetector applications. Achievement of high-quality epitaxial growth is, however, essential for successful development of integrated photonic and optoelectronic devices. Atomic-scale characterization of structural defects in II-VI heterostructures using electron microscopy plays an invaluable role in accomplishing this goal. This paper reviews some recent high-resolution studies of II-VI compound semiconductors with zincblende crystal structure, as grown epitaxially on commonly used substrates. Exploratory studies using aberration-corrected electron microscopes are also briefly considered.

  9. Enhancing the electrochemical Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Lugo-Lugo, Violeta; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Natividad, R; Martínez-Delgadillo, S A

    2011-01-30

    In this study we present the cathodic Cr(VI) reduction using electrodissolution of iron anode. In batch experiments we tested four different cathodic materials; the best conditions were found when copper was used. It is observed that when more current is applied into the electrochemical cell faster reduction rates are achieved. Continuous experiments also reveal that Cr(VI) reduction could be done in a very efficient way. To confirm the experimental data, cyclic voltammetry was used and it was found that the cathodic Cr(VI) reduction is taking place.

  10. Effect of arm exchange on the liquid-solid transition of dense suspensions of star polymers.

    PubMed

    Puaud, Fanny; Nicolai, Taco; Benyahia, Lazhar; Nicol, Erwan

    2013-10-10

    Star polymers with dynamic arm exchange are formed in water by self-assembly of amphiphilic diblock copolymers based on poly(ethylene oxide) end capped with a small hydrophobic block. The arm exchange was arrested in situ by photo-cross-linking of the core. The effect of dynamic arm exchange on the osmotic compressibility and viscosity was investigated systematically as a function of the concentration and temperature. The discontinuous liquid-solid transition reported for dense polymeric micelle suspensions was found to be preserved after dynamic arm exchange was arrested in situ. The effect of cross-linking and aggregation number on the liquid-solid transition was investigated.

  11. Generation of strong magnetic fields in dense quark matter driven by the electroweak interaction of quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2016-12-01

    We study the generation of strong large scale magnetic fields in dense quark matter. The magnetic field growth is owing to the magnetic field instability driven by the electroweak interaction of quarks. We discuss the situation when the chiral symmetry is unbroken in the degenerate quark matter. In this case we predict the amplification of the seed magnetic field 1012G to the strengths (1014 -1015)G. In our analysis we use the typical parameters of the quark matter in the core of a hybrid star or in a quark star. We also discuss the application of the obtained results to describe the magnetic fields generation in magnetars.

  12. Dense-Gas Dispersion in Complex Terrain (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    public release; distribution unlimited. A dense-gas version of the ADPIC Lagrangian particle, advection-diffusion model has been developed to...of momentum principles along with the ideal gas law equation of state for a mixture of gases. ADPIC , which is generally run in conjunction with a...versatility of coupling the new dense-gas ADPIC with alternative wind flow models. The new dense-gas ADPIC has been used to simulate the atmospheric

  13. Method of determining nanoparticle core weight.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Fred; O'loughlin, Terry; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee

    2005-02-01

    Polymer-coated metal or metal oxide nanoparticles have a variety of uses in industry, biological research, and medicine. Characterization of nanoparticles often includes determination of the dimensions of the electron-dense core by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the weight of the core determined from core volume and core density. However, TEM is labor intensive, has a long turnaround time, and uses equipment that is sometimes not readily available. Here we present an alternative method for determining the weight of nanoparticle cores termed the viscosity/light scattering method, which uses (i) measurements of viscosity over a wide concentration range to obtain the partial specific volume, (ii) measurements of particle diameter by light scattering, to obtain the volume of an individual particle, and (iii) the concentration of nanoparticles (w/v). We have applied this method to determine the weights of nanoparticle cores (iron of amino-CLIO and ferritin), the weights of globular proteins (molecular weight of IgG and albumin), and the weight of polystyrene microspheres. The viscosity/light scattering method is nondestructive of the sample and can be performed with a variety of materials on a routine basis.

  14. Flow cytometry-assisted purification and proteomic analysis of the corticotropes dense-core secretory granules.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Daniel J; Sobota, Jacqueline A; Ferraro, Francesco; Mains, Richard E; Lazure, Claude

    2008-09-01

    The field of organellar proteomics has emerged as an attempt to minimize the complexity of the proteomics data obtained from whole cell and tissue extracts while maximizing the resolution on the protein composition of a single subcellular compartment. Standard methods involve lengthy density-based gradient and/or immunoaffinity purification steps followed by extraction, 1-DE or 2-DE, gel staining, in-gel tryptic digestion, and protein identification by MS. In this paper, we present an alternate approach to purify subcellular organelles containing a fluorescent reporter molecule. The gel-free procedure involves fluorescence-assisted sorting of the secretory granules followed by gentle extraction in a buffer compatible with tryptic digestion and MS. Once the subcellular organelle labeled, this procedure can be done in a single day, requires no major modification to any instrumentation and can be readily adapted to the study of other organelles. When applied to corticotrope secretory granules, it led to a much enriched granular fraction from which numerous proteins could be identified through MS.

  15. Selective nucleotide-release from dense-core granules in insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Obermüller, Stefanie; Lindqvist, Anders; Karanauskaite, Jovita; Galvanovskis, Juris; Rorsman, Patrik; Barg, Sebastian

    2005-09-15

    Secretory granules of insulin-secreting cells are used to store and release peptide hormones as well as low-molecular-weight compounds such as nucleotides. Here we have compared the rate of exocytosis with the time courses of nucleotide and peptide release by a combination of capacitance measurements, electrophysiological detection of ATP release and single-granule imaging. We demonstrate that the release of nucleotides and peptides is delayed by approximately 0.1 and approximately 2 seconds with respect to membrane fusion, respectively. We further show that in up to 70% of the cases exocytosis does not result in significant release of the peptide cargo, likely because of a mechanism that leads to premature closure of the fusion pore. Release of nucleotides and protons occurred regardless of whether peptides were secreted or not. These observations suggest that insulin-secreting cells are able to use the same secretory vesicles to release small molecules either alone or together with the peptide hormone.

  16. Distinct fusion properties of synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7 bearing dense core granules.

    PubMed

    Rao, Tejeshwar C; Passmore, Daniel R; Peleman, Andrew R; Das, Madhurima; Chapman, Edwin R; Anantharam, Arun

    2014-08-15

    Adrenal chromaffin cells release hormones and neuropeptides that are essential for physiological homeostasis. During this process, secretory granules fuse with the plasma membrane and deliver their cargo to the extracellular space. It was once believed that fusion was the final regulated step in exocytosis, resulting in uniform and total release of granule cargo. Recent evidence argues for nonuniform outcomes after fusion, in which cargo is released with variable kinetics and selectivity. The goal of this study was to identify factors that contribute to the different outcomes, with a focus on the Ca(2+)-sensing synaptotagmin (Syt) proteins. Two Syt isoforms are expressed in chromaffin cells: Syt-1 and Syt-7. We find that overexpressed and endogenous Syt isoforms are usually sorted to separate secretory granules and are differentially activated by depolarizing stimuli. In addition, overexpressed Syt-1 and Syt-7 impose distinct effects on fusion pore expansion and granule cargo release. Syt-7 pores usually fail to expand (or reseal), slowing the dispersal of lumenal cargo proteins and granule membrane proteins. On the other hand, Syt-1 diffuses from fusion sites and promotes the release of lumenal cargo proteins. These findings suggest one way in which chromaffin cells may regulate cargo release is via differential activation of synaptotagmin isoforms.

  17. Influence of cholesterol on catecholamine release from the fusion pore of large dense core chromaffin granules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Kwan, Christina; Gong, Xiandi; de Chaves, Elena Posse; Tse, Amy; Tse, Frederick W

    2010-03-17

    Changes in cellular cholesterol can affect exocytosis, but the influence of cholesterol in fusion pore kinetics is unclear. Using carbon fiber amperometry, we monitored quantal catecholamine release from rat chromaffin cells. To bypass any possible effect of cholesterol perturbation on ion channels or the colocalization of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels with sites of exocytosis, exocytosis was stimulated via uniform elevation of cytosolic [Ca(2+)] (with whole-cell dialysis of a Ca(2+)-buffered solution). Under this condition, alterations of cellular cholesterol affected neither the mean number of amperometric events triggered per cell nor their quantal size and the kinetics of their main spike (which reflects the rapid release during and after rapid fusion pore dilation). In contrast, the reduction of cellular cholesterol shortened the "prespike foot" signals (which reflect the leakage of catecholamine via a semi-stable fusion pore) and reduced the proportion of "stand-alone foot" signals (which reflect the release via a flickering fusion pore that may close before it dilates significantly), whereas an oversupply of cholesterol had opposite effects. Acute extraction of cholesterol from the cytosol (via whole-cell dialysis of a cholesterol extractor) also shortened the prespike foot signals and reduced the proportion of stand-alone foot signals, but acute extracellular application of cholesterol extractor or "soluble" cholesterol had no effect. Our data raise the possibility that cholesterol molecules, particularly those in the cytoplasmic leaflet, helps to constrain the narrow waistline of a semi-stable fusion pore while it is flickering or before it starts to dilate rapidly.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dense cores in L1495/B213 complex (Tafalla+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafalla, M.; Hacar, A.

    2015-01-01

    We observed selected regions of the L1495/B213 cloud with the IRAM 30m telescope during one session in February-March 2013 and another one the following June. In both sessions we used the EMIR heterodyne receiver in frequency-switching mode together with the VESPA autocorrelator. The observations consisted of simultaneous on-the-fly maps in the lines of N2H+(1-0) (93.17GHz) and C18O(2-1) (219.56GHz) in dual polarization mode. All fits files are data cubes with the same spatial limits as the maps shown in the paper (Fig. 2) and have 400 velocity channels. The files were generated using the original data files, which were in CLASS format, which is the native format of the IRAM 30m telescope. (2 data files).

  19. Dense cores in dark clouds. IV. HC/sub 5/N observations

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.J.; Myers, P.C.

    1983-07-15

    We report detections or possible detections of the J = 9-8 rotational transition of HC/sub 5/N in 10 new dark cloud sources. All of the strong sources and most of the known sources are in Taurus. In contrast to maps of TMC-1, maps of NH/sub 3/ and HC/sub 5/N emission in L1544 and in TMC-1C show no relative shift of peak positions. Column densities of HC/sub 5/N and C/sup 18/O are roughly correlated, but N(HC/sub 5/N) increases faster than N(C/sup 18/O), suggesting that the abundance of HC/sub 5/N ranges from approx.10/sup -10/ in the weakest sources to approx.10/sup -9/ in the strongest sources. Comparison with predictions of chemical models indicates that this abundance variation is unlikely to be due to variations in cloud density, but it may be due to differences in the degree of chemical evolution from cloud to cloud. If so, TMC-1 is more evolved than L183.

  20. THE SPITZER SURVEY OF INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS IN THE GOULD BELT. IV. LUPUS V AND VI OBSERVED WITH IRAC AND MIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Spezzi, Loredana; Vernazza, Pierre; Merin, Bruno; Allen, Lori E.; Evans, Neal J. II; Harvey, Paul M.; Joergensen, Jes K.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Peterson, Dawn; Cieza, Lucas A.; Dunham, Michael M.; Huard, Tracy L.; Tothill, Nick F. H.

    2011-04-01

    We present Gould's Belt (GB) Spitzer IRAC and MIPS observations of the Lupus V and VI clouds and discuss them in combination with near-infrared (2MASS) data. Our observations complement those obtained for other Lupus clouds within the frame of the Spitzer 'Core to Disk' (c2d) Legacy Survey. We found 43 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in Lupus V and 45 in Lupus VI, including two transition disks, using the standard c2d/GB selection method. None of these sources was classified as a pre-main-sequence star from previous optical, near-IR, and X-ray surveys. A large majority of these YSO candidates appear to be surrounded by thin disks (Class III; {approx}79% in Lupus V and {approx}87% in Lupus VI). These Class III abundances differ significantly from those observed for the other Lupus clouds and c2d/GB surveyed star-forming regions, where objects with optically thick disks (Class II) dominate the young population. We investigate various scenarios that can explain this discrepancy. In particular, we show that disk photoevaporation due to nearby OB stars is not responsible for the high fraction of Class III objects. The gas surface densities measured for Lupus V and VI lie below the star formation threshold (A{sub V} {approx} 8.6 mag), while this is not the case for other Lupus clouds. Thus, few Myr older age for the YSOs in Lupus V and VI with respect to other Lupus clouds is the most likely explanation of the high fraction of Class III objects in these clouds, while a higher characteristic stellar mass might be a contributing factor. Better constraints on the age and binary fraction of the Lupus clouds might solve the puzzle but require further observations.

  1. Ultrafast visualization of the structural evolution of dense hydrogen towards warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Hot dense hydrogen far from equilibrium is ubiquitous in nature occurring during some of the most violent and least understood events in our universe such as during star formation, supernova explosions, and the creation of cosmic rays. It is also a state of matter important for applications in inertial confinement fusion research and in laser particle acceleration. Rapid progress occurred in recent years characterizing the high-pressure structural properties of dense hydrogen under static or dynamic compression. Here, we show that spectrally and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measure the thermodynamic properties of dense hydrogen and resolve the ultrafast evolution and relaxation towards thermodynamic equilibrium. These studies apply ultra-bright x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light (LCLS) source. The interaction of rapidly heated cryogenic hydrogen with a high-peak power optical laser is visualized with intense LCLS x-ray pulses in a high-repetition rate pump-probe setting. We demonstrate that electron-ion coupling is affected by the small number of particles in the Debye screening cloud resulting in much slower ion temperature equilibration than predicted by standard theory. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under FWP 100182.

  2. The Versatile Type VI Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Alteri, Christopher J.; Mobley, Harry L.T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SS) function as contractile nanomachines to puncture target cells and deliver lethal effectors. In the ten years since the discovery of the T6SS, much has been learned about the structure and function of this versatile protein secretion apparatus. Most of the conserved protein components that comprise the T6SS apparatus itself have been identified and ascribed specific functions. In addition, numerous effector proteins that are translocated by the T6SS have been identified and characterized. These protein effectors usually represent toxic cargoes that are delivered by the attacker cell to a target cell. The field is beginning to better understand the lifestyle or physiology that dictates when bacteria normally express their T6SS. In this Chapter, we consider what is known about the structure and regulation of the T6SS, the numerous classes of antibacterial effector T6SS substrates, and how the action of the T6SS relates to a given lifestyle or behavior in certain bacteria. PMID:27227310

  3. VIM: Initial ENDF/B-VI experience

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, R.N.

    1997-08-01

    The VIM Monte Carlo particle transport code uses detailed continuous-energy cross sections produced from ENDF/B data by a set of specialized codes developed or adapted for use at Argonne National Laboratory. ENDF/B-IV data were used until about 1979, and Version V data since then. These VIM libraries were extensively benchmarked against the MC{sup 2}-2 code and against ZPR and ZPPR criticals for fast spectrum calculations, as well as other fast and thermal experiments and calculations. Recently, the cross section processing codes have been upgraded to accommodate ENDF/B-VI files, and a small library has been tested. Several fundamental tasks comprise the construction of a faithful representation of ENDF data for VIM calculations: (1) The resolved resonance parameters are converted to Doppler-broadened continuous-energy cross sections with energy grids suitable for linear-linear interpolation. (2) The unresolved resonance parameter distributions are sampled to produce many (40-400) resonance ladders in each energy band. These are converted to Doppler-broadened continuous energy resonance cross sections that are then binned by cross section, accumulating ladders until statistical convergence, the result being probability tables of total cross sections and conditional mean scattering and fission cross sections. VIM samples these tables at run time, and File 3 back ground cross sections are added. (3) Anisotropic angular distribution data are converted to angular probability tables. All other ENDF data are unmodified, except for format.

  4. Spectrum and energy levels of Mo VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Joseph

    1998-05-01

    We have photographed the spectrum of the Rb-like ion Mo VI from 200 to 5300 Å with a sliding-spark discharge on our 10.7-m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs and have observed most of the yrast transitions given by Romanov et al.(N. P. Romanov and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosc. 27), 8 (1969). from a Penning discharge. We have obtained improved values for all of the energy levels. We confirm the odd levels of Kancerevicius et al.,(A. Kancerevicius et al.), Lithuanian Phys. J. 31, 143 (1991). but have revised a number of the even levels of Edlén et al.(B. Edlén et al.), Phys. Scr. 32, 215 (1985). The ionization energy of Edlén et al.,footnotemark[4] which had been called into question by Kancerevicius et al.footnotemark[3] as a result of their revision of the odd levels,footnotemark[4] is confirmed.

  5. Ab initio calculations of the electron momentum distribution function for ordered and disordered warm dense matter (WDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevak, E.; Mattern, B. A.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Seidler, G. T.

    2014-03-01

    We report new calculations of the electron momentum distribution n(p) for ordered and disordered materials of interest for warm dense matter research. The central role of the electron-ion interaction and the need to orthogonalize the valence-electron and core-electron wave functions has often been ignored in the interpretation of x-ray Thomson scattering studies of WDM.[2] This has led to substantial uncertainty in the inferred temperatures and ionization states in laser-shock generated dense plasmas. Real space Green's function calculations as a function of density and disorder are used to evaluate the possibility of a broadly applicable universal rescaling of the free-electron n(p) by an effective volume and effective temperature to approximate the effects of valence-core orthogonalization. Supported in part by DOE BES Grant DEFG03-97ER45623 (EK, JJR, JJK) and DOE-BES DE-SC0002194(BAM and GTS).

  6. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  7. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: collagen VI-related myopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hands and soles of the feet; and abnormal wound healing that creates shallow scars. The intermediate form of ... skin on the palms and soles; and abnormal wound healing. Individuals with collagen VI-related myopathy often have ...

  9. Ice VI freezing of meat: supercooling and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Antonio D; Otero, Laura; Martino, Miriam N; Zaritzky, Noemí E; Arabas, Jacek; Szczepek, Janusz; Sanz, Pedro D

    2004-03-01

    While "classical" freezing (to ice I) is disruptive to the microstructure of meat, freezing to ice VI has been found to preserve it. Ice VI freeze-substitution microscopy showed no traces of structural alteration on muscle fibres compared with the extensive damage caused by ice I freezing. The different signs of the freezing volume changes associated with these two ice phases is the most likely explanation for the above effects. Ice VI exists only at high pressure (632.4-2216 MPa) but can be formed and kept at room temperature. It was found that its nucleation requires a higher degree of supercooling than ice I freezing does, both for pure water and meat. Monitoring of the freezing process (by temperature and/or pressure measurements) is, thus, essential. The possible applications of ice VI freezing for food and other biological materials and the nucleation behaviour of this ice phase are discussed.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of chromium (VI) with Methylene Blue.

    PubMed

    Kamburova, M

    1993-05-01

    The interaction of Cr(VI) and the thiazine dye Methylene Blue has been examined. The ion-associate formed is extractable into 1,2-dichlorethane. The optimum conditions have been established, and values obtained for the conditional extraction constant K'(ex), distribution constant K'(D) and association constant beta'. A sensitive and selective method for determination of microquantities of Cr(VI) in soils and alloys is suggested.

  11. A title VI view of child welfare issues.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M; Anderson, G R

    1982-01-01

    The passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was intended primarily to prohibit segregation in publicly funded schools. Its provisions, however, have an impact far beyond educational institutions, since Title VI of this act prohibits discrimination in all programs receiving federal financial assistance. Compliance reviews are being conducted, and the authors examine several long-standing concerns of child welfare professionals from the perspective of Title VI.

  12. Calcium polysulfide treatment of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, Maria; Ferreira, Daniel R; Johnston, Chad P

    2010-07-15

    Batch treatability studies for a Cr(VI)-contaminated glacial soil from a Cr plating facility were conducted using 1X and 2X the stoichiometric ratio of calcium polysulfide (CPS). The pH of the treated soil increased from 6 to 11 upon CPS addition, but progressively returned to 8-8.5 over the course of 1 year. The 1X dosage maintained a highly reducing environment up to 21 days of monitoring with the samples exposed to atmospheric oxygen, while 2X was reducing up to 180 days of curing. The EPA regulatory method for solid Cr(VI) could not reliably predict Cr(VI) in the treated solid due to ongoing reduction during the test. SPLP results showed that the CPS created an apparent Cr(VI) mobilization during the first 60 days of treatment, with subsequent decrease in soluble Cr(VI) up to 1 year of monitoring. Synchrotron micro-X-ray analyses at 60 days curing showed that Cr(VI) was predominantly bound as highly insoluble PbCrO(4) that precipitated in the interstitial pores of the soil, with very little to no Cr(VI) associated with the abundant iron oxyhydroxides. Despite its spatial accessibility and due to its low solubility, PbCrO(4) was recalcitrant to treatment, which proceeded only very slowly as judged by the SPLP data. It is concluded that, while CPS has a long residence time in the environment and is a promising reductant, in situ reduction is not an efficient treatment method for soils with highly insoluble Cr(VI) compounds, especially in surficial layers such as the one studied.

  13. Plan of propagation and communication experiments using ETS-VI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmori, Shingo

    1988-01-01

    In 1992, an Engineering Test Satellite VI is scheduled to be launched by an H-II rocket. The missions of ETS-VI are to establish basic technologies of inter-satellite communications using millimeter waves and optical beams and fix satellite communications using multibeam antenna on board the satellite. Several kinds of frequency bands will be used for the communications missions. However, these frequencies can be used for propagation experiments.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Vi to Part 1039 - Nonroad Compression-ignition Composite Transient Cycle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonroad Compression-ignition Composite Transient Cycle VI Appendix VI to Part 1039 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... ENGINES Pt. 1039, App. VI Appendix VI to Part 1039—Nonroad Compression-ignition Composite Transient...

  15. Order in dense hydrogen at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, B.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    2004-01-01

    By increase in density, impelled by pressure, the electronic energy bands in dense hydrogen attain significant widths. Nevertheless, arguments can be advanced suggesting that a physically consistent description of the general consequences of this electronic structure can still be constructed from interacting but state-dependent multipoles. These reflect, in fact self-consistently, a disorder-induced localization of electron states partially manifesting the effects of proton dynamics; they retain very considerable spatial inhomogeneity (as they certainly do in the molecular limit). This description, which is valid provided that an overall energy gap has not closed, leads at a mean-field level to the expected quadrupolar coupling, but also for certain structures to the eventual emergence of dipolar terms and their coupling when a state of broken charge symmetry is developed. A simple Hamiltonian incorporating these basic features then leads to a high-density, low-temperature phase diagram that appears to be in substantial agreement with experiment. In particular, it accounts for the fact that whereas the phase I–II phase boundary has a significant isotope dependence, the phase II–III boundary has very little. PMID:15028839

  16. Superconductivity in dense carbon-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Siyu; Liu, Hanyu; Naumov, Ivan I.; Meng, Sheng; Li, Yinwei; Tse, John S.; Yang, Bai; Hemley, Russell J.

    2016-03-01

    Guided by a simple strategy in search of new superconducting materials, we predict that high-temperature superconductivity can be realized in classes of high-density materials having strong sp3 chemical bonding and high lattice symmetry. We examine in detail sodalite carbon frameworks doped with simple metals such as Li, Na, and Al. Though such materials share some common features with doped diamond, their doping level is not limited, and the density of states at the Fermi level in them can be as high as that in the renowned Mg B2 . Together with other factors, this boosts the superconducting temperature (Tc) in the materials investigated to higher levels compared to doped diamond. For example, the Tc of sodalitelike Na C6 is predicted to be above 100 K. This phase and a series of other sodalite-based superconductors are predicted to be metastable phases but are dynamically stable. Owing to the rigid carbon framework of these and related dense carbon materials, these doped sodalite-based structures could be recoverable as potentially useful superconductors.

  17. Transcriptional proofreading in dense RNA polymerase traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Mamata; Klumpp, Stefan

    2011-12-01

    The correction of errors during transcription involves the diffusive backward translocation (backtracking) of RNA polymerases (RNAPs) on the DNA. A trailing RNAP on the same template can interfere with backtracking as it progressively restricts the space that is available for backward translocation and thereby ratchets the backtracked RNAP forward. We analyze the resulting negative impact on proofreading theoretically using a driven lattice gas model of transcription under conditions of dense RNAP traffic. The fraction of errors that are corrected is calculated exactly for the case of a single RNAP; for multi-RNAP transcription, we use simulations and an analytical approximation and find a decrease with increasing traffic density. Moreover, we ask how the parameters of the system have to be set to keep down the impact of the interference of a trailing RNAP. Our analysis uncovers a surprisingly simple picture of the design of the error correction system: its efficiency is essentially determined by the rate for the initial backtracking step, while the value of the cleavage rate ensures that the correction mechanism remains efficient at high transcription rates. Finally, we argue that our analysis can also be applied to cases with transcription-translation coupling where the leading ribosome on the transcript assumes the role of the trailing RNAP.

  18. Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Mieville, R.L.; Ma, B.; Udovich, C.A.

    1996-05-01

    This report focuses on a mechanism for oxygen transport through mixed- oxide conductors as used in dense ceramic membrane reactors for the partial oxidation of methane to syngas (CO and H{sub 2}). The in-situ separation of O{sub 2} from air by the membrane reactor saves the costly cryogenic separation step that is required in conventional syngas production. The mixed oxide of choice is SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x}, which exhibits high oxygen permeability and has been shown in previous studies to possess high stability in both oxidizing and reducing conditions; in addition, it can be readily formed into reactor configurations such as tubes. An understanding of the electrical properties and the defect dynamics in this material is essential and will help us to find the optimal operating conditions for the conversion reactor. In this paper, we discuss the conductivities of the SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} system that are dependent on temperature and partial pressure of oxygen. Based on the experimental results, a defect model is proposed to explain the electrical properties of this system. The oxygen permeability of SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} is estimated by using conductivity data and is compared with that obtained from methane conversion reaction.

  19. Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing

    PubMed Central

    van Anders, Greg; Klotsa, Daphne; Ahmed, N. Khalid; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2014-01-01

    Entropy drives the phase behavior of colloids ranging from dense suspensions of hard spheres or rods to dilute suspensions of hard spheres and depletants. Entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes into complex crystals, liquid crystals, and even quasicrystals was demonstrated recently in computer simulations and experiments. The ordering of shapes appears to arise from the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that align neighboring particles, but these forces have been neither rigorously defined nor quantified in generic systems. Here, we show quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs. We define DEFs in generic systems and compute them for several hard particle systems. We show they are on the order of a few times the thermal energy (kBT) at the onset of ordering, placing DEFs on par with traditional depletion, van der Waals, and other intrinsic interactions. In experimental systems with these other interactions, we provide direct quantitative evidence that entropic effects of shape also contribute to self-assembly. We use DEFs to draw a distinction between self-assembly and packing behavior. We show that the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing. We show that this mechanism occurs in a wide class of systems and we treat, in a unified way, the entropy-driven phase behavior of arbitrary shapes, incorporating the well-known works of Kirkwood, Onsager, and Asakura and Oosawa. PMID:25344532

  20. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds

    PubMed Central

    Daranlot, Julien; Hincelin, Ugo; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N2, with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N2 is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimeter-wavelength transitions. Therefore, its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N2H+. Two main formation mechanisms, each involving two radical-radical reactions, are the source of N2 in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction, down to 56 K. The measured rate constants for this reaction, and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N2 formation, are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N2 depends on the competition between its gas-phase formation and the depletion of atomic nitrogen onto grains. As the reactions controlling N2 formation are inefficient, we argue that N2 does not represent the main reservoir species for interstellar nitrogen. Instead, elevated abundances of more labile forms of nitrogen such as NH3 should be present on interstellar ices, promoting the eventual formation of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules. PMID:22689957

  1. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimring, Lev

    2012-02-01

    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  2. Dense fluids—New aspects and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, E. U.

    1986-05-01

    Dense fluids at elevated and supercritical temperatures find increased interest in science and technology. In this presentation special attention is given to binary mixtures with polar components. Methods and results of experiments with such high pressure-high temperature fluids are described. Far infrared spectra of CHCIF 2 and CHF 3 give indications of the types of molecular motion in the supercritical phases. “Enhancement factors” for the solubility of a solid solute like caffeine in high pressure CO 2 have been determined spectroscopically. The phase diagrams in the pressure-temperature-composition space and critical curves for water combined with nitrogen, oxygen, methane and helium have been measured recently to 2500 bar and 450°C. A “rational” equation of state permits calculation of critical curves and binodal surfaces for such systems. An extended investigation was made with the ternary system water-methane-sodium chloride. Small additions of salt shift critical curves by 100°C and more to higher temperatures. In water-methane mixtures between 400 and 500°C and at 1000 bar “supercritical flames” and “hydrothermal combustion” could be produced with injected oxygen. Binary liquid mixtures of cesium and cesium hydride to elevated hydrogen pressure and to 800°C show the phenomena of continuous transition from metal to ionic fluids. Electric conductance measurements in the whole range of concentrations are presented and discussed.

  3. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  5. Dynamic shear jamming in dense suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo; Majumdar, Sayantan; Jaeger, Heinrich

    Shear a dense suspension of cornstarch and water hard enough, and the system seems to solidify as a result. Indeed, previous studies have shown that a jamming front propagates through these systems until, after interaction with boundaries, a jammed solid spans across the system. Because these fully jammed states are only observed if the deformation is fast enough, a natural question to ask is how this phenomenon is related to the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) behavior of these suspensions. We present a single experimental setup in which we on the one hand can measure the rheological flow curves, but on the other hand also determine if the suspension is in a jammed state. This we do by using a large-gap cylindrical Couette cell, where we control the applied shear stress using a rheometer. Because our setup only applies shear, the jammed states we observe are shear-jammed, and cannot be a result of an overall increase in packing fraction. We probe for jammed states by dropping small steel spheres on the surface of the suspension, and identify elastic responses. Our experiments reveal a clear distinction between the onset of DST and Shear-Jammed states, which have qualitatively different trends with packing fraction close to the isotropic jamming point.

  6. Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing

    DOE PAGES

    van Anders, Greg; Klotsa, Daphne; Ahmed, N. Khalid; ...

    2014-10-24

    Entropy drives the phase behavior of colloids ranging from dense suspensions of hard spheres or rods to dilute suspensions of hard spheres and depletants. Entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes into complex crystals, liquid crystals, and even quasicrystals was demonstrated recently in computer simulations and experiments. The ordering of shapes appears to arise from the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that align neighboring particles, but these forces have been neither rigorously defined nor quantified in generic systems. In this paper, we show quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs. We definemore » DEFs in generic systems and compute them for several hard particle systems. We show they are on the order of a few times the thermal energy (kBT) at the onset of ordering, placing DEFs on par with traditional depletion, van der Waals, and other intrinsic interactions. In experimental systems with these other interactions, we provide direct quantitative evidence that entropic effects of shape also contribute to self-assembly. We use DEFs to draw a distinction between self-assembly and packing behavior. We show that the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing. Finally, we show that this mechanism occurs in a wide class of systems and we treat, in a unified way, the entropy-driven phase behavior of arbitrary shapes, incorporating the well-known works of Kirkwood, Onsager, and Asakura and Oosawa.« less

  7. Dense colloidal fluids form denser amorphous sediments

    PubMed Central

    Liber, Shir R.; Borohovich, Shai; Butenko, Alexander V.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Sloutskin, Eli

    2013-01-01

    We relate, by simple analytical centrifugation experiments, the density of colloidal fluids with the nature of their randomly packed solid sediments. We demonstrate that the most dilute fluids of colloidal hard spheres form loosely packed sediments, where the volume fraction of the particles approaches in frictional systems the random loose packing limit, φRLP = 0.55. The dense fluids of the same spheres form denser sediments, approaching the so-called random close packing limit, φRCP = 0.64. Our experiments, where particle sedimentation in a centrifuge is sufficiently rapid to avoid crystallization, demonstrate that the density of the sediments varies monotonically with the volume fraction of the initial suspension. We reproduce our experimental data by simple computer simulations, where structural reorganizations are prohibited, such that the rate of sedimentation is irrelevant. This suggests that in colloidal systems, where viscous forces dominate, the structure of randomly close-packed and randomly loose-packed sediments is determined by the well-known structure of the initial fluids of simple hard spheres, provided that the crystallization is fully suppressed. PMID:23530198

  8. Synthesis of dense energetic materials. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, C.

    1982-07-01

    The objective of the research described in the report is to synthesize new, dense, stable, highly energetic materials which will ultimately be a candidates for improved explosive and propellant formulations. Following strict guidelines pertaining to energy, density, stability, etc. Specific target molecules were chosen that appear to possess the improved properties desired for new energetic materials. This report summarizes research on the synthesis of these target materials from February 1981 to January 1982. The following compounds were synthesized: 5,5'-diamino-3,3'-bioxadiazole(1,2,4); 5,5'-bis(trichloromethyl)-3,3'-di(1,2,4-oxadiazole); 3,3'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole); ethylene tetranitramine (ETNA); N,N-bis(methoxymethyl)acetamide; N,N-bis(chloromethyl)acetamide; 7,8-dimethylglycoluril; Synthesis of 3,9-Di(t-butyl)-13,14-dimethyl-tetracyclo-(5,5,2,0/sup 5/ /sup 13/ 0/sup 11/ /sup 14/)-1,3,5,7,9,11-hexaaza-6,12-dioxotetradecane.

  9. Droplet formation and scaling in dense suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Miskin, Marc Z.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2012-01-01

    When a dense suspension is squeezed from a nozzle, droplet detachment can occur similar to that of pure liquids. While in pure liquids the process of droplet detachment is well characterized through self-similar profiles and known scaling laws, we show here the simple presence of particles causes suspensions to break up in a new fashion. Using high-speed imaging, we find that detachment of a suspension drop is described by a power law; specifically we find the neck minimum radius, rm, scales like near breakup at time τ = 0. We demonstrate data collapse in a variety of particle/liquid combinations, packing fractions, solvent viscosities, and initial conditions. We argue that this scaling is a consequence of particles deforming the neck surface, thereby creating a pressure that is balanced by inertia, and show how it emerges from topological constraints that relate particle configurations with macroscopic Gaussian curvature. This new type of scaling, uniquely enforced by geometry and regulated by the particles, displays memory of its initial conditions, fails to be self-similar, and has implications for the pressure given at generic suspension interfaces. PMID:22392979

  10. Activated Dynamics in Dense Model Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shijie; Schweizer, Kenneth

    The nonlinear Langevin equation approach is applied to investigate the ensemble-averaged activated dynamics of small molecule liquids (or disconnected segments in a polymer melt) in dense nanocomposites under model isobaric conditions where the spherical nanoparticles are dynamically fixed. Fully thermalized and quenched-replica integral equation theory methods are employed to investigate the influence on matrix dynamics of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium nanocomposite structure, respectively. In equilibrium, the miscibility window can be narrow due to depletion and bridging attraction induced phase separation which limits the study of activated dynamics to regimes where the barriers are relatively low. In contrast, by using replica integral equation theory, macroscopic demixing is suppressed, and the addition of nanoparticles can induce much slower activated matrix dynamics which can be studied over a wide range of pure liquid alpha relaxation times, interfacial attraction strengths and ranges, particle sizes and loadings, and mixture microstructures. Numerical results for the mean activated relaxation time, transient localization length, matrix elasticity and kinetic vitrification in the nanocomposite will be presented.

  11. Inference by replication in densely connected systems

    SciTech Connect

    Neirotti, Juan P.; Saad, David

    2007-10-15

    An efficient Bayesian inference method for problems that can be mapped onto dense graphs is presented. The approach is based on message passing where messages are averaged over a large number of replicated variable systems exposed to the same evidential nodes. An assumption about the symmetry of the solutions is required for carrying out the averages; here we extend the previous derivation based on a replica-symmetric- (RS)-like structure to include a more complex one-step replica-symmetry-breaking-like (1RSB-like) ansatz. To demonstrate the potential of the approach it is employed for studying critical properties of the Ising linear perceptron and for multiuser detection in code division multiple access (CDMA) under different noise models. Results obtained under the RS assumption in the noncritical regime give rise to a highly efficient signal detection algorithm in the context of CDMA; while in the critical regime one observes a first-order transition line that ends in a continuous phase transition point. Finite size effects are also observed. While the 1RSB ansatz is not required for the original problems, it was applied to the CDMA signal detection problem with a more complex noise model that exhibits RSB behavior, resulting in an improvement in performance.

  12. Understanding shape entropy through local dense packing

    SciTech Connect

    van Anders, Greg; Klotsa, Daphne; Ahmed, N. Khalid; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    2014-10-24

    Entropy drives the phase behavior of colloids ranging from dense suspensions of hard spheres or rods to dilute suspensions of hard spheres and depletants. Entropic ordering of anisotropic shapes into complex crystals, liquid crystals, and even quasicrystals was demonstrated recently in computer simulations and experiments. The ordering of shapes appears to arise from the emergence of directional entropic forces (DEFs) that align neighboring particles, but these forces have been neither rigorously defined nor quantified in generic systems. In this paper, we show quantitatively that shape drives the phase behavior of systems of anisotropic particles upon crowding through DEFs. We define DEFs in generic systems and compute them for several hard particle systems. We show they are on the order of a few times the thermal energy (kBT) at the onset of ordering, placing DEFs on par with traditional depletion, van der Waals, and other intrinsic interactions. In experimental systems with these other interactions, we provide direct quantitative evidence that entropic effects of shape also contribute to self-assembly. We use DEFs to draw a distinction between self-assembly and packing behavior. We show that the mechanism that generates directional entropic forces is the maximization of entropy by optimizing local particle packing. Finally, we show that this mechanism occurs in a wide class of systems and we treat, in a unified way, the entropy-driven phase behavior of arbitrary shapes, incorporating the well-known works of Kirkwood, Onsager, and Asakura and Oosawa.

  13. Structure of androcam supports specialized interactions with myosin VI

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Mehul K.; Moran, Sean; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; MacKenzie, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Androcam replaces calmodulin as a tissue-specific myosin VI light chain on the actin cones that mediate D. melanogaster spermatid individualization. We show that the androcam structure and its binding to the myosin VI structural (Insert 2) and regulatory (IQ) light chain sites are distinct from those of calmodulin and provide a basis for specialized myosin VI function. The androcam N lobe noncanonically binds a single Ca2+ and is locked in a “closed” conformation, causing androcam to contact the Insert 2 site with its C lobe only. Androcam replacing calmodulin at Insert 2 will increase myosin VI lever arm flexibility, which may favor the compact monomeric form of myosin VI that functions on the actin cones by facilitating the collapse of the C-terminal region onto the motor domain. The tethered androcam N lobe could stabilize the monomer through contacts with C-terminal portions of the motor or recruit other components to the actin cones. Androcam binds the IQ site at all calcium levels, constitutively mimicking a conformation adopted by calmodulin only at intermediate calcium levels. Thus, androcam replacing calmodulin at IQ will abolish a Ca2+-regulated, calmodulin-mediated myosin VI structural change. We propose that the N lobe prevents androcam from interfering with other calmodulin-mediated Ca2+ signaling events. We discuss how gene duplication and mutations that selectively stabilize one of the many conformations available to calmodulin support the molecular evolution of structurally and functionally distinct calmodulin-like proteins. PMID:22851764

  14. Claude Lévi-Strauss on Race, History, and Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    In 1952, the French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss published a small booklet titled Race and History. It formed part of a series of pamphlets on the so-called “race-question” by leading anthropologists and geneticists, which UNESCO published as part of its campaign against racism. Roughly twenty years later, in 1971, UNESCO invited Lévi-Strauss to give a lecture to open the International Year of Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. This time the lecture, titled “Race and culture,” caused a scandal. In 2005, on occasion of the Organisation’s 60th anniversary, Lévi-Strauss was once again invited by UNESCO to give a lecture. It followed the same lines as his 1971 speech, but now met with acclaim. In my paper I will analyze Lévi-Strauss’ interventions with respect to their reliance on contemporary genetics. Lévi-Strauss always saw a close analogy between structuralist anthropology and genetics, and derived his anti-evolutionary stance from the combinatory logic that both disciplines endorsed. I will argue, that it was this combinatory logic which created room for historical contingency and agency in Lévi-Strauss’ understanding of the history of humankind. PMID:25685173

  15. Ferrate(VI) oxidation of cyanide in water.

    PubMed

    Costarramone, N; Kneip, A; Castetbon, A

    2004-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test removal of cyanide (free cyanide and several cyanide complexes) in water, under alkaline medium (pH > or = 11), by a new potassium ferrate salt. The removal rate of free cyanide by oxidation with Fe(VI) was greater at pH 11.0 than at pH 12.0. A complete oxidation was obtained with a 2.67 Fe(VI)/CN ratio at pH 11.0. In these conditions, the rate of cyanide oxidation by Fe(VI) was slow, with a reaction rate constant estimated at 0.95 +/- 0.10 s(-1) l mol(-1) at pH 11.0 and 19.6 degrees C in this study. This study revealed that Fe(VI) did not decompose all cyanide complexes. Copper, cadmium and zinc complexes were removed efficiently by Fe(VI). Moreover, these metals were also removed from the solution by coagulation effect of Fe(OH)3, the Fe(VI) product of reaction. A particular behaviour was reported with copper, as a rapid oxidation of cyanide was observed in the presence of this metal. On the contrary, oxidation of nickel and silver complexes was incomplete.

  16. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J.; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B.; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T.; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K.

    2015-12-01

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  17. Dense magnetized plasma associated with a fast radio burst.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kiyoshi; Lin, Hsiu-Hsien; Sievers, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher J; Chang, Tzu-Ching; Chen, Xuelei; Ganguly, Apratim; Jarvis, Miranda; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Li, Yi-Chao; Liao, Yu-Wei; McLaughlin, Maura; Pen, Ue-Li; Peterson, Jeffrey B; Roman, Alexander; Timbie, Peter T; Voytek, Tabitha; Yadav, Jaswant K

    2015-12-24

    Fast radio bursts are bright, unresolved, non-repeating, broadband, millisecond flashes, found primarily at high Galactic latitudes, with dispersion measures much larger than expected for a Galactic source. The inferred all-sky burst rate is comparable to the core-collapse supernova rate out to redshift 0.5. If the observed dispersion measures are assumed to be dominated by the intergalactic medium, the sources are at cosmological distances with redshifts of 0.2 to 1 (refs 10 and 11). These parameters are consistent with a wide range of source models. One fast burst revealed circular polarization of the radio emission, but no linear polarization was detected, and hence no Faraday rotation measure could be determined. Here we report the examination of archival data revealing Faraday rotation in the fast radio burst FRB 110523. Its radio flux and dispersion measure are consistent with values from previously reported bursts and, accounting for a Galactic contribution to the dispersion and using a model of intergalactic electron density, we place the source at a maximum redshift of 0.5. The burst has a much higher rotation measure than expected for this line of sight through the Milky Way and the intergalactic medium, indicating magnetization in the vicinity of the source itself or within a host galaxy. The pulse was scattered by two distinct plasma screens during propagation, which requires either a dense nebula associated with the source or a location within the central region of its host galaxy. The detection in this instance of magnetization and scattering that are both local to the source favours models involving young stellar populations such as magnetars over models involving the mergers of older neutron stars, which are more likely to be located in low-density regions of the host galaxy.

  18. 1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI-50 50-2 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 8 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 9 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 17 (see photograph VI-50-5 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 56 (see photograph VI-50-8 for elevation), & KONGENSGADE 57 (see photograph VI-50-9 for elevation) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  19. Artificial Dense Granules: A Procoagulant Liposomal Formulation Modeled after Platelet Polyphosphate Storage Pools.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Alexander J; Kalkowski, Joseph; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Wang, Canhui; Smith, Stephanie A; Klie, Robert F; Morrissey, James H; Liu, Ying

    2016-08-08

    Granular platelet-sized polyphosphate nanoparticles (polyP NPs) were encapsulated in sterically stabilized liposomes, forming a potential, targeted procoagulant nanotherapy resembling human platelet dense granules in both structure and functionality. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements reveal that artificial dense granules (ADGs) are colloidally stable and that the granular polyP NPs are encapsulated at high efficiencies. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM) indicates that the ADGs are monodisperse particles with a 150 nm diameter dense core consisting of P, Ca, and O surrounded by a corrugated 25 nm thick shell containing P, C, and O. Further, the ADGs manifest promising procoagulant activity: Detergent solubilization by Tween 20 or digestion of the lipid envelope by phospholipase C (PLC) allows for ADGs to trigger autoactivation of Factor XII (FXII), the first proteolytic step in the activation of the contact pathway of clotting. Moreover, ADGs' ability to reduce the clotting time of human plasma in the presence of PLC further demonstrate the feasibility to develop ADGs into a potential procoagulant nanomedicine.

  20. Theoretical study of the structural properties of plutonium(IV) and (VI) complexes.

    PubMed

    Odoh, Samuel O; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2011-12-08

    The structural properties of several plutonium(IV) and (VI) complexes have been examined in the gaseous and aqueous phases using Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with scalar relativistic effective core potentials and the polarizable continuum solvation model. The aquo and nitrate complexes of PuO(2)(2+) and Pu(4+) were considered in addition to the aquo-chloro complexes of PuO(2)(2+). The nitrate and chloro- complexes formed with triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) and tributylphosphate (TBP) respectively were also studied. The structural parameters of the plutonyl complexes were compared to their uranyl and neptunyl analogues. The bond lengths and vibrational frequencies of the plutonyl complexes can generally be computed with sufficient accuracy with the pure PBE density functional with shorter bond lengths being predicted by the B3LYP functional. The structural parameters of the [PuO(2)Cl(2)L(2)] systems formed with TPPO and TBP as well as the aqueous [PuO(2)Cl(2)(H(2)O)(3)] complex are matched to previous experimental results. Overall, the inclusion of ligands in the equatorial region results in significant changes in the stretching frequency of the plutonyl group. The structural features of the plutonyl (VI) systems are rather similar to those of their 5f(0) uranyl and 5f(1) neptunyl counterparts. For the Pu(IV) aquo and nitrate complexes, the average of the calculated Pu-OH(2) and Pu-O(nitrate) bond lengths are generally within 0.04 Å of the reported experimental values. Overall Kohn-Sham DFT can be used successfully in predicting the structures of this diverse set of Pu(VI) and Pu(IV) complexes.

  1. The chemistry of phosphorus in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, L. R.; Anicich, V. G.; Prasad, S. S.; Huntress, W. T., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that the ion-molecule chemistry of phosphorus is significantly different from that of nitrogen in dense interstellar clouds. The PH3 molecule is not readily formed by gas-phase, ion-molecule reactions in these regions. Laboratory results used in a simple kinetic model indicate that the most abundant molecule containing phosphorus in dense clouds is PO.

  2. Mining connected global and local dense subgraphs for bigdata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo; Shen, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The problem of discovering connected dense subgraphs of natural graphs is important in data analysis. Discovering dense subgraphs that do not contain denser subgraphs or are not contained in denser subgraphs (called significant dense subgraphs) is also critical for wide-ranging applications. In spite of many works on discovering dense subgraphs, there are no algorithms that can guarantee the connectivity of the returned subgraphs or discover significant dense subgraphs. Hence, in this paper, we define two subgraph discovery problems to discover connected and significant dense subgraphs, propose polynomial-time algorithms and theoretically prove their validity. We also propose an algorithm to further improve the time and space efficiency of our basic algorithm for discovering significant dense subgraphs in big data by taking advantage of the unique features of large natural graphs. In the experiments, we use massive natural graphs to evaluate our algorithms in comparison with previous algorithms. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our algorithms for the two problems and their efficiency. This work is also the first that reveals the physical significance of significant dense subgraphs in natural graphs from different domains.

  3. Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

    2007-12-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr(VI

  4. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy L. Ward

    2003-03-01

    This project addresses the need for reliable fabrication methods of supported thin/thick dense ceramic membranes for oxygen separation. Some ceramic materials that possess mixed conductivity (electronic and ionic) at high temperature have the potential to permeate oxygen with perfect selectivity, making them very attractive for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. In order to maximize permeation rates at the lowest possible temperatures, it is desirable to minimize diffusional limitations within the ceramic by reducing the thickness of the ceramic membrane, preferably to thicknesses of 10 {micro}m or thinner. It has proven to be very challenging to reliably fabricate dense, defect-free ceramic membrane layers of such thickness. In this project we are investigating the use of ultrafine SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) powders produced by aerosol pyrolysis to fabricate such supported membranes. SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} is a ceramic composition that has been shown to have desirable oxygen permeability, as well as good chemical stability in the reducing environments that are encountered in some important applications. Our approach is to use a doctor blade procedure to deposit pastes prepared from the aerosol-derived SCFO powders onto porous SCFO supports. We have previously shown that membrane layers deposited from the aerosol powders can be sintered to high density without densification of the underlying support. However, these membrane layers contained large-scale cracks and open areas, making them unacceptable for membrane purposes. In the past year, we have refined the paste formulations based on guidance from the ceramic tape casting literature. We have identified a multicomponent organic formulation utilizing castor oil as dispersant in a solvent of mineral spirits and isopropanol. Other additives were polyvinylbutyral as binder and dibutylphthalate as plasticizer. The nonaqueous formulation has superior wetting properties with the powder, and

  5. The chemistry of dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.

    1991-01-01

    The basic theme of this program is the study of molecular complexity and evolution in interstellar and circumstellar clouds incorporating the biogenic elements. Recent results include the identification of a new astronomical carbon-chain molecule, C4Si. This species was detected in the envelope expelled from the evolved star IRC+10216 in observations at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan. C4Si is the carrier of six unidentified lines which had previously been observed. This detection reveals the existence of a new series of carbon-chain molecules, C sub n Si (n equals 1, 2, 4). Such molecules may well be formed from the reaction of Si(+) with acetylene and acetylene derivatives. Other recent research has concentrated on the chemical composition of the cold, dark interstellar clouds, the nearest dense molecular clouds to the solar system. Such regions have very low kinetic temperatures, on the order of 10 K, and are known to be formation sites for solar-type stars. We have recently identified for the first time in such regions the species of H2S, NO, HCOOH (formic acid). The H2S abundance appears to exceed that predicted by gas-phase models of ion-molecule chemistry, perhaps suggesting the importance of synthesis on grain surfaces. Additional observations in dark clouds have studied the ratio of ortho- to para-thioformaldehyde. Since this ratio is expected to be unaffected by both radiative and ordinary collisional processes in the cloud, it may well reflect the formation conditions for this molecule. The ratio is observed to depart from that expected under conditions of chemical equilibrium at formation, perhaps reflecting efficient interchange between cold dust grains in the gas phase.

  6. Structure and function of an archaeal topoisomerase VI subunit with homology to the meiotic recombination factor Spo11.

    PubMed

    Nichols, M D; DeAngelis, K; Keck, J L; Berger, J M

    1999-11-01

    In all organisms, type II DNA topoisomerases are essential for untangling chromosomal DNA. We have determined the structure of the DNA-binding core of the Methanococcus jannaschii DNA topoisomerase VI A subunit at 2.0 A resolution. The overall structure of this subunit is unique, demonstrating that archaeal type II enzymes are distinct from other type II topoisomerases. However, the core structure contains a pair of domains that are also found in type IA and classic type II topoisomerases. Together, these regions may form the basis of a DNA cleavage mechanism shared among these enzymes. The core A subunit is a dimer that contains a deep groove that spans both protomers. The dimer architecture suggests that DNA is bound in the groove, across the A subunit interface, and that the two monomers separate during DNA transport. The A subunit of topoisomerase VI is homologous to the meiotic recombination factor, Spo11, and this structure can serve as a template for probing Spo11 function in eukaryotes.

  7. A crystallizing dense magma ocean at the base of the Earth's mantle.

    PubMed

    Labrosse, S; Hernlund, J W; Coltice, N

    2007-12-06

    The distribution of geochemical species in the Earth's interior is largely controlled by fractional melting and crystallization processes that are intimately linked to the thermal state and evolution of the mantle. The existence of patches of dense partial melt at the base of the Earth's mantle, together with estimates of melting temperatures for deep mantle phases and the amount of cooling of the underlying core required to maintain a geodynamo throughout much of the Earth's history, suggest that more extensive deep melting occurred in the past. Here we show that a stable layer of dense melt formed at the base of the mantle early in the Earth's history would have undergone slow fractional crystallization, and would be an ideal candidate for an unsampled geochemical reservoir hosting a variety of incompatible species (most notably the missing budget of heat-producing elements) for an initial basal magma ocean thickness of about 1,000 km. Differences in 142Nd/144Nd ratios between chondrites and terrestrial rocks can be explained by fractional crystallization with a decay timescale of the order of 1 Gyr. These combined constraints yield thermal evolution models in which radiogenic heat production and latent heat exchange prevent early cooling of the core and possibly delay the onset of the geodynamo to 3.4-4 Gyr ago.

  8. A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth’s core

    PubMed Central

    Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S.; Brodholt, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Earth’s core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain “light elements,” such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe–Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle. PMID:24821817

  9. A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S; Brodholt, John P

    2014-05-27

    Earth's core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain "light elements," such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe-Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle.

  10. Formation and evolution of cores in globally collapsing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    I will present recent results on the hierarchical gravitational fragmentation (HGF) of molecular clouds (MCs) leading to the formation of dense cores. I will first discuss the scenario of HGF as an alternative to the standard scenario of turbulent support --> turbulent dissipation --> collapse. In it, clouds are multi-Jeans-mass object undergoing global, multi-scale collapse, and the cores are the local centers of collapse. The lapse between the onset of local collapse and the formation of a singularity constitutes the prestellar phase. I will present numerical simulations of core growth during this phase in the idealized case of spherical geometry, immersed in a globally collapsing environment, discussing the evolution of the density and velocity profiles. I will also present synthetic molecular line observations of such idealized cores, aimed at determining to what extent such an idealized setup recovers the basic observational features of the cores, and which features require additional physics such as background turbulence and non-spherical symmetry.

  11. Solution thermodynamics and structures of biscatecholamide complexes of Fe(III) and U(VI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gohdes, J.W.; Reilly, S.D.; Pecha, A.W.; Neu, M.P.

    1996-12-31

    We have studied the solution and solid-state complexes of a bis-catecholamide ligand, 2-LICAMS, with Fe(III) and U(VI). The first protonation constant was found to be pK{sub al} = 14.2(3) using {sup 1}H NMR titrations. Subsequent protonation constants were determined by potentiometric titration in 0.1 M TMAOTf at 25{degrees}C to be pK{sub a2} = 11.2(1), pK{sub 13} =6.5(1), pK{sub a4}= 5.9(1). Ligand-metal formation constants, {Beta}{sub mlh}, were found to be log {beta}{sub 110} = 31.4(2), log {beta}{sub 111} = 31.7(2), log {beta}{sub 112} = 34.9(2), and log {beta}11.1 = 18.0(1) for uranium(VI). To discriminate between monomeric or dimeric species models which both fit the potentiometric titration data, we isolated the hydroxide species and determined its single-crystal X-ray structure and EXAFS. The structure consists of a dimeric, bis-hydroxide bridged iron core which is spanned by two ligands. This study of solution equilibria indicates a higher stability for iron complexes of 2-LICAMS relative to uranyl complexes.

  12. Hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 broad spectrum active photocatalyst for Cr(VI) reduction

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Haipeng; Liu, Xinjuan; Liu, Baibai; Zhu, Guang; Lei, Wenyan; Du, Huigang; Liu, Junying; Li, Jianwei; Li, Can; Sun, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    To make full use of the solar energy, exploring broad spectrum active photocatalysts has become one of the core issues for photocatalysis. Here we report a novel hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 photocatalyst with ultraviolet (UV)-visible-near infrared (NIR) light response for the first time. The results indicate that the MoSe2 displays excellent photo-absorption and photocatalytic activity in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV and visible even NIR light irradiation. MoSe2 synthesized at pH value of 2 achieves the highest Cr(VI) reduction rates of 99%, 91% and 100% under UV, visible and NIR light irradiation, respectively, which should be attributed to its comparatively higher light absorption, efficient charge separation and transfer as well as relatively large number of surface active sites. The excellent broad spectrum active photocatalytic activity makes the MoSe2 to be a promising photocatalyst for the effective utilization of solar energy. PMID:27734974

  13. Hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 broad spectrum active photocatalyst for Cr(VI) reduction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haipeng; Liu, Xinjuan; Liu, Baibai; Zhu, Guang; Lei, Wenyan; Du, Huigang; Liu, Junying; Li, Jianwei; Li, Can; Sun, Changqing

    2016-10-13

    To make full use of the solar energy, exploring broad spectrum active photocatalysts has become one of the core issues for photocatalysis. Here we report a novel hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 photocatalyst with ultraviolet (UV)-visible-near infrared (NIR) light response for the first time. The results indicate that the MoSe2 displays excellent photo-absorption and photocatalytic activity in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV and visible even NIR light irradiation. MoSe2 synthesized at pH value of 2 achieves the highest Cr(VI) reduction rates of 99%, 91% and 100% under UV, visible and NIR light irradiation, respectively, which should be attributed to its comparatively higher light absorption, efficient charge separation and transfer as well as relatively large number of surface active sites. The excellent broad spectrum active photocatalytic activity makes the MoSe2 to be a promising photocatalyst for the effective utilization of solar energy.

  14. Academic Rigor: The Core of the Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Some educators see the Common Core State Standards as reason for stress, most recognize the positive possibilities associated with them and are willing to make the professional commitment to implementing them so that academic rigor for all students will increase. But business leaders, parents, and the authors of the Common Core are not the only…

  15. Tracing Dense and Diffuse Neutral Hydrogen in the Halo of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, V. A.; Lockman, F. J.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    We have combined observations of Galactic high-velocity H i from two surveys: a very sensitive survey from the Green Bank 140 ft Telescope with limited sky coverage, and the less sensitive but complete Galactic All Sky Survey from the 64 m Parkes Radio Telescope. The two surveys preferentially detect different forms of neutral gas due to their sensitivity. We adopt a machine learning approach to divide our data into two populations that separate across a range in column density: (1) a narrow line-width population typical of the majority of bright high velocity cloud components, and (2) a fainter, broad line-width population that aligns well with that of the population found in the Green Bank survey. We refer to these populations as dense and diffuse gas, respectively, and find that diffuse gas is typically located at the edges and in the tails of high velocity clouds, surrounding dense components in the core. A fit to the average spectrum of each type of gas in the Galactic All Sky Survey data reveals the dense population to have a typical line width of ∼20 km s‑1 and brightness temperature of ∼0.3 K, while the diffuse population has a typical line width of ∼30 km s‑1 and a brightness temperature of ∼0.2 K. Our results confirm that most surveys of high velocity gas in the Milky Way halo are missing the majority of the ubiquitous diffuse gas, and that this gas is likely to contribute at least as much mass as the dense gas.

  16. Are superluminous supernovae and long GRBs the products of dynamical processes in young dense star clusters?

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Heuvel, E. P. J.; Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    2013-12-20

    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) occur almost exclusively in small galaxies (Small/Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC/LMC)-like or smaller), and the few SLSNe observed in larger star-forming galaxies always occur close to the nuclei of their hosts. Another type of peculiar and highly energetic supernovae are the broad-line Type Ic SNe (SN Ic-BL) that are associated with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs). Also these have a strong preference for occurring in small (SMC/LMC-like or smaller) star-forming galaxies, and in these galaxies LGRBs always occur in the brightest spots. Studies of nearby star-forming galaxies that are similar to the hosts of LGRBs show that these brightest spots are giant H II regions produced by massive dense young star clusters with many hundreds of O- and Wolf-Rayet-type stars. Such dense young clusters are also found in abundance within a few hundred parsecs from the nucleus of larger galaxies like our own. We argue that the SLSNe and the SNe Ic-BL/LGRBs are exclusive products of two types of dynamical interactions in dense young star clusters. In our model the high angular momentum of the collapsing stellar cores required for the engines of an SN Ic-BL results from the post-main-sequence mergers of dynamically produced cluster binaries with almost equal-mass components. The merger produces a critically rotating single helium star with sufficient angular momentum to produce an LGRB; the observed 'metal aversion' of LGRBs is a natural consequence of the model. We argue that, on the other hand, SLSNe could be the products of runaway multiple collisions in dense clusters, and we present (and quantize) plausible scenarios of how the different types of SLSNe can be produced.

  17. Evolutionary status of the pre-protostellar core L1498

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B.; Langer, W. D.; Velusamy, T.; Levin, S. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    L1498 is a classic example of a dense cold pre-protostellar core. To study the evolutionary status, the structure, dynamics, and chemical properties of this core we have obtained high spatial and high spectral resolution observations of molecules tracing densities of 10(3)-10(5) cm-3. We observed CCS, NH3, C3H2, and HC7N with NASA's DSN 70 m antennas. We also present large-scale maps of C18O and 13CO observed with the AT&T 7 m antenna. For the high spatial resolution maps of selected regions within the core we used the VLA for CCS at 22 GHz, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) MMA for CCS at 94 GHz and CS (2-1). The 22 GHz CCS emission marks a high-density [n(H2) > 10(4) cm -3] core, which is elongated with a major axis along the SE-NW direction. NH3 and C3H2 emissions are located inside the boundary of the CCS emission. C18O emission traces a lower density gas extending beyond the CCS boundary. Along the major axis of the dense core, CCS, NH3 and C3H2 emission show evidence of limb brightening. The observations are consistent with a chemically differentiated onion-shell structure for the L1498 core, with NH3 in the inner and CCS in the outer parts of the core. The high angular resolution (9"-12") spectral line maps obtained by combining NASA Goldstone 70 m and VLA data resolve the CCS 22 GHz emission in the southeast and northwest boundaries into arclike enhancements, supporting the picture that CCS emission originates in a shell outside the NH3 emitting region. Interferometric maps of CCS at 94 GHz and CS at 98 GHz show that their emitting regions contain several small-scale dense condensations. We suggest that the differences between the CCS, CS, C3H2, and NH3 emission are caused by a time-dependent effect as the core evolves slowly. We interpret the chemical and physical properties of L1498 in terms of a quasi-static (or slowly contracting) dense core in which the outer envelope is still growing. The growth rate of the core is determined by the

  18. Evolutionary status of the pre-protostellar core L1498.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, T B; Langer, W D; Velusamy, T

    1996-09-10

    L1498 is a classic example of a dense cold pre-protostellar core. To study the evolutionary status, the structure, dynamics, and chemical properties of this core we have obtained high spatial and high spectral resolution observations of molecules tracing densities of 10(3)-10(5) cm-3. We observed CCS, NH3, C3H2, and HC7N with NASA's DSN 70 m antennas. We also present large-scale maps of C18O and 13CO observed with the AT&T 7 m antenna. For the high spatial resolution maps of selected regions within the core we used the VLA for CCS at 22 GHz, and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) MMA for CCS at 94 GHz and CS (2-1). The 22 GHz CCS emission marks a high-density [n(H2) > 10(4) cm -3] core, which is elongated with a major axis along the SE-NW direction. NH3 and C3H2 emissions are located inside the boundary of the CCS emission. C18O emission traces a lower density gas extending beyond the CCS boundary. Along the major axis of the dense core, CCS, NH3 and C3H2 emission show evidence of limb brightening. The observations are consistent with a chemically differentiated onion-shell structure for the L1498 core, with NH3 in the inner and CCS in the outer parts of the core. The high angular resolution (9"-12") spectral line maps obtained by combining NASA Goldstone 70 m and VLA data resolve the CCS 22 GHz emission in the southeast and northwest boundaries into arclike enhancements, supporting the picture that CCS emission originates in a shell outside the NH3 emitting region. Interferometric maps of CCS at 94 GHz and CS at 98 GHz show that their emitting regions contain several small-scale dense condensations. We suggest that the differences between the CCS, CS, C3H2, and NH3 emission are caused by a time-dependent effect as the core evolves slowly. We interpret the chemical and physical properties of L1498 in terms of a quasi-static (or slowly contracting) dense core in which the outer envelope is still growing. The growth rate of the core is determined by the

  19. Uranium(VI) reduction by iron(II) monosulfide mackinawite.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sung Pil; Davis, James A; Sun, Kai; Hayes, Kim F

    2012-03-20

    Reaction of aqueous uranium(VI) with iron(II) monosulfide mackinawite in an O(2) and CO(2) free model system was studied by batch uptake measurements, equilibrium modeling, and L(III) edge U X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Batch uptake measurements showed that U(VI) removal was almost complete over the wide pH range between 5 and 11 at the initial U(VI) concentration of 5 × 10(-5) M. Extraction by a carbonate/bicarbonate solution indicated that most of the U(VI) removed from solution was reduced to nonextractable U(IV). Equilibrium modeling using Visual MINTEQ suggested that U was in equilibrium with uraninite under the experimental conditions. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that the U(IV) phase associated with mackinawite was uraninite. Oxidation experiments with dissolved O(2) were performed by injecting air into the sealed reaction bottles containing mackinawite samples reacted with U(VI). Dissolved U measurement and XAS confirmed that the uraninite formed from the U(VI) reduction by mackinawite did not oxidize or dissolve under the experimental conditions. This study shows that redox reactions between U(VI) and mackinawite may occur to a significant extent, implying an important role of the ferrous sulfide mineral in the redox cycling of U under sulfate reducing conditions. This study also shows that the presence of mackinawite protects uraninite from oxidation by dissolved O(2). The findings of this study suggest that uraninite formation by abiotic reduction by the iron sulfide mineral under low temperature conditions is an important process in the redistribution and sequestration of U in the subsurface environments at U contaminated sites.

  20. Expert recommendations for the laboratory diagnosis of MPS VI.

    PubMed

    Wood, T; Bodamer, O A; Burin, M G; D'Almeida, V; Fietz, M; Giugliani, R; Hawley, S M; Hendriksz, C J; Hwu, W L; Ketteridge, D; Lukacs, Z; Mendelsohn, N J; Miller, N; Pasquali, M; Schenone, A; Schoonderwoerd, K; Winchester, B; Harmatz, P

    2012-05-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (arylsulfatase B, ASB). This enzyme is required for the degradation of dermatan sulfate. In its absence, dermatan sulfate accumulates in cells and is excreted in large quantities in urine. Specific therapeutic intervention is available; however, accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial for maximal benefit. To better understand the current practices for diagnosis and to establish diagnostic guidelines, an international MPS VI laboratory diagnostics scientific summit was held in February of 2011 in Miami, Florida. The various steps in the diagnosis of MPS VI were discussed including urinary glycosaminoglycan (uGAG) analysis, enzyme activity analysis, and molecular analysis. The following conclusions were reached. Dilute urine samples pose a significant problem for uGAG analysis and MPS VI patients can be missed by quantitative uGAG testing alone as dermatan sulfate may not always be excreted in large quantities. Enzyme activity analysis is universally acknowledged as a key component of diagnosis; however, several caveats must be considered and the appropriate use of reference enzymes is essential. Molecular analysis supports enzyme activity test results and is essential for carrier testing, subsequent genetic counseling, and prenatal testing. Overall the expert panel recommends caution in the use of uGAG screening alone to rule out or confirm the diagnosis of MPS VI and acknowledges enzyme activity analysis as a critical component of diagnosis. Measurement of another sulfatase enzyme to exclude multiple sulfatase deficiency was recommended prior to the initiation of therapy. When feasible, the use of molecular testing as part of the diagnosis is encouraged. A diagnostic algorithm for MPS VI is provided.