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Sample records for dense matter created

  1. Warm dense matter created by isochoric laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Y.; Correa, A. A.; Ogitsu, T.; Draeger, E.; Schwegler, E.; Ao, T.; Widmann, K.; Price, D. F.; Lee, E.; Tam, H.; Springer, P. T.; Hanson, D.; Koslow, I.; Prendergast, D.; Collins, G.; Ng, A.

    2010-06-01

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) physics has been a growing field of high energy density physics, driven by the fundamental urge to understand the convergence between plasma and condensed matter physics, and the practical need to understand dynamic behavior of materials under extreme conditions. A platform for creating and probing WDM by isochoric heating of free-standing nano-foils has been developed recently to study the non-equilibrium processes. Results of optical measurements reveal the existence of a quasi-steady state in the time history, during which the interband component of the dielectric function shows both enhancement and a red shift. First-principles calculations of the dielectric function suggest that the enhanced red shift of the interband transition peak might be explained by a positive charge state of the gold foil due to ejection of electrons by the high intensity laser pulse. The impact on optical properties by the formation of an electronic sheath was examined by the Thomas-Fermi theory with local equilibrium approximation.

  2. Dense cold baryonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinskiy, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    A possibility of studying cold nuclear matter on the Nuclotron-NICA facility at baryonic densities characteristic of and higher than at the center of a neutron star is considered based on the data from cumulative processes. A special rare-event kinematic trigger for collisions of relativistic ions is proposed for effective selection of events accompanied by production of dense baryonic systems. Possible manifestations of new matter states under these unusual conditions and an experimental program for their study are discussed. Various experimental setups are proposed for these studies, and a possibility of using experimental setups at the Nuclotron-NICA facility for this purpose is considered.

  3. Dense cold matter

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinskiy, A. V.

    2015-07-15

    The possibility of studying matter at densities on the order of or higher than the neutron-star density in laboratory experiments is considered. For this, it is proposed to employ a rare kinematical trigger in collisions of relativistic ions. The expected properties of matter under such unusual conditions and a program for investigations into it are discussed, and a design of experimental setup for such investigations is proposed.

  4. Dense matter at RAON: Challenges and possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yujeong; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Gaitanos, T.; Kim, Youngman

    2016-11-01

    Dense nuclear matter is ubiquitous in modern nuclear physics because it is related to many interesting microscopic and macroscopic phenomena such as heavy ion collisions, nuclear structure, and neutron stars. The on-going rare isotope science project in Korea will build up a rare isotope accelerator complex called RAON. One of the main goals of RAON is to investigate rare isotope physics including dense nuclear matter. Using the relativistic Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (RBUU) transport code, we estimate the properties of nuclear matter that can be created from low-energy heavyion collisions at RAON.We give predictions for the maximum baryon density, the isospin asymmetry and the temperature of nuclear matter that would be formed during 197Au+197Au and 132Sn+64Ni reactions. With a large isospin asymmetry, various theoretical studies indicate that the critical densities or temperatures of phase transitions to exotic states decrease. Because a large isospin asymmetry is expected in the dense matter created at RAON, we discuss possibilities of observing exotic states of dense nuclear matter at RAON for large isospin asymmetry.

  5. Warm Dense Matter: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kalantar, D H; Lee, R W; Molitoris, J D

    2004-04-21

    This document provides a summary of the ''LLNL Workshop on Extreme States of Materials: Warm Dense Matter to NIF'' which was held on 20, 21, and 22 February 2002 at the Wente Conference Center in Livermore, CA. The warm dense matter regime, the transitional phase space region between cold material and hot plasma, is presently poorly understood. The drive to understand the nature of matter in this regime is sparking scientific activity worldwide. In addition to pure scientific interest, finite temperature dense matter occurs in the regimes of interest to the SSMP (Stockpile Stewardship Materials Program). So that obtaining a better understanding of WDM is important to performing effective experiments at, e.g., NIF, a primary mission of LLNL. At this workshop we examined current experimental and theoretical work performed at, and in conjunction with, LLNL to focus future activities and define our role in this rapidly emerging research area. On the experimental front LLNL plays a leading role in three of the five relevant areas and has the opportunity to become a major player in the other two. Discussion at the workshop indicated that the path forward for the experimental efforts at LLNL were two fold: First, we are doing reasonable baseline work at SPLs, HE, and High Energy Lasers with more effort encouraged. Second, we need to plan effectively for the next evolution in large scale facilities, both laser (NIF) and Light/Beam sources (LCLS/TESLA and GSI) Theoretically, LLNL has major research advantages in areas as diverse as the thermochemical approach to warm dense matter equations of state to first principles molecular dynamics simulations. However, it was clear that there is much work to be done theoretically to understand warm dense matter. Further, there is a need for a close collaboration between the generation of verifiable experimental data that can provide benchmarks of both the experimental techniques and the theoretical capabilities. The conclusion of this

  6. Magnetism in Dense Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Efrain J.; de la Incera, Vivian

    We review the mechanisms via which an external magnetic field can affect the ground state of cold and dense quark matter. In the absence of a magnetic field, at asymptotically high densities, cold quark matter is in the Color-Flavor-Locked (CFL) phase of color superconductivity characterized by three scales: the superconducting gap, the gluon Meissner mass, and the baryonic chemical potential. When an applied magnetic field becomes comparable with each of these scales, new phases and/or condensates may emerge. They include the magnetic CFL (MCFL) phase that becomes relevant for fields of the order of the gap scale; the paramagnetic CFL, important when the field is of the order of the Meissner mass, and a spin-one condensate associated to the magnetic moment of the Cooper pairs, significant at fields of the order of the chemical potential. We discuss the equation of state (EoS) of MCFL matter for a large range of field values and consider possible applications of the magnetic effects on dense quark matter to the astrophysics of compact stars.

  7. DPIS for warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2010-05-23

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) offers an challenging problem because WDM, which is beyond ideal plasma, is in a low temperature and high density state with partially degenerate electrons and coupled ions. WDM is a common state of matter in astrophysical objects such as cores of giant planets and white dwarfs. The WDM studies require large energy deposition into a small target volume in a shorter time than the hydrodynamical time and need uniformity across the full thickness of the target. Since moderate energy ion beams ({approx} 0.3 MeV/u) can be useful tool for WDM physics, we propose WDM generation using Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS). In the DPIS, laser ion source is connected to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator directly without the beam transport line. DPIS with a realistic final focus and a linear accelerator can produce WDM.

  8. Neutrino Oscillations in Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, A. E.

    2017-03-01

    A modification of the electroweak theory, where the fermions with the same electroweak quantum numbers are combined in multiplets and are treated as different quantum states of a single particle, is proposed. In this model, mixing and oscillations of particles arise as a direct consequence of the general principles of quantum field theory. The developed approach enables one to calculate the probabilities of the processes taking place in the detector at long distances from the particle source. Calculations of higher-order processes, including computation of the contributions due to radiative corrections, can be performed in the framework of the perturbation theory using the regular diagram technique. As a result, the analog to the Dirac-Schwinger equation of quantum electrodynamics describing neutrino oscillations and its spin rotation in dense matter can be obtained.

  9. Experimental Studies of the Transport Parameters of Warm Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chouffani, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to establish fundamental properties of matter and energy under extreme physical conditions. Although high energy density physics (HEDP) research spans a wide range of plasma conditions, there is one unifying regime that is of particular importance and complexity: that of warm dense matter, the transitional state between solid state condensed matter and energetic plasmas. Most laboratory experimental conditions, including inertial confinement implosion, fall into this regime. Because all aspects of laboratory-created high-energy-density plasmas transition through the warm dense matter regime, understanding the fundamental properties to determine how matter and energy interact in this regime is an important aspect of major research efforts in HEDP. Improved understanding of warm dense matter would have significant and wide-ranging impact on HEDP science, from helping to explain wire initiation studies on the Sandia Z machine to increasing the predictive power of inertial confinement fusion modeling. The central goal or objective of our proposed research is to experimentally determine the electrical resistivity, temperature, density, and average ionization state of a variety of materials in the warm dense matter regime, without the use of theoretical calculations. Since the lack of an accurate energy of state (EOS) model is primarily due to the lack of experimental data, we propose an experimental study of the transport coefficients of warm dense matter.

  10. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, R.; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, P.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Benaoum, H.; Benmokhtar, F.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J.-P.; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E.; Craver, B.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Hansen, J.-O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Ibrahim, H.; Igarashi, R.; de Jager, C. W.; Jans, E.; Jiang, X.; Kaufman, L. J.; Kelleher, A.; Kolarkar, A.; Kumbartzki, G.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; Mazouz, M.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Potokar, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Reinhold, J.; Ron, G.; Rosner, G.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shahinyan, A.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Sulkosky, V.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Voutier, E.; Watson, J. W.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wood, S.; Zheng, X.-C.; Zhu, L.

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  11. Probing cold dense nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Subedi, R; Shneor, R; Monaghan, P; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, E; Craver, B; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Hansen, J-O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; de Jager, C W; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kumbartzki, G; Lerose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Zheng, X-C; Zhu, L

    2008-06-13

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  12. Probing Cold Dense Nuclear Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Subedi, Ramesh; Shneor, R.; Monaghan, Peter; Anderson, Bryon; Aniol, Konrad; Annand, John; Arrington, John; Benaoum, Hachemi; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bertozzi, William; Boeglin, Werner; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Cisbani, Evaristo; Craver, Brandon; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Igarashi, Ryuichi; De Jager, Cornelis; Jans, Eddy; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kelleher, Aidan; Kolarkar, Ameya; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Mazouz, Malek; Meekins, David; Michaels, Robert; Moffit, Bryan; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Potokar, Milan; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Reinhold, Joerg; Ron, Guy; Rosner, Guenther; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon, Patricia; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Urciuoli, Guido; Voutier, Eric; Watson, John; Weinstein, Lawrence; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Wood, Stephen; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Lingyan

    2008-06-01

    The protons and neutrons in a nucleus can form strongly correlated nucleon pairs. Scattering experiments, in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus with high-momentum transfer and high missing momentum, show that in carbon-12 the neutron-proton pairs are nearly 20 times as prevalent as proton-proton pairs and, by inference, neutron-neutron pairs. This difference between the types of pairs is due to the nature of the strong force and has implications for understanding cold dense nuclear systems such as neutron stars.

  13. Superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Alford, Mark; Windisch, Andreas; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-03-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of ``semi-superfluid'' color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars.

  14. Crystallization of dense neutron matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Chitre, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The equation of state for cold neutron matter at high density is studied in the t-matrix formulation, and it is shown that energetically it is convenient to have neutrons in a crystalline configuration rather than in a liquid state for values of the density exceeding 1600 Tg/cu cm. The study of the mechanical properties indicates that the system is stable against shearing stresses. A solid core in the deep interior of heavy neutron stars appears to offer the most plausible explanation of speed-ups observed in the Vela pulsar.

  15. Superfluidity and vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, Satyanarayana Kumar

    This dissertation will elucidate specific features of superfluid behavior in dense quark matter, It will start with issues regarding spontaneous decay of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter. This will be followed by topics that explain superfluid phenomena from field theoretical viewpoint. In particular the first part of the dissertation will talk about superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter which are known to be energetically disfavored as compared to well-separated triplets of "semi-superfluid" color flux tubes. In this talk we will provide results which will identify regions in parameter space where the superfluid vortex spontaneously decays. We will also discuss the nature of the mode that is responsible for the decay of a superfluid vortex in dense quark matter. We will conclude by mentioning the implications of our results to neutron stars. In the field theoretic formulation of a zero-temperature superfluid one connects the superfluid four-velocity which is a macroscopic observable with a microscopic field variable namely the gradient of the phase of a Bose-Condensed scalar field. On the other hand, a superfluid at nonzero temperatures is usually described in terms of a two-fluid model: the superfluid and the normal fluid. In the later part of the dissertation we offer a deeper understanding of the two-fluid model by deriving it from an underlying microscopic field theory. In particular, we shall obtain the macroscopic properties of a uniform, dissipationless superfluid at low temperatures and weak coupling within the framework of a ϕ 4 model. Though our study is very general, it may also be viewed as a step towards understanding the superfluid properties of various phases of dense nuclear and quark matter in the interior of compact star.

  16. Neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.; Lattimer, J.M.

    1998-07-01

    We study the charged and neutral current weak interaction rates relevant for the determination of neutrino opacities in dense matter found in supernovae and neutron stars. We establish an efficient formalism for calculating differential cross sections and mean free paths for interacting, asymmetric nuclear matter at arbitrary degeneracy. The formalism is valid for both charged and neutral current reactions. Strong interaction corrections are incorporated through the in-medium single particle energies at the relevant density and temperature. The effects of strong interactions on the weak interaction rates are investigated using both potential and effective field-theoretical models of matter. We investigate the relative importance of charged and neutral currents for different astrophysical situations, and also examine the influence of strangeness-bearing hyperons. Our findings show that the mean free paths are significantly altered by the effects of strong interactions and the multi-component nature of dense matter. The opacities are then discussed in the context of the evolution of the core of a protoneutron star. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Neutrino trapping in nonstrange dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chiapparini, M.; Duarte, S.B.

    1996-08-01

    Neutrino trapping effects on the properties of dense stellar matter in nonstrange supranuclear regime are studied with the purpose of applying to supernovae dynamical evolution. The hadronic and leptonic compositions of stellar matter are obtained in the framework of the relativistic mean-field theory coupled with the {beta}-equilibrium condition, and maintaining the charge neutrality of the stellar medium. It is shown that the matter composition depends dramatically upon the confined electronic-leptonic fraction. The softness of the equation of state and the lowering of the nuclear incompressibility values, when compared with the situation in which neutrino confinement is not considered, are the remarkable results. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Pycnonuclear reactions in dense stellar matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovlev, D. G.; Levenfish, K. P.; Gnedin, O. Y.

    2005-09-01

    We discuss pycnonuclear burning of highly exotic atomic nuclei in deep crusts of neutron stars, at densities up to 1013 g cm-3. As an application, we consider pycnonuclear burning of matter accreted on a neutron star in a soft X-ray transient (SXT, a compact binary containing a neutron star and a low-mass companion). The energy released in this burning, while the matter sinks into the stellar crust under the weight of newly accreted material, is sufficient to warm up the star and initiate neutrino emission in its core. The surface thermal radiation of the star in quiescent states becomes dependent on the poorly known equation of state (EOS) of supranuclear matter in the stellar core, which gives a method to explore this EOS. Four qualitatively different model EOSs are tested against observations of SXTs. They imply different levels of the enhancement of neutrino emission in massive neutron stars by 1) the direct Urca process in nucleon/hyperon matter; 2) pion condensates; 3) kaon condensates; 4) Cooper pairing of neutrons in nucleon matter with the forbidden direct Urca process. A low level of the thermal quiescent emission of two SXTs, SAX J1808.4-3658 and Cen X-4, contradicts model 4). Observations of SXTs test the same physics of dense matter as observations of thermal radiation from cooling isolated neutron stars, but the data on SXTs are currently more conclusive.

  19. Variational theory of hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    We develop a variational theory of hot nuclear matter in neutron stars and supernovae. It can also be used to study charged, hot nuclear matter which may be produced in heavy-ion collisions. This theory is a generalization of the variational theory of cold nuclear and neutron star matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces and pair correlation operators. The present approach uses microcanonical ensembles and the variational principle obeyed by the free energy. We show that the correlated states of the microcanonical ensemble at a given temperature T and density r can be orthonormalized preserving their diagonal matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. This allows for the minimization of the free energy without corrections from the nonorthogonality of the correlated basis states, similar to that of the ground state energy. Samples of the microcanonical ensemble can be used to study the response, and the neutrino luminosities and opacities of hot matter. We present methods to orthonormalize the correlated states that contribute to the response of hot matter. We apply this variational theory to symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. This extension generalizes to finite temperatures, the many body technique used in the construction of the zero temperature Akmal-Pandharipande-Ravenhall equation of state. We discuss how the formalism can be used for practical calculations of hot dense matter. Our calculations are a significant improvement over the previous calculation due to Friedman and Pandharipande. The Hamiltonian contains modern realistic two nucleon and three nucleon interactions along with relativistic boost corrections. Expectation values of various operators, including the Hamiltonian, are calculated using cluster expansion and chain summation techniques. The pair correlation operator is now calculated at every density and temperature. Neutral pion condensation along with the associated isovector spin longitudinal sum rule is analyzed. The equation

  20. Flavour Oscillations in Dense Baryonic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We suggest that fast neutral meson oscillations may occur in a dense baryonic matter, which can influence the balance of s/¯s quarks in the nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus interactions, if primordial multiplicities of neutral K 0, mesons are sufficiently asymmetrical. The phenomenon can occur even if CP symmetry is fully conserved, and it may be responsible for the enhanced sub-threshold production of multi-strange hyperons observed in the low-energy A+A and p+A interactions.

  1. Ion beam driven warm dense matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Ni, P. A.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P. K.; More, R.; Barnard, J. J.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Molvik, A. W.; Yoneda, H.

    2007-11-01

    We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments at LBNL are at 0.3-1 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak), increasing toward the Bragg peak in future versions of the accelerator. The WDM conditions are envisioned to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. Initial experiments include an experiment to study transient darkening at LBNL; and a porous target experiment at GSI heated by intense heavy-ion beams from the SIS 18 storage ring. Further experiments will explore target temperature and other properties such as electrical conductivity to investigate phase transitions and the critical point.

  2. Ion Beam Driven Warm Dense Matter Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Barnard, J. J.

    2008-11-01

    We report plans and experimental results in ion beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) experiments. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam from the NDCX-I accelerator. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression to provide a hot spot on the target with a 1-mm beam spot size, and 2-ns pulse length. As a technique for heating matter to high energy density, intense ion beams can deliver precise and uniform beam energy deposition, in a relatively large sample size, and can heat any solid-phase target material. The range of the beams in solid targets is less than 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using reduced density porous targets. We have developed a WDM target chamber and target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial experiments will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  3. Transport Properties in Cold Dense Quark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braby, Matt; Schaefer, Thomas; Chao, Jingyi; Alford, Mark; Mahmoodifar, Simin

    2010-02-01

    We have calculated several transport properties of the low energy degrees of freedom of the color-flavor locked phase in dense quark matter. The low energy degrees of freedom are the superfluid phonon and the meson octet of which the lightest excitation is the kaon. In some choices of the parameters, the kaon can condense. The basis of the calculation is a matching of kinetic theory and hydrodynamics to extract the transport properties and calculating the appropriate scattering rates for each process. From this, we have calculated the bulk viscosity of condensed and massive kaons, the shear viscosity of condensed kaons, and the thermal conductivity of the superfluid phonons and massive kaons. We present the results and analyze how these transport properties could affect observables in compact stars. )

  4. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  5. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations of dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L.; Kress, J.; Troullier, N.; Lenosky, T.; Kwon, I.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have developed a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulation method for investigating the properties of dense matter in a variety of environments. The technique treats a periodically-replicated reference cell containing N atoms in which the nuclei move according to the classical equations-of-motion. The interatomic forces are generated from the quantum mechanical interactions of the (between?) electrons and nuclei. To generate these forces, the authors employ several methods of varying sophistication from the tight-binding (TB) to elaborate density functional (DF) schemes. In the latter case, lengthy simulations on the order of 200 atoms are routinely performed, while for the TB, which requires no self-consistency, upwards to 1000 atoms are systematically treated. The QMD method has been applied to a variety cases: (1) fluid/plasma Hydrogen from liquid density to 20 times volume-compressed for temperatures of a thousand to a million degrees Kelvin; (2) isotopic hydrogenic mixtures, (3) liquid metals (Li, Na, K); (4) impurities such as Argon in dense hydrogen plasmas; and (5) metal/insulator transitions in rare gas systems (Ar,Kr) under high compressions. The advent of parallel versions of the methods, especially for fast eigensolvers, presage LDA simulations in the range of 500--1000 atoms and TB runs for tens of thousands of particles. This leap should allow treatment of shock chemistry as well as large-scale mixtures of species in highly transient environments.

  6. Symmetry energy in cold dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kie Sang; Lee, Su Houng

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the symmetry energy in cold dense matter both in the normal quark phase and in the 2-color superconductor (2SC) phase. For the normal phase, the thermodynamic potential is calculated by using hard dense loop (HDL) resummation to leading order, where the dominant contribution comes from the longitudinal gluon rest mass. The effect of gluonic interaction on the symmetry energy, obtained from the thermodynamic potential, was found to be small. In the 2SC phase, the non-perturbative BCS paring gives enhanced symmetry energy as the gapped states are forced to be in the common Fermi sea reducing the number of available quarks that can contribute to the asymmetry. We used high density effective field theory to estimate the contribution of gluon interaction to the symmetry energy. Among the gluon rest masses in 2SC phase, only the Meissner mass has iso-spin dependence although the magnitude is much smaller than the Debye mass. As the iso-spin dependence of gluon rest masses is even smaller than the case in the normal phase, we expect that the contribution of gluonic interaction to the symmetry energy in the 2SC phase will be minimal. The different value of symmetry energy in each phase will lead to different prediction for the particle yields in heavy ion collision experiment.

  7. Ion Acoustic Modes in Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Nicholas; Monaco, Guilio; White, Thomas; Gregori, Gianluca; Graham, Peter; Fletcher, Luke; Appel, Karen; Tschentscher, Thomas; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric; Granados, Eduardo; Heimann, Philip; Zastrau, Ulf; Doeppner, Tilo; Gericke, Dirk; Lepape, Sebastien; Ma, Tammy; Pak, Art; Schropp, Andreas; Glenzer, Siegfried; Hastings, Jerry

    2015-06-01

    We present results that, for the first time, show scattering from ion acoustic modes in warm dense matter, representing an unprecedented level of energy resolution in the study of dense plasmas. The experiment was carried out at the LCLS facility in California on an aluminum sample at 7 g/cc and 5 eV. Using an X-ray probe at 8 keV, shifted peaks at +/-150 meV were observed. Although the energy shifts from interactions with the acoustic waves agree with predicted values from DFT-MD models, a central (elastic) peak was also observed, which did not appear in modelled spectra and may be due to the finite timescale of the simulation. Data fitting with a hydrodynamic form has proved able to match the observed spectrum, and provide measurements of some thermodynamic properties of the system, which mostly agree with predicted values. Suggest for further experiments to determine the cause of the disparity are also given.

  8. Magnetic Phases in Dense Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Incera, Vivian de la

    2007-10-26

    In this paper I discuss the magnetic phases of the three-flavor color superconductor. These phases can take place at different field strengths in a highly dense quark system. Given that the best natural candidates for the realization of color superconductivity are the extremely dense cores of neutron stars, which typically have very large magnetic fields, the magnetic phases here discussed could have implications for the physics of these compact objects.

  9. Variational Theory of Hot Dense Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    We develop a variational theory of hot nuclear matter in neutron stars and supernovae. It can also be used to study charged, hot nuclear matter which may be produced in heavy-ion collisions. This theory is a generalization of the variational theory of cold nuclear and neutron star matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces and pair…

  10. Variational Theory of Hot Dense Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Abhishek

    2009-01-01

    We develop a variational theory of hot nuclear matter in neutron stars and supernovae. It can also be used to study charged, hot nuclear matter which may be produced in heavy-ion collisions. This theory is a generalization of the variational theory of cold nuclear and neutron star matter based on realistic models of nuclear forces and pair…

  11. Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, George

    2016-01-14

    The Topical Collaboration for Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense matter brought together researchers from a variety of nuclear science specialties and a number of institutions to address nuclear physics and neutrino physics problems associated with dense matter and the origin of the elements. See attached final technical reports for (1) the UCSD award and (2) a copy of the report for the whole TC

  12. Phases of dense matter with holographic instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Florian; Schmitt, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We discuss nuclear matter and the transition to quark matter in the decompactified limit of the Sakai-Sugimoto model. Nuclear matter is included through instantons on the flavor branes of the model. Our approximation is based on the flat-space solution, but we allow for a dynamical instanton width and deformation and compute the energetically preferred number of instanton layers in the bulk as a function of the baryon chemical potential. We determine the regions in parameter space where the binding energy of nuclear matter is like in QCD, and compute the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and chemical potential.

  13. Elastic properties of polycrystalline dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobyakov, D.; Pethick, C. J.

    2015-04-01

    Elastic properties of the solid regions of neutron star crusts and white dwarfs play an important role in theories of stellar oscillations. Matter in compact stars is presumably polycrystalline and, since the elastic properties of single crystals of such matter are very anisotropic, it is necessary to relate elastic properties of the polycrystal to those of a single crystal. We calculate the effective shear modulus of polycrystalline matter with randomly oriented crystallites using a self-consistent theory that has been very successful in applications to terrestrial materials and show that previous calculations overestimate the shear modulus by approximately 28 per cent.

  14. Recent progress on dense nuclear matter in skyrmion approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, YongLiang; Rho, Mannque

    2017-03-01

    The Skyrme model provides a novel unified approach to nuclear physics. In this approach, single baryon, baryonic matter and medium-modified hadron properties are treated on the same footing. Intrinsic density dependence (IDD) reflecting the change of vacuum by compressed baryonic matter figures naturally in the approach. In this article, we review the recent progress on accessing dense nuclear matter by putting baryons treated as solitons, namely, skyrmions, on crystal lattice with accents on the implications in compact stars.

  15. Recent progress on dense nuclear matter in skyrmion approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, YongLiang; Rho, Mannque

    2017-03-01

    The Skyrme model provides a novel unified approach to nuclear physics. In this approach, single baryon, baryonic matter and medium-modified hadron properties are treated on the same footing. Intrinsic density dependence (IDD) reflecting the change of vacuum by compressed baryonic matter figures naturally in the approach. In this article, we review the recent progress on accessing dense nuclear matter by putting baryons treated as solitons, namely, skyrmions, on crystal lattice with accents on the implications in compact stars.

  16. Nucleation of strange matter in dense stellar cores

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E. Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo ); Benvenuto, O.G. La Plata ); Vucetich, H. La Plata )

    1992-05-15

    We investigate the nucleation of strange quark matter inside hot, dense nuclear matter. Applying Zel'dovich's kinetic theory of nucleation we find a lower limit of the temperature {ital T} for strange-matter bubbles to appear, which happens to be satisfied inside the Kelvin-Helmholtz cooling era of a compact star life but not much after it. Our bounds thus suggest that a prompt conversion could be achieved, giving support to earlier expectations for nonstandard type-II supernova scenarios.

  17. Kinetic theory molecular dynamics and hot dense matter: theoretical foundations.

    PubMed

    Graziani, F R; Bauer, J D; Murillo, M S

    2014-09-01

    Electrons are weakly coupled in hot, dense matter that is created in high-energy-density experiments. They are also mildly quantum mechanical and the ions associated with them are classical and may be strongly coupled. In addition, the dynamical evolution of plasmas under these hot, dense matter conditions involve a variety of transport and energy exchange processes. Quantum kinetic theory is an ideal tool for treating the electrons but it is not adequate for treating the ions. Molecular dynamics is perfectly suited to describe the classical, strongly coupled ions but not the electrons. We develop a method that combines a Wigner kinetic treatment of the electrons with classical molecular dynamics for the ions. We refer to this hybrid method as "kinetic theory molecular dynamics," or KTMD. The purpose of this paper is to derive KTMD from first principles and place it on a firm theoretical foundation. The framework that KTMD provides for simulating plasmas in the hot, dense regime is particularly useful since current computational methods are generally limited by their inability to treat the dynamical quantum evolution of the electronic component. Using the N-body von Neumann equation for the electron-proton plasma, three variations of KTMD are obtained. Each variant is determined by the physical state of the plasma (e.g., collisional versus collisionless). The first variant of KTMD yields a closed set of equations consisting of a mean-field quantum kinetic equation for the electron one-particle distribution function coupled to a classical Liouville equation for the protons. The latter equation includes both proton-proton Coulombic interactions and an effective electron-proton interaction that involves the convolution of the electron density with the electron-proton Coulomb potential. The mean-field approach is then extended to incorporate equilibrium electron-proton correlations through the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander (STLS) ansatz. This is the second variant of KTMD

  18. Plasmon resonance in warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Thiele, R; Bornath, T; Fortmann, C; Höll, A; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Röpke, G; Wierling, A; Glenzer, S H; Gregori, G

    2008-08-01

    Collective Thomson scattering with extreme ultraviolet light or x rays is shown to allow for a robust measurement of the free electron density in dense plasmas. Collective excitations like plasmons appear as maxima in the scattering signal. Their frequency position can directly be related to the free electron density. The range of applicability of the standard Gross-Bohm dispersion relation and of an improved dispersion relation in comparison to calculations based on the dielectric function in random phase approximation is investigated. More important, this well-established treatment of Thomson scattering on free electrons is generalized in the Born-Mermin approximation by including collisions. We show that, in the transition region from collective to noncollective scattering, the consideration of collisions is important.

  19. Supernovae and neutron stars: playgrounds of dense matter and neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke

    2017-06-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are vital as the birthplace of compact objects, where one expects various phases of the dense matter. The current status of supernova studies with the nuclear data for dense matter and neutrino reactions is overviewed with a focus on recent progress of the neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics in two- an three-dimensions and remaining mysteries. In addition to its importance for the explosion mechanism, the equation of state is also essential to predict the neutrino bursts, which can be used to probe deep inside the compact objects. It is valuable to discuss variations of the extreme conditions for hyperons and quarks in central objects during explosive phenomena by looking into the pattern of neutrino signals in relation with dynamics and dense matter.

  20. Theory and Simulation of Warm Dense Matter Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; More, R M; Friedman, A; Kaganovich, I; Logan, B G; Marinak, M M; Penn, G E; Sefkow, A B; Santhanam, P; Wurtele, J S

    2006-07-13

    We present simulations and analysis of the heating of warm dense matter foils by ion beams with ion energy less than one MeV per nucleon to target temperatures of order one eV. Simulations were carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and comparisons are made with analysis and the code DPC. We simulate possible targets for a proposed experiment at LBNL (the so-called Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCXII) for studies of warm dense matter. We compare the dynamics of ideally heated targets, under several assumed equation of states, exploring dynamics in the two-phase (fluid-vapor) regime.

  1. Determination of the equation of state of dense matter.

    PubMed

    Danielewicz, Paweł; Lacey, Roy; Lynch, William G

    2002-11-22

    Nuclear collisions can compress nuclear matter to densities achieved within neutron stars and within core-collapse supernovae. These dense states of matter exist momentarily before expanding. We analyzed the flow of matter to extract pressures in excess of 10(34) pascals, the highest recorded under laboratory-controlled conditions. Using these analyses, we rule out strongly repulsive nuclear equations of state from relativistic mean field theory and weakly repulsive equations of state with phase transitions at densities less than three times that of stable nuclei, but not equations of state softened at higher densities because of a transformation to quark matter.

  2. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos & Nucleosynthesis in Hot Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Sanjay

    2013-09-06

    It is now firmly established that neutrinos, which are copiously produced in the hot and dense core of the supernova, play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism and in the synthesis of heavy elements through a phenomena known as r-process nucleosynthesis. They are also detectable in terrestrial neutrino experiments, and serve as a probe of the extreme environment and complex dynamics encountered in the supernova. The major goal of the UW research activity relevant to this project was to calculate the neutrino interaction rates in hot and dense matter of relevance to core collapse supernova. These serve as key input physics in large scale computer simulations of the supernova dynamics and nucleosynthesis being pursued at national laboratories here in the United States and by other groups in Europe and Japan. Our calculations show that neutrino production and scattering rate are altered by the nuclear interactions and that these modifications have important implications for nucleosynthesis and terrestrial neutrino detection. The calculation of neutrino rates in dense matter are difficult because nucleons in the dense matter are strongly coupled. A neutrino interacts with several nucleons and the quantum interference between scattering off different nucleons depends on the nature of correlations between them in dense matter. To describe these correlations we used analytic methods based on mean field theory and hydrodynamics, and computational methods such as Quantum Monte Carlo. We found that due to nuclear effects neutrino production rates at relevant temperatures are enhanced, and that electron neutrinos are more easily absorbed than anti-electron neutrinos in dense matter. The latter, was shown to favor synthesis of heavy neutron-rich elements in the supernova.

  3. Chiral restoration in hot and/or dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, G. E.; Rho, M.

    1995-02-01

    Chiral restoration phase transition in hot and/or dense hadronic matter is discussed in terms of the BR scaling based on chiral symmetry and scale anomaly of QCD. The precise connection between the scalar field that figures in the trace anomaly and the sigma field that figures in the linear sigma model is established. It is suggested that in hot and/or dense medium, the nonlinear sigma model linearizes with the help of a dilaton to a linear (sigma) model with medium-renormalized constants. The relevance of Georgi's vector symmetry and/or Weinberg's 'mended symmetry' in chiral restoration is pointed out. Some striking consequences for relativistic heavy-ion collisions and dense matter in compact stars following stellar collapse are discussed.

  4. Multidimensional Chebyshev interpolation for warm and hot dense matter.

    PubMed

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    We propose a scheme based on a multidimensional Chebyshev interpolation to approximate smooth functions that depend on more than one variable. The present method generalizes the one dimensional Chebyshev approximation. The multidimensional approach can be used for generating databases like equation of state in the warm and hot dense matter. It is well suited to the present advance of massively parallel supercomputers.

  5. Multidimensional Chebyshev interpolation for warm and hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    We propose a scheme based on a multidimensional Chebyshev interpolation to approximate smooth functions that depend on more than one variable. The present method generalizes the one dimensional Chebyshev approximation. The multidimensional approach can be used for generating databases like equation of state in the warm and hot dense matter. It is well suited to the present advance of massively parallel supercomputers.

  6. Color superconductivity in dense quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark G.; Schmitt, Andreas; Rajagopal, Krishna; Schaefer, Thomas

    2008-10-15

    Matter at high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, which is a degenerate Fermi gas of quarks with a condensate of Cooper pairs near the Fermi surface that induces color Meissner effects. At the highest densities, where the QCD coupling is weak, rigorous calculations are possible, and the ground state is a particularly symmetric state, the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. The CFL phase is a superfluid, an electromagnetic insulator, and breaks chiral symmetry. The effective theory of the low-energy excitations in the CFL phase is known and can be used, even at more moderate densities, to describe its physical properties. At lower densities the CFL phase may be disfavored by stresses that seek to separate the Fermi surfaces of the different flavors, and comparison with the competing alternative phases, which may break translation and/or rotation invariance, is done using phenomenological models. We review the calculations that underlie these results and then discuss transport properties of several color-superconducting phases and their consequences for signatures of color superconductivity in neutron stars.

  7. High Brightness Accelerator for Warm Dense Matter Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Grote, David P.; Briggs, Richard J.

    2005-10-01

    A high brightness heavy ion accelerator for creating powerful beams to study warm dense matter is being designed at LBNL. The components are an injector that delivers 0.1 μC of sodium beam, and an accelerator that boosts the energy to about 20 MeV. Further beam manipulations will compress the beam to a final spot radius of 1 mm and a pulse length of 1 ns. In order to reach those final parameters, it is required to extract a high brightness beam and minimize the transverse and longitudinal emittance growth along the accelerator. The injector is based on the Accel-Decel concept which enables the extraction of a high line charge density beam from the ion source, and the accelerator is based on the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept, which uses a slow-wave structure based on a helical winding, on which a voltage pulse is launched and propagated to generate the accelerating fields. We will present numerical simulations of the beam dynamics in this system.

  8. Soliton matter as a model of dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1985-01-01

    We employ the hybrid soliton model of the nucleon consisting of a topological meson field and deeply bound quarks to investigate the behavior of the quarks in soliton matter as a function of density. To organize the calculation, we place the solitons on a spatial lattice. The model suggests the transition of matter from a color insulator to a color conductor above a critical density of a few times normal nuclear density. 9 references, 5 figures.

  9. The role of the dilaton in dense skyrmion matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Rho, Mannque; Vento, Vicente

    2008-07-01

    In this note, we report on a remarkable and surprising interplay between the ω meson and the dilaton χ in the structure of a single skyrmion as well as in the phase structure of dense skyrmion matter which may have a potentially important consequence on the properties of compact stars. In our continuing effort to understand hadronic matter at high density, we have developed a unified field theoretic formalism for dense skyrmion matter using a single Lagrangian to describe simultaneously both matter and meson fluctuations and studied in-medium properties of hadrons. The effective theory used is the Skyrme model Lagrangian gauged with the vector mesons ρ and ω, implemented with the dilaton field that describes the spontaneously broken scale symmetry of QCD, in a form consistent with the symmetries of QCD and our expectations regarding the high density limit. We analyze the restoration of scale invariance and chiral symmetry as the density of the system increases. In order to preserve the restoration of scale symmetry and chiral symmetry, signalled in our case by the vanishing of the expectation value of the dilaton, and to be consistent with the "vector manifestation" of hidden local symmetry, a density dependent ω coupling is introduced. We uncover the crucial role played by both the dilaton and the ω meson in the phase structure of dense medium and discover how two different phase transition regimes arise as we "dial" the dilaton mass.

  10. Ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S.; Logan, B. G.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.

    2010-08-01

    As a technique for heating matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition to a relatively large sample. The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating and diagnosing warm dense matter (WDM) targets. We have developed a WDM target chamber and a suite of target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments heat targets by both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam, and explore measurement of temperature, droplet formation and other target parameters. Continued improvements in beam tuning, bunch compression, and other upgrades are expected to yield higher temperature and pressure in the WDM targets. Future experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  11. Topical Collaboration "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter"

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh

    2015-09-18

    This is the final technical report describing contributions from the University of New Mexico to Topical Collaboration on "Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter" in the period June 2010 through May 2015. During the funding period, the University of New Mexico successfully hired Huaiyu Duan as a new faculty member with the support from DOE, who has contributed to the Topical Collaboration through his research and collaborations.

  12. Vortices and other topological solitons in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Minoru; Hirono, Yuji; Nitta, Muneto; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Dense quantum chromodynamic matter accommodates various kind of topological solitons such as vortices, domain walls, monopoles, kinks, boojums, and so on. In this review, we discuss various properties of topological solitons in dense quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and their phenomenological implications. Particular emphasis is placed on the topological solitons in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase, which exhibits both superfluidity and superconductivity. The properties of topological solitons are discussed in terms of effective field theories such as the Ginzburg-Landau theory, the chiral Lagrangian, or the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. The most fundamental string-like topological excitations in the CFL phase are non-Abelian vortices, which are 1/3 quantized superfluid vortices and color magnetic flux tubes. These vortices are created at a phase transition by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism or when the CFL phase is realized in compact stars, which rotate rapidly. The interaction between vortices is found to be repulsive and consequently a vortex lattice is formed in rotating CFL matter. Bosonic and fermionic zero-energy modes are trapped in the core of a non-Abelian vortex and propagate along it as gapless excitations. The former consists of translational zero modes (a Kelvin mode) with a quadratic dispersion and {mathbb {C}}P^2 Nambu-Goldstone gapless modes with a linear dispersion, associated with the CFL symmetry spontaneously broken in the core of a vortex, while the latter is Majorana fermion zero modes belonging to the triplet of the symmetry remaining in the core of a vortex. The low-energy effective theory of the bosonic zero modes is constructed as a non-relativistic free complex scalar field and a relativistic {mathbb {C}}P^2 model in 1+1 dimensions. The effects of strange quark mass, electromagnetic interactions, and non-perturbative quantum corrections are taken into account in the {mathbb {C}}P^2 effective theory. Various topological objects associated

  13. Stability of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Vachaspati, Tanmay; Windisch, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Superfluid vortices in the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter are known to be energetically disfavored relative to well-separated triplets of so-called semi-superfluid color flux tubes. However, the short-range interaction (metastable versus unstable) has not been established. In this paper we perform numerical calculations using the effective theory of the condensate field, mapping the regions in the parameter space of coupling constants where the vortices are metastable versus unstable. For the case of zero-gauge coupling we analytically identify a candidate for the unstable mode and show that it agrees well with the results of the numerical calculations. We find that in the region of the parameter space that seems likely to correspond to real-world CFL quark matter the vortices are unstable, indicating that if such matter exists in neutron star cores it is very likely to contain semi-superfluid color flux tubes rather than superfluid vortices.

  14. Neutron Star Dense Matter Equation of State Constraints with NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Guillot, Sebastien; Kust Harding, Alice; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Miller, M. Coleman; Morsink, Sharon; Ozel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ray, Paul S.; Riley, Tom; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Watts, Anna; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Gendreau, Keith

    2017-08-01

    One of the principal goals of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is to place constraints on the dense matter equation of state through sensitive X-ray observations of neutron stars. The NICER mission will focus on measuring the masses and radii of several relatively bright, thermally-emitting, rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, by fitting models that incorporate all relevant relativistic effects and atmospheric radiation transfer processes to their periodic soft X-ray modulations. Here, we provide an overview of the targets NICER will observe and tthe technique and models that have been developed by the NICER team to estimate the masses and radii of these pulsars.

  15. Dynamic ion structure factor of warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Vorberger, J; Donko, Z; Tkachenko, I M; Gericke, D O

    2012-11-30

    The dynamics of the ion structure in warm dense matter is determined by molecular dynamics simulations using an effective ion-ion potential. This potential is obtained from ab initio simulations and has a strong short-range repulsion added to a screened Coulomb potential. Models based on static or dynamic local field corrections are found to be insufficient to describe the data. An extended Mermin approach, a hydrodynamic model, and the method of moments with local constraints are capable of reproducing the numerical results but have rather limited predictive powers as they all need some numerical data as input. The method of moments is found to be the most promising.

  16. Ultrafast visualization of the structural evolution of dense hydrogen towards warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Hot dense hydrogen far from equilibrium is ubiquitous in nature occurring during some of the most violent and least understood events in our universe such as during star formation, supernova explosions, and the creation of cosmic rays. It is also a state of matter important for applications in inertial confinement fusion research and in laser particle acceleration. Rapid progress occurred in recent years characterizing the high-pressure structural properties of dense hydrogen under static or dynamic compression. Here, we show that spectrally and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measure the thermodynamic properties of dense hydrogen and resolve the ultrafast evolution and relaxation towards thermodynamic equilibrium. These studies apply ultra-bright x-ray pulses from the Linac Coherent Light (LCLS) source. The interaction of rapidly heated cryogenic hydrogen with a high-peak power optical laser is visualized with intense LCLS x-ray pulses in a high-repetition rate pump-probe setting. We demonstrate that electron-ion coupling is affected by the small number of particles in the Debye screening cloud resulting in much slower ion temperature equilibration than predicted by standard theory. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science under FWP 100182.

  17. Probing dense matter in neutron stars with axial w modes

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Debarati; Bandyopadhyay, Debades

    2009-07-15

    We study the problem of extracting information about composition and equation of state of dense matter in neutron star interior using axial w modes. We determine complex frequencies of axial w modes for a set of equations of state involving hyperons as well as Bose-Einstein condensates of antikaons adopting the continued fraction method. Hyperons and antikaon condensates result in softer equations of state leading to higher frequencies and lower damping times of first axial w modes than those of the nuclear matter case. The presence of condensates may lead to the appearance of a new stable branch of superdense stars beyond the neutron star branch called the third family. The existence of the same mass compact stars in both branches is known as neutron star twins. Further investigation of twins reveals that first axial w-mode frequencies of superdense stars in the third family are higher than those of the corresponding twins in the neutron star branch.

  18. The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.

    2012-05-10

    This technical report describes the work done under the DOE grant DE-FG-88ER41723 (final award number DE-SC0005645), "The physics of hot and dense quark-gluon matter", during the year of 12/01/2010 through 11/30/2011. As planned in the proposal, the performed research focused along two main thrusts: 1) topological effects in hot quark-gluon matter and 2) phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions. The results of research are presented in 12 papers published in reputable refereed journals (Physical Review Letters, Physical Review, Physics Letters and Nuclear Physics). All of the performed research is directly related to the experimental programs of DOE, especially at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Much of it also has broader interdisciplinary implications - for example, the work on the non-dissipative chiral magnetic current is directly relevant for quantum computing. The attached report describes the performed work in detail.

  19. Thermal conductivity measurements of proton-heated warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvey, A.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Hua, R.; Kim, J.; King, J.; Sio, H.; McGuffey, C.; Kemp, G. E.; Freeman, R. R.; Beg, F. N.; Shepherd, R.; Ping, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of conductivity characteristics in the strongly coupled plasma regime is extremely important for ICF processes such as the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities, thermonuclear burn propagation waves, shell mixing, and efficient x-ray conversion of indirect drive schemes. Recently, an experiment was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility to measure the thermal conductivity of proton-heated warm dense matter. In the experiment, proton beams generated via target normal sheath acceleration were used to heat bi-layer targets with high-Z front layers and lower-Z back layers. The stopping power of a material is approximately proportional to Z2 so a sharp temperature gradient is established between the two materials. The subsequent thermal conduction from the higher-Z material to the lower-Z was measured with time resolved streaked optical pyrometry (SOP) and Fourier domain interferometry (FDI) of the rear surface. Results will be used to compare predictions from the thermal conduction equation and the Wiedemann-Franz Law in the warm dense matter regime. Data from the time resolved diagnostics for Au/Al and Au/C Targets of 20-200 nm thickness will be presented.

  20. Aspects regarding decay of superfluid vortices in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallavarapu, S. Kumar; Alford, Mark

    2015-04-01

    It has been mentioned in current literature that the so called superfluid vortices/strings in high density color flavor locked phase of dense quark matter might be unstable. A regular superfluid string could decay into more fundamental strings known as semi-superfluid strings. Each semi-superfluid string has a non-zero color flux. It has been calculated that a combination of three such semi-superfluid strings which have zero net color flux is more stable than a single superfluid string, so long as the separation between the semi-superfluid strings is much larger than the size of each one. Is the semi-superfluid string configuration more stable than the superfluid string even for small separations? Does the single superfluid string spontaneously break into semi-superfluid strings? In this talk we offer results and insight that would help us answer these questions.

  1. Role of dense matter in collective supernova neutrino transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Esteban-Pretel, A.; Pastor, S.; Mirizzi, A.; Tomas, R.; Raffelt, G. G.; Serpico, P. D.; Sigl, G.

    2008-10-15

    For neutrinos streaming from a supernova core, dense matter suppresses self-induced flavor transformations if the electron density n{sub e} significantly exceeds the neutrino density n{sub {nu}} in the conversion region. If n{sub e} is comparable to n{sub {nu}}, one finds multiangle decoherence, whereas the standard self-induced transformation behavior requires that in the transformation region n{sub {nu}} is safely above n{sub e}. This condition need not be satisfied in the early phase after the supernova core bounce. Our new multiangle effect is a subtle consequence of neutrinos traveling on different trajectories when streaming from a source that is not pointlike.

  2. Electron conductivity in warm and hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starrett, Charles; Charest, Marc; Feinblum, David; Burrill, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The electronic conductivity of warm and hot dense matter is investigated by combining the Ziman-Evans approach with the recently developed pseudo-atom molecular dynamics (PAMD) method. PAMD gives an accurate description of the electronic and ionic structure of the plasma. The Ziman-Evans approach to conductivity, which takes the electronic and ionic structures as inputs, has been widely used but with numerous different assumptions on these inputs. Here we present a systematic study of these assumptions by comparing results to gold-standard QMD results that are thought to be accurate but are very expensive to produce. The study reveals that some assumptions yield very inaccurate results and should not be used, while others give consistently reasonable results. Finally, we show that the Thomas-Fermi version of PAMD can also be used to give accurate conductivities very rapidly, taking a few minutes per point on a single processor.

  3. Thermodynamic instabilities in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.

    2016-11-01

    We study the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where a nuclear phase transition can take place. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that such a phase transition is characterized by pure hadronic matter with both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) that by chemical-diffusive instability (fluctuations on the strangeness concentration). The analysis is performed by requiring the global conservation of baryon number and zero net strangeness in the framework of an effective relativistic mean field theory with the inclusion of the Δ(1232)-isobars, hyperons and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. It turns out that in this situation hadronic phases with different values of strangeness content may coexist, altering significantly meson-antimeson ratios.

  4. Prospects for the dense baryonic matter research at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekelidze, V.; Kovalenko, A.; Lednicky, R.; Matveev, V.; Meshkov, I.; Sorin, A.; Trubnikov, G.

    2016-12-01

    The NICA (Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility) project is under realization at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). The main goal of the project is a study of hot and dense strongly interacting matter in heavy ion collisions (up to Au) in the energy range up to √{sNN} = 11 GeV. Two modes of operation are foreseen, collider and extracted beam operations, with two detectors: MPD and BM@N. In the Au + Au collider mode the expected average luminosity is L =1027cm-2s-1. The proposed experimental program allows one to search for possible manifestations of the phase transitions and critical phenomena.

  5. Dynamics of hot and dense nuclear and partonic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Cassing, W.; Linnyk, O.; Konchakovski, V. P.; Voronyuk, V.; Ozvenchuk, V.

    2012-06-15

    The dynamics of hot and dense nuclear matter is discussed from the microscopic transport point of view. The basic concepts of the Hadron-String-Dynamical transport model (HSD)-derived from Kadanoff-Baym equations in phase phase-are presented as well as 'highlights' of HSD results for different observables in heavy-ion collisions from 100 A MeV (SIS) to 21 A TeV(RHIC) energies. Furthermore, a novel extension of the HSD model for the description of the partonic phase-the Parton-Hadron-String-Dynamics (PHSD) approach-is introduced. PHSD includes a nontrivial partonic equation of state-in line with lattice QCD-as well as covariant transition rates from partonic to hadronic degrees of freedom. The sensitivity of hadronic observables to the partonic phase is demonstrated for relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the FAIR/NICA up to the RHIC energy regime.

  6. The glass and jamming transitions in dense granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Candelier, Raphaël; Dauchot, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Everyday life tells us that matter acquires rigidity either when it cools down, like lava flows which turn into solid rocks, or when it is compacted, like tablets simply formed by powder compression. As suggested by these examples, solidification is not the sole privilege of crystals but also happens for disordered media such as glass formers, granular media, foams, emulsions and colloidal suspensions. Fifteen years ago the "Jamming paradigm" emerged to encompass in a unique framework the glass transition and the emergence of yield stress, two challenging issues in modern condensed matter physics. One must realize how bold this proposal was, given that the glass transition is a finite temperature transition governing the dynamical properties of supercooled liquids, while Jamming is essentially a zero temperature, zero external stress and purely geometric transition which occurs when a given packing of particles reaches the maximum compression state above which particles start to overlap. More recently, the observation of remarkable scaling properties on the approach to jamming led to the conjecture that this zero temperature "critical point" could determine the properties of dense particle systems within a region of the parameter space to be determined, which in principle could include thermal and stressed systems. Fifteen years of intense theoretical and experimental work later, what have we learned about Jamming and glassy dynamics? In this paper, we discuss these issues in the light of the experiments we have been conducting with vibrated grains.

  7. Warm Dense Matter Experiments Driven by Ion Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M. A.; Lidia, S.; Logan, B. G.; More, R. M.; Ni, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.

    2009-11-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. We present results from warm dense matter (WDM) experiments at NDCX-I. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K^+ beam from the NDCX-I accelerator heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to a spot size ˜ 1 mm, and compressed pulse length ˜ 2 ns. The uncompressed beam flux is >=500 kW/cm^2, and the compressed pulse flux is > 5 MW/cm^2. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. Future plans include construction of the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-4 MeV lithium ion beam. We have developed a target chamber and target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, and high-speed gated cameras. We compare measurements of temperature, droplet formation and other target parameters with model predictions. Continued improvements in beam tuning, bunch compression, and other upgrades are expected to yield higher flux on target.

  8. Optical diagnostic of warm dense matter at NDCXI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Pavel; Bieniosek, Frank; Barnard, John; Henestroza, Enrique; Lidia, Steve; More, Dick

    2010-11-01

    This work is related to recently warm dense matter experiments at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) accelerator, which delivers a 30-mA, 350-keV K^+ ion beam. Using the recently-developed technique of neutralized drift compression, the beam is simultaneously compressed longitudinally by a factor of 50, and focused transversely down to a 1 mm spot. The beam pulse is used to pulse heat various target materials, including Al, W, C, Pt and Si, above 3000 K driving samples into two-phase, liquid-vapor states. The next generation accelerator, NDCX-II, is being built and scheduled to be accomplished in 2012. This new machine will, utilize 2 MeV Li+ ions, to heat 2 micrometer thick metal targets up to 1,5 eV in 0.5 ns. This will allow us investigate near critical points properties of matter. The talk will focus on diagnostics aspects of WDM at NDCX. The fielded diagnostics include a specially developed three-channel optical pyrometer which probes color temperatures of the target at 750 nm, 1000 nm and 1500 nm, with 75 ps temporal resolution. Continuous target emission from 450 nm to 850 nm is recorded by a custom spectrometer, consisting of a high dynamic range Hamamatsu streak camera and a holographic grating. Free expansion of the sample is measured by a VISAR. Future diagnostics for the NDX-II user facility will be also discussed.

  9. Sonoluminescence test for equation of state in warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Siu-Fai; Barnard, J. J.; Leung, P. T.; Yu, S. S.

    2009-07-01

    In experiments of Single-bubble Sonoluminescence (SBSL), the bubble is heated to temperatures of a few eV in the collapse phase of the oscillation. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the density inside the bubble can go up to the order of 1 g/cm 3, and the electron density due to ionization is 10 21/cm 3. So the plasma coupling constant is found to be around 1 and the gas inside the bubble is in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We simulate the light emission of SL with an optical model for thermal radiation which takes the finite opacity of the bubble into consideration. The numerical results obtained are compared with the experimental data and found to be very sensitive to the equation of state (EOS) used. As theories for the equation of state, as well as the opacity data, in the WDM regime are still very uncertain, we propose that SL may be a good low-cost experimental check for the EOS and the opacity data for matter in the WDM regime.

  10. Sonoluminescence test for equation of state in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Siu-Fai; Barnard, J.J.; Leung, P.T.; Yu, S.S.

    2008-08-01

    In experiments of Single-bubble Sonoluminescence (SBSL), the bubble is heated to temperatures of a few eV in the collapse phase of the oscillation. Our hydrodynamic simulations show that the density inside the bubble can go up to the order of 1 g/cm3, and the electron density due to ionization is 1021 /cm3. So the plasma coupling constant is found to be around 1 and the gas inside the bubble is in the Warm Dense Matter (WDM) regime. We simulate the light emission of SL with an optical model for thermal radiation which takes the finite opacity of the bubble into consideration. The numerical results obtained are compared to the experimental data and found to be very sensitive to the equation of state used. As theories for the equation of state, as well as the opacity data, in the WDM regime are still very uncertain, we propose that SL may be a good low-cost experimental check for the EOS and the opacity data for matter in the WDM regime.

  11. Hot and dense matter beyond relativistic mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xilin; Prakash, Madappa

    2016-05-01

    Properties of hot and dense matter are calculated in the framework of quantum hadrodynamics by including contributions from two-loop (TL) diagrams arising from the exchange of isoscalar and isovector mesons between nucleons. Our extension of mean field theory (MFT) employs the same five density-independent coupling strengths which are calibrated using the empirical properties at the equilibrium density of isospin-symmetric matter. Results of calculations from the MFT and TL approximations are compared for conditions of density, temperature, and proton fraction encountered in the study of core-collapse supernovae, young and old neutron stars, and mergers of compact binary stars. The TL results for the equation of state (EOS) of cold pure neutron matter at sub- and near-nuclear densities agree well with those of modern quantum Monte Carlo and effective field-theoretical approaches. Although the high-density EOS in the TL approximation for cold and β -equilibrated neutron-star matter is substantially softer than its MFT counterpart, it is able to support a 2 M⊙ neutron star required by recent precise determinations. In addition, radii of 1.4 M⊙ stars are smaller by ˜1 km than those obtained in MFT and lie in the range indicated by analysis of astronomical data. In contrast to MFT, the TL results also give a better account of the single-particle or optical potentials extracted from analyses of medium-energy proton-nucleus and heavy-ion experiments. In degenerate conditions, the thermal variables are well reproduced by results of Landau's Fermi-liquid theory in which density-dependent effective masses feature prominently. The ratio of the thermal components of pressure and energy density expressed as Γth=1 +(Pth/ɛth) , often used in astrophysical simulations, exhibits a stronger dependence on density than on proton fraction and temperature in both MFT and TL calculations. The prominent peak of Γth at supranuclear density found in MFT is, however, suppressed in

  12. Numerical modeling of laser isochoric heating of hot dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Yasuhiko

    2005-10-01

    Ultra-intense short-pulse lasers are important tools for creating short-lived high energy plasmas, however to date, it has not been possible to create several hundred eV solid density matter because of the rapid transport of the laser-generated hot electrons throughout the target volume. We proposed a new way to isochorically heat matter at solid density to extreme temperatures by magnetic confinement of laser- generated hot electrons for several picoseconds by application of a multi-MG external field. In advance of an experiment at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF), using a 100 TW- class laser, which will be synchronized to a 1MA Z-pinch machine, we have performed theoretical studies using a collisional particle-in-cell codes PICLS, which is optimized for a study of isochoric heating of solid density plasmas. One of the critical issues of the PIC simulation of the the laser isochoric heating is significant numerical heating, which makes difficult to simulate 100 eV solid density plasmas over picoseconds by PIC. In this talk, we introduce a couple of numerical techniques to extend the grid size with suppressing the numerical heating and also the full relativistic collision model to simulate the isochoric heating by ultra-intense lasers. This work was supported by DOE/NNSA-UNR grant DE-FC52-01NV14050.

  13. Estimating transport coefficients in hot and dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Paramita; Kadam, Guru Prakash; Mishra, Hiranmaya

    2016-11-01

    We compute the transport coefficients, namely, the coefficients of shear and bulk viscosity, as well as thermal conductivity, for hot and dense quark matter. The calculations are performed within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. The estimation of the transport coefficients is made using a quasiparticle approach of solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation within the relaxation time approximation. The transition rates are calculated in a manifestly covariant manner to estimate the thermal-averaged cross sections for quark-quark and quark-antiquark scattering. The calculations are performed for finite chemical potential also. Within the parameters of the model, the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density has a minimum at the Mott transition temperature. At vanishing chemical potential, the ratio of bulk viscosity to entropy density, on the other hand, decreases with temperature, with a sharp decrease near the critical temperature, and vanishes beyond it. At finite chemical potential, however, it increases slowly with temperature beyond the Mott temperature. The coefficient of thermal conductivity also shows a minimum at the critical temperature.

  14. Properties of hadron matter. II - Dense baryon matter and neutron stars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leung, Y. C.; Wang, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    In this article we have provided certain details of a nuclear-matter computation, based on the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone theory of nuclear reaction, which leads to an equation of state for matter in the density region of 10 to 500 trillion g/cu cm. We also explore the possibilities that at very high baryon densities or for very short baryon separations, the net baryon-baryon interaction may be negligible so that the results of dynamical models, like the statistical bootstrap model and the dual-resonance model, may be applicable to the study of dense baryon matter. Several plausible equations of state are constructed, and their effect on the limiting mass of the neutron star is examined.

  15. Equation of state and neutrino opacity of dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of matter at densities similar to nuclear density plays an important role in core collapse supernova. In this talk I discuss aspects of the equation of state and weak interactions at high density. I highlight its relation to the temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission from the newly born neutron star born in the aftermath of a core-collapse supernova. I will briefly comment on how this will impact r-process nucleosynthesis. The hot and dense neutron star (proto-neutron star) born in the aftermath of a core collapse supernova provides a promising environment for r-process nucleosynthesis. The intense temperatures and neutrino fluxes in the vicinity of the proto-neutron star is expected to result in a high entropy neutron-rich wind necessary for successful r-process nucleosynthesis. Although theoretical efforts to simulate core collapse supernova have not been able to provide a mechanism for robust explosions, several key features of the supernova dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star are well understood. Large scale numerical simulations of supernova and neutron star evolution are now being pursued by several groups. Simulating core collapse supernova is challenging because it involves coupled multi-dimensional hydrodynamics and neutrino transport. The neutrinos play a key role since they are the dominant source of energy transport. It is expected that refinements in neutrino transport and better treatment of multi-dimensional effects are needed to understand the explosion mechanism. The temporal and spectral features of the neutrino emission which is emitted from the proto-neutron star is an independent diagnostic of supernova explosion dynamics and early evolution of the proto-neutron star. To accurately predict the ambient conditions just outside the newly born neutron star for the first 10-20 s, we will need to understand both the explosion mechanism and neutrino emission. In this talk I will discuss micro

  16. Resonant K-alpha spectroscopy of a hot dense plasma created by the LCLS x-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Ick; Engelhorn, K.; Falcone, R. W.; Heimann, P. A.; Vinko, S. M.; Ciricosta, O.; Higginbotham, A.; Murphy, C.; Wark, J. S.; Chung, H.-K.; Brown, C. R. D.; Burian, T.; Vysin, L.; Juha, L.; Lee, H. J.; Messersmidt, M.; Schlotter, W.; Turner, J.; Nagler, B.; Ping, Y.; Lee, R. W.; Toleikis, S.; Zastrau, U.

    2011-10-01

    We present one of the first experimental studies of the interaction of high intensity x-ray free electron laser radiation with solid density matter. In the experiment performed at the LCLS, an intense 80 fs x-ray pulse at 1017 Wcm-2 with photon energies of 1480 ~ 1560 eV is focused on a thin Al foil and K-alpha emission spectra are observed. Although x-ray photon energy is lower than the absorption edge, because of its high intensity the sample is surprisingly heated up to 100 ~200 eV in the pulse duration and a hot dense plasma is created. Observed x-ray spectra indicate this dense plasma resonantly interacts with the x-ray photons. The emission spectra are also simulated using the collisional-radiative code, SCFLY which provides information about the electron temperature and density, the charge state distribution and opacity. The comparison of experiment and simulation provides a detailed description of a dense plasma resonantly interacting with an intense x-ray pulse.

  17. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K+ ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally

  18. Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-23

    In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as it transitions into a superhot, highly compressed concoction known as “warm dense matter.”

  19. A strong diffusive ion mode in dense ionized matter predicted by Langevin dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Mabey, P.; Richardson, S.; White, T. G.; ...

    2017-01-30

    We determined the state and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and neutron star crusts by the properties of dense and compressed matter. Furthermore, due to the inherent difficulties in modelling strongly coupled plasmas, however, current predictions of transport coefficients differ by orders of magnitude. Collective modes are a prominent feature, whose spectra may serve as an important tool to validate theoretical predictions for dense matter. With recent advances in free electron laser technology, X-rays with small enough bandwidth have become available, allowing the investigation of the low-frequency ion modes in dense matter. Here, we present numerical predictions for these ionmore » modes and demonstrate significant changes to their strength and dispersion if dissipative processes are included by Langevin dynamics. Notably, a strong diffusive mode around zero frequency arises, which is not present, or much weaker, in standard simulations. These results have profound consequences in the interpretation of transport coefficients in dense plasmas.« less

  20. A strong diffusive ion mode in dense ionized matter predicted by Langevin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mabey, P.; Richardson, S.; White, T. G.; Fletcher, L. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hartley, N. J.; Vorberger, J.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.

    2017-01-01

    The state and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and neutron star crusts is determined by the properties of dense and compressed matter. Due to the inherent difficulties in modelling strongly coupled plasmas, however, current predictions of transport coefficients differ by orders of magnitude. Collective modes are a prominent feature, whose spectra may serve as an important tool to validate theoretical predictions for dense matter. With recent advances in free electron laser technology, X-rays with small enough bandwidth have become available, allowing the investigation of the low-frequency ion modes in dense matter. Here, we present numerical predictions for these ion modes and demonstrate significant changes to their strength and dispersion if dissipative processes are included by Langevin dynamics. Notably, a strong diffusive mode around zero frequency arises, which is not present, or much weaker, in standard simulations. Our results have profound consequences in the interpretation of transport coefficients in dense plasmas. PMID:28134338

  1. A strong diffusive ion mode in dense ionized matter predicted by Langevin dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, P.; Richardson, S.; White, T. G.; Fletcher, L. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hartley, N. J.; Vorberger, J.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.

    2017-01-01

    The state and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and neutron star crusts is determined by the properties of dense and compressed matter. Due to the inherent difficulties in modelling strongly coupled plasmas, however, current predictions of transport coefficients differ by orders of magnitude. Collective modes are a prominent feature, whose spectra may serve as an important tool to validate theoretical predictions for dense matter. With recent advances in free electron laser technology, X-rays with small enough bandwidth have become available, allowing the investigation of the low-frequency ion modes in dense matter. Here, we present numerical predictions for these ion modes and demonstrate significant changes to their strength and dispersion if dissipative processes are included by Langevin dynamics. Notably, a strong diffusive mode around zero frequency arises, which is not present, or much weaker, in standard simulations. Our results have profound consequences in the interpretation of transport coefficients in dense plasmas.

  2. A strong diffusive ion mode in dense ionized matter predicted by Langevin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mabey, P; Richardson, S; White, T G; Fletcher, L B; Glenzer, S H; Hartley, N J; Vorberger, J; Gericke, D O; Gregori, G

    2017-01-30

    The state and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and neutron star crusts is determined by the properties of dense and compressed matter. Due to the inherent difficulties in modelling strongly coupled plasmas, however, current predictions of transport coefficients differ by orders of magnitude. Collective modes are a prominent feature, whose spectra may serve as an important tool to validate theoretical predictions for dense matter. With recent advances in free electron laser technology, X-rays with small enough bandwidth have become available, allowing the investigation of the low-frequency ion modes in dense matter. Here, we present numerical predictions for these ion modes and demonstrate significant changes to their strength and dispersion if dissipative processes are included by Langevin dynamics. Notably, a strong diffusive mode around zero frequency arises, which is not present, or much weaker, in standard simulations. Our results have profound consequences in the interpretation of transport coefficients in dense plasmas.

  3. A strong diffusive ion mode in dense ionized matter predicted by Langevin dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Mabey, Paul; Richardson, S.; White, T. G.; ...

    2017-01-30

    The state and evolution of planets, brown dwarfs and neutron star crusts is determined by the properties of dense and compressed matter. Due to the inherent difficulties in modelling strongly coupled plasmas, however, current predictions of transport coefficients differ by orders of magnitude. Collective modes are a prominent feature, whose spectra may serve as an important tool to validate theoretical predictions for dense matter. With recent advances in free electron laser technology, X-rays with small enough bandwidth have become available, allowing the investigation of the low-frequency ion modes in dense matter. Here, we present numerical predictions for these ion modesmore » and demonstrate significant changes to their strength and dispersion if dissipative processes are included by Langevin dynamics. Notably, a strong diffusive mode around zero frequency arises, which is not present, or much weaker, in standard simulations. Finally, our results have profound consequences in the interpretation of transport coefficients in dense plasmas.« less

  4. Probing the phases of cold ultra-dense matter using neutron star physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodifar, Simin

    Matter at very high densities and low temperatures is predicted to be in a "color superconducting" phase. At high enough densities, quark matter is in the Color-Flavor-Locked (CFL) phase, but the possible phases of matter at intermediate densities are unknown. Since the density at the core of a neutron star can be as high as a few times the nuclear saturation density, it is the most likely place to find these exotic forms of matter in the real world. The main goal of this thesis is to probe the phases of cold dense matter using neutron star physics. Studying the transport properties of different phases of dense matter that may occur in a compact star is particularly important because transport properties such as viscosity, in addition to depending on the equation of state of matter, also depend on the low-energy degrees of freedom and therefore can discriminate between different phases of dense matter more efficiently. In the first part of this thesis we calculate the mean free path and kaonic contribution to the shear viscosity of kaon-condensed color-flavor-locked (CFL-K0) phase of quark matter. In the second part we calculate the large-amplitude enhancement of the bulk viscosity of dense matter. We obtain general analytic solutions as well as numerical solutions for the amplitude-dependent bulk viscosity of dense matter which are valid for any equations of state where equilibration occurs via fermions. In the third and fourth parts, we use our general results for the bulk viscosity to calculate the damping timescales of r-mode oscillations of neutron stars due to small-amplitude and large-amplitude bulk viscosity, the instability window of the r-modes and the saturation amplitude due to "supra-thermal" enhancement of the bulk viscosity for different cases of strange quark stars, hadronic stars and hybrid stars.

  5. A Strategy to Create Spin-Split Metallic Bands on Silicon Using a Dense Alloy Layer

    PubMed Central

    Gruznev, Dimitry V.; Bondarenko, Leonid V.; Matetskiy, Andrey V.; Yakovlev, Alexey A.; Tupchaya, Alexandra Y.; Eremeev, Sergey V.; Chulkov, Evgeniy V.; Chou, Jyh-Pin; Wei, Ching-Ming; Lai, Ming-Yu; Wang, Yuh-Lin; Zotov, Andrey V.; Saranin, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    To exploit Rashba effect in a 2D electron gas on silicon surface for spin transport, it is necessary to have surface reconstruction with spin-split metallic surface-state bands. However, metals with strong spin-orbit coupling (e.g., Bi, Tl, Sb, Pt) induce reconstructions on silicon with almost exclusively spin-split insulating bands. We propose a strategy to create spin-split metallic bands using a dense 2D alloy layer containing a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling and another metal to modify the surface reconstruction. Here we report two examples, i.e., alloying reconstruction with Na and Tl/Si(111)1 × 1 reconstruction with Pb. The strategy provides a new paradigm for creating metallic surface state bands with various spin textures on silicon and therefore enhances the possibility to integrate fascinating and promising capabilities of spintronics with current semiconductor technology. PMID:24752038

  6. Study of the Warm Dense Matter with XANES spectroscopy - Applications to planetary interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoeud, Adrien

    With the recent discovery of many exoplanets, modelling the interior of these celestial bodies is becoming a fascinating scientific challenge. In this context, it is crucial to accurately know the equations of state and the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of their constituent materials in the Warm Dense Matter regime (WDM). Moreover, planetary models rely almost exclusively on physical properties obtained using first principles simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) predictions. It is thus of paramount importance to validate the basic underlying mechanisms occurring for key planetary constituents (metallization, dissociation, structural modifications, phase transitions, etc....) as pressure and temperature both increase. In this work, we were interested in two materials that can be mainly found in the Earth-like planets: silica, or SiO2, as a model compound of the silicates that constitute the major part of their mantles, and iron, which is found in abundance in their cores. These two materials were compressed and brought to the WDM regime by using strong shock created by laser pulses during various experiments performed on the LULI2000 (Palaiseau, France) and the JLF (Livermore, US) laser facilities and on the LCLS XFEL (Stanford, US). In order to penetrate this dense matter and to have access to its both ionic and electronic structures, we have probed silica and iron with time-resolved X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). In parallel with these experiments, we performed quantum molecular dynamics simulations based on DFT at conditions representative of the region investigated experimentally so as to extract the interesting physical processes and comprehend the limits of the implemented models. In particular, these works allowed us to highlight the metallization processes of silica in temperature and the structural changes of its liquid in density, as well as to more constrain the melting curve of iron at very high pressures.

  7. Fractionized Skyrmions in Dense Compact-Star Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Masayasu; Ma, Yong-Liang; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Rho, Mannque

    The hadronic matter described as a skyrmion matter embedded in an FCC crystal is found to turn into a half-skyrmion matter with vanishing (in the chiral limit) quark condensate and non-vanishing pion decay constant fπ at a density n1/2 lower than or near the critical density nc at which hadronic matter changes over to a chiral symmetry restored phase with possibly deconfined quarks. When hidden local gauge fields and a dilaton scalar of spontaneously broken scale symmetry with decay constant fχ are incorporated, this half-skyrmion phase is characterized by fχ ≈ fπ ≠ 0 with the hidden gauge coupling g ≠ 0 but ≪ 1. While chiral symmetry is restored globally in this region in the sense that space-averaged, < {overline q q} rangle vanishes, quarks are still confined in massive hadrons and massless pions. This phase is shown to play a crucial role in the model for a smooth transition from a soft EoS at low density to a stiffer EoS at high density, the changeover taking place at n1/2. It resembles the "quarkyonic phase" predicted in large Nc QCD and represents the "hadronic freedom" regime which figures as a doorway to chiral restoration. The fractionization of skyrmion matter into half-skyrmion matter has a tantalizing analogy to what appears to happen in condensed matter in (2+1) dimensions where half-skyrmions or "meron" enter as relevant degrees of freedom at the interface.

  8. Scale-invariant hidden local symmetry, topology change, and dense baryonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeng, Won-Gi; Kuo, Thomas T. S.; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Rho, Mannque

    2016-05-01

    When scale symmetry is implemented into hidden local symmetry in low-energy strong interactions to arrive at a scale-invariant hidden local symmetric (HLS) theory, the scalar f0(500 ) may be interpreted as pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (pNG) boson, i.e., dilaton, of spontaneously broken scale invariance, joining the pseudoscalar pNG bosons π and the matter fields V =(ρ ,ω ) as relevant degrees of freedom. Implementing the skyrmion-half-skyrmion transition predicted at large Nc in QCD at a density roughly twice the nuclear matter density found in the crystal simulation of dense skyrmion matter, we determine the intrinsically density-dependent "bare parameters" of the scale-invariant HLS Lagrangian matched to QCD at a matching scale ΛM. The resulting effective Lagrangian, with the parameters scaling with the density of the system, is applied to nuclear matter and dense baryonic matter relevant to massive compact stars by means of the double-decimation renormalization-group Vlow k formalism. We satisfactorily postdict the properties of normal nuclear matter and more significantly predict the equation of state of dense compact-star matter that quantitatively accounts for the presently available data coming from both the terrestrial and space laboratories. We interpret the resulting structure of compact-star matter as revealing how the combination of hidden-scale symmetry and hidden local symmetry manifests itself in compressed baryonic matter.

  9. Theory of the equation of state of hot dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Barbee, T W; Surh, M; Yang, L H

    1999-07-23

    Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are adapted to treat dense plasmas for temperatures exceeding the electronic Fermi temperature. Extended electronic states are obtained in a plane wave basis by using pseudopotentials for the ion cores in the local density approximation to density functional theory. The method reduces to conventional first principles molecular dynamics at low temperatures with the expected high level of accuracy. The occurrence of thermally excited ion cores at high temperatures is treated by means of final state pseudopotentials. The method is applied to the shock compression Hugoniot equation of state for aluminum. Good agreement with experiment is found for temperatures ranging from zero through 105K.

  10. Warm and dense stellar matter under strong magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabhi, A.; Panda, P. K.; Providencia, C.

    2011-09-15

    We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the equation of state of warm stellar matter as it may occur in a protoneutron star. Both neutrino-free and neutrino-trapped matter at a fixed entropy per baryon are analyzed. A relativistic mean-field nuclear model, including the possibility of hyperon formation, is considered. A density-dependent magnetic field with a magnitude of 10{sup 15} G at the surface and not more than 3x10{sup 18} G at the center is considered. The magnetic field gives rise to a neutrino suppression, mainly at low densities, in matter with trapped neutrinos. It is shown that a hybrid protoneutron star will not evolve into a low-mass black hole if the magnetic field is strong enough and the magnetic field does not decay. However, the decay of the magnetic field after cooling may give rise to the formation of a low-mass black hole.

  11. Effective kaon masses in dense nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    The effective mass and decay width of kaonic modes in baryonic matter are studied within a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, π∑, πΛ system. Including Pauli blocking and Fermi motion in the kaon dispersion relation, we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K - effective mass and decay width in symmetric nuclear matter at densities around 0.1 times normal nuclear matter density ϱ0 due to the in-medium dynamics of the Λ(1405) resonance. At higher densities the K - effective mass decreases slowly but stays above 0.5 mK at least up to densities below 3 ϱ0. In neutron matter the K - effective mass decreases almost linearly with increasing density but remains relatively large ( m K∗ > 0.65 m K) for ϱn ≲ 3 ϱ0. The K + effective mass turns out to increase very slowly with rising density.

  12. Dense Matter Characterization by X-ray Thomson Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H; Edwards, M J; Lee, R W; Collins, G W; Cauble, R C; Hsing, W W; Hammel, B A

    2000-12-29

    We discuss the extension of the powerful technique of Thomson scattering to the x-ray regime for providing an independent measure of plasma parameters for dense plasmas. By spectrally-resolving the scattering, the coherent (Rayleigh) unshifted scattering component can be separated from the incoherent Thomson component, which is both Compton and Doppler shifted. The free electron density and temperature can then be inferred from the spectral shape of the high frequency Thomson scattering component. In addition, as the plasma temperature is decreased, the electron velocity distribution as measured by incoherent Thomson scattering will make a transition from the traditional Gaussian Boltzmann distribution to a density-dependent parabolic Fermi distribution to. We also present a discussion for a proof-of-principle experiment appropriate for a high energy laser facility.

  13. Hyperon-Nucleon Interactions and the Composition of Dense Matter from Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos Orginos, Silas Beane, Emmanuel Chang, Saul Cohen, Huey-Wen Lin, Tom Luu, Assumpta Parreno, Martin Savage, Andre Walker-Loud, William Detmold

    2012-10-01

    The low-energy n{Sigma}{sup -} interactions determine, in part, the role of the strange quark in dense matter, such as that found in astrophysical environments. The scattering phase-shifts for this system are determined from a numerical evaluation of the QCD path integral using the technique of Lattice QCD. Our results, performed at a pion mass of m{sub {pi}} ~ 389 MeV in two large lattice volumes, and at one lattice spacing, are extrapolated to the physical pion mass using effective field theory. The calculated interactions indicate that the strange quark plays an important role in dense matter.

  14. Exploring the Physics of Dense Matter with Neutron Star Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Edward F.

    2009-05-07

    Many accreting neutron stars do so intermittently; that is, the accretion ceases for long quiescent intervals. During the accretion outburst, reactions are induced in the crust by the continual accumulation of matter. These reactions heat the crust out of thermal equilibrium with the core, and when accretion stops and the system goes into quiescence, the thermal relaxation of the crust is detectable. This contribution gives a summary of recent theoretical and observational work interpreting the cooling lightcurves of these quasi-persistent transients. In particular, the lightcurves can constrain the core temperature of the neutron star, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the inner crust, and the distribution of heat sources in the outer crust.

  15. Predictions of x-ray scattering spectra for warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, A. N.; Perkins, D. J.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.; Hansen, S. B.

    2014-02-01

    We present calculations of x-ray scattering spectra based on ionic and electronic structure factors that are computed from a new model for warm dense matter. In this model, which has no free parameters, the ionic structure is determined consistently with the electronic structure of the bound and free states. The x-ray scattering spectrum is thus fully determined by the plasma temperature, density and nuclear charge, and the experimental parameters. The combined model of warm dense matter and of the x-ray scattering theory is validated against an experiment on room-temperature, solid beryllium. It is then applied to experiments on warm dense beryllium and aluminum. Generally good agreement is found with the experiments. However, some significant discrepancies are revealed and appraised. Based on the strength of our model, we discuss the current state of x-ray scattering experiments on warm dense matter and their potential to determine plasma parameters, to discriminate among models, and to reveal interesting and difficult to model physics in dense plasmas.

  16. Predictions of x-ray scattering spectra for warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Souza, A N; Perkins, D J; Starrett, C E; Saumon, D; Hansen, S B

    2014-02-01

    We present calculations of x-ray scattering spectra based on ionic and electronic structure factors that are computed from a new model for warm dense matter. In this model, which has no free parameters, the ionic structure is determined consistently with the electronic structure of the bound and free states. The x-ray scattering spectrum is thus fully determined by the plasma temperature, density and nuclear charge, and the experimental parameters. The combined model of warm dense matter and of the x-ray scattering theory is validated against an experiment on room-temperature, solid beryllium. It is then applied to experiments on warm dense beryllium and aluminum. Generally good agreement is found with the experiments. However, some significant discrepancies are revealed and appraised. Based on the strength of our model, we discuss the current state of x-ray scattering experiments on warm dense matter and their potential to determine plasma parameters, to discriminate among models, and to reveal interesting and difficult to model physics in dense plasmas.

  17. Highly efficient accelerator of dense matter using laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Raczka, P.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Parys, P.; Rosinski, M.; Borodziuk, S.; Krousky, E.; Liska, R.; Kucharik, M.; Ullschmied, J.

    2012-05-15

    Acceleration of dense matter to high velocities is of high importance for high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, or space research. The acceleration schemes employed so far are capable of accelerating dense microprojectiles to velocities approaching 1000 km/s; however, the energetic efficiency of acceleration is low. Here, we propose and demonstrate a highly efficient scheme of acceleration of dense matter in which a projectile placed in a cavity is irradiated by a laser beam introduced into the cavity through a hole and then accelerated in a guiding channel by the pressure of a hot plasma produced in the cavity by the laser beam or by the photon pressure of the ultra-intense laser radiation trapped in the cavity. We show that the acceleration efficiency in this scheme can be much higher than that achieved so far and that sub-relativisitic projectile velocities are feasible in the radiation pressure regime.

  18. Highly efficient accelerator of dense matter using laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, J.; Jabłoński, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Råczka, P.; Krousky, E.; Liska, R.; Kucharik, M.; Chodukowski, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Parys, P.; Rosiński, M.; Borodziuk, S.; Ullschmied, J.

    2012-05-01

    Acceleration of dense matter to high velocities is of high importance for high energy density physics, inertial confinement fusion, or space research. The acceleration schemes employed so far are capable of accelerating dense microprojectiles to velocities approaching 1000 km/s; however, the energetic efficiency of acceleration is low. Here, we propose and demonstrate a highly efficient scheme of acceleration of dense matter in which a projectile placed in a cavity is irradiated by a laser beam introduced into the cavity through a hole and then accelerated in a guiding channel by the pressure of a hot plasma produced in the cavity by the laser beam or by the photon pressure of the ultra-intense laser radiation trapped in the cavity. We show that the acceleration efficiency in this scheme can be much higher than that achieved so far and that sub-relativisitic projectile velocities are feasible in the radiation pressure regime.

  19. Experiment Provides the Best Look Yet at 'Warm Dense Matter' at Cores of Giant Planets

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2017-03-13

    In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as it transitions into a superhot, highly compressed concoction known as “warm dense matter.”

  20. Creating metallic under-dense radiators by electron beam heating prior to laser impact

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M

    1998-12-15

    A pulsed, relativistic electron beam can heat a metal foil to a plasma state, and initiate an expanding flow into vacuum. At a given time in its evolution, this flow fills a nearly spherical volume with nearly uniform density, assuming a rapid expansion prior to any condensation. A metal cloud produced in this way can serve as a target of intense laser illumination to create an under-dense radiator of x-rays. The phrase ''under-dense radiator'' means that the cloud, assumed ionized, has a plasma density that is less than the critical density for the wavelength of the laser light. The example described here is of a 2 {micro}g copper foil 23 {micro}m thick and 0.16 mm in diameter, heated by 8 mJ of electron beam energy in as short a time as possible, perhaps under 50 ns. The electron beam pulse must be at least 140 nC at 100 keV in order to transit the foil and deposit 8 mJ. A 50 ns pulse focused on the target would have a current of 2.8 A, and a current density of 14 kA/cm{sup 2}. The initial plasma temperature is 0.5 eV. After 300 ns, the flow has expanded to fill a nearly spherical volume of 1 mm diameter, with a nearly uniform copper density of 1.5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}. The leading edge of the cloud is expanding at 1700 m/s, while flow at the original position of the foil surface expands at 150 m/s. This cloud is nearly stationary during the short time of a laser pulse at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  1. Fluidity and supercriticality of the QCD matter created in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Jinfeng; Koch, Volker

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we discuss the fluidity of the hot and dense QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions in comparison with various other fluids and, in particular, suggest its possible supercriticality. After examining the proper way to compare nonrelativistic and relativistic fluids from both thermodynamic and hydrodynamic perspectives, we propose a new fluidity measure that shows certain universality for a remarkable diversity of critical fluids. We then demonstrate that a fluid in its supercritical regime has its fluidity considerably enhanced. This result may suggest a possible relationship between the seemingly good fluidity of the QCD matter produced in heavy ion collisions at a center-of-mass energy of sq root(s)=200A GeV and the supercriticality of this matter with respect to the critical end point on the QCD phase diagram. Based on this observation, we predict an even better fluidity of the matter to be created in heavy ion collisions at Large Hadron Collider energies and the loss of good fluidity at certain, lower beam energy. Finally, based on our criteria, we analyze the suitability of a hydrodynamic description for the fireball evolution in heavy ion collisions at various energies.

  2. Absorption of Bound States in Hot, Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sheperd, R; Audebert, P; Chenais-Popovics, C; Geindre, J P; Fajardo, M; Iglesias, C; Moon, S; Rogers, F; Gauthier, J C; Springer, P

    2001-03-06

    Preliminary experiments using a long pulse laser generated X-ray source to back-light a short pulse laser heated thin foil have been performed at the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) at Ecole Polytechnique in France. In this experiment, a 2 J, 300 ps, 532 nm laser was used to create the X-ray back-lighter. The primary diagnostic was a von Hamos spectrograph coupled to a 500 fs X-ray streak camera (TREX-VHS) developed at LLNL. This diagnostic combines high collection efficiency ({approx} 10{sup -4} steradians) with fast temporal response ({approx} 500 fs), allowing resolution of extremely transient spectral variations. The TREX-VHS was used to determine the time history, intensity, and spectral content of the back-lighter. The second diagnostic, Fourier Domain Interferometry (FDI), provides information about the position of the critical density of the target and thus the expansion hydrodynamics, laying the ground work for the plasma characterization. The plasmas were determined to be moderately to strongly coupled, resulting in absorption measurements that provide insight into bound states under such conditions.

  3. Generation of strong magnetic fields in dense quark matter driven by the electroweak interaction of quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2016-12-01

    We study the generation of strong large scale magnetic fields in dense quark matter. The magnetic field growth is owing to the magnetic field instability driven by the electroweak interaction of quarks. We discuss the situation when the chiral symmetry is unbroken in the degenerate quark matter. In this case we predict the amplification of the seed magnetic field 1012G to the strengths (1014 -1015)G. In our analysis we use the typical parameters of the quark matter in the core of a hybrid star or in a quark star. We also discuss the application of the obtained results to describe the magnetic fields generation in magnetars.

  4. A pulsed power hydrodynamics approach to exploring properties of warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics, as an application of low-impedance, pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology developed over the last decade to study advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties, can potentially be applied to the study of the behavior and properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties, such as equation of state and conductivity, of warm dense matter is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to a few times solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Warm dense matter conditions can be achieved by laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers is applying these techniques using petawatt scale laser systems, but the microscopic size scale of the WDM produced in this way limits access to some physics phenomena. Pulsed power hydrodynamics techniques, either through high convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques both offer the prospect for producing warm dense matter in macroscopic quantities. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. Similarly, liner compression of normal density material, perhaps using multiple reflected shocks can provide access to the challenging region above normal density -- again with the requirement of very large amounts of driving energy. In this paper we will provide an introduction to techniques that might be applied to explore this

  5. Warm Dense Matter Demonstrating Non-Drude Conductivity from Observations of Nonlinear Plasmon Damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, B. B. L.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Gamboa, E.; Lee, H. J.; Zastrau, U.; Redmer, R.; Glenzer, S. H.; Sperling, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present simulations using finite-temperature density-functional-theory molecular dynamics to calculate the dynamic electrical conductivity in warm dense aluminum. The comparison between exchange-correlation functionals in the Perdew-Burke-Enzerhof and Heyd-Scuseria-Enzerhof (HSE) approximation indicates evident differences in the density of states and the dc conductivity. The HSE calculations show excellent agreement with experimental Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray plasmon scattering spectra revealing plasmon damping below the widely used random phase approximation. These findings demonstrate non-Drude-like behavior of the dynamic conductivity that needs to be taken into account to determine the optical properties of warm dense matter.

  6. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; Vold, Erik Lehman; Boettger, Jonathan Carl; Fernández, Juan Carlos

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  7. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, Woosuk; Albright, Brian James; Bradley, Paul Andrew; ...

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly withmore » temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. In conclusion, these simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.« less

  8. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Vold, E. L.; Boettger, J. C.; Fernández, J. C.

    2016-07-01

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1–100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. These simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  9. Linear dependence of surface expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Bang, W; Albright, B J; Bradley, P A; Vold, E L; Boettger, J C; Fernández, J C

    2016-07-12

    Recent progress in laser-driven quasi-monoenergetic ion beams enabled the production of uniformly heated warm dense matter. Matter heated rapidly with this technique is under extreme temperatures and pressures, and promptly expands outward. While the expansion speed of an ideal plasma is known to have a square-root dependence on temperature, computer simulations presented here show a linear dependence of expansion speed on initial plasma temperature in the warm dense matter regime. The expansion of uniformly heated 1-100 eV solid density gold foils was modeled with the RAGE radiation-hydrodynamics code, and the average surface expansion speed was found to increase linearly with temperature. The origin of this linear dependence is explained by comparing predictions from the SESAME equation-of-state tables with those from the ideal gas equation-of-state. These simulations offer useful insight into the expansion of warm dense matter and motivate the application of optical shadowgraphy for temperature measurement.

  10. Transport and dielectric properties of dense ionized matter from the average-atom RESEOS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovechkin, A. A.; Loboda, P. A.; Falkov, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Electron transport properties of warm and hot dense matter are calculated using two versions of the average-atom approach: Liberman's model and the neutral Wigner-Seitz-sphere model. Electrical conductivity calculations employed the extended Ziman formula, the relaxation-time approximation, the Zubarev method, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula. Thermal conductivities were evaluated in the relaxation-time approximation. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data and ab initio calculations. The origin of nonphysical features appearing in the DC electrical and thermal conductivities calculated with the relaxation-time approximation and the Zubarev method is analyzed. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of dense ionized matter are obtained from the radiative opacity data calculated using the RESEOS model.

  11. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Armijo, J.; Bailey, D.S.; Friedman, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leung, P.T.; Logan, B.G.; Marinak, M.M.; More, R.M.; Ng, S.F.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Veitzer, S.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.; Zylstra, A.B.

    2008-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  12. Ion Beam Heated Target Simulations for Warm Dense Matter Physics and Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bailey, D S; Friedman, A; Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I; Leung, P T; Logan, B G; Marinak, M M; More, R M; Ng, S F; Penn, G E; Perkins, L J; Veitzer, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2008-08-12

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  13. Towards Dense Nuclear Matter in A Modified Sakai-Sugimoto Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngman; Rho, Mannque; Tsukioka, Takuya; Yi, Deokhyun

    2012-02-01

    As a part of the attempt to address dense baryonic matter, we first review holographic approaches to QCD. The big advantage of the holographic approaches is that they render strongly coupled 4D gauge theories as duals of certain weakly coupled string/supergravity that are well understood. Its relevance to real QCD is one of the central problems in hadron/nuclear physics as well as in the context of applied string theory. None of the models based on these holographic approaches presently available can adequately describe the system we are interested in, namely dense baryonic matter. Nevertheless, some aspects of the holographic approach are found to describe certain processes both in vacuum and in medium. In this talk we only present the structure of a model that appears to be closest to QCD, and has the potential to address the problem.

  14. Parametrization of light nuclei quasiparticle energy shifts and composition of warm and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röpke, G.

    2011-10-01

    Correlations and the formation of bound states (nuclei) are essential for the properties of nuclear matter in equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium. In a quantum statistical approach, quasiparticle energies are obtained for the light elements that reflect the influence of the medium. We present analytical fits for the quasiparticle energy shifts of light nuclei that can be used in various applications. This is a prerequisite for the investigation of warm and dense matter that reproduces the nuclear statistical equilibrium and virial expansions in the low-density limit as well as relativistic mean field and Brueckner Hartree-Fock approaches near saturation density.

  15. Transport properties of dense matter. III - Analytic formulae for thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, E.; Itoh, N.

    1981-11-01

    Analytic formulas for the thermal conductivity of the dense matter are presented. The results are thought to be particularly useful for the calculations of the cooling of neutron stars. It is noted that in most cases the formulas presented are in agreement with the original results of Flowers and Itoh (1976, 1979) within a factor of 2. Contributions from impurity scattering are omitted since consideration of impurity scattering introduces additional parameters, namely impurity concentration and charge fluctuation.

  16. Dissipationless Hall current in dense quark matter in a magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Ferrer, Efrain J.; de la Incera, V.

    2017-03-29

    Here, we show the realization of axion electrodynamics within the Dual Chiral Density Wave phase of dense quark matter in the presence of a magnetic field. This system exhibits an anomalous dissipationless Hall current perpendicular to the magnetic field and an anomalous electric charge density. This connection to topological insulators and 3D optical lattices, as well as possible implications for heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars are outlined.

  17. Spectral equation-of-state theory for dense, partially ionized matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Burke

    2005-07-01

    The Schrödinger equation is solved in time and space to implement a finite-temperature equation-of-state theory for dense, partially ionized matter. The time-dependent calculation generates a spectrum of quantum states. Eigenfunctions are calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and used to calculate the electronic pressure and energy. Results are given for Be and LiD and compared with results from the INFERNO model [D. A. Liberman, Phys. Rev. B 20, 4981 (1979)].

  18. A Unique U.S. Approach for Accelerator-Driven Warm Dense Matter Research--Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B G; Davidson, R C; Barnard, J J; Lee, R

    2004-12-22

    The warm density matter regime of high energy density physics [1, 2, 3] has a high scientific discovery potential for the properties of plasmas at high densities and pressures and at moderate temperatures (kT) in which the Coulomb interaction energy between plasma particles exceed kT. This leads to correlations in the plasma characterized by the dimensionless ''coupling'' parameter {Lambda} > 1, where {Lambda} is defined by {Lambda} = q{sup 2}n{sup 1/3}/kT. Here q is the effective ion charge and n the ion density. Strongly-coupled plasmas with {Lambda} > 1 are difficult to study analytically and by numerical simulation. Many astrophysical systems (e.g., brown dwarfs, and giant planets) and inertial fusion plasmas in the beginning stages of compression fall into this regime. There is an opportunity to develop improved understanding and models through accurate measurements of properties in the large parameter space of temperature and density where data is currently limited or non-existent. X-ray free-electron lasers (Fourth generation light sources), ultra-short pulse and high energy optical lasers, pulsed-power z-pinch x-ray sources, and high explosives are all capable of producing warm dense matter conditions at various temperatures, pressures, and sample sizes. Therefore, the challenge is not how to create warm dense matter conditions, but to create it so that it's fundamental properties can be best studied. The goal is to advance this field of science through a variety of complementary facilities and methods which offer several combinations of desirable attributes: Precise control and uniformity of energy deposition; Large sample sizes compared to diagnostic resolution volumes; A benign environment for diagnostics (low debris and radiation background); High shot rates (10/hour to 1/second) and multiple beamlines/target chambers; and Sites with easy access for broad participation by university scientists and students; and with the technical support for designing

  19. Ion potential in warm dense matter: wake effects due to streaming degenerate electrons.

    PubMed

    Moldabekov, Zhandos; Ludwig, Patrick; Bonitz, Michael; Ramazanov, Tlekkabul

    2015-02-01

    The effective dynamically screened potential of a classical ion in a stationary flowing quantum plasma at finite temperature is investigated. This is a key quantity for thermodynamics and transport of dense plasmas in the warm-dense-matter regime. This potential has been studied before within hydrodynamic approaches or based on the zero temperature Lindhard dielectric function. Here we extend the kinetic analysis by including the effects of finite temperature and of collisions based on the Mermin dielectric function. The resulting ion potential exhibits an oscillatory structure with attractive minima (wakes) and, thus, strongly deviates from the static Yukawa potential of equilibrium plasmas. This potential is analyzed in detail for high-density plasmas with values of the Brueckner parameter in the range 0.1≤r(s)≤1 for a broad range of plasma temperature and electron streaming velocity. It is shown that wake effects become weaker with increasing temperature of the electrons. Finally, we obtain the minimal electron streaming velocity for which attraction between ions occurs. This velocity turns out to be less than the electron Fermi velocity. Our results allow for reliable predictions of the strength of wake effects in nonequilibrium quantum plasmas with fast streaming electrons showing that these effects are crucial for transport under warm-dense-matter conditions, in particular for laser-matter interaction, electron-ion temperature equilibration, and stopping power.

  20. Constraining the State of Ultra-dense Matter with the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-04-01

    [This presentation is submitted on behalf of the entire NICER Science Team] The state of cold matter at densities exceeding those of atomic nuclei remains one of the principal outstanding problems in modern physics. Neutron stars provide the only known setting in the universe where these physical conditions can be explored. Thermal X-ray radiation from the physical surface of a neutron star can serve as a powerful tool for probing the poorly understood behavior of the matter in the dense stellar interior. For instance, realistic modeling of the thermal X-ray modulations observed from rotation-powered millisecond pulsars can produce stringent constraints on the neutron star mass-radius relation, and by extension the state of supra-nuclear matter. I will describe the prospects for precision neutron star equation of state constraints with millisecond pulsars using the forthcoming Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) X-ray timing mission.

  1. Experimental study of the equation of state of isochorically heated warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Gilliss Mcnaughton

    2007-12-01

    We have performed a series of experiments developing the techniques of volumetric, isochoric heating of matter to high energy density states, and the subsequent probing of the release isentrope. Using ultrafast, ultra intense laser systems with pulse lengths from 100fs - 1ps and pulse energies between 2 J and 100 J, we generated strong secondary radiation, in the form of Kalpha x-rays and directed proton beams, which we used to rapidly heat a foil sample to temperatures from ˜1 eV to ˜25 eV at solid density, thus entering the strongly coupled, partially ionized regime of warm dense matter, in which the equation of state is poorly understood. The first set of experiments examines the possibility of using laser generated Kalpha x-rays in isochoric heating experiments and concludes that this technique will require the use of higher energies and higher Z materials than were used in this thesis to achieve warm dense matter conditions. In the second set of experiments, we used an ultrafast, laser-generated proton beam with a temperature of ˜2 MeV and cutoff energy of ˜40 MeV to volumetrically and isochorically heat a sample foil to >20 eV. With single-shot diagnostics, we measured the evolution of the temperature with 3.3 ps resolution over the first 35 ps of expansion by streaked optical pyrometry, and measured the evolution of the target expansion over the same timescale with sub-ps resolution by chirped pulse interferometry. In this way we were able to verify the equation of state and ion-balance in the SESAME equation of state tables with a Saha ionization model and distinguish this as more accurate than other, simpler models. This thesis establishes an experimental framework for acquiring equation of state data in the regime of warm dense matter that is distinct and complimentary to that acquired by the techniques of shock heating.

  2. POPULATION KINETICS MODELING FOR NON-LTE AND NON-MAXWELLIAN PLASMAS GENERATED IN FINITE TEMPERATURE DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS ARISING FROM SHORT PULSE X-RAY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H; Lee, R W; Morgan, W L

    2003-12-23

    The short pulse x-ray sources will provide a major advance in dense matter studies important to understand implosion physics for ICF as a generator of warm dense matter or a probe of finite temperature dense matter. The interaction of such a high-energy photon pulse with the initially solid matter creates highly transient states of plasmas initially whose relaxation processes are of interest to the equation of states or spectral properties of these matter. For these plasmas, assumptions such as LTE population distributions or Maxwellian electron energy distributions should be tested by employing a method that does not make these assumption a priori. Our goal is to present a model that can be used to simulate the electron distributions, the ionization balance and the spectral output of transient systems generated in the future ICF experiments. We report on the progress in developing a non-LTE atomic population kinetics code integrated with Boltzmann equation solver to provide a self-consistent time-dependent solution of the level populations and the particle energy distributions.

  3. Ultrabright x-ray laser scattering for dynamic warm dense matter physics

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Doppner, T.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P.; Fortmann, C.; Mao, T.; Millot, M.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; Chapman, D. A.; Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.; Kao, C. -C.; Nuhn, H.; Welch, J.; Zastrau, U.; Neumayer, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-03-23

    In megabar shock waves, materials compress and undergo a phase transition to a dense charged-particle system that is dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. This complex state, known as warm dense matter, exists in planetary interiors and many laboratory experiments (for example, during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions). Here, we apply record peak brightness X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (ångström) scale lengths and to determine their physical properties. Our in situ measurements characterize the compressed lattice and resolve the transition to warm dense matter, demonstrating that short-range repulsion between ions must be accounted for to obtain accurate structure factor and equation of state data. Additionally, the unique properties of the X-ray laser provide plasmon spectra that yield the temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micrometre-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments.

  4. Ultrabright X-ray laser scattering for dynamic warm dense matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; Döppner, T.; Galtier, E.; Nagler, B.; Heimann, P.; Fortmann, C.; Lepape, S.; Ma, T.; Millot, M.; Pak, A.; Turnbull, D.; Chapman, D. A.; Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; White, T.; Gregori, G.; Wei, M.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W.; Kao, C.-C.; Nuhn, H.; Welch, J.; Zastrau, U.; Neumayer, P.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2015-04-01

    In megabar shock waves, materials compress and undergo a phase transition to a dense charged-particle system that is dominated by strong correlations and quantum effects. This complex state, known as warm dense matter, exists in planetary interiors and many laboratory experiments (for example, during high-power laser interactions with solids or the compression phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions). Here, we apply record peak brightness X-rays at the Linac Coherent Light Source to resolve ionic interactions at atomic (ångström) scale lengths and to determine their physical properties. Our in situ measurements characterize the compressed lattice and resolve the transition to warm dense matter, demonstrating that short-range repulsion between ions must be accounted for to obtain accurate structure factor and equation of state data. In addition, the unique properties of the X-ray laser provide plasmon spectra that yield the temperature and density with unprecedented precision at micrometre-scale resolution in dynamic compression experiments.

  5. Free-electron laser measurements of plasmons in warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Strong plasmon resonances characteristic of electron density fluctuations in warm dense matter (WDM) plasmas have recently been observed for the first time at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). These experiments record forward scattering from ultrabright 8 keV x-ray pulses to probe dynamically compressed solids driven by shaped ns laser pulses at the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) instrument. From the x-ray scattering spectra we observe well-pronounced plasmon peaks that directly access the electron densities and temperatures. We can access densities >5 g/cm3 and pressures approaching 5 Mbar that are important for planetary and material science as well as inertial confinement fusion research. In this talk we characterize the plasmon loss against wavenumber-resolved x-ray scattering that provides an independent density measurement through shifted Bragg and ion-ion correlation scattering features. We will compare ideal plasma states achieved in heated aluminum with those measured from uncompressed and compressed CVD diamond. The latter shows plasmon energies strongly affected by the band structure up to the highest experimental pressures of several Mbar. This method is presently being applied in numerous experiments to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas. We will describe the first demonstration of this technique at LCLS, present applications to characterize shocks in dense plasmas, and discuss novel ideas for measuring the properties of high-pressure materials.

  6. Path Integral Monte Carlo and Density Functional Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militzer, Burkhard; Driver, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the applicability of two first-principles simulation techniques, path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) and density functional molecular dynamics (DFT-MD), to study the regime of warm dense matter. We discuss the advantages as well as the limitations of each method and propose directions for future development. Results for dense, liquid helium, where both methods have been applied, demonstrate the range of each method's applicability. Comparison of the equations of state from simulations with analytical theories and free energy models show that DFT is useful for temperatures below 100000 K and then PIMC provides accurate results for all higher temperatures. We characterize the structure of the liquid in terms of pair correlation functions and study the closure of the band gap with increasing density and temperature. Finally, we discuss simulations of heavier elements and demonstrate the reliability are both methods in such cases with preliminary results.

  7. NDCX-II, A New Induction Linear Accelerator for Warm Dense Matter Research

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.; Bieniosek, F.; Kwan, J.; Logan, G.; Waldron, W.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Sharp, B.; Gilson, E.; Davidson, R.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), is currently constructing a new induction linear accelerator, called Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment NDCX-II. The accelerator design makes effective use of existing components from LLNL's decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), especially induction cells and Blumlein voltage sources that have been transferred to LBNL. We have developed an aggressive acceleration 'schedule' that compresses the emitted ion pulse from 500 ns to 1 ns in just 15 meters. In the nominal design concept, 30 nC of Li{sup +} are accelerated to 3.5 MeV and allowed to drift-compress to a peak current of about 30 A. That beam will be utilized for warm dense matter experiments investigating the interaction of ion beams with matter at high temperature and pressure. Construction of the accelerator will be complete within a period of approximately two and a half years and will provide a worldwide unique opportunity for ion-driven warm dense matter experiments as well as research related to novel beam manipulations for heavy ion fusion drivers.

  8. In Medium Properties of Charmed Strange Mesons in Dense Hadron ic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil

    2015-05-01

    The medium modifications of the charmed strange mesons in the dense hadronic matter are investigated within chiral S U(4) model. The charmed strange meson properties modifies due to their interactions with the nucleons, hyperons and the scalar mesons (scalar-isoscalar mesons ( σ, ζ), scalar isovector meson ( δ)) in the dense hadronic medium. The various parameters used in the chiral model are obtained by fitting the vacuum baryon masses and saturation properties of nuclear matter. The non-linear coupled equations of the scalar fields are solved to obtain their baryon density, isospin and strangeness dependent values. Furthermore, the dispersion relations are derived for charmed strange mesons. Effects of isospin asymmetry and strangeness on the energies of charmed strange mesons are investigated. The in medium properties of charmed strange mesons can be particularly relevant to the experiments with neutron rich beams at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI, Germany, as well as to experiments at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) laboratory, USA. The present study of the in medium properties of charmed strange mesons will be of direct relevance for the observables from the compressed baryonic matter, resulting from the heavy ion collision experiments.

  9. DISH CODE A deeply simplified hydrodynamic code for applications to warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    More, Richard

    2007-08-22

    DISH is a 1-dimensional (planar) Lagrangian hydrodynamic code intended for application to experiments on warm dense matter. The code is a simplified version of the DPC code written in the Data and Planning Center of the National Institute for Fusion Science in Toki, Japan. DPC was originally intended as a testbed for exploring equation of state and opacity models, but turned out to have a variety of applications. The Dish code is a "deeply simplified hydrodynamic" code, deliberately made as simple as possible. It is intended to be easy to understand, easy to use and easy to change.

  10. Pure quantum states of a neutrino with rotating spin in dense magnetized matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzova, E. V.; Lobanov, A. E.; Murchikova, E. M.

    2010-02-01

    The problem of neutrino spin rotation in dense matter and in strong electromagnetic fields is solved in accordance with the basic principles of quantum mechanics. We obtain a complete system of wave functions for a massive Dirac neutrino with an anomalous magnetic moment which are the eigenfunctions of the kinetic momentum operator and have the form of nonspreading wave packets. These wave functions enable one to consider the states of neutrino with rotating spin as pure quantum states and can be used for calculating probabilities of various processes with the neutrino in the framework of the Furry picture.

  11. All-Electron Path Integral Simulations of Warm, Dense Matter: Application to Water and Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Kevin; Militzer, Burkhard

    2012-02-01

    We develop an all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method for warm dense matter and apply it to study water and carbon. PIMC pressures, internal energies, and pair-correlation functions compare well with density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) at lower temperatures and enable the construction of a coherent equation of state over a density-temperature range of 3--12 g/cm^3 and 10^2--10^9 K. PIMC results converge to the Debye-Huckel limiting law at high-temperatures and illuminate the breakdown of DFT pseudopotentials due to core excitations.

  12. Neutrino scattering from hydrodynamic modes in hot and dense neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gang; Reddy, Sanjay

    2014-03-01

    We calculate the scattering rate of low-energy neutrinos in hot and dense neutron matter encountered in neutrons stars and supernovae in the hydrodynamic regime. We find that the Brillouin peak, associated with the sound mode, and the Rayleigh peak, associated with the thermal diffusion mode, dominate the dynamic structure factor. Although the total scattering cross section is constrained by the compressibility sum rule, the differential cross section calculated using the hydrodynamic response function differs from results obtained in approximate treatments often used in astrophysics such as random phase approximations. We identified these differences and discuss their implications for neutrino transport in supernovae.

  13. The viscosity to entropy ratio: From string theory motivated bounds to warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Faussurier, G.; Libby, S. B.; Silvestrelli, P. L.

    2014-07-04

    Here, we study the ratio of viscosity to entropy density in Yukawa one-component plasmas as a function of coupling parameter at fixed screening, and in realistic warm dense matter models as a function of temperature at fixed density. In these two situations, the ratio is minimized for values of the coupling parameters that depend on screening, and for temperatures that in turn depend on density and material. In this context, we also examine Rosenfeld arguments relating transport coefficients to excess reduced entropy for Yukawa one-component plasmas. For these cases we show that this ratio is always above the lower-bound conjecture derived from string theory ideas.

  14. Observations of Continuum Depression in Warm Dense Matter with X-Ray Thomson Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Kritcher, A. L.; Pak, A.; Ma, T.; Döppner, T.; Fortmann, C.; Divol, L.; Jones, O. S.; Landen, O. L.; Scott, H. A.; Vorberger, J.; Chapman, D. A.; Gericke, D. O.; Mattern, B. A.; Seidler, G. T.; Gregori, G.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2014-04-01

    Detailed measurements of the electron densities, temperatures, and ionization states of compressed CH shells approaching pressures of 50 Mbar are achieved with spectrally resolved x-ray scattering. Laser-produced 9 keV x-rays probe the plasma during the transient state of three-shock coalescence. High signal-to-noise x-ray scattering spectra show direct evidence of continuum depression in highly degenerate warm dense matter states with electron densities ne>1024 cm-3. The measured densities and temperatures agree well with radiation-hydrodynamic modeling when accounting for continuum lowering in calculations that employ detailed configuration accounting.

  15. Evaluation Method for Thermal Conductivity in Warm Dense Matter by using Ruby Fluorescence Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Kawaguchi, Yoshimasa; Ohuchi, Takumi; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.

    2016-03-01

    We have proposed a concept of experimentally estimating thermal conductivity in warm dense matter from the ruby fluorescence. To reduce the dimension of the system, a cylindrically arranged sample tamped by the ruby capillary has been considered. From the estimated ruby temperature, in which is simulated by the time-dependent thermal diffusion in equation, the ruby fluorescence can be obtained from 0.5 mm to 0.6 mm. The results indicated that the low density regime as ρ/ρs < 0.004 is possible to evaluate the ruby fluorescence.

  16. Comparison of electron transport calculations in warm dense matter using the Ziman formula

    SciTech Connect

    Burrill, D. J.; Feinblum, D. V.; Charest, M. R. J.; Starrett, C. E.

    2016-02-10

    The Ziman formulation of electrical conductivity is tested in warm and hot dense matter using the pseudo-atom molecular dynamics method. Several implementation options that have been widely used in the literature are systematically tested through a comparison to the accurate, but expensive Kohn–Sham density functional theory molecular dynamics (KS-DFT-MD) calculations. As a result, the comparison is made for several elements and mixtures and for a wide range of temperatures and densities, and reveals a preferred method that generally gives very good agreement with the KS-DFT-MD results, but at a fraction of the computational cost.

  17. Comparison of electron transport calculations in warm dense matter using the Ziman formula

    DOE PAGES

    Burrill, D. J.; Feinblum, D. V.; Charest, M. R. J.; ...

    2016-02-10

    The Ziman formulation of electrical conductivity is tested in warm and hot dense matter using the pseudo-atom molecular dynamics method. Several implementation options that have been widely used in the literature are systematically tested through a comparison to the accurate, but expensive Kohn–Sham density functional theory molecular dynamics (KS-DFT-MD) calculations. As a result, the comparison is made for several elements and mixtures and for a wide range of temperatures and densities, and reveals a preferred method that generally gives very good agreement with the KS-DFT-MD results, but at a fraction of the computational cost.

  18. Apparatus and method for creating a photonic densely-accumulated ray-point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical apparatus includes an optical diffraction device configured for diffracting a predetermined wavelength of incident light onto adjacent optical focal points, and a photon detector for detecting a spectral characteristic of the predetermined wavelength. One of the optical focal points is a constructive interference point and the other optical focal point is a destructive interference point. The diffraction device, which may be a micro-zone plate (MZP) of micro-ring gratings or an optical lens, generates a constructive ray point using phase-contrasting of the destructive interference point. The ray point is located between adjacent optical focal points. A method of generating a densely-accumulated ray point includes directing incident light onto the optical diffraction device, diffracting the selected wavelength onto the constructive interference focal point and the destructive interference focal point, and generating the densely-accumulated ray point in a narrow region.

  19. Using a Relativistic Electron Beam to Generate Warm Dense Matter for Equation of State Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Berninger, M.

    2011-06-24

    Experimental equation-of-state (EOS) data are difficult to obtain for warm dense matter (WDM)–ionized materials at near-solid densities and temperatures ranging from a few to tens of electron volts–due to the difficulty in preparing suitable plasmas without significant density gradients and transient phenomena. We propose that the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) facility can be used to create a temporally stationary and spatially uniform WDM. DARHT has an 18 MeV electron beam with 2 kA of current and a programmable pulse length of 20 ns to 200 ns. This poster describes how Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport and LASNEX hydrodynamics codes were used to demonstrate that the DARHT beam is favorable for avoiding the problems that have hindered past attempts to constrain WDM properties. In our concept, a 60 ns pulse of electrons is focused onto a small, cylindrical (1 mm diameter × 1 mm long) foam target, which is inside a stiff high-heat capacity tube that both confines the WDM and allows pressure measurements. In our model, the foam is made of 30% density Au and the tamper is a B4C tube. An MCNP model of the DARHT beam investigated electron collisions and the amount of energy deposited in the foam target. The MCNP data became the basis for a LASNEX source model, where the total energy was distributed over a 60 ns time-dependent linear ramp consistent with the DARHT pulse. We used LASNEX to calculate the evolution of the foam EOS properties during and after deposition. Besides indicating that a ~3 eV Au plasma can be achieved, LASNEX models also showed that the WDM generates a shock wave into the tamper whose speed can be measured using photonic Doppler velocimetry. EOS pressures can be identified to better than 10% precision. These pressures can be correlated to energy deposition with electron spectrometry in order to obtain the Au EOS. Radial uniformity in the DARHT beam was also investigated. To further obtain uniform radial

  20. Relaxation of the Chiral Chemical Potential in the Dense Matter of a Neutron Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    A model of the generation of a magnetic field in a neutron star is developed, based on an instability of the magnetic field caused by the electroweak interaction between electrons and nucleons in nuclear matter. The rate of change of the helicity of electrons as they scatter on protons in the dense matter of a neutron star is calculated with the help of methods of quantum field theory. The influence of the electroweak interaction between electrons and background nucleons on the process of change of the helicity is examined. A kinetic equation is derived for the evolution of the chiral chemical potential. The results obtained are used to describe the evolution of the magnetic field in magnetars.

  1. Average-atom model combined with the hypernetted chain approximation applied to warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yong; Bredow, Richard; Yuan, Jianmin; Redmer, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    We have combined the average-atom model with the hypernetted chain approximation (AAHNC) to describe the electronic and ionic structure in the warm dense matter regime. On the basis of the electronic and ionic structures, the x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectrum is calculated using the random-phase approximation. While the electronic structure is described within the average-atom model, the effects of other ions on the electronic structure are considered using an integral equation method of the theory of liquids, namely the hypernetted chain approximation. The ion-ion pair potential is calculated using the modified Gordon-Kim model based on the electronic density distribution. Finally, the electronic and ionic structures are determined self-consistently. The XRTS spectrum is calculated according to the Chihara formula, where the scattering contributions are divided into three components: elastic, bound-free, and free-free. Comparison of the present AAHNC results with other theoretical models and experimental data shows very good agreement. Thus the AAHNC model can give a reasonable description of the electronic and ionic structure in warm dense matter.

  2. Average-atom model combined with the hypernetted chain approximation applied to warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yong; Bredow, Richard; Yuan, Jianmin; Redmer, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    We have combined the average-atom model with the hypernetted chain approximation (AAHNC) to describe the electronic and ionic structure in the warm dense matter regime. On the basis of the electronic and ionic structures, the x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectrum is calculated using the random-phase approximation. While the electronic structure is described within the average-atom model, the effects of other ions on the electronic structure are considered using an integral equation method of the theory of liquids, namely the hypernetted chain approximation. The ion-ion pair potential is calculated using the modified Gordon-Kim model based on the electronic density distribution. Finally, the electronic and ionic structures are determined self-consistently. The XRTS spectrum is calculated according to the Chihara formula, where the scattering contributions are divided into three components: elastic, bound-free, and free-free. Comparison of the present AAHNC results with other theoretical models and experimental data shows very good agreement. Thus the AAHNC model can give a reasonable description of the electronic and ionic structure in warm dense matter.

  3. First-principles entropy calculations for liquid metals and warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjarlais, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The total entropy is not an explicit or easily accessible quantity in first-principles molecular dynamics simulations. It is, however, an extremely important quantity for the calculation of total free energies and derived properties such as equilibrium phase boundaries. In shock experiments the entropy of the shock state determines the release isentrope. Recent advances in the calculation of the entropy for liquid metals and warm dense matter directly from the velocity history in quantum molecular dynamics simulations are presented. The method, a generalization of the 2PT method for classical molecular dynamics, significantly increases the accuracy of the method for systems with electronic entropy, spin degrees of freedom, and the softer interactions characteristic of liquid metals and warm dense matter. The results are compared to data and the results of indirect methods, such as coexistence simulations to determine phase boundaries. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Atomistic study of mixing at high Z / low Z interfaces at Warm Dense Matter Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxhimali, Tomorr; Glosli, James; Rudd, Robert; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Team

    2016-10-01

    We use atomistic simulations to study different aspects of mixing occurring at an initially sharp interface of high Z and low Z plasmas in the Warm/Hot Dense Matter regime. We consider a system of Diamond (the low Z component) in contact with Ag (the high Z component), which undergoes rapid isochoric heating from room temperature up to 10 eV, rapidly changing the solids into warm dense matter at solid density. We simulate the motion of ions via the screened Coulomb potential. The electric field, the electron density and ionizations level are computed on the fly by solving Poisson equation. The spatially varying screening lengths computed from the electron cloud are included in this effective interaction; the electrons are not simulated explicitly. We compute the electric field generated at the Ag-C interface as well as the dynamics of the ions during the mixing process occurring at the plasma interface. Preliminary results indicate an anomalous transport of high Z ions (Ag) into the low Z component (C); a phenomenon that is partially related to the enhanced transport of ions due to the generated electric field. These results are in agreement with recent experimental observation on Au-diamond plasma interface. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Probing properties of hot and dense QCD matter with heavy flavor in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    DOE PAGES

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2015-05-29

    Hadrons carrying heavy quarks, i.e. charm or bottom, are important probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Heavy quark-antiquark pairs are mainly produced in initial hard scattering processes of partons. While some of the produced pairs form bound quarkonia, the vast majority hadronize into particles carrying open heavy flavor. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. A large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons havemore » been observed in Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/ψ production at 200 GeV in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions, both at mid- and forward-rapidities, and additionally Cu + Au and U + U at forward-rapidities. In the most energetic collisions, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity than at central rapidity. This can be interpreted either as a sign of quark recombination, or as a hint of additional cold nuclear matter effects. The centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor, RAA(pT), for J/ψ in U + U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV shows a similar trend to the lighter systems, Au + Au and Cu + Cu, at similar energy 200 GeV.« less

  6. Probing properties of hot and dense QCD matter with heavy flavor in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Nouicer, Rachid

    2015-05-29

    Hadrons carrying heavy quarks, i.e. charm or bottom, are important probes of the hot and dense medium created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Heavy quark-antiquark pairs are mainly produced in initial hard scattering processes of partons. While some of the produced pairs form bound quarkonia, the vast majority hadronize into particles carrying open heavy flavor. Heavy quark production has been studied by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC via measurements of single leptons from semi-leptonic decays in both the electron channel at mid-rapidity and in the muon channel at forward rapidity. A large suppression and azimuthal anisotropy of single electrons have been observed in Au + Au collisions at 200 GeV. These results suggest a large energy loss and flow of heavy quarks in the hot, dense matter. The PHENIX experiment has also measured J/ψ production at 200 GeV in p + p, d + Au, Cu + Cu and Au + Au collisions, both at mid- and forward-rapidities, and additionally Cu + Au and U + U at forward-rapidities. In the most energetic collisions, more suppression is observed at forward rapidity than at central rapidity. This can be interpreted either as a sign of quark recombination, or as a hint of additional cold nuclear matter effects. The centrality dependence of nuclear modification factor, RAA(pT), for J/ψ in U + U collisions at √sNN = 193 GeV shows a similar trend to the lighter systems, Au + Au and Cu + Cu, at similar energy 200 GeV.

  7. Thermal density functional theory, ensemble density functional theory, and potential functional theory for warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribram-Jones, Aurora

    Warm dense matter (WDM) is a high energy phase between solids and plasmas, with characteristics of both. It is present in the centers of giant planets, within the earth's core, and on the path to ignition of inertial confinement fusion. The high temperatures and pressures of warm dense matter lead to complications in its simulation, as both classical and quantum effects must be included. One of the most successful simulation methods is density functional theory-molecular dynamics (DFT-MD). Despite great success in a diverse array of applications, DFT-MD remains computationally expensive and it neglects the explicit temperature dependence of electron-electron interactions known to exist within exact DFT. Finite-temperature density functional theory (FT DFT) is an extension of the wildly successful ground-state DFT formalism via thermal ensembles, broadening its quantum mechanical treatment of electrons to include systems at non-zero temperatures. Exact mathematical conditions have been used to predict the behavior of approximations in limiting conditions and to connect FT DFT to the ground-state theory. An introduction to FT DFT is given within the context of ensemble DFT and the larger field of DFT is discussed for context. Ensemble DFT is used to describe ensembles of ground-state and excited systems. Exact conditions in ensemble DFT and the performance of approximations depend on ensemble weights. Using an inversion method, exact Kohn-Sham ensemble potentials are found and compared to approximations. The symmetry eigenstate Hartree-exchange approximation is in good agreement with exact calculations because of its inclusion of an ensemble derivative discontinuity. Since ensemble weights in FT DFT are temperature-dependent Fermi weights, this insight may help develop approximations well-suited to both ground-state and FT DFT. A novel, highly efficient approach to free energy calculations, finite-temperature potential functional theory, is derived, which has the

  8. The generation of warm dense matter samples using pulsed-power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P. A.; Seyler, C. E.; Knapp, P. F.

    2016-10-01

    Warm dense matter (WDM) bridges the gap between plasma and condensed matter, with densities similar to that of a solid, but temperature on the order of 1 eV. WDM is key to understanding the formation of gaseous giants, Mega-Earths, planetary collisions and inertial fusion implosions. Yet, the quantum properties of WDM and how they are expressed at the macroscopic level are mostly unknown. This paper uses 3-dimensional numerical simulations to show that cm-scale WDM samples can be generated by pulsed-power machines using a fast plasma closing switch, which virtually eliminates the mixing of WDM with other states of matter, allowing the measurement of its physical properties using line average diagnostics. A pre-ionized gas puff is imploded onto a central metal rod. Initially, most of the discharge current flows inside the gas shell. When the shell reaches the rod the full current switches to the rod in less than 10 ns. The subsequent compression produces WDM. We will discuss how an existing platform to generate cm-scale WDM at 20MA on the Z-machine at Sandia National Laboratories. This research is sponsored by DOE.

  9. Degenerate limit thermodynamics beyond leading order for models of dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinou, Constantinos; Muccioli, Brian; Prakash, Madappa; Lattimer, James M.

    2015-12-15

    Analytical formulas for next-to-leading order temperature corrections to the thermal state variables of interacting nucleons in bulk matter are derived in the degenerate limit. The formalism developed is applicable to a wide class of non-relativistic and relativistic models of hot and dense matter currently used in nuclear physics and astrophysics (supernovae, proto-neutron stars and neutron star mergers) as well as in condensed matter physics. We consider the general case of arbitrary dimensionality of momentum space and an arbitrary degree of relativity (for relativistic models). For non-relativistic zero-range interactions, knowledge of the Landau effective mass suffices to compute next-to-leading order effects, but for finite-range interactions, momentum derivatives of the Landau effective mass function up to second order are required. Results from our analytical formulas are compared with the exact results for zero- and finite-range potential and relativistic mean-field theoretical models. In all cases, inclusion of next-to-leading order temperature effects substantially extends the ranges of partial degeneracy for which the analytical treatment remains valid. Effects of many-body correlations that deserve further investigation are highlighted.

  10. Organizing principles for dense packings of nonspherical hard particles: Not all shapes are created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore; Jiao, Yang

    2012-07-01

    We have recently devised organizing principles to obtain maximally dense packings of the Platonic and Archimedean solids and certain smoothly shaped convex nonspherical particles [Torquato and Jiao, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.81.041310 81, 041310 (2010)]. Here we generalize them in order to guide one to ascertain the densest packings of other convex nonspherical particles as well as concave shapes. Our generalized organizing principles are explicitly stated as four distinct propositions. All of our organizing principles are applied to and tested against the most comprehensive set of both convex and concave particle shapes examined to date, including Catalan solids, prisms, antiprisms, cylinders, dimers of spheres, and various concave polyhedra. We demonstrate that all of the densest known packings associated with this wide spectrum of nonspherical particles are consistent with our propositions. Among other applications, our general organizing principles enable us to construct analytically the densest known packings of certain convex nonspherical particles, including spherocylinders, “lens-shaped” particles, square pyramids, and rhombic pyramids. Moreover, we show how to apply these principles to infer the high-density equilibrium crystalline phases of hard convex and concave particles. We also discuss the unique packing attributes of maximally random jammed packings of nonspherical particles.

  11. Probing Dense Plasmas Created from Intense Irradiation of Solid Target in the XUV Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Dobosz, S.; Doumy, G.; Stabile, H.; Monot, P.; Bougeard, M.; Reau, F.; Martin, Ph.

    2006-04-07

    In this paper, electronic density and temperature have been inferred from XUV transmission through hot solid-density plasma created by high temporal contrast femtosecond irradiation of thin plastic foil target in the 1018W/cm2 intensity range. High order harmonics generated in pulsed gas jet are used as a probe beam. The initial plasma parameters are determined with an accuracy better than 15% on the 100fs time scale, by comparison of the transmission of two consecutive harmonics.

  12. All-Electron Path Integral Simulations of Warm, Dense Matter: Application to Water and Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, K. P.; Militzer, B.

    2012-12-01

    We develop an all-electron path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method for warm dense matter and apply it to study water and carbon. PIMC pressures, internal energies, and pair-correlation functions compare well with density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) at lower temperatures and enable the construction of a coherent equation of state over a density-temperature range of 3--12 g/cm3 and 102--109 K. PIMC results converge to the Debye-Huckel limiting law at high-temperatures and illuminate the breakdown of DFT pseudopotentials due to core excitations. Funding provided by the NSF (DMS-1025370). Computational resources provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  13. Transverse momentum dependence of spectra of cumulative particles produced from droplets of dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Vechernin, Vladimir

    2016-01-22

    The transverse momentum dependence of the yields of particles produced from the clusters of dense cold nuclear matter in nuclei is calculated in the approach based on perturbative QCD calculations of the corresponding quark diagrams near the thresholds. It is shown that the transverse momentum dependence of the pion and proton spectra at different values of the Feynman variable x in the cumulative region, x > 1, can be described by the only parameter - the constituent quark mass, taken to be equal 300 MeV. It is found that the cumulative protons are formed predominantly via a coherent coalescence of three fast cluster quarks, whereas the production of cumulative pions is dominated by one fast cluster quark hadronization. This enabled to explain the experimentally observed more slow increase of the mean transverse momentum of cumulative protons with the increase of the cumulative variable x, compared to pions.

  14. The viscosity to entropy ratio: From string theory motivated bounds to warm dense matter

    DOE PAGES

    Faussurier, G.; Libby, S. B.; Silvestrelli, P. L.

    2014-07-04

    Here, we study the ratio of viscosity to entropy density in Yukawa one-component plasmas as a function of coupling parameter at fixed screening, and in realistic warm dense matter models as a function of temperature at fixed density. In these two situations, the ratio is minimized for values of the coupling parameters that depend on screening, and for temperatures that in turn depend on density and material. In this context, we also examine Rosenfeld arguments relating transport coefficients to excess reduced entropy for Yukawa one-component plasmas. For these cases we show that this ratio is always above the lower-bound conjecturemore » derived from string theory ideas.« less

  15. Beam Steering, Focusing and Compression for Warm-Dense Matter Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidia, S. M.; Anders, A.; Cohen, R. H.; Coleman, J. E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B. G.; Roy, P. K.; Sefkow, A. B.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2008-11-01

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the Warm Dense Matter regime, using space-charge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Axial compression leading to ˜100X current amplification and simultaneous radial focusing have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching, but still short of, the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We present measurements from the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment to reach the necessary higher beam intensities, including: (1) axial compression and radial focusing; (2) spatial and temporal distribution of energy deposition at the target plane; and (3) centroid motion of the beam spot through the pulse.

  16. RESEOS - A model of thermodynamic and optical properties of hot and warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovechkin, A. A.; Loboda, P. A.; Novikov, V. G.; Grushin, A. S.; Solomyannaya, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the equation-of-state and opacity calculations for hot and warm dense matter performed with the RESEOS code based on Liberman's average-atom model. The RESEOS model involves a generalized version of the superconfiguration approach providing a substantial simplification of the bound-bound absorption calculations. This simplification is gained by arranging the supershell gathering only among the subshells yielding a predominant contribution to the total dispersion of one-electron transition energies. The statistical broadening of narrow photoionization features connected with the spatial nonuniformity of the continuum-electron gas is modeled by using Gaussian profiles. The sensitivity of beryllium shock Hugoniot to the approximation to evaluate local exchange potential is examined and compared to experimental and other theoretical data. RESEOS shock Hugoniots and opacities are in a good agreement with experimental measurements and other calculated data obtained with up-to-date theoretical models.

  17. Diquarks in the color-flavor locked phase of dense quark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, D.; Klimenko, K. G.

    2007-02-15

    Diquark excitations of dense quark matter are considered in the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with three types of massless quarks in the presence of a quark number chemical potential {mu}. We investigate the effective action of meson and diquark fields at sufficiently high values of {mu}, where the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase is realized, and prove the existence of NG bosons in the sector of pseudoscalar diquarks. In the sector of scalar diquarks an additional NG boson is found, corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of the U(1){sub B} baryon symmetry in the CFL phase. Finally, the existence of massive scalar and pseudoscalar diquark excitations is demonstrated.

  18. Ultrafast K-alpha Thomson scattering from shock compressed matter for use as a dense matter diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritcher, Andrea Lynn

    Material conditions in the high-energy-density-physics regime relevant for the study of planetary formation, the modeling of planetary composition, and for inertial confinement fusion experiments, such as on the future National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), can be produced and studied in the laboratory using high powered lasers that shock compress material to pressures greater than > 1 Mbar. Measurement of the compression and heating of shock-compressed dense matter at high pressures is fundamental in the study and understanding of the physical and chemical properties of these extreme states. Investigation of the behavior of the ionic and elecronic properties in this regime is important to determine the equation of state and thermodynamic properties of materials under extreme conditions, that are not currently well understood. In previous work, x-ray Thomson scattering has been employed to characterize dense matter conditions, ne > 3 x 10 21cm-3, that cannot be probed using the well established technique of optical Thomson scattering. These experiments employed x-ray probes with a temporal resolution of 100 ps. However, for the full characterization of strong shocks in dense matter, an x-ray source that provides picosecond temporal resolution, i.e. K-alpha x-rays, is desirable. Presented in this thesis, are the first spectrally and temporally resolved x ray Thomson scattering measurements using ultrafast (10 ps) Ti K-alpha x-rays. These measurements have provided experimental validation for modeling of the compression and heating of shocked matter. The coalescence of two shocks launched into a solid density LiH target by a shaped 6 nanosecond heater beam was observed from rapid heating to temperatures of 2.2 eV, enabling tests of shock timing models, mainly dependent on choice of Equation of State (EOS). Here, the temperature evolution of the target at various times during shock progression was characterized from the

  19. Restricted Path-Integral Molecular Dynamics for Simulating the Correlated Electron Plasma in Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapila, Vivek; Deymier, Pierre; Runge, Keith

    2011-10-01

    Several areas of study including heavy ion beam, large scale laser, and high pressure or Thomson scattering studies necessitate a fundamental understanding of warm dense matter (WDM) i.e. matter at high temperature and high density. The WDM regime, however, lacks any adequate highly developed class of simulation methods. Recent progress to address this deficit has been the development of orbital-free Density Functional Theory (ofDFT). However, scant benchmark information is available on temperature and pressure dependence of simple but realistic models in WDM regime. The present work aims to fill this critical gap using the restricted path-integral molecular dynamics (rPIMD) method. Within the discrete path integral representation, electrons are described as harmonic necklaces. Quantum exchange takes the form of cross linking between electron necklaces. The fermion sign problem is addressed by restricting the density matrix to positive values. The molecular dynamics algorithm is employed to sample phase space. Here, we focus on the behavior of strongly correlated electron plasmas under WDM conditions. We compute the kinetic and potential energies and compare them to those obtained with the ofDFT method. Several areas of study including heavy ion beam, large scale laser, and high pressure or Thomson scattering studies necessitate a fundamental understanding of warm dense matter (WDM) i.e. matter at high temperature and high density. The WDM regime, however, lacks any adequate highly developed class of simulation methods. Recent progress to address this deficit has been the development of orbital-free Density Functional Theory (ofDFT). However, scant benchmark information is available on temperature and pressure dependence of simple but realistic models in WDM regime. The present work aims to fill this critical gap using the restricted path-integral molecular dynamics (rPIMD) method. Within the discrete path integral representation, electrons are described as

  20. Effects of strong and electromagnetic correlations on neutrino interactions in dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.; Prakash, M.; Lattimer, J.M.; Reddy, S.; Pons, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    An extensive study of the effects of correlations on both charged and neutral current weak interaction rates in dense matter is performed. Both strong and electromagnetic correlations are considered. The propagation of particle-hole interactions in the medium plays an important role in determining the neutrino mean free paths. The effects due to Pauli blocking and density, spin, and isospin correlations in the medium significantly reduce the neutrino cross sections. As a result of the lack of experimental information at high density, these correlations are necessarily model dependent. For example, spin correlations in nonrelativistic models are found to lead to larger suppressions of neutrino cross sections compared to those of relativistic models. This is due to the tendency of the nonrelativistic models to develop spin instabilities. Notwithstanding the above caveats, and the differences between nonrelativistic and relativistic approaches such as the spin- and isospin-dependent interactions and the nucleon effective masses, suppressions of order 2{endash}3, relative to the case in which correlations are ignored, are obtained. Neutrino interactions in dense matter are especially important for supernova and early neutron star evolution calculations. The effects of correlations for protoneutron star evolution are calculated. Large effects on the internal thermodynamic properties of protoneutron stars, such as the temperature, are found. These translate into significant early enhancements in the emitted neutrino energies and fluxes, especially after a few seconds. At late times, beyond about 10 s, the emitted neutrino fluxes decrease more rapidly compared to simulations without the effects of correlations, due to the more rapid onset of neutrino transparency in the protoneutron star. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Effect of a strong magnetic field on the energy yield of nuclear reactions in dense nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sekerzhitskii, V.S.

    1995-01-01

    According to modern concepts, the electron-neutron-nuclear (Aen) phase of dense highly degenerate matter can be realized in the shells of neutron stars. This phase has relatively stable and absolutely stable states of thermodynamic equilibrium. Strong magnetic fields can exist in neutron stars. For this reason, analysis of their effect on the characteristics of the Aen phase is of great interest. It is specially important to study the influence of strong magnetic fields on the energy yield of nuclear reactions in dense nuclear matter because the transition to the absolute equilibrium state proceeds through these reactions.

  2. Going to Extremes: Pulsar Gives Insight on Ultra Dense Matter and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    A long look at a young pulsar with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory revealed unexpectedly rapid cooling, which suggests that it contains much denser matter than previously expected. The pulsar's cool temperature and the vast magnetic web of high-energy particles that surrounds it have implications for the theory of nuclear matter and the origin of magnetic fields in cosmic objects. Animation: Layers of Chandra's 3-Color Image Animation: Layers of Chandra's 3-Color Image An international team of scientists used the Chandra data to measure the temperature of the pulsar at the center of 3C58, the remains of a star observed to explode in the year 1181. Chandra's image of 3C58 also shows spectacular jets, rings and magnetized loops of high-energy particles generated by the pulsar. "We now have strong evidence that, in slightly more than 800 years, the surface of the 3C58 pulsar has cooled to a temperature of slightly less than a million degrees Celsius," said Patrick Slane of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and lead author on a paper describing these results in the November 20, 2004 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "A million degrees may sound pretty hot, but for a young neutron star that's like the frozen tundra in Green Bay, Wisconsin." Optical & Chandra X-ray Composite of 3C58 Optical & Chandra X-ray Composite of 3C58 Pulsars are formed when the central core of a massive star collapses to create a dense object about 15 miles across that is composed almost entirely of neutrons. Collisions between neutrons and other subatomic particles in the interior of the star produce neutrinos that carry away energy as they escape from the star. This cooling process depends critically on the density and type of particles in the interior, so measurements of the surface temperature of pulsars provide a way to probe extreme conditions where densities are so high that our current understanding of how particles interact with one another is limited

  3. Electrical and thermal properties of warm dense water created by isochoric heating of a submicron water sheet at FLASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongjin; Sperling, Philipp; Chen, Zhijiang; Toleikis, Sven; Curry, Chandra; Mo, Mianzhen; Redmer, Ronald; Daniel, Deponte; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2016-10-01

    The advent of XUV and x-ray free electron lasers has allowed for the development of crystallographic scattering experiments of aqueous species with high brilliance. The hydrodynamic expansion of water heated by an FEL was only recently demonstrated, but processes at shorter time scales have not been studied experimentally. Our research group uses time-resolved optical transmission and reflection measurements to determine fundamental electron transport properties of warm dense matter. This technique has been combined with a recently developed water sheet target. Isochoric heating by FLASH and optical probing requires a flat and windowless water target, with a thickness below a few microns. We describe the development and characterization of a water sheet jet target with thickness down to 200 nm, along with preliminary results with isochoric heating with FLASH operating near the water window. DOE FES under FWP #100182.

  4. Equation of state studies of warm dense matter samples heated by laser produced proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; Guymer, T.; James, S. F.; Gumbrell, E.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M.; Morton, J.; Doyle, H.

    2012-03-01

    Heating of matter by proton beams produced by short pulse, laser-solid target interaction has been demonstrated over the last ten years by a number of workers. In the work described in this paper heating by a pulse of laser produced protons has been combined with high-resolution soft x-ray radiography to record the expansion of thin wire targets. Analysis of the radiographs yields material properties in the warm dense matter regime. These measurements imply initial temperatures in the experimental samples over a range from 14 eV up to 40 eV; the sample densities varied from solid to a tenth solid density. Assuming an adiabatic expansion after the initial proton heating phase isentropes of the aluminium sample material were inferred and compared to tabulated data from the SESAME equation of state library. The proton spectrum was also measured using calibrated magnetic spectrometers and radiochromic film. The accuracy of the technique used to infer material data is discussed along with possible future development.

  5. Mixing rules for optical and transport properties of warm, dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, Joel D; Horner, Daniel A; Collins, Lee A

    2009-01-01

    The warm, dense matter (WDM) regime requires a sophisticated treatment since neither ideal gas laws or fully ionized plasma models apply. Mixtures represent the predominant form of matter throughout the universe and the ability to predict the properties of a mixture, though direct simulation or from convolution of the properties of the constituents is both a challenging prospect and an important goal. Through quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), we accurately simulate WDM and compute equations of state, transport, and optical properties of such materials, including mixtures, in a self-consistent manner from a single simulation. With the ability to directly compute the mixture properties, we are able to validate mixing rules for combining the optical and dynamical properties of Li and H separately to predict the properties of lithium hydride (LiH). We have examined two such mixing rules and extend them to morphologies beyond a simple liquid alloy. We have also studied a mixture of polyethylene and aluminum at T = 1 eV.

  6. Optical Response of Warm Dense Matter Using Real-Time Electron Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczewski, Andrew; Shulenburger, Luke; Desjarlais, Michael; Magyar, Rudolph

    2014-03-01

    The extreme temperatures and solid-like densities in warm dense matter present a unique challenge for theory, wherein neither conventional models from condensed matter nor plasma physics capture all of the relevant phenomenology. While Kubo-Greenwood DFT calculations have proven capable of reproducing optical properties of WDM, they require a significant number of virtual orbitals to reach convergence due to their perturbative nature. Real-time TDDFT presents a complementary framework with a number of computationally favorable properties, including reduced cost complexity and better scalability, and has been used to reproduce the optical response of finite and ordered extended systems. We will describe the use of Ehrenfest-TDDFT to evolve coupled electron-nuclear dynamics in WDM systems, and the subsequent evaluation of optical response functions from the real-time electron dynamics. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach will be discussed relative to the current state-of-the-art. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Using Betatron Emissions from Laser Wakefield Accelerated Electrons to Probe Ultra-fast Warm Dense Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotick, Jordan; Schumaker, Will; Condamine, Florian; Albert, Felicie; Barbrel, Benjamin; Galtier, Eric; Granados, Eduardo; Ravasio, Alessandra; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2015-11-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has been shown to produce short X-ray pulses from betatron oscillations of electrons within the plasma wake. These betatron X-rays pulses have a broad, synchrotron-like energy spectrum and a duration on the order of the driving laser pulse, thereby enabling probing of ultrafast interactions. Using the 1 J, 40fs short-pulse laser at the Matter in Extreme Conditions experimental station at LCLS, we have implemented LWFA to generate and subsequently characterized betatron X-rays. Notch filtering and single photon counting techniques were used to measure the betatron X-ray spectrum while the spatial profile was measured using X-ray CCDs and image plates. We used an ellipsoidal mirror to focus the soft betatron X-rays for pump-probe studies on various targets in conjunction with LCLS X-ray and optical laser pulses. This experimental platform provides the conditions necessary to do a detailed study of warm-dense matter dynamics on the ultrafast time-scale.

  8. Skyrmions, half-skyrmions and nucleon mass in dense baryonic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Harada, Masayasu; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Oh, Yongseok; Rho, Mannque

    2014-04-01

    We explore the hadron properties in dense baryonic matter in a unified way by using a Skyrme model constructed with an effective Lagrangian which includes the ρ and ω vector mesons as hidden gauge bosons and is valid up to O(p4) in chiral expansion including the homogeneous Wess-Zumino terms. With the two input values of pion decay constant and the lowest lying vector meson mass which can be fixed in free space, all the other low energy constants in the effective Lagrangian are determined by their master formulas derived from holographic QCD models, which allows us to study the baryonic matter properties with no additional free parameters and thus without ambiguities. We find that the ω field that figures in the homogeneous Wess-Zumino term plays a crucial role in the skyrmion structure and its matter properties. The most striking and intriguing observation is that the pion decay constant that smoothly drops with increasing density in the Skyrmion phase stops decreasing at n1/2 at which the skyrmions in medium fractionize into half-skyrmions and remains nearly constant in the half-skyrmion phase. In accordance with the large Nc consideration, the baryon mass also stays non-scaling in the half-skyrmion phase. This feature is supported by the nuclear effective field theory with the parameters of the Lagrangian scaling modified at the skyrmion-half-skyrmion phase transition. Our exploration also uncovers the crucial role of the ω meson in multi-baryon systems as well as in the structure of a single skyrmion.

  9. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, M. Z.; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; Li, R. K.; Dunning, M.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Zheng, Q.; Weathersby, S. P.; Reid, A. H.; Coffee, R.; Makasyuk, I.; Edstrom, S.; McCormick, D.; Jobe, K.; Hast, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Wang, X.

    2016-08-04

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 µm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined. This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime

  10. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    DOE PAGES

    Mo, M. Z.; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; ...

    2016-08-04

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 µm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined.more » This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime« less

  11. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, M. Z.; Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; Li, R. K.; Dunning, M.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Zheng, Q.; Weathersby, S. P.; Reid, A. H.; Coffee, R.; Makasyuk, I.; Edstrom, S.; McCormick, D.; Jobe, K.; Hast, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Wang, X.

    2016-08-04

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 µm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined. This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime

  12. Single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast electron diffraction for structure dynamic studies of warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, M. Z. Shen, X.; Chen, Z.; Li, R. K.; Dunning, M.; Zheng, Q.; Weathersby, S. P.; Reid, A. H.; Coffee, R.; Makasyuk, I.; Edstrom, S.; McCormick, D.; Jobe, K.; Hast, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Wang, X.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

    2016-11-15

    We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 μm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil. The temporal evolution of the Bragg peak intensity and of the liquid signal during solid-liquid phase transition are quantitatively determined. This experimental capability opens up an exciting opportunity to unravel the atomic dynamics of structural phase transitions in warm dense matter regime.

  13. Distribution of Dense and Current-Conducting Matter in the Discharge Channel upon Electrical Explosion of Wires in Vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Tkachenko, Svetlana; Romanova, Vera; Mingaleev, Albert; Ter-Oganesyan, Alexey; Shelkovenko, Tatiana; Pikuz, Sergey

    2009-01-21

    Distribution of dense and current-conducting matter upon electrical wire explosion using electrical, optical, and UV diagnostics was studied. Wires of 25 {mu}m diameter and 12 mm length were exploded in vacuum by 10 kA current pulse having a 50 A/ns rate of current rise.

  14. Results from an Orion proton heating experiment for Warm Dense Matter studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Peter; James, Steven; Brown, Colin; Hobbs, Lauren; Hill, Matthew; Hoarty, David; Chen, Hui; Hazi, Andy; AWE Team; LLNL Team

    2014-10-01

    The properties of warm dense matter covering densities and temperatures in the ranges 0.1-10x solid and 1-100eV, fall between ideal plasma and condensed matter theories. Studies have highlighted uncertainties in EoS predictions using methods based on the Thomas-Fermi and ion-cell models. In particular, such models predict large departures from ideal gas behaviour for low Z material at low densities and temperatures. In an extension of previous work, material has been isochorically heated using short-pulse laser-generated proton beams. Here, the method of Foord et al. was used toinfer isentropes oflow Z materials and provide data to validate model predictions. Earlier measurements were limited by the eV backlighterenergy to relatively low densities and pressures below 1.5Mbar, and were conducted in cylindrical geometry. More recent experiments performed at the Orion laser use a parabolic crystal imaging system in order to measure to higher pressures by probing planar expansion of aluminium foils at 1.8keV. The imaging system is described and results are presented showing a spatial resolution of 6um, which was then streaked to give temporal resolution of 10ps. Preliminary analysis of the foil expansion indicates a peak temperature of 30eV. The proton and ion spectra used to heat the sample were measured by a magnetic spectrometer and a Thomson parabola. These results are presented and the effect on the measured expansion discussed. Plans for future measurements are discussed in the light of results obtained so far.

  15. REJECTING PROPOSED DENSE MATTER EQUATIONS OF STATE WITH QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca

    2014-11-20

    Neutrons stars are unique laboratories for discriminating between the various proposed equations of state of matter at and above nuclear density. One sub-class of neutron stars—those inside quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs)—produce a thermal surface emission from which the neutron star radius (R {sub NS}) can be measured, using the widely accepted observational scenario for qLMXBs, assuming unmagnetized H atmospheres. In a combined spectral analysis, this work first reproduces a previously published measurement of the R {sub NS}, assumed to be the same for all neutron stars, using a slightly expanded data set. The radius measured is R{sub NS}=9.4±1.2 km. On the basis of spectral analysis alone, this measured value is not affected by imposing an assumption of causality in the core. However, the assumptions underlying this R {sub NS} measurement would be falsified by the observation of any neutron star with a mass >2.6 M {sub ☉}, since radii <11 km would be rejected if causality is assumed, which would exclude most of the R {sub NS} parameter space obtained in this analysis. Finally, this work directly tests a selection of dense matter equations of state: WFF1, AP4, MPA1, PAL1, MS0, and three versions of equations of state produced through chiral effective theory. Two of those, MS0 and PAL1, are rejected at the 99% confidence level, accounting for all quantifiable uncertainties, while the other cannot be excluded at >99% certainty.

  16. A k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model of an isothermal dry granular dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chung

    2016-07-01

    The turbulent flow characteristics of an isothermal dry granular dense matter with incompressible grains are investigated by the proposed first-order k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model. Reynolds-filter process is applied to obtain the balance equations of the mean fields with two kinematic equations describing the time evolutions of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to derive the equilibrium closure relations satisfying turbulence realizability conditions, with the dynamic responses postulated by a quasi-linear theory. The established closure model is applied to analyses of a gravity-driven stationary flow down an inclined moving plane. While the mean velocity decreases monotonically from its value on the moving plane toward the free surface, the mean porosity increases exponentially; the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation evolve, respectively, from their minimum and maximum values on the plane toward their maximum and minimum values on the free surface. The evaluated mean velocity and porosity correspond to the experimental outcomes, while the turbulent dissipation distribution demonstrates a similarity to that of Newtonian fluids in turbulent shear flows. When compared to the zero-order model, the turbulent eddy evolution tends to enhance the transfer of the turbulent kinetic energy and plane shearing across the flow layer, resulting in more intensive turbulent fluctuation in the upper part of the flow. Solid boundary as energy source and sink of the turbulent kinetic energy becomes more apparent in the established first-order model.

  17. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    DOE PAGES

    Seidl, Peter A.; Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L.; ...

    2015-11-11

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 1010 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li+ ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics tomore » be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Finally, we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.« less

  18. PLANS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS AND IFE TARGET EXPERIMENTS ON NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2008-09-22

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently developing design concepts for NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will consist of a new short pulse injector and induction cells from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To fit within an existing building and to meet the energy and temporal requirements of various target experiments, an aggressive beam compression and acceleration schedule is planned. WDM physics and ion-driven direct drive hydrodynamics will initially be explored with 30 nC of lithium ions in experiments involving ion deposition, ablation, acceleration and stability of planar targets. Other ion sources which may deliver higher charge per bunch will be explored. A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. Another test stand is being used to develop and characterize lithium-doped aluminosilicate ion sources. The first experiments will include heating metallic targets to 10,000 K and hydrodynamics studies with cryogenic hydrogen targets.

  19. Linear accelerator design study with direct plasma injection scheme for warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, K.; Kanesue, T; Okamura, M.

    2011-03-28

    Warm Dense Matter (WDM) is a challenging science field, which is related to heavy ion inertial fusion and planetary science. It is difficult to expect the behavior because the state with high density and low temperature is completely different from ideal condition. The well-defined WDM generation is required to understand it. Moderate energy ion beams ({approx} MeV/u) slightly above Bragg peak is an advantageous method for WDM because of the uniform energy deposition. Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with a Interdigital H-mode (IH) accelerator has a potential for the beam parameter. We show feasible parameters of the IH accelerator for WDM. WDM physics is a challenging science and is strongly related to Heavy Ion Fusion science. WDM formation by Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) with IH accelerator, which is a compact system, is proposed. Feasible parameters for IH accelerator are shown for WDM state. These represents that DPIS with IH accelerator can access a different parameter region of WDM.

  20. PROGRESS IN BEAM FOCUSING AND COMPRESSION FOR WARM-DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Calanog, J.; Chen, A.X.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Grote, D.P.; Jung, J.Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.K.; Van den Bogert, K.; Waltron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.

    2008-09-25

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the Warm Dense Matter regime, using spacecharge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Longitudinal beam compression by large factors has beendemonstrated in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) with controlledramps and forced neutralization. Using an injected 30-mA K+ ion beam with initialkinetic energy 0.3 MeV, axial compression leading to ~;;50-fold current amplification andsimultaneous radial focusing to beam radii of a few mm have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We discuss the status of several improvements to our Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment and associated beam diagnostics that are under development to reach the necessary higher beam intensities, including: (1) greater axial compression via a longer velocity ramp using a new bunching module with approximately twice the available voltseconds; (2) improved centroid control via beam steering dipoles to mitigate aberrations in the bunching module; (3) time-dependent focusing elements to correct considerable chromatic aberrations; and (4) plasma injection improvements to establish a plasma density always greater than the beam density, expected to be>1013 cm-3.

  1. Generalized Nambu-Goldstone pion in dense matter: A schematic Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yifan; Baym, Gordon

    2017-08-01

    Chiral symmetry is always broken in cold, dense matter, by chiral condensation at low densities and by diquark condensation at high density. We construct here, within a schematic Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, the corresponding generalized Nambu-Goldstone pion, πG. As we show, the πG mode naturally emerges as a linear combination of the 〈q ¯q 〉 vacuum pion π and the 〈q q 〉 diquark-condensate pion π ˜, with q the quark field, and continuously evolves with increasing density from being π -like in the vacuum to π ˜-like in the high density diquark pairing phase. We calculate the density-dependent mass, decay constant, and coupling to quarks of the πG, and derive a generalized Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner relation in the presence of a finite bare quark mass mq. We briefly discuss the implications of the results to possible Bose condensation of πG in more realistic models.

  2. A database for equations of state and resistivities measurements in the warm dense matter regime

    SciTech Connect

    Clerouin, J.; Noiret, P.; Blottiau, P.; Recoules, V.; Siberchicot, B.; Renaudin, P.; Blancard, C.; Faussurier, G.; Holst, B.; Starrett, C. E.

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to provide experimental data on various expanded elements in the warm dense matter regime. The experiments were done on the experimental facility 'enceinte a plasma isochore' and are evaluated through a thorough comparison with ab initio calculations, average-atom codes, and chemical models. This comparison allows for the evaluation of the experimental temperatures that are not accessible to the measurements and permits the building of useful data tables gathering energy, pressure, conductivity, and temperatures. We summarize experiments performed on aluminum (0.1 and 0.3 g/cm{sup 3}), nickel (0.2 g/cm{sup 3}), titanium (0.1 g/cm{sup 3}), copper (0.3 and 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}), silver (0.43 g/cm{sup 3}), gold (0.5 g/cm{sup 3}), boron (0.094 g/cm{sup 3}), and silicon (0.21 g/cm{sup 3}) for temperatures ranging from 0.5 eV to 3-4 eV.

  3. Short Intense Ion Pulses for Materials and Warm Dense Matter Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter; Ji, Q.; Lidia, S. M.; Persaud, A.; Stettler, M.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.

    2015-11-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r <1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 1010 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li + ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. We will describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminium perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components (arXiv:1506.05839). This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L.; Barnard, John J.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Friedman, Alex; Gilson, Erik P.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, David P.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 1010 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li+ ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  5. Progress in beam focusing and compression for warm-dense matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, P. A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Barnard, J. J.; Calanog, J.; Chen, A. X.; Cohen, R. H.; Coleman, J. E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; Ni, P.; Roy, P. K.; Van den Bogert, K.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2009-07-01

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the warm-dense matter regime, using space-charge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Longitudinal beam compression by large factors has been demonstrated in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) with controlled ramps and forced neutralization. Using an injected 30-mA K + ion beam with initial kinetic energy 0.3 MeV, axial compression leading to ˜50-fold current amplification and simultaneous radial focusing to beam radii of a few mm have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We discuss the status of several improvements to our Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment and associated beam diagnostics that are under development to reach the necessary higher beam intensities, including (1) greater axial compression via a longer velocity ramp using a new bunching module with approximately twice the available volt seconds (Vs); (2) improved centroid control via beam steering dipoles to mitigate aberrations in the bunching module; (3) time-dependent focusing elements to correct considerable chromatic aberrations; and (4) plasma injection improvements to establish a plasma density always greater than the beam density, expected to be >10 13 cm -3.

  6. A database for equations of state and resistivities measurements in the warm dense matter regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clérouin, J.; Noiret, P.; Blottiau, P.; Recoules, V.; Siberchicot, B.; Renaudin, P.; Blancard, C.; Faussurier, G.; Holst, B.; Starrett, C. E.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide experimental data on various expanded elements in the warm dense matter regime. The experiments were done on the experimental facility "enceinte à plasma isochore" and are evaluated through a thorough comparison with ab initio calculations, average-atom codes, and chemical models. This comparison allows for the evaluation of the experimental temperatures that are not accessible to the measurements and permits the building of useful data tables gathering energy, pressure, conductivity, and temperatures. We summarize experiments performed on aluminum (0.1 and 0.3 g/cm3), nickel (0.2 g/cm3), titanium (0.1 g/cm3), copper (0.3 and 0.5 g/cm3), silver (0.43 g/cm3), gold (0.5 g/cm3), boron (0.094 g/cm3), and silicon (0.21 g/cm3) for temperatures ranging from 0.5 eV to 3-4 eV.

  7. Viscosity and mutual diffusion of deuterium-tritium mixtures in the warm-dense-matter regime.

    PubMed

    Kress, J D; Cohen, James S; Horner, D A; Lambert, F; Collins, L A

    2010-09-01

    We have calculated viscosity and mutual diffusion of deuterium-tritium (DT) in the warm, dense matter regime for densities from 5 to 20 g/cm{3} and temperatures from 2 to 10 eV, using both finite-temperature Kohn-Sham density-functional theory molecular dynamics (QMD) and orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD). The OFMD simulations are in generally good agreement with the benchmark QMD results, and we conclude that the simpler OFMD method can be used with confidence in this regime. For low temperatures (3 eV and below), one-component plasma (OCP) model simulations for diffusion agree with the QMD and OFMD calculations, but deviate by 30% at 10 eV. In comparison with the QMD and OFMD results, the OCP viscosities are not as good as for diffusion, especially for 5 g/cm{3} where the temperature dependence is significantly different. The QMD and OFMD reduced diffusion and viscosity coefficients are found to depend largely, though not completely, only on the Coulomb coupling parameter Γ , with a minimum in the reduced viscosity at Γ≈25 , approximately the same position found in the OCP simulations. The QMD and OFMD equations of state (pressure) are also compared with the hydrogen two-component plasma model.

  8. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, Peter A.; Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L.; Barnard, John J.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Friedman, Alex; Gilson, Erik P.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, David P.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2015-11-11

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 1010 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li+ ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Finally, we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  9. Progress in Beam Focusing and Compression for Target Heating and Warm Dense Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, Peter; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Grote, D.P.; Jung, J.Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.; Roy, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.

    2009-04-17

    The Heavy-Ion Fusion Sciences Virtual National Laboratory is pursuing an approach to target heating experiments in the warm dense matter regime, using space-charge-dominated ion beams that are simultaneously longitudinally bunched and transversely focused. Longitudinal beam compression by large factors has been demonstrated in the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) with controlled ramps and forced neutralization. Using an injected 30 mA K{sup +} ion beam with initial kinetic energy 0.3 MeV, axial compression leading to {approx}50X current amplification and simultaneous radial focusing to a few mm have led to encouraging energy deposition approaching the intensities required for eV-range target heating experiments. We discuss the status of several improvements to NDCX to reach the necessary higher beam intensities, including: beam diagnostics, greater axial compression via a longer velocity ramp; and plasma injection improvements to establish a plasma density always greater than the beam density, expected to be > 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}.

  10. Generalized Beth-Uhlenbeck approach to mesons and diquarks in hot, dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D.; Buballa, M.; Dubinin, A.; Röpke, G.; Zablocki, D.

    2014-09-01

    An important first step in the program of hadronization of chiral quark models is the bosonization in meson and diquark channels. This procedure is presented at finite temperatures and chemical potentials for the SU(2) flavor case of the NJL model with special emphasis on the mixing between scalar meson and scalar diquark modes which occurs in the 2SC color superconducting phase. The thermodynamic potential is obtained in the Gaussian approximation for the meson and diquark fields and it is given in the Beth-Uhlenbeck form. This allows a detailed discussion of bound state dissociation in hot, dense matter (Mott effect) in terms of the in-medium scattering phase shift of two-particle correlations. It is shown for the case without meson-diquark mixing that the phase shift can be separated into a continuum and a resonance part. In the latter, the Mott transition manifests itself by a change of the phase shift at threshold by π in accordance with Levinson's theorem, when a bound state transforms to a resonance in the scattering continuum. The consequences for the contribution of pionic correlations to the pressure are discussed by evaluating the Beth-Uhlenbeck equation of state in different approximations. A similar discussion is performed for the scalar diquark channel in the normal phase. Further developments and applications of the developed approach are outlined.

  11. Quantum molecular dynamics study of expanded beryllium: evolution from warm dense matter to atomic fluid.

    PubMed

    Li, Dafang; Liu, Haitao; Zeng, Siliang; Wang, Cong; Wu, Zeqing; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Jun

    2014-07-31

    By performing quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations, we investigate the equation of states, electrical and optical properties of the expanded beryllium at densities two to one-hundred lower than the normal solid density, and temperatures ranging from 5000 to 30000 K. With decreasing the density of Be, the optical response evolves from the one characteristic of a simple metal to the one of an atomic fluid. By fitting the optical conductivity spectra with the Drude-Smith model, it is found that the conducting electrons become localized at lower densities. In addition, the negative derivative of the electrical resistivity on temperature at density about eight lower than the normal solid density demonstrates that the metal to nonmetal transition takes place in the expanded Be. To interpret this transition, the electronic density of states is analyzed systematically. Furthermore, a direct comparison of the Rosseland opacity obtained by using QMD and the standard opacity code demonstrates that QMD provides a powerful tool to validate plasma models used in atomic physics approaches in the warm dense matter regime.

  12. Electronic Contributions to the Equation-of-State of Warm Dense Matter*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albritton, J. R.; Liberman, D. A.; Sonnad, V.; Young, D. A.; Reisman, D. B.; Cauble, R. C.

    2001-10-01

    We describe calculations with the INFERNO[1] atom-in-jellium model to produce single-shock Hugoniot curves for aluminum, copper, and still other elements, from their normal initial density and also from "expanded" states of initial density of about 1/10 normal. These calculations address the regime of "warm-dense-matter", the former in support of experiments toward maximum compression, and the latter in support of experiments toward isentropic compression. INFERNO provides the electronic contributions to the internal energy and pressure, and ideal-gas or QEOS[2] atomic nuclear contributions complete the scheme. We compare INFERNO’s fully quantum-mechanical treatment of electrons with the familiar Thomas-Fermi model. We also investigate the one-component-plasma[3] model for the non-ideal contributions of atomic ions in strongly-coupled plasmas. [1] D.A. Liberman, Phys Rev B, 20, 4981 (1979) [2] R.M. More, K.H. Warren, D.A. Young, and G.B. Zimmerman, Phys Fluids, 31, 3059 (1988) [3] H. DeWitt, W. Slattery, and Gilles Chabrier, Physica B, 228, 21 (1996) *This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of warm dense matter with betatron x-ray radiation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Felicie

    2017-05-01

    Betatron x-ray radiation, driven by electrons from laser-wakefield acceleration, has unique properties to probe high energy density (HED) plasmas and warm dense matter. Betatron radiation is produced when relativistic electrons oscillate in the plasma wake of a laser pulse. Its properties are similar to those of synchrotron radiation, with a 1000 fold shorter pulse. This presentation will focus on the experimental challenges and results related to the development of betatron radiation for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of HED matter at large-scale laser facilities. A detailed presentation of the source mechanisms and characteristics in the blowout regime of laser-wakefield acceleration will be followed by a description of recent experiments performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). At LCLS, we have recently commissioned the betatron x-ray source driven by the MEC short pulse laser (1 J, 40 fs). The source is used as a probe for investigating the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum at the K- or L-edge of iron and silicon oxide driven to a warm dense matter state (temperature of a few eV and solid densities). The driver is either LCLS itself or an optical laser. These experiments demonstrate the capability to study the electron-ion equilibration mechanisms in warm dense matter with sub-picosecond resolution.

  14. Dense baryonic matter in the hidden local symmetry approach: Half-skyrmions and nucleon mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Harada, Masayasu; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Oh, Yongseok; Park, Byung-Yoon; Rho, Mannque

    2013-07-01

    Hadron properties in dense medium are treated in a unified way in a skyrmion model constructed with an effective Lagrangian, in which the ρ and ω vector mesons are introduced as hidden gauge bosons, valid up to O(p4) terms in chiral expansion including the homogeneous Wess-Zumino terms. All the low energy constants of the Lagrangian—apart from the pion decay constant and the vector meson mass—are fixed by the master formula derived from the relation between the five-dimensional holographic QCD and the four-dimensional hidden local symmetry Lagrangian. This Lagrangian allows one to pin down the density n1/2 at which the skyrmions in medium fractionize into half-skyrmions, bringing in a drastic change in the equation of state of dense baryonic matter. We find that the U(1) field that figures in the Chern-Simons term in the five-dimensional holographic QCD action or equivalently the ω field in the homogeneous Wess-Zumino term in the dimensionally reduced hidden local symmetry action plays a crucial role in the half-skyrmion phase. The importance of the ω degree of freedom may be connected to what happens in the instanton structure of elementary baryon noticed in holographic QCD. The most striking and intriguing in what is found in the model is that the pion decay constant that smoothly drops with increasing density in the skyrmion phase stops decreasing at n1/2 and remains nearly constant in the half-skyrmion phase. In accordance with the large Nc consideration, the baryon mass also stays nonscaling in the half-skyrmion phase. This feature which is reminiscent of the parity-doublet baryon model with a chirally invariant mass m0 is supported by the nuclear effective field theory with the parameters of the Lagrangian scaling modified at the skyrmion-half-skyrmion phase transition. It also matches with one-loop renormalization group analysis based on hidden local symmetry. A link between a nonvanishing m0 and the origin of nucleon mass distinctive from

  15. X-Ray Emission from Supernovae in Dense Circumstellar Matter Environments: A Search for Collisionless Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofek, E.O; Fox, D.; Cenko, B.; Sullivan, M.; Gnat, O.; Frail A.; Horesh, A.; Corsi, A; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Yaron, O.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Poznanski, D; Arcavi, L.; Laher, R. R.; Levitan, D.; Sesar, B.; Surace, J.

    2012-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (tau approx > 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and -dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into 8. collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift-XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 type-IIn SNe, one type-Ibn SN and eiht hydrogen-poor super-luminous SNe (SLSN-I; SN 2005ap like). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSl\\l. Therefore, we suggest that their optical light curves are powered by shock breakout in CSM. We show that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock breakout model. We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, type-IIn/Ibn SNe are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained at too early times (i.e., near the SN maximum light) to conclude about their nature. Late time X-ray observations are required in order to further test if these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakOut in a wind profile. We argue that the time scale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above the shock region. The optical light curves of SNe, for which the X-ray emission peaks at late times, are likely powered by the

  16. X-ray Emission from Supernovae in Dense Circumstellar Matter Environments: a Search for Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofek, E. O.; Fox, D.; Cenko, Stephen B.; Sullivan, M; Gnat, O.; Frail, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Corsi, A.; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Nugent, P. E.; Yaron, O.; Fillippenko, A. V; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Poznanski, D.; Arcavi, I.; Laher, R. R.; Levitan, D.; Sesar, B.; Surace, J..

    2013-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (the so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (Tau approx > 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and radiation-dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into a collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift/XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 Type IIn SNe, one Type Ibn SN, and eight hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSN-I such as SN 2005ap). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSM. However, the X-ray emission from SN 2006jc can also be explained as originating in an optically thin region. Thus, we propose that the optical light curve of SN 2010jl is powered by shock breakout in CSM. We suggest that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock-breakout model.We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, SNe IIn/Ibn are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all of the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained too early (i.e., near the SN maximum light) for definitive conclusions about their nature. Late-time X-ray observations are required in order to further test whether these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakout in a wind profile. We argue that the timescale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above

  17. Importance of finite-temperature exchange correlation for warm dense matter calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasiev, Valentin V.; Calderín, Lázaro; Trickey, S. B.

    2016-06-01

    The effects of an explicit temperature dependence in the exchange correlation (XC) free-energy functional upon calculated properties of matter in the warm dense regime are investigated. The comparison is between the Karasiev-Sjostrom-Dufty-Trickey (KSDT) finite-temperature local-density approximation (TLDA) XC functional [Karasiev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 076403 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.076403] parametrized from restricted path-integral Monte Carlo data on the homogeneous electron gas (HEG) and the conventional Monte Carlo parametrization ground-state LDA XC [Perdew-Zunger (PZ)] functional evaluated with T -dependent densities. Both Kohn-Sham (KS) and orbital-free density-functional theories are used, depending upon computational resource demands. Compared to the PZ functional, the KSDT functional generally lowers the dc electrical conductivity of low-density Al, yielding improved agreement with experiment. The greatest lowering is about 15% for T =15 kK. Correspondingly, the KS band structure of low-density fcc Al from the KSDT functional exhibits a clear increase in interband separation above the Fermi level compared to the PZ bands. In some density-temperature regimes, the deuterium equations of state obtained from the two XC functionals exhibit pressure differences as large as 4% and a 6% range of differences. However, the hydrogen principal Hugoniot is insensitive to the explicit XC T dependence because of cancellation between the energy and pressure-volume work difference terms in the Rankine-Hugoniot equation. Finally, the temperature at which the HEG becomes unstable is T ≥7200 K for the T -dependent XC, a result that the ground-state XC underestimates by about 1000 K.

  18. Generation and characterization of warm dense matter isochorically heated by laser-induced relativistic electrons in a wire target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönlein, A.; Boutoux, G.; Pikuz, S.; Antonelli, L.; Batani, D.; Debayle, A.; Franz, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Honrubia, J. J.; Jacoby, J.; Khaghani, D.; Neumayer, P.; Rosmej, O. N.; Sakaki, T.; Santos, J. J.; Sauteray, A.

    2016-05-01

    We studied the interaction of a high-intensity laser with mass-limited Ti-wires. The laser was focused up to 7× 1020 \\text{W/cm}2 , with contrast of 10-10 to produce relativistic electrons. High-spatial-resolution X-ray spectroscopy was used to measure isochoric heating induced by hot electrons propagating along the wire up to 1 mm depth. For the first time it was possible to distinguish surface target regions heated by mixed plasma mechanisms from those heated only by the hot electrons that generate warm dense matter with temperatures up to 50 eV. Our results are compared to simulations that highlight both the role of electron confinement inside the wire and the importance of resistive stopping powers in warm dense matter.

  19. Betatron x-rays from laser plasma accelerators: a new probe for warm dense matter at LCLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Felicie

    2016-10-01

    Betatron x-ray radiation, driven by electrons from laser-wakefield acceleration, has unique properties to probe high energy density (HED) plasmas and warm dense matter. Betatron radiation is produced when relativistic electrons oscillate in the plasma wake of a laser pulse. Its properties are similar to those of synchrotron radiation, with a 1000 fold shorter pulse. This presentation will focus on the experimental challenges and results related to the development of betatron radiation for x-ray absorption spectroscopy of HED matter at large-scale laser facilities. A detailed presentation of the source mechanisms and characteristics in the blowout regime of laser-wakefield acceleration will be followed by a description of recent experiments performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). At LCLS, we have recently commissioned the betatron x-ray source driven by the MEC short pulse laser (1 J, 40 fs). The source is used as a probe for investigating the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectrum at the K- or L-edge of iron and silicon oxide driven to a warm dense matter state (temperature of a few eV and solid densities). The driver is either LCLS itself or an optical laser. These experiments demonstrate the capability to study the electron-ion equilibration mechanisms in warm dense matter with sub-picosecond resolution. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and supported by the Laboratory Directed research and development program under tracking codes 13-LW-076, 16-ERD-041 and by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under SCW1476 and SCW1569.

  20. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, A.; Fukushima, K.; Kharzeev, D.; Warringa, H.; Voloshin, S.

    2010-04-26

    This volume contains the proceedings of the RBRC/CATHIE workshop on 'P- and CP-odd Effects in Hot and Dense Matter' held at the RIKEN-BNL Research Center on April 26-30, 2010. The workshop was triggered by the experimental observation of charge correlations in heavy ion collisions at RHIC, which were predicted to occur due to local parity violation (P- and CP-odd fluctuations) in hot and dense QCD matter. This experimental result excited a significant interest in the broad physics community, inspired a few alternative interpretations, and emphasized the need for a deeper understanding of the role of topology in QCD vacuum and in hot and dense quark-gluon matter. Topological effects in QCD are also closely related to a number of intriguing problems in condensed matter physics, cosmology and astrophysics. We therefore felt that a broad cross-disciplinary discussion of topological P- and CP-odd effects in various kinds of matter was urgently needed. Such a discussion became the subject of the workshop. Specific topics discussed at the workshop include the following: (1) The current experimental results on charge asymmetries at RHIC and the physical interpretations of the data; (2) Quantitative characterization of topological effects in QCD matter including both analytical (perturbative and non-perturbative using gauge/gravity duality) and numerical (lattice-QCD) calculations; (3) Topological effects in cosmology of the Early Universe (including baryogenesis and dark energy); (4) Topological effects in condensed matter physics (including graphene and superfiuids); and (5) Directions for the future experimental studies of P- and CP-odd effects at RHIC and elsewhere. We feel that the talks and intense discussions during the workshop were extremely useful, and resulted in new ideas in both theory and experiment. We hope that the workshop has contributed to the progress in understanding the role of topology in QCD and related fields. We thank all the speakers and

  1. Ab initio calculations of the electron momentum distribution function for ordered and disordered warm dense matter (WDM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevak, E.; Mattern, B. A.; Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Seidler, G. T.

    2014-03-01

    We report new calculations of the electron momentum distribution n(p) for ordered and disordered materials of interest for warm dense matter research. The central role of the electron-ion interaction and the need to orthogonalize the valence-electron and core-electron wave functions has often been ignored in the interpretation of x-ray Thomson scattering studies of WDM.[2] This has led to substantial uncertainty in the inferred temperatures and ionization states in laser-shock generated dense plasmas. Real space Green's function calculations as a function of density and disorder are used to evaluate the possibility of a broadly applicable universal rescaling of the free-electron n(p) by an effective volume and effective temperature to approximate the effects of valence-core orthogonalization. Supported in part by DOE BES Grant DEFG03-97ER45623 (EK, JJR, JJK) and DOE-BES DE-SC0002194(BAM and GTS).

  2. A single-shot spatial chirp method for measuring initial AC conductivity evolution of femtosecond laser pulse excited warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Hering, P.; Brown, S. B.; Curry, C.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-09-19

    To study the rapid evolution of AC conductivity from ultrafast laser excited warm dense matter (WDM), a spatial chirp single-shot method is developed utilizing a crossing angle pump-probe configuration. The pump beam is shaped individually in two spatial dimensions so that it can provide both sufficient laser intensity to excite the material to warm dense matter state and a uniform time window of up to 1 ps with sub-100 fs FWHM temporal resolution. Here, temporal evolution of AC conductivity in laser excited warm dense gold was also measured.

  3. A single-shot spatial chirp method for measuring initial AC conductivity evolution of femtosecond laser pulse excited warm dense matter

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Z.; Hering, P.; Brown, S. B.; ...

    2016-09-19

    To study the rapid evolution of AC conductivity from ultrafast laser excited warm dense matter (WDM), a spatial chirp single-shot method is developed utilizing a crossing angle pump-probe configuration. The pump beam is shaped individually in two spatial dimensions so that it can provide both sufficient laser intensity to excite the material to warm dense matter state and a uniform time window of up to 1 ps with sub-100 fs FWHM temporal resolution. Here, temporal evolution of AC conductivity in laser excited warm dense gold was also measured.

  4. A single-shot spatial chirp method for measuring initial AC conductivity evolution of femtosecond laser pulse excited warm dense matter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Hering, P; Brown, S B; Curry, C; Tsui, Y Y; Glenzer, S H

    2016-11-01

    To study the rapid evolution of AC conductivity from ultrafast laser excited warm dense matter (WDM), a spatial chirp single-shot method is developed utilizing a crossing angle pump-probe configuration. The pump beam is shaped individually in two spatial dimensions so that it can provide both sufficient laser intensity to excite the material to warm dense matter state and a uniform time window of up to 1 ps with sub-100 fs FWHM temporal resolution. Temporal evolution of AC conductivity in laser excited warm dense gold was also measured.

  5. Ginzburg-Landau phase diagram for dense matter with axial anomaly, strange quark mass, and meson condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Andreas; Stetina, Stephan; Tachibana, Motoi

    2011-02-01

    We discuss the phase structure of dense matter, in particular, the nature of the transition between hadronic and quark matter. Calculations within a Ginzburg-Landau approach show that the axial anomaly can induce a critical point in this transition region. This is possible because in three-flavor quark matter with instanton effects a chiral condensate can be added to the color-flavor locked phase without changing the symmetries of the ground state. In (massless) two-flavor quark matter such a critical point is not possible since the corresponding color superconductor (2SC) does not break chiral symmetry. We study the effects of a nonzero but finite strange quark mass which interpolates between these two cases. Since at ultrahigh density the first reaction of the color-flavor locked phase to a nonzero strange quark mass is to develop a kaon condensate, we extend previous Ginzburg-Landau studies by including such a condensate. We discuss the fate of the critical point systematically and show that the continuity between hadronic and quark matter can be disrupted by the onset of a kaon condensate. Moreover, we identify the mass terms in the Ginzburg-Landau potential which are needed for the 2SC phase to occur in the phase diagram.

  6. Optical conductivity of warm dense matter within a wide frequency range using quantum statistical and kinetic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veysman, M.; Röpke, G.; Winkel, M.; Reinholz, H.

    2016-07-01

    Fundamental properties of warm dense matter are described by the dielectric function, which gives access to the frequency-dependent electrical conductivity; absorption, emission, and scattering of radiation; charged particles stopping; and further macroscopic properties. Different approaches to the dielectric function and the related dynamical collision frequency are compared in a wide frequency range. The high-frequency limit describing inverse bremsstrahlung and the low-frequency limit of the dc conductivity are considered. Sum rules and Kramers-Kronig relation are checked for the generalized linear response theory and the standard approach following kinetic theory. The results are discussed in application to aluminum, xenon, and argon plasmas.

  7. Unified first principles description from warm dense matter to ideal ionized gas plasma: electron-ion collisions induced friction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jiayu; Hou, Yong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2010-06-18

    Electron-ion interactions are central to numerous phenomena in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime and at higher temperature. The electron-ion collisions induced friction at high temperature is introduced in the procedure of ab initio molecular dynamics using the Langevin equation based on density functional theory. In this framework, as a test for Fe and H up to 1000 eV, the equation of state and the transition of electronic structures of the materials with very wide density and temperature can be described, which covers a full range of WDM up to high energy density physics. A unified first principles description from condensed matter to ideal ionized gas plasma is constructed.

  8. A Unified Equation for the Reaction Rate in Dense Matter Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Wiescher, M.; Yakovlev, D. G.

    2007-10-26

    We analyze thermonuclear and pycnonuclear reaction rates in multi-component dense stellar plasma. First we describe calculations of the astrophysical S-factor at low energies using the Sao Paulo potential on the basis of the barrier penetration model. Then we present a simple phenomenological expression for a reaction rate. The expression contains several fit parameters which we adjust to reproduce the best microscopic calculations available in the literature.

  9. Laterally spreading iron, humic-like dissolved organic matter and nutrients in cold, dense subsurface water of the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Hioki, Nanako; Kuma, Kenshi; Morita, Yuichirou; Sasayama, Ryouhei; Ooki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime; Nishioka, Jun; Yamashita, Youhei; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aoyama, Michio

    2014-01-01

    The location and magnitude of oceanic iron sources remain uncertain owing to a scarcity of data, particularly in the Arctic Ocean. The formation of cold, dense water in the subsurface layer of the western Arctic Ocean is a key process in the lateral transport of iron, macronutrients, and other chemical constituents. Here, we present iron, humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, and nutrient concentration data in waters above the continental slope and shelf and along two transects across the shelf–basin interface in the western Arctic Ocean. We detected high concentrations in shelf bottom waters and in a plume that extended in the subsurface cold dense water of the halocline layer in slope and basin regions. At σθ = 26.5, dissolved Fe, humic-like fluorescence intensity, and nutrient maxima coincided with N* minima (large negative values of N* indicate significant denitrification within shelf sediments). These results suggest that these constituents are supplied from the shelf sediments and then transported laterally to basin regions. Humic dissolved organic matter probably plays the most important role in the subsurface maxima and lateral transport of dissolved Fe in the halocline layer as natural Fe-binding organic ligand. PMID:25345398

  10. Pair potentials for warm dense matter and their application to x-ray Thomson scattering in aluminum and beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbour, L.; Dharma-wardana, M. W. C.; Klug, D. D.; Lewis, L. J.

    2016-11-01

    Ultrafast laser experiments yield increasingly reliable data on warm dense matter, but their interpretation requires theoretical models. We employ an efficient density functional neutral-pseudoatom hypernetted-chain (NPA-HNC) model with accuracy comparable to ab initio simulations and which provides first-principles pseudopotentials and pair potentials for warm-dense matter. It avoids the use of (i) ad hoc core-repulsion models and (ii) "Yukawa screening" and (iii) need not assume ion-electron thermal equilibrium. Computations of the x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectra of aluminum and beryllium are compared with recent experiments and with density-functional-theory molecular-dynamics (DFT-MD) simulations. The NPA-HNC structure factors, compressibilities, phonons, and conductivities agree closely with DFT-MD results, while Yukawa screening gives misleading results. The analysis of the XRTS data for two of the experiments, using two-temperature quasi-equilibrium models, is supported by calculations of their temperature relaxation times.

  11. Laterally spreading iron, humic-like dissolved organic matter and nutrients in cold, dense subsurface water of the Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hioki, Nanako; Kuma, Kenshi; Morita, Yuichirou; Sasayama, Ryouhei; Ooki, Atsushi; Kondo, Yoshiko; Obata, Hajime; Nishioka, Jun; Yamashita, Youhei; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aoyama, Michio

    2014-10-27

    The location and magnitude of oceanic iron sources remain uncertain owing to a scarcity of data, particularly in the Arctic Ocean. The formation of cold, dense water in the subsurface layer of the western Arctic Ocean is a key process in the lateral transport of iron, macronutrients, and other chemical constituents. Here, we present iron, humic-like fluorescent dissolved organic matter, and nutrient concentration data in waters above the continental slope and shelf and along two transects across the shelf-basin interface in the western Arctic Ocean. We detected high concentrations in shelf bottom waters and in a plume that extended in the subsurface cold dense water of the halocline layer in slope and basin regions. At σθ = 26.5, dissolved Fe, humic-like fluorescence intensity, and nutrient maxima coincided with N* minima (large negative values of N* indicate significant denitrification within shelf sediments). These results suggest that these constituents are supplied from the shelf sediments and then transported laterally to basin regions. Humic dissolved organic matter probably plays the most important role in the subsurface maxima and lateral transport of dissolved Fe in the halocline layer as natural Fe-binding organic ligand.

  12. Collisional heating and adiabatic expansion of warm dense matter with intense relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, J. E.; Colgan, J.

    2017-07-01

    Adiabatic expansion of a warm dense Ti plasma has been observed after isochoric heating of a 100 -μ m -thick Ti foil with an ˜100 -ns-long intense relativistic electron bunch at an energy of 19.8 MeV and a current of 1.7 kA. The expansion fits well with the analytical point-source solution. After 10 J is deposited and the plasma rapidly expands out of the warm dense phase, a stable degenerate plasma (T ˜1.2 eV ) with ne>1017cm-3 is measured for >100 ns. This is the first temporal measurement of the generation and adiabatic expansion of a large volume (3 ×10-4cm3) of warm dense plasma isochorically heated by intense monochromatic electrons. The suite of diagnostics is presented, which includes time-resolved plasma plume expansion measurements on a single shot, visible spectroscopy measurements of the emission and absorption spectrum, measurements of the beam distribution, and plans for the future.

  13. The impact of three dimensional MHD instabilities on the generation of warm dense matter using a MA-class linear transformer driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.

    2017-09-01

    Warm dense matter is difficult to generate since it corresponds to a state of matter which pressure is order of magnitude larger than can be handled by natural materials. A diamond anvil can be used to pressurize matter up to one Gbar, this matter is at high density but at room temperature. High power lasers and heavy ion beams can generate warm dense matter on time scales where measuring quasi-static transport coefficients such as viscosity or heat conduction proves difficult since both experimental techniques relies on inertial confinement. We present here a third method to generate warm dense matter. It uses a pulsed-power driver which current rise time is substantially shortened by using a plasma opening switch, limiting the development of electrothermal instabilities. The switch relies on the implosion of a gas puff Z-pinch which carries most of the discharge current until the pinch reaches the sample. After that, the sample is compressed until it reaches the warm dense matter regime. Three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics computations show that if the density of the gas is low enough no detectable instabilities (e.g. kinks and sausages modes) impede the remainder of the implosion.

  14. Intense shock waves in hot dense matter generated by high-power light ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Fortov, V.; Kanel, G.; Utkin, A.; Vorobiev, O.

    1996-05-01

    Response of plane targets to the high-power proton beam has been investigated using time-resolved laser Doppler velocimetry with sub-nanosecond temporal resolution. Experiments have been performed at Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility (KALIF). Results of measurements are free-surface velocity profiles of metal foils accelerated by the ablative pressure. An acoustic model was employed for a semi-quantitative interpretation of the initial phase of wave generation. Numerical simulation of foil accelerations have been performed to validate wide-rage EOS models for the region of a dense strongly coupled plasma. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Visualizing expanding warm dense matter heated by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Woosuk

    2015-08-24

    This PowerPoint presentation concluded with the following. We calculated the expected heating per atom and temperatures of various target materials using a Monte Carlo simulation code and SESAME EOS tables. We used aluminum ion beams to heat gold and diamond uniformly and isochorically. A streak camera imaged the expansion of warm dense gold (5.5 eV) and diamond (1.7 eV). GXI-X recorded all 16 x-ray images of the unheated gold bar targets proving that it could image the motion of the gold/diamond interface of the proposed target.

  16. Kaon properties in dense nuclear matter: are there experimental evidences of in medio effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, A.

    2009-06-01

    Beyond the general interest for nuclear matter theory, the K- in medio mass modification could have important astrophysical consequences. Experimental evidences of how a nuclear medium affects K+ and K- properties will be summarised. To reach a firm conclusion about the K-, the missing information on the flow will be shown to be still relevant.

  17. Dense Dark Matter Hairs Spreading Out from Earth, Jupiter, and Other Compact Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prézeau, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that compact bodies project out strands of concentrated dark matter filaments, henceforth simply called hairs. These hairs are a consequence of the fine-grained stream structure of dark matter halos, and as such constitute a new physical prediction of ΛCDM. Using both an analytical model of planetary density and numerical simulations utilizing the Fast Accurate Integrand Renormalization algorithm (a fast geodesics calculator described below) with realistic planetary density inputs, dark matter streams moving through a compact body are shown to produce hugely magnified dark matter densities along the stream velocity axis passing through the center of the body. Typical hair density enhancements are 107 for Earth and 108 for Jupiter. The largest enhancements occur for particles streaming through the core of the body that are mostly focused at a single point called the root of the hair. For the Earth, the root is located at about 106 km from the planetary center with a density enhancement of around 109 while for a gas giant like Jupiter, the root is located at around 105 km with an enhancement of around 1011. Beyond the root, the hair density precisely reflects the density layers of the body, providing a direct probe of planetary interiors.

  18. Isochoric heating of hot dense matter by magnetization of fast electrons produced by ultra-intense short pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Y.; Kemp, A.; Bakeman, M.; Presura, R.; Cowan, T. E.

    2006-06-01

    Ultra-intense short-pulse lasers are important tools for creating short-lived high energy plasmas, however to date, it has not been possible, with this method, to create several hundred eV solid density matter because of the rapid transport of the laser-generated hot electrons throughout the target volume. We propose a new way to isochorically heat matter at solid density to extreme temperatures by magnetic confinement of laser-generated hot electrons for several picoseconds by application of a multi-MG external field. In advance of an experiment at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF), using a 100 TW-class laser, which will be synchronized to a 1MA Z-pinch machine, we have performed theoretical studies using a collisional particle-in-cell codes PICLS, which is optimized for a study of isochoric heating of solid density plasmas.

  19. LPM Interference and Cherenkov-like Gluon Bremsstrahlung in DenseMatter

    SciTech Connect

    Majumder, Abhijit; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-07-26

    Gluon bremsstrahlung induced by multiple parton scattering in a finite dense medium has a unique angular distribution with respect to the initial parton direction. A dead-cone structure with an opening angle; theta2{sub 0}; approx 2(1-z)/(zLE) for gluons with fractional energy z arises from the Landau-Pomeran chuck-Migdal (LPM) interference. In a medium where the gluon's dielectric constant is; epsilon>1, the LPM interference pattern is shown to become Cherenkov-like with an increased opening angle determined by the dielectric constant$/cos2/theta{sub c}=z+(1-z)//epsilon$. For a large dielectric constant/epsilon; gg 1+2/z2LE, the corresponding total radiative parton energy loss is about twice that from normal gluon bremsstrahlung. Implications of this Cherenkov-like gluon bremsstrahlung to the jet correlation pattern in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  20. Evolution of force networks in dense granular matter close to jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondic, Lou; Kramár, Miroslav; Kovalčinová, Lenka; Mischaikow, Konstanin

    2017-06-01

    When dense granular systems are exposed to external forcing, they evolve on the time scale that is typically related to the externally imposed one (shear or compression rate, for example). This evolution could be characterized by observing temporal evolution of contact networks. However, it is not immediately clear whether the force networks, defined on contact networks by considering force interactions between the particles, evolve on a similar time scale. To analyze the evolution of these networks, we carry out discrete element simulations of a system of soft frictional disks exposed to compression that leads to jamming. By using the tools of computational topology, we show that close to jamming transition, the force networks evolve on the time scale which is much faster than the externally imposed one. The presentation will discuss the factors that determine this fast time scale.

  1. Phase transition of the baryon-antibaryon plasma in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Iazzi, F.; Pigato, D.

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the presence of thermodynamic instabilities in a hot and dense nuclear medium where a phase transition from a gas of massive hadrons to a nearly massless baryon, antibaryon plasma can take place. The analysis is performed by requiring the global conservation of baryon number and zero net strangeness in the framework of an effective relativistic mean field theory with the inclusion of the Δ(1232)-isobars, hyperons and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. Similarly to the low density nuclear liquid-gas phase transition, we show that such a phase transition is characterized by both mechanical instability (fluctuations on the baryon density) that by chemical- diffusive instability (fluctuations on the strangeness concentration). It turns out that, in this situation, phases with different values of antibaryon-baryon ratios and strangeness content may coexist.

  2. Kondo cloud of single heavy quark in cold and dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Shigehiro

    2017-10-01

    The Kondo effect is a universal phenomena observed in a variety of fermion systems containing a heavy impurity particle whose interaction is governed by the non-Abelian interaction. At extremely high density, I study the Kondo effect by color exchange in quark matter containing a single heavy (charm or bottom) quark as an impurity particle. To obtain the ground state with the Kondo effect, I introduce the condensate mixing the light quark and the heavy quark (Kondo cloud) in the mean-field approximation. I estimate the energy gain by formation of the Kondo cloud, and present that the Kondo cloud exhibits the resonant structure. I also evaluate the scattering cross section for the light quark and the heavy quark, and discuss its effect to the finite size quark matter.

  3. Scale-invariant hidden local symmetry, topology change, and dense baryonic matter. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeng, Won-Gi; Kuo, Thomas T. S.; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Ma, Yong-Liang; Rho, Mannque

    2017-07-01

    Exploiting certain robust topological inputs from the skyrmion description of compressed baryonic matter with a scale-chiral symmetric Lagrangian, we predict the equation of state that is consistent with the properties of nuclear matter at the equilibrium density, supports the maximum mass of massive compact star ˜2 M⊙ and surprisingly gives the sound velocity close to the "conformal velocity" 1 /√{3 } at densities ≳3 n0 . At the core of this result is the observation that parity-doubling occurs in the nucleon structure as density goes above ˜2 n0 with a chiral-singlet mass m0˜(0.6 - 0.9 )mN , hinting at a possible up-to-date unsuspected source of proton mass and an emergence at high density of scale symmetry and flavor local symmetry, both hidden in the QCD vacuum.

  4. Phase Diagram and Instability of Dense Neutral Three-Flavor Quark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2006-07-11

    We address the phase structure of color superconducting quark matter at high quark density. Under the electric and color neutrality conditions there appear various phases as a result of the Fermi surface mismatch among different quark flavors induced by finite strange quark mass; the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase, the u-quark superconducting (uSC) phase, the d-quark superconducting (dSC) phase, the two-flavor superconducting (2SC) phase, and the unpaired quark matter (UQM). Besides, when the Fermi surface mismatch is large enough to surpass the gap energy, the gapless superconducting phase is expected. We discuss the chromomagnetic instability problem and explore the instability regions on the phase diagram.

  5. On the definition of Burnett transport coefficients of the dense multi-element charged matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, G. A.

    2003-06-01

    To determine the Burnett transport coefficients of non-ideal multi-element charged matter the representations of conservation equations of matter as generalized Langevin equations are used. Mori's algorithm is revised to derive the equation of motion of a dynamical value operator of a system in the form of the generalized nonlinear Langevin equation. After transformation, using necessary variational derivatives, these equations are compared with the Burnett hydrodynamical conservation equations. In consequence, the response function expressions of transport coefficients corresponding to second-order derivatives of thermal disturbances are found in the long-wavelength and low-frequency limits. To establish a link between the results of the executed investigations and hydrodynamical problems the properties of the high derivative coefficients matrix of the set of conservation equations in the linearized Burnett approximation are discussed.

  6. On possibility to observe chiral phase transition in separate fragments of dense baryon matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kostenko, B. F.; Pribis, J.

    2012-07-15

    Density fluctuations of intranuclear matter suffering collisions with projectile particles are capable to turn into multiquark clusters with chiral symmetry restored. Theoretical analysis of these processes requires an additional taking account of finite-size effects in the region of the chiral phase transition. From the experimental point of view, this method of observation of the chiral phase transition has its inherent advantages due to a relatively moderate number of secondary particles to be registered.

  7. Simulation of electromagnetic and strange probes of dense nuclear matter at NICA/MPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinchenko, A.; Kolesnikov, V.; Vasendina, V.

    2016-01-01

    The main task of the NICA/MPD physics program is a study of the properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions achieved in collisions of heavy ions. These properties can reveal themselves through different probes, the most promising among those being the lepton-antilepton pairs and strange hadrons. In this paper the MPD performance for measuring the electron-positron pairs and strange hyperons in central Au+Au collisions at NICA energies is presented.

  8. Very low electron temperature in warm dense matter formed by focused picosecond soft x-ray laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ishino, Masahiko Hasegawa, Noboru; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Yamagiwa, Mitsuru; Pikuz, Tatiana; Skobelev, Igor; Faenov, Anatoly; Inogamov, Nail

    2014-11-14

    We investigated the optical emission from the ablating surfaces induced by the irradiations of soft x-ray laser (SXRL) pulses with the aim of estimation of the maximum electron temperature. No emission signal in the spectral range of 400–800 nm could be observed despite the formation of damage structures on the target surfaces. Hence, we estimated an upper limit for the electron temperature of 0.4–0.7 eV for the process duration of 100–1000 ps. Our results imply that the ablation and/or surface modification by the SXRL is not accompanied by plasma formation but is induced by thermo-mechanical pressure, which is so called a spallative ablation. This spallative ablation process occurs in the low electron temperature region of a non-equilibrium state of warm dense matter.

  9. Approach to the propagation of massive neutrinos in dense matter by Wigner functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirera Tomas, Miguel

    The problem of massive neutrinos comes from Grant Unification Theories but also from the so called Neutrino Solar Puzzle. The solution of this puzzle seems to be in the neutrinos physics and to need that the neutrinos are particles with mass. The possible mass of the neutrinos is not only important for Solar Neutrinos but also in other astrophysical environments such as Supernovae, Neutron Stars or The Early Universe. If the neutrinos are particles with mass, or at least one of their generations, oscillations are produced in both vacuum and matter. The oscillation in matter could cause the so called MSW effect, that transforms a neutrino flavour to another. The problem of the propagation of neutrinos in matter has been dealt with by many authors who have usually solved the covariant motion equations, and sometimes by Green Functions. In this work, this has been done using statistical techniques by Wigner Functions, which do not only allow us to study the propagation ways but also to know the behavior of the neutrinos field in equilibrium. On the other hand, the astrophysical systems, that we have commented above, yield a great amount of neutrinos which spread through them and are finally emitted to space, and so it is important to have a transport equation that explain how a neutrinos distribution is spread which is not in equilibrium. It is possible to achieve this equation by motion equations of the Wigner Functions.

  10. Hot and dense hadronic matter in an effective mean-field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lavagno, A.

    2010-04-15

    We investigate the equation of state of hadronic matter at finite values of baryon density and temperature reachable in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The analysis is performed by requiring the Gibbs conditions on the global conservation of baryon number, electric charge fraction, and zero net strangeness. We consider an effective relativistic mean-field model with the inclusion of DELTA isobars, hyperons, and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. In this context, we study the influence of the DELTA-isobar degrees of freedom in the hadronic equation of state and, in connection, the behavior of different particle-antiparticle ratios and strangeness production.

  11. Nonextensive statistical effects and strangeness production in hot and dense nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavagno, A.; Pigato, D.

    2012-12-01

    By means of an effective relativistic nuclear equation of state in the framework of the nonextensive statistical mechanics, characterized by power-law quantum distributions, we study the phase transition from hadronic matter to quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature and baryon density. The analysis is performed by requiring the Gibbs conditions on the global conservation of baryon number, electric charge fraction and zero net strangeness. We show that nonextensive statistical effects strongly influence the strangeness production during the pure hadronic phase and the hadron-quark-gluon mixed phase transition, also for small deviations from the standard Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics.

  12. Self-consistent calculation of the nuclear composition in hot and dense stellar matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Mishustin, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the mass fractions and in-medium properties of heavy nuclei in stellar matter at characteristic densities and temperatures for supernova (SN) explosions. The individual nuclei are described within the compressible liquid-drop model taking into account modifications of bulk, surface, and Coulomb energies. The equilibrium properties of nuclei and the full ensemble of heavy nuclei are calculated self-consistently. It is found that heavy nuclei in the ensemble are either compressed or decompressed depending on the isospin asymmetry of the system. The compression or decompression has a little influence on the binding energies, total mass fractions, and average mass numbers of heavy nuclei, although the equilibrium densities of individual nuclei themselves are changed appreciably above one-hundredth of normal nuclear density. We find that nuclear structure in the single-nucleus approximation deviates from the actual one obtained in the multinucleus description, since the density of free nucleons is different between these two descriptions. This study indicates that a multinucleus description is required to realistically account for in-medium effects on the nuclear structure in supernova matter.

  13. Landau levels of cold dense quark matter in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin-Jian; Liang, Jun-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The occupied Landau levels of strange quark matter are investigated in the framework of the SU(3) NJL model with a conventional coupling and a magnetic-field dependent coupling respectively. At lower density, the Landau levels are mainly dominated by u and d quarks. Threshold values of the chemical potential for the s quark onset are shown in the μ -B plane. The magnetic-field-dependent running coupling can broaden the region of three-flavor matter by decreasing the dynamical masses of s quarks. Before the onset of s quarks, the Landau level number of light quarks is directly dependent on the magnetic field strength B by a simple inverse proportional relation ki ,max≈Bi0/B with Bd0=5 ×1 019 G , which is approximately 2 times Bu0 of u quarks at a common chemical potential. When the magnetic field increases up to Bd0, almost all three flavors are lying in the lowest Landau level.

  14. The four basic ways of creating dark matter through a portal

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Xiaoyong; Hambye, Thomas; Tytgat, Michel H.G. E-mail: thambye@ulb.ac.be

    2012-05-01

    We consider the possibility that along the thermal history of the Universe, dark matter (DM) would have been created from Standard Model particles, either through a kinetic mixing portal to an extra U(1) gauge field, or through the Higgs portal. Depending solely on the DM particle mass, on the portal and on the DM hidden sector interaction, we show how the observed DM relic density can be obtained. There are four possible freeze-in/reannihilation/freeze-out regimes, which together result in a simple characteristic relic density phase diagram, with the shape of a ''Mesa''. In the case of the kinetic mixing portal, we show that, unlike other freeze-in scenarios discussed in the literature, the freeze-in regime can be probed by forthcoming DM direct detection experiments. These results are well representative of any scenario where a DM hidden sector would be created out of the Standard Model (sector)

  15. Scaling relationships for nonadiabatic energy relaxation times in warm dense matter: toward understanding the equation of state.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Ekadashi; Magyar, Rudolph J; Akimov, Alexey V

    2016-11-30

    Understanding the dynamics of electron-ion energy transfer in warm dense (WD) matter is important to the measurement of equation of state (EOS) properties and for understanding the energy balance in dynamic simulations. In this work, we present a comprehensive investigation of nonadiabatic electron relaxation and thermal excitation dynamics in aluminum under high pressure and temperature. Using quantum-classical trajectory surface hopping approaches, we examine the role of nonadiabatic couplings and electronic decoherence in electron-nuclear energy transfer in WD aluminum. The computed timescales range from 400 fs to 4.0 ps and are consistent with existing experimental studies. We have derived general scaling relationships between macroscopic parameters of WD systems such as temperature or mass density and the timescales of energy redistribution between quantum and classical degrees of freedom. The scaling laws are supported by computational results. We show that electronic decoherence plays essential role and can change the functional dependencies qualitatively. The established scaling relationships can be of use in modelling of WD matter.

  16. X-ray continuum emission spectroscopy from hot dense matter at Gbar pressures.

    PubMed

    Kraus, D; Döppner, T; Kritcher, A L; Bachmann, B; Chapman, D A; Collins, G W; Glenzer, S H; Hawreliak, J A; Landen, O L; Ma, T; Le Pape, S; Neumayer, P; Swift, D C; Falcone, R W

    2014-11-01

    We have measured the time-resolved x-ray continuum emission spectrum of ∼30 times compressed polystyrene created at stagnation of spherically convergent shock waves within the Gbar fundamental science campaign at the National Ignition Facility. From an exponential emission slope between 7.7 keV and 8.1 keV photon energy and using an emission model which accounts for reabsorption, we infer an average electron temperature of 375 ± 21 eV, which is in good agreement with HYDRA-1D simulations.

  17. X-ray continuum emission spectroscopy from hot dense matter at Gbar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, D. Falcone, R. W.; Döppner, T.; Kritcher, A. L.; Bachmann, B.; Collins, G. W.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; Le Pape, S.; Swift, D. C.; Chapman, D. A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Neumayer, P.

    2014-11-15

    We have measured the time-resolved x-ray continuum emission spectrum of ∼30 times compressed polystyrene created at stagnation of spherically convergent shock waves within the Gbar fundamental science campaign at the National Ignition Facility. From an exponential emission slope between 7.7 keV and 8.1 keV photon energy and using an emission model which accounts for reabsorption, we infer an average electron temperature of 375 ± 21 eV, which is in good agreement with HYDRA-1D simulations.

  18. Phase transitions of dense neutron matter with generalized Skyrme interaction to superfluid states with triplet pairing in strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    A generalized non-relativistic Fermi-liquid approach was used to find analytical formulas for temperatures Tc1(n, H) and Tc2(n, H) (which are functions nonlinear of density n and linear of magnetic field H) of phase transitions in spatially uniform dense pure neutron matter from normal to superfluid states with spin-triplet p-wave pairing (similar to anisotropic superfluid phases 3He-A1 and 3He-A2) in steady and homogeneous strong magnetic field (but |μn| H ll Ec < ɛF(n), where μn is the magnetic dipole moment of a neutron, Ec is the cutoff energy and ɛF(n) is the Fermi energy in neutron matter). General formulas for Tc1, 2 (n, H) (valid for arbitrary parameterization of the effective Skyrme interaction in neutron matter) are specified here for generalized BSk18 parameterization of the Skyrme forces (with additional terms dependent on density n) on the interval 0.3 n0 < n < nc (BSk18) ≍ 2.7952 · n0, where n0 = 0.17 fm-3 is nuclear density and at critical density nc(BSk18) triplet superfluidity disappears, Tc0(n, cH = 0) = 0. Expressions for phase transition temperatures Tc0(n)<0.09MeV (at Ec = 10MeV) and Tc1, 2(n, H) are realistic non-monotone functions of density n for BSk18 parameterization of the Skyrme forces (contrary to their monotone increase for all previous BSk parameterizations). Phase transitions to superfluid states of such type might occur in liquid outer core of magnetars (strongly magnetized neutron stars).

  19. Dense baryonic matter in conformally-compensated hidden local symmetry: Vector manifestation and chiral symmetry restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yong-Liang; Harada, Masayasu; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Oh, Yongseok; Park, Byung-Yoon; Rho, Mannque

    2014-08-01

    We find that, when the dilaton is implemented as a (pseudo-)Nambu-Goldstone boson using a conformal compensator or "conformon" in a hidden gauge symmetric Lagrangian written to O(p4) from which baryons arise as solitons, namely, skyrmions, the vector manifestation and chiral symmetry restoration at high density predicted in hidden local symmetry theory—which is consistent with Brown-Rho scaling—are lost or sent to infinite density. It is shown that they can be restored if in medium the behavior of the ω field is taken to deviate from that of the ρ meson in such a way that the flavor U(2) symmetry is strongly broken at increasing density. The hitherto unexposed crucial role of the ω meson in the structure of elementary baryon and multibaryon systems is uncovered in this work. In the state of half-skyrmions to which the skyrmions transform at a density n1/2≳n0 (where n0 is the normal nuclear matter density), characterized by the vanishing (space averaged) quark condensate but nonzero pion decay constant, the nucleon mass remains more or less constant at a value ≳60% of the vacuum value, indicating a large component of the nucleon mass that is not associated with the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. We discuss its connection to the chiral-invariant mass m0 that figures in the parity-doublet baryon model.

  20. Indications for a critical end point in the phase diagram for hot and dense nuclear matter.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Roy A

    2015-04-10

    Excitation functions for the Gaussian emission source radii difference (R_{out}^{2}-R_{side}^{2}) obtained from two-pion interferometry measurements in Au+Au (sqrt[s_{NN}]=7.7-200  GeV) and Pb+Pb (sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76  TeV) collisions are studied for a broad range of collision centralities. The observed nonmonotonic excitation functions validate the finite-size scaling patterns expected for the deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point (CEP), in the temperature versus baryon chemical potential (T,μ_{B}) plane of the nuclear matter phase diagram. A finite-size scaling (FSS) analysis of these data suggests a second order phase transition with the estimates T^{cep}∼165  MeV and μ_{B}^{cep}∼95  MeV for the location of the critical end point. The critical exponents (ν≈0.66 and γ≈1.2) extracted via the same FSS analysis place this CEP in the 3D Ising model universality class.

  1. X-ray absorption of a warm dense aluminum plasma created by an ultra-short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecherbourg, L.; Renaudin, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Geindre, J.-P.; Blancard, C.; Cossé, P.; Faussurier, G.; Shepherd, R.; Audebert, P.

    2007-05-01

    Point-projection K-shell absorption spectroscopy has been used to measure absorption spectra of transient aluminum plasma created by an ultra-short laser pulse. The 1s-2p and 1s-3p absorption lines of weakly ionized aluminum were measured for an extended range of densities in a low-temperature regime. Independent plasma characterization was obtained using frequency domain interferometry diagnostic (FDI) that allows the interpretation of the absorption spectra in terms of spectral opacities. A detailed opacity code using the density and temperature inferred from the FDI reproduce the measured absorption spectra except in the last stage of the recombination phase.

  2. Concluding Remarks: Connecting Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Neutron Star Mergers by the Equation of State of Dense Hadron- and Quark Matter as signalled by Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Steinheimer, Jan; Bovard, Luke; Mukherjee, Ayon; Schramm, Stefan; Takami, Kentaro; Papenfort, Jens; Wechselberger, Natascha; Rezzolla, Luciano; Stöcker, Horst

    2017-07-01

    The underlying open questions in the fields of general relativistic astrophysics and elementary particle and nuclear physics are strongly connected and their results are interdependent. Although the physical systems are quite different, the 4D-simulation of a merger of a binary system of two neutron stars and the properties of the hot and dense matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions, strongly depend on the equation of state of fundamental elementary matter. Neutron star mergers represent optimal astrophysical laboratories to investigate the QCD phase structure using a spectrogram of the post-merger phase of the emitted gravitational waves. These studies can be supplemented by observations from heavy ion collisions to possibly reach a conclusive picture on the QCD phase structure at high density and temperature. As gravitational waves (GWs) emitted from merging neutron star binaries are on the verge of their first detection, it is important to understand the main characteristics of the underlying merging system in order to predict the expected GW signal. Based on numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries, the emitted GW and the interior structure of the generated hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS) have been analyzed in detail. This article will focus on the internal and rotational HMNS properties and their connection with the emitted GW signal. Especially, the appearance of the hadon-quark phase transition in the interior region of the HMNS and its conjunction with the spectral properties of the emitted GW will be addressed and confronted with the simulation results of high energy heavy ion collisions.

  3. Spontaneous magnetization through non-Abelian vortex formation in rotating dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinci, Walter; Cipriani, Mattia; Nitta, Muneto

    2012-10-01

    When a color superconductor of high density QCD is rotating, superfluid vortices are inevitably created along the rotation axis. In the color-flavor locked phase realized at the asymptotically large chemical potential, there appear non-Abelian vortices carrying both circulations of superfluid and color magnetic fluxes. A family of solutions has a degeneracy characterized by the Nambu-Goldstone modes CP2, associated with the color-flavor locked symmetry spontaneously broken in the vicinity of the vortex. In this paper, we study electromagnetic coupling of the non-Abelian vortices and find that the degeneracy is removed with the induced effective potential. We obtain one stable vortex solution and a family of metastable vortex solutions, both of which carry ordinary magnetic fluxes in addition to color magnetic fluxes. We discuss quantum mechanical decay of the metastable vortices by quantum tunneling and compare the effective potential with the other known potentials, the quantum mechanically induced potential and the potential induced by the strange quark mass.

  4. The in-medium effects on the neutrino reaction in dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kim, K. S.; Saito, Koichi; Kajino, Toshitaka; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The nucleon form factors in free space are usually thought to be modified when a nucleon is bound in a nucleus or immersed in a nuclear medium. We investigated effects of the density-dependent axial and weak-vector form factors on the electro-neutrino (ν{sub e}) and anti-electro-neutrino (¯ν{sub e}) reactions with incident energy E{sub v} ≤ 80 MeV via neutral current (NC) and charged current (CC) for a nucleon in a nuclear medium or ¹²C. For the density-dependent form factors, we exploited the quark-meson-coupling (QMC) model, and apply them to the ν{sub e} and ¯ν{sub e} induced reactions by NC and CC. In CC reaction, about 5 % decrease of the electro neutrino (ν{sub e}) reaction cross section on the nucleon is shown to be occurred in normal density, ρ=ρ{sub 0}~0.15fm⁻³, and also about 5 % reduction of total ν{sub e} cross section on ¹²C is obtained by the modification of the weak form factors for bound nucleons. Density effects for both cases are relatively small, but they are as large as the effect by the Coulomb distortion of outgoing leptons in the ν-reaction. However, density effects in the anti-electro neutrino (¯ν{sub e}) reaction reduced significantly about 30 % the cross sections for both the nucleon and ¹²C cases. For NC, about 12 % decrease of the total cross section by the ν{sub e} reaction on the nucleon is obtained at normal density, ρ=ρ₀~0.15fm⁻³, as well as about 18 % reduction of the total ν{sub e} cross section on ¹²C, by the modification of the weak form factors of the bound nucleon. However, similarly to the CC reaction, effects of the nucleon property change in the ¯ν{sub e} reaction reduce significantly the cross sections about 30 % for the nucleon in matter and ¹²C cases. In this talk, we address that such a large asymmetry in the ¯ν{sub e} cross sections in both reactions is originated from the different helicities of ¯ν{sub e} and ν{sub e}.

  5. Demonstration of space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering capability for warm dense matter experiments on the Z accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Ao, T.; Harding, E. C.; Bailey, J. E.; ...

    2016-01-13

    Experiments on the Sandia Z pulsed-power accelerator demonstrated the ability to produce warm dense matter (WDM) states with unprecedented uniformity, duration, and size, which are ideal for investigations of fundamental WDM properties. For the first time, space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectra from shocked carbon foams were recorded on Z. The large (> 20 MA) electrical current produced by Z was used to launch Al flyer plates up to 25 km/s. The impact of the flyer plate on a CH2 foam target produced a shocked state with an estimated pressure of 0.75 Mbar, density of 0.52 g/cm3, and temperature ofmore » 4.3 eV. Both unshocked and shocked portions of the foam target were probed with 6.2 keV x-rays produced by focusing the Z-Beamlet laser onto a nearby Mn foil. The data is composed of three spatially distinct spectra that were simultaneously captured with a single spectrometer with high spectral (4.8 eV) and spatial (190 μm) resolutions. Furthermore, these spectra provide detailed information on three target locations: the laser spot, the unshocked foam, and the shocked foam.« less

  6. Bayesian inference of x-ray diffraction spectra from warm dense matter with the one-component-plasma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clérouin, Jean; Desbiens, Nicolas; Dubois, Vincent; Arnault, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    We show that the Bayesian inference of recently measured x-ray diffraction spectra from laser-shocked aluminum [L. B. Fletcher et al., Nat. Photon. 9, 274 (2015), 10.1038/nphoton.2015.41] with the one-component-plasma (OCP) model performs remarkably well at estimating the ionic density and temperature. This statistical approach requires many evaluations of the OCP static structure factor, which were done using a recently derived analytic fit. The atomic form factor is approximated by an exponential function in the diffraction window of the first peak. The electronic temperature is then estimated from a comparison of this approximated form factor with the electronic structure of an average atom model. Out-of-equilibrium states, with electrons hotter than ions, are diagnosed for the spectra obtained early after the pump, whereas at a late time delay the plasma is at thermal equilibrium. Apart from the present findings, this OCP-based modeling of warm dense matter has an important role to play in the interpretation of x-ray Thomson scattering measurements currently performed at large laser facilities.

  7. Pump-probe studies of radiation induced defects and formation of warm dense matter with pulsed ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, T.; Persaud, A.; Gua, H.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Friedman, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Minior, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    We report results from the 2nd generation Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment at Berkeley Lab. NDCX-II is a pulsed, linear induction accelerator designed to drive thin foils to warm dense matter (WDM) states with peak temperatures of ~ 1 eV using intense, short pulses of 1.2 MeV lithium ions. Tunability of the ion beam enables pump-probe studies of radiation effects in solids as a function of excitation density, from isolated collision cascades to the onset of phase-transitions and WDM. Ion channeling is an in situ diagnostic of damage evolution during ion pulses with a sensitivity of <0.1% displacements per atom. We will report results from damage evolution studies in thin silicon crystals with Li + and K + beams. Detection of channeled ions tracks lattice disorder evolution with a resolution of ~ 1 ns using fast current measurements. We will discuss pump-probe experiments with pulsed ion beams and the development of diagnostics for WDM and multi-scale (ms to fs) access to the materials physics of collision cascades e.g. in fusion reactor materials. Work performed under auspices of the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. Development and testing of a pulsed helium ion source for probing materials and warm dense matter studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Q.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Schenkel, T.

    2016-02-01

    The neutralized drift compression experiment was designed and commissioned as a pulsed, linear induction accelerator to drive thin targets to warm dense matter (WDM) states with peak temperatures of ˜1 eV using intense, short pulses (˜1 ns) of 1.2 MeV lithium ions. At that kinetic energy, heating a thin target foil near the Bragg peak energy using He+ ions leads to more uniform energy deposition of the target material than Li+ ions. Experiments show that a higher current density of helium ions can be delivered from a plasma source compared to Li+ ions from a hot plate type ion source. He+ beam pulses as high as 200 mA at the peak and 4 μs long were measured from a multi-aperture 7-cm-diameter emission area. Within ±5% variation, the uniform beam area is approximately 6 cm across. The accelerated and compressed pulsed ion beams can be used for materials studies and isochoric heating of target materials for high energy density physics experiments and WDM studies.

  9. Demonstration of space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering capability for warm dense matter experiments on the Z accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ao, T.; Harding, E. C.; Bailey, J. E.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Hansen, S. B.; Smith, I. C.; Geissel, M.; Maurer, A.; Reneker, J.; Romero, D.; Sinars, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Benage, J. F.

    2016-01-13

    Experiments on the Sandia Z pulsed-power accelerator demonstrated the ability to produce warm dense matter (WDM) states with unprecedented uniformity, duration, and size, which are ideal for investigations of fundamental WDM properties. For the first time, space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectra from shocked carbon foams were recorded on Z. The large (> 20 MA) electrical current produced by Z was used to launch Al flyer plates up to 25 km/s. The impact of the flyer plate on a CH2 foam target produced a shocked state with an estimated pressure of 0.75 Mbar, density of 0.52 g/cm3, and temperature of 4.3 eV. Both unshocked and shocked portions of the foam target were probed with 6.2 keV x-rays produced by focusing the Z-Beamlet laser onto a nearby Mn foil. The data is composed of three spatially distinct spectra that were simultaneously captured with a single spectrometer with high spectral (4.8 eV) and spatial (190 μm) resolutions. Furthermore, these spectra provide detailed information on three target locations: the laser spot, the unshocked foam, and the shocked foam.

  10. Demonstration of space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering capability for warm dense matter experiments on the Z accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, T.; Harding, E. C.; Bailey, J. E.; Lemke, R. W.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Hansen, S. B.; Smith, I. C.; Geissel, M.; Maurer, A.; Reneker, J.; Romero, D.; Sinars, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Benage, J. F.

    2016-03-01

    Experiments on the Sandia Z pulsed-power accelerator have demonstrated the ability to produce warm dense matter (WDM) states with unprecedented uniformity, duration, and size, which are ideal for investigations of fundamental WDM properties. For the first time, space-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) spectra from shocked carbon foams were recorded on Z. The large (>20 MA) electrical current produced by Z was used to launch Al flyer plates up to 25 km/s. The impact of the flyer plate on a CH2 foam target produced a shocked state with an estimated pressure of 0.75 Mbar, density of 0.52 g/cm3, and temperature of 4.3 eV. Both unshocked and shocked portions of the foam target were probed with 6.2 keV x-rays produced by focusing the Z-Beamlet laser onto a nearby Mn foil. The data are composed of three spatially distinct spectra that were simultaneously captured with a single spectrometer with high spectral (4.8 eV) and spatial (190 μm) resolutions. Detailed spectral information from three target locations is provided simultaneously: the incident x-ray source, the scattered signal from unshocked foam, and the scattered signal from shocked foam.

  11. Development and testing of a pulsed helium ion source for probing materials and warm dense matter studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Q. Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Persaud, A.; Schenkel, T.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.

    2016-02-15

    The neutralized drift compression experiment was designed and commissioned as a pulsed, linear induction accelerator to drive thin targets to warm dense matter (WDM) states with peak temperatures of ∼1 eV using intense, short pulses (∼1 ns) of 1.2 MeV lithium ions. At that kinetic energy, heating a thin target foil near the Bragg peak energy using He{sup +} ions leads to more uniform energy deposition of the target material than Li{sup +} ions. Experiments show that a higher current density of helium ions can be delivered from a plasma source compared to Li{sup +} ions from a hot plate type ion source. He{sup +} beam pulses as high as 200 mA at the peak and 4 μs long were measured from a multi-aperture 7-cm-diameter emission area. Within ±5% variation, the uniform beam area is approximately 6 cm across. The accelerated and compressed pulsed ion beams can be used for materials studies and isochoric heating of target materials for high energy density physics experiments and WDM studies.

  12. Monte Carlo approach to calculate proton stopping in warm dense matter within particle-in-cell simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; He, X. T.; Yu, W.; Fritzsche, S.

    2017-02-01

    A Monte Carlo approach to proton stopping in warm dense matter is implemented into an existing particle-in-cell code. This approach is based on multiple electron-electron, electron-ion, and ion-ion binary collision and accounts for both the free and the bound electrons in the plasmas. This approach enables one to calculate the stopping of particles in a more natural manner than existing theoretical treatment. In the low-temperature limit, when "all" electrons are bound to the nucleus, the stopping power coincides with the predictions from the Bethe-Bloch formula and is consistent with the data from the National Institute of Standard and Technology database. At higher temperatures, some of the bound electrons are ionized, and this increases the stopping power in the plasmas, as demonstrated by A. B. Zylstra et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 215002 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.215002. At even higher temperatures, the degree of ionization reaches a maximum and thus decreases the stopping power due to the suppression of collision frequency between projected proton beam and hot plasmas in the target.

  13. Development and testing of a pulsed helium ion source for probing materials and warm dense matter studies

    DOE PAGES

    Ji, Q.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; ...

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, the neutralized drift compression experiment was designed and commissioned as a pulsed, linear induction accelerator to drive thin targets to warm dense matter (WDM) states with peak temperatures of ~1 eV using intense, short pulses (~1 ns) of 1.2 MeV lithium ions. At that kinetic energy, heating a thin target foil near the Bragg peak energy using He+ ions leads to more uniform energy deposition of the target material than Li+ ions. Experiments show that a higher current density of helium ions can be delivered from a plasma source compared to Li+ ions from a hot platemore » type ion source. He+ beam pulses as high as 200 mA at the peak and 4 μs long were measured from a multi-aperture 7-cm-diameter emission area. Within ±5% variation, the uniform beam area is approximately 6 cm across. Finally, the accelerated and compressed pulsed ion beams can be used for materials studies and isochoric heating of target materials for high energy density physics experiments and WDM studies.« less

  14. Consequences of a strong phase transition in the dense matter equation of state for the rotational evolution of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejger, M.; Blaschke, D.; Haensel, P.; Zdunik, J. L.; Fortin, M.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We explore the implications of a strong first-order phase transition region in the dense matter equation of state in the interiors of rotating neutron stars, and the resulting creation of two disjoint families of neutron-star configurations (the so-called high-mass twins). Methods: We numerically obtained rotating, axisymmetric, and stationary stellar configurations in the framework of general relativity, and studied their global parameters and stability. Results: The instability induced by the equation of state divides stable neutron star configurations into two disjoint families: neutron stars (second family) and hybrid stars (third family), with an overlapping region in mass, the high-mass twin-star region. These two regions are divided by an instability strip. Its existence has interesting astrophysical consequences for rotating neutron stars. We note that it provides a natural explanation for the rotational frequency cutoff in the observed distribution of neutron star spins, and for the apparent lack of back-bending in pulsar timing. It also straightforwardly enables a substantial energy release in a mini-collapse to another neutron-star configuration (core quake), or to a black hole.

  15. Ion Heating of Plasma to Warm Dense Matter Conditions for the study of High-Z/Low-Z Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roycroft, R.; Dyer, G. M.; McCary, E.; Wagner, C.; Bernstein, A.; Ditmire, T.; Albright, B. J.; Fernandez, J. C.; Bang, W.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Hamilton, C. E.; Palaniyappan, S.; Santiago Cordoba, M. A.; Vold, E. L.; Yin, L.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2016-10-01

    The evolution of the interface between a light and heavy material isochorically heated to warm dense matter conditions is important to the understanding of electrostatic effects on the hydrodynamic models of fluid mixing. In recent experiments at the Trident laser facility, the target, containing a high Z and a low Z material, is heated to around 1eV by laser accelerated aluminum ions. In preparation for continued mixing experiments, we have recently heated aluminum to 20eV by laser accelerated protons on the Texas Petawatt Laser. We fielded a streaked optical pyrometer to measure surface temperature. The pyrometer images the rear surface of a heated target on a sub-nanosecond timescale with 400nm blackbody emissions. This poster presents the details of the experimental setup and pyrometer design, as well as results of ion and proton heating of aluminum targets, and ion heating of high-Z/low-Z integrated targets. Supported by NNSA cooperative agreement DE-NA0002008, the DoE through the LANL LDRD program, the DARPA PULSE program (12-63- PULSE-FP014), and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-14-1-0045).

  16. Development and testing of a pulsed helium ion source for probing materials and warm dense matter studies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Q; Seidl, P A; Waldron, W L; Takakuwa, J H; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Persaud, A; Barnard, J J; Schenkel, T

    2016-02-01

    The neutralized drift compression experiment was designed and commissioned as a pulsed, linear induction accelerator to drive thin targets to warm dense matter (WDM) states with peak temperatures of ∼1 eV using intense, short pulses (∼1 ns) of 1.2 MeV lithium ions. At that kinetic energy, heating a thin target foil near the Bragg peak energy using He(+) ions leads to more uniform energy deposition of the target material than Li(+) ions. Experiments show that a higher current density of helium ions can be delivered from a plasma source compared to Li(+) ions from a hot plate type ion source. He(+) beam pulses as high as 200 mA at the peak and 4 μs long were measured from a multi-aperture 7-cm-diameter emission area. Within ±5% variation, the uniform beam area is approximately 6 cm across. The accelerated and compressed pulsed ion beams can be used for materials studies and isochoric heating of target materials for high energy density physics experiments and WDM studies.

  17. Monte Carlo approach to calculate proton stopping in warm dense matter within particle-in-cell simulations.

    PubMed

    Wu, D; He, X T; Yu, W; Fritzsche, S

    2017-02-01

    A Monte Carlo approach to proton stopping in warm dense matter is implemented into an existing particle-in-cell code. This approach is based on multiple electron-electron, electron-ion, and ion-ion binary collision and accounts for both the free and the bound electrons in the plasmas. This approach enables one to calculate the stopping of particles in a more natural manner than existing theoretical treatment. In the low-temperature limit, when "all" electrons are bound to the nucleus, the stopping power coincides with the predictions from the Bethe-Bloch formula and is consistent with the data from the National Institute of Standard and Technology database. At higher temperatures, some of the bound electrons are ionized, and this increases the stopping power in the plasmas, as demonstrated by A. B. Zylstra et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 215002 (2015)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.114.215002. At even higher temperatures, the degree of ionization reaches a maximum and thus decreases the stopping power due to the suppression of collision frequency between projected proton beam and hot plasmas in the target.

  18. Probing local and electronic structure in Warm Dense Matter: single pulse synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy on shocked Fe

    PubMed Central

    Torchio, Raffaella; Occelli, Florent; Mathon, Olivier; Sollier, Arnaud; Lescoute, Emilien; Videau, Laurent; Vinci, Tommaso; Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Headspith, Jon; Helsby, William; Bland, Simon; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David; Pascarelli, Sakura; Loubeyre, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Understanding Warm Dense Matter (WDM), the state of planetary interiors, is a new frontier in scientific research. There exists very little experimental data probing WDM states at the atomic level to test current models and those performed up to now are limited in quality. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experiment that makes microscopic investigations of materials under dynamic compression easily accessible to users and with data quality close to that achievable at ambient. Using a single 100 ps synchrotron x-ray pulse, we have measured, by K-edge absorption spectroscopy, ns-lived equilibrium states of WDM Fe. Structural and electronic changes in Fe are clearly observed for the first time at such extreme conditions. The amplitude of the EXAFS oscillations persists up to 500 GPa and 17000 K, suggesting an enduring local order. Moreover, a discrepancy exists with respect to theoretical calculations in the value of the energy shift of the absorption onset and so this comparison should help to refine the approximations used in models. PMID:27246145

  19. Development and testing of a pulsed helium ion source for probing materials and warm dense matter studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Q.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Schenkel, T.

    2015-11-12

    In this paper, the neutralized drift compression experiment was designed and commissioned as a pulsed, linear induction accelerator to drive thin targets to warm dense matter (WDM) states with peak temperatures of ~1 eV using intense, short pulses (~1 ns) of 1.2 MeV lithium ions. At that kinetic energy, heating a thin target foil near the Bragg peak energy using He+ ions leads to more uniform energy deposition of the target material than Li+ ions. Experiments show that a higher current density of helium ions can be delivered from a plasma source compared to Li+ ions from a hot plate type ion source. He+ beam pulses as high as 200 mA at the peak and 4 μs long were measured from a multi-aperture 7-cm-diameter emission area. Within ±5% variation, the uniform beam area is approximately 6 cm across. Finally, the accelerated and compressed pulsed ion beams can be used for materials studies and isochoric heating of target materials for high energy density physics experiments and WDM studies.

  20. Probing local and electronic structure in Warm Dense Matter: single pulse synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy on shocked Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torchio, Raffaella; Occelli, Florent; Mathon, Olivier; Sollier, Arnaud; Lescoute, Emilien; Videau, Laurent; Vinci, Tommaso; Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Headspith, Jon; Helsby, William; Bland, Simon; Eakins, Daniel; Chapman, David; Pascarelli, Sakura; Loubeyre, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Understanding Warm Dense Matter (WDM), the state of planetary interiors, is a new frontier in scientific research. There exists very little experimental data probing WDM states at the atomic level to test current models and those performed up to now are limited in quality. Here, we report a proof-of-principle experiment that makes microscopic investigations of materials under dynamic compression easily accessible to users and with data quality close to that achievable at ambient. Using a single 100 ps synchrotron x-ray pulse, we have measured, by K-edge absorption spectroscopy, ns-lived equilibrium states of WDM Fe. Structural and electronic changes in Fe are clearly observed for the first time at such extreme conditions. The amplitude of the EXAFS oscillations persists up to 500 GPa and 17000 K, suggesting an enduring local order. Moreover, a discrepancy exists with respect to theoretical calculations in the value of the energy shift of the absorption onset and so this comparison should help to refine the approximations used in models.

  1. Simulation of the Correlated Electron Plasma in the Warm Dense Matter Regime by Restricted Path-Integral Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapila, Vivek; Deymier, Pierre; Runge, Keith

    2012-02-01

    Warm dense matter (WDM) can be characterized by electron temperatures of a few eV and densities an order of magnitude or more beyond ambient. This regime currently lacks any adequate highly developed class of simulation methods. Recent developments in orbital-free Density Functional Theory (ofDFT) aim to provide such a simulation method, however, little benchmark information is available on temperature and pressure dependence of simple but realistic models in WDM regime. The present work aims to fill this critical gap using the restricted path-integral molecular dynamics (rPIMD) method. Within the discrete path integral representation, electrons are described as harmonic necklaces, while, quantum exchange takes the form of cross linking between electron necklaces. The fermion sign problem is addressed by restricting the density matrix to positive values and a molecular dynamics algorithm is employed to sample phase space. Here, we focus on the behavior of strongly correlated electron plasmas under WDM conditions. We compute the kinetic and potential energies and compare them to those obtained with the ofDFT method.

  2. Creating a Community to Strengthen the Broader Impacts of Condensed Matter Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenwalla, Shireen; Bosley, Jocelyn; Voth, Gregory; Smith, Leigh

    The Broader Impacts (BI) merit criteria set out by the National Science Foundation are essential for building the public support necessary for science to flourish. Condensed matter physicists (CMP) have made transformative impacts on our society, but these are often invisible to the public. Communicating the societal benefits of our research can be challenging, because CMP consists of many independent research groups for whom effective engagement in the public arena is not necessarily a forte. Other BI activities, such as engaging K-12 students and teachers to increase scientific literacy and strengthen the STEM workforce, may be very effective, but these are often isolated and short in duration. To increase the visibility of CMP and to make the implementation of BI activities more efficient, we have created a website with two sides: a public side to communicate to a broad audience exciting scientific discoveries in CMP and the technologies they enable, and a private side for condensed matter researchers to communicate with one another about effective broader impact activities. Here we discuss the content of the new website, and the best practices we have identified for communicating the excitement of CMP research to the broadest possible audience. Nsf-DMR 1550737, 1550724 and 1550681.

  3. Modeling Warm Dense Matter Experiments using the 3D ALE-AMR Code and the Move Toward Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Koniges, A; Eder, E; Liu, W; Barnard, J; Friedman, A; Logan, G; Fisher, A; Masers, N; Bertozzi, A

    2011-11-04

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX II) is an induction accelerator planned for initial commissioning in 2012. The final design calls for a 3 MeV, Li+ ion beam, delivered in a bunch with characteristic pulse duration of 1 ns, and transverse dimension of order 1 mm. The NDCX II will be used in studies of material in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime, and ion beam/hydrodynamic coupling experiments relevant to heavy ion based inertial fusion energy. We discuss recent efforts to adapt the 3D ALE-AMR code to model WDM experiments on NDCX II. The code, which combines Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamics with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), has physics models that include ion deposition, radiation hydrodynamics, thermal diffusion, anisotropic material strength with material time history, and advanced models for fragmentation. Experiments at NDCX-II will explore the process of bubble and droplet formation (two-phase expansion) of superheated metal solids using ion beams. Experiments at higher temperatures will explore equation of state and heavy ion fusion beam-to-target energy coupling efficiency. Ion beams allow precise control of local beam energy deposition providing uniform volumetric heating on a timescale shorter than that of hydrodynamic expansion. The ALE-AMR code does not have any export control restrictions and is currently running at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at LBNL and has been shown to scale well to thousands of CPUs. New surface tension models that are being implemented and applied to WDM experiments. Some of the approaches use a diffuse interface surface tension model that is based on the advective Cahn-Hilliard equations, which allows for droplet breakup in divergent velocity fields without the need for imposed perturbations. Other methods require seeding or other methods for droplet breakup. We also briefly discuss the effects of the move to exascale computing and related

  4. Toward a physics design for NDCX-II, an ion accelerator for warm dense matter and HIF target physics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Briggs, R.J.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Yu, S.S.

    2008-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaborationof LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, has achieved 60-fold pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In NDCX, a ramped voltage pulse from an induction cell imparts a velocity"tilt" to the beam; the beam's tail then catches up with its head in a plasma environment that provides neutralization. The HIFS-VNL's mission is to carry out studies of Warm Dense Matter (WDM) physics using ion beams as the energy source; an emerging thrust is basic target physics for heavy ion-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). These goals require an improved platform, labeled NDCX-II. Development of NDCX-II at modest cost was recently enabled by the availability of induction cells and associated hardware from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) facility at LLNL. Our initial physics design concept accelerates a ~;;30 nC pulse of Li+ ions to ~;;3 MeV, then compresses it to ~;;1 ns while focusing it onto a mm-scale spot. It uses the ATA cells themselves (with waveforms shaped by passive circuits) to impart the final velocity tilt; smart pulsers provide small corrections. The ATA accelerated electrons; acceleration of non-relativistic ions involves more complex beam dynamics both transversely and longitudinally. We are using analysis, an interactive one-dimensional kinetic simulation model, and multidimensional Warp-code simulations to develop the NDCX-II accelerator section. Both LSP and Warp codes are being applied to the beam dynamics in the neutralized drift and final focus regions, and the plasma injection process. The status of this effort is described.

  5. Toward a physics design for NDCX II, an ion accelerator for warm dense matter and HIF target physics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Briggs, R J; Davidson, R C; Dorf, M; Grote, D P; Henestroza, E; Lee, E P; Leitner, M A; Logan, B G; Sefkow, A B; Sharp, W M; Waldron, W L; Welch, D R; Yu, S S

    2008-07-30

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, has achieved 60-fold pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In NDCX, a ramped voltage pulse from an induction cell imparts a velocity 'tilt' to the beam; the beam's tail then catches up with its head in a plasma environment that provides neutralization. The HIFS-VNL's mission is to carry out studies of warm dense matter (WDM) physics using ion beams as the energy source; an emerging thrust is basic target physics for heavy ion-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE). These goals require an improved platform, labeled NDCX-II. Development of NDCX-II at modest cost was recently enabled by the availability of induction cells and associated hardware from the decommissioned advanced test accelerator (ATA) facility at LLNL. Our initial physics design concept accelerates an {approx} 30 nC pulse of Li{sup +} ions to {approx} 3 MeV, then compresses it to {approx} 1 ns while focusing it onto a mm-scale spot. It uses the ATA cells themselves (with waveforms shaped by passive circuits) to impart the final velocity tilt; smart pulsers provide small corrections. The ATA accelerated electrons; acceleration of non-relativistic ions involves more complex beam dynamics both transversely and longitudinally. We are using an interactive one-dimensional kinetic simulation model and multidimensional Warp-code simulations to develop the NDCX-II accelerator section. Both LSP and Warp codes are being applied to the beam dynamics in the neutralized drift and final focus regions, and the plasma injection process. The status of this effort is described.

  6. Stochastic gravitational wave background from newly born massive magnetars: The role of a dense matter equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Quan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Newly born massive magnetars are generally considered to be produced by binary neutron star (NS) mergers, which could give rise to short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). The strong magnetic fields and fast rotation of these magnetars make them promising sources for gravitational wave (GW) detection using ground based GW interferometers. Based on the observed masses of Galactic NS-NS binaries, by assuming different equations of state (EOSs) of dense matter, we investigate the stochastic gravitational wave background (SGWB) produced by an ensemble of newly born massive magnetars. The massive magnetar formation rate is estimated through: (i) the SGRB formation rate (hereafter entitled as MFR1); (ii) the NS-NS merger rate (hereafter entitled as MFR2). We find that for massive magnetars with masses Mr m =2.4743 M⊙ , if EOS CDDM2 is assumed, the resultant SGWBs may be detected by the future Einstein Telescope (ET) even for MFR1 with minimal local formation rate, and for MFR2 with a local merger rate ρ˙c o(0 )≲10 Mpc-3 Myr-1 . However, if EOS BSk21 is assumed, the SGWB may be detectable by the ET for MFR1 with the maximal local formation rate. Moreover, the background spectra show cutoffs at about 350 Hz in the case of EOS BSk21, and at 124 Hz for CDDM2, respectively. We suggest that if the cutoff at ˜100 Hz in the background spectrum from massive magnetars could be detected, then the quark star EOS CDDM2 seems to be favorable. Moreover, the EOSs, which present relatively small TOV maximum masses, would be excluded.

  7. Warm dense crystallography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenza, Ryan A.; Seidler, Gerald T.

    2016-03-01

    The intense femtosecond-scale pulses from x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) are able to create and interrogate interesting states of matter characterized by long-lived nonequilibrium semicore or core electron occupancies or by the heating of dense phases via the relaxation cascade initiated by the photoelectric effect. We address here the latter case of "warm dense matter" (WDM) and investigate the observable consequences of x-ray heating of the electronic degrees of freedom in crystalline systems. We report temperature-dependent density functional theory calculations for the x-ray diffraction from crystalline LiF, graphite, diamond, and Be. We find testable, strong signatures of condensed-phase effects that emphasize the importance of wide-angle scattering to study nonequilibrium states. These results also suggest that the reorganization of the valence electron density at eV-scale temperatures presents a confounding factor to achieving atomic resolution in macromolecular serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) studies at XFELs, as performed under the "diffract before destroy" paradigm.

  8. Atoms in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  9. Average-atom model for two-temperature states and ionic transport properties of aluminum in the warm dense matter regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Yong; Fu, Yongsheng; Bredow, Richard; Kang, Dongdong; Redmer, Ronald; Yuan, Jianmin

    2017-03-01

    The average-atom model combined with the hyper-netted chain approximation is an efficient tool for electronic and ionic structure calculations for warm dense matter. Here we generalize this method in order to describe non-equilibrium states with different electron and ion temperature as produced in laser-matter interactions on ultra-short time scales. In particular, the electron-ion and ion-ion correlation effects are considered when calculating the electron structure. We derive an effective ion-ion pair-potential using the electron densities in the framework of temperature-depended density functional theory. Using this ion-ion potential we perform molecular dynamics simulations in order to determine the ionic transport properties such as the ionic diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity through the ionic velocity autocorrelation functions.

  10. Average-atom treatment of relaxation time in x-ray Thomson scattering from warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. R.; Nilsen, J.

    2016-03-01

    The influence of finite relaxation times on Thomson scattering from warm dense plasmas is examined within the framework of the average-atom approximation. Presently most calculations use the collision-free Lindhard dielectric function to evaluate the free-electron contribution to the Thomson cross section. In this work, we use the Mermin dielectric function, which includes relaxation time explicitly. The relaxation time is evaluated by treating the average atom as an impurity in a uniform electron gas and depends critically on the transport cross section. The calculated relaxation rates agree well with values inferred from the Ziman formula for the static conductivity and also with rates inferred from a fit to the frequency-dependent conductivity. Transport cross sections determined by the phase-shift analysis in the average-atom potential are compared with those evaluated in the commonly used Born approximation. The Born approximation converges to the exact cross sections at high energies; however, differences that occur at low energies lead to corresponding differences in relaxation rates. The relative importance of including relaxation time when modeling x-ray Thomson scattering spectra is examined by comparing calculations of the free-electron dynamic structure function for Thomson scattering using Lindhard and Mermin dielectric functions. Applications are given to warm dense Be plasmas, with temperatures ranging from 2 to 32 eV and densities ranging from 2 to 64 g/cc.

  11. Matters of Light & Depth: Creating Memorable Images for Video, Film, & Stills through Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowell, Ross

    Written for students, professionals with limited experience, and professionals who encounter lighting difficulties, this book encourages sensitivity to light in its myriad manifestations: it offers advice in creating memorable images for video, film, and stills through lighting. Chapters in the book are: (1) "Lights of Passage: Basic Theory and…

  12. Detailed analysis of hollow ions spectra from dense matter pumped by X-ray emission of relativistic laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S. B. E-mail: anatolyf@hotmail.com; Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J.; Faenov, A. Ya. E-mail: anatolyf@hotmail.com; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Wagenaars, E.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C.; Booth, N.; Lancaster, K. L.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Kaempfer, T.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.; and others

    2014-03-15

    X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations.

  13. Detailed analysis of hollow ions spectra from dense matter pumped by X-ray emission of relativistic laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Colgan, J.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Abdallah, J.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Wagenaars, E.; Booth, N.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; Kaempfer, T.; Lancaster, K. L.; McKenna, P.; Rossall, A. K.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2014-03-01

    X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations.

  14. Using Magnetic Fields to Create and Control High Energy Density Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Mark

    2012-05-09

    The recently refurbished Z facility at Sandia National Laboratories is the world’s largest pulsed power driver. Z can efficiently deliver currents as large as 26 Million Amperes to centimeter scale loads. These large currents create large magnetic fields that, in turn, create very large pressures in conducting materials. These very large pressures have been used to create unique conditions for high energy density science experiments for a variety of applications. Recently, we have been exploring the use of very strong magnetic fields to significantly relax the requirements for achieving inertial confinement fusion self heating1. The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept relies on a cylindrically imploding liner, an axial magnetic field, and a laser heated fuel region. We hope to achieve significant fusion yield on the Z facility with this concept. Initial experiments assessing the growth of the Magneto-Rayleigh Taylor instability are promising and recent calculational work has identified an approach to achieving high gain with this concept.

  15. A multi-wavelength streak-optical-pyrometer for warm-dense matter experiments at NDCX-I and NDCX-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, P. A.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multi-wavelength streak-optical-pyrometer (SOP) developed the for warm-dense-matter (WDM) experiments at the existing NDCX-I facility and the NDCX-II facility currently being commissioned at LBNL. The SOP served as the primary temperature diagnostic in the recent NDCX-I experiments, in which an intense K+ beam was used to heat different metal samples into WDM states. The SOP consists of a spectral grating (visible and near-infrared spectral range) and a fast, high-dynamic-range optical streak camera. The instrument is calibrated absolutely with a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp and can itself be considered as an absolutely calibrated, time-resolving spectrometer. The sample temperature is determined from fitting the recorded thermal spectrum into the Planck formula multiplied by a model of emissivity.

  16. Examination of strangeness instabilities and effects of strange meson couplings in dense strange hadronic matter and compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, James R.; Gulminelli, Francesca; Menezes, Débora P.

    2017-02-01

    Background: The emergence of hyperon degrees of freedom in neutron star matter has been associated to first-order phase transitions in some phenomenological models, but conclusions on the possible physical existence of an instability in the strangeness sector are strongly model dependent. Purpose: The purposes of the present study are to assess whether strangeness instabilities are related to specific values of the largely unconstrained hyperon interactions and to study the effect of the strange meson couplings on phenomenological properties of neutron stars and supernova matter, once these latter are fixed to fulfill the constraints imposed by hypernuclear data. Method: We consider a phenomenological relativistic mean field model (RMF) model sufficiently simple to allow a complete exploration of the parameter space. Results: We show that no instability at supersaturation density exists for the RMF model, as long as the parameter space is constrained by basic physical requirements. This is at variance with a nonrelativistic functional, with a functional behavior fitted through ab initio calculations. Once the study is extended to include the full octet, we show that the parameter space allows reasonable radii for canonical neutron stars as well as massive stars above two-solar mass, together with an important strangeness content of the order of 30%, slightly decreasing with increasing entropy, even in the absence of a strangeness-driven phase transition. Conclusions: We conclude that the hyperon content of neutron stars and supernova matter cannot be established with present constraints, and is essentially governed by the unconstrained coupling to the strange isoscalar meson.

  17. Bulk and shear viscosities of matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, Piotr

    2010-03-15

    We study the effects of shear and bulk viscosities in the hadronic phase on the expansion of the fireball and on particle production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Comparing simulation with versus without viscosity in hadronic matter, we find that elliptic flow observables are strongly dependent on dissipative effects in the late stage. On the contrary, interferometry radii are sensitive, through early transverse flow, to the viscosity value at high temperatures. We present first calculations including the effects of bulk viscosity on the hadronic phase and on hadron emission. We find them to be important in obtaining a low freeze-out temperature consistent with the measured transverse momentum spectra and elliptic flow of identified particles.

  18. Fast six-channel pyrometer for warm-dense-matter experiments with intense heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, P.A.; Kulish, M.I.; Mintsev, V.; Nikolaev, D.N.; Ternovoi, V.Ya.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Udrea, S.; Tahir, N.A.; Varentsov, D.; Hug, A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes a fast multi-channel radiation pyrometer that was developed for warmdense-matter experiments with intense heavy ion beams at Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH (GSI). The pyrometer is capable of measuring of brightness temperatures from 2000 K to 50000 K, at 6 wavelengths in visible and near-infrared parts of spectrum, with 5 nanosecond temporal resolution and several micrometers spatial resolution. The pyrometer's spectral discrimination technique is based on interference filters, which act as filters and mirrors to allow for simultaneous spectral discrimination of the same ray at multiple wavelengths.

  19. SPiRIT-TPC with GET readout electronics for the study of density dependent symmetry energy of high dense matter with Heavy RI collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Tadaaki; SPiRIT Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The nuclear Equation of State (EoS) is a fundamental property of nuclear matter that describes the relationships between the parameters for a nuclear system, such as energy, density and temperature. An international collaboration, named SPiRIT, to study the nuclear EoS has been formed recently. One of the main devices of experimental setup is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) which will be installed into the SAMURAI dipole magnet at RIKEN-RIBF. The TPC can measure charged pions, protons and light ions simultaneously in heavy RI collisions, and those will be used as probes to study the asymmetric dense nuclear matter. In addition to the status of the SPiRIT project, testing of SPiRIT-TPC with GET electronics will be presented in this talk. GET, general electronics for TPC, is a project for the development of novel electronics for TPC supported by NSF and ANR. This work is supported in part by the Japan Grant-in-Aide award and the US DOE grant DE-SC0004835 and JUSEIPEN.

  20. Theory of ultra dense matter and the dynamics of high energy interactions involving nuclei. Progress report, December 15, 1993--December 14, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1994-09-12

    This report summarizes the progress made during the second year of the three year DOE agreement DE-FG02-93ER40764 on theoretical nuclear physics research performed at the Columbia University and presents a detailed budget adjustment for the third year period December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995. Sections 1.1 to 1.8 highlight the technical progress made on the following general areas: Multiple scattering and radiative processes in QCD; the quark-gluon plasma transition in nuclear matter; QCD transport theory and dissipative mechanism in dense matter; phenomenological models of high energy interactions involving nuclei; signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation in A+A; neurocomputation theory. Section 2 contains a bibliography of published papers and invited conference papers. Section 3 lists the Columbia nuclear theory members for the December 15, 1994 to December 14, 1995 period. Finally, the budget adjustment requesting $319,830 for the third year relative to the original $320,000 is presented in section 6. Copies of the research papers accompany this report.

  1. Exotic dense-matter states pumped by a relativistic laser plasma in the radiation-dominated regime.

    PubMed

    Colgan, J; Abdallah, J; Faenov, A Ya; Pikuz, S A; Wagenaars, E; Booth, N; Culfa, O; Dance, R J; Evans, R G; Gray, R J; Kaempfer, T; Lancaster, K L; McKenna, P; Rossall, A L; Skobelev, I Yu; Schulze, K S; Uschmann, I; Zhidkov, A G; Woolsey, N C

    2013-03-22

    In high-spectral resolution experiments with the petawatt Vulcan laser, strong x-ray radiation of KK hollow atoms (atoms without n = 1 electrons) from thin Al foils was observed at pulse intensities of 3 × 10(20) W/cm(2). The observations of spectra from these exotic states of matter are supported by detailed kinetics calculations, and are consistent with a picture in which an intense polychromatic x-ray field, formed from Thomson scattering and bremsstrahlung in the electrostatic fields at the target surface, drives the KK hollow atom production. We estimate that this x-ray field has an intensity of >5 × 10(18) W/cm(2) and is in the 3 keV range.

  2. C P violation and chiral symmetry breaking in hot and dense quark matter in the presence of a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Bhaswar; Mishra, Hiranmaya; Mishra, Amruta

    2015-02-01

    We investigate chiral symmetry breaking and strong charge parity (C P ) violation effects on the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The effects of a magnetic field and strong C P violating term on the phase structure at finite temperature and density are studied within a three flavor Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model including the Kobayashi-Maskawa-t'Hooft determinant term. This is investigated using an explicit variational ansatz for ground state with quark-antiquark pairs leading to condensates both in scalar and pseudoscalar channels. A magnetic field enhances the condensate in both the channels. Inverse magnetic catalysis for C P transition at finite chemical potential is seen for zero temperature and for small magnetic fields. The C P transition becomes first order at finite baryon chemical potential and could be relevant for generating C P -odd metastable domains in heavy ion collision experiments.

  3. Electron-ion and ion-ion potentials for modeling warm dense matter: Applications to laser-heated or shock-compressed Al and Si.

    PubMed

    Dharma-wardana, M W C

    2012-09-01

    The pair interactions Uij(r) determine the thermodynamics and linear transport properties of matter via the pair-distribution functions (PDFs), i.e., gij(r). Great simplicity is achieved if Uij(r) could be directly used to predict material properties via classical simulations, avoiding many-body wave functions. Warm dense matter (WDM) is encountered in quasiequilibria where the electron temperature Te differs from the ion temperature Ti, as in laser-heated or in shock-compressed matter. The electron PDFs gee(r) as perturbed by the ions are used to evaluate fully nonlocal exchange-correlation corrections to the free energy, using hydrogen as an example. Electron-ion potentials for ions with a bound core are discussed with Al and Si as examples, for WDM with Te≠Ti, and valid for times shorter than the electron-ion relaxation time. In some cases the potentials develop attractive regions and then become repulsive and "Yukawa-like" for higher Te. These results clarify the origin of initial phonon hardening and rapid release. Pair potentials for shock-heated WDM show that phonon hardening would not occur in most such systems. Defining meaningful quasiequilibrium static transport coefficients consistent with the dynamic values is addressed. There seems to be no meaningful "static conductivity" obtainable by extrapolating experimental or theoretical σ(ω,Ti,Te) to ω→0, unless Ti→Te as well. Illustrative calculations of quasistatic resistivities R(Ti,Te) of laser-heated as well as shock-heated aluminum and silicon are presented using our pseudopotentials, pair potentials, and classical integral equations. The quasistatic resistivities display clear differences in their temperature evolutions, but are not the strict ω→0 limits of the dynamic values.

  4. Stocks and dynamics of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a large, shallow eutrophic lake (Taihu, China) with dense cyanobacterial blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Limei; Huang, Yaxin; Lu, Yaping; Chen, Feizhou; Zhang, Min; Yu, Yang; Kong, Fanxiang

    2017-08-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms occur in eutrophic lakes worldwide, and greatly impair these ecosystems. To explore influences of cyanobacterial blooms on dynamics of both particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), which are at the base of the food chain, an investigation was conducted from December 2014 to November 2015 that included various stages of the seasonal cyanobacterial blooms (dominated by Microcystis) in a large-shallow eutrophic Chinese lake (Taihu Lake). Data from eight sites of the lake are compiled into a representative seasonal cycle to assess general patterns of POM and DOM dynamics. Compared to December, 5-fold and 3.5-fold increases were observed in July for particulate organic carbon (POC, 3.05-15.37 mg/L) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 5.48-19.25 mg/L), respectively, with chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations varying from 8.2 to 97.7 μg/L. Approximately 40% to 76% of total organic carbon was partitioned into DOC. All C, N, and P in POM and DOC were significantly correlated with Chl a. POC:Chl a ratios were low, whereas proportions of the estimated phytoplankton-derived organic matter in total POM were high during bloom seasons. These results suggested that contributions of cyanobacterial blooms to POM and DOC varied seasonally. Seasonal average C:P ratios in POM and DOM varied from 79 to 187 and 299 to 2 175, respectively. Both peaked in July and then sharply decreased. Redundancy analysis revealed that Chl a explained most of the variations of C:N:P ratios in POM, whereas temperature was the most explanatory factor for DOM. These findings suggest that dense cyanobacterial blooms caused both C-rich POM and DOM, thereby providing clues for understanding their influence on ecosystems.

  5. Organic matter dynamics in Technosols created with metalliferous mine residues, biochar and marble waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Acosta, José A.; Ángeles Muñoz, M.; Faz, Ángel; Zornoza, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    Creation of Technosols by use of different materials can be a sustainable strategy to reclaim mine tailings spread on the environment. A proper selection of materials is critical to efficiently contribute to soil creation, with development of soil structure, organic matter stabilization and stimulation of microbial growth. For this purpose, a short-term incubation experiment was designed with biochars derived from different feedstocks, added to tailings alone or in combination with marble waste (MaW). We aimed to assess the effects of the different materials on the evolution of C and N contents and pools, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, aggregate stability, and microbial biomass and activity. Results showed that carbonates provided by MaW increased pH around the target value of 8, with significant decrease in salinity by precipitation of soluble salts. Organic C and total N remained stable during the incubation, with high recalcitrant indices. Labile and soluble C and N pools were low in Technosols, with no differences with unamended tailings at the end of incubation. All biochars increased aggregate stability with regard to control by 40%, with no effect of addition of MaW. Biochars significantly increased microbial biomass C during the first 7 days of incubation; however, from this date, there were no significant differences with unamended tailings. The β-glucosidase activity was below detection limit in all samples, while arylesterase activity increased in biochar-amended samples favored by increases in pH. CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by any amendment, while N2O emissions increased with the addition of biochars with lower recalcitrance. CH4 emissions decreased in all Technosols receiving biochar. Thus, the combined use of biochar and MaW contributed to soil C sequestration and improved soil structure. However, labile sources of organic compounds would be needed to stimulate microbial populations in the Technosols. Acknowledgements This work

  6. Form and Size Matter: Increased Risk of Thrombosis in Microvessels with Surgically Created Endothelial Lesions.

    PubMed

    Mücke, Thomas; Wolff, Constantin; von Düring, Monika; Mitchell, David A; Ritschl, Lucas M; Fichter, Andreas M

    2017-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a known risk factor for flap loss in microsurgery. Several microsurgical techniques, like plaque removal, have been proposed for atherosclerotic vessels, but these techniques often induce intimal injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of various endothelial defects on the risk of thrombosis in a rat acute intimal injury model. Methods Endothelial defects of various forms and sizes were created in the abdominal aorta of 30 male Wistar rats following a strict protocol. Defect sizes were measured and classified as round, horizontal, or vertical based on their configuration. An hour after reestablishing the blood flow, the abdominal aorta was harvested and the operation site was assessed for signs of thrombosis clinically and using light microscopy. Univariate and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to identify possible influencing factors on thrombosis. Results The mean defect size was 2.65 ± 1.19 mm(2). Intimal lesions were classified as round in 36.7%, horizontal in 33.3%, and vertical in 30% of specimens. Thrombus formation was detected in 46.7% clinically and in 50% histologically. Univariate regression analysis revealed that defect size (p = 0.048) and vertical form (p = 0.017) were significantly associated with thrombus formation. Multiple regression analysis corroborated vertical defects as a risk factor for thrombosis (p = 0.03). Conclusion Endothelial injuries are associated with a high risk of thrombosis with highest risks associated with vertical defects. Arteries should be carefully examined for intimal defects before microvascular anastomosis, especially in the atherosclerotic patient.

  7. Denitrification potential and organic matter as affected by vegetation community, wetland age, and plant introduction in created wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria E; Mitsch, William J

    2007-01-01

    Denitrification potential (DP) and organic matter (OM) in soils were compared in three different vegetation communities-emergent macrophyte, open water, and forested edge-in two 10-yr-old created riverine wetlands. Organic matter, cold water-extractable organic matter (CWEOM), anaerobic mineralizable carbon (AnMC), and DP varied significantly (P<0.05) among vegetation communities. The surface (0 to 9 cm) soils in the emergent macrophyte community (EMC) showed highest DP (0.07+/-0.01 mg N h-1 kg-1), OM (84.90+/-5.60 g kg-1), CWEOM (1.12+/-0.20 g kg-1), and AnMC (1.50+/-0.10 mg C h-1 kg-1). In the deeper layer (9 to 18 cm), DP and CWEOM (0.04+/-0.01 mg N h-1 kg-1 and 1.13+/-0.20 g kg-1, respectively) were significantly higher in the open water community (OWC) than in the emergent macrophyte and forested edge communities. Plant introduction did not affect DP or OM content and characteristics. After 10 yr of wetland development, mean DP increased 25-fold in the surface layer (from 0.002 to 0.053 mg N h-1 kg-1); OM content more than doubled to 90.80+/-19.22 g kg-1, and CWEOM and HWEOM increased 2.5 and 2.7 times respectively from 1993 (prewetland conditions) to 2004. Humic acids were the most abundant form of OM in 2004 and 1993 samples. Significant (P<0.05) positive relationships between DP and OM, CWEOM, and AnMC were found in the surface layer; in the 9- to 18-cm layer, significant positive relationships were found between DP and CWEOM and AnMC.

  8. Charged-current weak interaction processes in hot and dense matter and its impact on the spectra of neutrinos emitted from protoneutron star cooling.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pinedo, G; Fischer, T; Lohs, A; Huther, L

    2012-12-21

    We perform three-flavor Boltzmann neutrino transport radiation hydrodynamics simulations covering a period of 3 s after the formation of a protoneutron star in a core-collapse supernova explosion. Our results show that a treatment of charged-current neutrino interactions in hot and dense matter as suggested by Reddy et al. [Phys. Rev. D 58, 013009 (1998)] has a strong impact on the luminosities and spectra of the emitted neutrinos. When compared with simulations that neglect mean-field effects on the neutrino opacities, we find that the luminosities of all neutrino flavors are reduced while the spectral differences between electron neutrinos and antineutrinos are increased. Their magnitude depends on the equation of state and in particular on the symmetry energy at subnuclear densities. These modifications reduce the proton-to-nucleon ratio of the outflow, increasing slightly their entropy. They are expected to have a substantial impact on nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds, even though they do not result in conditions that favor an r process. Contrary to previous findings, our results show that the spectra of electron neutrinos remain substantially different from those of other (anti)neutrino flavors during the entire deleptonization phase of the protoneutron star. The obtained luminosity and spectral changes are also expected to have important consequences for neutrino flavor oscillations and neutrino detection on Earth.

  9. Dense Breasts

    MedlinePlus

    ... fatty tissue. On a mammogram, fatty tissue appears dark (radio-lucent) and the glandular and connective tissues ... white on mammography) and non-dense fatty tissue (dark on mammography) using a visual scale and assign ...

  10. Vortons in dense quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan; Cherman, Aleksey

    2011-07-01

    At large baryon number density, it is likely that the ground state of QCD is a color-flavor-locked phase with a K0 condensate. The CFL+K0 phase is known to support superconducting vortex strings, and it has been previously suggested that it may also support vortons, which are superconducting vortex rings. We reexamine the question of the stability of vortons, taking into account electromagnetic effects, which make leading-order contributions to vorton dynamics but were not investigated in previous work. We find that current-carrying and electrically charged vortons can be stabilized either by their angular momentum, by Coulomb repulsion, or by a combination of both effects.

  11. Quantum Simulations for Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ceperley, David M

    2010-06-07

    High pressure systems are important, for example, to understand the interiors of giant planets (Jupiter and Saturn), for experiments at NIF (the National Ignition Facility at Livermore) related to inertially confined fusion and for other interests of DOE. In this project, we are developing innovative simulation methods (Quantum Monte Carlo methods) to allow more accurate calculation of properties of systems under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. These methods can use the power of current day supercomputers made of very many processors, starting from the basic equations of physics to model quantum phenomena important at the microscopic scale. During the grant period, we have settled two important questions of the physics of hydrogen and helium under extreme conditions. We have found the pressures and temperatures when hydrogen and helium mix together; this is important to understand the difference of the interiors of the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Secondly, we have shown that there exists a sharp transition as a function of pressure between molecular and atomic liquid hydrogen at temperatures below 2000K. This prediction can be confirmed with high pressure experiments.

  12. Generation of warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas using the High Radiation on Materials facility at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Naeem A.; Schmidt, Ruediger; Brugger, Markus; Assmann, Ralph; Shutov, Alexander; Lomonosov, Igor V.; Gryaznov, Viktor; Piriz, Antonio Roberto; Udrea, Serban; Hoffmann, Dieter H. H.; Fortov, Vladimir E.; Deutsch, Claude

    2009-08-01

    A dedicated facility named High Radiation on Materials (HiRadMat) is being constructed at CERN to study the interaction of the 450 GeV protons generated by the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) with fixed solid targets of different materials. The main purpose of these future experiments is to study the generation and propagation of thermal shock waves in the target in order to assess the damage caused to the equipment, including collimators and absorbers, in case of an accident involving an uncontrolled release of the entire beam at a given point. Detailed numerical simulations of the beam-target interaction of several cases of interest have been carried out. In this paper we present simulations of the thermodynamic and the hydrodynamic response of a solid tungsten cylindrical target that is facially irradiated with the SPS beam with nominal parameters. These calculations have been carried out in two steps. First, the energy loss of the protons is calculated in the solid target using the FLUKA code [Fasso et al., "FLUKA: A multi-particle transport code," Report Nos. CERN-2005-10, INFN/TC-05/11, and SLAC-R-773, 2005; Fasso et al., Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics, La Jolla, CA, 24-28 March 2003] and this energy loss data is used as input to a sophisticated two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2 [Fortov et al., Nucl. Sci. Eng. 123, 169 (1996)], which is based on a Godunov-type numerical scheme. The transverse intensity distribution in the beam focal spot is Gaussian. We consider three different sizes of the focal spot that are characterized by standard deviations, σ =0.088, 0.28, and 0.88 mm, respectively. This study has shown that the target is severely damaged in all the three cases and the material in the beam-heated region is transformed into warm dense matter including a strongly coupled plasma state. This new experimental facility can therefore also be used for dedicated experiments to study high energy density matter.

  13. ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIOMASS AND SOIL ORGANIC MATTER IN CREATED WETLANDS OF CENTRAL PENNSYLVANIA, USA. (R824905)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Created wetlands are frequently structurally different from the natural wetlands they are intended to replace. With differences in structure might come differences in function. Most created wetlands in central Pennsylvania have very low amounts of soil organic...

  14. Creating high-resolution bare-earth digital elevation models (DEMs) from stereo imagery in an area of densely vegetated deciduous forest using combinations of procedures designed for lidar point cloud filtering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Jessica D.; Warner, Timothy A.; Chirico, Pete; Bergstresser, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    For areas of the world that do not have access to lidar, fine-scale digital elevation models (DEMs) can be photogrammetrically created using globally available high-spatial resolution stereo satellite imagery. The resultant DEM is best termed a digital surface model (DSM) because it includes heights of surface features. In densely vegetated conditions, this inclusion can limit its usefulness in applications requiring a bare-earth DEM. This study explores the use of techniques designed for filtering lidar point clouds to mitigate the elevation artifacts caused by above ground features, within the context of a case study of Prince William Forest Park, Virginia, USA. The influences of land cover and leaf-on vs. leaf-off conditions are investigated, and the accuracy of the raw photogrammetric DSM extracted from leaf-on imagery was between that of a lidar bare-earth DEM and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM. Although the filtered leaf-on photogrammetric DEM retains some artifacts of the vegetation canopy and may not be useful for some applications, filtering procedures significantly improved the accuracy of the modeled terrain. The accuracy of the DSM extracted in leaf-off conditions was comparable in most areas to the lidar bare-earth DEM and filtering procedures resulted in accuracy comparable of that to the lidar DEM.

  15. Resistivity and anisotropic return currents in warm dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolsey, Nigel; Booth, Nicola; Robinson, A.; Hakel, P.; Clarke, R.; Dance, R.; Doia, D.; Gizzi, L.; Gregori, G.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Li, B.; Makita, M.; Mancini, R.; Pasley, J.; Rajeev, P.; Riley, D.; Wagenaars, E.; Waugh, J.

    2015-11-01

    In an ultra-intense laser interaction with a solid, the electrons from the hot plasma are accelerated by the laser streaming into the solid behind, creating a dense plasma in the bulk. This provides a laboratory for creating warm dense matter in a parameter range where the material resistivity and equation of states are complex and mostly untested. Here we describe an experimental study of electron transport in a low atomic number (plastic) material at solid density and temperatures of 200 eV. The plastic is doped with sulphur as a diagnostic tracer to enable the observation of emission spectra. Through observing high positive polarisation in this emission it is possible to infer in situ anisotropic currents driving the heat transport. Matching the current anisotropy enables tests of resistivity models in these complex plasmas. Results show that the background resistivity at these conditions is high than expected from commonly used models.

  16. Does mindfulness matter? Everyday mindfulness, mindful eating and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods among a sample of South Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-08-01

    Serving size is a modifiable determinant of energy consumption, and an important factor to address in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The present study tested an hypothesised negative association between individuals' everyday mindfulness and self-reported serving size of energy dense foods. The mediating role of mindful eating was also explored. A community sample of 171 South Australian adults completed self-report measures of everyday mindfulness and mindful eating. The dependent measure was participants' self-reported average serving size of energy dense foods consumed in the preceding week. Participants who reported higher levels of everyday mindfulness were more mindful eaters (r=0.41, p<0.05) and reported smaller serving size estimates of energy dense foods (r=-.25, p<0.05). Mindful eating fully mediated the negative association between everyday mindfulness and serving size. The domains of mindful eating most relevant to serving size included emotional and disinhibited eating. Results suggest that mindful eating may have a greater influence on serving size than daily mindfulness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Microwave generation in an optical breakdown plasma created by modulated laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, A. A.; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z.; Losev, Leonid L.; Soskov, V. I.

    1990-06-01

    It was established that when laser radiation, intensity modulated at a frequency of 2.2 GHz, interacted with an optical breakdown plasma which it had created, a microwave component appeared in the thermal emf of the plasma. The amplitude of the microwave thermal emf reached 0.7 V for a laser radiation intensity of 6 GW/cm2. Laser radiation with λL = 1.06 μm was converted to the microwave range with λmω = 13 cm in the optical breakdown plasma. A microwave signal power of ~ 0.5 W was obtained from a laser power of ~ 5 MW.

  18. Dense Axion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  19. Dense Axion Stars.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-16

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  20. Dense Axion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10-14M⊙ if the axion mass is 10-4 eV . We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10-20M⊙ to about M⊙ . If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  1. Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter" - ARRA portion

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Denes

    2014-04-14

    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the first four years of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Two main areas have been advanced: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time) on both single-CPU and parallel computers; ii) development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles, and application of this framework to relativistic heavy-ion collisions, in particular, determination of the shear viscosity. Year 5 of the ECRP is under a separate award number, and therefore it has its own report document ’Final Technical Report for Year 5 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCDmatter”’ (award DE-SC0008028). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Topical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  2. Electron and ion dynamics study of iron in warm dense matter regime by time-resolved XAS measurements and from first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogitsu, T.; Fernandez-Paãella, A.; Correa, A.; Engelhorn, K.; Barbrel, B.; Prendergast, D. G.; Pemmaraju, D.; Beckwith, M.; Kraus, D.; Hamel, S.; Cho, B. I.; Jin, L.; Wong, J.; Heinman, P.; Collins, G. W.; Falcone, R.; Ping, Y.

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the electron-phonon coupling of warm dense iron upon femtosecond laser excitation by time-resolved x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). The dynamics of iron in electron-ion non-equilibrium conditions was studied using ab-initio density-functional-theory (DFT) simulations combined with the Two Temperature Model (TTM) where spatial inhomogeneity of electron (and ion) temperature(s) due to short ballistic electron transport length in iron was explicitly taken into consideration. Detailed comparison between our simulation results and experiments indicates that the ion temperature dependence on specific heat and on electron-phonon coupling also plays a relevant role in modeling the relaxation dynamics of electrons and ions. These results are the first experimental evidence of the suppression of the electron-phonon coupling factor of a transition metal at electron temperatures ranging 5000- 10000 K. This work was performed under DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 with support from OFES Early Career program and LLNL LDRD program.

  3. Resolving the Large Scale Spectral Variability of the Luminous Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0419-577: Evidence for a New Emission Component and Absorption by Cold Dense Matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounds, K. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Page, K. L.; OBrien, P. T.

    2004-01-01

    An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 in September 2002, when the source was in an extreme low-flux state, found a very hard X-ray spectrum at 1-10 keV with a strong soft excess below -1 keV. Comparison with an earlier XMM-Newton observation when 1H 0419-577 was X-ray bright indicated the dominant spectral variability was due to a steep power law or cool Comptonised thermal emission. Four further XMM-Newton observations, with 1H 0419-577 in intermediate flux states, now support that conclusion, while we also find the variable emission component in intermediate state difference spectra to be strongly modified by absorption in low ionisation matter. The variable soft excess then appears to be an artefact of absorption of the underlying continuum while the core soft emission can be attributed to re- combination in an extended region of more highly ionised gas. We note the wider implications of finding substantial cold dense matter overlying (or embedded in) the X-ray continuum source in a luminous Seyfert 1 galaxy.

  4. Final Technical Report for Year 5 Early Career Research Project "Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter"

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, Denes

    2016-05-25

    The Section below summarizes research activities and achievements during the fifth (last) year of the PI’s Early Career Research Project (ECRP). Unlike the first four years of the project, the last year was not funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The ECRP advanced two main areas: i) radiative 3 ↔ 2 radiative transport, via development of a new computer code MPC/Grid that solves the Boltzmann transport equation in full 6+1D (3X+3V+time); and ii) application of relativistic hydrodynamics, via development of a self-consistent framework to convert viscous fluids to particles. In Year 5 we finalized thermalization studies with radiative gg ↔ ggg transport (Sec. 1.1.1) and used nonlinear covariant transport to assess the accuracy of fluid-to-particle conversion models (Sec. 1.1.2), calculated observables with self-consistent fluid-to-particle conversion from realistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution (Secs. 1.2.1 and 1.2.2), extended the covariant energy loss formulation to heavy quarks (Sec. 1.4.1) and studied energy loss in small systems (Sec. 1.4.2), and also investigated how much of the elliptic flow could have non-hydrodynamic origin (Sec 1.3). Years 1-4 of the ECRP were ARRA-funded and, therefore, they have their own report document ’Final Technical Report for Years 1-4 of the Early Career Research Project “Viscosity and equation of state of hot and dense QCD matter”’ (same award number DE-SC0004035). The PI’s group was also part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration, a multi-institution project that overlapped in time significantly with the ECRP. Purdue achievements as part of the JET Top- ical Collaboration are in a separate report “Final Technical Report summarizing Purdue research activities as part of the DOE JET Topical Collaboration” (award DE-SC0004077).

  5. Dense topological spaces and dense continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldwoah, Khaled A.

    2013-09-01

    There are several attempts to generalize (or "widen") the concept of topological space. This paper uses equivalence relations to generalize the concept of topological space via the concept of equivalence relations. By the generalization, we can introduce from particular topology on a nonempty set X many new topologies, we call anyone of these new topologies a dense topology. In addition, we formulate some simple properties of dense topologies and study suitable generalizations of the concepts of limit points, closeness and continuity, as well as Jackson, Nörlund and Hahn dense topologies.

  6. Energy Transport and Ionization Balance in Isochorically Heated Dense Plasmas*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landen, Otto

    2003-04-01

    Dense plasmas, a principal state of matter in inertial confinement fusion research and in planetary and stellar environments, can now be routinely created in the laboratory at diagnosable mm-scales by x-ray radiative heating provided by high power laser produced plasmas. We discuss two recent studies in such isochorically-heated plasmas, the first examining supersonic diffusive radiative transport in foam cylinders using spectrally and temporally-resolved soft x-ray imaging [1] and the second studying solid density plasma ionization balance [2] using spectrally resolved x-ray scattering [3]. The radiation transport data provides a measure of the dense plasma heat capacity and opacity for the various foam and wall materials tested. Moreover, data from more complex radiation flow geometries further constrain the radiation transport modelling. In the case of x-ray scattering measurements, by spectrally resolving both the Compton downshifted and Doppler broadened inelastic component and the Rayleigh scattered elastic component, we can infer both the plasma electron temperature and ratio of weakly bound and free electron fraction to tightly bound electron fraction in low Z samples. The results are compared to various dense plasma ionization balance models. [1] C.A. Back, et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 274 and Phys. Plasmas 7 (2000 ) 2126. [2] S.H. Glenzer, et. al., submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (2003). [3] O.L. Landen, et. al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 71 (2001) 465.

  7. Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Jeremey; Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Johann

    2012-03-01

    We propose to search for nuclear density or greater compact ultra dense objects (CUDOs), which could constitute a significant fraction of the dark matter [1]. Considering their high density, the gravitational tidal forces are significant and atomic-density matter cannot stop an impacting CUDO, which punctures the surface of the target body, pulverizing, heating and entraining material near its trajectory through the target [2]. Because impact features endure over geologic timescales, the Earth, Moon, Mars, Mercury and large asteroids are well-suited to act as time-integrating CUDO detectors. There are several potential candidates for CUDO structure such as strangelet fragments or more generally dark matter if mechanisms exist for it to form compact objects. [4pt] [1] B. J. Carr, K. Kohri, Y. Sendouda, & J.'i. Yokoyama, Phys. Rev. D81, 104019 (2010). [0pt] [2] L. Labun, J. Birrell, J. Rafelski, Solar System Signatures of Impacts by Compact Ultra Dense Objects, arXiv:1104.4572.

  8. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    DOE PAGES

    Doppner, T; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; ...

    2014-11-05

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. Furthermore, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  9. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, N. J.; Belancourt, P.; Chapman, D. A.; Döppner, T.; Drake, R. P.; Gericke, D. O.; Glenzer, S. H.; Khaghani, D.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Neumayer, P.; Pak, A.; Peters, L.; Richardson, S.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.; Gregori, G.

    2015-03-01

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. However, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  10. Electron-ion temperature equilibration in warm dense tantalum

    SciTech Connect

    Doppner, T; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; Pak, A.; Hartley, N. J.; Peters, L.; Gregori, G.; Belancourt, P.; Drake, R. P.; Chapman, D. A.; Richardson, S.; Gericke, D. O.; Glenzer, S. H.; Khaghani, D.; Neumayer, P.; Vorberger, J.; White, T. G.

    2014-11-05

    We present measurements of electron-ion temperature equilibration in proton-heated tantalum, under warm dense matter conditions. Our results agree with theoretical predictions for metals calculated using input data from ab initio simulations. Furthermore, the fast relaxation observed in the experiment contrasts with much longer equilibration times found in proton heated carbon, indicating that the energy flow pathways in warm dense matter are far from being fully understood.

  11. Fast temperature relaxation model in dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faussurier, Gérald; Blancard, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast model to calculate the temperature-relaxation rates in dense plasmas. The electron-ion interaction-potential is calculated by combining a Yukawa approach and a finite-temperature Thomas-Fermi model. We include the internal energy as well as the excess energy of ions using the QEOS model. Comparisons with molecular dynamics simulations and calculations based on an average-atom model are presented. This approach allows the study of the temperature relaxation in a two-temperature electron-ion system in warm and hot dense matter.

  12. The Dense Gas in M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, P.; Galaz, G.; Salter, D.; Bolatto, A.; Herrera-Camus, R.

    2014-10-01

    Galactic winds are responsible of carrying energy and matter from the inner regions of galaxies to the outer regions, even reaching the intergalactic medium. This process removes gas from the inner regions, the available material to form stars. How and in which amount these winds remove gas from galaxies plays an important role in galaxy evolution. To study this effect we have obtained 3 mm maps of dense gas (n_{{crit}}>10^{4} cm^{-3}) in the central region of the starburst galaxy M82. We detect line emission from the dense molecular gas tracers HCN, HCO^{+}, HNC, CS, HC_{3}N and C_{6}H. Our maps reveal a considerable amount of HCO^{+} emission extending above and bellow the central star-forming disk, indicating that the dense gas is entangled in the outflow. The mass of molecular Hydrogen outside the central starburst is M_{{out}}≍ 3 ± 1× 10^{6} M_{odot}, while in the central starburst is M_{{disk}}≍ 8 ± 2× 10^{6} M_{odot}. These maps also show variations of the amount of dense gas over the starburst disk, revealing that the gas is more concentrated towards the center of the starburst and less towards the edges. It is the average amount of dense gas what drives the observed star formation law between dense gas and star formation rate on galactic scales.

  13. Dense crystalline packings of ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Weiwei; Jiao, Yang; Liu, Lufeng; Yuan, Ye; Li, Shuixiang

    2017-03-01

    An ellipsoid, the simplest nonspherical shape, has been extensively used as a model for elongated building blocks for a wide spectrum of molecular, colloidal, and granular systems. Yet the densest packing of congruent hard ellipsoids, which is intimately related to the high-density phase of many condensed matter systems, is still an open problem. We discover an unusual family of dense crystalline packings of self-dual ellipsoids (ratios of the semiaxes α : √{α }:1 ), containing 24 particles with a quasi-square-triangular (SQ-TR) tiling arrangement in the fundamental cell. The associated packing density ϕ exceeds that of the densest known SM2 crystal [ A. Donev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 255506 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.255506] for aspect ratios α in (1.365, 1.5625), attaining a maximal ϕ ≈0.758 06 ... at α = 93 /64 . We show that the SQ-TR phase derived from these dense packings is thermodynamically stable at high densities over the aforementioned α range and report a phase diagram for self-dual ellipsoids. The discovery of the SQ-TR crystal suggests organizing principles for nonspherical particles and self-assembly of colloidal systems.

  14. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubbles shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.

  15. Coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Yeseul; Lim, Su Jin; Gim, Bopil; ...

    2015-01-13

    A bubble merged from two parent bubbles with different size tends to be placed closer to the larger parent. This phenomenon is known as the coalescence preference. Here we demonstrate that the coalescence preference can be blocked inside a densely packed cluster of bubbles. We utilized high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence events inside densely packed microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Thus, the surface energy release theory predicts an exponent of 5 in a relation between the relative coalescence position and the parent size ratio, whereas our observation for coalescence in densely packed microbubblesmore » shows a different exponent of 2. We believe that this result would be important to understand the reality of coalescence dynamics in a variety of packing situations of soft matter.« less

  16. Dynamic structure factor in warm dense beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagemann, K.-U.; Sperling, P.; Thiele, R.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Fortmann, C.; Döppner, T.; Lee, H. J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Redmer, R.

    2012-05-01

    We calculate the dynamic structure factor (DSF) in warm dense beryllium by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamic conductivity is derived from the Kubo-Greenwood formula, and a Drude-like behaviour is observed. The corresponding dielectric function is used to determine the DSF. Since the ab initio approach is so far only applicable for wavenumbers k = 0, the k-dependence of the dielectric function is modelled via the Mermin ansatz. We present the results for the dielectric function and DSF of warm dense beryllium and compare these with perturbative treatments such as the Born-Mermin approximation. We found considerable differences between the results of these approaches; this underlines the need for a first-principles determination of the DSF of warm dense matter.

  17. Quantum-Mechanical Calculation of Ionization-Potential Lowering in Dense Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Sang-Kil; Thiele, Robert; Jurek, Zoltan; Ziaja, Beata; Santra, Robin

    2014-07-01

    The charged environment within a dense plasma leads to the phenomenon of ionization-potential depression (IPD) for ions embedded in the plasma. Accurate predictions of the IPD effect are of crucial importance for modeling atomic processes occurring within dense plasmas. Several theoretical models have been developed to describe the IPD effect, with frequently discrepant predictions. Only recently, first experiments on IPD in Al plasma have been performed with an x-ray free-electron laser, where their results were found to be in disagreement with the widely used IPD model by Stewart and Pyatt. Another experiment on Al, at the Orion laser, showed disagreement with the model by Ecker and Kröll. This controversy shows a strong need for a rigorous and consistent theoretical approach to calculate the IPD effect. Here, we propose such an approach: a two-step Hartree-Fock-Slater model. With this parameter-free model, we can accurately and efficiently describe the experimental Al data and validate the accuracy of standard IPD models. Our model can be a useful tool for calculating atomic properties within dense plasmas with wide-ranging applications to studies on warm dense matter, shock experiments, planetary science, inertial confinement fusion, and nonequilibrium plasmas created with x-ray free-electron lasers.

  18. Dense array expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joseph N.; Chen, LiangMing

    1999-10-01

    Various researchers have realized the value of implementing loop fusion to evaluate dense (pointwise) array expressions. Recently, the method of template metaprogramming in C++ has been used to significantly speed-up the evaluation of array expressions, allowing C++ programs to achieve performance comparable to or better than FORTRAN for numerical analysis applications. Unfortunately, the template metaprogramming technique suffers from several limitations in applicability, portability, and potential performance. We present a framework for evaluating dense array expressions in object-oriented programming languages. We demonstrate how this technique supports both common subexpression elimination and threaded implementation and compare its performance to object-library and hand-generated code.

  19. Twenty State Policies to Enhance States' Prosperity and Create Bright Futures for America's Children, Families and Communities. Policy Matters: 2008 Data Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Social Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    As of March 2008, over half of U.S. states are facing projected budget shortfalls for the coming fiscal year. During economic downturns such as this, opportunities available to hard-working, low-wage families are diminished. These conditions create growing concerns for policymakers who must, with fewer state resources, enhance opportunities and…

  20. Dense Plasma Focus Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai; Jungman, Gerard; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2016-08-31

    The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.

  1. Fragility in dense suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Romain; Cates, Mike

    Dense suspensions can jam under shear when the volume fraction of solid material is large enough. In this work we investigate the mechanical properties of shear jammed suspensions with numerical simulations. In particular, we address the issue of the fragility of these systems, i.e., the type of mechanical response (elastic or plastic) they show when subject to a mechanical load differing from the one applied during their preparation history.

  2. The LICPA accelerator of dense plasma and ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, J.; Jabloński, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Parys, P.; Raczka, P.; Rosiński, M.; Krousky, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Liska, R.; Kucharik, M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    Laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) is a novel scheme of acceleration of dense matter having a potential to accelerate plasma projectiles with the energetic efficiency much higher than the achieved so far with other methods. In this scheme, a projectile placed in a cavity is irradiated by a laser beam introduced into the cavity through a hole and accelerated along a guiding channel by the thermal pressure created in the cavity by the laser-produced plasma or by the photon pressure of the ultraintense laser radiation trapped in the cavity. This paper summarizes briefly the main results of our recent LICPA studies, in particular, experimental investigations of ion beam generation and heavy macroparticle acceleration in the hydrodynamic LICPA regime (at moderate laser intensities ~ 1015W/cm2) and numerical, particle-in-cell (PIC) studies of production of ultraintense ion beams and fast macroparticles using the photon pressure LICPA regime (at high laser intensities > 1020 W/cm2). It is shown that in both LICPA regimes the macroparticles and ion beams can be accelerated much more efficiently than in other laser-based acceleration scheme commonly used and the accelerated plasma/ion bunches can have a wide variety of parameters. It creates a prospect for a broad range of applications of the LICPA accelerator, in particular in such domains as high energy density physics, ICF research (ion fast ignition, impact ignition) or nuclear physics.

  3. Dense plasma heating by crossing relativistic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratan, N.; Sircombe, N. J.; Ceurvorst, L.; Sadler, J.; Kasim, M. F.; Holloway, J.; Levy, M. C.; Trines, R.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate, using relativistic fluid theory and Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, the local heating of a dense plasma by two crossing electron beams. Heating occurs as an instability of the electron beams drives Langmuir waves, which couple nonlinearly into damped ion-acoustic waves. Simulations show a factor 2.8 increase in electron kinetic energy with a coupling efficiency of 18%. Our results support applications to the production of warm dense matter and as a driver for inertial fusion plasmas.

  4. Dense plasma heating by crossing relativistic electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ratan, N; Sircombe, N J; Ceurvorst, L; Sadler, J; Kasim, M F; Holloway, J; Levy, M C; Trines, R; Bingham, R; Norreys, P A

    2017-01-01

    Here we investigate, using relativistic fluid theory and Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, the local heating of a dense plasma by two crossing electron beams. Heating occurs as an instability of the electron beams drives Langmuir waves, which couple nonlinearly into damped ion-acoustic waves. Simulations show a factor 2.8 increase in electron kinetic energy with a coupling efficiency of 18%. Our results support applications to the production of warm dense matter and as a driver for inertial fusion plasmas.

  5. Are energy dense diets also nutrient dense?

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Mendoza, Jason; Liu, Yan; Zakeri, Issa F; Berenson, Gerald S

    2008-10-01

    Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall was collected on each participant. Subjects/ 440 young adults (ages 19-28 years) in Bogalusa, Louisiana participated in this study. Mean nutrient intakes and food group consumption were examined across the energy density (ED) tertiles using two calculation methods: one with food and all beverages (excluding water) (ED1) and one including food and only energy containing beverages (ED2). Regression models were used and multiple comparisons were performed using the Tukey-Kramer procedure. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. With increasing ED, there was a significant increase in the consumption of total meats (ED1 p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.01). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in consumption of fruits/juices (ED1 p < 0.01; ED2 p < 0.0001), vegetables (ED1 p < 0.01; ED2 p < 0.05), beverages (both p < 0.0001) and total sweets with increasing ED (both p < 0.0001). There was a significantly higher mean intake of total protein (grams) (ED2 p < 0.0001), amino acids (ED1 histidine/leucine p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.0001), and total fat (grams) (ED1 p < 0.0001; ED2 p < 0.0001) with higher ED compared to lower ED. The percent energy from protein (ED1 p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.0001), total fat (both p < 0.001) and saturated fatty acids (both p < 0.0001) significantly increased and the percent energy from carbohydrate (both p < 0.0001) and sucrose (both p < 0.0001) significantly decreased with increasing ED. This study suggests that ED may influence the ND of the diet depending on whether energy containing beverages are included or excluded in the analysis.

  6. Are Energy Dense Diets Also Nutrient Dense?

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O’Neil, Carol E.; Mendoza, Jason; Liu, Yan; Zakeri, Issa F.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Some beverages are nutrient dense, but they are often excluded from nutrient density calculations. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the energy-nutrient association changed when beverages were included in these calculations. Design Applying a cross-sectional design, a 24-hour dietary recall was collected on each participant. Subjects/Setting 440 young adults (ages 19–28 years) in Bogalusa, Louisiana participated in this study. Statistical Analysis Mean nutrient intakes and food group consumption were examined across the energy density (ED) tertiles using two calculation methods: one with food and all beverages (excluding water) (ED1) and one including food and only energy containing beverages (ED2). Regression models were used and multiple comparisons were performed using the Tukey-Kramer procedure. A p-value < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results With increasing ED, there was a significant increase in the consumption of total meats (ED1 p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.01). In contrast, there was a significant decrease in consumption of fruits/juices (ED1 p < 0.01; ED2 p < 0.0001), vegetables (ED1 p < 0.01; ED2 p < 0.05), beverages (both p < 0.0001) and total sweets with increasing ED (both p < 0.0001). There was a significantly higher mean intake of total protein (grams) (ED2 p < 0.0001), amino acids (ED1 histidine/leucine p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.0001), and total fat (grams) (ED1 p < 0.0001; ED2 p < 0.0001) with higher ED compared to lower ED. The percent energy from protein (ED1 p < 0.05; ED2 p < 0.0001), total fat (both p < 0.001) and saturated fatty acids (both p < 0.0001) significantly increased and the percent energy from carbohydrate (both p < 0.0001) and sucrose (both p < 0.0001) significantly decreased with increasing ED. Conclusion This study suggests that ED may influence the ND of the diet depending on whether energy containing beverages are included or excluded in the analysis. PMID:18845705

  7. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  8. Creating Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  9. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Glenzer, S. H.; Neumayer, P.; Doppner, T.; ...

    2008-06-12

    Here, Compton scattering techniques have been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, whilemore » in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.« less

  10. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

    2005-06-30

    Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.

  11. Dense suspension splash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Schaarsberg, Martin H. Klein; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Zhang, Wendy W.

    2014-11-01

    Impact of a dense suspension drop onto a solid surface at speeds of several meters-per-second splashes by ejecting individual liquid-coated particles. Suppression or reduction of this splash is important for thermal spray coating and additive manufacturing. Accomplishing this aim requires distinguishing whether the splash is generated by individual scattering events or by collective motion reminiscent of liquid flow. Since particle inertia dominates over surface tension and viscous drag in a strong splash, we model suspension splash using a discrete-particle simulation in which the densely packed macroscopic particles experience inelastic collisions but zero friction or cohesion. Numerical results based on this highly simplified model are qualitatively consistent with observations. They also show that approximately 70% of the splash is generated by collective motion. Here an initially downward-moving particle is ejected into the splash because it experiences a succession of low-momentum-change collisions whose effects do not cancel but instead accumulate. The remainder of the splash is generated by scattering events in which a small number of high-momentum-change collisions cause a particle to be ejected upwards. Current Address: Physics of Fluids Group, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.

  12. Dense Suspension Splash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wendy; Dodge, Kevin M.; Peters, Ivo R.; Ellowitz, Jake; Klein Schaarsberg, Martin H.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-03-01

    Upon impact onto a solid surface at several meters-per-second, a dense suspension plug splashes by ejecting liquid-coated particles. We study the mechanism for splash formation using experiments and a numerical model. In the model, the dense suspension is idealized as a collection of cohesionless, rigid grains with finite surface roughness. The grains also experience lubrication drag as they approach, collide inelastically and rebound away from each other. Simulations using this model reproduce the measured momentum distribution of ejected particles. They also provide direct evidence supporting the conclusion from earlier experiments that inelastic collisions, rather than viscous drag, dominate when the suspension contains macroscopic particles immersed in a low-viscosity solvent such as water. Finally, the simulations reveal two distinct routes for splash formation: a particle can be ejected by a single high momentum-change collision. More surprisingly, a succession of small momentum-change collisions can accumulate to eject a particle outwards. Supported by NSF through its MRSEC program (DMR-0820054) and fluid dynamics program (CBET-1336489).

  13. Time-resolved X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy for Electron Transport Study in Warm Dense Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Bae, Leejin; Engelhorn, Kyle; Heimann, Philip; Ping, Yuan; Barbrel, Ben; Fernandez, Amalia; Beckwith, Martha Anne; Cho, Byoung-Ick; GIST Team; IBS Team; LBNL Collaboration; SLAC Collaboration; LLNL Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The warm dense Matter represents states of which the temperature is comparable to Fermi energy and ions are strongly coupled. One of the experimental techniques to create such state in the laboratory condition is the isochoric heating of thin metal foil with femtosecond laser pulses. This concept largely relies on the ballistic transport of electrons near the Fermi-level, which were mainly studied for the metals in ambient conditions. However, they were barely investigated in warm dense conditions. We present a time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy measured for the Au/Cu dual layered sample. The front Au layer was isochorically heated with a femtosecond laser pulse, and the x-ray absorption changes around L-edge of Cu, which was attached on the backside of Au, was measured with a picosecond resolution. Time delays between the heating of the `front surface' of Au layer and the alternation of x-ray spectrum of Cu attached on the `rear surface' of Au indicate the energetic electron transport mechanism through Au in the warm dense conditions. IBS (IBS-R012-D1) and the NRF (No. 2013R1A1A1007084) of Korea.

  14. Electron opaque structures in human platelets: which are or are not dense bodies?

    PubMed

    White, James G

    2008-09-01

    The dense bodies, also referred to as delta (delta) granules, present in human platelets are the storage sites for adenine nucleotides and serotonin. Stored products released following activation are important for platelet aggregation during hemostasis. Dense bodies are easily detected in thin sections of properly fixed platelets and in unfixed, unstained whole mount preparations. It is important to determine their presence and frequency with accuracy because they are absent or markedly reduced in platelet storage pool deficiency disorders. The present study has demonstrated that identification of dense bodies as not a simple matter. There are electron dense structures, including dense rings, glycosomes, "fuzzy" balls, chains, clusters and other dense elements, that may confuse the determination of true dense bodies. Even some alpha granules are sufficiently electron dense to be confused with delta granules when using densitometric techniques. The present work may prevent investigators from making diagnostic errors.

  15. Percolation in dense storage arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Scott; Wilcke, Winfried W.; Garner, Robert B.; Huels, Harald

    2002-11-01

    As computers and their accessories become smaller, cheaper, and faster the providers of news, retail sales, and other services we now take for granted on the Internet have met their increasing computing needs by putting more and more computers, hard disks, power supplies, and the data communications linking them to each other and to the rest of the wired world into ever smaller spaces. This has created a new and quite interesting percolation problem. It is no longer desirable to fix computers, storage or switchgear which fail in such a dense array. Attempts to repair things are all too likely to make problems worse. The alternative approach, letting units “fail in place”, be removed from service and routed around, means that a data communications environment will evolve with an underlying regular structure but a very high density of missing pieces. Some of the properties of this kind of network can be described within the existing paradigm of site or bond percolation on lattices, but other important questions have not been explored. I will discuss 3D arrays of hundreds to thousands of storage servers (something which it is quite feasible to build in the next few years), and show that bandwidth, but not percolation fraction or shortest path lengths, is the critical factor affected by the “fail in place” disorder. Redundancy strategies traditionally employed in storage systems may have to be revised. Novel approaches to routing information among the servers have been developed to minimize the impact.

  16. Towards a theoretical description of dense QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipsen, Owe

    2017-03-01

    The properties of matter at finite baryon densities play an important role for the astrophysics of compact stars as well as for heavy ion collisions or the description of nuclear matter. Because of the sign problem of the quark determinant, lattice QCD cannot be simulated by standard Monte Carlo at finite baryon densities. I review alternative attempts to treat dense QCD with an effective lattice theory derived by analytic strong coupling and hopping expansions, which close to the continuum is valid for heavy quarks only, but shows all qualitative features of nuclear physics emerging from QCD. In particular, the nuclear liquid gas transition and an equation of state for baryons can be calculated directly from QCD. A second effective theory based on strong coupling methods permits studies of the phase diagram in the chiral limit on coarse lattices.

  17. Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2013-04-24

    Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________

  18. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; Saumon, D.

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ion dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.

  19. Ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense mixtures

    DOE PAGES

    Gill, N. M.; Heinonen, R. A.; Starrett, C. E.; ...

    2015-06-25

    In this study, the ion-ion dynamic structure factor of warm dense matter is determined using the recently developed pseudoatom molecular dynamics method [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)]. The method uses density functional theory to determine ion-ion pair interaction potentials that have no free parameters. These potentials are used in classical molecular dynamics simulations. This constitutes a computationally efficient and realistic model of dense plasmas. Comparison with recently published simulations of the ion-ion dynamic structure factor and sound speed of warm dense aluminum finds good to reasonable agreement. Using this method, we make predictions of the ion-ionmore » dynamical structure factor and sound speed of a warm dense mixture—equimolar carbon-hydrogen. This material is commonly used as an ablator in inertial confinement fusion capsules, and our results are amenable to direct experimental measurement.« less

  20. Dense Deposit Disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard J.H; Harris, Claire L.; Pickering, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Dense deposit disease (DDD) is an orphan disease that primarily affects children and young adults without sexual predilection. Studies of its pathophysiology have shown conclusively that it is caused by fluid-phase dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement, however the role played by genetics and autoantibodies like C3 nephritic factors must be more thoroughly defined if we are to make an impact in the clinical management of this disease. There are currently no mechanism-directed therapies to offer affected patients, half of whom progress to end stage renal failure disease within 10 years of diagnosis. Transplant recipients face the dim prospect of disease recurrence in their allografts, half of which ultimately fail. More detailed genetic and complement studies of DDD patients may make it possible to identify protective factors prognostic for naïve kidney and transplant survival, or conversely risk factors associated with progression to renal failure and allograft loss. The pathophysiology of DDD suggests that a number of different treatments warrant consideration. As advances are made in these areas, there will be a need to increase healthcare provider awareness of DDD by making resources available to clinicians to optimize care for DDD patients. PMID:21601923

  1. Ariel's Densely Pitted Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This mosaic of the four highest-resolution images of Ariel represents the most detailed Voyager 2 picture of this satellite of Uranus. The images were taken through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera on Jan. 24, 1986, at a distance of about 130,000 kilometers (80,000 miles). Ariel is about 1,200 km (750 mi) in diameter; the resolution here is 2.4 km (1.5 mi). Much of Ariel's surface is densely pitted with craters 5 to 10 km (3 to 6 mi) across. These craters are close to the threshold of detection in this picture. Numerous valleys and fault scarps crisscross the highly pitted terrain. Voyager scientists believe the valleys have formed over down-dropped fault blocks (graben); apparently, extensive faulting has occurred as a result of expansion and stretching of Ariel's crust. The largest fault valleys, near the terminator at right, as well as a smooth region near the center of this image, have been partly filled with deposits that are younger and less heavily cratered than the pitted terrain. Narrow, somewhat sinuous scarps and valleys have been formed, in turn, in these young deposits. It is not yet clear whether these sinuous features have been formed by faulting or by the flow of fluids.

    JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  2. Mercury's Densely Cratered Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10 took this picture (FDS 27465) of the densely cratered surface of Mercury when the spacecraft was 18,200 kilometers (8085 miles) from the planet on March 29. The dark line across top of picture is a 'dropout' of a few TV lines of data. At lower left, a portion of a 61 kilometer (38 mile) crater shows a flow front extending across the crater floor and filling more than half of the crater. The smaller, fresh crater at center is about 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter. Craters as small as one kilometer (about one-half mile) across are visible in the picture.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  3. Conductive dense hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremets, M.; Troyan, I.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrogen at ambient pressures and low temperatures forms a molecular crystal which is expected to display metallic properties under megabar pressures. This metal is predicted to be superconducting with a very high critical temperature Tc of 200-400 K. The superconductor may potentially be recovered metastably at ambient pressures, and it may acquire a new quantum state as a metallic superfluid and a superconducting superfluid. Recent experiments performed at low temperatures T < 100 K showed that at record pressures of 300 GPa, hydrogen remains in the molecular state and is an insulator with a band gap of appr 2 eV. Given our current experimental and theoretical understanding, hydrogen is expected to become metallic at pressures of 400-500 GPa, beyond the current limits of static pressures achievable using diamond anvil cells. We found that at room temperature and pressure > 220 GPa, new Raman modes arose, providing evidence for the transformation to a new opaque and electrically conductive phase IV. Above 260 GPa, in the next phase V, hydrogen reflected light well. Its resistance was nearly temperature-independent over a wide temperature range, down to 30 K, indicating that the hydrogen was metallic. Releasing the pressure induced the metallic phase to transform directly into molecular hydrogen with significant hysteresis at 200 GPa and 295 K. These data were published in our paper: M. I. Eremets and I. A. Troyan "Conductive dense hydrogen." Nature Materials 10: 927-931. We will present also new results on hydrogen: phase diagram with phases IV and V determined in P,T domain up to 300 GPa and 350 K. We will also discuss possible structures of phase IV based on our Raman and infrared measurements up to 300 GPa.

  4. Equation of state measurements of warm dense carbon using laser-driven shock and release technique.

    PubMed

    Falk, K; Gamboa, E J; Kagan, G; Montgomery, D S; Srinivasan, B; Tzeferacos, P; Benage, J F

    2014-04-18

    We present a new approach to equation of state experiments that utilizes a laser-driven shock and release technique combined with spatially resolved x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and optical pyrometry to obtain independent measurements of pressure, density, and temperature for carbon at warm dense matter conditions. The uniqueness of this approach relies on using a laser to create very high initial pressures to enable a very deep release when the shock moves into a low-density pressure standard. This results in material at near normal solid density and temperatures around 10 eV. The spatially resolved Thomson scattering measurements facilitate a temperature determination of the released material by isolating the scattering signal from a specific region in the target. Our results are consistent with quantum molecular dynamics calculations for carbon at these conditions and are compared to several equation of state models.

  5. Nature's engines: active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-03-01

    Active materials, bacteria, molecular motors, and self-propelled colloids, continuously transform chemical energy from the environment to mechanical work. Dense active matter, from layers of cells to flocks of birds, self-assembles into intricate patterns. Nature's engines are complex and efficient, and we would like to exploit her ideas to fabricate nano-machines.

  6. Quark Matter '87: Concluding remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1988-03-01

    This year marked the beginning of the experimental program at BNL and CERN to probe the properties of ultra dense hadronic matter and to search for the quark-gluon plasma phase of matter. Possible implications of the preliminary findings are discussed. Problems needing further theoretical and experimental study are pointed out. 50 refs.

  7. Comprehensive Studies of Ultrafast Laser Excited Warm Dense Gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Mo, Mianzhen; Russell, Brandon; Tsui, Ying; Wang, Xijie; Ng, Andrew; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2016-10-01

    Isochoric excitation of solids by ultrafast laser pulses is an important approach to generate warm dense matter in laboratory. Electrical conductivity, structural dynamics and lattice stabilities are the most important properties in ultrafast laser excited warm dense matter. To investigate these properties, we have developed multiple advanced capabilities at SLAC recently, including the measurement of semi-DC electrical conductivity with ultrafast THz radiation, the study of solid and liquid structural dynamics by ultrafast electron diffraction (UED), and the investigation of lattice stability using frequency domain interferometry (FDI) on both front and rear surfaces. Due to the non-reversible nature in exciting solid to warm dense matter, all these diagnostics are implemented with single-shot approaches, reducing the uncertainties due to shot-to-shot fluctuations. In this talk, we will introduce these novel capabilities and present some highlighted studies in warm dense gold, which was uniformly excited by ultrafast laser pulses at 400nm. We appreciate the supports from DOE FES under FWP #100182.

  8. Direct observation of turbulent magnetic fields in hot, dense laser produced plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Sudipta; Narayanan, V.; Ding, Wen Jun; Lad, Amit D.; Hao, Biao; Ahmad, Saima; Wang, Wei Min; Sheng, Zheng Ming; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, Amita; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence in fluids is a ubiquitous, fascinating, and complex natural phenomenon that is not yet fully understood. Unraveling turbulence in high density, high temperature plasmas is an even bigger challenge because of the importance of electromagnetic forces and the typically violent environments. Fascinating and novel behavior of hot dense matter has so far been only indirectly inferred because of the enormous difficulties of making observations on such matter. Here, we present direct evidence of turbulence in giant magnetic fields created in an overdense, hot plasma by relativistic intensity (1018W/cm2) femtosecond laser pulses. We have obtained magneto-optic polarigrams at femtosecond time intervals, simultaneously with micrometer spatial resolution. The spatial profiles of the magnetic field show randomness and their k spectra exhibit a power law along with certain well defined peaks at scales shorter than skin depth. Detailed two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations delineate the underlying interaction between forward currents of relativistic energy “hot” electrons created by the laser pulse and “cold” return currents of thermal electrons induced in the target. Our results are not only fundamentally interesting but should also arouse interest on the role of magnetic turbulence induced resistivity in the context of fast ignition of laser fusion, and the possibility of experimentally simulating such structures with respect to the sun and other stellar environments. PMID:22566660

  9. Dark matter in voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Richard; Doroshkevich, Andrei G.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    1995-07-01

    The theory of the formation of large-scale structure in the universe through the action of gravitational instability imply the existence of substantial amounts of baryonic dark matter, of the order of 50% of the total baryon content in the universe, in the ``voids'' or under-dense regions seen in the large-scale distribution of galaxies. We discuss also the large-scale structure of dark matter expected in voids and the present and future possibilities for the observation of this baryonic dark matter in ``voids.''

  10. Phase transitions in nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1984-11-01

    The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references.

  11. Dense QCD: Overhauser or BCS pairing?

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byung-Yoon; Rho, Mannque; Wirzba, Andreas; Zahed, Ismail

    2000-08-01

    We discuss the Overhauser effect (particle-hole pairing) versus the BCS effect (particle-particle or hole-hole pairing) in QCD at large quark density. In weak coupling and to leading logarithm accuracy, the pairing energies can be estimated exactly. For a small number of colors, the BCS effect overtakes the Overhauser effect, while for a large number of colors the opposite takes place, in agreement with a recent renormalization group argument. In strong coupling with large pairing energies, the Overhauser effect may be dominant for any number of colors, suggesting that QCD may crystallize into an insulator at a few times nuclear matter density, a situation reminiscent of dense Skyrmions. The Overhauser effect is dominant in QCD in 1+1 dimensions, although susceptible to quantum effects. It is sensitive to temperature in all dimensions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  12. Small Satellites Embedded in Dense Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, J. M.

    2005-08-01

    A small satellite that inhabits a narrow gap in an dense planetary ring, such as Pan, will excite wakes at the gap edges, as well as spiral waves deeper in the ring. As the satellite disturbs the ring, it also draws angular momentum from the ring matter that orbits just interior to the satellite, while depositing that angular momentum among the ring particles that orbit just exterior. This outward transport of angular momentum causes the orbits of the nearby ring particles to slowly shrink, dragging along with them the satellite in its gap. This inward motion is of course type II migration that is familiar from planet formation theory. The significance of type II migration, if any, will also be assessed for the small satellites that orbit within Saturn's rings.

  13. Coherent neutrino interactions in a dense medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kiers, K.; Weiss, N. ||

    1997-11-01

    Motivated by the effect of matter on neutrino oscillations (the MSW effect) we study in more detail the propagation of neutrinos in a dense medium. The dispersion relation for massive neutrinos in a medium is known to have a minimum at nonzero momentum p{approximately}G{sub F}{rho}/{radical}(2). We study in detail the origin and consequences of this dispersion relation for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos both in a toy model with only neutral currents and a single neutrino flavor and in a realistic {open_quotes}standard model{close_quotes} with two neutrino flavors. We find that for a range of neutrino momenta near the minimum of the dispersion relation, Dirac neutrinos are trapped by their coherent interactions with the medium. This effect does not lead to the trapping of Majorana neutrinos. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Probing the Physical Structures of Dense Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    Filament is a common feature in cosmological structures of various scales, ranging from dark matter cosmic web, galaxy clusters, inter-galactic gas flows, to Galactic ISM clouds. Even within cold dense molecular cores, filaments have been detected. Theories and simulations with (or without) different combination of physical principles, including gravity, thermal balance, turbulence, and magnetic field, can reproduce intriguing images of filaments. The ubiquity of filaments and the similarity in simulated ones make physical parameters, beyond dust column density, a necessity for understanding filament evolution. I report three projects attempting to measure physical parameters of filaments. We derive the volume density of a dense Taurus filament based on several cyanoacetylene transitions observed by GBT and ART. We measure the gas temperature of the OMC 2-3 filament based on combined GBT+VLA ammonia images. We also measured the sub-millimeter polarization vectors along OMC3. These filaments were found to be likely a cylinder-type structure, without dynamic heating, and likely accreting mass along the magnetic field lines.

  15. Dense blocks of energetic ions driven by multi-petawatt lasers

    PubMed Central

    Weng, S. M.; Liu, M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Murakami, M.; Chen, M.; Yu, L. L.; Zhang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-driven ion accelerators have the advantages of compact size, high density, and short bunch duration over conventional accelerators. Nevertheless, it is still challenging to simultaneously enhance the yield and quality of laser-driven ion beams for practical applications. Here we propose a scheme to address this challenge via the use of emerging multi-petawatt lasers and a density-modulated target. The density-modulated target permits its ions to be uniformly accelerated as a dense block by laser radiation pressure. In addition, the beam quality of the accelerated ions is remarkably improved by embedding the target in a thick enough substrate, which suppresses hot electron refluxing and thus alleviates plasma heating. Particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that almost all ions in a solid-density plasma of a few microns can be uniformly accelerated to about 25% of the speed of light by a laser pulse at an intensity around 1022 W/cm2. The resulting dense block of energetic ions may drive fusion ignition and more generally create matter with unprecedented high energy density. PMID:26924793

  16. Dense blocks of energetic ions driven by multi-petawatt lasers.

    PubMed

    Weng, S M; Liu, M; Sheng, Z M; Murakami, M; Chen, M; Yu, L L; Zhang, J

    2016-02-29

    Laser-driven ion accelerators have the advantages of compact size, high density, and short bunch duration over conventional accelerators. Nevertheless, it is still challenging to simultaneously enhance the yield and quality of laser-driven ion beams for practical applications. Here we propose a scheme to address this challenge via the use of emerging multi-petawatt lasers and a density-modulated target. The density-modulated target permits its ions to be uniformly accelerated as a dense block by laser radiation pressure. In addition, the beam quality of the accelerated ions is remarkably improved by embedding the target in a thick enough substrate, which suppresses hot electron refluxing and thus alleviates plasma heating. Particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that almost all ions in a solid-density plasma of a few microns can be uniformly accelerated to about 25% of the speed of light by a laser pulse at an intensity around 10(22) W/cm(2). The resulting dense block of energetic ions may drive fusion ignition and more generally create matter with unprecedented high energy density.

  17. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  18. Electrical conductivity calculations in isochorically heated warm dense aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperling, P.; Rosmej, S.; Bredow, R.; Fletcher, L. B.; Galtier, E.; Gamboa, E. J.; Lee, H. J.; Reinholz, H.; Röpke, G.; Zastrau, U.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2017-07-01

    We present a theoretical approach to derive the dc conductivity of warm dense matter (WDM) from x-ray Thomson scattering data. Predictions for the conductivity of aluminum at condensed matter densities are given within a wide temperature range (0.08 {eV}< {k}{{B}}T< 80 eV). Strong correlation effects are taken into account by ionic structure factors. Screening and Pauli blocking are described via a pseudopotential. The results are compared with other theoretical models and simulations as well as with experimental measurements in the liquid metal regime and recent experiments in the WDM regime.

  19. Dynamic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohner, Jack

    2003-05-01

    First postulate: Following the Big Bang, quarks, born from zero point mass, did not acquire a constant size. They are growing. Atomic distances remain relative to increasing quark diameter resulting in molecular density remaining constant. Current rate of quark growth results in an increase of Earth radius of approximately 2.8 cm/year. The perpetual growth is sustained by the conversion of space to matter. The equality of space to matter is algebraically derived from Newton's law of gravity. There results an inward flow of space at each quark. This creates a vector field of space flowing inward at the Earth. Next postulate: Einstein space curvature is actually inward flow of space. Although this appears as an ether theory, it does not conflict with relativity. The combined vector fields of all stars in the universe create a scalar field equal to C. Inward velocity of space at the surface of the Earth is calculated at 1.46 cm/sec. This is derived from space curvature formula from relativity. This value accelerates toward the nucleus of each atom until it terminates at C at the diameter of a quark. These two predictions of the velocity C demonstrate why it is the universal constant. This work predicts the gravitational constant from a derivation based on C. Several unifying aspects emerge including; equivalence principle, 5 dimensions, time, strong nuclear force, decreasing rotational velocity of Earth, dark matter, red shift and quantum mechanics. This theory is an extension of Einstein and Newton.

  20. Superqualitons: Baryons in Dense QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Deog Ki

    QCD predicts matter at high density should exhibit color superconductivity. We review briefly several pertinent properties of color superconductivity and then discuss how baryons are realized in color superconductors. Especially, we explain an attempt to describe the color-flavor locked quark matter in terms of bosonic degrees of freedom, where the gapped quarks and Fermi sea are realized as Skyrmions, called superqualitons, and Q-matter, respectively.

  1. Challenges in QCD matter physics -The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Agarwal, K.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Akishina, E.; Akishina, T.; Akishina, V.; Akram, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alekseev, I.; Alexandrov, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Anđelić, M.; Andreeva, O.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anisimov, Yu.; Appelshäuser, H.; Argintaru, D.; Atkin, E.; Avdeev, S.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Baban, V.; Bach, M.; Badura, E.; Bähr, S.; Balog, T.; Balzer, M.; Bao, E.; Baranova, N.; Barczyk, T.; Bartoş, D.; Bashir, S.; Baszczyk, M.; Batenkov, O.; Baublis, V.; Baznat, M.; Becker, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Belyakov, D.; Bendarouach, J.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berendes, R.; Berezin, G.; Bergmann, C.; Bertini, D.; Bertini, O.; Beşliu, C.; Bezshyyko, O.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Biswas, S.; Blank, T.; Blau, D.; Blinov, V.; Blume, C.; Bocharov, Yu.; Book, J.; Breitner, T.; Brüning, U.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Büsching, H.; Bus, T.; Butuzov, V.; Bychkov, A.; Byszuk, A.; Cai, Xu; Cãlin, M.; Cao, Ping; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Carević, I.; Cătănescu, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaus, A.; Chen, Hongfang; Chen, LuYao; Cheng, Jianping; Chepurnov, V.; Cherif, H.; Chernogorov, A.; Ciobanu, M. I.; Claus, G.; Constantin, F.; Csanád, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, Supriya; Das, Susovan; de Cuveland, J.; Debnath, B.; Dementiev, D.; Deng, Wendi; Deng, Zhi; Deppe, H.; Deppner, I.; Derenovskaya, O.; Deveaux, C. A.; Deveaux, M.; Dey, K.; Dey, M.; Dillenseger, P.; Dobyrn, V.; Doering, D.; Dong, Sheng; Dorokhov, A.; Dreschmann, M.; Drozd, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubnichka, S.; Dubnichkova, Z.; Dürr, M.; Dutka, L.; Dželalija, M.; Elsha, V. V.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Eremin, V.; Eşanu, T.; Eschke, J.; Eschweiler, D.; Fan, Huanhuan; Fan, Xingming; Farooq, M.; Fateev, O.; Feng, Shengqin; Figuli, S. P. D.; Filozova, I.; Finogeev, D.; Fischer, P.; Flemming, H.; Förtsch, J.; Frankenfeld, U.; Friese, V.; Friske, E.; Fröhlich, I.; Frühauf, J.; Gajda, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Gangopadhyay, G.; García Chávez, C.; Gebelein, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gläßel, S.; Goffe, M.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Golovatyuk, V.; Golovnya, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubeva, M.; Golubkov, D.; Gómez Ramírez, A.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Gottschalk, D.; Gryboś, P.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Gudima, K.; Gumiński, M.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Yu.; Han, Dong; Hartmann, H.; He, Shue; Hehner, J.; Heine, N.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrmann, N.; Heß, B.; Heuser, J. M.; Himmi, A.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Hu, Dongdong; Huang, Guangming; Huang, Xinjie; Hutter, D.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, P.; Ivanov, Valery; Ivanov, Victor; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivashkin, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Jahan, H.; Jain, V.; Jakovlev, V.; Janson, T.; Jiang, Di; Jipa, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kähler, P.; Kämpfer, B.; Kalinin, V.; Kallunkathariyil, J.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kaptur, E.; Karabowicz, R.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karmanov, D.; Karnaukhov, V.; Karpechev, E.; Kasiński, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kaur, M.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Kekelidze, G.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khasanov, F.; Khvorostukhin, A.; Kirakosyan, V.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiryakov, A.; Kiš, M.; Kisel, I.; Kisel, P.; Kiselev, S.; Kiss, T.; Klaus, P.; Kłeczek, R.; Klein-Bösing, Ch.; Kleipa, V.; Klochkov, V.; Kmon, P.; Koch, K.; Kochenda, L.; Koczoń, P.; Koenig, W.; Kohn, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Kolosova, A.; Komkov, B.; Korolev, M.; Korolko, I.; Kotte, R.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Kozlov, G.; Kozlov, V.; Kramarenko, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krebs, E.; Kreidl, C.; Kres, I.; Kresan, D.; Kretschmar, G.; Krieger, M.; Kryanev, A. V.; Kryshen, E.; Kuc, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucher, V.; Kudin, L.; Kugler, A.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar, L.; Kunkel, J.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, N.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Kyva, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lara, C.; Larionov, P.; Laso García, A.; Lavrik, E.; Lazanu, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Lehnert, J.; Lehrbach, J.; Leifels, Y.; Lemke, F.; Li, Cheng; Li, Qiyan; Li, Xin; Li, Yuanjing; Lindenstruth, V.; Linnik, B.; Liu, Feng; Lobanov, I.; Lobanova, E.; Löchner, S.; Loizeau, P.-A.; Lone, S. A.; Lucio Martínez, J. A.; Luo, Xiaofeng; Lymanets, A.; Lyu, Pengfei; Maevskaya, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmoud, T.; Maj, P.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.; Malankin, E.; Malkevich, D.; Malyatina, O.; Malygina, H.; Mandal, M. M.; Mandal, S.; Manko, V.; Manz, S.; Marin Garcia, A. M.; Markert, J.; Masciocchi, S.; Matulewicz, T.; Meder, L.; Merkin, M.; Mialkovski, V.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Mik, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Mikhaylov, V.; Milanović, B.; Militsija, V.; Miskowiec, D.; Momot, I.; Morhardt, T.; Morozov, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Müntz, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Muñoz Castillo, C. E.; Murin, Yu.; Najman, R.; Nandi, C.; Nandy, E.; Naumann, L.; Nayak, T.; Nedosekin, A.; Negi, V. S.; Niebur, W.; Nikulin, V.; Normanov, D.; Oancea, A.; Oh, Kunsu; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ososkov, G.; Otfinowski, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pal, S.; Panasenko, I.; Panda, N. R.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Penschuck, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Petráček, V.; Petri, M.; Petriş, M.; Petrovici, A.; Petrovici, M.; Petrovskiy, A.; Petukhov, O.; Pfeifer, D.; Piasecki, K.; Pieper, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Płaneta, R.; Plotnikov, V.; Plujko, V.; Pluta, J.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Poźniak, K.; Prakash, A.; Prasad, S. K.; Prokudin, M.; Pshenichnov, I.; Pugach, M.; Pugatch, V.; Querchfeld, S.; Rabtsun, S.; Radulescu, L.; Raha, S.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raportirenko, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Rauza, J.; Ray, R.; Razin, S.; Reichelt, P.; Reinecke, S.; Reinefeld, A.; Reshetin, A.; Ristea, C.; Ristea, O.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Roether, F.; Romaniuk, R.; Rost, A.; Rostchin, E.; Rostovtseva, I.; Roy, Amitava; Roy, Ankhi; Rożynek, J.; Ryabov, Yu.; Sadovsky, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Saini, J.; Samanta, S.; Sambyal, S. S.; Samsonov, V.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Sander, O.; Sarangi, S.; Satława, T.; Sau, S.; Saveliev, V.; Schatral, S.; Schiaua, C.; Schintke, F.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, J.; Schweda, K.; Seck, F.; Seddiki, S.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, A.; Senger, P.; Shabanov, A.; Shabunov, A.; Shao, Ming; Sheremetiev, A. D.; Shi, Shusu; Shumeiko, N.; Shumikhin, V.; Sibiryak, I.; Sikora, B.; Simakov, A.; Simon, C.; Simons, C.; Singaraju, R. N.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singhal, V.; Singla, M.; Sitzmann, P.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Škoda, L.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Som, I.; Song, Guofeng; Song, Jihye; Sosin, Z.; Soyk, D.; Staszel, P.; Strikhanov, M.; Strohauer, S.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sultanov, R.; Sun, Yongjie; Svirida, D.; Svoboda, O.; Szabó, A.; Szczygieł, R.; Talukdar, R.; Tang, Zebo; Tanha, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Tarassenkova, O.; Târzilă, M.-G.; Teklishyn, M.; Tischler, T.; Tlustý, P.; Tölyhi, T.; Toia, A.; Topil'skaya, N.; Träger, M.; Tripathy, S.; Tsakov, I.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Turowiecki, A.; Tuturas, N. G.; Uhlig, F.; Usenko, E.; Valin, I.; Varga, D.; Vassiliev, I.; Vasylyev, O.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verhoeven, W.; Veshikov, A.; Visinka, R.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Volkov, S.; Volochniuk, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Voronin, Aleksey; Voronin, Alexander; Vovchenko, V.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xi-Wei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Yi; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wessels, J. P.; Wiebusch, M.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wieloch, A.; Wilms, A.; Winckler, N.; Winter, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Wolf, Gy.; Won, Sanguk; Wu, Ke-Jun; Wüstenfeld, J.; Xiang, Changzhou; Xu, Nu; Yang, Junfeng; Yang, Rongxing; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuldashev, B.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabołotny, W.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zamiatin, N. I.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Jiajun; Zheng, Sheng; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xianglei; Zinchenko, A.; Zipper, W.; Żoładź, M.; Zrelov, P.; Zryuev, V.; Zumbruch, P.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-03-01

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√{s_{NN}}= 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials ( μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter.

  2. Parametric bleaching of dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Ramazashvili, R. R.

    1981-11-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the nonlinear bleaching of a dense plasma slab. In this new mechanism, the electromagnetic wave incident on the plasma decays into plasma waves and then reappears as a result of the coalescence of the plasma waves at the second boundary of the slab.

  3. Rapid heating of matter using high power lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, Woosuk

    2016-04-08

    This slide presentation describes motivation (uniform and rapid heating of a target, opportunity to study warm dense matter, study of nuclear fusion reactions), rapid heating of matter with intense laser-driven ion beams, visualization of the expanding warm dense gold and diamond, and nuclear fusion experiments using high power lasers (direct heating of deuterium spheres (radius ~ 10nm) with an intense laser pulse.

  4. Language (Policy) Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, E. B.; Mulligan, E.; Hernandez-Saca, D.

    2011-01-01

    Public education has a vital role in ensuring that this and subsequent generations are successful in a global, multilingual economy. In this What Matters brief, we examine how teachers, students, parents, and communities in our nation's schools can create rich opportunities for students to learn. Language (Policy) Matters! includes information and…

  5. X-ray scattering from dense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSherry, Declan Joseph

    Dense plasmas were studied by probing them with kilovolt x-rays and measuring those scattered at various angles. The laser produced x-ray source emitted Ti He alpha 4.75 keV x-rays. Two different plasma types were explored. The first was created by laser driven shocks on either side of a sample foil consisting of 2 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 1 micron CH layers. We have observed a peak in the x-ray scattering cross section, indicating diffraction from the plasma. However, the experimentally inferred plasma density, did not always agree broadly with the hydrodynamic simulation MEDX (A modified version of MEDUSA). The second plasma type that we studied was created by soft x-ray heating on either side of a sample foil, this time consisting of 1 micron thickness of Al, sandwiched between two 0.2 micron CH layers. Two foil targets, each consisting of a 0.1 micron thick Au foil mounted on 1 micron of CH, were placed 4 mm from the sample foil. The soft x-rays were produced by laser irradiating these two foil targets. We found that, 0.5 ns after the peak of the laser heating pulses, that the measured cross sections more closely matched those simulated using the Thomas Fermi model than the Inferno model. Later in time, at 2 ns, the plasma is approaching a weakly coupled state. This is the first time x-ray scattering cross sections have been measured from dense plasmas generated by radiatively heating both sides of the sample. Moreover, these are absolute values typically within a factor of two of expectation for early x-ray probe times.

  6. Structure and dynamical nature of hot and dense QCD matter

    SciTech Connect

    Hatsuda, Tetsuo.

    1991-07-01

    Static and dynamical properties of QCD at finite temperature and density are reviewed. Non-perturbative aspects of the QCD plasma and the modification of the hadron properties associated with the chiral transition are discussed on the basis of lattice data, effective theories and QCD sum rules. Special emphasis is laid on the importance of the finite baryon density to see the effects of the restoration of chiral symmetry in experiment.

  7. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, Gail; Schaefer, Thomas

    2015-05-31

    The major accomplishments of the research activity at NC State during the five years were: to determine the effects and signatures of turbulence in supernova, to calculate r-process and supernova nucleosynthesis, and to determine the neutrino scattering and flavor transformation that occurs in black hole accretion disks. This report goes into more detail on them.

  8. Dense Chern-Simons matter with fermions at large N

    SciTech Connect

    Geracie, Michael; Goykhman, Mikhail; Son, Dam T.

    2016-04-18

    In this paper we investigate properties of Chern-Simons theory coupled to massive fermions in the large N limit. We demonstrate that at low temperatures the system is in a Fermi liquid state whose features can be systematically compared to the standard phenomenological theory of Landau Fermi liquids. This includes matching microscopically derived Landau parameters with thermodynamic predictions of Landau Fermi liquid theory. We also calculate the exact conductivity and viscosity tensors at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. In particular we point out that the Hall conductivity of an interacting system is not entirely accounted for by the Berry flux through the Fermi sphere. Furthermore, investigation of the thermodynamics in the non-relativistic limit reveals novel phenomena at strong coupling. Furthermore, as the ’t Hooft coupling λ approaches 1, the system exhibits an extended intermediate temperature regime in which the thermodynamics is described by neither the quantum Fermi liquid theory nor the classical ideal gas law. Instead, it can be interpreted as a weakly coupled quantum Bose gas.

  9. Collaborative Research: Neutrinos and Nucleosynthesis in Hot and Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, Mark

    2015-05-31

    The Topical Collaboration funded one of Prof. Alford's graduate students, Jun (Sophia) Han, by providing 75% of her support. The work reported here was wholly or partly supported by the Topical Collaboration. Additional support, e.g. for postdoc Kai Schwenzer, came from Nuclear Theory grant #DE-FG02-05ER41375.

  10. Diagnostics for heavy ion beam driven Warm dense matter experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Pavel; Bieniosek, Frank; Lidia, Steve; Seidl, Peter; Waldron, Will

    2009-11-01

    A set of diagnostic has been developed for the WDM experiments at Berkeley. The diagnostics are aimed at the in-situ measurement of temperature, expansion velocity and pressure of a WDM sample.A specially developed two-channel pyrometer probes color temperatures at 750 nm,1000 nm and 1400 nm, with 75 ps temporal resolution. The system has a broad dynamic range with a lower limit ˜2000 K and upper limit ˜100000 K. The pyrometer design is based on custom spectrally selective beam splitters and can be upgraded up to seven channels. Continuous target emission from 450 nm to 850 nm is recorder by a custom spectrometer, consisting of a high dynamic range Hamamatsu streak camera and a holographic grating. The system is calibrated absolutely with a tungsten ribbon lamp (NIST traceable). The various sweeping times of the streak unit allows for temporal resolution varying from 1 ps to 1 us. The spectrometer has a lower sensitivity than the pyrometer and applied in experiments with higher temperatures. Hydrodynamic expansion velocity of a target's free surface is measured by a commercially available all- fiber Doppler shift laser interferometer (VISAR). The installed delay etalon allows for velocity detection with 2 m/s precision and 0.5 ns resolution.

  11. Dense Chern-Simons matter with fermions at large N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geracie, Michael; Goykhman, Mikhail; Son, Dam T.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigate properties of Chern-Simons theory coupled to massive fermions in the large N limit. We demonstrate that at low temperatures the system is in a Fermi liquid state whose features can be systematically compared to the standard phenomenological theory of Landau Fermi liquids. This includes matching microscopically derived Landau parameters with thermodynamic predictions of Landau Fermi liquid theory. We also calculate the exact conductivity and viscosity tensors at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. In particular we point out that the Hall conductivity of an interacting system is not entirely accounted for by the Berry flux through the Fermi sphere. Furthermore, investigation of the thermodynamics in the non-relativistic limit reveals novel phenomena at strong coupling. As the 't Hooft coupling λ approaches 1, the system exhibits an extended intermediate temperature regime in which the thermodynamics is described by neither the quantum Fermi liquid theory nor the classical ideal gas law. Instead, it can be interpreted as a weakly coupled quantum Bose gas.

  12. Dense Chern-Simons matter with fermions at large N

    DOE PAGES

    Geracie, Michael; Goykhman, Mikhail; Son, Dam T.

    2016-04-18

    In this paper we investigate properties of Chern-Simons theory coupled to massive fermions in the large N limit. We demonstrate that at low temperatures the system is in a Fermi liquid state whose features can be systematically compared to the standard phenomenological theory of Landau Fermi liquids. This includes matching microscopically derived Landau parameters with thermodynamic predictions of Landau Fermi liquid theory. We also calculate the exact conductivity and viscosity tensors at zero temperature and finite chemical potential. In particular we point out that the Hall conductivity of an interacting system is not entirely accounted for by the Berry fluxmore » through the Fermi sphere. Furthermore, investigation of the thermodynamics in the non-relativistic limit reveals novel phenomena at strong coupling. Furthermore, as the ’t Hooft coupling λ approaches 1, the system exhibits an extended intermediate temperature regime in which the thermodynamics is described by neither the quantum Fermi liquid theory nor the classical ideal gas law. Instead, it can be interpreted as a weakly coupled quantum Bose gas.« less

  13. Warm Dense Matter: Another Application for Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Densities: 1% < < 2X normal density Temperature: 1 eV < T < 50 eV Tabular EOS data bases such as the widely used Sesame data base from Los...energy, and hence its interpretation as “temperature” is subject to the EOS model. It is apparent from these elementary considerations that WDM

  14. Radiative properties of dense nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Fedorov, Andrei G; Luo, Zhongyang; Ni, Mingjiang

    2012-09-01

    The radiative properties of dense nanofluids are investigated. For nanofluids, scattering and absorbing of electromagnetic waves by nanoparticles, as well as light absorption by the matrix/fluid in which the nanoparticles are suspended, should be considered. We compare five models for predicting apparent radiative properties of nanoparticulate media and evaluate their applicability. Using spectral absorption and scattering coefficients predicted by different models, we compute the apparent transmittance of a nanofluid layer, including multiple reflecting interfaces bounding the layer, and compare the model predictions with experimental results from the literature. Finally, we propose a new method to calculate the spectral radiative properties of dense nanofluids that shows quantitatively good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition.

  16. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  17. Quark matter droplets in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiselberg, H.; Pethick, C. J.; Staubo, E. F.

    1993-01-01

    We show that, for physically reasonable bulk and surface properties, the lowest energy state of dense matter consists of quark matter coexisting with nuclear matter in the presence of an essentially uniform background of electrons. We estimate the size and nature of spatial structure in this phase, and show that at the lowest densities the quark matter forms droplets embedded in nuclear matter, whereas at higher densities it can exhibit a variety of different topologies. A finite fraction of the interior of neutron stars could consist of matter in this new phase, which would provide new mechanisms for glitches and cooling.

  18. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  19. Warm dense iron equation of state from quantum molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjostrom, Travis; Crockett, Scott

    Through quantum molecular dynamics (QMD), utilizing both Kohn-Sham (orbital-based) and orbital-free density functional theory, we calculate the equation of state of warm dense iron in the density range 7-30 g/cm3 and temperatures from 1 to 100 eV. A critical examination of the iron pseudopotential is made, from which we find the previous QMD calculations of Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 023101 (2014)] to be in error. Our results also significantly extend the ranges of density and temperature which are attempted in that prior work. We calculate the shock Hugoniot and find very good agreement with experimental results to pressures over 20 TPa. Additionally we have utilized the QMD results to generate a new SESAME tabular equation of state for fluid iron, accurate in the warm dense matter region, and also extending to much broader regions of density and temperature than can be accessed by the QMD alone.

  20. Dense Plasma X-ray Scattering: Methods and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; Lee, H J; Davis, P; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Fortmann, C; Hammel, B A; Kritcher, A L; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Munro, D H; Redmer, R; Weber, S

    2009-08-19

    We have developed accurate x-ray scattering techniques to measure the physical properties of dense plasmas. Temperature and density are inferred from inelastic x-ray scattering data whose interpretation is model-independent for low to moderately coupled systems. Specifically, the spectral shape of the non-collective Compton scattering spectrum directly reflects the electron velocity distribution. In partially Fermi degenerate systems that have been investigated experimentally in laser shock-compressed beryllium, the Compton scattering spectrum provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. We show that forward scattering spectra that observe collective plasmon oscillations yield densities in agreement with Compton scattering. In addition, electron temperatures inferred from the dispersion of the plasmon feature are consistent with the ion temperature sensitive elastic scattering feature. Hence, theoretical models of the static ion-ion structure factor and consequently the equation of state of dense matter can be directly tested.

  1. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  2. Optically transparent dense colloidal gels

    PubMed Central

    Zupkauskas, M.; Lan, Y.; Joshi, D.; Ruff, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally it has been difficult to study the porous structure of dense colloidal gels and (macro) molecular transport through them simply because of the difference in refractive index between the colloid material and the continuous fluid phase surrounding it, rendering the samples opaque even at low colloidal volume fractions. Here, we demonstrate a novel colloidal gel that can be refractive index-matched in aqueous solutions owing to the low refractive index of fluorinated latex (FL)-particles (n = 1.37). Synthesizing them from heptafluorobutyl methacrylate using emulsion polymerization, we demonstrate that they can be functionalized with short DNA sequences via a dense brush-layer of polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) block-copolymers (PS-PEO). The block-copolymer, holding an azide group at the free PEO end, was grafted to the latex particle utilizing a swelling–deswelling method. Subsequently, DNA was covalently attached to the azide-end of the block copolymer via a strain-promoted alkyne–azide click reaction. For comparison, we present a structural study of single gels made of FL-particles only and composite gels made of a percolating FL-colloid gel coated with polystyrene (PS) colloids. Further we demonstrate that the diffusivity of tracer colloids dispersed deep inside a refractive index matched FL-colloidal gel can be measured as function of the local confinement using Dynamic Differential Microscopy (DDM). PMID:28970935

  3. The QCD vacuum, hadrons and superdense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.

    1986-01-01

    This is probably the only textbook available that gathers QCD, many-body theory and phase transitions in one volume. The presentation is pedagogical and readable. Contents: The QCD Vacuum: Introduction; QCD on the Lattice Topological Effects in Gauges Theories. Correlation Functions and Microscopic Excitations: Introduction; Operator Product Expansion; The Sum Rules beyond OPE; Nonpower Contributions to Correlators and Instantons; Hadronic Spectroscopy on the Lattice. Dense Matter: Hadronic Matter; Asymptotically Dense Quark-Gluon Plasma; Instantons in Matter; Lattice Calculations at Finite Temperature; Phase Transitions; Macroscopic Excitations and Experiments: General Properties of High Energy Collisions; ''Barometers'', ''Thermometers'', Interferometric ''Microscope''; Experimental Perspectives.

  4. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    DOE PAGES

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; ...

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has beenmore » unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.« less

  5. Visualization of expanding warm dense gold and diamond heated rapidly by laser-generated ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, W.; Albright, B. J.; Bradley, P. A.; Gautier, D. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Vold, E. L.; Cordoba, M. A. Santiago; Hamilton, C. E.; Fernández, J. C.

    2015-09-22

    With the development of several novel heating sources, scientists can now heat a small sample isochorically above 10,000 K. Although matter at such an extreme state, known as warm dense matter, is commonly found in astrophysics (e.g., in planetary cores) as well as in high energy density physics experiments, its properties are not well understood and are difficult to predict theoretically. This is because the approximations made to describe condensed matter or high-temperature plasmas are invalid in this intermediate regime. A sufficiently large warm dense matter sample that is uniformly heated would be ideal for these studies, but has been unavailable to date. We have used a beam of quasi-monoenergetic aluminum ions to heat gold and diamond foils uniformly and isochorically. For the first time, we visualized directly the expanding warm dense gold and diamond with an optical streak camera. Furthermore, we present a new technique to determine the initial temperature of these heated samples from the measured expansion speeds of gold and diamond into vacuum. We anticipate the uniformly heated solid density target will allow for direct quantitative measurements of equation-of-state, conductivity, opacity, and stopping power of warm dense matter, benefiting plasma physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics.

  6. Galactic Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, Benjamin P.

    The precise phase-space distribution and properties of Galactic dark matter necessary for its direct and indirect detection are currently unknown. Since the distributions of normal and dark matter in the Milky Way are coupled to each other as they both move in the same gravitational potential, constraints on the distribution and properties of dark matter can be derived by studying the distribution of visible matter in the Galaxy and making some general assumptions regarding the phase-space distribution of the dark matter. In this study, the visible components of the Galaxy have been comprehensively reviewed to create an axisymmetric model of the Galaxy that is consistent with the available observations, and the dark matter phase-space distribution is assumed to follow a lowered-isothermal form. Poisson's equations are then solved self-consistently to construct models of the spatial and velocity distribution of Galactic dark matter. The total gravitational potential from normal and dark matter are calculated and compared to the current observations of the rotation curve and to the radial velocity distributions of blue horizontal-branch and blue straggler stars. It is found that this analysis allows for a wide range of parameters for the dark matter. The implications for direct and indirect detection of dark matter are discussed in detail. In the appendices, two additional projects are presented. In Appendix A, the recent observations of the positron fraction and the total electron spectrum in cosmic rays are addressed by considering a nested leaky-box model for the propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. This is found to obviate the need for exotic processes such as the annihilation or decay of dark matter to explain the recent observations. In Appendix B, we discuss a novel dark matter detector involving triggered cavitation in acoustic fields. The theory behind the detector is presented in detail, and we discuss the work than has been done to create a prototype

  7. Uniformly dense polymeric foam body

    DOEpatents

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy

    2003-07-15

    A method for providing a uniformly dense polymer foam body having a density between about 0.013 g/cm.sup.3 to about 0.5 g/cm.sup.3 is disclosed. The method utilizes a thermally expandable polymer microsphere material wherein some of the microspheres are unexpanded and some are only partially expanded. It is shown that by mixing the two types of materials in appropriate ratios to achieve the desired bulk final density, filling a mold with this mixture so as to displace all or essentially all of the internal volume of the mold, heating the mold for a predetermined interval at a temperature above about 130.degree. C., and then cooling the mold to a temperature below 80.degree. C. the molded part achieves a bulk density which varies by less then about .+-.6% everywhere throughout the part volume.

  8. Velocity coherence in dense cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa A.; Barranco, Joseph A.; Wilner, David J.; Heyer, Mark H.

    1997-02-01

    At the meeting, we presented a summary of two papers which support the hypothesis that the molecular clouds which contain star-forming low-mass dense cores are self-similar in nature on size scales larger than an inner scale, Rcoh, and that within Rcoh, the cores are ``coherent,'' in that their filling factor is large and they are characterized by a very small, roughly constant, mildly supersonic velocity dispersion. We expect these two papers, by Barranco & Goodman [1] and Goodman, Barranco, Wilner, & Heyer, to appear in the Astrophysical Journal within the coming year. Here, we present a short summary of our results. The interested reader is urged to consult the on-line version of this work at cfa-www.harvard.edu/~agoodman/vel_coh.html [2].

  9. Viscoelastic behavior of dense microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cametti, C.; Codastefano, P.; D'arrigo, G.; Tartaglia, P.; Rouch, J.; Chen, S. H.

    1990-09-01

    We have performed extensive measurements of shear viscosity, ultrasonic absorption, and sound velocity in a ternary system consisting of water-decane-sodium di(2-ethylhexyl)sulfo- succinate(AOT), in the one-phase region where it forms a water-in-oil microemulsion. We observe a rapid increase of the static shear viscosity in the dense microemulsion region. Correspondingly the sound absorption shows unambiguous evidence of a viscoelastic behavior. The absorption data for various volume fractions and temperatures can be reduced to a universal curve by scaling both the absorption and the frequency by the measured static shear viscosity. The sound absorption can be interpreted as coming from the high-frequency tail of the viscoelastic relaxation, describable by a Cole-Cole relaxation formula with unusually small elastic moduli.

  10. Extended thermodynamics of dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Ruggeri, T.; Sugiyama, M.

    2012-11-01

    We study extended thermodynamics of dense gases by adopting the system of field equations with a different hierarchy structure to that adopted in the previous works. It is the theory of 14 fields of mass density, velocity, temperature, viscous stress, dynamic pressure, and heat flux. As a result, most of the constitutive equations can be determined explicitly by the caloric and thermal equations of state. It is shown that the rarefied-gas limit of the theory is consistent with the kinetic theory of gases. We also analyze three physically important systems, that is, a gas with the virial equations of state, a hard-sphere system, and a van der Waals fluid, by using the general theory developed in the former part of the present work.

  11. Creating the Primordial Quark-Gluon Plasma at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, John W.

    2013-04-01

    Ultra-relativistic collisions of heavy ions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) create an extremely hot system at temperatures (T) expected only within the first microseconds after the Big Bang. At these temperatures (T ˜ 2 x 10^12 K), a few hundred thousand times hotter than the sun's core, the known ``elementary'' particles cannot exist and matter ``melts'' to form a ``soup'' of quarks and gluons, called the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This ``soup'' flows easily, with extremely low viscosity, suggesting a nearly perfect hot liquid of quarks and gluons. Furthermore, the liquid is dense, highly interacting and opaque to energetic probes (fast quarks or gluons). RHIC has been in operation for twelve years and has established an impressive set of findings. Recent results from heavy ion collisions at the LHC extend the study of the QGP to higher temperatures and harder probes, such as jets (energetic clusters of particles), particles with extremely large transverse momenta and those containing heavy quarks. I will present a motivation for physics in the field and an overview of the new LHC heavy ion results in relation to results from RHIC.

  12. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Droplet formation and scaling in dense suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Miskin, Marc Z.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2012-01-01

    When a dense suspension is squeezed from a nozzle, droplet detachment can occur similar to that of pure liquids. While in pure liquids the process of droplet detachment is well characterized through self-similar profiles and known scaling laws, we show here the simple presence of particles causes suspensions to break up in a new fashion. Using high-speed imaging, we find that detachment of a suspension drop is described by a power law; specifically we find the neck minimum radius, rm, scales like near breakup at time τ = 0. We demonstrate data collapse in a variety of particle/liquid combinations, packing fractions, solvent viscosities, and initial conditions. We argue that this scaling is a consequence of particles deforming the neck surface, thereby creating a pressure that is balanced by inertia, and show how it emerges from topological constraints that relate particle configurations with macroscopic Gaussian curvature. This new type of scaling, uniquely enforced by geometry and regulated by the particles, displays memory of its initial conditions, fails to be self-similar, and has implications for the pressure given at generic suspension interfaces. PMID:22392979

  14. Neutrino propagation in color superconducting quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Gregory W.; Reddy, Sanjay

    2000-11-01

    We calculate the neutrino mean free path in color superconducting quark matter, and employ it to study the cooling of matter via neutrino diffusion in the superconducting phase as compared to a free quark phase. The cooling process slows when quark matter undergoes a second order phase transition to a superconducting phase at the critical temperature Tc. Cooling subsequently accelerates as the temperature decreases below Tc. This will directly impact the early evolution of a newly born neutron star, should its core contain quark matter. Consequently, there may be observable changes in the early neutrino emission which would provide evidence for superconductivity in hot and dense matter.

  15. The performance of dense medium processes

    SciTech Connect

    Horsfall, D.W.

    1993-12-31

    Dense medium washing in baths and cyclones is widely carried out in South Africa. The paper shows the reason for the preferred use of dense medium processes rather than gravity concentrators such as jigs. The factors leading to efficient separation in baths are listed and an indication given of the extent to which these factors may be controlled and embodied in the deployment of baths and dense medium cyclones in the planning stages of a plant.

  16. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  17. Warm dense mater: another application for pulsed power hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Reinovsky, Robert Emil

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed Power Hydrodynamics (PPH) is an application of low-impedance pulsed power, and high magnetic field technology to the study of advanced hydrodynamic problems, instabilities, turbulence, and material properties. PPH can potentially be applied to the study of the properties of warm dense matter (WDM) as well. Exploration of the properties of warm dense matter such as equation of state, viscosity, conductivity is an emerging area of study focused on the behavior of matter at density near solid density (from 10% of solid density to slightly above solid density) and modest temperatures ({approx}1-10 eV). Conditions characteristic of WDM are difficult to obtain, and even more difficult to diagnose. One approach to producing WDM uses laser or particle beam heating of very small quantities of matter on timescales short compared to the subsequent hydrodynamic expansion timescales (isochoric heating) and a vigorous community of researchers are applying these techniques. Pulsed power hydrodynamic techniques, such as large convergence liner compression of a large volume, modest density, low temperature plasma to densities approaching solid density or through multiple shock compression and heating of normal density material between a massive, high density, energetic liner and a high density central 'anvil' are possible ways to reach relevant conditions. Another avenue to WDM conditions is through the explosion and subsequent expansion of a conductor (wire) against a high pressure (density) gas background (isobaric expansion) techniques. However, both techniques demand substantial energy, proper power conditioning and delivery, and an understanding of the hydrodynamic and instability processes that limit each technique. In this paper we will examine the challenges to pulsed power technology and to pulsed power systems presented by the opportunity to explore this interesting region of parameter space.

  18. Dense packings of the Platonic and Archimedean solids.

    PubMed

    Torquato, S; Jiao, Y

    2009-08-13

    Dense particle packings have served as useful models of the structures of liquid, glassy and crystalline states of matter, granular media, heterogeneous materials and biological systems. Probing the symmetries and other mathematical properties of the densest packings is a problem of interest in discrete geometry and number theory. Previous work has focused mainly on spherical particles-very little is known about dense polyhedral packings. Here we formulate the generation of dense packings of polyhedra as an optimization problem, using an adaptive fundamental cell subject to periodic boundary conditions (we term this the 'adaptive shrinking cell' scheme). Using a variety of multi-particle initial configurations, we find the densest known packings of the four non-tiling Platonic solids (the tetrahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron) in three-dimensional Euclidean space. The densities are 0.782..., 0.947..., 0.904... and 0.836..., respectively. Unlike the densest tetrahedral packing, which must not be a Bravais lattice packing, the densest packings of the other non-tiling Platonic solids that we obtain are their previously known optimal (Bravais) lattice packings. Combining our simulation results with derived rigorous upper bounds and theoretical arguments leads us to the conjecture that the densest packings of the Platonic and Archimedean solids with central symmetry are given by their corresponding densest lattice packings. This is the analogue of Kepler's sphere conjecture for these solids.

  19. Ultra-dense deuterium and cold fusion claims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    2010-06-01

    An attempt is made to explain the recently reported occurrence of 14 MeV neutron induced nuclear reactions in deuterium metal hydrides as the manifestation of a slightly radioactive ultra-dense form of deuterium, with a density of 130,000 g/cm 3 observed by a Swedish research group through the collapse of deuterium Rydberg matter. In accordance with this observation it is proposed that a large number of deuterons form a “linear-atom” supermolecule. By the Madelung transformation of the Schrödinger equation, the linear deuterium supermolecule can be described by a quantized line vortex. A vortex lattice made up of many such supermolecules is possible only with deuterium, because deuterons are bosons, and the same is true for the electrons, which by the electron-phonon interaction in a vortex lattice form Cooper pairs. It is conjectured that the latent heat released by the collapse into the ultra-dense state has been misinterpreted as cold fusion. Hot fusion though, is here possible through the fast ignition of a thermonuclear detonation wave from a hot spot made with a 1 kJ 10 petawatt laser in a thin slice of the ultra-dense deuterium.

  20. X-ray Thomson scattering measurement of temperature in warm dense carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, K.; Fryer, C. L.; Gamboa, E. J.; Greeff, C. W.; Johns, H. M.; Schmidt, D. W.; Šmíd, M.; Benage, J. F.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    A novel platform to measure the equation of state using a combination of diagnostics, where the spectrally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is used to obtain accurate temperature measurements of warm dense matter (WDM) was developed for the OMEGA laser facility. OMEGA laser beams have been used to drive strong shocks in carbon targets creating WDM and generating the Ni He-alpha x-ray probe used for XRTS. Additional diagnostics including x-ray radiography, velocity interferometry and streaked optical pyrometry provided complementary measurements of density and pressure. The WDM regime of near solid density and moderate temperatures (1-100 eV) is a challenging yet important area of research in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. This platform has been used to study off-Hugoniot states of shock-released diamond and graphite at pressures between 1 and 10 Mbar and temperatures between 5 and 15 eV as well as first x-ray Thomson scattering data from shocked low density CH foams reaching five times compression and temperatures of 20-30 eV.

  1. X-ray Thomson scattering measurement of temperature in warm dense carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Falk, Katerina; Fryer, C. L.; Gamboa, E. J.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Here, a novel platform to measure the equation of state using a combination of diagnostics, where the spectrally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is used to obtain accurate temperature measurements of warm dense matter (WDM) was developed for the OMEGA laser facility. OMEGA laser beams have been used to drive strong shocks in carbon targets creating WDM and generating the Ni He-alpha x-ray probe used for XRTS. Additional diagnostics including x-ray radiography, velocity interferometry and streaked optical pyrometry provided complementary measurements of density and pressure. The WDM regime of near solid density and moderate temperatures (1–100 eV) is a challengingmore » yet important area of research in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. This platform has been used to study off-Hugoniot states of shock-released diamond and graphite at pressures between 1 and 10 Mbar and temperatures between 5 and 15 eV as well as first x-ray Thomson scattering data from shocked low density CH foams reaching five times compression and temperatures of 20–30 eV.« less

  2. X-ray Thomson scattering measurement of temperature in warm dense carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, Katerina; Fryer, C. L.; Gamboa, E. J.; Greeff, C. W.; Johns, H. M.; Schmidt, D. W.; Smid, M.; Benage, J. F.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2016-11-22

    Here, a novel platform to measure the equation of state using a combination of diagnostics, where the spectrally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) is used to obtain accurate temperature measurements of warm dense matter (WDM) was developed for the OMEGA laser facility. OMEGA laser beams have been used to drive strong shocks in carbon targets creating WDM and generating the Ni He-alpha x-ray probe used for XRTS. Additional diagnostics including x-ray radiography, velocity interferometry and streaked optical pyrometry provided complementary measurements of density and pressure. The WDM regime of near solid density and moderate temperatures (1–100 eV) is a challenging yet important area of research in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. This platform has been used to study off-Hugoniot states of shock-released diamond and graphite at pressures between 1 and 10 Mbar and temperatures between 5 and 15 eV as well as first x-ray Thomson scattering data from shocked low density CH foams reaching five times compression and temperatures of 20–30 eV.

  3. The Magic Moment: Creating Color Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartges, Dan

    2009-01-01

    If there is a truly magic moment in art class, it must be when a student--of any age--attains a working knowledge of color's core principles. At that point, she or he becomes able to consistently create color harmony in any painting, regardless of the subject matter. From then on, that student gains greater confidence, can paint better pictures…

  4. The Magic Moment: Creating Color Harmony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartges, Dan

    2009-01-01

    If there is a truly magic moment in art class, it must be when a student--of any age--attains a working knowledge of color's core principles. At that point, she or he becomes able to consistently create color harmony in any painting, regardless of the subject matter. From then on, that student gains greater confidence, can paint better pictures…

  5. A Model for an Object Created

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyeok-Je

    2006-04-01

    Before going into the model treated here, it is need to know the nature of energy. Energy itself is active and constantly move. This fact results in the phenomenon of energy spread. The phenomenon of energy spread is under the law of energy conservation. For confining energy, additional energy is required. Suppose there were gathered energies for some reason. Creation of some objects is the result of the gathered energy and energy spread. In the case where a new object is more stable, after some fluctuation, energy from the object goes away so that a new object remains behind. For this, the enegy, E, larger than the sum of energy barrier, Eb, and the difference between the energy state of the object and initial energy state, dE, is required. E > Eb+dE Thus, a new object is created. It is an irreversible process. Adaptation is a sort of creation with no energy barrier. In the case where there is no energy source near the object, the created object is relatively inactive one. This is matter. To reduce the increased energy state due to gravitation, matters gather. In the case where there is an energy source near matters, a new object can be created around or within the matters. The created object will be active. This is life.

  6. Optimal probabilistic dense coding schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kögler, Roger A.; Neves, Leonardo

    2017-04-01

    Dense coding with non-maximally entangled states has been investigated in many different scenarios. We revisit this problem for protocols adopting the standard encoding scheme. In this case, the set of possible classical messages cannot be perfectly distinguished due to the non-orthogonality of the quantum states carrying them. So far, the decoding process has been approached in two ways: (i) The message is always inferred, but with an associated (minimum) error; (ii) the message is inferred without error, but only sometimes; in case of failure, nothing else is done. Here, we generalize on these approaches and propose novel optimal probabilistic decoding schemes. The first uses quantum-state separation to increase the distinguishability of the messages with an optimal success probability. This scheme is shown to include (i) and (ii) as special cases and continuously interpolate between them, which enables the decoder to trade-off between the level of confidence desired to identify the received messages and the success probability for doing so. The second scheme, called multistage decoding, applies only for qudits ( d-level quantum systems with d>2) and consists of further attempts in the state identification process in case of failure in the first one. We show that this scheme is advantageous over (ii) as it increases the mutual information between the sender and receiver.

  7. Dense Plasma Characterization by X-Ray Thomson Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenzer, Siegfried H.

    2001-10-01

    Solid-density plasmas close to the Fermi degenerate state are a fundamental state of matter that occurs in high energy density laboratory experiments. It has been a long-standing goal to study the microscopic properties of these dense plasmas because conventional diagnostic techniques and standard plasma theory that treat the interactions between particles as a small correction are not applicable. We have recently succeeded measuring the temperature of this previously unexplored regime of matter with a proof-of-principal experiment at the Omega laser facility at LLE, U. Rochester. We used spectrally-resolved 4.5-keV x-ray scattering from a solid-density beryllium plasma. The source is provided by a highly ionized resonance K-line from a Ti plasma. The sample is heated volumetrically by x-rays from another set of mid-Z plasmas produced by 10^15Wcm-2 laser beams. X-ray Thomson scattering provides for the first time detailed information on electron densities, temperature, and velocity distributions. In our experiments, we observe the Compton-downshifted spectral line that is broadened by the thermal motion of the electrons in the plasma indicating Te ≈ TF = 14 eV. The full range of dense plasmas, from Fermi degenerate, to strongly coupled, to high temperature ideal gas plasmas will now be accessible. For example, as the temperature is increased, the electron velocity distribution as measured by incoherent Thomson scattering will make a transition from a density-dependent parabolic Fermi distribution to the traditional Gaussian Boltzmann distribution. The technique has wide applications, ranging from studying the adiabat and compression of ICF fuels, to temperature measurements for radiatively heated foams. In addition, by accessing the collective scattering regime, basic dense plasma wave physics can be studied.

  8. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26184335

  9. Atomic and optical properties of warm dense copper.

    PubMed

    Miloshevsky, Gennady; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    The emission of x rays from warm dense matter is of great interest for both spectroscopic diagnostics and development of intense x-ray sources. We report the results from the collisional-radiative steady-state (CRSS) modeling of atomic and optical properties of copper plasmas at near-solid and solid-state density for a range of temperatures. The CRSS model is validated against the available data on the average charge state and shifts of energy levels in aluminum and the opacity and emissivity spectra of carbon and aluminum plasmas. The average charge states, number density of ion species, and free electrons as a function of temperature are investigated for the solid-density copper plasma. Due to the dense plasma environment the four outer electrons are found to be unbounded even in the low-temperature limit ∼1eV. As the temperature changes from 1 to 100 eV, the predominant species vary from fivefold- to twelvefold-ionized copper ions. The opacity and emissivity spectra of dense copper plasmas are studied using the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE approaches. It is found that the non-LTE effects are important in the spectral region of soft x rays emitted from the K shell. The emissivity in spectral lines is completely suppressed, indicating the importance of the energy-dissipating radiative processes in this soft x-ray region. Line broadening and redshifts of the K- and L-shell spectral lines toward higher wavelengths are observed with the increase of plasma density. These results have important implications for understanding the radiative properties of warm dense copper and can be useful for future experimental studies.

  10. Animal reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis in densely populated urban areas.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Soraia A; Silva, Fabiana L; Carvalho Neta, Alcina C; Bueno, Regina; Guerra, Rita M S N C; Abreu-Silva, Ana L; Santos, Renato L

    2008-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease of major public health and veterinary importance, affecting 88 countries with up to 2 million cases per year. This review emphasizes the animal reservoirs and spreading of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas, particularly in two Brazilian metropolitan areas, namely São Luis and Belo Horizonte, where the disease has become endemic in the past few years. Urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil during the last decades has created favorable epidemiological conditions for maintenance of the disease, with dense human populations sharing a tropical environment with abundant populations of the mammalian reservoir and the invertebrate vector, facilitating transmission of the disease.

  11. Large area, dense silicon nanowire array chemical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Talin, A. Alec; Hunter, Luke L.; Leonard, Francois; Rokad, Bhavin

    2006-10-09

    The authors present a simple top-down approach based on nanoimprint lithography to create dense arrays of silicon nanowires over large areas. Metallic contacts to the nanowires and a bottom gate allow the operation of the array as a field-effect transistor with very large on/off ratios. When exposed to ammonia gas or cyclohexane solutions containing nitrobenzene or phenol, the threshold voltage of the field-effect transistor is shifted, a signature of charge transfer between the analytes and the nanowires. The threshold voltage shift is proportional to the Hammett parameter and the concentration of the nitrobenzene and phenol analytes.

  12. Three-dimensional biomimetic mineralization of dense hydrogel templates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gao; Zhao, Dacheng; Tomsia, Antoni P; Minor, Andrew M; Song, Xiangyun; Saiz, Eduardo

    2009-07-29

    An electric-current-assisted method was used to mineralize dense hydrogels and create hydroxyapatite/hydrogel composites with unique hierarchical structures. The microstructure of the final material can be controlled by the mineralization technique and the chemistry of the organic matrix. A hydroxyapatite/hydrogel composite was obtained with a large inorganic content (approximately 60% of the weight of the organics). After being heated to 1050 degrees C, the sintered inorganic phase has a very uniformly distributed porosity and its Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area is 0.68 m(2)/g.

  13. When matter matters

    SciTech Connect

    Easson, Damien A.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: ignacy.sawicki@uni-heidelberg.de

    2013-07-01

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe:Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions — to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  14. Combined x-ray scattering, radiography, and velocity interferometry/streaked optical pyrometry measurements of warm dense carbon using a novel technique of shock-and-releasea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, K.; Collins, L. A.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kagan, G.; Kress, J. D.; Montgomery, D. S.; Srinivasan, B.; Tzeferacos, P.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-05-01

    This work focused on a new application of the shock-and-release technique for equation of state (EOS) measurements. Warm dense matter states at near normal solid density and at temperatures close to 10 eV in diamond and graphite samples were created using a deep release from a laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. Independent temperature, density, and pressure measurements that do not depend on any theoretical models or simulations were obtained using imaging x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and streaked optical pyrometry. The experimental results were reproduced by the 2-D FLASH radiation hydrodynamics simulations finding a good agreement. The final EOS measurement was then compared with widely used SESAME EOS models as well as quantum molecular dynamics simulation results for carbon, which were very consistent with the experimental data.

  15. Combined x-ray scattering, radiography, and velocity interferometry/streaked optical pyrometry measurements of warm dense carbon using a novel technique of shock-and-release

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.; Collins, L. A.; Kagan, G.; Kress, J. D.; Montgomery, D. S.; Srinivasan, B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Tzeferacos, P.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-05-15

    This work focused on a new application of the shock-and-release technique for equation of state (EOS) measurements. Warm dense matter states at near normal solid density and at temperatures close to 10 eV in diamond and graphite samples were created using a deep release from a laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. Independent temperature, density, and pressure measurements that do not depend on any theoretical models or simulations were obtained using imaging x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and streaked optical pyrometry. The experimental results were reproduced by the 2-D FLASH radiation hydrodynamics simulations finding a good agreement. The final EOS measurement was then compared with widely used SESAME EOS models as well as quantum molecular dynamics simulation results for carbon, which were very consistent with the experimental data.

  16. Education Matters, August 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Creating New Paths, Attracting New Teachers: Why…

  17. Hot nuclear matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S.

    1992-11-01

    The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter.

  18. Compressible, Dense, Three-Dimensional Holey Graphene Monolithic Architecture.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaogang; Yang, Zhi; Zhao, Bin; Zhu, Shuze; Zhou, Lihui; Dai, Jiaqi; Kim, Jae-Woo; Liu, Boyang; Connell, John W; Li, Teng; Yang, Bao; Lin, Yi; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-03-10

    By creating holes in 2D nanosheets, tortuosity and porosity can be greatly tunable, which enables a fast manufacturing process (i.e., fast removal of gas and solvent) toward various nanostructures. We demonstrated outstanding compressibility of holey graphene nanosheets, which is impossible for pristine graphene. Holey graphene powder can be easily compressed into dense and strong monoliths with different shapes at room temperature without using any solvents or binders. The remarkable compressibility of holey graphene, which is in sharp contrast with pristine graphene, not only enables the fabrication of robust, dense graphene products that exhibit high density (1.4 g/cm(3)), excellent specific mechanical strength [18 MPa/(g/cm(3))], and good electrical (130 S/cm) and thermal (20 W/mK) conductivities, but also provides a binder-free dry process that overcomes the disadvantages of wet processes required for fabrication of three-dimensional graphene products. Fundamentally different from graphite, the holey graphene products are both dense and porous, which can enable possible broader applications such as energy storage and gas separation membranes.

  19. Electronic and optical properties of warm dense lithium: strong coupling effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jiayu; Gao, Cheng; Sun, Huayang; Kang, Dongdong

    2017-09-01

    The optical properties of atoms in a hot and dense environment are of critical importance and a great challenge. In a warm dense matter, strong coupling effects between ions induce new physics which is difficult to be included in statistical isolated atom models such as the average atom model or the detailed level accounting model. Here we study the optical properties of warm dense Li from ab initio molecular dynamics with Kubo–Greenwood relations. We compare the absorption coefficients with those from detailed level accounting methods, which can show a significant difference. The analyses of ionic structures and charge density distribution show that the strongly coupled ions induce local ordered structures and redistributions of the electrons away from the homogeneous electron gases. Also, we study the electronic structures of warm dense Li within the same theoretical framework, and we discover how the local environment of different atoms affects the density of states of the system, which will directly alter the optical properties of warm dense matter.

  20. Controls on circulation, cross-shelf exchange, and dense water formation in an Antarctic polynya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, K.; Sloyan, B. M.; Rintoul, S. R.; Hogg, A. McC.; Downes, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    Circulation on the Antarctic continental shelf influences cross-shelf exchange, Antarctic Bottom Water formation, and ocean heat flux to floating ice shelves. The physical processes driving the shelf circulation and its seasonal and interannual variability remain poorly understood. We use a unique time series of repeat hydrographic observations from the Adélie Land continental shelf and a box inverse model to explore the relationship between surface forcing, shelf circulation, cross-shelf exchange, and dense water formation. A wind-driven northwestward coastal current, set up by onshore Ekman transport, dominates the summer circulation. During winter, strong buoyancy loss creates dense shelf water. This dense water flows off the shelf, with a compensating on-shelf flow that is an order of magnitude larger in winter than in summer. The results demonstrate the importance of winter buoyancy loss in driving the shelf circulation and cross-shelf exchange, as well as dense water mass formation.

  1. Holographic Quark Matter and Neutron Stars.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-07-15

    We use a top-down holographic model for strongly interacting quark matter to study the properties of neutron stars. When the corresponding equation of state (EOS) is matched with state-of-the-art results for dense nuclear matter, we consistently observe a first-order phase transition at densities between 2 and 7 times the nuclear saturation density. Solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations with the resulting hybrid EOSs, we find maximal stellar masses in excess of two solar masses, albeit somewhat smaller than those obtained with simple extrapolations of the nuclear matter EOSs. Our calculation predicts that no quark matter exists inside neutron stars.

  2. Memory-Efficient Analysis of Dense Functional Connectomes

    PubMed Central

    Loewe, Kristian; Donohue, Sarah E.; Schoenfeld, Mircea A.; Kruse, Rudolf; Borgelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The functioning of the human brain relies on the interplay and integration of numerous individual units within a complex network. To identify network configurations characteristic of specific cognitive tasks or mental illnesses, functional connectomes can be constructed based on the assessment of synchronous fMRI activity at separate brain sites, and then analyzed using graph-theoretical concepts. In most previous studies, relatively coarse parcellations of the brain were used to define regions as graphical nodes. Such parcellated connectomes are highly dependent on parcellation quality because regional and functional boundaries need to be relatively consistent for the results to be interpretable. In contrast, dense connectomes are not subject to this limitation, since the parcellation inherent to the data is used to define graphical nodes, also allowing for a more detailed spatial mapping of connectivity patterns. However, dense connectomes are associated with considerable computational demands in terms of both time and memory requirements. The memory required to explicitly store dense connectomes in main memory can render their analysis infeasible, especially when considering high-resolution data or analyses across multiple subjects or conditions. Here, we present an object-based matrix representation that achieves a very low memory footprint by computing matrix elements on demand instead of explicitly storing them. In doing so, memory required for a dense connectome is reduced to the amount needed to store the underlying time series data. Based on theoretical considerations and benchmarks, different matrix object implementations and additional programs (based on available Matlab functions and Matlab-based third-party software) are compared with regard to their computational efficiency. The matrix implementation based on on-demand computations has very low memory requirements, thus enabling analyses that would be otherwise infeasible to conduct due to

  3. Diquark abundance in stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.E.; de Freitas Pacheco, J.A.; de Araujo, J.C.N. )

    1992-11-15

    The clustering of quarks into pairs (diquarks) has been suggested recently to play an important role in dense matter and its astrophysical realization in neutron-star cores. We address in this work the features of diquark matter by employing an accurate equation of state valid for the effective {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} diquark theory, and find milder (although non-negligible) effects than in previous calculations. Some considerations on the very presence of a diquark-dominated region immediately above the deconfinement density are also given.

  4. Propagation Of Dense Plasma Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchi, Peter J.; Davis, John F.

    1988-05-01

    A variety of schemes have been proposed over the last two decades for delivering lethal amounts of energy and/or momentum to targets such as missiles and high speed aircraft. Techniques have ranged from high energy lasers and high voltage charged-particle accelerators to less exotic but still challenging devices such as electromagnetic railguns. One class of technology involves the use of high speed plasmas. The primary attraction of such technology is the possibility of utilizing relatively compact accelerators and electrical power systems that could allow highly mobile and agile operation from rocket or aircraft platforms, or in special ordnance. Three years ago, R & D Associates examined the possibility of plasma propagation for military applications and concluded that the only viable approach consisted of long dense plasma jets, contained in radial equilibrium by the atmosphere, while propagating at speeds of about 10 km/s. Without atmospheric confinement the plasma density would diminish too rapidly for adequate range and lethality. Propagation of atmospherically-confined jets at speeds much greater than 10 km/s required significant increases in power levels and/or operating altitudes to achieve useful ranges. The present research effort has been developing the experimental conditions necessary to achieve reasonable comparison with theoretical predictions for plasma jet propagation in the atmosphere. Time-resolved measurements have been made of high speed argon plasma jets penetrating a helium background (simulating xenon jets propagating into air). Basic radial confinement of the jet has been observed by photography and spectroscopy and structures in the flow field resemble those predicted by numerical calculations. Results from our successful initial experiments have been used to design improved diagnostic procedures and arcjet source characteristics for further experiments. In experiments with a modified arcjet source, radial confinement of the jet is again

  5. Dense Plasma Heating and Radiation Generation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The investigations under this grant consist of three parts: CO2 laser heating of dense preformed plasmas, interaction of a dense hot plasma with a...small solid pellet, and pulsed power systems and technology. The laser plasma heating experiment has demonstrated both beam guiding by the plasma and...plasma heating by the beam. These results will be useful in heating plasmas for radiation generation. Experiments have shown that the pellet-plasma

  6. Dynamical theory of dense groups of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamon, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    It is well known that galaxies associate in groups and clusters. Perhaps 40% of all galaxies are found in groups of 4 to 20 galaxies (e.g., Tully 1987). Although most groups appear to be so loose that the galaxy interactions within them ought to be insignificant, the apparently densest groups, known as compact groups appear so dense when seen in projection onto the plane of the sky that their members often overlap. These groups thus appear as dense as the cores of rich clusters. The most popular catalog of compact groups, compiled by Hickson (1982), includes isolation among its selection critera. Therefore, in comparison with the cores of rich clusters, Hickson's compact groups (HCGs) appear to be the densest isolated regions in the Universe (in galaxies per unit volume), and thus provide in principle a clean laboratory for studying the competition of very strong gravitational interactions. The $64,000 question here is then: Are compact groups really bound systems as dense as they appear? If dense groups indeed exist, then one expects that each of the dynamical processes leading to the interaction of their member galaxies should be greatly enhanced. This leads us to the questions: How stable are dense groups? How do they form? And the related question, fascinating to any theorist: What dynamical processes predominate in dense groups of galaxies? If HCGs are not bound dense systems, but instead 1D change alignments (Mamon 1986, 1987; Walke & Mamon 1989) or 3D transient cores (Rose 1979) within larger looser systems of galaxies, then the relevant question is: How frequent are chance configurations within loose groups? Here, the author answers these last four questions after comparing in some detail the methods used and the results obtained in the different studies of dense groups.

  7. Dissociation energy of molecules in dense gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A general approach is presented for calculating the reduction of the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules immersed in a dense (n = less than 10 exp 22/cu cm) gas of molecules and atoms. The dissociation energy of a molecule in a dense gas differs from that of the molecule in vacuum because the intermolecular forces change the intramolecular dynamics of the molecule, and, consequently, the energy of the molecular bond.

  8. Dissociation energy of molecules in dense gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A general approach is presented for calculating the reduction of the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules immersed in a dense (n = less than 10 exp 22/cu cm) gas of molecules and atoms. The dissociation energy of a molecule in a dense gas differs from that of the molecule in vacuum because the intermolecular forces change the intramolecular dynamics of the molecule, and, consequently, the energy of the molecular bond.

  9. METHOD OF PRODUCING DENSE CONSOLIDATED METALLIC REGULUS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-08-11

    A methcd is presented for reducing dense metal compositions while simultaneously separating impurities from the reduced dense metal and casting the reduced parified dense metal, such as uranium, into well consolidated metal ingots. The reduction is accomplished by heating the dense metallic salt in the presence of a reducing agent, such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal in a bomb type reacting chamber, while applying centrifugal force on the reacting materials. Separation of the metal from the impurities is accomplished essentially by the incorporation of a constricted passageway at the vertex of a conical reacting chamber which is in direct communication with a collecting chamber. When a centrifugal force is applled to the molten metal and slag from the reduction in a direction collinear with the axis of the constricted passage, the dense molten metal is forced therethrough while the less dense slag is retained within the reaction chamber, resulting in a simultaneous separation of the reduced molten metal from the slag and a compacting of the reduced metal in a homogeneous mass.

  10. Creating physics stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Korea has begun an ambitious 5bn plan to create 50 new institutes dedicated to fundamental research. Michael Banks meets physicist Se-Jung Oh, president of the Institute for Basic Science, to find out more.

  11. Create a Logo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchen, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson that introduced students to graphic art as a career path. Explains that the students met a graphic artist and created a logo for a pretend client. Explains that the students researched logos. (CMK)

  12. Giant magnetic fields and relativistic electron transport in dense, hot plasmas created on solid targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattamraju, Ravindra Kumar; Shaikh, Moniruzzaman; Lad, Amit; Sarkar, Deep; Jana, Kamalesh; Dey, Indranuj

    2016-10-01

    Intense,femtosecond laser pulses generate relativistic electron pulses,important for many applications. In this paper, we present a femtosecond time-resolved and micrometer space resolved giant magnetic fields generated by 1019 W cm-2, 800 nm, 30 fs, high intensity contrast laser pulses in using pump-probe Cotton Mouton polarimetry. The space and time resolved maps of the magnetic fields at the front and rear of targets reveal turbulence in the magnetic fields. We also present data from shadowgraphy and Cherenkov emission along with model calculations to build up a picture of the transport process. GRK thanks J C Bose Fellowship Grant JCB-37/2010 for partial support.

  13. Creating Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Today's teachers and administrators are caught in a squeeze of conflicting demands. And evaluation guru Charlotte Danielson fears that teacher evaluation, as it's often implemented today, is making things worse. In schools where teacher evaluation has become simply a matter of numbers, ratings, and rankings, it may be undermining the very…

  14. Creating Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Today's teachers and administrators are caught in a squeeze of conflicting demands. And evaluation guru Charlotte Danielson fears that teacher evaluation, as it's often implemented today, is making things worse. In schools where teacher evaluation has become simply a matter of numbers, ratings, and rankings, it may be undermining the very…

  15. Solving the Dark Matter Problem

    ScienceCinema

    Baltz, Ted

    2016-07-12

    Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.

  16. Evolution of Dense Gas with Starburst Age: When Star Formation Versus Dense Gas Relations Break Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David S.; Turner, J. L.; Schinnerer, E.

    2011-05-01

    Dense gas correlates well with star formation on kpc scales. On smaller scales, motions of individual clouds become comparable to the 100 Myr ages of starbursts. One then expects the star formation rate vs. dense gas relations to break down on giant molecular cloud scales. We exploit this to study the evolutionary history of nuclear starburst in the nearby spiral, IC 342. Maps of the J=5-4 and 16-15 transitions of dense gas tracer HC3N at 20 pc resolution made with the VLA and the Plateau de Bure interferometer are presented. The 5-4 line of HC3N traces very dense gas in the cold phase, while the 16-15 transition traces warm, dense gas. These reveal changes in dense cloud structure on scales of 30 pc among clouds with star formation histories differing by only a few Myrs. HC3N emission does not correlate well with young star formation at these high spatial resolutions, but gas excitation does. The cold, dense gas extends well beyond the starburst region implying large amounts of dense quiescent gas not yet actively forming stars. Close to the starburst the high excitation combined with faint emission indicates that the immediate (30 pc) vicinity of the starburst lacks large masses of very dense gas and has high dense gas star formation efficiencies. The dense gas appears to be in pressure equilibrium with the starburst. We propose a scenario where the starburst is being caught in the act of dispersing or destroying the dense gas in the presence of the expanding HII region. This work is supported by the NSF through NRAO and grant AST-1009620.

  17. Nonstandard neutrino-neutrino refractive effects in dense neutrino gases

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /CERN /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the effects of nonstandard four-fermion neutrino-neutrino interactions on the flavor evolution of dense neutrino gases. We find that in the regions where the neutrino-neutrino refractive index leads to collective flavor oscillations, the presence of new neutrino interactions can produce flavor equilibration in both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. In realistic supernova environments, these effects are significant if the nonstandard neutrino-neutrino interaction strength is comparable to the one expected in the standard case, dominating the ordinary matter potential. However, very small nonstandard neutrino-neutrino couplings are enough to trigger the usual collective neutrino flavor transformations in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, even if the mixing angle vanishes exactly.

  18. Equation of state of dense plasmas with pseudoatom molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Starrett, C E; Saumon, D

    2016-06-01

    We present an approximation for calculating the equation of state (EOS) of warm and hot dense matter that is built on the previously published pseudoatom molecular dynamics (PAMD) model of dense plasmas [Starrett et al., Phys. Rev. E 91, 013104 (2015)PLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.91.013104]. While the EOS calculation with PAMD was previously limited to orbital-free density functional theory (DFT), the new approximation presented here allows a Kohn-Sham DFT treatment of the electrons. The resulting EOS thus includes a quantum mechanical treatment of the electrons with a self-consistent model of the ionic structure, while remaining tractable at high temperatures. The method is validated by comparisons with pressures from ab initio simulations of Be, Al, Si, and Fe. The EOS in the Thomas-Fermi approximation shows remarkable thermodynamic consistency over a wide range of temperatures for aluminum. We calculate the principal Hugoniots of aluminum and silicon up to 500 eV. We find that the ionic structure of the plasma has a modest effect that peaks at temperatures of a few eV and that the features arising from the electronic structure agree well with ab initio simulations.

  19. Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-10-30

    Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed, high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described approaches to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means, by an array of movable Langmuir probes, by a small single probe, and by evaluating Stark broadening of the Balmer H beta spectral line. In the main approach described here, the plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. It is shown that the plasma is essentially hollow, as determined by the structure of the magnetic field, though the plasma density exceeds 1014 cm-3 in practically all zones of the solenoid volume if the ring electrode is placed a few centimeters off the center of the solenoid. The plasma is non-uniform and fluctuating, however, since its density exceeds the ion beam density it is believed that this approach could provide a practical solution to the space charge neutralization challenge.

  20. Mutual friction in color-flavor locked quark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Motoi

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a possible astrophysical application of physics of dense matter, which is related to the r-mode instability of rapidly rotating compact star. We discuss some microscopic consideration to compute the time scale for energy dissipation in the presence of superfluid vortices. As such an example, color-flavor locked (CFL) quark matter is considered.

  1. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Zylstra, A.  B.; Frenje, J.  A.; Grabowski, P. E.; ...

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories inmore » WDM plasma.« less

  2. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, A.  B.; Frenje, J.  A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C.  K.; Collins, G.  W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.  B.; Hu, S. X.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Keiter, P.; Reynolds, H.; Rygg, J.  R.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories in WDM plasma.

  3. A thin column of dense plasma for space-charge neutralization of intense ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Greenway, W.; Sefkow, A. B.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2008-11-01

    Typical ion driven warm dense matter experiment requires a plasma density of 10^14/cm^3 to meet the challenge of np>nb, where np, and nb are the number densities of plasma and beam, respectively. Plasma electrons neutralize the space charge of an ion beam to allow a small spot of about 1-mm radius. In order to provide np>nb for initial warm, dense matter experiments, four cathodic arc plasma sources have been fabricated, and the aluminum plasma is focused in a focusing solenoid (8T field). A plasma probe with 37 collectors was developed to measure the radial plasma profile inside the solenoid. Results show that the plasma forms a thin column of diameter ˜7mm along the solenoid axis. The magnetic mirror effect, plasma condensation, and the deformation of the magnetic field due to eddy currents are under investigation. Data on plasma parameters and ion beam neutralization will be presented.

  4. Small Worldness in Dense and Weighted Connectomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon-Perez, Luis; Couret, Michelle; Triplett, William; Price, Catherine; Mareci, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The human brain is a heterogeneous network of connected functional regions; however, most brain network studies assume that all brain connections can be described in a framework of binary connections. The brain is a complex structure of white matter tracts connected by a wide range of tract sizes, which suggests a broad range of connection strengths. Therefore, the assumption that the connections are binary yields an incomplete picture of the brain. Various thresholding methods have been used to remove spurious connections and reduce the graph density in binary networks. But these thresholds are arbitrary and make problematic the comparison of networks created at different thresholds. The heterogeneity of connection strengths can be represented in graph theory by applying weights to the network edges. Using our recently introduced edge weight parameter, we estimated the topological brain network organization using a complimentary weighted connectivity framework to the traditional framework of a binary network. To examine the reproducibility of brain networks in a controlled condition, we studied the topological network organization of a single healthy individual by acquiring 10 repeated diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance image datasets, over a one-month period on the same scanner, and analyzing these networks with deterministic tractography. We applied a threshold to both the binary and weighted networks and determined that the extra degree of freedom that comes with the framework of weighting network connectivity provides a robust result as any threshold level. The proposed weighted connectivity framework provides a stable result and is able to demonstrate the small world property of brain networks in situations where the binary framework is inadequate and unable to demonstrate this network property.

  5. Small Worldness in Dense and Weighted Connectomes.

    PubMed

    Colon-Perez, Luis M; Couret, Michelle; Triplett, William; Price, Catherine C; Mareci, Thomas H

    2016-05-01

    The human brain is a heterogeneous network of connected functional regions; however, most brain network studies assume that all brain connections can be described in a framework of binary connections. The brain is a complex structure of white matter tracts connected by a wide range of tract sizes, which suggests a broad range of connection strengths. Therefore, the assumption that the connections are binary yields an incomplete picture of the brain. Various thresholding methods have been used to remove spurious connections and reduce the graph density in binary networks. But these thresholds are arbitrary and make problematic the comparison of networks created at different thresholds. The heterogeneity of connection strengths can be represented in graph theory by applying weights to the network edges. Using our recently introduced edge weight parameter, we estimated the topological brain network organization using a complimentary weighted connectivity framework to the traditional framework of a binary network. To examine the reproducibility of brain networks in a controlled condition, we studied the topological network organization of a single healthy individual by acquiring 10 repeated diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance image datasets, over a 1-month period on the same scanner, and analyzing these networks with deterministic tractography. We applied a threshold to both the binary and weighted networks and determined that the extra degree of freedom that comes with the framework of weighting network connectivity provides a robust result as any threshold level. The proposed weighted connectivity framework provides a stable result and is able to demonstrate the small world property of brain networks in situations where the binary framework is inadequate and unable to demonstrate this network property.

  6. Pressure in electronically excited warm dense metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegailov, Vladimir; Zhilyaev, Petr

    2015-06-01

    Non-equilibrium two-temperature warm dense metals consist of the ion subsystem that is subjected to structural transitions and involved in the mass transfer, and the electron subsystem that in various pulsed experiments absorbs energy and then evolves together with ions to equilibrium. Definition of pressure in such non-equilibrium systems causes certain controversy. In this work we make an attempt to clarify this definition that is vital for proper description of the whole relaxation process. Using the density functional theory we analyze on examples of Al and Au electronic pressure components in warm dense metals. Appealing to the Fermi gas model we elucidate a way to find a number of free delocalized electrons in warm dense metals. First results has been published in. This work is supported by the Russian Science Foundation grant No. 14-19-01487.

  7. Eddy Viscosity in Dense Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T.; Rognon, P.; Metzger, B.; Einav, I.

    2013-08-01

    We present a seminal set of experiments on dense granular flows in the stadium shear geometry. The advantage of this geometry is that it produces steady shear flow over large deformations, in which the shear stress is constant. The striking result is that the velocity profiles exhibit an S shape, and are not linear as local constitutive laws would predict. We propose a model that suggests this is a result of wall perturbations which span through the system due to the nonlocal behavior of the material. The model is analogous to that of eddy viscosity in turbulent boundary layers, in which the distance to the wall is introduced to predict velocity profiles. Our findings appear pivotal in a number of experimental and practical situations involving dense granular flows next to a boundary. They could further be adapted to other similar materials such as dense suspensions, foams, or emulsions.

  8. IR Spectroscopy of PAHs in Dense Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamandola, Louis; Bernstein, Max; Mattioda, Andrew; Sandford, Scott

    2007-05-01

    Interstellar PAHs are likely to be a component of the ice mantles that form on dust grains in dense molecular clouds. PAHs frozen in grain mantles will produce IR absorption bands, not IR emission features. A couple of very weak absorption features in ground based spectra of a few objects embedded in dense clouds may be due to PAHs. Additionally spaceborne observations in the 5 to 8 ?m region, the region in which PAH spectroscopy is rich, reveal unidentified new bands and significant variation from object to object. It has not been possible to properly evaluate the contribution of PAH bands to these IR observations because the laboratory absorption spectra of PAHs condensed in realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ice analogs is lacking. This experimental data is necessary to interpret observations because, in ice mantles, the interaction of PAHs with the surrounding molecules effects PAH IR band positions, widths, profiles, and intrinsic strengths. Furthermore, PAHs are readily ionized in pure H2O ice, further altering the PAH spectrum. This laboratory proposal aims to remedy the situation by studying the IR spectroscopy of PAHs frozen in laboratory ice analogs that realistically reflect the composition of the interstellar ices observed in dense clouds. The purpose is to provide laboratory spectra which can be used to interpret IR observations. We will measure the spectra of these mixed molecular ices containing PAHs before and after ionization and determine the intrinsic band strengths of neutral and ionized PAHs in these ice analogs. This will enable a quantitative assessment of the role that PAHs can play in determining the 5-8 ?m spectrum of dense clouds and will directly address the following two fundamental questions associated with dense cloud spectroscopy and chemistry: 1- Can PAHs be detected in dense clouds? 2- Are PAH ions components of interstellar ice?

  9. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  10. Creating dedicated bioenergy crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bioenergy is one of the current mechanisms of producing renewable energy to reduce our use of nonrenewable fossil fuels and to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Humans have been using bioenergy since we first learned to create and control fire - burning manure, peat, and wood to cook food...

  11. Creating a Classroom Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Kathleen, Ed.; McClain-Ruelle, Leslie, Ed.

    Based on the premise that students can learn a great deal by reading and writing a newspaper, this book was created by preservice instructors to teach upper elementary students (grades 3-5) newspaper concepts, journalism, and how to write newspaper articles. It shows how to use newspaper concepts to help students integrate knowledge from multiple…

  12. Creating a Virtual Gymnasium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Leah H.; Castelli, Darla

    2005-01-01

    Physical educators struggle with the challenges of assessing student performance, providing feedback about motor skills, and creating opportunities for all students to engage in game-play on a daily basis. The integration of technology in the gymnasium can address some of these challenges by improving teacher efficiency and increasing student…

  13. Creating an Interactive PDF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    There are many ways to begin a PDF document using Adobe Acrobat. The easiest and most popular way is to create the document in another application (such as Microsoft Word) and then use the Adobe Acrobat software to convert it to a PDF. In this article, the author describes how he used Acrobat's many tools in his project--an interactive…

  14. Creating a Classroom Makerspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Luz

    2014-01-01

    What is a makerspace? Makerspaces are community-operated physical spaces where people (makers) create do-it-yourself projects together. These membership spaces serve as community labs where people learn together and collaborate on projects. Makerspaces often have tools and equipment like 3-D printers, laser cutters, and soldering irons.…

  15. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  16. Creating Dialogue by Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passila, Anne; Oikarinen, Tuija; Kallio, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to develop practice and theory from Augusto Boal's dialogue technique (Image Theatre) for organisational use. The paper aims to examine how the members in an organisation create dialogue together by using a dramaturgical storytelling framework where the dialogue emerges from storytelling facilitated by…

  17. Light-created chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, Rostislav F.; Tsaplev, Yuri B.

    2006-11-01

    The results of studies of light-created chemiluminescence are described systematically. Conditions for the transformation of a dark chemical reaction into a chemiluminescence reaction are considered. Examples of photosensitised and photoinduced processes as well as of analytical applications are given.

  18. Creating Quality Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet presents information on how total quality management can be applied to school systems to create educational improvement. Total quality management offers education a systemic approach and a new set of assessment tools. Chapter 1 provides a definition and historical overview of total quality management. Chapter 2 views the school…

  19. Creating snags with explosives.

    Treesearch

    Evelyn L. Bull; Arthur D. Partridge; Wayne G. Williams

    1981-01-01

    The tops of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees were blown off with dynamite to create nest sites for cavity-nesting wildlife. The procedure included drilling a hole almost through the trunk, inserting the dynamite, and setting the charge with primacord and fuse. Trees were simultaneously innoculated with a decay organism. The average cost was $...

  20. Creating a Virtual Gymnasium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Leah H.; Castelli, Darla

    2005-01-01

    Physical educators struggle with the challenges of assessing student performance, providing feedback about motor skills, and creating opportunities for all students to engage in game-play on a daily basis. The integration of technology in the gymnasium can address some of these challenges by improving teacher efficiency and increasing student…

  1. Creating Dialogue by Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passila, Anne; Oikarinen, Tuija; Kallio, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to develop practice and theory from Augusto Boal's dialogue technique (Image Theatre) for organisational use. The paper aims to examine how the members in an organisation create dialogue together by using a dramaturgical storytelling framework where the dialogue emerges from storytelling facilitated by…

  2. Looking, Writing, Creating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzive, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a middle school language arts teacher makes analyzing and creating visual art a partner to reading and writing in her classroom. Describes a project on art and Vietnam which shows how background information can add to and influence interpretation. Describes a unit on Greek mythology and Greek vases which leads to a related visual…

  3. Create Your State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Kris; Melvin, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Students are often encouraged to work together with their classmates, sometimes with other classes, occasionally with kids at other schools, but rarely with kids across the country. In this article the authors describe the Create Your State project, a collaborative nationwide project inspired by the Texas Chair Project wherein the artist, Damien…

  4. Creating a Third Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbuch, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author laments higher education's lack of concern towards the development of teaching in the public schools over the last half of the 20th century. Most of academe's work on the topic of teacher training has been done at the branches of state universities that needed to make money and create a niche. The author observes that…

  5. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  6. Creating a Classroom Makerspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Luz

    2014-01-01

    What is a makerspace? Makerspaces are community-operated physical spaces where people (makers) create do-it-yourself projects together. These membership spaces serve as community labs where people learn together and collaborate on projects. Makerspaces often have tools and equipment like 3-D printers, laser cutters, and soldering irons.…

  7. Creating an Assessments Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg; Gilbert, Jacqueline; Mackenzie, Mary; Meulener, Carol; Smith, Martin; Yetman, Beatrice; Zeppieri, Rosanne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the steps taken over three years (2003-2006) by the Consortium for Assessing Performance Standards, a New Jersey Grant Project to create a database of thematically organized, integrated performance assessment tasks at the benchmark levels of proficiency, novice-mid, intermediate-low and pre-advanced as defined by the ACTFL…

  8. Creating Historical Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassler, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes creating for the National Archives Public Education Department a historical drama, "Second in the Realm," based on the story of the Magna Carta. Demonstrates the effectiveness of historical drama as a teaching tool. Explains the difficulties of writing such dramas and provides guidelines for overcoming these problems. (NL)

  9. [Teenagers creating art].

    PubMed

    Ahovi, Jonathan; Viverge, Agathe

    Teenagers need to interpret the world around them, sometimes in a completely different way to that in which, as children, they represented external reality. Some like drawing. They can use it to express their thoughts on death, sexuality or freedom. Their creative capacities are immense: they are creating art.

  10. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  11. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  12. Creating Photo Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Explains the uses of photo illustrations. Notes that the key to developing a successful photo illustration is collaborative planning. Outlines the following guidelines for photo illustrations: never set up a photograph to mimic reality; create only abstractions with photo illustrations; clearly label photo illustrations; and never play photo…

  13. Creating Customer Delight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jim

    1995-01-01

    This article proposes that college admissions officers interested in improving service should focus on creating customer delight rather than simply satisfaction, studying the system when things go wrong rather than placing blame, establishing employee well-being as the highest priority of the organization, providing necessary tools and training…

  14. Creating a Reference Toolbox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jane

    1997-01-01

    To help students understand that references are tools used to locate specific information, one librarian has her third-grade students create their own reference toolboxes as she introduces dictionaries, atlases, encyclopedias, and thesauri. Presents a lesson plan to introduce print and nonprint thesauri to third and fourth graders and includes a…

  15. Creating a Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Laura C.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that making a theater study guide is an excellent in-class project, encouraging research, analysis, writing, and creative thinking. Offers a framework for creating one as a classroom project using John Steinbeck's "Of Mice and Men" as an example. Lists further resources. (SR)

  16. Creating an Effective Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray; Griffis, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Newsletters are an important resource or form of media. They offer a cost-effective way to keep people informed, as well as to promote events and programs. Production of a newsletter makes an excellent project, relevant to real-world communication, for technology students. This article presents an activity on how to create a short newsletter. The…

  17. How Banks Create Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Lyndi

    This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

  18. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  19. Creating Collaborative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Chris, Ed.

    Although interorganizational collaboration is becoming increasingly significant as a means of achieving organizational objectives, it is not an easy process to implement. Drawing on the work of authors with extensive experience, an accessible introduction to the theory and practice of creating collaborative advantage is presented in this volume.…

  20. Frontier of the physics of dense plasmas and planetary interiors: experiments, theory, applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, Didier; Fortney, Jonathan J; Glenzer, Siegfried H; Koenig, Michel; Brambrink, E; Militzer, Burkhard; Valencia, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments of dynamic x-ray characterization experiments of dense matter are reviewed, with particular emphasis on conditions relevant to interiors of terrestrial and gas giant planets. These studies include characterization of compressed states of matter in light elements by x-ray scattering and imaging of shocked iron by radiography. Several applications of this work are examined. These include the structure of massive 'super-Earth' terrestrial planets around other stars, the 40 known extrasolar gas giants with measured masses and radii, and Jupiter itself, which serves as the benchmark for giant planets.

  1. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-15

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  2. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  3. Controlled Dense Coding with the W State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Bai, Ming-qiang; Mo, Zhi-wen

    2017-09-01

    The average amount of information is an important factor in implementing dense coding. Based on this, we propose two schemes for controlled dense coding by using the three-qubit entangled W state as the quantum channel in this paper. In these schemes, the controller (Charlie) can adjust the local measurement angle 𝜃 to modulate the entanglement, and consequently the average amount of information transmitted from the sender (Alice) to the receiver (Bob). Although the results for the average amounts of information are the same from the different two schemes, the second scheme has advantage over the first scheme.

  4. Dense gas flow in minimum length nozzles

    SciTech Connect

    Aldo, A.C.; Argrow, B.M.

    1995-06-01

    Recently, dense gases have been investigated for many engineering applications such as for turbomachinery and wind tunnels. Supersonic nozzle design can be complicated by nonclassical dense-gas behavior in the transonic flow regime. In this paper, a method of characteristics (MOC) is developed for two-dimensional (planar) and axisymmetric flow of a van der Waals gas. A minimum length nozzle design code is developed that employs the MOC procedure to generate an inviscid wall contour. The van der Waals results are compared to perfect gas results to show the real-gas effects on the flow properties and inviscid wall contours.

  5. Demagnetization effects in dense nanoparticle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normile, P. S.; Andersson, M. S.; Mathieu, R.; Lee, S. S.; Singh, G.; De Toro, J. A.

    2016-10-01

    We highlight the relevance of demagnetizing-field corrections in the characterization of dense magnetic nanoparticle assemblies. By an analysis that employs in-plane and out-of-plane magnetometry on cylindrical assemblies, we demonstrate the suitability of a simple analytical formula-based correction method. This allows us to identify artifacts of the demagnetizing field in temperature-dependent susceptibility curves (e.g., shoulder peaks in curves from a disordered assembly of essentially bare magnetic nanoparticles). The same analysis approach is shown to be a straightforward procedure for determining the magnetic nanoparticle packing fraction in dense, disordered assemblies.

  6. Direct observation of dynamic shear jamming in dense suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Ivo R.; Majumdar, Sayantan; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2016-04-01

    Liquid-like at rest, dense suspensions of hard particles can undergo striking transformations in behaviour when agitated or sheared. These phenomena include solidification during rapid impact, as well as strong shear thickening characterized by discontinuous, orders-of-magnitude increases in suspension viscosity. Much of this highly non-Newtonian behaviour has recently been interpreted within the framework of a jamming transition. However, although jamming indeed induces solid-like rigidity, even a strongly shear-thickened state still flows and thus cannot be fully jammed. Furthermore, although suspensions are incompressible, the onset of rigidity in the standard jamming scenario requires an increase in particle density. Finally, whereas shear thickening occurs in the steady state, impact-induced solidification is transient. As a result, it has remained unclear how these dense suspension phenomena are related and how they are connected to jamming. Here we resolve this by systematically exploring both the steady-state and transient regimes with the same experimental system. We demonstrate that a fully jammed, solid-like state can be reached without compression and instead purely with shear, as recently proposed for dry granular systems. This state is created by transient shear-jamming fronts, which we track directly. We also show that shear stress, rather than shear rate, is the key control parameter. From these findings we map out a state diagram with particle density and shear stress as variables. We identify discontinuous shear thickening with a marginally jammed regime just below the onset of full, solid-like jamming. This state diagram provides a unifying framework, compatible with prior experimental and simulation results on dense suspensions, that connects steady-state and transient behaviour in terms of a dynamic shear-jamming process.

  7. Dark Matters

    ScienceCinema

    Joseph Silk

    2016-07-12

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark.  Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious, but pervasive dark matter which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe.  I will describe the complex interplay between galaxy formation and dark matter detectability and review recent attempts to measure particle dark matter by direct and indirect means.

  8. Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-07-02

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter.

  9. Creating moments that matter: strategies to combat compassion fatigue.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    Understanding compassion fatigue and devising and implementing interventions to address the subject are important for nurses and patients. However, few literature reports exist that address interventions for nurses who experience compassion fatigue. This article discusses how nurses on a medical-surgical oncology unit in an academic, community Magnet™ hospital adopted these themes as a conceptual framework on which to focus actions to avoid and mitigate compassion fatigue.

  10. Dense water plumes modulate richness and productivity of deep sea microbes.

    PubMed

    Luna, Gian Marco; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Quero, Grazia Marina; Schroeder, Katrin; Bongiorni, Lucia; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Galand, Pierre E

    2016-12-01

    Growing evidence indicates that dense water formation and flow over the continental shelf is a globally relevant oceanographic process, potentially affecting microbial assemblages down to the deep ocean. However, the extent and consequences of this influence have yet to be investigated. Here it is shown that dense water propagation to the deep ocean increases the abundance of prokaryotic plankton, and stimulates carbon production and organic matter degradation rates. Dense waters spilling off the shelf modifies community composition of deep sea microbial assemblages, leading to the increased relevance of taxa likely originating from the sea surface and the seafloor. This phenomenon can be explained by a combination of factors that interplay during the dense waters propagation, such as the transport of surface microbes to the ocean floor (delivering in our site 0.1 megatons of C), the stimulation of microbial metabolism due to increased ventilation and nutrients availability, the sediment re-suspension, and the mixing with ambient waters along the path. Thus, these results highlight a hitherto unidentified role for dense currents flowing over continental shelves in influencing deep sea microbes. In light of climate projections, this process will affect significantly the microbial functioning and biogeochemical cycling of large sectors of the ocean interior.

  11. Thermal conductivity measurements of proton-heated warm dense aluminum

    DOE PAGES

    McKelvey, A.; Kemp, G. E.; Sterne, P. A.; ...

    2017-08-01

    Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution, and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. In the warm dense matter regime, experimental data are very scarce so that many theoretical models remain untested. Here we present the first thermal conductivity measurements of aluminum at 0.5–2.7 g/cc and 2–10 eV, using a recently developed platform of differential heating. A temperature gradient is induced in a Au/Al dual-layer target by proton heating, and subsequent heat flow from the hotter Au to the Al rearmore » surface is detected by two simultaneous time-resolved diagnostics. A systematic data set allows for constraining both thermal conductivity and equation-of-state models. Simulations using Purgatorio model or Sesame S27314 for Al thermal conductivity and LEOS for Au/Al release equation-of-state show good agreement with data after 15 ps. Discrepancy still exists at early time 0–15 ps, likely due to non-equilibrium conditions.« less

  12. Thermal conductivity measurements of proton-heated warm dense aluminum.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, A; Kemp, G E; Sterne, P A; Fernandez-Panella, A; Shepherd, R; Marinak, M; Link, A; Collins, G W; Sio, H; King, J; Freeman, R R; Hua, R; McGuffey, C; Kim, J; Beg, F N; Ping, Y

    2017-08-01

    Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution, and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. In the warm dense matter regime, experimental data are very scarce so that many theoretical models remain untested. Here we present the first thermal conductivity measurements of aluminum at 0.5-2.7 g/cc and 2-10 eV, using a recently developed platform of differential heating. A temperature gradient is induced in a Au/Al dual-layer target by proton heating, and subsequent heat flow from the hotter Au to the Al rear surface is detected by two simultaneous time-resolved diagnostics. A systematic data set allows for constraining both thermal conductivity and equation-of-state models. Simulations using Purgatorio model or Sesame S27314 for Al thermal conductivity and LEOS for Au/Al release equation-of-state show good agreement with data after 15 ps. Discrepancy still exists at early time 0-15 ps, likely due to non-equilibrium conditions.

  13. Thermophysical properties of multi-shock compressed dense argon

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q. F. Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Cai, L. C.; Shen, Z. J.

    2014-02-21

    In contrast to the single shock compression state that can be obtained directly via experimental measurements, the multi-shock compression states, however, have to be calculated with the aid of theoretical models. In order to determine experimentally the multiple shock states, a diagnostic approach with the Doppler pins system (DPS) and the pyrometer was used to probe multiple shocks in dense argon plasmas. Plasma was generated by a shock reverberation technique. The shock was produced using the flyer plate impact accelerated up to ∼6.1 km/s by a two-stage light gas gun and introduced into the plenum argon gas sample, which was pre-compressed from the environmental pressure to about 20 MPa. The time-resolved optical radiation histories were determined using a multi-wavelength channel optical transience radiance pyrometer. Simultaneously, the particle velocity profiles of the LiF window was measured with multi-DPS. The states of multi-shock compression argon plasma were determined from the measured shock velocities combining the particle velocity profiles. We performed the experiments on dense argon plasmas to determine the principal Hugonoit up to 21 GPa, the re-shock pressure up to 73 GPa, and the maximum measure pressure of the fourth shock up to 158 GPa. The results are used to validate the existing self-consistent variational theory model in the partial ionization region and create new theoretical models.

  14. Dense Neuron Clustering Explains Connectivity Statistics in Cortical Microcircuits

    PubMed Central

    Klinshov, Vladimir V.; Teramae, Jun-nosuke; Nekorkin, Vladimir I.; Fukai, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Local cortical circuits appear highly non-random, but the underlying connectivity rule remains elusive. Here, we analyze experimental data observed in layer 5 of rat neocortex and suggest a model for connectivity from which emerge essential observed non-random features of both wiring and weighting. These features include lognormal distributions of synaptic connection strength, anatomical clustering, and strong correlations between clustering and connection strength. Our model predicts that cortical microcircuits contain large groups of densely connected neurons which we call clusters. We show that such a cluster contains about one fifth of all excitatory neurons of a circuit which are very densely connected with stronger than average synapses. We demonstrate that such clustering plays an important role in the network dynamics, namely, it creates bistable neural spiking in small cortical circuits. Furthermore, introducing local clustering in large-scale networks leads to the emergence of various patterns of persistent local activity in an ongoing network activity. Thus, our results may bridge a gap between anatomical structure and persistent activity observed during working memory and other cognitive processes. PMID:24732632

  15. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  16. Integrated coherent matter wave circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, C.; Boshier, M. G.

    2015-09-21

    An integrated coherent matter wave circuit is a single device, analogous to an integrated optical circuit, in which coherent de Broglie waves are created and then launched into waveguides where they can be switched, divided, recombined, and detected as they propagate. Applications of such circuits include guided atom interferometers, atomtronic circuits, and precisely controlled delivery of atoms. We report experiments demonstrating integrated circuits for guided coherent matter waves. The circuit elements are created with the painted potential technique, a form of time-averaged optical dipole potential in which a rapidly moving, tightly focused laser beam exerts forces on atoms through theirmore » electric polarizability. Moreover, the source of coherent matter waves is a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Finally, we launch BECs into painted waveguides that guide them around bends and form switches, phase coherent beamsplitters, and closed circuits. These are the basic elements that are needed to engineer arbitrarily complex matter wave circuitry.« less

  17. DENSE NONAQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS -- A WORKSHOP SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    site characterization, and, therefore, DNAPL remediation, can be expected. Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface are long-term sources of ground-water contamination, and may persist for centuries before dissolving completely in adjacent ground water. In respo...

  18. Dense peripheral corneal clouding in Scheie syndrome.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Whitley, C B; Holland, E J; Purple, R L; Krivit, W

    1994-05-01

    A 28-year-old woman with Scheie syndrome (MPS I-S) presented with the unusual feature of extremely dense peripheral corneal clouding, allowing maintenance of good central visual acuity. Characteristic systemic features, an abnormal electroretinogram result, and absent alpha-L-iduronidase activity confirmed the diagnosis despite the unusual corneal pattern of clouding.

  19. Preparation of a dense, polycrystalline ceramic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Jason; Chen, Ching-Fong; Alexander, David

    2010-12-07

    Ceramic nanopowder was sealed inside a metal container under a vacuum. The sealed evacuated container was forced through a severe deformation channel at an elevated temperature below the melting point of the ceramic nanopowder. The result was a dense nanocrystalline ceramic structure inside the metal container.

  20. Dense high temperature ceramic oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Landingham, R.L.

    1993-10-12

    Dense superconducting ceramic oxide articles of manufacture and methods for producing these articles are described. Generally these articles are produced by first processing these superconducting oxides by ceramic processing techniques to optimize materials properties, followed by reestablishing the superconducting state in a desired portion of the ceramic oxide composite.